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1

Isolation of Bartonella henselae from domestic cats in Japan.  

PubMed

During the period from January to March 1995, the authors first isolated Bartonella henselae from the blood of three (9.1%) of 33 domestic cats in Japan. The three cats were a 1.5-year male pet cat-old with urinary retention, and 6-year-old female pound and age-unknown female pet cats with no abnormalities. The blood was taken in a lysis-centrifugation tube (Wampole Isolator tube) and cultured on 5% rabbit-blood heart infusion agar plates at 35 degrees C in the 5% CO2 atmosphere. Visible tiny rough colonies developed 14 days after incubation. The isolates showed Gram-negative and pleomorphic rods in microscopic observation. The DNA extracted from the isolates was amplified by PCR using two primers, which were specific for the rikettsial citrate synthase gene. The isolates were identified as B. henselae from the patterns of digestion with TaqI and HhaI of the amplified gene. It was confirmed that cats in Japan harbored B. henselae in their blood, and that cats play a significant role as the reservoir of the organism. PMID:8645765

Maruyama, S; Nogami, S; Inoue, I; Namba, S; Asanome, K; Katsube, Y

1996-01-01

2

Isolation of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae: effects of methods of blood collection and handling.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae causes cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, and fever in humans. B. henselae can be difficult to culture axenically, and as many as 5 weeks may be required before colonies are visible. We compared how different methods of blood collection and handling affect isolation of this pathogen. Blood specimens from B. henselae-infected cats were collected in both EDTA and Isolator blood-lysis tubes and were subsequently plated onto rabbit blood-brain heart infusion agar by using three different schedules: plating immediately, plating after 24 h at 25 degrees C, and plating after 26 days at -65 degrees C. Colonies were counted 14 and 35 days after plating. Blood collected in tubes containing EDTA, frozen at -65 degrees C, and then plated on blood agar yielded a median of 60,000 CFU/ml, compared with 25,333 CFU/ml after collection in the Isolator tubes (P < 0.01). Frozen blood yielded the largest number of B. henselae colonies for any of the schedules tested. These results support previous observations that the Isolator system is more sensitive than tubes containing EDTA for isolation of B. henselae and suggest that, for cat blood, collection in tubes containing EDTA and subsequent freezing may further improve the sensitivity of detection of B. henselae.

Brenner, S A; Rooney, J A; Manzewitsch, P; Regnery, R L

1997-01-01

3

Comparison of Different DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for Molecular Typing of Bartonella henselae Isolates  

PubMed Central

Seventeen isolates of Bartonella henselae from the region of Freiburg, Germany, obtained from blood cultures of domestic cats, were examined for their genetic heterogeneity. On the basis of different DNA fingerprinting methods, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR, repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR, and arbitrarily primed (AP)-PCR, three different variants were identified among the isolates (variants I to III). Variant I included 6 strains, variant II included 10 strains, and variant III included only one strain. By all methods used, the isolates could be clearly distinguished from the type strain, Houston-1, which was designated variant IV. A previously published type-specific amplification of 16S rDNA differentiated two types of the B. henselae isolates (16S rRNA types 1 and 2). The majority of the isolates (16 of 17), including all variants I and II, were 16S rRNA type 2. Only one isolate (variant III) and the Houston-1 strain (variant IV) comprised the 16S rRNA type 1. Comparison of the 16S rDNA sequences from one representative strain from each of the three variants (I to III) confirmed the results obtained by 16S rRNA type-specific PCR. The sequences from variant I and variant II were identical, whereas the sequence of variant III differed in three positions. All methods applied in this study allowed subtyping of the isolates. PFGE and ERIC-PCR provided the highest discriminatory potential for subtyping B. henselae strains, whereas AP-PCR with the M13 primer showed a very clear differentiation between the four variants. Our results suggest that the genetic heterogeneity of B. henselae strains is high. The methods applied were found useful for typing B. henselae isolates, providing tools for epidemiological and clinical follow-up studies.

Sander, Anna; Ruess, Michael; Bereswill, Stefan; Schuppler, Markus; Steinbrueckner, Bernhard

1998-01-01

4

Genomic variations among Bartonella henselae isolates derived from naturally infected cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms of persistent infection with Bartonella henselae in cats. Blood samples were collected from three naturally infected cats for 24 months. These cats were confirmed to be persistently infected with B. henselae by serological and bacteriological examination. Relapsing bacteremia was found in all three cats with intervals of 3–19 months. Following

Hidenori Kabeya; Soichi Maruyama; Mitsuhiro Irei; Rena Takahashi; Masaya Yamashita; Takeshi Mikami

2002-01-01

5

Bartonella henselae in Porpoise Blood  

PubMed Central

We report detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in blood samples from 2 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). By using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we directly amplified Bartonella species DNA from blood of a harbor porpoise stranded along the northern North Carolina coast and from a preenrichment blood culture from a second harbor porpoise. The second porpoise was captured out of habitat (in a low-salinity canal along the northern North Carolina coast) and relocated back into the ocean. Subsequently, DNA was amplified by conventional polymerase chain reaction for DNA sequencing. The 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer region obtained from each porpoise was 99.8% similar to that of B. henselae strain San Antonio 2 (SA2), whereas both heme-binding phage-associated pap31 gene sequences were 100% homologous to that of B. henselae SA2. Currently, the geographic distribution, mode of transmission, reservoir potential, and pathogenicity of bloodborne Bartonella species in porpoises have not been determined.

Maggi, Ricardo G.; Harms, Craig A.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Pabst, D. Ann; McLellan, William A.; Walton, Wendy J.; Rotstein, David S.

2005-01-01

6

A chemically defined liquid medium that supports primary isolation of Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae from blood and tissue specimens.  

PubMed

Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae is a fastidious, slowly growing, gram-negative bacillus that is an etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis, cat scratch disease, and related syndromes. Accumulation of direct microbiologic evidence of the relationship between the organism and the syndromes compatible with cat scratch disease has been hindered by the difficulties in the primary isolation of the organism from infected tissue specimens. A chemically defined liquid medium was developed to support the growth of Rochalimaea species to facilitate study of the organism. This medium was also used successfully to isolate R. henselae from clinical specimens from infected patients and a domestic cat. Recovery of R. henselae in this was more successful than when recovery was attempted on solid agar. This cell-free, extract-free, defined medium additionally supported the growth of Rochalimaea quintana and Afipia felis. PMID:7538511

Wong, M T; Thornton, D C; Kennedy, R C; Dolan, M J

1995-03-01

7

Isolation, sequencing and expression of Bartonella henselae omp43 and predicted membrane topology of the deduced protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection of and interaction of human endothelial cells with Bartonella henselae is one of the most interesting aspects of Bartonella -associated disease. The gene encoding the 43 kDa B. henselae outer membrane protein (Omp43) that binds endothelial cells was cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1206 nucleotides coding for a protein of 402 amino

Andrew W. O Burgess; Jean-Yves Paquet; Jean-Jacques Letesson; Burt E Anderson

2000-01-01

8

Bartonella henselae bacteraemia in domestic cats from Auckland.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae causes most cases of cat scratch disease, a self-limited localised lymphadenopathy illness of humans. Bartonella henselae also causes disseminated cutaneous and visceral disease in immunocompromised people. Cat blood (1-5 ml) collected from cats in the Auckland area was processed and plated on to 5% sheep blood brain heart infusion agar and incubated at 35 degrees C in 5% CO2 for 14 days. Bartonella henselae was identified by colony morphology, Gram's stain, twitching motility, biochemical tests and molecular methods. Eight of 48 cats (17%) had Bartonella bacteraemia. Species-specific probes and biochemical profiles identified all isolates as B. henselae. Infected cats pose a risk to humans they lick, scratch or bite. People should be made aware of the risk cats pose. PMID:16031983

Joseph, A K; Wood, C W; Robson, J M; Paul, S L; Morris, A J

1997-10-01

9

Multi-Locus Sequence Typing of Bartonella henselae Isolates from Three Continents Reveals Hypervirulent and Feline-Associated Clones  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of cat scratch disease and a variety of other disease manifestations in humans. Previous investigations have suggested that a limited subset of B. henselae isolates may be associated with human disease. In the present study, 182 human and feline B. henselae isolates from Europe, North America and Australia were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to detect any associations between sequence type (ST), host species and geographical distribution of the isolates. A total of 14 sequence types were detected, but over 66% (16/24) of the isolates recovered from human disease corresponded to a single genotype, ST1, and this type was detected in all three continents. In contrast, 27.2% (43/158) of the feline isolates corresponded to ST7, but this ST was not recovered from humans and was restricted to Europe. The difference in host association of STs 1 (human) and 7 (feline) was statistically significant (P?0.001). eBURST analysis assigned the 14 STs to three clonal lineages, which contained two or more STs, and a singleton comprising ST7. These groups were broadly consistent with a neighbour-joining tree, although splits decomposition analysis was indicative of a history of recombination. These data indicate that B. henselae lineages differ in their virulence properties for humans and contribute to a better understanding of the population structure of B. henselae.

Arvand, Mardjan; Feil, Edward J.; Giladi, Michael; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Viezens, Juliane

2007-01-01

10

Coinfection with Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and with different Bartonella henselae strains in domestic cats.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella clarridgeiae and several strains of Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease, with variations in the 16S rRNA gene have been found to infect the blood of cats. An epidemiologic study of Bartonella infection in domestic French cats revealed that of 436 cats sampled, 5 cats (1.1%) were coinfected with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae and 2 cats (0.5%) were coinfected with two strains of B. henselae with variations in the 16S rRNA gene, B. henselae type I and type II. In an indirect immunofluorescence assay, coinfected cats tested positive for both Bartonella species at titers of > or = 128. Identification of the colonies was achieved by preformed enzyme analysis, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the citrate synthase gene, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Colony size differences in mixed culture allowed differentiation of the Bartonella species. The coinfection of cats with two Bartonella species or variants of the same species raises concern about the possibility of dual infection in humans. The development of a polyvalent vaccine targeted against the most pathogenic or invasive strains may be a means of protecting cats and man from infection.

Gurfield, A N; Boulouis, H J; Chomel, B B; Heller, R; Kasten, R W; Yamamoto, K; Piemont, Y

1997-01-01

11

Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals. B. henselae causes cat-scratch disease and is increasingly associated with several other syndromes, particularly ocular infections and endocarditis. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae and the bacteria are transmitted to cats by cat fleas. However, new potential vectors are suspected of transmitting B. henselae, in particular, Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant ixodid tick that bites humans in western Europe. We used a membrane-feeding technique to infect I. ricinus with B. henselae and demonstrate transmission of B. henselae within I. ricinus across developmental stages, migration or multiplication of B. henselae in salivary glands after a second meal, and transmission of viable and infective B. henselae from ticks to blood. These results provide evidence that I. ricinus is a competent vector for B. henselae. PMID:18598628

Cotté, Violaine; Bonnet, Sarah; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Chauvin, Alain; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Lecuelle, Benoit; Lilin, Thomas; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2008-07-01

12

Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals. B. henselae causes cat-scratch disease and is increasingly associated with several other syndromes, particularly ocular infections and endocarditis. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae and the bacteria are transmitted to cats by cat fleas. However, new potential vectors are suspected of transmitting B. henselae, in particular, Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant ixodid tick that bites humans in western Europe. We used a membrane-feeding technique to infect I. ricinus with B. henselae and demonstrate transmission of B. henselae within I. ricinus across developmental stages, migration or multiplication of B. henselae in salivary glands after a second meal, and transmission of viable and infective B. henselae from ticks to blood. These results provide evidence that I. ricinus is a competent vector for B. henselae.

Cotte, Violaine; Bonnet, Sarah; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Chauvin, Alain; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Lecuelle, Benoit; Lilin, Thomas

2008-01-01

13

Growth Characteristics of Bartonella henselae in a Novel Liquid Medium: Primary Isolation, Growth-Phase-Dependent Phage Induction, and Metabolic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen that usually causes a self-limiting infection in immunocompetent individuals but often causes potentially life-threatening infections, such as bacillary angiomatosis, in immu- nocompromised patients. Both diagnosis of infection and research into the molecular mechanisms of patho- genesis have been hindered by the absence of a suitable liquid growth medium. It has been difficult to isolate

M. R. Chenoweth; G. A. Somerville; D. C. Krause; K. L. O'Reilly; F. C. Gherardini

2004-01-01

14

Acute Clinical Disease in Cats following Infection with a Pathogenic Strain of Bartonella henselae (LSU16)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of human cat scratch disease as well as several serious sequelae of infections, including bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. Conflicting reports describe the pathogen- esis of B. henselae in the cat. In this study, we characterized a strain of B. henselae termed LSU16. This strain was isolated on rabbit blood agar from a naturally

KATHY L. O'REILLY; RUDY W. BAUER; REBECCA L. FREELAND; KEITH J. HUGHES; KRISTEN R. ROHDE; ALMA F. ROY; RHETT W. STOUT; PATRICIA C. TRICHE

1999-01-01

15

First Case of Bartonella henselae Bacteremia in Korea  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae causes cat-scratch disease, bacteremia, and various focal infections. Despite the worldwide occurrence of B. henselae infections, reports in humans are rare in Korea. The clinical manifestation of all 5 previously reported cases was lymphadenopathy. Herein, we report a case of bacteremia in a woman who presented with prolonged fever. B. henselae was isolated from a blood specimen by cell culture. Conventional polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space region confirmed the isolate to be B. henselae. The patient had no underlying immunocompromising conditions and no recent exposure to animals. She was successfully managed with a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine.

Im, Jae-Hyoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Mijeong; Lee, Sun Myoung; Kang, Jae-Seung

2013-01-01

16

Growth Characteristics of Bartonella henselae in a Novel Liquid Medium: Primary Isolation, Growth-Phase-Dependent Phage Induction, and Metabolic Studies  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen that usually causes a self-limiting infection in immunocompetent individuals but often causes potentially life-threatening infections, such as bacillary angiomatosis, in immunocompromised patients. Both diagnosis of infection and research into the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have been hindered by the absence of a suitable liquid growth medium. It has been difficult to isolate B. henselae directly from the blood of infected humans or animals or to grow the bacteria in liquid culture media under laboratory conditions. Therefore, we have developed a liquid growth medium that supports reproducible in vitro growth (3-h doubling time and a growth yield of approximately 5 × 108 CFU/ml) and permits the isolation of B. henselae from the blood of infected cats. During the development of this medium, we observed that B. henselae did not derive carbon and energy from the catabolism of glucose, which is consistent with genome nucleotide sequence data suggesting an incomplete glycolytic pathway. Of interest, B. henselae depleted amino acids from the culture medium and accumulated ammonia in the medium, an indicator of amino acid catabolism. Analysis of the culture medium throughout the growth cycle revealed that oxygen was consumed and carbon dioxide was generated, suggesting that amino acids were catabolized in a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-dependent mechanism. Additionally, phage particles were detected in the culture supernatants of stationary-phase B. henselae, but not in mid-logarithmic-phase culture supernatants. Enzymatic assays of whole-cell lysates revealed that B. henselae has a complete TCA cycle. Taken together, these data suggest B. henselae may catabolize amino acids but not glucose to derive carbon and energy from its host. Furthermore, the newly developed culture medium should improve isolation of B. henselae and basic research into the pathogenesis of the bacterium.

Chenoweth, M. R.; Somerville, G. A.; Krause, D. C.; O'Reilly, K. L.; Gherardini, F. C.

2004-01-01

17

Experimental transmission of Bartonella henselae by the cat flea.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is an emerging bacterial pathogen, causing cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Cats bacteremic with B. henselae constitute a large reservoir from which humans become infected. Prevention of human infection depends on elucidation of the natural history and means of feline infection. We studied 47 cattery cats in a private home for 12 months to determine the longitudinal prevalence of B. henselae bacteremia, the prevalence of B. henselae in the fleas infesting these cats, and whether B. henselae is transmitted experimentally to cats via fleas. Vector-mediated transmission of B.henselae isolates was evaluated by removing fleas from the naturally bacteremic, flea-infested cattery cats and transferring these fleas to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) kittens housed in a controlled, arthropod-free University Animal Facility. B. henselae bacteremia was detected in 89% of the 47 naturally infected cattery cats. A total of 132 fleas were removed from cats whose blood was simultaneously cultured during different seasons and were tested individually for the presence of B. henselae DNA by PCR. B. henselae DNA was detected in 34% of 132 fleas, with seasonal variation, but without an association between the presence or the level of bacteremia in the corresponding cat. Cat fleas removed from bacteremic cattery cats transmitted B. henselae to five SPF kittens in two separate experiments; however, control SPF kittens housed with highly bacteremic kittens in the absence of fleas did not become infected. These data demonstrate that the cat flea readily transmits B. henselae to cats. Control of feline infestation with this arthropod vector may provide an important strategy for the prevention of infection of both humans and cats.

Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Floyd-Hawkins, K; Chi, B; Yamamoto, K; Roberts-Wilson, J; Gurfield, A N; Abbott, R C; Pedersen, N C; Koehler, J E

1996-01-01

18

Genotypic Characteristics of Two Serotypes of Bartonella henselae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 29 May 2001\\/Returned for modification 3 September 2001\\/Accepted 15 February 2002 The study of 16S rRNA gene sequences of all isolates of Bartonella henselae obtained in our laboratory and others from human patients or cats has revealed two genotypes according to the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Two isolates of these genotypes have previously been related to two

Bernard La Scola; Zhongxing Liang; Zaher Zeaiter; Pierre Houpikian; Patrick A. D. Grimont; Didier Raoult

2002-01-01

19

Comparative seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana among cats from Israel and North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae, the predominant cause of cat scratch disease, and Bartonella quintana, the cause of trench fever, are closely related Bartonella species that induce cross-reactivity when cat or human sera are tested using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) test. Cats are the natural reservoir for B. henselae, whereas a mammalian reservoir host for B. quintana has not been identified. Serum

Gad Baneth; Dorsey L. Kordick; Barbara C. Hegarty; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

1996-01-01

20

Murine Model of Bartonella henselae Infection in the Immunocompetent Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is an emerging pathogen causing cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of and the immune response to these infections has been limited by the lack of an animal model. Following intraperitoneal infection of C57BL\\/6 mice with B. henselae, organs were cleared of cultivatable bacteria within 6 days. In contrast, B. henselae

T. REGNATH; M. E. A. MIELKE; M. ARVAND; H. HAHN

1998-01-01

21

Molecular Evidence of Perinatal Transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae to a Child?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, or DNA of both organisms was amplified and sequenced from blood, enrichment blood cultures, or autopsy tissues from four family members. Historical and microbiological results support perinatal transmission of Bartonella species in this family. It is of clinical relevance that Bartonella spp. may adversely influence human reproductive performance.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Farmer, Peter; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

22

Strategy to detect and identify Bartonella species in routine clinical laboratory yields Bartonella henselae from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient and unique Bartonella strain from his cat.  

PubMed

We wished to develop a cost-effective, rapid strategy to detect and identify Bartonella species in the clinical laboratory and to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection in the Houston veteran population. Bartonella colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, RapID ANA, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR) and whole-cell fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and these methods were compared for their usefulness. A new test order for "Rochalimaea culture" (the genus Bartonella was previously known as the genus Rochalimaea) was instituted, and in addition, all blood specimens submitted for fungal culture (obtained in an isolator tube) were processed for Bartonella culture. Over a 16-month period we isolated Bartonella henselae from only 0.4% (2 of 533) of total cultures but from 1% (2 of 204) of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. After sufficient growth, identification of the Bartonella isolates to the species level could be obtained in 2 days. The REP-PCR allowed discrimination of all known species, whereas CFA analysis distinguished all except B. henselae and Bartonella quintana. The RapID ANA results failed to differentiate between B. henselae and B. quintana, and results for other species differed by only one or two tests. Blood obtained from a kitten which had been introduced into the household of one patient 2 months before the onset of fever yielded a Bartonella strain which was shown to be different from the strain from the patient and distinct from other Bartonella species by a combination of REP-PCR, CFA, and growth characteristics. Subsequent analysis of the citrate synthase gene sequence showed only an 86% similarity with any of the other known Bartonella species, suggesting that this isolate represents a distinct, previously uncharacterized species of Bartonella. PMID:7559957

Clarridge, J E; Raich, T J; Pirwani, D; Simon, B; Tsai, L; Rodriguez-Barradas, M C; Regnery, R; Zollo, A; Jones, D C; Rambo, C

1995-08-01

23

Infection and re-infection of domestic cats with various Bartonella species or types: B. henselae type I is protective against heterologous challenge with B. henselae type II.  

PubMed

Four Bartonella species have been isolated from domestic cats, of which two serotypes/genotypes of Bartonella henselae and possibly B. clarridgeiae are human pathogens, causing cat scratch disease (CSD).Our objectives were to evaluate infection and potential cross-protection during re-infection in domestic cats with various Bartonella species or types.Thirty-six cats were primarily inoculated with B. henselae type I (n=16), B. henselae type II (n=10), B. clarridgeiae (n=6) or B. koehlerae (n=4). They were challenged with B. henselae type I (n=15), B. henselae type II (n=13) or B. clarridgeiae (n=8). All 36 cats became bacteremic (1.25x10(2)-1.44x10(6)CFU/ml) and bacteremia lasted from 37 to 582 days. Duration of bacteremia for cats inoculated with B. henselae type I was shorter than for cats inoculated with either B. henselae type II (P=0.025) or B. clarridgeiae (P=0.011). After challenge, 26 cats became bacteremic. Among the nine cats primarily inoculated with B. henselae type I and challenged with B. henselae type II, six cats stayed abacteremic. The three bacteremic cats had a transient low-level bacteremia. No bacteremia was observed in three cats primarily inoculated with B. henselae type I and challenged with another strain of B. henselae type I. Bacteremia levels in the 26 cats were significantly lower than for primary inoculation (P=0.022) and its duration was shorter (P=0.012). Among the eight cats challenged with B. clarridgeiae, duration of bacteremia in the four cats primarily inoculated with B. henselae type I was shorter than in the four cats primarily inoculated with B. henselae type II (P=0.01). Bartonella clarridgeiae inoculated cats were more likely to have relapses for both primary and secondary infections. This is the first demonstration of cross-protection, evidenced by absence of bacteremia, in cats primarily infected with B. henselae type I and challenged with B. henselae type II, whereas no cross-protection was previously shown for cats primarily infected with B. henselae type II and challenged with B. henselae type I. Such results are of major importance for future feline Bartonella vaccine development. PMID:12488072

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Hew, Carrie M; Weber, David K; Lee, Wilson I; Koehler, Jane E; Pedersen, Niels C

2003-03-20

24

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae in cats in Germany.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae and B. quintana infections in man are associated with various clinical manifestations including cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and bacteraemia. While cats are the natural reservoir for B. henselae, the source of B. quintana is unclear. In this study, the sera of 713 cats from Germany were examined for the presence of antibodies against B. henselae, B. quintana or Afipia felis by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Bartonella-specific antibody titres of > or =50 were found in 15.0% of the cats. There was substantial cross-reactivity among the various Bartonella antigens, although single sera showed high titres against B. henselae but not against B. quintana and vice versa. Antibodies against A. felis were not detected in any of these cats. Statistical analysis indicated that there is no correlation between Bartonella infections and the sex, age or breed of the cat or its hunting behavior. There was also no correlation between bartonella and toxoplasma infections in cats. However, whereas 16.8% of cats from northern Germany had B. quintana-specific antibodies, only 8.0% of cats from southern Germany were seropositive for B. quintana. No statistically significant difference was found for B. henselae. IFA-positive and IFA-negative sera were used for immunoblot analysis including B. henselae and B. quintana. Marked reactivity was observed with protein bands at 80, 76, 73, 65, 37, 33 and 15 kDa. The results of this study suggest that B. henselae, and possibly a B. quintana-related pathogen, but not A. felis, are common in cats in Germany, and that there are differences in the geographic distribution of bartonella infections in cats. PMID:10482296

Haimerl, M; Tenter, A M; Simon, K; Rommel, M; Hilger, J; Autenrieth, I B

1999-09-01

25

Strategy to detect and identify Bartonella species in routine clinical laboratory yields Bartonella henselae from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient and unique Bartonella strain from his cat.  

PubMed Central

We wished to develop a cost-effective, rapid strategy to detect and identify Bartonella species in the clinical laboratory and to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection in the Houston veteran population. Bartonella colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, RapID ANA, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR) and whole-cell fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and these methods were compared for their usefulness. A new test order for "Rochalimaea culture" (the genus Bartonella was previously known as the genus Rochalimaea) was instituted, and in addition, all blood specimens submitted for fungal culture (obtained in an isolator tube) were processed for Bartonella culture. Over a 16-month period we isolated Bartonella henselae from only 0.4% (2 of 533) of total cultures but from 1% (2 of 204) of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. After sufficient growth, identification of the Bartonella isolates to the species level could be obtained in 2 days. The REP-PCR allowed discrimination of all known species, whereas CFA analysis distinguished all except B. henselae and Bartonella quintana. The RapID ANA results failed to differentiate between B. henselae and B. quintana, and results for other species differed by only one or two tests. Blood obtained from a kitten which had been introduced into the household of one patient 2 months before the onset of fever yielded a Bartonella strain which was shown to be different from the strain from the patient and distinct from other Bartonella species by a combination of REP-PCR, CFA, and growth characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Clarridge, J E; Raich, T J; Pirwani, D; Simon, B; Tsai, L; Rodriguez-Barradas, M C; Regnery, R; Zollo, A; Jones, D C; Rambo, C

1995-01-01

26

Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and HLA-B27  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo investigate the frequency of HLA-B27 in patients with presumedBartonella henselae associated uveitis and to describe the clinical characteristics of HLA-B27 positive patients with uveitis and presumed ocular bartonellosis (POB).METHODSThe diagnosis of POB was considered in 19 patients with unexplained uveitis (except for the HLA-B27 association) and high positive IgG (titre ?1:900) and\\/or IgM (titre ?1:250) antibodies against B henselae.

F. T. Kerkhoff; A. Rothova

2000-01-01

27

Detection and identification of two Bartonella henselae variants in domestic cats in Germany.  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence of bacteremia caused by Bartonella henselae in domestic cats in the region of Freiburg, Germany, we investigated culture of blood from 100 cats from 89 different households over a 12-month period. B. henselae could be isolated from 13% (13 of 100) of these cats. In eight households with two cats each and in one household with three cats, B. henselae bacteremia was found either in all of the animals or in none of the animals. Positive cultures were more likely to be found for female, young (24 months of age or younger) cats than for male or older cats. Identification of the Bartonella isolates was made by colony morphology, by Gram staining, biochemically by RapID ANA II or Rapid ID 32 A systems, and by whole-cell fatty acid analysis. Differentiation between B. henselae and Bartonella quintana was only possible by 16S rRNA sequencing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Genomic fingerprinting of the B. henselae isolates by ERIC-PCR yielded two different patterns based on three distinct bands.

Sander, A; Buhler, C; Pelz, K; von Cramm, E; Bredt, W

1997-01-01

28

Endothelial cell mediators of angiogenesis in Bartonella henselae infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillary angiomatosis (BA), one of the clinical manifestations resulting from infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Bartonella henselae, is characterized by angiogenic lesions. Endothelial cells have been identified as host cells for this pathogen and are presumed important for pathogenesis as lesions contain bacteria in direct contact with the endothelium. Lesions also contain infiltrating macrophages, which contribute to the angiogenic

Amy M McCord

2006-01-01

29

Assessment of Persistence of Bartonella henselae in Ctenocephalides felis  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) is a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium of veterinary and zoonotic importance. The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is the main recognized vector of B. henselae, and transmission among cats and humans occurs mainly through infected flea feces. The present study documents the use of a quantitative molecular approach to follow the daily kinetics of B. henselae within the cat flea and its excreted feces after exposure to infected blood for 48 h in an artificial membrane system. B. henselae DNA was detected in both fleas and feces for the entire life span of the fleas (i.e., 12 days) starting from 24 h after initiation of the blood meal.

Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Jacquiet, Philippe; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Lienard, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

30

Assessment of persistence of Bartonella henselae in Ctenocephalides felis.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) is a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium of veterinary and zoonotic importance. The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is the main recognized vector of B. henselae, and transmission among cats and humans occurs mainly through infected flea feces. The present study documents the use of a quantitative molecular approach to follow the daily kinetics of B. henselae within the cat flea and its excreted feces after exposure to infected blood for 48 h in an artificial membrane system. B. henselae DNA was detected in both fleas and feces for the entire life span of the fleas (i.e., 12 days) starting from 24 h after initiation of the blood meal. PMID:24056468

Bouhsira, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Jacquiet, Philippe; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Liénard, Emmanuel

2013-12-01

31

Central scotoma without prodromal illness caused by Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis.  

PubMed

This case report describes Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis in a 26-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with unilateral central scotoma and no prodromal symptoms, a unique presentation of this disease. B henselae, a gram-negative bacteria, is the cause of cat scratch disease. Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self-limiting illness, which typically presents with regional lymphadenopathy, fever, and small skin lesions in associationwith a cat scratch or bite. The mostcommon ocular manifestations of cat scratch disease are Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome and neuroretinitis. All prior reported cases of CSD neuroretinitis presented with prodromal symptoms, not vision loss alone. PMID:23481153

Best, Jessica Ann; Price, Brian

2013-05-01

32

Strategy for identification & characterization of Bartonella henselae with conventional & molecular methods  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Bartonella henselae is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium usually causing self limiting infections in immunocompetent individuals but often causes potentially life threatening infection, such as bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised patients. Both diagnosis of infections and research into molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have been hindered by lack of appropriate and reliable diagnostic techniques. We undertook this study to standardize methods to characterize B. henselae in clinical samples to diagnose Bartonella infection correctly. Methods: B. henselae ATCC 49882 strain was procured from American type culture collection, USA. This strain was revived and maintained in the laboratory, and identification and characterization of this strain was done by conventional and molecular techniques, which included culture on various media, staining by different methods including electron microscopy, biochemical analysis by conventional methods and API, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of citrate synthase gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: This organism was biochemically inert due to slow growth and generated unique identification code with API. The amplification of the citrate-synthase gene with primers yielded a 381 bp product followed by specific RFLP profile for B. henselae. Interpretation & conclusions: Bartonella is fastidious and fragile organism and should be handled carefully. Extra effort and careful observation are required to isolate and characterize this organism.

Diddi, Kavita; Chaudhry, Rama; Sharma, Nidhi; Dhawan, Benu

2013-01-01

33

Genomic Variation of Bartonella henselae Strains Detected in Lymph Nodes of Patients with Cat Scratch Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is the primary agent of cat scratch disease (CSD). In order to study the genetic variation of B. henselae and the correlation of the various genotypes with epidemiological and clinical findings, two seminested, groEL- and pap31-based PCR assays were carried out with specimens from 273 patients. Amplicons were sequenced to determine the genotype of the causative Bartonella species.

Zaher Zeaiter; Pierre-Edouard Fournier; Didier Raoult

34

Binding of Bartonella henselae to extracellular molecules: Identification of potential adhesins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and other clinical syndromes initiates infection through a trauma or wound to the skin suggesting involvement of extracellular matrix molecules. We have demonstrated in this study that B. henselae bound strongly fibronectin, collagen IX and X, but comparatively less laminin and collagen IV. B. henselae bound primarily the N-

S. M. Dabo; A. W. Confer; J. T. Saliki; B. E. Anderson

2006-01-01

35

Genome Rearrangements, Deletions, and Amplifications in the Natural Population of Bartonella henselae?  

PubMed Central

Cats are the natural host for Bartonella henselae, an opportunistic human pathogen and the agent of cat scratch disease. Here, we have analyzed the natural variation in gene content and genome structure of 38 Bartonella henselae strains isolated from cats and humans by comparative genome hybridizations to microarrays and probe hybridizations to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) blots. The variation in gene content was modest and confined to the prophage and the genomic islands, whereas the PFGE analyses indicated extensive rearrangements across the terminus of replication with breakpoints in areas of the genomic islands. We observed no difference in gene content or structure between feline and human strains. Rather, the results suggest multiple sources of human infection from feline B. henselae strains of diverse genotypes. Additionally, the microarray hybridizations revealed DNA amplification in some strains in the so-called chromosome II-like region. The amplified segments were centered at a position corresponding to a putative phage replication initiation site and increased in size with the duration of cultivation. We hypothesize that the variable gene pool in the B. henselae population plays an important role in the establishment of long-term persistent infection in the natural host by promoting antigenic variation and escape from the host immune response.

Lindroos, Hillevi; Vinnere, Olga; Mira, Alex; Repsilber, Dirk; Naslund, Kristina; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2006-01-01

36

Infection of human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) by Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is an important physiological and pathological process. Bartonella is the only genus of bacteria known to induce pathological angiogenesis in the mammalian host. Bartonella-induced angiogenesis leads to the formation of vascular tumors including verruga peruana and bacillary angiomatosis. The mechanism of Bartonella-induced angiogenesis is not completely understood. Pericytes, along with endothelial cells, play an important role in physiological angiogenesis, and their role in tumor angiogenesis has been extensively studied. Abnormal signaling between endothelial cells and pericytes contributes to tumor angiogenesis and metastasis; however, the role of pericytes in Bartonella-induced angiogenesis is not known. In this study, after infecting human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) with Bartonella henselae, we found that these bacteria were able to invade HBVPs and that bacterial infection resulted in decreased pericyte proliferation and increased pericyte production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) when compared to the uninfected control cells. In the context of pathological angiogenesis, reduced pericyte coverage, accompanied by increased VEGF production, may promote endothelial cell proliferation and the formation of new vessels. PMID:23184416

Varanat, Mrudula; Maggi, Ricardo G; Linder, Keith E; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-04-01

37

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae as potential causes of proliferative vascular diseases in animals.  

PubMed

Bartonella species are highly fastidious, vector borne, zoonotic bacteria that cause persistent intraerythrocytic bacteremia and endotheliotropic infection in reservoir and incidental hosts. Based upon prior in vitro research, three Bartonella sp., B. bacilliformis, B. henselae, and B. quintana can induce proliferation of endothelial cells, and each species has been associated with in vivo formation of vasoproliferative tumors in human patients. In this study, we report the molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. koehlerae, or DNA of two of these Bartonella species simultaneously in vasoproliferative hemangiopericytomas from a dog, a horse, and a red wolf and in systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis lesions from cats and a steer. In addition, we provide documentation that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infections induce activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and production of vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby providing mechanistic evidence as to how these bacteria could contribute to the development of vasoproliferative lesions. Based upon these results, we suggest that a fourth species, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, should be added to the list of bartonellae that can induce vasoproliferative lesions and that infection with one or more Bartonella sp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis and hemangiopericytomas in animals. PMID:22450733

Beerlage, Christiane; Varanat, Mrudula; Linder, Keith; Maggi, Ricardo G; Cooley, Jim; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2012-08-01

38

Passive Antibody to Bartonella henselae Protects against Clinical Disease following Homologous Challenge but Does Not Prevent Bacteremia in Cats  

PubMed Central

We challenged cats transfused with anti-Bartonella serum and kittens born to antibody-positive queens with Bartonella henselae to determine the contribution of antibodies to the control of B. henselae in cats. In both experiments, antibody-positive cats were protected from clinical disease but passive antibody to the homologous strain of B. henselae did not prevent bacteremia.

O'Reilly, Kathy L.; Parr, Katy A.; Brown, Tracy P.; Tedder-Ferguson, Belinda; Scholl, Daniel T.

2001-01-01

39

Immunopurified extracellular Bartonella henselae antigen for detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Protein antigens of Bartonella henselae bacterial sonicate supernatant and concentrated cell-free culture filtrate were examined by SDS-PAGE. The sonicate supernatant gave 38 bands and the culture filtrate at least 21, of which 18 were of bacterial origin. Immunoblotting against 13 monoclonal antibodies obtained from mice infected with live B. henselae showed that 10 of these antibodies reacted with a narrow 225 kDa band and varying smears of bands ranging from 36 to 240 kDa in the sonicate, but only with a single 200 kDa band in the culture filtrate. Testing of pre- and post-infection rabbit sera in immunoblotting against culture filtrate demonstrated that the 200 kDa component gave the most prominent specific reaction with post-infection sera. The 200 kDa antigen was isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography of concentrated culture filtrate, and its molecular size determined by size-exclusion chromatography as > 1000 kDa. The immunopurified antigen was compared with bacterial sonicate as coating antigen in EIA for determining humoral immune responses in rabbits inoculated with live B. henselae. The two antigens gave almost identical results for IgM and IgG responses. The specificity of the immunopurified antigen was tested in EIA against hyperimmune rabbit sera and sera of rabbits inoculated with live B. henselae, B. quintana and Afipia felis. Only the hyperimmune serum against B. henselae and the sera of the rabbits inoculated with live B. henselae reacted with the immunopurified antigen, whereas the B. henselae sonicate cross-reacted with hyperimmune and post-infection sera of rabbits inoculated with B. quintana and A. felis. PMID:9463512

Engbaek, K; Uttenthal, L O; Koch, C

1997-12-01

40

Molecular detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella koehlerae from aortic valves of Boxer dogs with infective endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac aortic valves from five dogs that died from acquired infective endocarditis were retrospectively molecularly screened for Bartonella infection. Identification was carried out using PCR targeting four gene fragments (rpoB, ribC, 16S rRNA and gltA), and the 16S–23S intergenic spacer (ITS). Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in aortic valve tissue from one Boxer dog with moderate subaortic stenosis (SAS). Bartonella

Dan G. Ohad; Danny Morick; Boaz Avidor; Shimon Harrus

2010-01-01

41

Bartonella henselae infection in a man with hypergammaglobulinaemia, splenomegaly and polyclonal plasmacytosis.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is an infrequently reported cause of polyclonal plasmacytosis and hypergammaglobulinaemia. We herein document B. henselae infection in a 66-year-old patient who presented with hypergammaglobulinaemia, splenomegaly with polyclonal plasmacytosis, stroke, and suspected prosthetic aortic arch infection. Clinicians should remain cognizant of the heterogeneous clinical presentations associated with bartonellosis. PMID:23118473

Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Jawanda, Jaspaul S; Miller, Melissa B; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-02-01

42

Experimental infection of domestic cats with passaged genotype I Bartonella henselae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of in vitro passage on Bartonella henselae pathogenesis in cats has not been thoroughly evaluated. Our objective was to examine the bacterial kinetics and humoral immune responses in cats experimentally infected with three different in vitro passages of B. henselae F1, a genotype I strain of feline origin. The F1 strain was in vitro passaged 20 and 40

Jonathan A. Werner; Rickie W. Kasten; Sunlian Feng; Jane E. Sykes; Emir Hodzic; Michelle R. Salemi; Stephen W. Barthold; Bruno B. Chomel

2007-01-01

43

Widening of the clinical spectrum of Bartonella henselae infection as recognized through serodiagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently improved diagnostics have widened, in children, the spectrum of clinical manifestations recognisable as Bartonella henselae infection. We report here the clinical features of 20 (14 males) consecutive children with serologically proved B. henselae infection observed within 12 months in the Paediatric Department of the University of Pisa. The patients had a mean age of\\u000a 7 years 4 months

Francesco Massei; Francesco Messina; Ilaria Talini; Mauro Massimetti; Gabriella Palla; Pierantonio Macchia; Giuseppe Maggiore

2000-01-01

44

Unusual trafficking pattern of Bartonella henselae -containing vacuoles in macrophages and endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bartonella henselae , the agent of cat-scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders in humans, is a fastidious facultative intracellular pathogen, whose interaction with macrophages and endothelial cells (ECs) is crucial in the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, little is known about the subcellular com- partment in which B. henselae resides. Two hours after infection of murine macrophages and human ECs,

Pierre A. Kyme; Albert Haas; Martin Schaller; Andreas Peschel; Jon Iredell; Volkhard A. J. Kempf

45

Autocrine Role for Interleukin8 in Bartonella henselae-Induced Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gram-negative bacterium Bartonella henselae is capable of causing angiogenic lesions as a result of infection. Previously, it has been shown that B. henselae infection can result in production of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). In this study, we demonstrated that monocytes, endothelial cells, and hepatocytes produce IL-8 in response to B. henselae infection. We also investigated the role of IL-8

Amy M. McCord; Sandra I. Resto-Ruiz; Burt E. Anderson

2006-01-01

46

A comparative study of the interaction of Bartonella henselae strains with human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae can cause a wide range of clinical outcomes and may lead to severe disease, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is well-known that B. henselae-induced cell proliferation is mediated by anti-apoptotic activity; however, the detailed mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the cellular responses of endothelial cells after infection with four B. henselae strains were

Chao-Chin Chang; Ya-Jou Chen; Chih-Sian Tseng; Wan-Ling Lai; Kai-Yang Hsu; Chao-Liang Chang; Chi-Cheng Lu; Yuan-Man Hsu

2011-01-01

47

Characterization of the Natural Population of Bartonella henselae by Multilocus Sequence Typing  

PubMed Central

Investigations of the population genetics of Bartonella henselae have demonstrated a high level of diversity among strains, and the delineation of isolates into one of two subtypes, type I (Houston) and type II (Marseille), represented by specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, has long been considered the most significant genotypic division within the species. This belief is challenged by recent work suggesting a role for horizontal gene exchange in generating intraspecies diversity. We attempted to resolve this issue and extend exploration of the population structure of B. henselae by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to examine the distribution of polymorphisms within nine different genes in a sample of 37 human and feline isolates. MLST distinguished seven sequence types (STs) that resolved into three distinct lineages, suggesting a clonal population structure for the species, and support for these divisions was obtained by macrorestriction analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The distribution of STs among isolates recovered from human infections was not random, and such isolates were significantly more often associated with one particular ST, lending further support to the suggestion that specific genotypes contribute disproportionately to the disease burden in humans. All but one isolate lay on lineages that bore the representative strain of either the Houston or Marseille subtype. However, the distribution of the two 16S rDNA alleles among the isolates was not entirely congruent with their lineage allocations, indicating that this is not a sensitive marker of the clonal divisions within the species. The inheritances of several of the genes studied could not be reconciled with one another, providing further evidence of horizontal gene transfer among B. henselae strains and suggesting that recombination has a role in shaping the genetic character of bartonellae.

Iredell, J.; Blanckenberg, D.; Arvand, M.; Grauling, S.; Feil, E. J.; Birtles, R. J.

2003-01-01

48

Bartonella henselae aortic valve endocarditis mimicking systemic vasculitis.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old man with a bicuspid aortic valve presented with facial droop and slurred speech with several months of constitutional symptoms of night sweats, weight loss and productive cough. Examination confirmed aortic regurgitation, palpable spleen and left facial droop. Multiple peripheral blood cultures were negative. Inflammatory markers, cytoplasmic staining antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (cANCA) and anti-PR3 antibody were all elevated. MRI of the brain and CT of the chest and abdomen confirmed embolic infarcts to brain, kidney and spleen. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (ECG) showed valve vegetations and severe aortic regurgitation. Endocardial Wegener's granulomatosis was considered. Aortic valve replacement was performed. Grindings from aortic valve leaflets were analysed for rpoB gene, which confirmed the presence of Bartonella henselae. Serological assays demonstrated B henselae IgM 20 (normal <20) and IgG >2048 (normal < 64). The patient completely recovered after prolonged antibiotic treatment. Culture-negative infective endocarditis may mimic vasculitis and be associated with positive cANCA. Serology and molecular techniques may aid diagnosis. PMID:22791485

Teoh, Laurence S G; Hart, Hamish H; Soh, May Ching; Christiansen, Jonathan P; Bhally, Hasan; Philips, Martin S; Rai-Chaudhuri, Dominic S

2010-01-01

49

Bartonella henselae Induces NF B-Dependent Upregulation of Adhesion Molecules in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells: Possible Role of Outer Membrane Proteins as Pathogenic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothelium is a specific target for Bartonella henselae, and endothelial cell infection represents an important step in the pathogenesis of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Mechanisms of Bar- tonella-endothelial cell interaction as well as signaling pathways involved in target cell activation were ana- lyzed. B. henselae strain Berlin-1, isolated from bacillary angiomatosis lesions of a human immunodeficiency virus-infected

OLIVER FUHRMANN; MARDJAN ARVAND; ALEXANDER GOHLER; MICHAEL SCHMID; MATTHIAS KRULL; STEFAN HIPPENSTIEL; JOACHIM SEYBOLD; CHRISTOPH DEHIO; NORBERT SUTTORP

2001-01-01

50

Bartonella henselae Infection: An Uncommon Mimicker of Autoimmune Disease  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was negative. Abdominal imaging demonstrated multifocal lesions of the liver and spleen (later proved to be granulomata), chest X-ray showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and ophthalmology review revealed uveitis. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards sarcoidosis. Subsequently, raised titers (IgM 1 : 32, IgG 1 : 256) against Bartonella confirmed the diagnosis of B. henselae infection. She was treated with gentamycin followed by ciprofloxacin; repeat investigations showed complete resolution of findings. The presence of hepatic and splenic lesions in children with bartonellosis is well documented. Our case, however, exhibited certain unusual findings such as the coexistence of acute ocular and systemic involvement in an immunocompetent host. Serological testing is an inexpensive and effective way to diagnose bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients; we suggest that bartonella serology is included in the baseline tests performed on children with prolonged fever even in the absence of contact with cats in countries where bartonellosis is prevalent.

Maritsi, Despoina N.; Zarganis, Diagoras; Metaxa, Zoi; Papaioannou, Georgia; Vartzelis, George

2013-01-01

51

Depolymerization of cytokeratin intermediate filaments facilitates intracellular infection of HeLa cells by Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is capable of invading epithelial and endothelial cells by modulating the function of actin-dependent cytoskeleton proteins. Although understanding of the pathogenesis has been increased by the development of an in vitro infection model involving endothelial cells, little is known about the mechanism of interaction between B. henselae and epithelial cells. This study aims to identify the binding candidates of B. henselae in epithelial cells and explores their effect on B. henselae infection. Pull-down assays and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that some of the binding proteins (keratin 14, keratin 6, and F-actin) are cytoskeleton associated. B. henselae infection significantly induces the expression of the cytokeratin genes. Chemical disruption of the keratin network by using ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid promotes the intracellular persistence of B. henselae in HeLa cells. However, cytochalasin B and phalloidin treatment inhibits B. henselae invasion. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrates that B. henselae infection induces an F-actin-dependent rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. However, we demonstrated via immunofluorescent staining and whole-mount cell electron microscopy that keratin intermediate filaments are depolymerized by B. henselae. The results indicate that B. henselae achieves an intracellular persistence in epithelial cells through the depolymerization of cytokeratin intermediate filaments that are protective against B. henselae invasion. PMID:23359593

Zhu, Caixia; Bai, Yajie; Liu, Qiyong; Li, Dongmei; Hong, Jiehua; Yang, Zhibiao; Cui, Li; Hua, Xiuguo; Yuan, Congli

2013-05-01

52

Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from Human Blood1  

PubMed Central

Candidatus Bartonella melophagi was isolated by blood culture from 2 women, 1 of whom was co-infected with B. henselae. Partial 16S rRNA, RNA polymerase B, and citrate synthase genes and 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer sequences indicated that human isolates were similar to Candidatus B. melophagi.

Maggi, Ricardo G.; Kosoy, Michael; Mintzer, Melanie

2009-01-01

53

[Neuroretinitis caused by Bartonella henselae: a case with follow up through optical coherence tomography].  

PubMed

The case of a 36 year-old male with neuroretinitis caused by Bartonella henselae is reported, whose periodic follow-up was done through optical coherence tomography (OCT). The onset of this disease was characterized by unilateral low visual acuity (VA), painless, of sudden onset, in the right eye (RE), associated to l febrile symptom. The funduscopic examination showed edema in the posterior pole which extended from the optical disc to the macular region in the RE. The OCT confirmed macular and optical disc thickening, as well as the presence of subretinal macular fluid. Systemic studies were normal except for a blood count due to the presence of leukocytosis and positive for Bartonella henselae. The follow up with CT Scan helped to evaluate the decrease in macular edema, with the subsequent improvement of visual acuity and absence of related complications. This report describes the utility of the follow up with OCT in a patient with neuroretinitis caused by Bartonella henselae. PMID:23612827

Cruzado-Sánchez, Deivy; Tobón, Camilo; Lujan, Vanesa; Lujan, Silvio; Valderrama, Vanesa

2013-03-01

54

Bartonella henselae Induces NF-?B-Dependent Upregulation of Adhesion Molecules in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells: Possible Role of Outer Membrane Proteins as Pathogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The endothelium is a specific target for Bartonella henselae, and endothelial cell infection represents an important step in the pathogenesis of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Mechanisms of Bartonella-endothelial cell interaction as well as signaling pathways involved in target cell activation were analyzed. B. henselae strain Berlin-1, isolated from bacillary angiomatosis lesions of a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient, potently stimulated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as determined by NF-?B activation and enhanced adhesion molecule expression. These effects were accompanied by increased PMN rolling on and adhesion to infected endothelial cell monolayers, as measured in a parallel-plate flow chamber assay. Monoclonal antibodies against E-selectin significantly reduced PMN rolling and adhesion. In our hands, B. henselae Berlin-1 was substantially more active than the typing strain B. henselae ATCC 49882. E-selectin and ICAM-1 upregulation occurred for up to 9 days, as verified by Northern blotting and cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Induction of adhesion molecules was mediated via NF-?B activation and could be blocked by a specific NF-?B inhibitor. Additional studies indicated that B. henselae-induced effects did not require living bacteria or Bartonella lipopolysaccharides. Exposure of HUVEC to purified B. henselae outer membrane proteins (OMPs), however, reproduced all aspects of endothelial cell activation. In conclusion, B. henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis, infects and activates endothelial cells. B. henselae OMPs are sufficient to induce NF-?B activation and adhesion molecule expression followed by enhanced rolling and adhesion of leukocytes. These observations identify important new properties of B. henselae, demonstrating its capacity to initiate a cascade of events culminating in a proinflammatory phenotype of infected endothelial cells.

Fuhrmann, Oliver; Arvand, Mardjan; Gohler, Alexander; Schmid, Michael; Krull, Matthias; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Seybold, Joachim; Dehio, Christoph; Suttorp, Norbert

2001-01-01

55

Managing iron supply during the infection cycle of a flea borne pathogen, Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe(3+) transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe(2+) transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3-5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle. PMID:24151576

Liu, Mafeng; Biville, Francis

2013-01-01

56

Bartonella henselae Pap31, an Extracellular Matrix Adhesin, Binds the Fibronectin Repeat III13 Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae wound-associated infections suggest involvement of extracellular matrix molecules in adhesion and invasion. Pap31 was previously identified as a hemin-binding protein. Our recent studies suggest the protein is an adhesin that is recognized by the host's immune systems. In this study we examined the interactions of B. henselae Pap31 with fibronectin (Fn), heparin (Hep), and human umbilical vein endothelial

S. M. Dabo; A. W. Confer; B. E. Anderson; Snehalata Gupta

2006-01-01

57

Detection of serum antibodies to Bartonella henselae and Coxiella burnetii from Japanese children and pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The participation of Bartonella henselae and Coxiella burnetii in the pathogenesis of fever of unknown origin (FUO) and lymphadenopathy has not been completely clarified. Prevalence of these two agents in Japanese children is also unknown. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies to B. henselae and to C. burnetii were examined by the indirect fluorescence antibody assay. Enzyme immunoassay kits were used to detect

Kei Numazaki; Hiroshi Ueno; Kazuko Yokoo; Yasukazu Muramatsu; Shunzo Chiba; Chiharu Morita

2000-01-01

58

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal animal shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47) of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5) or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil. PMID:21120356

Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Venker, Carolina Augusto; Klein, Deisy Heck; Petry, Mariana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente

2010-11-01

59

Heme Degrading Protein HemS Is Involved in Oxidative Stress Response of Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are hemotropic bacteria, agents of emerging zoonoses. These bacteria are heme auxotroph Alphaproteobacteria which must import heme for supporting their growth, as they cannot synthesize it. Therefore, Bartonella genome encodes for a complete heme uptake system allowing the transportation of this compound across the outer membrane, the periplasm and the inner membranes. Heme has been proposed to be used as an iron source for Bartonella since these bacteria do not synthesize a complete system required for iron Fe3+uptake. Similarly to other bacteria which use heme as an iron source, Bartonellae must transport this compound into the cytoplasm and degrade it to allow the release of iron from the tetrapyrrole ring. For Bartonella, the gene cluster devoted to the synthesis of the complete heme uptake system also contains a gene encoding for a polypeptide that shares homologies with heme trafficking or degrading enzymes. Using complementation of an E. coli mutant strain impaired in heme degradation, we demonstrated that HemS from Bartonella henselae expressed in E. coli allows the release of iron from heme. Purified HemS from B. henselae binds heme and can degrade it in the presence of a suitable electron donor, ascorbate or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Knocking down the expression of HemS in B. henselae reduces its ability to face H2O2 induced oxidative stress.

Liu, MaFeng; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2012-01-01

60

Human Coinfection with Bartonella henselae and Two Hemotropic Mycoplasma Variants Resembling Mycoplasma ovis?  

PubMed Central

Two variants of an organism resembling the ovine hemoplasma, Mycoplasma ovis, were detected by PCR in blood samples from a veterinarian in Texas. Coinfection with similar variants has been described in sheep. This represents the first report of human infection with this organism. The veterinarian was coinfected with Bartonella henselae.

Sykes, Jane E.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2010-01-01

61

Evidence of Bacteroides fragilis protection from Bartonella henselae-induced damage.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is able to internalize endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are resistant to the infection of other common pathogens. Bacteroides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe belonging to the gut microflora. It protects from experimental colitis induced by Helicobacter hepaticus through the polysaccharide A (PSA). The aim of our study was to establish: 1) whether B. fragilis colonization could protect from B. henselae infection; if this event may have beneficial effects on EPCs, vascular system and tissues. Our in vitro results establish for the first time that B. fragilis can internalize EPCs and competes with B. henselae during coinfection. We observed a marked activation of the inflammatory response by Real-time PCR and ELISA in coinfected cells compared to B. henselae-infected cells (63 vs 23 up-regulated genes), and after EPCs infection with mutant B. fragilis ?PSA (?90% up-regulated genes) compared to B. fragilis. Interestingly, in a mouse model of coinfection, morphological and ultrastructural analyses by hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron microscopy on murine tissues revealed that damages induced by B. henselae can be prevented in the coinfection with B. fragilis but not with its mutant B. fragilis ?PSA. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis with anti-Bartonella showed that the number of positive cells per field decreased of at least 50% in the liver (20±4 vs 50±8), aorta (5±1 vs 10±2) and spleen (25±3 vs 40±6) sections of mice coinfected compared to mice infected only with B. henselae. This decrease was less evident in the coinfection with ?PSA strain (35±6 in the liver, 5±1 in the aorta and 30±5 in the spleen). Finally, B. fragilis colonization was also able to restore the EPC decrease observed in mice infected with B. henselae (0.65 vs 0.06 media). Thus, our data establish that B. fragilis colonization is able to prevent B. henselae damages through PSA. PMID:23166739

Sommese, Linda; Pagliuca, Chiara; Avallone, Bice; Ippolito, Rossana; Casamassimi, Amelia; Costa, Valerio; Colicchio, Roberta; Cerciello, Raimondo; D'Armiento, Maria; Scarpato, Margherita; Giovane, Alfonso; Pastore, Gabiria; Infante, Teresa; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Fiorito, Carmela; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Salvatore, Paola; Napoli, Claudio

2012-01-01

62

Live Bartonella henselae enhances endothelial cell proliferation without direct contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cocultivated with live B. henselae was enhanced in a bacterial dose-dependent manner, and the stimulatory effect was specific to vascular endothelial cells. The inactivation of B. henselae by UV or heat treatment abolished its stimulatory activity, suggesting that live bacteria is necessary for the growth stimulation effect. To investigate the role

Nobuaki Maeno; Hiroshi Oda; Kiyotaka Yoshiie; Mohammad Rezwanul Wahid; Tsuyoshi Fujimura; Seiken Matayoshi

1999-01-01

63

Polymerase chain reaction detection of Bartonella henselae bacteraemia in an immunocompetent child with cat-scratch disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of Bartonella henselae bacteraemia is reported in an immunocompetent 8-year-old boy with cat-scratch disease. Serology to B. henselae, diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction, was positive. DNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood and amplified with specific\\u000a primers targeting the htrA gene of B. henselae. A non-isotopic hybridization assay with a species-specific oligonucleotide probe was used to detect the

Raffaele Del Prete; Donato Fumarola; Sandro Ungari; Luciana Fumarola; Giuseppe Miragliotta

2000-01-01

64

Interaction of Bartonella henselae with the Murine Macrophage Cell Line J774: Infection and Proinflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), a self-limiting condition characterized by a subacute regional lymphadenopathy that may develop into disseminated bartonellosis in immunocompromised subjects. Mice experimentally infected with B. henselae display typical liver and spleen granulomas rich in T cells and macrophages. So far there are no data on the interaction between bartonellae and macrophages. In order to clarify this topic, we investigated the interaction of B. henselae with J774, a mouse macrophage cell line. Analysis of bacterial uptake by functional assays and transmission electron microscopy indicates that bartonellae can enter and survive inside J774. Entry occurred within 30 min postinfection and reached a plateau at 160 min. Infection of J774 was followed by a dose-dependent release of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1? (IL-1?), and IL-6. Bartonellae persisted intracellularly without loss of viability for at least 8 h, and their number slightly decreased 24 h postinfection. Gamma interferon (IFN-?) treatment of J774 significantly decreased the number of recoverable bacteria at 8 and 24 h. This enhancement of macrophage bactericidal activity was associated with nitric oxide (NO) release and was prevented by the addition of the competitive inhibitor of NO synthesis NG-monomethyl l-arginine. These findings suggest that IFN-?-mediated activation of macrophages may be important for the clearing of B. henselae infection and that anti-B. henselae microbicidal activity of IFN-?-activated macrophages is mediated to a large extent by NO production.

Musso, Tiziana; Badolato, Raffaele; Ravarino, Daniela; Stornello, Sarah; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Merlino, Chiara; Savoia, Dianella; Cavallo, Rossana; Ponzi, Alessandro Negro; Zucca, Mario

2001-01-01

65

Prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae in patients with suspected cat scratch disease (CSD) in Italy.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a relatively new diagnosed illness with clinical signs of self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy accompanied by symptoms of fever and malaise, to encephalopathy and neuropathy, occurring after a cat scratch or flea bite. Bartonella henselae is now accepted as the etiologic agent of CSD. From January 1994 to September 1998, 412 patients were evaluated for suspect CSD in Italy. Sera were tested for antibodies to B. henselae by a commercially available indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), based on B. henselae-infected Vero-cells as the antigen substrate. Of the 412 patients, 26 (6.3%) were considered positive having titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to B. henselae of 64 or higher. In these patients CSD was indeed confirmed by either histopathologic examination of lymph nodes biopsy or fourfold raise in antibody titers. Nevertheless, sera were tested by IFA for Afipia felis and one showed a double reactivity to B. henselae and A. felis. Finally, three sera, negative to B. henselae serology, were positive to A. felis. Three hundred and eighty-six patients received alternative diagnoses. One hundred and twenty-five serum samples from control subjects were negative by IFA for either B. henselae or A. felis. Moreover, a cross-reactivity with sera from patients affected by other diseases was not observed. Our study shows that the ascertained cases of CSD are etiologically determined by B. henselae, IFA assay is confirmed as a useful tool in the laboratory diagnosis and, over a 5 years period of study, the incidence of CSD in Italy has been low. PMID:10485354

Del Prete, R; Fumarola, D; Fumarola, L; Basile, V; Mosca, A; Miragliotta, G

1999-07-01

66

Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian  

PubMed Central

Background During a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. Prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in Grenada and Ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in South Africa. The woman reported contact with fleas, ticks, lice, biting flies, mosquitoes, spiders and mites and had also been scratched or bitten by dogs, cats, birds, horses, reptiles, rabbits and rodents. Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient’s symptoms. Methods PCR assays targeting Anaplasma spp. Bartonella spp. and hemotopic Mycoplasma spp. were used to test patient blood samples. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced directly and compared to GenBank sequences. In addition, Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture was used to facilitate bacterial growth and Bartonella spp. serology was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Results Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum DNA was amplified and sequenced from the woman’s blood, serum or blood culture samples. Her serum was variably seroreactive to several Bartonella sp. antigens. Despite symptomatic improvement, six months of doxycycline most likely failed to eliminate the B. henselae infection, whereas A. platys and Candidatus M. haematoparvum DNA was no longer amplified from post-treatment samples. Conclusions As is typical of many veterinary professionals, this individual had frequent exposure to arthropod vectors and near daily contact with persistently bacteremic reservoir hosts, including cats, the primary reservoir host for B. henselae, and dogs, the presumed primary reservoir host for A. platys and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Physicians caring for veterinarians should be aware of the occupational zoonotic risks associated with the daily activities of these animal health professionals.

2013-01-01

67

Induction of a Potential Paracrine Angiogenic Loop between Human THP1 Macrophages and Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells during Bartonella henselae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is responsible for various disease syndromes that loosely correlate with the immune sta- tus of the host. In the immunocompromised individual, B. henselae-induced angiogenesis, or bacillary angio- matosis, is characterized by vascular proliferative lesions similar to those in Kaposi's sarcoma. We hypothesize that B. henselae-mediated interaction with immune cells, namely, macrophages, induces potential angiogenic growth factors and cytokines

Sandra I. Resto-Ruiz; Michael Schmiederer; Debra Sweger; Catherine Newton; Thomas W. Klein; Herman Friedman; Burt E. Anderson

2002-01-01

68

The Bartonella henselae SitABCD transporter is required for confronting oxidative stress during cell and flea invasion.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen that possesses a flea-cat-flea transmission cycle and causes cat scratch disease in humans via cat scratches and bites. In order to establish infection, B. henselae must overcome oxidative stress damage produced by the mammalian host and arthropod vector. B. henselae encodes for putative Fe²? and Mn²? transporter SitABCD. In B. henselae, SitAB knockdown increases sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. We consistently show that SitAB knockdown decreases the ability of B. henselae to survive in both human endothelial cells and cat fleas, thus demonstrating that the SitABCD transporter plays an important role during the B. henselae infection cycle. PMID:23811032

Liu, MaFeng; Bouhsira, Emilie; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2013-10-01

69

Detection of Bartonella henselae and Afipia felis DNA by polymerase chain reaction in specimens from patients with cat scratch disease.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and colorimetric identification of amplicons were performed to detect Bartonella henselae and Afipia felis DNA in specimens from patients who were clinically and histologically suspected of having cat scratch disease. PCR products were revealed using 2% ethidium bromide agarose-gel electrophoresis and identified with specific probes in a commercial colorimetric hybridization assay (DEIA) (GEN-ETI-K; DiaSorin, Italy). Six paraffin-embedded lymph node biopsies from 18 patients as well as 18 samples of peripheral whole blood and 18 sera were investigated. Bartonella henselae DNA was recovered from the whole blood of four patients, and Bartonella henselae and Afipia felis DNA were detected in one patient's lymph node biopsy. This study suggests that PCR-DEIA is sufficiently sensitive to be considered feasible for the molecular diagnosis of cat scratch disease. PMID:11205638

Del Prete, R; Fumarola, D; Fumarola, L; Miragliotta, G

2000-12-01

70

[Cat-scratch disease and disease caused by Bartonella (Rochalimaea)].  

PubMed

The aetiology of cat scratch disease remains controversial since both Afipia felis and Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae have been isolated from diseased lymph nodes. Bartonella henselae, Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana and Bartonella (Rochalimaea) elizabethae cause endocarditis and Bartonella bacilliformis cause septicemia (Oroya's fever) in non-immunocompromized patients, and Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana cause fever, bacillary angiomatosis, and visceral peliosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Bartonella quintana is the historical agent of trench fever and we recently isolated it from chronic adenopathy. The diagnosis of Afipia felis and Bartonella infections relies upon the isolation of the bacterium from blood, node tissue after inoculation of cell cultures systems and molecular identification, and upon the serology. In vitro both species are sensitive to aminoglycosides, and we recommend aminoglycosides be included in antibiotic regimens for treating cat scratch disease and Bartonella infections. PMID:7534931

Drancourt, M; Raoult, D

1995-01-21

71

Characterization of an Immunogenic Outer Membrane Autotransporter Protein, Arp, of Bartonella henselae?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is a recently recognized pathogenic bacterium associated with cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and bacillary peliosis. This study describes the cloning, sequencing, and characterization of an antigenic autotransporter gene from B. henselae. A cloned 6.0-kb BclI-EcoRI DNA fragment expresses a 120-kDa B. henselae protein immunoreactive with 21.2% of sera from patients positive for B. henselae immunoglobulin G antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence, with 97.3% specificity and no cross-reactivity with antibodies against various other organisms. DNA sequencing of the clone revealed one open reading frame of 4,320 bp with a deduced amino acid sequence that shows homology to the family of autotransporters. The autotransporters are a group of proteins that mediate their own export through the outer membrane and consist of a passenger region, the ?-domain, and an outer membrane transporter region, the ?-domain. The passenger domain shows homology to a family of pertactin-like adhesion proteins and contains seven, nearly identical 48-amino-acid repeats not found in any other bacterial or Bartonella DNA sequences. The passenger ?-domain has a calculated molecular mass of 117 kDa, and the transporter ?-domain has a calculated molecular mass of 36 kDa. The clone expresses a 120-kDa protein and a protein that migrates at approximately 38 kDa exclusively in the outer membrane protein fraction, suggesting that the 120-kDa passenger protein remains associated with the outer membrane after cleavage from the 36-kDa transporter.

Litwin, Christine M.; Rawlins, Mindy L.; Swenson, Erica M.

2007-01-01

72

MULTIPLEX SYBR® GREEN-REAL TIME PCR (qPCR) ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF Bartonella henselae AND Bartonella clarridgeiae IN CATS  

PubMed Central

A novel SYBR® green-real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed to detect two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, directly from blood samples. The test was used in blood samples obtained from cats living in animal shelters in Southern Brazil. Results were compared with those obtained by conventional PCR targeting Bartonella spp. Among the 47 samples analyzed, eight were positive using the conventional PCR and 12 were positive using qPCR. Importantly, the new qPCR detected the presence of both B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in two samples. The results show that the qPCR described here may be a reliable tool for the screening and differentiation of two important Bartonella species.

Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Pilger, Diogo Andre; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente

2014-01-01

73

Multiplex SYBR® green-real time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and differentiation of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats.  

PubMed

A novel SYBR® green-real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed to detect two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, directly from blood samples. The test was used in blood samples obtained from cats living in animal shelters in Southern Brazil. Results were compared with those obtained by conventional PCR targeting Bartonella spp. Among the 47 samples analyzed, eight were positive using the conventional PCR and 12 were positive using qPCR. Importantly, the new qPCR detected the presence of both B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in two samples. The results show that the qPCR described here may be a reliable tool for the screening and differentiation of two important Bartonella species. PMID:24626408

Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Pilger, Diogo André; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente

2014-01-01

74

Co-existence of acute transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Bartonella henselae infection.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a benign, self-limiting condition associated with Bartonella henselae. Neurological manifestations are uncommon. Acute transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome have been reported rarely with CSD. This report describes a 12-year-old boy with acute transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with CSD. PMID:23930734

Carman, Kursat Bora; Yimenicioglu, Sevgi; Ekici, Arzu; Yakut, Ayten; Dinleyici, Ener Cagr?

2013-08-01

75

Role of dendritic cell-derived CXCL13 in the pathogenesis of Bartonella henselae B-rich granuloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate adaptive im- munity and regulate the inflammatory re- sponse by producing inflammatory che- mokines. This study was aimed to elucidate their role in the pathogenesis of the suppurative granuloma induced by Bartonella henselaeinfection, which char- acterizes cat scratch disease (CSD). In vitro DC infection by B. henselae results in internalization of bacteria, phenotypic maturation with increased

William Vermi; Fabio Facchetti; Elena Riboldi; Holger Heine; Sara Scutera; Sarah Stornello; Daniela Ravarino; Paola Cappello; Mirella Giovarelli; Raffaele Badolato; Mario Zucca; Francesca Gentili; Marco Chilosi; Claudio Doglioni; Alessandro Negro Ponzi; Silvano Sozzani; Tiziana Musso; S. Giovanni; Mario Negri

2006-01-01

76

Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in dog and cat fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia. PMID:24445204

Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-03-01

77

Bartonella henselae-Specific Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Display a Predominantly Th1 Phenotype in Experimentally Infected C57BL\\/6 Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune responses of the immunocompetent host to Bartonella henselae infection were investigated in the murine infection model using C57BL\\/6 mice. Following intraperitoneal infection with human-derived B. henselae strain Berlin-1, viable bacteria could be recovered from livers and spleens during the first week postinfection, while Bartonella DNA remained detectable by PCR in the liver for up to 12 weeks after infection.

MARDJAN ARVAND; RALF IGNATIUS; THOMAS REGNATH; HELMUT HAHN; MARTIN E. A. MIELKE

2001-01-01

78

Diagnosis and follow-up of Bartonella henselae infection in the spleen of an immunocompetent patient by real-time quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Systemic Bartonella henselae infections are unusual in immunocompetent adults. However, here we report one such case of bartonellosis in a 34-year-old patient, who presented with fever and multinodular splenomegaly. We also describe a novel method of identifying Bartonella henselae by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of amplified products. This could prevent splenic bartonellosis being mistaken for lymphoma and thereby avert unnecessary splenectomy. PMID:23518653

Liberto, Maria Carla; Matera, Giovanni; Lamberti, Angelo G; Quirino, Angela; Barreca, Giorgio S; Marascio, Nadia; Baudi, Francesco; Caroleo, Benedetto; Staltari, Orietta; Focà, Alfredo

2013-07-01

79

Identification, Cloning, and Expression of the CAMP-Like Factor Autotransporter Gene (cfa) of Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

The CAMP reaction was first described by Christie et al. (R. Christie, N. E. Atkins, and E. Munch-Petersen, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. 22:197-200, 1944) as the synergistic lysis of sheep red blood cells by Staphylococcus aureus sphingomyelinase and CAMP factor (cohemolysin), a secreted protein from group B streptococci. We observed a CAMP-like reaction when Bartonella henselae was grown in close proximity to S. aureus on 5% sheep blood agar. This study describes the cloning, sequencing, and characterization of a CAMP-like factor autotransporter gene (cfa) from B. henselae. A cosmid library of B. henselae ATCC 49793 was constructed using SuperCos1 in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MR. Cosmids were screened for the CAMP reaction, and a quantitative cohemolysis microtiter assay was developed using purified sphingomyelinase. Cosmid clones with the strongest cohemolytic reaction had similar restriction enzyme patterns. A DNA fragment that expressed the cohemolysin determinant was subcloned in a 7,200-bp StuI-BamHI fragment which contained a 6,024-bp open reading frame. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology to the family of autotransporters. The autotransporters are a group of proteins that mediate their own export through the outer membrane. They contain an N-terminal passenger region, the ?-domain, and a C-terminal transporter region, the ?-domain. The ?-domain contained four, nearly identical 42-amino-acid repeats and showed homology to the family of RTX (repeat in toxin) hemolysins. The concentrated supernatant of the recombinant strain expressed a protein with a molecular mass of 180 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis consistent with the calculated molecular weight of the secreted ?-domain. In conclusion, we have characterized a novel secreted cohemolysin autotransporter protein of B. henselae.

Litwin, Christine M.; Johnson, Joel M.

2005-01-01

80

Interaction of Bartonella henselae with Endothelial Cells Promotes Monocyte\\/Macrophage Chemoattractant Protein 1 Gene Expression and Protein Production and Triggers Monocyte Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillary angiomatosis (BA), one of the many clinical manifestations resulting from infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Bartonella henselae, is characterized by angiogenic lesions. Macrophages have been identified as important effector cells contributing to the angiogenic process during B. henselae infection by infiltrating BA lesions and secreting vascular endothelial growth factor. Monocyte-macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) recruits macrophages to sites

Amy M. McCord; Andrew W. O. Burgess; Melissa J. Whaley; Burt E. Anderson

2005-01-01

81

Development of an Immunoglobulin M Capture-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Acute Infections with Bartonella henselae?  

PubMed Central

We describe the development of an immunoglobulin M-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of an early antibody response to Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and endocarditis. This assay discriminates between B. henselae-positive and -negative patient samples with sensitivity and specificity values of 100% and 97.1%, respectively.

Hoey, John G.; Valois-Cruz, Fernando; Goldenberg, Hannah; Voskoboynik, Yekaterina; Pfiffner, Jenna; Tilton, Richard C.; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E.

2009-01-01

82

Differentiation of Bartonella-like isolates at the species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in the citrate synthase gene.  

PubMed Central

The citrate synthase gene (gltA) of Bartonella henselae was cloned and sequenced to compare genetic divergence among alpha and gamma branches of the class Proteobacteria and to develop enhanced genotypic reagents for B. henselae identification. B. henselae gltA is 1,293 nucleotides in length and 63 to 66% homologous with corresponding gene sequences of Rickettsia prowazekii, Escherichia coli, and Coxiella burnetii. The observed genetic variability suggests that gltA sequences can provide a useful means for studying moderate divergence among related bacteria. Oligonucleotides specific for B. henselae gltA were evaluated for the ability to prime PCR amplification within the alpha and gamma branches of the proteobacteria. Under the conditions used, only B. henselae, Bartonella quintana, and R. prowazekii template DNAs yielded amplification products (approximately 380 bp). DNAs from 28 Bartonella-like isolates of feline origin were amplified by B. henselae primers and analyzed for restriction fragment length polymorphism. The resulting patterns for all 28 isolates were similar or identical to that of the recognized B. henselae strain. Current studies are aimed at optimization of PCR conditions for specificity and sensitivity of amplification of Bartonella sequences from clinical isolates.

Norman, A F; Regnery, R; Jameson, P; Greene, C; Krause, D C

1995-01-01

83

Experimental infection of specific pathogen free (SPF) cats with two different strains of bartonella henselae type I: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Domestic cats are the reservoir of Bartonella henselae, the main causative agent of cat scratch disease. We compared B. henselae type I infection characteristics in 6 SPF cats infected with a feline strain (4.8 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL) and in 6 SPF cats infected with the reference Houston I strain (6.6 x 10(6) CFU/mL to 9.6 x 10(7) /mL). All the cats inoculated with the feline strain, but none of the cats inoculated with B. henselae Houston I, developed a fever within 2-12 days (mean: 5.8 days) post inoculation (PI), which lasted for 1-2 weeks. However, all 12 cats became bacteremic. The duration of bacteremia was significantly longer in the cats inoculated with the feline strain (mean: 237 days) than in the cats inoculated with Houston I strain (mean: 60 days) (p < 0.01). Five (83%) cats inoculated with the feline strain and none of the six cats inoculated with B. henselae Houston I had relapsing bacteremia (p = 0.02). IgG antibodies were detected by IFA within 1-2 weeks for both strains, but peaked later (week 10 versus week 3 PI) for the feline strain. By ELISA, using antigens of each B. henselae strain, all 12 cats developed Bartonella specific IgM and IgG antibodies, but the cats infected with B. henselae Houston I antigen yielded significantly lower optical density values (p < 0.05). By SDS-PAGE, PFGE and Western blotting, protein profile differences (84 to 89% homology) were observed between the two strains. If a feline vaccine is to be developed in order to prevent human infection, the choice of the vaccine strain will be critical, since major differences were identified even between strains belonging to the same sero/genotype. PMID:12498568

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Hew, Carrie M; Weber, David K; Lee, Wilson I

2002-01-01

84

Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B.?henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B.?henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of Bartonella. PMID:23163798

Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

2013-05-01

85

Diagnostic value of the indirect immunofluorescence assay in cat scratch disease with Bartonella henselae and Afipia felis antigens.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 35 cat scratch disease (CSD) patients, 180 control patients (123 without lymph node enlargement and 57 with lymph node enlargement not evoking CSD), and 102 nonpatient subjects (35 with cat contact and 67 without cat contact) were tested by semiquantitative indirect immunofluorescence assay for the presence of antibodies directed to Afipia felis (ATCC 53690T) or Bartonella henselae (ATCC 49882T). The CSD group had statistically higher antibody titers against B. henselae than the control groups (P < 10(-5)), whereas no difference in A. felis antibody titers was evidenced among all groups tested. Among the 317 serum samples studied, the three with high A. felis antibody titers ( > or = 64) also had high antibody titers against other alpha-2 proteobacteria. The value of the indirect immunofluorescence assay with B. henselae antigen for the diagnosis of CSD was as follows: for a cutoff of 32, sensitivity was 0.80, specificity was 0.85, and the likelihood ratio was 5.1; for a cutoff of 64, the likelihood ratio was 12.1. In summary, in France, CSD is associated with high antibody titers against B. henselae, as previously described in the United States. However, the causes for B. henselae seronegativity in CSD patients and those for high antibody titers outside the typical nosological frame of CSD still have to be identified. PMID:8991636

Amerein, M P; De Briel, D; Jaulhac, B; Meyer, P; Monteil, H; Piemont, Y

1996-03-01

86

Pathogenesis of experimental infections of specific pathogen-free cats with Bartonella henselae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonello henselae infections are common in pet cats and have zoonotic potential, particularly among immunocompromised human beings. The pathogenesis of experimental B. henselae infection was studied to elucidate potential health consequences for infected cats, and to identify methods to interrupt transmission among cats, thereby reducing the risk of transmission of B. henselae to human beings.^ B. henselae bacteremia that persisted

Carolyn Frances Guptill-Yoran

1998-01-01

87

Distribution of Bartonella henselae variants in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain.  

PubMed

We have studied the diversity of B. henselae circulating in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain. In total, we have fully characterized 53 clinical samples from 46 patients, as well as 78 B. henselae isolates obtained from 35 cats from La Rioja and Catalonia (northeastern Spain), four positive cat blood samples from which no isolates were obtained, and three positive fleas by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis. This study represents the largest series of human cases characterized with these methods, with 10 different sequence types and 41 MLVA profiles. Two of the sequence types and 35 of the profiles were not described previously. Most of the B. henselae variants belonged to ST5. Also, we have identified a common profile (72) which is well distributed in Spain and was found to persist over time. Indeed, this profile seems to be the origin from which most of the variants identified in this study have been generated. In addition, ST5, ST6 and ST9 were found associated with felines, whereas ST1, ST5 and ST8 were the most frequent sequence types found infecting humans. Interestingly, some of the feline associated variants never found on patients were located in a separate clade, which could represent a group of strains less pathogenic for humans. PMID:23874563

Gil, Horacio; Escudero, Raquel; Pons, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; García-Esteban, Coral; Rodríguez-Moreno, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Lobo, Bruno; Valcárcel, Félix; Pérez, Azucena; Jiménez, Santos; Jado, Isabel; Juste, Ramón; Segura, Ferrán; Anda, Pedro

2013-01-01

88

Isolation & characterization of Bartonella sp. from optic neuritis patients  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Optic neuritis (ON) is characterized by sudden and rapid impairment of vision. Bartonella henselae is a known aetiological agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), which is a common cause of neuroretinitis, the least common type of optic neuritis. The present study was carried out to determine the microbiological aetiology of optic neuritis in patients attending a tertiary care eye hospital in north India, which was later confirmed with molecular characterization. Methods: Of the 50 patients suffering from optic neuritis reported to the Ophthalmology OPD of a tertiary care eye hospital in New Delhi, India, 29 were included in the study. Blood culture from these patients were processed for aerobic and anerobic cultures to rule out infective aetiology. Subsequently, PCR was done on archive, glycerol-stocked cultures. Results: Gram-negative pleomorphic coccobacilli grew in four of 29 patients tested. Characterization of these revealed Bartonella like organism as tested by the API 20E, API Staph, API Strept and RapID ANA systems. Electron microscopy revealed presence of polar flagella and bleb like projection all over the bacterial surface. PCR performed on preserved culture confirmed these as Bartonella sp. Interpretation & conclusions: Infections with Bartonella like organisms have not been demonstrated from India in cases of optic neuritis or in any of the other clinical syndromes in the past. The present study shows the isolation and characterization of Bartonella like organisms from optic neuritis patients. From clinical point of view it will be important to look for these organisms as aetiological agents in ON cases in order to treat with appropriate antibiotics.

Chaudhry, Rama; Mukherjee, Anjan; Menon, Vimala

2012-01-01

89

Evaluation of serological response to Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana and Afipia felis antigens in 64 patients with suspected cat-scratch disease.  

PubMed

The serological response to Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and Afipia felis was assessed by an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) in 64 patients with suspected cat-scratch disease (CSD) recruited from the Bordeaux area in France. Blood samples were collected from 57 patients with chronic lymphadenopathy who underwent lymph-node biopsy with suggestive histopathologic features of CSD, and from an additional 7 patients with suspected CSD who underwent surgical incision and drainage because of lymph-node tenderness. Of the patients, 31 were male and 33 female, with a median age of 27 years (range 2-89). 69.8% reported cat and/or dog contact. Of the 26/64 (40.6%) patients, serum samples were positive at a titer of 1:100 or more for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies (17 only to B. henselae, 1 only to B. quintana, 3 only to Afipia felis, and 5 to both B. henselae and B. quintana). IgM or IgA antibodies were also detected in 10 patients with IgG antibodies to B. henselae. 11 (17.2%) of the 64 patient serum samples were positive at a low titer of 1:50. These data suggested that serological response assessed by standard IFAT is not enough to confirm a CSD diagnosis. PMID:8893399

Dupon, M; Savin De Larclause, A M; Brouqui, P; Drancourt, M; Raoult, D; De Mascarel, A; Lacut, J Y

1996-01-01

90

IrSPI, a Tick Serine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Tick Feeding and Bartonella henselae Infection  

PubMed Central

Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its potentialities as vaccine against the ticks and the pathogens they transmit.

Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C.; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

2014-01-01

91

Isolation of Bartonella sp. from Sheep Blood  

PubMed Central

A Bartonella sp. was isolated from sheep blood. Bacterial identification was conducted by using electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, citrate synthase, riboflavin synthase, and RNAase P genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ovine Bartonella infection.

Kania, Stephen A.

2007-01-01

92

Heme Binding Proteins of Bartonella henselae Are Required when Undergoing Oxidative Stress During Cell and Flea Invasion  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. These heme auxotroph alphaproteobacteria must import heme for their growth, since they cannot synthesize it. To import exogenous heme, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme uptake system enabling transportation of this compound into the cytoplasm and degrading it to release iron. In addition, these bacteria encode for four or five outer membrane heme binding proteins (Hbps). The structural genes of these highly homologous proteins are expressed differently depending on oxygen, temperature and heme concentrations. These proteins were hypothesized as being involved in various cellular processes according to their ability to bind heme and their regulation profile. In this report, we investigated the roles of the four Hbps of Bartonella henselae, responsible for cat scratch disease. We show that Hbps can bind heme in vitro. They are able to enhance the efficiency of heme uptake when co-expressed with a heme transporter in Escherichia coli. Using B. henselae Hbp knockdown mutants, we show that these proteins are involved in defense against the oxidative stress, colonization of human endothelial cell and survival in the flea.

Liu, MaFeng; Ferrandez, Yann; Bouhsira, Emilie; Monteil, Martine; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2012-01-01

93

Bartonella henselae infection inducing hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a kidney transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae (Bh) is the cause of cat-scratch fever. When infection is symptomatic, it typically presents with singular lymphadenitis and fever. Less commonly, the infection can become disseminated and cause endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and micro-abscesses in multiple sites including liver, spleen, eyes, and brain, especially in immunocompromised patients. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (Hlh) is a rare and severe multisystem disorder that may be triggered by infections. In one prior case, Bh, like other infections, has induced Hlh, an immune-mediated disease that can be characterized by septic-like presentation with persistent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. In an immunocompromised transplant recipient, the onset of Hlh can be difficult to discern from a severe presentation of Bh. We report a case of criteria-proven secondary Hlh occurring after Bh infection in an 11-yr-old girl who was 13 months post-renal transplant. The patient developed multi-organ failure, and her severe clinical presentation required a thorough evaluation for infectious and non-infectious possibilities including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and rejection. Early recognition of Hlh allowed for better directed therapies, leading to recovery of the patient and resolution of both Bh and Hlh. PMID:24829973

Poudel, Atul; Lew, Judy; Slayton, William; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

2014-05-01

94

Maintenance of broad-host-range incompatibility group P and group Q plasmids and transposition of Tn5 in Bartonella henselae following conjugal plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The first demonstration of conjugal plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Bartonella henselae is reported. Transconjugants bearing plasmids of incompatibility groups P (IncP) and Q (IncQ), expressing various resistance markers, were generated. Tn5 transposons delivered on suicide plasmids by conjugation showed transpositional insertion into random chromosomal sites. PMID:8990308

Dehio, C; Meyer, M

1997-01-01

95

Experimental infection of cats with Afipia felis and various Bartonella species or subspecies.  

PubMed

Based upon prior studies, domestic cats have been shown to be the natural reservoir for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella koehlerae. However, other Bartonella species, such as Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella quintana or Bartonella bovis (ex weissii) have been either isolated from or Bartonella DNA sequences PCR amplified and sequenced. In the late 1980s, before B. henselae was confirmed as the etiological agent of cat scratch disease, Afipia felis had been proposed as the causative agent. In order to determine the feline susceptibility to A. felis, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella rochalimae, B. quintana or B. bovis, we sought to detect the presence of bacteremia and seroconversion in experimentally-inoculated cats. Most of the cats seroconverted, but only the cats inoculated with B. rochalimae became bacteremic, indicating that cats are not natural hosts of A. felis or the other Bartonella species or subspecies tested in this study. PMID:24972870

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G; Henn, Jennifer B; Koehler, Jane E; Chang, Chao-Chin

2014-08-27

96

Identification of Bartonella henselae and B. quintana 16s rDNA sequences by branch-, genus- and species-specific amplification.  

PubMed

Given the controversy surrounding the aetiology of cat scratch disease and the association of both Bartonella henselae and B. quintana with bacillary angiomatosis, a method for the direct detection in clinical samples of 16S rRNA from the Proteobacteria alpha subgroup was developed. The primary structure of amplified 16S rDNA was determined by cloning and sequencing. Three sequences were identified: one corresponded exactly to GenBank accession number M73229 (B. henselae); the second was related to, but distinct from, GenBank accession number Z11684 (referred to as 'B. henselae variant'); and a third sequence was identical with GenBank accession number M73228 (B. quintana). No sequence corresponding to Afipia spp. was found. To speed identification and reduce the cost of analysis, a nested amplification method for B. henselae and B. quintana was devised. These techniques were applied to DNA extracted from 30 unfixed lymph node biopsies, two liver biopsies and 36 node pus samples from patients with suspected cat scratch disease, and from 17 skin biopsies from AIDS patients with suspected bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae or B. henselae variant sequences were found in 42 (62%) of 68 samples from suspected cat scratch disease. B. quintana was not associated with cat scratch disease, but a B. quintana sequence was found in seven (41%) of 17 samples from suspected bacillary angiomatosis patients. B. henselae 16S rDNA sequences were not found in bacillary angiomatosis specimens. PMID:8810946

Dauga, C; Miras, I; Grimont, P A

1996-09-01

97

Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.  

PubMed

Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats. PMID:21142966

Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

2011-08-01

98

Outer membrane proteins of Bartonella henselae and their interaction with human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genusBartonellaare unique in that they are bacteria which cause proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells and neovascularization (angiogenesis). The mechanisms by whichBartonella henselaecauses these processes are unknown. Given the importance of surface-exposed determinants in the pathogenesis of many organisms, outer membrane proteins (OMPs) ofB. henselaewere identified. Enrichment of the outer membrane fraction ofB. henselaeby sarkosyl treatment of total

Andrew W. O Burgess; Burt E Anderson

1998-01-01

99

Bartonella japonica sp. nov. and Bartonella silvatica sp. nov., isolated from Apodemus mice.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T), were isolated from the blood of the small Japanese field mouse (Apodemus argenteus) and the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), respectively, specimens of which were captured in the forest of Mount Fuji, Japan. Phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (40.1 mol% for strain Fuji 18-1(T) and 40.4 mol% for strain Fuji 23-1(T)) and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that both strains were members of the genus Bartonella. Using rpoB and gltA sequencing analysis, the highest sequence similarities between strains Fuji 18-1(T), Fuji 23-1(T) and other recognized species of the genus Bartonella showed values considerably lower than 91.4 % and 89.9 % in the rpoB gene and 89.1 % and 90.4 % in the gltA gene, respectively. It is known that similarities of 95.4 % for the rpoB gene and 96.0 % for the gltA gene can be applied as cut-off values for the designation of novel species of the genus Bartonella. In a phylogenetic tree based on the merged set of concatenated sequences of seven loci [16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC and rpoB genes and the intergenic spacer region (ITS)], strains Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T) formed a distinct clade from other recognized species of the genus Bartonella. These data support the classification of strains Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T) as novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella japonica sp. nov. and Bartonella silvatica sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. The type strains of Bartonella japonica sp. nov. and Bartonella silvatica sp. nov. are Fuji 18-1(T) (=JCM 15567(T)=CIP 109861(T)) and Fuji 23-1(T) (=JCM 15566(T)=CIP 109862(T)), respectively. PMID:19656930

Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Shiratori, Hatsumi; Ueda, Kenji; Kosoy, Michael Y; Chomel, Bruno B; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Maruyama, Soichi

2010-04-01

100

Bacteremia due to Rochalimaea henselae in a child: practical identification of isolates in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed Central

Two closely related species of Rochalimaea, Rochalimaea quintana and Rochalimaea henselae, are nutritionally fastidious but can be cultivated on bacteriologic media from the blood of patients with diverse clinical presentations. We report a case of culture-proven R. henselae bacteremia in a child with persistent fever. Serologic evidence of infection by R. henselae was ascertained by testing sera at two intervals for immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M antibodies by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot. The case isolate and a collection of other strains (R. henselae, R. quintana, and related organisms) were used to test commercial identification systems for their comparative utility in the identification of Rochalimaea spp. on a practical basis. Of six systems designed for testing of either fastidious or anaerobic isolates of bacteria, the MicroScan Rapid Anaerobe Panel was the only system that distinguished R. henselae from R. quintana. Four of five others gave reactions that were unique within their data bases but did not distinguish Rochalimaea isolates at the species level. Images

Welch, D F; Hensel, D M; Pickett, D A; San Joaquin, V H; Robinson, A; Slater, L N

1993-01-01

101

Bartonella Spp. in Pets and Effect on Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many mammals infected with Bartonella spp., pets represent a large reservoir for human infection because most Bartonella spp. infecting them are zoonotic. Cats are the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae, B. clar- ridgeiae, and B. koehlerae. Dogs can be infected with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. washoensis, B. elizabethae, and B. quintana. The role

Bruno B. Chomel; Henri-Jean Boulouis; Soichi Maruyama; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

2006-01-01

102

Bartonella (Rochalimaea) infections: beyond cat scratch.  

PubMed

Five species of Bartonella have been found to infect humans, henselae, quintana, elizabethae, bacilliformis, and vinsonii. The most common of these in North America are Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae, the agents of trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, and parenchymal peliosis, and in the case of B. henselae cat-scratch disease. B. bacilliformis is endemic in Peru and Ecuador, where it causes oroya fever or Carrion's disease. New methods of diagnosing Bartonella infections have resulted in increased recognition of the many manifestations of these infections. Early recognition is crucial, as these are potentially fatal opportunistic infections that usually respond rapidly to appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:8712787

Schwartzman, W

1996-01-01

103

Isolation and molecular identification of bartonellae from wild rats (rattus species) in malaysia.  

PubMed

This study describes our investigation on the prevalence and molecular identification of bartonellae from Rattus diardii and R. norvegicus in the urban areas of Malaysia. Of 95 rats investigated, Bartonella tribocorum, B. rattimassiliensis, B. coopersplainsensis, B. elizabethae, and B. queenslandensis were isolated from kidney and spleen homogenates of four rats. Bartonellae DNA was amplified from the rat organ tissues by using primers specific for the bartonellae RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene in nine other rats. Sequence analysis of the rpoB gene fragments shows the identification of B. queenslandensis in five rats, B. elizabethae in three rats, and B. tribocorum in one rat. Combining the results of isolation and molecular detection of bartonellae, we found that the prevalence of Bartonella infection in the Rattus spp. investigated in this study was 13.7%. Implementation of effective rat control program in the urban areas is necessary to prevent the spillover of bartonellosis from rats to humans. PMID:24732465

Tay, Sun Tee; Mokhtar, Aida Syafinaz; Zain, Siti Nursheena Mohd; Low, Kiat Cheong

2014-06-01

104

Bartonella tamiae sp. nov., a Newly Recognized Pathogen Isolated from Three Human Patients from Thailand?  

PubMed Central

Three strains of a novel Bartonella species (Bartonella tamiae) were isolated from human patients from Thailand. Sequence analysis of six chromosomal regions (16S rRNA, gltA, groEL, ftsZ, rpoB, and the intergenic spacer region) and phenotypical analysis supported the similarity of the three strains and placed them within the genus Bartonella separately from previously described species.

Kosoy, Michael; Morway, Christina; Sheff, Kelly W.; Bai, Ying; Colborn, James; Chalcraft, Linda; Dowell, Scott F.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Maloney, Susan A.; Baggett, Henry; Sutthirattana, Saithip; Sidhirat, Anussorn; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kasten, Rickie; Popov, Vsevolod; Robinson, Jennilee; Kruglov, Alexander; Petersen, Lyle R.

2008-01-01

105

Bartonella endocarditis: a pathology shared by animal reservoirsand patients.  

PubMed

Bartonellae were first recognized to cause endocarditis in humans in 1993 when cases caused by Bartonella quintana, B. elizabethae, and B. henselae were reported. Since the first isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii from a dog with endocarditis, this organism has emerged as an important pathogen in dogs and an emerging pathogen in people. Subsequently, four types of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii have been described, all of which have been associated with endocarditis in dogs. A limited number of dog endocarditis cases have also been associated with B. clarridgeiae, B. washoensis, B. quintana, and B. rochalimae. The second canine B. clarridgeiae endocarditis case is presented. The clinical and pathological characteristics of Bartonella endocarditis in dogs are similar to disease observed in humans, more often affecting the aortic valve, presenting with highly vegetative lesions with accompanying calcification, and in most instances high antibody titers. Pathological features in dogs include a combination of fibrosis, mineralization, endothelial proliferation, and neovascularization with variable inflammation. Endocarditis has also been described in animal species, which are the natural reservoir of specific Bartonella species, once thought to be solely healthy carriers of these pathogens. A few Bartonella endocarditis cases, including B. henselae, have been reported in cats in the USA and Australia. The second case of B. henselae type Houston I identified in the USA is presented. Furthermore, two cases of B. bovis endocarditis were recently described in adult cows from France. Finally, on-going investigation of valvular endocarditis in free-ranging Alaskan sea otters suggests the involvement of Bartonella species. PMID:19538271

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, R W; Williams, C; Wey, A C; Henn, J B; Maggi, R; Carrasco, S; Mazet, J; Boulouis, H J; Maillard, R; Breitschwerdt, E B

2009-05-01

106

Presence of Bartonella species in wild carnivores of northern Spain.  

PubMed

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R A; Barral, Marta

2012-02-01

107

Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles).

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; Garcia-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

2012-01-01

108

Differentiation ofBartonella-Like Isolates at the Species Level by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in the Citrate Synthase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrate synthase gene (gltA )o fBartonella henselae was cloned and sequenced to compare genetic divergence among alpha and gamma branches of the class Proteobacteria and to develop enhanced genotypic reagents forB. henselaeidentification.B. henselae gltAis 1,293 nucleotides in length and 63 to 66% homologous with corresponding gene sequences ofRickettsia prowazekii,Escherichia coli, andCoxiella burnetii. The observed genetic variability suggests thatgltAsequences can

A. F. NORMAN; R. REGNERY; P. JAMESON; C. GREENE; C. KRAUSE

1995-01-01

109

Genome Sequence of Bartonella rattaustraliani, a Bacterium Isolated from an Australian Rat  

PubMed Central

Bartonella rattaustraliani is a facultative intracellular bacterium isolated from the blood of a Rattus sp. in Australia. The present study reports the draft genome of B. rattaustraliani strain AUST/NH4 (CSUR B609T).

Merhej, Vicky; Croce, Olivier; Robert, Catherine; Rolain, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

110

Genome Sequence of Bartonella rattimassiliensis, a Bacterium Isolated from European Rattus norvegicus  

PubMed Central

Bartonella rattimassiliensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium isolated from the blood of Rattus norvegicus in Marseille. The present study reports the draft genome of B. rattimassiliensis strain 15908 (CIP 107705T).

Merhej, Vicky; Croce, Olivier; Robert, Catherine; Rolain, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

111

Dual input control: activation of the Bartonella henselae?VirB/D4 type IV secretion system by the stringent sigma factor RpoH1 and the BatR/BatS two-component system.  

PubMed

The co-ordinated expression of virulence factors is a critical process for any bacterial pathogen to colonize its host. Here we investigated the mechanisms of niche adaptation of the zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae by combining genetic approaches and shotgun proteomics. We demonstrated that expression of the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and its secreted effector proteins require the alternative sigma factor RpoH1, which levels are controlled by the stringent response (SR) components DksA and SpoT. The RpoH1-dependent activation requires an active BatR/BatS two-component system (TCS) while BatR expression is controlled by RpoH1 and the SR components. Deletion of spoT results in a strong attenuation of VirB/D4 T4SS expression whereas dksA, rpoH1 or batR deletion fully abolishes its activity. In contrast to their activating effect on the VirB/D4 T4SS, which is critical at the early stage of host infection, SpoT and DksA negatively regulate the Trw T4SS, which mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection at a later stage of the colonization process. Our findings support a model where the SR signalling and the physiological pH-induced BatR/BatS TCS conjointly control the spatiotemporal expression of B.?henselae adaptation factors during host infection. PMID:24033511

Québatte, Maxime; Dick, Mathias S; Kaever, Volkhard; Schmidt, Alexander; Dehio, Christoph

2013-11-01

112

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Species Isolated from Wild Rodents in Japan?  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella organisms in wild rodents in Japan. We captured 685 wild rodents throughout Japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated Bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). Those Bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. Sequence analysis of rpoB and gltA revealed that the Bartonella isolates obtained were classified into eight genetic groups, comprising isolates closely related to B. grahamii (A-I group), B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae (B-J group), B. tribocorum and B. rattimassiliensis (C-K group), B. rattimassiliensis (D-L group), B. phoceensis (F-N group), B. taylorii (G-O group), and probably two additional novel Bartonella species groups (E-M and H-P). B. grahamii, which is one of the potential causative agents of human neuroretinitis, was found to be predominant in Japanese rodents. In terms of the relationships between these Bartonella genetic groups and their rodent species, (i) the A-I, E-M, and H-P groups appear to be associated with Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus; (ii) the C-K, D-L, and F-N groups are likely implicated in Rattus rattus; (iii) the B-J group seems to be involved in Apodemus mice and R. rattus; and (iv) the G-O group is probably associated with A. speciosus and Clethrionomys voles. Furthermore, dual infections with two different genetic groups of bartonellae were found in A. speciosus and R. rattus. These findings suggest that the rodent in Japan might serve as a reservoir of zoonotic Bartonella infection.

Inoue, Kai; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamada, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Sato, Yukita; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Kadosaka, Teruki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki

2008-01-01

113

The Trw type IV secretion system of Bartonella mediates host-specific adhesion to erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals. PMID:20548954

Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Le Rhun, Danielle; Deng, Hong Kuan; Biville, Francis; Cescau, Sandra; Danchin, Antoine; Marignac, Geneviève; Lenaour, Evelyne; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Mavris, Maria; Arnaud, Lionel; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jing; Quebatte, Maxime; Engel, Philipp; Saenz, Henri; Dehio, Christoph

2010-01-01

114

The Trw Type IV Secretion System of Bartonella Mediates Host-Specific Adhesion to Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals.

Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Le Rhun, Danielle; Deng, Hong Kuan; Biville, Francis; Cescau, Sandra; Danchin, Antoine; Marignac, Genevieve; Lenaour, Evelyne; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Mavris, Maria; Arnaud, Lionel; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jing; Quebatte, Maxime; Engel, Philipp; Saenz, Henri; Dehio, Christoph

2010-01-01

115

Human isolates of Bartonella tamiae induce pathology in experimentally inoculated immunocompetent mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bartonella tamiae, a newly described bacterial species, was isolated from the blood of three hospitalized patients in Thailand. These patients presented with headache, myalgia, anemia, and mild liver function abnormalities. Since B. tamiae was presumed to be the cause of their illness, these isolates were inoculated into immunocompetent mice to determine their relative pathogenicity in inducing manifestations of disease

Leah Colton; Nordin Zeidner; Tarah Lynch; Michael Y Kosoy

2010-01-01

116

Isolation and Characterization of Bartonella bacilliformis from an Expatriate Ecuadorian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrion's disease is typically biphasic with acute febrile illness characterized by bacteremia and severe hemolytic anemia (Oroya fever), followed by benign, chronic cutaneous lesions (verruga peruana). The caus- ative agent, Bartonella bacilliformis, is endemic in specific regions of Peru and Ecuador. We describe atypical infection in an expatriate patient who presented with acute splenomegaly and anemia 3 years after visiting

Shari L. Lydy; Marina E. Eremeeva; Deborah Asnis; Christopher D. Paddock; William L. Nicholson; David J. Silverman; Gregory A. Dasch

117

[Bartonellosis. II. Other Bartonella responsible for human diseases].  

PubMed

In addition to Bartonella henselae, five other Bartonella species were involved in human pathology. As for B. henselae, ectoparasites seem to be responsible for the transmission of most or all these bacterial species. B. bacilliformis is responsible for Carrion's disease that occurs in some valleys of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. This disease is transmitted by biting of infected sandflies. The bacterial reservoir is constituted by humans only. That disease occurs either as an acute form with severe infectious hemolytic anemia (or Oroya fever), or as benign cutaneous tumors, also called verruga peruana. Healthy blood carriers of the bacterium exist. Trench fever was described during the First World War. This non-lethal disease is constituted of recurrent febrile attacks associated particularly with osseous pains. The causative agent of the disease is B. quintana, transmitted by the body louse. Humans seem to be the reservoir of that bacterium. In some patients, B. quintana can be responsible for endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis and chronic or recurrent bacteremia. Other human infections due to Bartonella sp. have been described: B. vinsonii, isolated from blood of small rodents, and B. elizabethae, the reservoir of which is currently unknown, can be responsible for endocardites. B. clarridgeiae (isolated from blood of 5% of pet cats and 17% of stray cats) may be responsible for human cat scratch disease. All these bartonelloses are diagnosed by non-standard blood culture or by in vitro DNA amplification or by serological testing. Their treatment requires tetracyclines or chloramphenicol or macrolides. PMID:9920964

Piémont, Y; Heller, R

1999-01-01

118

Neuroretinitis caused by Bartonella quintana.  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman presented to the eye clinic for impaired vision on the left eye persisting for three months. Clinical examination revealed massive peripapillary exudate and stellate macular exudate, raising suspicion of a cat-scratch disease. Tetracycline therapy was introduced, followed by azithromycin and topical corticosteroids. Serologic testing for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana was performed. In the first sample, Bartonella quintana IgG titer was 128, and IgM titer 20, whereas in repeat sample the respective findings were 64 and negative. Such a titer dynamics pointed to Bartonella quintana infection. The prescribed therapy resulted in vision improvement and normalization of the clinical picture. After nine months of therapy initiation, macular exudate had almost completely disappeared. Based on the patient's history, symptoms, therapeutic response and IgM pattern, the neuroretinitis must have developed secondary to Bartonella quintana infection. PMID:22926397

Vukovi?-Arar, Zeljka; Janjetovi?, Zeljka; Sekelj, Sandra; Sapina, Lidija; Paji?-Penavi?, Ivana

2012-08-01

119

Bartonella Species Bacteremia in Two Patients with Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma ?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae bacteremia was documented in two epithelioid hemangioendothelioma patients and B. koehlerae bacteremia in an asymptomatic partner of one of the patients. Considering the biology and clinically variable natural history of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, these results suggest that chronic Bartonella infection could have a role in the development of this vascular neoplasm. Bartonella spp. are known to induce vasoproliferative tumors in immunocompromised patients and may play a role in the development of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma in immunocompetent patients.

Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Iredell, Jonathan R.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Weinberg, Guy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2011-01-01

120

Ctenocephalides felis an in vitro potential vector for five Bartonella species.  

PubMed

The blood-sucking arthropod Ctenocephalides felis has been confirmed as a vector for Bartonella henselae and is a suspected vector for Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella quintana and Bartonella koehlerae in Bartonella transmission to mammals. To understand the absence of other Bartonella species in the cat flea, we have developed an artificial flea-feeding method with blood infected successively with five different Bartonella species. The results demonstrated the ability of these five Bartonella species to persist in C. felis suggesting an ability of fleas to be a potential vector for several Bartonella species. In addition, we demonstrated a regurgitation of Bartonella DNA in uninfected blood used to feed C. felis thus suggesting a potential horizontal transmission of Bartonella through C. felis saliva. On the contrary, no vertical transmission was detected in these artificial conditions. PMID:23200028

Bouhsira, Emilie; Ferrandez, Yann; Liu, MaFeng; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2013-03-01

121

Bartonellae in domestic and stray cats from Israel: comparison of bacterial cultures and high-resolution melt real-time PCR as diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

To determine the occurrence of feline bartonellosis in Israel, blood samples were collected from 179 stray and 155 domestic cats from 18 cities or villages in central and northcentral Israel. Samples were screened for Bartonella infection by culture isolation and molecular detection using high-resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS). All positive samples were confirmed by two additional HRM real-time PCR assays targeting two fragments of the ?-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and the 16S rRNA genes. The prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in the general tested population was 25.1% (84/334). A higher prevalence was detected in the stray (30.7%; 55/179) than the domestic cats (18.7%; 29/155). Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae were highly prevalent in both cat populations, however their distribution among the two populations varied significantly (p=0.016). B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae were found to be more prevalent in stray than domestic cats, whereas B. henselae was evenly distributed. Co-infection with two or more different Bartonella spp. was determined in 2.1% (7) of the cats. The ITS HRM real-time PCR assay used in this study was shown to have a greater screening power than bacterial isolation, detecting 94.0% (79/84) compared to 35.7% (30/84), respectively, of all positive samples. The high prevalence of these zoonotic Bartonella species, coupled with the overpopulation of stray cats, and increased numbers of domestic cats in the major urban centers in Israel represent a significant threat for the public health in this country. PMID:24107217

Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; Gross, Ifat; Winkler, Ronen; Abdeen, Ziad; Harrus, Shimon

2013-12-01

122

Virulence Determinants of Bartonella bacilliformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the molecular basis for pathogenesis in B. bacilliformis will serve as a model system to study virulence mechanisms in other hemotrophic bacterial pathogens. A more comprehensive\\u000a understanding of pathogenesis is important,as many species of bartonella, including B. quintana, B. henselae, and B. elizabethae, are recognized as emerging pathogens of clinical importance.Examples that illustrate the increasing clinical impact of the

Michael F. Minnick

123

Experimental infection of domestic cats with Bartonella koehlerae and comparison of protein and DNA profiles with those of other Bartonella species infecting felines.  

PubMed

Bartonella koehlerae, a recently described feline Bartonella species, was isolated from two naturally infected cats in northern California. We experimentally infected domestic cats with B. koehlerae to establish the microbiological and immunological characteristics of this infection in cats and to compare it to infections with those caused by B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. Four cats were inoculated intradermally with B. koehlerae (8.6 x 10(7) to 3.84 x 10(8) CFU/ml). None of the cats presented any obvious clinical signs, but all cats developed bacteremia, which peaked at 3.36 x 10(4) to 1.44 x 10(6) CFU/ml of blood between day 14 and day 36 postinoculation. B. koehlerae-inoculated cats had a bacteremia duration (mean, 74 days) shorter than did cats inoculated with B. clarridgeiae (mean, 324 days) (P = 0.03). None of the four cats inoculated with B. koehlerae had bacteremia relapse. As shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using B. koehlerae outer membrane protein (OMP) antigens, the four cats developed a species-specific antibody response, and ELISA testing using other feline Bartonella OMP antigens showed statistically lower optical density values. All four cats developed similar antibody reactivity patterns to B. koehlerae OMP antigens as seen by Western blotting, each with at least 20 seroreactive protein bands. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein profile differences were observed for both whole-cell lysate and OMPs from B. koehlerae, compared with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. B. koehlerae was more closely related to B. henselae than to B. clarridgeiae by protein profile, and this relatedness was also confirmed by analysis of the genomic DNA profiles by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. PMID:11825958

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Hew, Carrie M; Weber, David K; Lee, Wilson I; Droz, Sara; Koehler, Jane E

2002-02-01

124

Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in the dental pulp of stray cats buried for a year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae causes chronic bacteremia in cats. To test if B. henselae DNA can be recovered from the dental pulp of cats buried a year previously, we used PCR with primers for a sequence of the conserved groEL to test 104 teeth from 11 cats. Seven of the cats were found positive; canine teeth were more frequently positive than molar

Gérard Aboudharam; Vu Dang La; Bernard Davoust; Michel Drancourt; Didier Raoult

2005-01-01

125

Cat Scratch Disease Caused by Bartonella grahamii in an Immunocompromised Patient  

PubMed Central

Bartonella grahamii colonizes rodents worldwide and has been detected in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Here, the first human B. grahamii infection confirmed by multilocus sequence typing is reported. The route of transmission and clinical picture of the patient are similar to those seen in patients with cat scratch disease, which is typically diagnosed as a Bartonella henselae infection.

Oksi, Jarmo; Rantala, Sari; Kilpinen, Sanna; Silvennoinen, Raija; Vornanen, Martine; Veikkolainen, Ville; Eerola, Erkki

2013-01-01

126

Cat scratch disease caused by Bartonella grahamii in an immunocompromised patient.  

PubMed

Bartonella grahamii colonizes rodents worldwide and has been detected in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Here, the first human B. grahamii infection confirmed by multilocus sequence typing is reported. The route of transmission and clinical picture of the patient are similar to those seen in patients with cat scratch disease, which is typically diagnosed as a Bartonella henselae infection. PMID:23740723

Oksi, Jarmo; Rantala, Sari; Kilpinen, Sanna; Silvennoinen, Raija; Vornanen, Martine; Veikkolainen, Ville; Eerola, Erkki; Pulliainen, Arto Tapio

2013-08-01

127

Beyond Cat Scratch Disease: A Case Report of Bartonella Infection Mimicking Vasculitic Disorder  

PubMed Central

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae and it is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site of a cat scratch or bite. We report a patient with history of fever, swelling lymph nodes, vasculitic-like skin lesions, and positivity of Bartonella serology initially considered as expression of a disimmune disease.

Spinella, Amelia; Lumetti, Federica; Sandri, Gilda; Cestelli, Valentina; Mascia, Maria Teresa

2012-01-01

128

Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease).  

PubMed Central

Shortly after adopting a 6-week-old cat, a veterinarian was bitten on the left index finger. Within 3 weeks, he developed headache, fever, and left axillary lymphadenopathy. Initial blood cultures from the cat and veterinarian were sterile. Repeat cultures from the cat grew Bartonella-like organisms with lophotrichous flagella. Sera from the veterinarian were not reactive against Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, or B. elizabethae antigens but were seroreactive (reciprocal titer, 1,024) against the feline isolate. Sequential serum samples from the cat were reactive against antigens of B. henselae (titer, 1,024), B. quintana (titer, 128), and the feline isolate (titer, 2,048). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of this and six additional feline isolates, including microscopic evaluation, biochemical analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and citrate synthase gene identified the isolates as B. clarridgeiae. This is the first report of cat scratch disease associated with B. clarridgeiae.

Kordick, D L; Hilyard, E J; Hadfield, T L; Wilson, K H; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Breitschwerdt, E B

1997-01-01

129

Dogs are more permissive than cats or guinea pigs to experimental infection with a human isolate of Bartonella rochalimae.  

PubMed

Bartonella rochalimae was first isolated from the blood of a human who traveled to Peru and was exposed to multiple insect bites. Foxes and dogs are likely natural reservoirs for this bacterium. We report the results of experimental inoculation of two dogs, five cats and six guinea pigs with the only human isolate of this new Bartonella species. Both dogs became bacteremic for 5-7 weeks, with a peak of 10(3)-10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/mL blood. Three cats had low bacteremia levels (< 200 CFU/mL) of 6-8 weeks' duration. One cat that remained seronegative had two bacterial colonies isolated at a single culture time point. A fifth cat never became bacteremic, but seroconverted. None of the guinea pigs became bacteremic, but five seroconverted. These results suggest that dogs could be a reservoir of this strain of B. rochalimae, in contrast to cats and guinea pigs. PMID:19272295

Chomel, Bruno B; Henn, Jennifer B; Kasten, Rickie W; Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet; Papageorgiou, Sophia; Allen, Claire; Koehler, Jane E

2009-01-01

130

Bartonella spp. DNA Associated with Biting Flies from California  

PubMed Central

Bartonella DNA was investigated in 104 horn flies (Haematobia spp.), 60 stable flies (Stomoxys spp.), 11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly.

Chung, Crystal Y.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Paff, Sandra M.; Van Horn, Brian A.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

2004-01-01

131

Bartonella spp. DNA associated with biting flies from California.  

PubMed

Bartonella DNA was investigated in 104 horn flies (Haematobia spp.), 60 stable flies (Stomoxys spp.), 11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly. PMID:15324557

Chung, Crystal Y; Kasten, Rickie W; Paff, Sandra M; Van Horn, Brian A; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Chomel, Bruno B

2004-07-01

132

Bartonella spp. bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from Lyme disease-endemic region.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. Among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae, B. koehlerae, or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and Bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. Conditions diagnosed before referral included Lyme disease (46.6%), arthralgia/arthritis (20.6%), chronic fatigue (19.6%), and fibromyalgia (6.1%). B. henselae bacteremia was significantly associated with prior referral to a neurologist, most often for blurred vision, subcortical neurologic deficits, or numbness in the extremities, whereas B. koehlerae bacteremia was associated with examination by an infectious disease physician. This cross-sectional study cannot establish a causal link between Bartonella spp. infection and the high frequency of neurologic symptoms, myalgia, joint pain, or progressive arthropathy in this population; however, the contribution of Bartonella spp. infection, if any, to these symptoms should be systematically investigated. PMID:22516098

Maggi, Ricardo G; Mozayeni, B Robert; Pultorak, Elizabeth L; Hegarty, Barbara C; Bradley, Julie M; Correa, Maria; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2012-05-01

133

Human isolates of Bartonella tamiae induce pathology in experimentally inoculated immunocompetent mice  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella tamiae, a newly described bacterial species, was isolated from the blood of three hospitalized patients in Thailand. These patients presented with headache, myalgia, anemia, and mild liver function abnormalities. Since B. tamiae was presumed to be the cause of their illness, these isolates were inoculated into immunocompetent mice to determine their relative pathogenicity in inducing manifestations of disease and pathology similar to that observed in humans. Methods Three groups of four Swiss Webster female mice aged 15-18 months were each inoculated with 106-7 colony forming units of one of three B. tamiae isolates [Th239, Th307, and Th339]. A mouse from each experimental group was sampled at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-inoculation. Two saline inoculated age-matched controls were included in the study. Samples collected at necropsy were evaluated for the presence of B. tamiae DNA, and tissues were formalin-fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined for histopathology. Results Following inoculation with B. tamiae, mice developed ulcerative skin lesions and subcutaneous masses on the lateral thorax, as well as axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. B. tamiae DNA was found in subcutaneous masses, lymph node, and liver of inoculated mice. Histopathological changes were observed in tissues of inoculated mice, and severity of lesions correlated with the isolate inoculated, with the most severe pathology induced by B. tamiae Th239. Mice inoculated with Th239 and Th339 demonstrated myocarditis, lymphadenitis with associated vascular necrosis, and granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis with associated hepatocellular and renal necrosis. Mice inoculated with Th307 developed a deep dermatitis and granulomas within the kidneys. Conclusions The three isolates of B. tamiae evaluated in this study induce disease in immunocompetent Swiss Webster mice up to 6 weeks after inoculation. The human patients from whom these isolates were obtained had clinical presentations consistent with the multi-organ pathology observed in mice in this study. This mouse model for B. tamiae induced disease not only strengthens the causal link between this pathogen and clinical illness in humans, but provides a model to further study the pathological processes induced by these bacteria.

2010-01-01

134

Molecular Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Questing Adult Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California  

PubMed Central

Ticks are the vectors of many zoonotic diseases in the United States, including Lyme disease, human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Most known Bartonella species are arthropod borne. Therefore, it is important to determine if some Bartonella species, which are emerging pathogens, could be carried or transmitted by ticks. In this study, adult Ixodes pacificus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in three sites in Santa Clara County, Calif. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing of 273 bp of the gltA gene were applied for Bartonella identification. Twenty-nine (19.2%) of 151 individually tested ticks were PCR positive for Bartonella. Male ticks were more likely to be infected with Bartonella than female ticks (26 versus 12%, P = 0.05). None of the nine ticks collected at Baird Ranch was PCR positive for Bartonella. However, 7 (50%) of 14 ticks from Red Fern Ranch and 22 (17%) of 128 ticks from the Windy Hill Open Space Reserve were infected with Bartonella. In these infected ticks, molecular analysis showed a variety of Bartonella strains, which were closely related to a cattle Bartonella strain and to several known human-pathogenic Bartonella species and subspecies: Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. washoensis, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. These findings indicate that I. pacificus ticks may play an important role in Bartonella transmission among animals and humans.

Chang, C. C.; Chomel, B. B.; Kasten, R. W.; Romano, V.; Tietze, N.

2001-01-01

135

Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cause human endocarditis and neuroretinitis and 6 novel Bartonella spp. at a high prevalence (26.0%, 142/546). We conclude that exotic small mammals potentially serve as reservoirs of several zoonotic Bartonella spp.

Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Hagiya, Keiko; Izumi, Yasuhito; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2009-01-01

136

Bartonella species as a cause of infective endocarditis in the UK.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are increasingly implicated in infectious endocarditis cases in the UK. Herein, we attempted to quantify their role in this syndrome and explored the epidemiology of Bartonella-associated endocarditis in the UK. Between November 2005 and October 2010, samples from 685 endocarditis patients were submitted to the Health Protection Agency for Bartonella serology. Serological evidence of infection was obtained for 57 (8·3%) patients. PCR-based evidence of infection was obtained from 13 out of 14 patients for whom heart valve tissue was available, with Bartonella quintana implicated in 12 cases and B. henselae in one. Six patients with B. quintana endocarditis were recent immigrants into the UK, of whom four lived in poor socioeconomic conditions. These results indicate that Bartonella is a not uncommon cause of endocarditis in the UK and should be considered particularly in patients raised in eastern Europe and/or with a history of homelessness or alcoholism. PMID:22691748

Chaloner, G L; Harrison, T G; Birtles, R J

2013-04-01

137

An unmatched case controlled study of clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with Bartonella infection.  

PubMed

We compared clinicopathologic findings in dogs with Bartonella infection to Bartonella spp. negative dogs suspected of a vector-borne disease. Cases (n=47) and controls (n=93) were selected on the basis of positive or negative enrichment culture PCR results, respectively. Signalment, clinicopathologic findings and treatments were extracted from medical records. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella henselae (n=28, 59.6%), Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (n=20, 42.6%), Bartonella koehlerae (n=3, 6.4%), Bartonella volans-like (n=3, 6.4%) and Bartonella bovis (n=1, 2.1%). There were no significant differences in age, breed, size, sex or neuter status between cases and controls. Dogs infected with Bartonella sp. often had a history of weight loss [OR=2.82; 95% CI: 1.08-7.56] and were hypoglobulinemic [OR=4.26; 95% CI: 1.31-14.41]. With the exception of weight loss and hypoglobulinemia, clinicopathologic abnormalities in Bartonella-infected dogs in this study were similar to dogs suspected of other vector-borne infections. PMID:23683861

Pérez Vera, Cristina; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Pultorak, Elizabeth L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-09-01

138

A gene transfer agent and a dynamic repertoire of secretion systems hold the keys to the explosive radiation of the emerging pathogen Bartonella.  

PubMed

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G E

2013-03-01

139

A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes.

Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Bjorn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Naslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2013-01-01

140

Identification of Bartonella-Specific Immunodominant Antigens Recognized by the Feline Humoral Immune System  

PubMed Central

The seroreactivities of both naturally and experimentally infected cats to Bartonella henselae was examined. Serum samples collected weekly from nine cats experimentally infected with B. henselae LSU16 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. The magnitude and isotype of the antibody response were investigated by ELISA. Western blot analysis allowed the identification of at least 24 Bartonella-specific antigens recognized by the cats during infection. Antibody titers to specific antigens, as determined by Western blot analysis, ranged from 10 to 640 and varied among the different antibody-antigen interactions. Absorption of sera from an experimentally infected cat, using whole cells and cell lysates of various Bartonella species and other bacteria that commonly colonize cats, supported the identification of those Bartonella-specific antigens recognized by the experimentally infected cats. Furthermore, a number of possible species- and type-specific antigens were identified. Finally, sera obtained from cats at local animal shelters were screened for the presence of antibodies directed against the Bartonella-specific bands identified in the experimentally infected cats. A number of Bartonella-specific antigens have been identified to which strong antibody responses are generated in both experimentally and naturally infected cats, some of which may be useful in diagnosing species- and/or type-specific infections. In addition, the results from these experiments will lead to the development of monoclonal antibodies targeted against those genus-, species-, and type-specific antigens.

Freeland, R. L.; Scholl, D. T.; Rohde, K. R.; Shelton, L. J.; O'Reilly, K. L.

1999-01-01

141

Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause characteristic host-restricted hemotropic infections in mammals and are typically transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In the mammalian reservoir, these bacteria initially infect a yet unrecognized primary niche, which seeds organisms into the blood stream leading to the establishment of a long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia as the hall-mark of infection. Bacterial type IV secretion systems, which are supra-molecular transporters ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems, represent crucial pathogenicity factors that have contributed to a radial expansion of the Bartonella lineage in nature by facilitating adaptation to unique mammalian hosts. On the molecular level, the type IV secretion system VirB/VirD4 is known to translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins into host cells, which subvert multiple cellular functions to the benefit of the infecting pathogen. Furthermore, bacterial adhesins mediate a critical, early step in the pathogenesis of the bartonellae by binding to extracellular matrix components of host cells, which leads to firm bacterial adhesion to the cell surface as a prerequisite for the efficient translocation of type IV secretion effector proteins. The best-studied adhesins in bartonellae are the orthologous trimeric autotransporter adhesins, BadA in Bartonella henselae and the Vomp family in Bartonella quintana. Genetic diversity and strain variability also appear to enhance the ability of bartonellae to invade not only specific reservoir hosts, but also accidental hosts, as shown for B. henselae. Bartonellae have been identified in many different blood-sucking arthropods, in which they are typically found to cause extracellular infections of the mid-gut epithelium. Adaptation to specific vectors and reservoirs seems to be a common strategy of bartonellae for transmission and host diversity. However, knowledge regarding arthropod specificity/restriction, the mode of transmission, and the bacterial factors involved in arthropod infection and transmission is still limited.

Chomel, Bruno B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Birtles, Richard J.; Koehler, Jane E.; Dehio, Christoph

2009-01-01

142

Etiology of cat scratch disease: comparison of polymerase chain reaction detection of Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) and Afipia felis DNA with serology and skin tests.  

PubMed

To determine the role of Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) species and Afipia felis in cat scratch disease (CSD), two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) hybridization assays were developed to detect DNA from these organisms. These assays were applied on 89 pus aspirates from skin test-positive CSD patients (group 1) and on 137 pus and lymph node specimens from CSD suspects (group 2). Bartonella DNA was detected in 96% of the samples from group 1 patients and in 60% of group 2 samples; however, A. felis DNA could not be detected in any clinical samples. These results suggest that CSD is caused by bartonellae and that A. felis does not play a significant role in this zoonosis. A strong correlation between Bartonella PCR positivity and Bartonella henselae antibody titer was found. Comparison of CSD skin test results with those obtained by Bartonella PCR suggests a low sensitivity of the skin test. PMID:7535830

Bergmans, A M; Groothedde, J W; Schellekens, J F; van Embden, J D; Ossewaarde, J M; Schouls, L M

1995-04-01

143

Identification of Bartonella Infections in Febrile Human Patients from Thailand and Their Potential Animal Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

To determine the role of Bartonella species as causes of acute febrile illness in humans from Thailand, we used a novel strategy of co-cultivation of blood with eukaryotic cells and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella-specific DNA products. Bartonella species were identified in 14 blood clots from febrile patients. Sequence analysis showed that more than one-half of the genotypes identified in human patients were similar or identical to homologous sequences identified in rodents from Asia and were closely related to B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum. The remaining genotypes belonged to B. henselae, B. vinsonii, and B. tamiae. Among the positive febrile patients, animal exposure was common: 36% reported owning either dogs or cats and 71% reported rat exposure during the 2 weeks before illness onset. The findings suggest that rodents are likely reservoirs for a substantial portion of cases of human Bartonella infections in Thailand.

Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Sheff, Kelly; Morway, Christina; Baggett, Henry; Maloney, Susan A.; Boonmar, Sumalee; Bhengsri, Saithip; Dowell, Scott F.; Sitdhirasdr, Anussorn; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Richardson, Jason; Peruski, Leonard F.

2010-01-01

144

[News on Bartonella infections].  

PubMed

The review specifies 25 Bartonella species known so far and describes epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bartonella infections which are classified using patient symptomatology including culture-negative endocarditis. Microbiological diagnosis and significant principles of antibiotic therapy of Bartonella infections are also stated. PMID:23965811

Melter, Oto

2013-06-01

145

Bartonella and intraocular inflammation: a series of cases and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To present various forms of uveitis and/or retinal vasculitis attributed to Bartonella infection and review the impact of this microorganism in patients with uveitis. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana intraocular inflammation from 2001 to 2010 in the Ocular Inflammation Department of the University Eye Clinic, Ioannina, Greece. Presentation of epidemiological and clinical data concerning Bartonella infection was provided by the international literature. Results: Eight patients with the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae and two patients with B. quintana intraocular inflammation were identified. Since four patients experienced bilateral involvement, the affected eyes totaled 14. The mean age was 36.6 years (range 12–62). Uveitic clinical entities that we found included intermediate uveitis in seven eyes (50%), vitritis in two eyes (14.2%), neuroretinitis in one eye (7.1%), focal retinochoroiditis in one eye (7.1%), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) due to vasculitis in one eye (7.1%), disc edema with peripapillary serous retinal detachment in one eye (7.1%), and iridocyclitis in one eye (7.1%). Most of the patients (70%) did not experience systemic symptoms preceding the intraocular inflammation. Antimicrobial treatment was efficient in all cases with the exception of the case with neuroretinitis complicated by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Conclusion: Intraocular involvement caused not only by B. henselae but also by B. quintana is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. A high index of suspicion is needed because the spectrum of Bartonella intraocular inflammation is very large. In our study the most common clinical entity was intermediate uveitis.

Kalogeropoulos, Chris; Koumpoulis, Ioannis; Mentis, Andreas; Pappa, Chrisavgi; Zafeiropoulos, Paraskevas; Aspiotis, Miltiadis

2011-01-01

146

Novel Bartonella agent as cause of verruga peruana.  

PubMed

While studying chronic verruga peruana infections in Peru from 2003, we isolated a novel Bartonella agent, which we propose be named Candidatus Bartonella ancashi. This case reveals the inherent weakness of relying solely on clinical syndromes for diagnosis and underscores the need for a new diagnostic paradigm in developing settings. PMID:23764047

Blazes, David L; Mullins, Kristin; Smoak, Bonnie L; Jiang, Ju; Canal, Enrique; Solorzano, Nelson; Hall, Eric; Meza, Rina; Maguina, Ciro; Myers, Todd; Richards, Allen L; Laughlin, Larry

2013-07-01

147

Bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from Uganda.  

PubMed

The presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (Rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in Uganda, Arua and Zombo, was examined by PCR detection and culture. Blood from a total of 228 R. rattus, 31 A. niloticus, and 5 C. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as Bartonella species using citrate synthase gene- (gltA) specific primers. One hundred and four fleas recovered from R. rattus were also tested for the presence of Bartonella species using the same gltA primer set. An overall prevalence of 1.3% (three of 228) was obtained in R. rattus, whereas 61.3% of 31 A. niloticus and 60% of five C. gambianus were positive for the presence of Bartonella species. Genotypes related to Bartonella elizabethae, a known zoonotic pathogen, were detected in three R. rattus and one C. gambianus. Bartonella strains, similar to bacteria detected in indigenous rodents from other African countries, were isolated from the blood of A. niloticus. Bartonellae, similar to bacteria initially cultured from Ornithodorus sonrai (soft tick) from Senegal, were found in two C. gambianus. Interestingly, bartonellae detected in fleas from invasive rats were similar to bacteria identified in indigenous rodents and not their rat hosts, with an overall prevalence of 6.7%. These results suggest that if fleas are competent vectors of these bartonellae, humans residing in these two districts of Uganda are potentially at greater risk for exposure to Bartonella species from native rodents than from invasive rats. The low prevalence of bartonellae in R. rattus was quite surprising, in contrast, to the detection of these organisms in a large percentage of Rattus species from other geographical areas. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed. PMID:24575846

Billeter, Sarah A; Borchert, Jeff N; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Gage, Kenneth L; Kosoy, Michael Y

2014-03-01

148

Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella in rodents of northern Thailand: a comparison with Bartonella in rodents from southern China.  

PubMed

We report results of the first study to investigate the distribution and diversity of Bartonella in rodents from Thailand. Whole blood from 195 rodents, representing six species, was tested for the presence of Bartonella species using standard culture techniques. Isolates were obtained from 17 (8.7%) of the samples, and 14 of those isolates represented distinct strains, based upon partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates and other Bartonella species indicated that five unique isolates from Bandicota indica form a cluster that may represent a new Bartonella species. Two additional isolates from B. indica clustered together, and were nearly identical to an isolate from Apodemus draco collected in southern China. Importantly, a number of the isolates from Thailand rodents are closely related to B. grahamii and B. elizabethae, species which have been associated with human illness. PMID:15100459

Castle, Kevin T; Kosoy, Michael; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Phelan, Lori; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Leepitakrat, Warisa; Monkanna, Taweesak; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Chandranoi, Kirkvich; Jones, James W; Coleman, Russell E

2004-04-01

149

Western Immunoblotting for Bartonella Endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To differentiate infectious endocarditis (IE) from other Bartonella infections and to identify infecting Bartonella bacteria at the species level on a serological basis, we used Western immunoblotting to test sera from 51 patients with Bartonella IE (of which 27 had previously benefited from species identification by molecular techniques), 11 patients with chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia, and 10 patients with cat

Pierre Houpikian; Didier Raoult

2003-01-01

150

Molecular Typing of "Candidatus Bartonella ancashi," a New Human Pathogen Causing Verruga Peruana  

PubMed Central

A recently described clinical isolate, “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty.

Mullins, Kristin E.; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguina, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G.; Blazes, David L.

2013-01-01

151

Molecular typing of "Candidatus Bartonella ancashi," a new human pathogen causing verruga peruana.  

PubMed

A recently described clinical isolate, "Candidatus Bartonella ancashi," was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty. PMID:23985925

Mullins, Kristin E; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R; Maguiña, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G; Blazes, David L; Richards, Allen L

2013-11-01

152

Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Bartonella in ticks and fleas from dogs and cats in Bangkok.  

PubMed

Flea and tick specimens (5-10 fleas or ticks) on dogs and cats from various sites in Bangkok were tested by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to detect DNA of bacteria Rickettsia (gltA and 17?kDa genes), Anaplasmataceae (16S rRNA gene), and Bartonella (pap31 and its genes). We confirmed that Rickettsia sp. related to Rickettsia felis was detected in 66 of 98 (67.4%) flea specimens from dogs, whereas 8 Bartonella henselae and 2 Bartonella clarridgeiae were detected in 10 of 54 (18.5%) flea specimens from cats. Further, this work provides the first evidence of 10 Ehrlichia canis (3.3%), 7 Anaplasma platys (2.3%), and 2 Wolbachia spp. (0.66%) in 304 Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick specimens in Thailand. PMID:21612535

Foongladda, Suporn; Inthawong, Dutsadee; Kositanont, Uraiwan; Gaywee, Jariyanart

2011-10-01

153

Emerging Bartonella in humans and animals in Asia and Australia.  

PubMed

Bartonella species, belonging to the alpha 2 subgroup of Proteobacteria, have either been considered or established as potential human and mammal pathogens. Five novel species of Bartonella have been reported in Thailand and Australia. Recently, three strains of B. tamiae were isolated from febrile illness patients in Thailand, while B. australis was isolated from kangaroos, and B. coopersplainsensis, B. queenslandensis, and B. rattiaustraliensis were isolated from rats in Australia. The 17 novel Bartonella strains isolated from rodents in southern China that were identified using the partial citrate synthase gene (gltA) sequence displayed a similar genetic diversity, as compared to those obtained from rodents captured in northern Thailand. Herein, the authors review and discuss the few available reports on Bartonella infection in order to raise awareness of Bartonella infection transmitted from mammalian reservoirs to humans via arthropod ectoparasitic vectors such as fleas, ticks, and lice in Asia and Australia. The identification of Bartonella species on these continents was reported in eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Russia, and Taiwan), south central Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, and Nepal), southeast Asia (Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand), the Middle East (Israel and Jordan), and Australia. The rate of Bartonella infection was found to be high in arthropod ectoparasitic vectors, mammals, and febrile patients in these tropical zones. PMID:19459536

Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Raoult, Didier

2009-05-01

154

Evaluation of an extended blood culture protocol to isolate fastidious organisms from patients with AIDS.  

PubMed Central

Recent reports of fastidious pathogens suggest the need for special blood cultures for immunocompromised patients. Blood cultures from 45 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with unexplained fever (> or = 38.0 degrees C) and CD4 counts of < 125 cells per mm3 were collected into a vacuum tube with sodium polyanetholsulfonate, an Isolator tube, and BACTEC aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Blood from the sodium polyanethosulfonate tube was inoculated into BACTEC 13A bottles, which were read weekly for 16 weeks. Isolator sediment was divided among eight agar media, including four sheep blood agar media: chocolate agar, brain heart infusion blood agar, heart infusion blood agar, and brucella blood agar. Other agar plates included Sabouraud's, buffered charcoal-yeast extract, Middlebrook 7H11 (M7H11) with hemoglobin, and M7H11 with mycobactin J. Incubation conditions included air and CO2-enriched aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic atmospheres. Aerobic BACTEC broths received an acridine orange stain on day 8 and were subcultured at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Anaerobic BACTEC bottles were subcultured at 4 weeks. All solid media, including subcultures, were incubated for 8 weeks, providing a total of 16 weeks of incubation for each specimen. Clinically significant isolates included eight Mycobacterium avium complex isolates and one each of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Cryptococcus neoformans. All isolates were detected with commercially available media and, with the exception of Bartonella spp., were recovered within incubation times routinely used in most clinical laboratories.

Dougherty, M J; Spach, D H; Larson, A M; Hooton, T M; Coyle, M B

1996-01-01

155

Evaluation of an extended blood culture protocol to isolate fastidious organisms from patients with AIDS.  

PubMed

Recent reports of fastidious pathogens suggest the need for special blood cultures for immunocompromised patients. Blood cultures from 45 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with unexplained fever (> or = 38.0 degrees C) and CD4 counts of < 125 cells per mm3 were collected into a vacuum tube with sodium polyanetholsulfonate, an Isolator tube, and BACTEC aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Blood from the sodium polyanethosulfonate tube was inoculated into BACTEC 13A bottles, which were read weekly for 16 weeks. Isolator sediment was divided among eight agar media, including four sheep blood agar media: chocolate agar, brain heart infusion blood agar, heart infusion blood agar, and brucella blood agar. Other agar plates included Sabouraud's, buffered charcoal-yeast extract, Middlebrook 7H11 (M7H11) with hemoglobin, and M7H11 with mycobactin J. Incubation conditions included air and CO2-enriched aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic atmospheres. Aerobic BACTEC broths received an acridine orange stain on day 8 and were subcultured at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Anaerobic BACTEC bottles were subcultured at 4 weeks. All solid media, including subcultures, were incubated for 8 weeks, providing a total of 16 weeks of incubation for each specimen. Clinically significant isolates included eight Mycobacterium avium complex isolates and one each of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Cryptococcus neoformans. All isolates were detected with commercially available media and, with the exception of Bartonella spp., were recovered within incubation times routinely used in most clinical laboratories. PMID:8880497

Dougherty, M J; Spach, D H; Larson, A M; Hooton, T M; Coyle, M B

1996-10-01

156

Bats as Reservoir Hosts of Human Bacterial Pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis  

PubMed Central

A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton’s bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens.

Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Lilley, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

157

Bats as Reservoir Hosts of Human Bacterial Pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis.  

PubMed

A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton's bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:24856523

Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J; Lilley, Thomas M; Pulliainen, Arto T

2014-06-01

158

Lymphadenopathy in a Novel Mouse Model of Bartonella-Induced Cat Scratch Disease Results from Lymphocyte Immigration and Proliferation and Is Regulated by Interferon-?/?  

PubMed Central

In immunocompetent humans, cat scratch disease (CSD) is elicited by the Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella henselae and is characterized by a benign regional lymphadenopathy, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of Bartonella-induced CSD-like disease that allowed us to investigate the mechanisms leading to lymphadenopathy in vivo. In wild-type mice, a subcutaneous inoculation of either viable or inactivated B. henselae led to a strong swelling of the draining lymph node, which was long-lasting despite the rapid elimination of the bacteria. Carboxyfluorescein- and bromodesoxyuridine-labeling experiments showed that lymph node enlargement resulted from modified immigration and enhanced proliferation of lymphocytes, preferentially of B cells. A comparative analysis of B. henselae and the rodent pathogen B. grahamii in wild-type versus interferon-?/?-receptor I chain-deficient mice revealed that interferon-?/? is not only differentially induced by these two Bartonella species but also exerts an inhibitory effect on the development of lymphadenopathy both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that the lymphadenopathy of human CSD can be reproduced and studied in a mouse model and provide the first insights into the underlying immunological mechanisms.

Kunz, Stefanie; Oberle, Karin; Sander, Anna; Bogdan, Christian; Schleicher, Ulrike

2008-01-01

159

Insights in Bartonella host specificity.  

PubMed

The genus Bartonella comprises a unique group of emerging gram-negative, intracellular bacteria that can cause a long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia in their reservoir hosts. In recent years, the widespread occurrence and diversity of these bacteria has been increasingly recognized. This has resulted in a dramatic expansion of the genus Bartonella to 24 currently described species or subspecies, among which at least half have been associated with human disease. Bartonella infections have been observed in virtually all species examined, extending from humans to carnivores, ungulates, rodents, lagomorphs, insectivores, and bats. Adaptation by Bartonellae to such a diverse range of mammals has resulted in host specificity, and all validated Bartonella species described to date are capable of parasitizing only a limited number of animal species. In this review, the possible mechanisms explaining the specificity of each Bartonella species for its reservoir host are discussed. PMID:19538272

Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Le Rhun, Danielle; Bonnet, Sarah; Cotté, Violaine

2009-05-01

160

Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.  

PubMed

Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature. PMID:23875817

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

2013-09-01

161

Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia  

PubMed Central

Abtract Background In the Pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. To our knowledge, human infections due to Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. have never been reported in French Polynesia; and infections due to C. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. To evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among French Polynesian blood donors. Methods The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against R. felis, R. typhi, R. conorii, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 472 French Polynesian blood donors collected from 2011 to 2013. In addition, 178 ticks and 36 cat fleas collected in French Polynesia were also collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect Rickettsia spp., B. henselae and Ehrlichia spp. Results None of the blood donors had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. All tested ticks and cat fleas were PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp., B. henselae, and Ehrlichia spp. Conclusion We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in French Polynesia but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. C. burnetii has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. It may also be absent from French Polynesia.

2014-01-01

162

Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.  

PubMed

Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372

Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J

2010-05-19

163

Meningitis Due to a "Bartonella washoensis"-Like Human Pathogen?  

PubMed Central

We report the second human case of infection caused by an organism identified as the proposed Bartonella species, “B. washoensis.” The organism was isolated from a blood sample from a patient presenting with meningitis and early sepsis. Oropsylla montana fleas were implicated as the vector for disease transmission in this case.

Probert, Will; Louie, Janice K.; Tucker, James R.; Longoria, Rose; Hogue, Robin; Moler, Silvia; Graves, Margot; Palmer, Heather J.; Cassady, Joseph; Fritz, Curtis L.

2009-01-01

164

Detection of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in cats with sporotrichosis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases. PMID:24127458

Kitada, Amanda A B; Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Oliveira, Raquel V C; Pessoa, Adonai A; Gomes, Raphael; Honse, Carla O; Gremião, Isabella D F; Lemos, Elba R S; Pereira, Sandro A

2014-04-01

165

Differentiation of Pathogenic Bartonella Species by Infrequent Restriction Site PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrequent restriction site PCR (IRS-PCR) is a recently described DNA fingerprinting technique based on selective amplification of restriction endonuclease-cleaved fragments. Bartonella isolates associated with hu- man disease and related nonhuman isolates were analyzed by IRS-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Preparation of DNA templates began with double digestion using three different restriction endonuclease combinations. Combinations included the frequently cutting endonuclease HhaI in conjunction

SCOTT A. HANDLEY; RUSSELL L. REGNERY

2000-01-01

166

Cat-scratch disease in Northern Italy: atypical clinical manifestations in humans and prevalence of Bartonella infection in cats.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report an investigation on cat-scratch disease (CSD) in Northern Italy. Seventy-four cases of CSD were diagnosed at the San Matteo hospital, Pavia, during the period 2005-2010. Of these 74 patients, 18 (24.3 %) reported atypical clinical manifestations such as ocular papillitis, maculopapular eruptions, vertebral infection, pulmonary infiltrates, and granulomatous hepatitis. Contact with cats was documented for 61 patients (82.4 %), while cat-related trauma was reported for 49 patients (66.2 %). We subsequently investigated the presence of Bartonella infection in cats belonging to the above patients and in other domestic and stray cats from three provinces of Northern Italy. Among the 27 domestic cats tested, nine of the 11 belonging to the CSD patients and two of the remaining 16 were infected by B. henselae (81.8 % vs. 12.5 %). Out of over 1,300 stray cats examined, 23.1 % were seropositive for B. henselae; after culturing and genotyping, 17 % were found to be infected by B. henselae (15.5 %) or B. clarridgeiae (1.5 %). PMID:23132688

Brunetti, E; Fabbi, M; Ferraioli, G; Prati, P; Filice, C; Sassera, D; Dalla Valle, C; Bandi, C; Vicari, N; Marone, P

2013-04-01

167

A confusing case of canine vector-borne disease: clinical signs and progression in a dog co-infected with Ehrlichia canis and Bartonella vinsonii ssp. berkhoffii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella spp. are important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine, and bartonellosis is considered as an emerging zoonosis that is being reported with increasing frequency. Of 22 known species and subspecies of Bartonella, seven have been isolated from dogs, causing disease manifestations similar to those seen in human beings. The wide variety of clinical signs and the possible chronic progression

Edward B Breitschwerdt; Ricardo G Maggi

2009-01-01

168

STUDIES ON BARTONELLA MURIS ANEMIA  

PubMed Central

An aqueous lipoid extract of ox spleen was prepared which protects adult male albino rats of carrier stock in a large percentage of instances against Bartonella muris anemia following splenectomy. It is suggested that the extract contains a specific hormonal substance.

Perla, David; Marmorston-Gottesman, J.

1932-01-01

169

Primer reporte de enfermedad sistémica por arañazo de gato (Bartonella henselae) en el Perú  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Introducción: la enfermedad por arañazo de gato(EAG) en la mayoría de las veces es descrita en su forma típica, las formas sistémicas son raras y de escaso reporte. La EAG puede tener una gran variedad de presentaciones, siendo algunas de ellas poco frecuentes. Es la primera vez que se reporta esta forma de presentación en el Perú. Caso clínico:

Pablo Manuel Polanco Aguilar; Mario Cornejo Giraldo; Elert Zapata Aguilar; Víctor Hugo; Calderón Arenas; Patricia Márquez Díaz; Ciro Maguiña Vargas

2008-01-01

170

The 75-Kilodalton Antigen of Bartonella bacilliformis Is a Structural Homolog of the Cell Division Protein FtsZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genomic library of Bartonella bacilliformis was constructed and screened with human anti-Bartonella serum from a patient with the chronic, verruga peruana phase of bartonellosis. An immunoreactive clone isolated from this library was found to code for a 591-amino-acid protein with a high degree of sequence similarity to the FtsZ family of proteins. The degree of amino acid identity between

INDIRA PADMALAYAM; BURT ANDERSON; MICHAEL KRON; TIMOTHY KELLY; BARBARA BAUMSTARK

1997-01-01

171

Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.  

PubMed

We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity. PMID:22832020

Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

2012-12-01

172

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bartonella senegalensis sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella senegalensis sp. nov. strain OS02T is the type strain of B. senegalensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bartonella. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated in Senegal from the soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai, the vector of relapsing fever. B. senegalensis is an aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. The 1,966,996 bp-long genome contains 1,710 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes, including 6 rRNA genes.

Mediannikov, Oleg; El Karkouri, Khalid; Diatta, Georges; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

173

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bartonella florenciae sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella florenciae sp. nov. strain R4T is the type strain of B. florenciae sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bartonella. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated in France from the spleen of the shrew Crocidura russula. B. florenciae is an aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. The 2,010,844 bp-long genome contains 1,909 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes, including two rRNA operons.

Mediannikov, Oleg; El Karkouri, Khalid; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

174

Bartonella koehlerae, a New Cat-Associated Agent of Culture-Negative Human Endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella koehlerae is reported for the first time to be a human pathogen that causes culture-negative endo- carditis. It is also shown that this species, isolated twice before from domestic cats, can be recovered as well from a stray cat population in Israel. This work follows a recent report of the same case in which the causative agent was misidentified

Boaz Avidor; Merav Graidy; Gabi Efrat; Cecilia Leibowitz; Gregory Shapira; Ami Schattner; Oren Zimhony; Michael Giladi

2004-01-01

175

Detection and Culture of Bartonella quintana, Serratia marcescens, and Acinetobacter spp. from Decontaminated Human Body Lice  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a survey for trench fever among homeless people in Marseilles, France, we attempted isolation of Bartonella quintana from body lice. A decontamination protocol of immersion in 70% ethanol with 0.2% iodine was devised and was tested with a laboratory colony of body lice. Lice which had been experimentally contaminated with either Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis ,o rAcinetobacter

BERNARD LA SCOLA; PIERRE-EDOUARD FOURNIER; PHILIPPE BROUQUI; DIDIER RAOULT

176

Cat scratch disease and other Bartonella infections.  

PubMed

First described in 1931, cat scratch disease remains the most commonly identified clinical syndrome associated with Bartonella infection. Over the last 20 years, however, the discovery and use of modern diagnostic tests has greatly expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and treatment options for Bartonella infections of all types. Indeed, each varies substantially depending on the infecting species and the immune status of the host. PMID:23654065

Zangwill, Kenneth M

2013-01-01

177

Gray Foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) as a Potential Reservoir of a Bartonella clarridgeiae-Like Bacterium and Domestic Dogs as Part of a Sentinel System for Surveillance of Zoonotic Arthropod-Borne Pathogens in Northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of Bartonella, a novel Bartonella clarridgeiae-like bacterium and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, were isolated from rural dogs and gray foxes in northern California. A novel B. clarridgeiae-like species was isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 182 dogs and 22 (42%) of 53 gray foxes, while B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was isolated from 1 dog (0.5%) and 5 gray foxes

Jennifer B. Henn; Mourad W. Gabriel; Rickie W. Kasten; Richard N. Brown; Jerold H. Theis; Janet E. Foley; Bruno B. Chomel

2007-01-01

178

Detection of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana by routine acridine orange staining of broth blood cultures.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella quintana was isolated from 34 BACTEC nonradiometric aerobic resin blood cultures for 10 adults. Nine patients were initially diagnosed by routine acridine orange staining of routine cultures that had been incubated for 8 days. All subcultures grew on chocolate agar within 3 to 12 days (median, 6 days). The PLUS 26 high-volume aerobic resin medium, combined with acridine orange stain and subculture, is an effective system for detection and isolation of B. quintana from blood. Images

Larson, A M; Dougherty, M J; Nowowiejski, D J; Welch, D F; Matar, G M; Swaminathan, B; Coyle, M B

1994-01-01

179

Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a Potential New Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Canids from Iraq.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillanc...

A. C. McMillan-Cole B. B. Chomel M. J. Stuckey R. W. Kasten S. Sato

2012-01-01

180

Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally.  

PubMed

Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world. PMID:24223261

Hayman, David T S; McDonald, Katherine D; Kosoy, Michael Y

2013-09-01

181

Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally  

PubMed Central

Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world.

Hayman, David T S; McDonald, Katherine D; Kosoy, Michael Y

2013-01-01

182

Molecular Analysis of Riboflavin Synthesis Genes in Bartonella henselae and Use of the ribC Gene for Differentiation of Bartonella Species by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis pathway for riboflavin (vitamin B2), the precursor of the essential cofactors flavin mono- nucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, is present in bacteria and plants but is absent in vertebrates. Due to their conservation in bacterial species and their absence in humans, the riboflavin synthesis genes should be well suited either for detection of bacterial DNA in human specimens

STEFAN BERESWILL; SILKE HINKELMANN; MANFRED KIST; ANNA SANDER

1999-01-01

183

PCR Characterization Suggests that an Unusual Range of Bartonella Species Infect the Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zalesny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D.

2013-01-01

184

PCR characterization suggests that an unusual range of Bartonella species infect the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe.  

PubMed

Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

Hildebrand, Joanna; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zalesny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D

2013-08-01

185

Multi-locus sequence analysis reveals host specific association between Bartonella washoensis and squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among Bartonella washoensis strains obtained from squirrels, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) with the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB genes was applied for 20 strains of B. washoensis isolated from five genera of squirrels (Tamias, Tamiasciurus, Glaucomys, Sciurus, and Spermophilus) within the family Sciuridae. Sequence similarities in the concatenated sequences of

Kai Inoue; Hidenori Kabeya; Keiko Hagiya; Michael Y. Kosoy; Yumi Une; Yasuhiro Yoshikawa; Soichi Maruyama

2011-01-01

186

Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in small mammals from Ethiopia.  

PubMed

More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852?bp of the Bartonella RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene. We used a generalized linear mixed model to relate the probability of Bartonella infection to species, season, locality, habitat, sex, sexual condition, weight, and ectoparasite infestation. Overall, Bartonella infection prevalence among the small mammals was 34.0%. The probability of Bartonella infection varied significantly with species, sex, sexual condition, and some locality, but not with season, elevation, habitat type, animal weight, and ectoparasite infestation. In total, we found 18 unique Bartonella genotypes clustered into 5 clades, 1 clade exclusively Ethiopian, 2 clades clustered with genotypes from central and eastern Africa, and the remaining 2 clades clustered with genotypes and species from Africa and Asia. The close relatedness of several of our Bartonella genotypes obtained from the 3 dominant rodent species in Tigray with the pathogenic Bartonella elizabethae from Rattus spp. in Asia indicates a potential public health threat. PMID:23421888

Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig; Welegerima, Kiros; Breno, Matteo; Tomas, Zewdneh; Kidane, Dawit; Girmay, Kokob; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy

2013-03-01

187

Differentiation of pathogenic Bartonella species by infrequent restriction site PCR.  

PubMed

Infrequent restriction site PCR (IRS-PCR) is a recently described DNA fingerprinting technique based on selective amplification of restriction endonuclease-cleaved fragments. Bartonella isolates associated with human disease and related nonhuman isolates were analyzed by IRS-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Preparation of DNA templates began with double digestion using three different restriction endonuclease combinations. Combinations included the frequently cutting endonuclease HhaI in conjunction with an infrequently cutting endonuclease, EagI, SmaI, or XbaI. Digestion was followed by ligation of oligonucleotide adapters designed with ends complementary to the restriction endonuclease sites. Amplification of fragments flanked with an EagI, SmaI, or XbaI site in combination with an HhaI site produced a series of different-sized amplicons resolvable into patterns by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The pattern complexity was varied by the addition of selective nucleotides to the 3' ends of the EagI-, SmaI-, or XbaI-specific primers. Amplicons were also generated with fluorescently labeled primers and were subsequently resolved and detected by capillary electrophoresis. Analysis by traditional slab PAGE and capillary electrophoresis provided suitable resolution of patterns produced with the enzyme combinations EagI-HhaI and SmaI-HhaI. However, the combination of XbaI-HhaI produced too many fragments for sufficient resolution by traditional PAGE, thus requiring the better resolving properties of capillary electrophoresis. Due to the flexibility in modulating the pattern complexity and electrophoresis methods, these techniques allow for a high level of experimental optimization. The results provide evidence of the discriminatory power, ease of use, and flexibility of the IRS-PCR method as it applies to the identification of human-pathogenic Bartonella species. PMID:10921969

Handley, S A; Regnery, R L

2000-08-01

188

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mode of transmission of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, especially to identify potential vectors, and to determine how humans become infected. PMID:11060089

Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Simpson, D C; Hew, C M; Kordick, D L; Heller, R; Piemont, Y; Breitschwerdt, E B

2000-11-01

189

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

190

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

PubMed Central

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner.

Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

2014-01-01

191

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors.  

PubMed

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G; Dehio, Christoph

2014-06-01

192

Cell entry and the pathogenesis of Bartonella infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte parasitism, or hemotrophy, is not a common strategy for bacteria. However, Bartonella species are elegantly adapted to parasitize a variety of cell types including red blood cells. Bartonella bacilliformis, a useful model organism for the genus, has been used to study virulence determinants involved in colonization, attachment and invasion of host cells.

Michael F. Minnick; Samuel J. Mitchell; Steven J. McAllister

1996-01-01

193

Bartonella–host-cell interactions and vascular tumour formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonellae are arthropod-borne bacterial pathogens that typically cause persistent infection of erythrocytes and endothelial cells in their mammalian hosts. In human infection, these host-cell interactions result in a broad range of clinical manifestations. Most remarkably, bartonellae can trigger massive proliferation of endothelial cells, leading to vascular tumour formation. The recent availability of infection models and bacterial molecular genetic techniques has

Christoph Dehio

2005-01-01

194

Detection of Bartonella tamiae DNA in ectoparasites from rodents in Thailand and their sequence similarity with bacterial cultures from Thai patients.  

PubMed

Ectoparasites, including chigger mites (genera Leptotrombidium, Schoengastia, and Blankarrtia) and one tick (genus Haemaphysalis) collected from wild-caught rodents in Thailand, were assessed for the presence of Bartonella DNA by using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and citrate synthase gene (gltA). Of the 41 pooled samples tested, 34 were positive for Bartonella DNA. Sequence analysis demonstrated that DNA detected in 33 chigger mite pools and one tick pool was similar to Bartonella tamiae sequences previously isolated from three patients in Thailand. This is the first report of the detection of B. tamiae DNA in chigger mites; additional field and experimental investigations are required to determine the role of chigger mites as potential vectors of B. tamiae. PMID:20017718

Kabeya, Hidenori; Colborn, James M; Bai, Ying; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Richardson, Jason H; Maruyama, Soichi; Kosoy, Michael Y

2010-06-01

195

Production of Bartonella Genus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which react with heat-resistant proteins with molecular masses of 32 to 33 kDa of 14 different Bartonella species were produced. These antibodies did not react with antigens of 26 diverse bacterial strains by microimmunofluorescence assay except MAb B3D4, which reacted with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis at low titers. The identification of a common Bartonella antigenic protein will make it possible to later produce a diagnostic antigen by cloning and expressing it in Escherichia coli. Moreover, these MAbs allow all Bartonella species to be identified to the genus level.

Liang, Zhongxing; La Scola, Bernard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

2001-01-01

196

Role of Hippoboscidae flies as potential vectors of Bartonella spp. infecting wild and domestic ruminants.  

PubMed

The putative role of biting flies in Bartonella transmission among ruminants was investigated. Amplification of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 Hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult Lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult Hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult Melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 M. ovinus pupae. Our findings suggest that Hippoboscidae play a role in the transmission of Bartonella among ruminants. The vertical transmission of Bartonella in M. ovinus and the presence of Bartonella DNA in all samples suggest a symbiotic association between Bartonella and M. ovinus. PMID:15466580

Halos, Lénaïg; Jamal, Taoufik; Maillard, Renaud; Girard, Benjamin; Guillot, Jacques; Chomel, Bruno; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

2004-10-01

197

Role of Hippoboscidae Flies as Potential Vectors of Bartonella spp. Infecting Wild and Domestic Ruminants  

PubMed Central

The putative role of biting flies in Bartonella transmission among ruminants was investigated. Amplification of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 Hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult Lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult Hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult Melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 M. ovinus pupae. Our findings suggest that Hippoboscidae play a role in the transmission of Bartonella among ruminants. The vertical transmission of Bartonella in M. ovinus and the presence of Bartonella DNA in all samples suggest a symbiotic association between Bartonella and M. ovinus.

Halos, Lenaig; Jamal, Taoufik; Maillard, Renaud; Girard, Benjamin; Guillot, Jacques; Chomel, Bruno; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

2004-01-01

198

Bartonella: emerging pathogen or emerging awareness?  

PubMed

The number of known Bartonella species is rapidly growing. Some of them are responsible for distinct infectious diseases and show different prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Not only have some vectors of Bartonella not been fully characterized, but also intermediate hosts are actually much more numerous and diverse than previously thought. Among these, dogs differ from cats because they tend to suffer an overt disease similar to humans, thus providing the base for a useful animal indicator and research model. Among the debilitating conditions with an unclear impact on the course of these infections, specific conditions (e.g., homelessness, alcoholism) have been linked to a much higher prevalence and to high risk of unfavorable outcome. Due to the limited arsenal of antibiotics effective in vivo on this peculiar intracellular pathogen, the risk/benefit balance of antibiotic therapy is sometimes difficult to draw. In this evolving picture, the recent discoveries of new species highlights the importance of basic molecular biology resources that would bring major public health benefits if available in endemic areas, and specifically in many areas of Peru and Bolivia. PMID:18621561

Mogollon-Pasapera, Elin; Otvos, Laszlo; Giordano, Antonio; Cassone, Marco

2009-01-01

199

Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species  

PubMed Central

Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes.

2012-01-01

200

Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species.  

PubMed

Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes. PMID:22369683

Deng, Hongkuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Buffet, Jean-Philippe R; Cotté, Violaine; Read, Amanda; Birtles, Richard J; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-01-01

201

Role of the spleen in Bartonella spp. infection.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are intra-erythrocytic pathogens of mammals. In this study, we investigated the role of the spleen, and other tissue and organs in Bartonella infection. Using an in vivo model of mice infection by Bartonella birtlesii, we detected accumulation of bacteria in the spleen, with transient infection of the liver, but failed to detect any bacteria in brain or lymph nodes. We then compared bacteraemia in normal Balb/C mice and in splenectomized mice. Bacteraemia in splenectomized mice was 10-fold higher than in normal mice and lasted 2 weeks longer. In conclusion, the spleen seems to retain and filter infected erythrocytes rather than to be a sanctuary for chronic Bartonella infection. PMID:22098417

Deng, Hong Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Le Naour, Evelyne; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-02-01

202

Effects of Bartonella spp. on flea feeding and reproductive performance.  

PubMed

Numerous pathogens are transmitted from one host to another by hematophagous insect vectors. The interactions between a vector-borne organism and its vector vary in many ways, most of which are yet to be explored and identified. These interactions may play a role in the dynamics of the infection cycle. One way to evaluate these interactions is by studying the effects of the tested organism on the vector. In this study, we tested the effects of infection with Bartonella species on fitness-related variables of fleas by using Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and Meriones crassus jirds as a model system. Feeding parameters, including blood meal size and metabolic rate during digestion, as well as reproductive parameters, including fecundity, fertility, and life span, were compared between fleas experimentally infected with Bartonella and uninfected fleas. In addition, the developmental time, sex ratio, and body size of F1 offspring fleas were compared between the two groups. Most tested parameters did not differ between infected and uninfected fleas. However, F1 males produced by Bartonella-positive females were significantly smaller than F1 males produced by Bartonella-negative female fleas. The findings in this study suggest that bartonellae are well adapted to their flea vectors, and by minimally affecting their fitness they have evolved to better spread themselves in the natural environment. PMID:23542614

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Fielden, Laura J; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

2013-06-01

203

Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease.

Harms, Alexander

2012-01-01

204

Aortic Valve Endocarditis in a Dog Due to Bartonella clarridgeiae  

PubMed Central

We report the first documented case of endocarditis associated with Bartonella clarridgeiae in any species. B. clarridgeiae was identified as a possible etiological agent of human cat scratch disease. Infective vegetative valvular aortic endocarditis was diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old male neutered boxer. Historically, the dog had been diagnosed with a systolic murmur at 16 months of age and underwent balloon valvuloplasty for severe valvular aortic stenosis. Six months later, the dog was brought to a veterinary hospital with an acute third-degree atrioventricular block and was diagnosed with infective endocarditis. The dog died of cardiopulmonary arrest prior to pacemaker implantation. Necropsy confirmed severe aortic vegetative endocarditis. Blood culture grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 8 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) and 16S rRNA genes indicated that this organism was B. clarridgeiae. DNA extraction from the deformed aortic valve and the healthy pulmonic valve revealed the presence of B. clarridgeiae DNA only from the diseased valve. No Borrelia burgdorferi or Ehrlichia sp. DNA could be identified. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, the dog was seropositive for B. clarridgeiae and had antibodies against Ehrlichia phagocytophila but not against Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, B. burgdorferi, or Coxiella burnetii.

Chomel, Bruno B.; Mac Donald, Kristin A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chang, Chao-Chin; Wey, Aaron C.; Foley, Janet E.; Thomas, William P.; Kittleson, Mark D.

2001-01-01

205

Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Commensal Rodents and Ectoparasites from Nigeria, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. In recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. To date, no studies investigating the presence of Bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria were carried out. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp. in commensal rodents and their ectoparasites in Nigeria. We report, for the first time, the molecular detection of Bartonella in 26% (46/177) of commensal rodents (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and Cricetomys gambianus) and 28% (9/32) of ectoparasite pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, Haemolaelaps spp., Ctenophthalmus spp., Hemimerus talpoides, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) from Nigeria. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) revealed diversity of Bartonella spp. and genotypes in Nigerian rodents and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum and Bartonella grahamii were detected. Conclusions/Significance High prevalence of infection with Bartonella spp. was detected in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria. The Bartonella spp. identified were previously associated with human diseases highlighting their importance to public health. Further studies need to be conducted to determine whether the identified Bartonella species could be responsible for human cases of febrile illness in Nigeria.

Kamani, Joshua; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

2013-01-01

206

Immunoelectrophoretic characterization and cross-reactivity of Rochalimaea henselae, Rochalimaea quintana and Afipia felis.  

PubMed

The soluble antigens of Rochalimaea henselae, Rochalimaea quintana and Afipia felis were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis using bacterial sonicates as antigens against pooled hyperimmune rabbit sera. A precipitin pattern was drawn for each bacterium and shown to be reproducible and stable even when normal or preimmune rabbit serum was incorporated in the intermediate gel. By this technique 56 antigens were identified from R. henselae, 49 from R. quintana, and 39 from A. felis. The serological cross-reaction between R. henselae, R. quintana and A. felis, and between these 3 bacteria and 32 pathogenic bacteria was analysed by rocket-line immunoelectrophoresis, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, and tandem-crossed electrophoresis. It was concluded that (i) 4-7 antigens distinguish R. henselae, R. quintana and A. felis from each other, (ii) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria cross-react with R. henselae, R. quintana and A. felis antisera, (iii) the cross-reacting antigens of Gram-negative bacteria have both precipitating and non-precipitating specificities, whereas Gram-positive bacteria have mainly non-precipitating specificities, (iv) the cross-reacting antigens are common to several species, and (v) fewer cross-reacting antigens are found in phylogenetically disparate species than in more closely related species. PMID:7534092

Engbaek, K; Koch, C

1994-12-01

207

Detection of Rochalimaea henselae DNA by polymerase chain reaction from suppurative nodes of children with cat-scratch disease.  

PubMed

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to amplify DNA from Rochalimaea henselae, Rochalimaea quintana and Afipia felis in the purulent material from lymph nodes in three patients with clinical cat-scratch disease (CSD) and two patients with lymphadenitis from other causes. All of the patients with CSD had positive immunofluorescent antibody serology for R. henselae, while none of the controls was positive. PCR amplification confirmed the presence of R. henselae DNA and the absence of R. quintana and A. felis DNA in the purulent material from CSD patients. PCR samples from control patients were negative. The PCR amplification of R. henselae DNA was performed quickly and with great sensitivity and specificity. It confirmed the presence of R. henselae in the CSD patients and eliminated the need for more extensive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PMID:7531320

Goral, S; Anderson, B; Hager, C; Edwards, K M

1994-11-01

208

Transmission dynamics of Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's jirds (Meriones crassus).  

PubMed

A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors. PMID:23241972

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

2013-02-01

209

BALB\\/c Mice resist infection with Bartonella bacilliformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis is a highly lethal endemic and sometimes epidemic infectious disease in South America, and a serious public health concern in Perú. There is limited information on the immunologic response to B. bacilliformis infection. The objective of this research was to produce experimental infection of BALB\\/c mice to B. bacilliformis inoculation. FINDINGS: BALB\\/c mice were

Beronica Infante; Sandra Villar; Sandra Palma; Jenny Merello; Roberto Valencia; Luis Torres; Jamie Cok; Palmira Ventosilla; Ciro Manguiña; Humberto Guerra; Cesar Henriquez

2008-01-01

210

Bartonella bacilliformis: dangerous pathogen slowly emerging from deep background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella bacilliformis was perhaps the most lethal bacterial human pathogen in the pre-antibiotic era, but infections were and are limited to a specific geographical area, largely in Peru, corresponding to the range of its sand fly vector. B. bacilliformis targets both red cells and endothelial cells. Recent phylogenetic realignments have revealed a close genetic relationship to other bacteria which cause

Garret M. Ihler

1996-01-01

211

"Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque" and Bartonella quintana bacteremia in cynomolgus monkeys.  

PubMed

Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism. PMID:23408694

Maggi, Ricardo G; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M; Kelly, Catherine M; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-05-01

212

Interaction of Bartonella bacilliformis with human erythrocyte membrane proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular invasion is an important aspect of Carrión's disease caused by Bartonella bacilliformis. Both the hematic and tissue phases of the disease involve the initial attachment of the organism to erythrocytes and endothelial cells, respectively. Using two different approaches, preliminary evidence is provided that B. bacilliformis interacts with multiple surface-exposed proteins on human erythrocytes. Utilizing Western blot analysis, it was

Eric L Buckles; E McGinnis Hill

2000-01-01

213

Molecular mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics in Bartonella bacilliformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Bartonella bacilliformis is the aetiological agent of Carrion's disease. Although ciprofloxa- cin, rifampicin and erythromycin have been successfully used in the treatment of the disease, failures and relapses have been reported. The objective of our study was to select in vitro mutants resistant to antibiotics in order to determine the frequency of mutations and to characterize the mechanism of

Silpak Biswas; Didier Raoult; Jean-Marc Rolain

2007-01-01

214

"Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque" and Bartonella quintana Bacteremia in Cynomolgus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism.

Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M.; Kelly, Catherine M.; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2013-01-01

215

Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.  

PubMed

Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880

Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

2013-01-01

216

Hemin-Binding Surface Protein from Bartonella quintana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever and a cause of endocarditis and bacillary angiomatosis in humans, has the highest reported in vitro hemin requirement for any bacterium. We determined that eight membrane-associated proteins from B. quintana bind hemin and that a ;25-kDa protein (HbpA) was the dominant hemin-binding protein. Like many outer membrane proteins, HbpA partitions to the detergent

JAMES A. CARROLL; SHERRY A. COLEMAN; LAURA S. SMITHERMAN; M. F. Minnick

2000-01-01

217

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Species Detected in Different Tissues of Small Mammals in Nepal ? †  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae were detected in a total of 152 (23.7%) of 642 tissues from 108 (48.4%) of 223 small mammals trapped in several urban areas of Nepal. Based on rpoB and gltA sequence analyses, genotypes belonging to seven known Bartonella species and five genotypes not belonging to previously known species were identified in these animals.

Gundi, Vijay A. K. B.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Myint, Khin S. A.; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Shrestha, Mrigendra P.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Gibbons, Robert V.

2010-01-01

218

Molecular Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Questing Adult Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ticks are the vectors of many zoonotic diseases in the United States, including Lyme disease, human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Most known Bartonella species are arthropod borne. Therefore, it is important to determine if some Bartonella species, which are emerging pathogens, could be carried or transmitted by ticks. In this study, adult Ixodes pacificus ticks

C. C. Chang; B. B. Chomel; R. W. Kasten; V. Romano; N. Tietze

2001-01-01

219

Invasion and Persistent Intracellular Colonization of Erythrocytes: A Unique Parasitic Strategy of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding genus Bartonella includes zoonotic and human-specific pathogens that can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations. A productive infection allowing bacterial transmission by blood-sucking arthropods is marked by an intraerythrocytic bacteremia that occurs exclu- sively in specific human or animal reservoir hosts. Incidental human infection by animal- adapted bartonellae can cause disease without evidence for erythrocyte parasitism. A

Ralf Schülein; Anja Seubert; Christian Gille; Christa Lanz; Yves Hansmann; Yves Piémont; Christoph Dehio

220

Identification of Bartonella Trw host-specific receptor on erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Each Bartonella species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir hosts, in which it establishes long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia as the hallmark of infection. Recently, we identified Trw as the bacterial system involved in recognition of erythrocytes according to their animal origin. The T4SS Trw is characterized by a multiprotein complex that spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and possesses a hypothetical pilus structure. TrwJ, I, H and trwL are present in variable copy numbers in different species and the multiple copies of trwL and trwJ in the Bartonella trw locus are considered to encode variant forms of surface-exposed pilus components. We therefore aimed to identify which of the candidate Trw pilus components were located on the bacterial surface and involved in adhesion to erythrocytes, together with their erythrocytic receptor. Using different technologies (electron microscopy, phage display, invasion inhibition assay, far western blot), we found that only TrwJ1 and TrwJ2 were expressed and localized at the cell surface of B. birtlesii and had the ability to bind to mouse erythrocytes, and that their receptor was band3, one of the major outer-membrane glycoproteins of erythrocytes, (anion exchanger). According to these results, we propose that the interaction between TrwJ1, TrwJ2 and band 3 leads to the critical host-specific adherence of Bartonella to its host cells, erythrocytes. PMID:22848496

Deng, Hon Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Bonnet, Sarah; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-01-01

221

Identification of Bartonella Trw Host-Specific Receptor on Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Each Bartonella species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir hosts, in which it establishes long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia as the hallmark of infection. Recently, we identified Trw as the bacterial system involved in recognition of erythrocytes according to their animal origin. The T4SS Trw is characterized by a multiprotein complex that spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and possesses a hypothetical pilus structure. TrwJ, I, H and trwL are present in variable copy numbers in different species and the multiple copies of trwL and trwJ in the Bartonella trw locus are considered to encode variant forms of surface-exposed pilus components. We therefore aimed to identify which of the candidate Trw pilus components were located on the bacterial surface and involved in adhesion to erythrocytes, together with their erythrocytic receptor. Using different technologies (electron microscopy, phage display, invasion inhibition assay, far western blot), we found that only TrwJ1 and TrwJ2 were expressed and localized at the cell surface of B. birtlesii and had the ability to bind to mouse erythrocytes, and that their receptor was band3, one of the major outer-membrane glycoproteins of erythrocytes, (anion exchanger). According to these results, we propose that the interaction between TrwJ1, TrwJ2 and band 3 leads to the critical host-specific adherence of Bartonella to its host cells, erythrocytes.

Deng, Hon Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Bonnet, Sarah; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-01-01

222

Molecular detection and identification of Bartonella species in rat fleas from northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

The presence of Bartonella species in Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Rattus spp. (R. exulans, R. norvegicus, and R. rattus) in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand was investigated. One hundred ninety-three fleas obtained from 62 rats, were screened by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and the presence of Bartonella DNA was confirmed by using the citrate synthase gene. Bartonella DNA was detected in 59.1% (114 of 193) of fleas examined. Sequencing demonstrated the presence of Bartonella spp. similar to B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, B. rochalimae, and B. tribocorum in the samples tested with a cutoff for sequence similarity ? 96% and 4 clustered together with the closest match with B. grahamii (95.5% identity). If X. cheopis proves to be a competent vector of these species, our results suggest that humans and animals residing in this area may be at risk for infection by several zoonotic Bartonella species. PMID:23836577

Billeter, Sarah A; Colton, Leah; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Suksawat, Fanan; Evans, Brian P; Kosoy, Michael Y

2013-09-01

223

Bartonella infections in deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) and moose (Alces alces) in Norway.  

PubMed

Infections with Bartonella spp. have been recognized as emerging zoonotic diseases in humans. Large knowledge gaps exist, however, relating to reservoirs, vectors, and transmission of these bacteria. We describe identification by culture, PCR, and housekeeping gene sequencing of Bartonella spp. in fed, wingless deer keds (Lipoptena cervi), deer ked pupae, and blood samples collected from moose, Alces alces, sampled within the deer ked distribution range in Norway. Direct sequencing from moose blood sampled in a deer ked-free area also indicated Bartonella infection but at a much lower prevalence. The sequencing data suggested the presence of mixed infections involving two species of Bartonella within the deer ked range, while moose outside the range appeared to be infected with a single species. Bartonella were not detected or cultured from unfed winged deer keds. The results may indicate that long-term bacteremia in the moose represents a reservoir of infection and that L. cervi acts as a vector for the spread of infection of Bartonella spp. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of L. cervi in the transmission of Bartonella to animals and humans and the possible pathogenicity of these bacteria for humans and animals. PMID:23104416

Duodu, Samuel; Madslien, Knut; Hjelm, Eva; Molin, Ylva; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Harris, Philip D; Colquhoun, Duncan J; Ytrehus, Bjørnar

2013-01-01

224

Production of Recombinant Protein Pap31 and Its Application for the Diagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tropical bartonellosis is a highly fatal epidemic and endemic infectious disease that occurs throughout the communities of the Andes Mountains in South America. The disease is caused by the facultative intracellular bacteria, Bartonella bacilliformis. The...

A. Taye H. Chen K. Duncan L. Hendrix Z. Zhang

2005-01-01

225

Culture, Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Studies on Bartonella bacilliformis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bartonella ssp. have gained importance as etiologic agents of human disease, both in temperate and tropical regions. Reports of increasing number of clinical cases of bartonellosis in Peru (B. bacilliformis), documentation of chromic bacteremia in domesti...

E. C. Zentrich

1997-01-01

226

Diagnosis of Bartonella Endocarditis by a Real-Time Nested PCR Assay Using Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella endocarditis is a severe disease for which blood cultures frequently remain negative. We tested three PCR assays by using specimens of serum sampled early during the disease from 43 patients diagnosed in our laboratory as having Bartonella endocarditis on the basis of serological, culture, and\\/or valvular molecular detection. We tested a two-step nested PCR (TSN-PCR), a one-step nested PCR

Zaher Zeaiter; Pierre-Edouard Fournier; Gilbert Greub; Didier Raoult

2003-01-01

227

The Bartonella and Related Parasites in Man and Animals (Oroya Fever and Verruga peruviana)  

PubMed Central

Through the investigations of Noguchi on the one hand, and Mayer and Kikuth on the other, the unity of the ætiology of Oroya fever and verruga peruviana has been demonstrated experimentally. The Bartonella bacilliformis, the causal organism of Oroya fever, belongs to a group of micro-organisms, the parasitic nature of which has been definitely proved during the last few years. Tests with a view to transmitting the disease to monkeys, and the ætiology, clinical data, pathology, therapy and immunobiology are further explained with reference to personal experiments. Bartonella muris, which was first observed by Mayer in 1921, was confirmed by Mayer, Borchardt and Kikuth to be the causal organism of infectious rat anæmia following splenectomy. After splenectomy of the rat, the latent parasite becomes virulent and often causes a fatal anæmia. The clinical course of this infection is connected with an endothelial reaction which can be demonstrated histologically. The infection is transmitted by rat lice. Chemotherapeutic experiments led to the discovery of an effective arsenic-antimony compound with an index of 1: 3,500, which figure has never hitherto been reached in chemotherapy. The causal organism of dog anæmia following splenectomty is the Bartonella canis. Bartonella and bartonella-like structures as causal organisms and harmless blood parasites in various animals. On account of their peculiar behaviour the Grahamella, which were first described by Graham-Smith, should be kept strictly apart from the Bartonella and looked upon as a species by itself.

Kikuth, Walter

1934-01-01

228

Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites. PMID:21655306

Reis, Caroline; Cote, Martine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Levin, Michael L; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I

2011-01-01

229

Vector Competence of the Tick Ixodes ricinus for Transmission of Bartonella birtlesii  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

Reis, Caroline; Cote, Martine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Levin, Michael L.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

2011-01-01

230

Bartonella Infection in Animals: Carriership, Reservoir Potential, Pathogenicity, and Zoonotic Potential for Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have begun to support a role for Bartonella spp. as animal as well as human pathogens. Bartonella spp. are vector-transmitted, blood-borne, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that can induce prolonged infection in the host. Persistent infections in domestic and wild animals result in a substantial reservoir of Bartonella organisms in nature that can serve as a source for inadvertent human infection. The prevalence of bacteremia can range from 50 to 95% in selected rodent, cat, deer, and cattle populations. Dogs infected with Bartonella spp. can develop lameness, endocarditis, granulomatous lymphadenitis, and peliosis hepatis, lesions that have also been reported in association with human infection. Understanding the role of Bartonella spp. as pathogens in cats and other wild or domestic animals awaits the results of additional studies. Considering the extensive animal reservoirs and the large number of insects that have been implicated in the transmission of Bartonella spp., both animal and human exposure to these organisms may be more substantial than is currently believed.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kordick, Dorsey L.

2000-01-01

231

No evidence of Bartonella quintana but detection of Acinetobacter baumannii in head lice from elementary schoolchildren in Paris.  

PubMed

The human body louse is the only known vector of Bartonella quintana. However, the presence of this bacterium has recently been detected in the head lice of homeless individuals and Nepalese slum children. Previous studies have reported the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from the body lice of homeless individuals. An epidemiological survey including 74 schools was conducted between 2008 and 2009 in Paris. After a first visual examination, the hair of children with suspected pediculosis was combed with a fine-tooth comb to collect live adult head lice. Molecular studies were performed on randomly selected DNA samples to detect B. quintana and A. baumannii by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Among a collection of 288 DNA samples, B. quintana was not detected, but A. baumannii was detected in 95 DNA samples (33%). Further study is needed to determine the significance of the finding of A. baumannii in head lice. PMID:21974965

Bouvresse, Sophie; Socolovshi, Cristina; Berdjane, Zohra; Durand, Rémy; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Chosidow, Olivier; Brouqui, Philippe

2011-12-01

232

Experimental infection by capillary tube feeding of Rhipicephalus sanguineus with Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii.  

PubMed

It has been speculated that ticks may serve as vectors of Bartonella species. Circumstantial, clinical, epidemiological and serological evidence suggest that B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii (B. v. berkhoffii) might be transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adult R. sanguineus ticks can be infected with a B. v. berkhoffii genotype II isolate via capillary tube feeding and whether the infection can then be transmitted from adult females to their eggs via trans-ovarial transmission. Furthermore, tick fecal material was also collected and screened as a possible source of infectious inoculum for canine infections. B. v. berkhoffii DNA was detected in 50% (7 of 14) of females that did not oviposit and in 14.3% (2 of 14) of female ticks that laid eggs, but not detected in egg clutches (100 eggs/female). DNA was also detected in tick feces collected on days 2 through 6 post-capillary tube feeding, however, dogs (n=3) did not become bacteremic or seroconvert when inoculated with tick fecal material. Therefore, trans-ovarial transmission of B. v. berkhoffii by R. sanguineus is unlikely, but further studies are needed to determine if tick fecal material can serve as a source of infection to canines. PMID:22062313

Billeter, Sarah A; Kasten, Rick W; Killmaster, Lindsay F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Levin, Michael L; Levy, Michael G; Kosoy, Michael Y; Chomel, Bruno B

2012-01-01

233

Genetic diversity of Bartonella quintana in macaques suggests zoonotic origin of trench fever.  

PubMed

Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes a broad spectrum of diseases in humans including trench fever. Humans were previously considered to be the primary, if not the only, reservoir hosts for B. quintana. To identify the animal reservoir and extend our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary history of B. quintana, we examined blood samples from macaques and performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. We demonstrated the prevalence of B. quintana infection was common in macaques from main primate centres in mainland China. Overall, 18.0% (59/328) of rhesus macaques and 12.7% (39/308) of cynomolgus macaques were found to be infected with B. quintana by blood culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. The infection was more frequently identified in juvenile and young monkeys compared with adult animals. In contrast with the relatively low level of sequence divergence of B. quintana reported in humans, our investigation revealed much higher genetic diversity in nonhuman primates. We identified 44 new nucleotide variable sites and 14 novel sequence types (STs) among the B. quintana isolates by MLST analysis. Some STs were found only in cynomolgus macaques, while some others were detected only in rhesus macaques, suggesting evidence of host-cospeciation, which were further confirmed by phylogenetic analysis and Splits decomposition analysis. Our findings suggest that trench fever may primarily be a zoonotic disease with macaques as the natural hosts. PMID:23517327

Li, Hao; Bai, Jie-Ying; Wang, Li-Yuan; Zeng, Lin; Shi, Yan-Sheng; Qiu, Zheng-Liang; Ye, Hua-Hu; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Lu, Qing-Bin; Kosoy, Michael; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

2013-04-01

234

Multi-locus sequence analysis reveals host specific association between Bartonella washoensis and squirrels.  

PubMed

To clarify phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among Bartonella washoensis strains obtained from squirrels, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) with the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB genes was applied for 20 strains of B. washoensis isolated from five genera of squirrels (Tamias, Tamiasciurus, Glaucomys, Sciurus, and Spermophilus) within the family Sciuridae. Sequence similarities in the concatenated sequences of B. washoensis strains from squirrels of different genera ranged from 94.7% (Sciurus vs. Spermophilus) to 98.4% (Tamiasciurus vs. Glaucomys). Phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences revealed that B. washoensis strains formed five distinct clades and each clade correlated with the genus of squirrel from which the strains were originally obtained. The discrimination was supported by 100% bootstrap values and posterior probabilities, respectively. These results suggest that B. washoensis strains may have co-speciated with their squirrel hosts and provide new insights into the application of the MLSA to identify sources of B. washoensis infection with accuracy. PMID:20884133

Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Hagiya, Keiko; Kosoy, Michael Y; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi

2011-02-24

235

Shotgun proteomic analysis of two Bartonella quintana strains.  

PubMed

This study reports the first extensive shotgun analysis of the Bartonella quintana proteome. Proteins extracted from two B. quintana strains, Oklahoma and JK31, were analyzed in triplicate analyses by a bottom-up approach consisting of tryptic digestion in SDS-containing buffer, strong cation-exchange StageTip fractionation, and nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. By setting spectral false discovery rate below 0.5%, 548 unique proteins were identified overall, of which 409 protein identifications were shared between the two strains. The data set, which achieves the highest proteome coverage for B. quintana to date, could be exploited for the quantitative analysis of a selected subset of target proteins. PMID:23450663

Fabietti, Alessandra; Gaspari, Marco; Krishnan, Shibu; Quirino, Angela; Liberto, Maria Carla; Cuda, Giovanni; Focà, Alfredo

2013-04-01

236

Bartonella and Brucella--weapons and strategies for stealth attack.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. and Brucella spp. are closely related ?-proteobacterial pathogens that by distinct stealth-attack strategies cause chronic infections in mammals including humans. Human infections manifest by a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from mild to fatal disease. Both pathogens establish intracellular replication niches and subvert diverse pathways of the host's immune system. Several virulence factors allow them to adhere to, invade, proliferate, and persist within various host-cell types. In particular, type IV secretion systems (T4SS) represent essential virulence factors that transfer effector proteins tailored to recruit host components and modulate cellular processes to the benefit of the bacterial intruders. This article puts the remarkable features of these two pathogens into perspective, highlighting the mechanisms they use to hijack signaling and trafficking pathways of the host as the basis for their stealthy infection strategies. PMID:23906880

Ben-Tekaya, Houchaima; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Dehio, Christoph

2013-08-01

237

Antibody response in rabbits infected with Rochalimaea henselae, Rochalimaea quintana and Afipia felis.  

PubMed

Antibody responses in three pairs of rabbits inoculated with live Rochalimaea henselae, Rochalimaea quintana and Afipia felis were studied by enzyme immunoassay with whole-cell and bacterial sonicates as antigen. No differences in measured antibody responses were found with the two types of antigen preparation. Two rabbits did not respond with antibody production. In the remaining rabbits there was a low-titred antibody response that showed no significant cross-reaction with related bacteria. After rechallenge the antibody response rose significantly and there was significant cross-reaction with related bacteria. The antigens involved in the antibody response were examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. After the initial inoculation 5-7 precipitin lines of the reference diagrams were deflected, including lines which cross-reacted with antigens found in related bacterial species. After reinoculation several more precipitin lines were deflected, including additional lines cross-reacting with antigens present in related bacteria and common bacterial antigens. PMID:7534093

Engbaek, K; Koch, C

1994-12-01

238

A family of variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomp) mediates adhesion and autoaggregation in Bartonella quintana  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are fastidious, Gram-negative human pathogens that can persist in the host bloodstream for years and bind to and invade several types of host cells. For many pathogens, adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a critical virulence determinant. Bacteria often vary expression of surface adhesins by phase or antigenic variation to subvert the host immune response and permit adaptive interaction with different host structures. We developed a macaque animal model for Bartonella quintana infection to detect changes in bacterial outer-membrane proteins (OMP) during prolonged bloodstream infection. We identified a gene family encoding four highly conserved, 100-kDa, variably expressed OMP (Vomp), two of which function as adhesins. The variable expression of Vomp family members appears to be mediated by deletion of one or more vomp genes during chronic bloodstream infection. vomp deletion was observed also in isolates from humans with chronic B. quintana infection. The Vomp are closely related to the afimbrial adhesin, YadA, a virulence factor of Yersinia enterocolitica. The surface-expressed Vomp contain conserved structural features of YadA, including collagen-binding motifs. We demonstrate that the B. quintana Vomp are multifunctional OMP involved in binding to collagen and autoaggregation: VompC confers the ability to bind collagen IV, and VompA is necessary and sufficient for autoaggregation. The B. quintana Vomp are members of the newly recognized family of YadA-like trimeric autotransporters; the Vomp constitute a multigene family, they are variably expressed, and different virulence properties are attributable to individual Vomp family members.

Zhang, Peng; Chomel, Bruno B.; Schau, Maureen K.; Goo, Jeanna S.; Droz, Sara; Kelminson, Karen L.; George, Smitha S.; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Koehler, Jane E.

2004-01-01

239

Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.  

PubMed

Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a reservoir host for Bvb and Br and that ectoparasite control is an important component of shelter intake protocols. PMID:24268654

Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

2014-01-31

240

Natural history of Bartonella-infecting rodents in light of new knowledge on genomics, diversity and evolution.  

PubMed

Among the 33 confirmed Bartonella species to date, more than half are hosted by rodent species, and at least five of them have been involved in human illness causing diverse symptoms including fever, myocarditis, endocarditis, lymphadenitis and hepatitis. In almost all countries, wild rodents are infected by extremely diverse Bartonella strains with a high prevalence. In the present paper, in light of new knowledge on rodent-adapted Bartonella species genomics, we bring together knowledge gained in recent years to have an overview of the impact of rodent-adapted Bartonella infection on humans and to determine how diversity of Bartonella helps to understand their mechanisms of adaptation to rodents and the consequences on human health. PMID:24020740

Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Kosoy, Michael; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2013-09-01

241

Bartonella endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Infectious endocarditis is associated with a number of systemic manifestations, including kidney disease. Kidney manifestations, including hematuria, parenchymal infarction, and glomerulonephritis, may affect as many as 40%-50% of patients with infective endocarditis. In a minority of cases of infective endocarditis, routine bacterial cultures do not yield an offending organism. Bartonella species are a known and relatively common cause of culture-negative endocarditis and have been associated with the development of endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis. We present a case of Bartonella endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis in which recognition of a characteristic immunofluorescent pattern and thorough investigation of the clinical history led to this uncommon diagnosis. PMID:24332768

Khalighi, Mazdak A; Nguyen, Stephanie; Wiedeman, Jean A; Palma Diaz, Miguel F

2014-06-01

242

Strategy To Detect and IdentifyBartonellaSpecies in Routine Clinical Laboratory YieldsBartonella henselaefrom Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient and Unique BartonellaStrain from His Cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We wished to develop a cost-effective, rapid strategy to detect and identifyBartonellaspecies in the clinical laboratory and to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection in the Houston veteran population. Bar- tonella colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, RapID ANA, repetitive extragenic palin- dromic-PCR (REP-PCR) and whole-cell fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and these methods were compared for their usefulness.Anewtestorderfor''Rochalimaeaculture''(thegenusBartonellawaspreviouslyknownasthegenus

JILL E. CLARRIDGE; TERESA J. RAICH; DURDANA PIRWANI; BOBBYE SIMON; LIANNE TSAI; MARIA C. RODRIGUEZ-BARRADAS; RUSSELL REGNERY; ANTHONY ZOLLO; DANA C. JONES; ANDCHRISTINE RAMBO

1995-01-01

243

Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China  

PubMed Central

We detected Bartonella quintana in 48.6% of captive rhesus macaques from an animal facility in Beijing, China. Prevalence of infection increased over the period of observation. Our findings suggest that macaques may serve as reservoir hosts for B. quintana and that Pedicinus obtusus lice might act as efficient vectors.

Li, Hao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Guang-Zhou; Sun, Zhao-Zeng; Bai, Jie-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Hong; Tian, Guang; Li, Yu-Chuan; Zeng, Lin; Kosoy, Michael

2013-01-01

244

Experimental Model of Human Body Louse Infection Using Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Bartonella quintana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella quintana is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium that is regarded as a reemerging human pathogen (1) and is responsible for various human diseases (12). Although trench fever, the first clinical manifestation of B. quintana infection to be recognized (13), affected thousands of soldiers during World Wars I and II, medical interest in trench fever waned for almost 30 years because

PIERRE-EDOUARD FOURNIER; MICHAEL F. MINNICK; HUBERT LEPIDI; ERIC SALVO; DIDIER RAOULT

2001-01-01

245

Deciphering Bartonella Diversity, Recombination, and Host Specificity in a Rodent Community  

PubMed Central

Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle.

Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Pisanu, Benoit; Brisse, Sylvain; Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Halos, Lenaig; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2013-01-01

246

Mixed Infections, Cryptic Diversity, and Vector-Borne Pathogens: Evidence from Polygenis Fleas and Bartonella Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coinfections within hosts present opportunities for horizontal gene transfer between strains and competitive interactions between genotypes and thus can be a critical element of the lifestyles of patho- gens. Bartonella spp. are Alphaproteobacteria that parasitize mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Their vectors are thought to be various biting arthropods, such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice, and they are commonly

Patrick Abbot; Alena E. Aviles; Lauren Eller; Lance A. Durden

2007-01-01

247

Deciphering bartonella diversity, recombination, and host specificity in a rodent community.  

PubMed

Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle. PMID:23894381

Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Pisanu, Benoît; Brisse, Sylvain; Roussel, Sophie; Félix, Benjamin; Halos, Lénaïg; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2013-01-01

248

Transmission and maintenance cycle of Bartonella quintana among rhesus macaques, China.  

PubMed

We detected Bartonella quintana in 48.6% of captive rhesus macaques from an animal facility in Beijing, China. Prevalence of infection increased over the period of observation. Our findings suggest that macaques may serve as reservoir hosts for B. quintana and that Pedicinus obtusus lice might act as efficient vectors. PMID:23347418

Li, Hao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Guang-Zhou; Sun, Zhao-Zeng; Bai, Jie-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Hong; Tian, Guang; Li, Yu-Chuan; Zeng, Lin; Kosoy, Michael; Cao, Wu-Chun

2013-02-01

249

Co-infection of Borrelia afzelii and Bartonella spp. in bank voles from a suburban forest.  

PubMed

We report the molecular detection of Borrelia afzelii (11%) and Bartonella spp. (56%) in 447 bank voles trapped in a suburban forest in France. Adult voles were infected by significantly more Borrelia afzelii than juveniles (p<0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in the prevalence of Bartonella spp. between young and adult individuals (p=0.914). Six percent of the animals were co-infected by both bacteria. Analysis of the bank vole carrier status for either pathogen indicated that co-infections occur randomly (p=0.94, CI(95)=[0.53; 1.47]). Sequence analysis revealed that bank voles were infected by a single genotype of Borrelia afzelii and by 32 different Bartonella spp. genotypes, related to three known species specific to rodents (B. taylorii, B. grahamii and B. doshiae) and also two as yet unidentified Bartonella species. Our findings confirm that rodents harbor high levels of potential human pathogens; therefore, widespread surveillance should be undertaken in areas where humans may encounter rodents. PMID:22898354

Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Marsot, Maud; Vaumourin, Elise; Gasqui, Patrick; Masséglia, Sébastien; Marcheteau, Elie; Huet, Dominique; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pisanu, Benoit; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Halos, Lénaïg; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-12-01

250

Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. PMID:24326024

Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-01-01

251

Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cat Scratch Disease.  

PubMed

The cause of cat scratch disease (CSD), first described in France in 1950 and in the United States in 1951, was unknown until 1983 when the bacterium in lymph nodes was detected using a Warthin-Starry silver stain. Afipia felis has been an infrequent cause of CSD since1988, when this gram-negative bacterium was first isolated from 10 patients with CSD. In 1992 Bartonella organisms were isolated from immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. An indirect fluorescent antibody test to detect bartonella-specific serum immunoglobulins was developed in 1992. Since then multiple studies have shown that three Bartonella species may produce either CSD in humans, usually Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, or bacteremia in healthy cats. Also, these two bacteria and Bartonella quintana cause bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis, or relapsing bacteremia in humans. Cats are healthy carriers of Bartonella organisms and may be bacteremic for months to years. Cat-to-cat transmission of Bartonella organisms involves the cat flea in absence of direct contact transmission. CSD is the most common cause of regional lymphadenitis in children and adolescents. Present knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of CSD are presented. Also, brief comments about the etiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis are provided. PMID:11095849

Margileth

2000-04-01

252

Contrasting Patterns in Mammal-Bacteria Coevolution: Bartonella and Leptospira in Bats and Rodents  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging bacterial zoonoses in bats and rodents remain relatively understudied. We conduct the first comparative host–pathogen coevolutionary analyses of bacterial pathogens in these hosts, using Bartonella spp. and Leptospira spp. as a model. Methodology/Principal Findings We used published genetic data for 51 Bartonella genotypes from 24 bat species, 129 Bartonella from 38 rodents, and 26 Leptospira from 20 bats. We generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for hosts and bacteria, and tested for coevoutionary congruence using programs ParaFit, PACO, and Jane. Bartonella spp. and their bat hosts had a significant coevolutionary fit (ParaFitGlobal?=?1.9703, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?7.3320, P?0.0001). Bartonella spp. and rodent hosts also indicated strong overall patterns of cospeciation (ParaFitGlobal?=?102.4409, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?86.532, P?0.0001). In contrast, we were unable to reject independence of speciation events in Leptospira and bats (ParaFitGlobal?=?0.0042, P?=?0.84; m2 global value?=?4.6310, P?=?0.5629). Separate analyses of New World and Old World data subsets yielded results congruent with analysis from entire datasets. We also conducted event-based cophylogeny analyses to reconstruct likely evolutionary histories for each group of pathogens and hosts. Leptospira and bats had the greatest number of host switches per parasite (0.731), while Bartonella and rodents had the fewest (0.264). Conclusions/Significance In both bat and rodent hosts, Bartonella exhibits significant coevolution with minimal host switching, while Leptospira in bats lacks evolutionary congruence with its host and has high number of host switches. Reasons underlying these variable coevolutionary patterns in host range are likely due to differences in disease-specific transmission and host ecology. Understanding the coevolutionary patterns and frequency of host-switching events between bacterial pathogens and their hosts will allow better prediction of spillover between mammal reservoirs, and ultimately to humans.

Lei, Bonnie R.; Olival, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

253

Detection of Bartonella species from ticks, mites and small mammals in Korea.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella infections in ticks, mites and small mammals (rodents, insectivores and weasels) collected during 2001 through 2004, from various military installations and training sites in Korea, using PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and groEL heat shock protein genes. The prevalence of Bartonella spp. was 5.2% (n = 1,305 sample pools) in ticks, 19.1% (n = 21) in mesostigmatid mites and 13.7% (n = 424 individuals) in small mammals. The prevalence within the family Ixodidae was, 4.4% (n = 1,173) in Haemaphysalis longicornis (scrub tick), 2.7% (n = 74) in H. flava, 5.0% (n = 20) in Ixodes nipponensis, 11.1% (n = 9) in I. turdus, 33.3% (n = 3) in I. persulcatus and 42.3% (n = 26) in Ixodes spp. ticks. In rodents, the prevalence rate was, 6.7% (n = 373) in Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse) and 11.1% (n = 9) in Eothenomys regulus (Korean red-backed vole) and in an insectivore,Crocidura lasiura, 12.1% (n = 33). Neither of the two weasels were positive for Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence of a portion of the groEL gene amplified from one A. agrarius spleen was identical to B. elizabethae species. We demonstrated the presence of Bartonella DNA in H. longicornis, H. flava and I. nipponensis ticks, indicating that these ticks should be added to the growing list of potential tick vectors and warrants further detailed investigations to disclose their possible roles in Bartonella infection cycles. PMID:16293997

Kim, Chul-Min; Kim, Ji-Young; Yi, Ying-Hua; Lee, Mi-Jin; Cho, Mae-rim; Shah, Devendra H; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Song, Jin-Won; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Lee, In-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Chae, Joon-Seok

2005-12-01

254

Molecular detection of Bartonella grahamii and B. schoenbuchensis-related species in Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of Bartonella spp. and investigated which species of Bartonella naturally infects Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in the Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 70 spleens from KWD carcasses were collected by the Conservation Genome Resource Bank for Korean Wildlife (CGRB) in the ROK between 2008 and 2009. Nested PCRs were performed using the rpoB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region primers to amplify the DNA fragment of Bartonella. Using ITS-based nested PCR, Bartonella grahamii and Bartonella schoenbuchensis-related species were detected in 11 (15.8%) and 9 (12.9%) of 70 KWD spleens, respectively. The 11 B. grahamii amplicons were classified into 2 genotypes by sequence analysis. Using rpoB-based nested PCR, B. grahamii was detected in 5 (7.1%) of 70 KWD spleen samples. This is the first report of B. grahamii and B. schoenbuchensis in KWD, suggesting that KWD may act as reservoirs for the spreading of Bartonella spp. in the ROK. PMID:23473217

Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Su-jin; Kang, Jun-gu; Won, Sohyun; Lee, Hang; Shin, Nam-shik; Choi, Kyoung-seong; Youn, Hwa-young; Chae, Joon-Seok

2013-06-01

255

Proteomic and Immunoblot Analyses of Bartonella quintana Total Membrane Proteins Identify Antigens Recognized by Sera from Infected Patients?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella quintana is a fastidious, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that causes prolonged bacteremia in immunocompetent humans and severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. We sought to define the outer membrane subproteome of B. quintana in order to obtain insight into the biology and pathogenesis of this emerging pathogen and to identify the predominant B. quintana antigens targeted by the human immune system during infection. We isolated the total membrane proteins of B. quintana and identified 60 proteins by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Using the newly constructed proteome map, we then utilized two-dimensional immunoblotting with sera from 21 B. quintana-infected patients to identify 24 consistently recognized, immunoreactive B. quintana antigens that have potential relevance for pathogenesis and diagnosis. Among the outer membrane proteins, the variably expressed outer membrane protein adhesins (VompA and VompB), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase (PpI), and hemin-binding protein E (HbpE) were recognized most frequently by sera from patients, which is consistent with surface expression of these virulence factors during human infection.

Boonjakuakul, Jenni K.; Gerns, Helen L.; Chen, Yu-Ting; Hicks, Linda D.; Minnick, Michael F.; Dixon, Scott E.; Hall, Steven C.; Koehler, Jane E.

2007-01-01

256

Bartonella species in dogs and their ectoparasites from Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.  

PubMed

In order to access the prevalence of Bartonella species in dogs, whole blood and any associated ectoparasites were collected from 164 dogs with owners in 25 villages throughout Khon Kaen Province. DNA was extracted from dog blood, 92 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and 137 fleas (Ctenocephalides spp) and screened by PCR using intergenic spacer region and citrate synthase gene primers. B. clarridgeiae DNA was detected in blood of 3 dogs, 4 C. felis and 1 C. canis; B. rochalimae DNA was found in 1 tick; and B. vinsonii subsp vinsonii DNA was found in 2 C. felis. The findings indicate that dogs residing in northeast Thailand are exposed to diverse Bartonella species that are also potential human pathogens. PMID:23431825

Billeter, Sarah A; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Kosakewich, Rebecca C; Kosoy, Michael Y

2012-09-01

257

Dried blood spots for qPCR diagnosis of acute Bartonella bacilliformis infection.  

PubMed

Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of a life-threatening illness. Thin blood smear is the most common diagnostic method for acute infection in endemic areas of Peru but remains of limited value because of low sensitivity. The aim of this study was to adapt a B. bacilliformis-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for use with dried blood spots (DBS) as a sampling method and assess its performance and use for the diagnosis and surveillance of acute Bartonella infection. Only two of 65 children (3%) that participated in this study had positive blood smears for B. bacilliformis, whereas 16 (including these two) were positive by PCR performed on DBS samples (24.6%). The use of DBS in combination with B. bacilliformis-specific PCR could be a useful tool for public health in identifying and monitoring outbreaks of infection and designing control programs to reduce the burden of this life-threatening illness. PMID:24043691

Smit, Pieter W; Peeling, Rosanna W; Garcia, Patricia J; Torres, Lorena L; Pérez-Lu, José E; Moore, David; Mabey, David

2013-11-01

258

Bartonella species in rodents and shrews in the greater Jakarta area.  

PubMed

In February 2004, we captured 221 rodents and shrews in the Greater Jakarta area as part of a study to determine the prevalence of rodent-associated vector-borne infections. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 6% (13/218) to be positive for Bartonella spp. The corresponding DNA samples, either from blood blots or frozen spleen pieces and from fleas collected on these animals, were tested for evidence of Bartonella infection by PCR, targeting the portions: 378bp and 930bp of the citrate synthase gene (g/tA). The sequences from our sample clusters with a Peruvian entity, B. phoceensis, B. rattimassiliensis and B. elizabethae, the latter species has been associated with endocarditis and neuroretinitis in humans. As previous analyses have shown, there appears to be little geographic or host consistency with phylogenetic placement. The public health significance of these findings remains to be determined. PMID:16610656

Winoto, Imelda L; Goethert, Heidi; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Yuniherlina, Ikke; Stoops, Craig; Susanti, Ika; Kania, Winny; Maguire, Jason D; Bangs, Michael J; Telford, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

2005-11-01

259

Bartonella quintana lipopolysaccharide is a natural antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella quintana is a gram-negative microorganism that causes trench fever and chronic bacteremia. B. quintana lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was unable to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes. Interestingly, B. quintana LPS is a potent antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), as it inhibited both mRNA transcription and the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), and

Calin Popa; Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz; Leo A. B. Joosten; Nozomi Takahashi; Tom Sprong; Giovanni Matera; Maria Carla Liberto; Alfredo Foca; Marcel van Deuren; Bart Jan Kullberg; Wim B. van den Berg; Mihai G. Netea

2007-01-01

260

Demonstration of Bartonella grahamii DNA in Ocular Fluids of a Patient with Neuroretinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the clinical and laboratory features of a 55-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative female patient who presented with bilateral intraocular inflammatory disease (neuroretinitis type) and be- havioral changes caused by a Bartonella grahamii infection. Diagnosis was based on the PCR analysis of DNA extracted from the intraocular fluids. DNA analysis of the PCR product revealed a 100% identity with the

F. T. KERKHOFF; A. M. C. BERGMANS; A. VAN DER ZEE; A. ROTHOVA

1999-01-01

261

A SacB Mutagenesis Strategy Reveals that the Bartonella quintana Variably Expressed Outer Membrane Proteins Are Required for Bloodstream Infection of the Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella bacteria adhere to erythrocytes and persistently infect the mammalian bloodstream. We previ- ously identified four highly conserved Bartonella quintana adhesin genes that undergo phase variation during prolonged bloodstream infection. The variably expressed outer membrane proteins (Vomp) encoded by these genes are members of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin family. Each B. quintana Vomp appears to contribute a different adhesion phenotype,

Joanna K. MacKichan; Helen L. Gerns; Yu-Ting Chen; Peng Zhang; Jane E. Koehler

2008-01-01

262

Serial testing from a 3-day collection period by use of the Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria growth medium platform may enhance the sensitivity of Bartonella species detection in bacteremic human patients.  

PubMed

Patients with infection from bacteremic Bartonella spp., tested using Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM), were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups that included those whose blood was collected once (group 1; n = 55) or three times (group 2; n = 36) within a 1-week period. Overall, 19 patients (20.8%) were PCR positive for one or more Bartonella spp. using the BAPGM platform. Seven patients (12.7%) in group 1 tested positive, and 12 patients (33.3%) in group 2 tested positive. Detection was improved when the patients were tested three times within a 1-week period (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 9.8]; P = 0.02). Obtaining three sequential blood samples during a 1-week period should be considered a diagnostic approach when bartonellosis is suspected. PMID:23486720

Pultorak, Elizabeth L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-06-01

263

Serial Testing from a 3-Day Collection Period by Use of the Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria Growth Medium Platform May Enhance the Sensitivity of Bartonella Species Detection in Bacteremic Human Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients with infection from bacteremic Bartonella spp., tested using Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM), were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups that included those whose blood was collected once (group 1; n = 55) or three times (group 2; n = 36) within a 1-week period. Overall, 19 patients (20.8%) were PCR positive for one or more Bartonella spp. using the BAPGM platform. Seven patients (12.7%) in group 1 tested positive, and 12 patients (33.3%) in group 2 tested positive. Detection was improved when the patients were tested three times within a 1-week period (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 9.8]; P = 0.02). Obtaining three sequential blood samples during a 1-week period should be considered a diagnostic approach when bartonellosis is suspected.

Pultorak, Elizabeth L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2013-01-01

264

Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barron, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

265

Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) has created an unprecedented demand for research on its biology. The main objectives of this dissertation research were to investigate several aspects of bed bug biology: infestation and dispersal dynamics at a large and small geographical scale using molecular markers, to determine the impact of aggregation on bed bug development and to screen bed bug populations for a re-emergent pathogen. First, we studied the infestation and dispersal dynamics of bed bugs at large geographical scale (e.g., across cities, states). Although bed bug infestations are on the rise, there is a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. We conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States. We genotyped samples comprised of 8 - 10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5 -- 17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3), we found low genetic diversity (1 -- 4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise FST between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of structuring. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. This work is described in Chapter 2 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Second, we investigated dispersal and infestation dynamics of bed bugs at a fine geographical scale within three multistory apartment buildings: one from Raleigh, NC and two from Jersey City, NJ. Here we describe the development of 24 high resolution microsatellite markers and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread throughout the building. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by extensive spread. Populations within single apartments in all buildings showed low levels of genetic diversity suggesting that few individuals are starting these infestations, possibly a singly mated female or her progeny. This work is described in Chapter 3 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Third, we studied the impact of aggregation in bed bug development. Although it is well known that bed bugs live in aggregations, the adaptive benefits of this behavior are not well understood. In this study, we reared first instars either in isolation or in groups of five from hatching to adult eclosion and recorded their development time. Additionally, we investigated the effects of group-housing on same age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition (nymphs vs. adults). Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation. This work is described in Chapter 4. Fourth, we investigated the prevalence of a re-emergent bacterial pathogen in United States bed bugs populations. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the United States, and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgence of these two medically important species are linked by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs colle

Saenz, Virna Lisa

266

Hemin-binding proteins as potent markers for serological diagnosis of infections with Bartonella quintana.  

PubMed

It is difficult to distinguish infections with different Bartonella species using commercially available immunofluorescence (indirect immunofluorescent antibody [IFA]) assay kits. To identify appropriate proteins for serodiagnosis of Bartonella quintana infections, we investigated the antigenicity of B. quintana proteins using sera from homeless people with high B. quintana IgG titers in IFA assay. These sera reacted strongly to an outer membrane protein, hemin-binding protein D (HbpD). Further, serum from an endocarditis patient infected with B. quintana reacted to HbpB and HbpD. To locate the antigenic sites within the proteins, we generated deletion mutants of HbpB and HbpD. Amino acid residues 89 to 220 of HbpB and 151 to 200 of HbpD were identified as the minimum regions required for recognition by these sera. Several oligopeptides comprising parts of the minimum regions of HbpB and HbpD were synthesized, and their immunoreactivity with the above-mentioned sera was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum from the endocarditis patient reacted similarly to synthetic peptides HbpB2 (amino acid residues 144 to 173 of HbpB) and HbpD3 (151 to 200 residues of HbpD), while sera from the other subjects reacted to HbpD3. These results indicate that synthetic peptides HbpB2 and HbpD3 might be suitable for developing serological tools for differential diagnosis of B. quintana infections from other Bartonella infections. PMID:23408526

Matsuoka, Mayumi; Sasaki, Toshinori; Seki, Naomi; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Sasaki, Yuko; Shibayama, Keigo; Sasaki, Tsuguo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

2013-04-01

267

Evidence of Transfer by Conjugation of Type IV Secretion System Genes between Bartonella Species and Rhizobium radiobacter in Amoeba  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4T) circular plasmid (pNH4) that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. Principal Findings The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae) and plants (Rhizobiales). We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. Conclusions Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms.

Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

2010-01-01

268

The World's Top Stealth Bug Ends Marriages, Friendships and Jobs Bartonella Promotes Addiction, Aggression and Character Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

I hate medical drama. If I want drama I will watch a movie, a sporting event or a TV show. Bartonella has almost 2,000 articles on PubMed, but almost no one realizes it is a major source of depression and suicide, panic attacks and social anxiety, seizures, heart attacks, personality change, pushy be- havior, divorce, profound narcissism, eccentric obsessions, irritability,

James Schaller

269

Proteomic and Immunoblot Analyses of Bartonella quintana Total Membrane Proteins Identify Antigens Recognized by Sera from Infected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella quintana is a fastidious, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that causes prolonged bacteremia in immunocompetent humans and severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. We sought to define the outer membrane subproteome of B. quintana in order to obtain insight into the biology and pathogenesis of this emerging pathogen and to identify the predominant B. quintana antigens targeted by the human immune system

Jenni K. Boonjakuakul; Helen L. Gerns; Yu-Ting Chen; Linda D. Hicks; Michael F. Minnick; Scott E. Dixon; Steven C. Hall; Jane E. Koehler

2007-01-01

270

Bartonella quintana invades and multiplies within endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo and forms intracellular blebs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella quintana, the aetiologic agent of trench fever, has recently been implicated in culture-negative endocarditis and bacteraemia amongst homeless people. B. quintana is a fastidious slow-growing organism. A tissue culture system of human endothelial cells was developed in which B. quintana grew intracellularly. Observation of the different steps during infection of these cells demonstrated that the bacteria adhered to and

P Brouqui; D Raoult

1996-01-01

271

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected in Northern New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

(33.6%), Babesia microti (8.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophila (1.9%), and Bartonella spp. (34.5%). The I. scapularis tick is a potential pathogen vector that can cause coinfection and contribute to the variety of clinical responses noted in some tick-borne disease patients.

Martin E. Adelson; Raja-Venkitesh S. Rao; Richard C. Tilton; Kimberly Cabets; Eugene Eskow; Lesley Fein; James L. Occi; Eli Mordechai

2004-01-01

272

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected in Northern New Jersey  

PubMed Central

PCR analysis of Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in New Jersey identified infections with Borrelia burgdorferi (33.6%), Babesia microti (8.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophila (1.9%), and Bartonella spp. (34.5%). The I. scapularis tick is a potential pathogen vector that can cause coinfection and contribute to the variety of clinical responses noted in some tick-borne disease patients.

Adelson, Martin E.; Rao, Raja-Venkitesh S.; Tilton, Richard C.; Cabets, Kimberly; Eskow, Eugene; Fein, Lesley; Occi, James L.; Mordechai, Eli

2004-01-01

273

Prevalence of selected vector-borne organisms and identification of Bartonella species DNA in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis).  

PubMed

Trapper-killed North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA, were screened for multiple vector-borne bacteria known to be pathogenic to mammals. Blood was collected from 30 carcasses in 2006, from 35 in 2007, and from one live otter in 2008. Samples were screened using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for DNA from Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. All samples were negative for Rickettsia spp. Twelve of 30 samples from 2006 produced amplicons using the assay designed to detect Ehrlichia spp., but sequencing revealed that the amplified DNA fragment was from a novel Wolbachia sp., thought to be an endosymbiote of a Dirofilaria sp. Between 2006 and 2007, DNA from a novel Bartonella sp. was detected in 19 of 65 animals (29%). Blood from one live otter captured in 2008 was found positive for this Bartonella sp. by both PCR and culture. The pathogenicity of this Bartonella species in river otters or other mammals is unknown. PMID:20688703

Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Blanton, Hunter L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Belfiore, Natalia; Marr, Henry S; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stoskopf, Michael K

2010-07-01

274

Koch's postulates and the pathogenesis of comparative infectious disease causation associated with Bartonella species.  

PubMed

In his homage to Lucretius ('Georgica'), Vergil is credited with stating: 'Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas' ('Fortunate is he who knows the causes of things'). Based on numerous commentaries and publications it is obvious that clinicians, diagnosticians and biomedical research scientists continue to struggle with disease causation, particularly in the assessment of the pathogenic role of 'stealth pathogens' that produce persistent infections in the host. Bartonella species, because of their evolutionary ability to induce persistent intravascular infections, present substantial challenges for researchers attempting to clarify the ability of these stealth bacteria to cause disease. By studying the comparative biological and pathological behaviour of microbes across mammalian genera, researchers might be able more rapidly to advance medical science and, subsequently, patient care by undertaking focused research efforts involving a single mammalian species or by attempting to recapitulate a complex disease in an rodent model. Therefore, in an effort to further assist in the establishment of disease causation by stealth pathogens, we use recent research observations involving the genus Bartonella to propose an additional postulate of comparative infectious disease causation to Koch's postulates. PMID:23453733

Breitschwerdt, E B; Linder, K L; Day, M J; Maggi, R G; Chomel, B B; Kempf, V A J

2013-02-01

275

Bartonellosis and human immunodeficiency disease (AIDS): L-forms as persisters, activating factors, and mechanism of disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella, genus Proteus, can cause immunodepressive disease. The organisms, in parasitized red blood cells, may invade the brain and every other system and space in the human body. Bartonella henselae is proposed to have a role in the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) encephalopathy. Bartonella bacilliformis produces two known toxins that can induce spasm and angiomatosis, respectively, and manifest

F. H. Sood; V. D. Phatak; M. S. Chaudhari

1997-01-01

276

Isolation of Bartonella schoenbuchensis from Lipoptena cervi ,a BloodSucking Arthropod Causing Deer Ked Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a common hematophagous louse fly of red deer, roe deer, elk, and sika deer in Europe, Siberia, and northern China and of white-tailed deer, elk, horses, and cattle in North America. The incidental infestation of humans with deer keds is well documented (1, 11, 12). In humans, these ectoparasites engorge on blood in 15

Christoph Dehio; Ursula Sauder; Rosemarie Hiestand

2004-01-01

277

Bacterial tick-borne diseases caused by Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. among patients with cataract surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical data have shown that tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. can affect the central nervous system, including the eye. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between the incidence of cataract and evidence of bacterial infections transmitted by ticks. Material/Methods Fluid with lenticular masses from inside of the eye and blood from 109 patients were tested by PCR and sequencing. Sera from patients and the control group were subjected to serological tests to search specific antibodies to the bacteria. Results Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of Bartonella sp. DNA in intraoperative specimens from the eye in 1.8% of patients. Serological studies have shown that infections caused by B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. were detected in 34.8% and 4.6% of patients with cataract surgery, respectively. Conclusions Presence of DNA of yet uncultured and undescribed species of Bartonella in eye liquid indicates past infection with this pathogen. Specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. are detected more frequently in patients with cataract compared to the control group. This could indicate a possible role of these organisms in the pathological processes within the eyeball, leading to changes in the lens. Further studies are needed to identify Bartonella species, as well as to recognize the infectious mechanisms involved in cataract development.

Chmielewski, Tomasz; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Fiecek, Beata; Rorot, Urszula; Sedrowicz, Elzbieta; Werenowska, Malgorzata; Kopacz, Dorota; Hevelke, Agata; Michniewicz, Magdalena; Kecik, Dariusz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanislawa

2014-01-01

278

Bacterial tick-borne diseases caused by Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. among patients with cataract surgery.  

PubMed

Background Clinical data have shown that tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. can affect the central nervous system, including the eye. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between the incidence of cataract and evidence of bacterial infections transmitted by ticks. Material and Methods Fluid with lenticular masses from inside of the eye and blood from 109 patients were tested by PCR and sequencing. Sera from patients and the control group were subjected to serological tests to search specific antibodies to the bacteria. Results Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of Bartonella sp. DNA in intraoperative specimens from the eye in 1.8% of patients. Serological studies have shown that infections caused by B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. were detected in 34.8% and 4.6% of patients with cataract surgery, respectively. Conclusions Presence of DNA of yet uncultured and undescribed species of Bartonella in eye liquid indicates past infection with this pathogen. Specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. are detected more frequently in patients with cataract compared to the control group. This could indicate a possible role of these organisms in the pathological processes within the eyeball, leading to changes in the lens. Further studies are needed to identify Bartonella species, as well as to recognize the infectious mechanisms involved in cataract development. PMID:24902636

Chmielewski, Tomasz; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Fiecek, Beata; Rorot, Urszula; S?drowicz, El?bieta; Werenowska, Ma?gorzata; Kopacz, Dorota; Hevelke, Agata; Michniewicz, Magdalena; K?cik, Dariusz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanis?awa

2014-01-01

279

First molecular evidence of Bartonella quintana in Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), collected from Nepalese children.  

PubMed

Trench fever is a body louse-borne disease caused by Bartonella quintana Brenner. The recent status of louse infestation in Nepalese children is not well known. We collected head and body lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and Pediculus humanus humanus L., respectively, from 30 children, including 11 cases of double infestation with both head and body lice. Detection of B. quintana in both louse species identified was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products with B. quintana DNA sequences were detected in both head and body lice from two children as well as in body lice derived from two other children. These results demonstrate that head lice may also play a role in the transmission of trench fever. PMID:16506456

Sasaki, Toshinori; Poudel, Shree Kanta S; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Seki, Naomi; Tomita, Takashi; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo

2006-01-01

280

Contrasting dynamics of Bartonella spp. in cyclic field vole populations: the impact of vector and host dynamics  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Many zoonotic disease agents are transmitted between hosts by arthropod vectors, including fleas, but few empirical studies of host-vector-microparasite dynamics have investigated the relative importance of hosts and vectors. This study investigates the dynamics of 4 closely related Bartonella species and their flea vectors in cyclic populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis) over 3 years. The probability of flea infestation was positively related to field vole density 12 months previously in autumn, but negatively related to more recent host densities, suggesting a dilution effect. The 4 Bartonella species exhibited contrasting dynamics. Only B. grahamii, showed a distinct seasonal pattern. Infection probability increased with field vole density for B. doshiae, B. taylorii and BGA (a previously unidentified species) and with density of coexisting wood mice for B. doshiae and B. grahamii. However, only the infection probability of BGA in spring was related to flea prevalence. B. doshiae and BGA were most common in older animals, but the other 2 were most common in non-reproductive hosts. Generally, host density rather than vector abundance appears most important for the dynamics of flea-transmitted Bartonella spp., possibly reflecting the importance of flea exchange between hosts. However, even closely related species showed quite different dynamics, emphasising that other factors such as population age structure can impact on zoonotic risk.

TELFER, S.; BEGON, M.; BENNETT, M.; BOWN, K. J.; BURTHE, S.; LAMBIN, X.; TELFORD, G.; BIRTLES, R.

2010-01-01

281

Cat-scratch disease: epidemiology, aetiology and treatment.  

PubMed

Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a clinical syndrome that usually presents as a self-limiting lymphadenopathy associated with a cat scratch or bite. Commonly affecting children and young adults, it has a worldwide distribution. In temperate climates, higher rates are reported in the autumn and winter, which can be attributed to the seasonal breeding of the domestic cat. The organism responsible was identified in 1983, having eluded detection for 50 years. Initially, Afipia felis was thought to be the cause; however, subsequent study failed to confirm a link. During the 1990s, it was demonstrated conclusively that Rochalimaea henselae, later reclassified as Bartonella henselae, was the cause of CSD. B. henselae has been isolated from bacteraemic cats, with transmission among cats thought to be via the cat flea. Although other Bartonella species are transmitted by arthropod vectors, it is unlikely that the cat flea is involved directly in human infection, but plays a role in amplifying the reservoir. B. henselae is difficult to culture, and either serology or the polymerase chain reaction are considered to be the best methods of detection. Genetic variation occurs amongst B. henselae strains, perhaps explaining the inconsistency of some diagnostic techniques. A separate serogroup (Marseilles) has been reported in a seronegative patient with CSD, and B. clarridgeiae has the potential to cause the disease. Atypical presentation is seen in up to 25% of cases, and manifests itself as ocular involvement, encephalopathy, granulomatous hepatitis, hepatosplenic infection, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. The majority of CSD cases resolve spontaneously and do not require antibiotic treatment. In complicated CSD, treatment with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin or azithromycin is recommended, with gentamicin being reserved for the severely ill patient. PMID:11440202

Windsor, J J

2001-01-01

282

Serological survey in persons occupationally exposed to tick-borne pathogens in cases of co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and Babesia microti.  

PubMed

Sera of 39 farmers, 119 foresters and 32 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, B. microti and Bartonella spp. Semi-quantitative indirect immunofluorescence test was used to measure titers of anti-A. phagocytophilum, B. microti and Bartonella spp. IgG. ELISA test was used to measure titers of anti-B. burgdorferi IgM and IgG. B. burgdorferi was the most frequently observed among all the examined pathogens. 27.7% of farmers, 23.1% of forestry workers and 37.5% of control group were infected with Bartonella spp. Anti-A. phagocytophilum and anti-B. microti reactions were observed rarely. Sera of persons with single infection dominated in farmers and forestry workers. Co-infection with 2 pathogens was observed more frequently in forestry workers and farmers than in the control group. Co-infections with 3-4 pathogens were observed only in forestry workers. Among the observed co-infections, the most frequent were: B. burgdorferi with Bartonella spp. and B. burgdorferi with A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, in forestry workers, triple coinfections with B. burgdorferi, Bartonella spp. and A. phagocytophilum and one quadruple coinfection were observed. Persons with occupational risk of tick bites, especially forestry workers, more often have anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies and are more often co-infected with various tick-borne pathogens than the persons from the control group. It seems that more often coinfections in persons with occupational risk of tick bites are a consequence of the higher incidence of infection with B. burgdorferi, as anti-B. microti, A. phagocytophilum and Bartonella spp. antibodies are not more commonly prevalent in persons with occupational risk of tick bites than in healthy volunteers. PMID:22742800

Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Moniuszko, Anna; ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Zwoli?ski, Jacek; Pi?tek, Jacek; Pancewicz, S?awomir

2012-01-01

283

A Case of Multi-vector and Multi-host Epidemiological Model: Bartonella Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a compartmental model for the Bartonella infection on rodents. More precisely, on the co-occurring populations of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus where the vectors are two species of ectoparasites, namely ticks and fleas. As usual for such models a key stage is the modelling of the forces of infection. While the vital dynamics and the progression of the infection within each of the four species are sufficiently well known to determine the rest of the transfer rates, there is practically no data on the probability of infection. In order to determine appropriate values for the coefficients of the forces of infection we solve an optimal control problem where the objective function is the norm of the difference between the observed and the predicted by the model equilibrium infection prevalence rates in the four species. Within this setting the conjecture that the higher prevalence of the infection in Rattus norvegicus can be explained solely by their higher ectoparasite load is tested and disproved.

Anguelov, R.; Brettschneider, H.; Bastos, A. D. S.

2010-11-01

284

CSD skin test  

MedlinePLUS

... as antibody detection by the EIA test or bacteria detection by a PCR test. ... This test was once used to diagnose cat scratch disease, before Bartonella henselae, the bacteria that causes CSD, was identified.

285

Differential expression of the invasion-associated locus B ( ialB) gene of Bartonella bacilliformis in response to environmental cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of the biphasic human disease, Oroya fever. During the primary disease phase, up to 100% of the circulating erythrocytes can be parasitized and 80% lysed. During the secondary phase of this disease, bacterial invasion shifts to endothelial cells lining the vasculature. B. bacilliformis is transferred between human hosts by the sandfly, Lutzomyia verrucarum. To

Sherry A. Coleman; Michael F. Minnick

2003-01-01

286

An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia. PMID:22857007

Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

2013-05-01

287

[Cat-scratch disease: historical, clinical, phylogenetic and taxonomic aspects].  

PubMed

The cat-scratch disease (CSD) is known as a nosological entity since 1950. It was diagnosed by the clinical symptoms, epidemiologic data, and the intracutaneous test of Hanger and Rose. The aetiologic agent is Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) henselae occurring in thirty to fifty percent of healthy cats. The gramnegative alpha-2-proteobacteria cause the CSD but also fever in healthy humans. Patients suffering from AIDS show bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis hepatis, endocarditis, and septicemia. There is an open question for other aetiologic agents causing CSD as cofactors. For example, Afipia felis is found to a certain extent from patients suffering from CSD. Furthermore, Rothia dentocariosa was isolated in lymphnodes of CSD patients, and also other grampositive rods may play an important role together with B. henselae in CSD. PMID:9198973

Müller, H E

1997-04-01

288

Acquisition and excretion of Bartonella quintana by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis.  

PubMed

Bartonella quintana is transmitted by the infected faeces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium was detected in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and in two humans with chronic adenopathy whose only risk factor was contact with cat fleas. In this study, a total of 960 C. felis were divided into 12 groups (2 control groups and 10 infected groups) each containing 80 fleas. The fleas were fed B. quintana-inoculated human blood at different dilutions (?3.6 × 10(4) - 8.4 × 10(9) bacteria) for 4 days via an artificial membrane. Subsequently, all flea groups were fed uninfected blood until day 13 postinfection (dpi). On day 3 pi, B. quintana was detected with two specific genes by quantitative PCR in 60-100% of randomly chosen fleas per dilution: 52% (26/50) in the infected fleas in Trial 1 and 90% (45/50) of the fleas in Trial 2. B. quintana was also identified by molecular and culture assays in flea faeces. The average number of B. quintana as determined by qPCR decreased until the 11th dpi and was absent in both trials at the 13th dpi. Bacteria were localized only in the flea gastrointestinal gut by specific immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that cat fleas can acquire B. quintana by feeding and release viable organisms into their faeces. Therefore, fleas may play a role as vectors of trench fever or other clinical manifestations that are caused by B. quintana. However, the biological role of C. felis in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions is yet to be defined. PMID:24400877

Kernif, Tahar; Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Lepidi, Hubert; Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2014-03-01

289

Bartonella bacilliformis: A Systematic Review of the Literature to Guide the Research Agenda for Elimination  

PubMed Central

Background Carrion's disease affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador and is characterized by two distinct disease manifestations: an abrupt acute bacteraemic illness (Oroya fever) and an indolent cutaneous eruptive condition (verruga Peruana). Case fatality rates of untreated acute disease can exceed 80% during outbreaks. Despite being an ancient disease that has affected populations since pre-Inca times, research in this area has been limited and diagnostic and treatment guidelines are based on very low evidence reports. The apparently limited geographical distribution and ecology of Bartonella bacilliformis may present an opportunity for disease elimination if a clear understanding of the epidemiology and optimal case and outbreak management can be gained. Methods All available databases were searched for English and Spanish language articles on Carrion's disease. In addition, experts in the field were consulted for recent un-published work and conference papers. The highest level evidence studies in the fields of diagnostics, treatment, vector control and epidemiology were critically reviewed and allocated a level of evidence, using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies were considered to be of sufficient quality to be included in the analysis. The majority of these were level 4 or 5 (low quality) evidence and based on small sample sizes. Few studies had been carried out in endemic areas. Conclusions Current approaches to the diagnosis and management of Carrion's disease are based on small retrospective or observational studies and expert opinion. Few studies take a public health perspective or examine vector control and prevention. High quality studies performed in endemic areas are required to define optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies.

Sanchez Clemente, Nuria; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar A.; Solorzano, Nelson; Maguina, Ciro; Pachas, Paul; Blazes, David; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David; Moore, David

2012-01-01

290

First report for the seasonal and annual prevalence of flea-borne bartonella from rodents and soricomorphs in the republic of Korea.  

PubMed

Rodents and soricomorphs are animal hosts of fleas and associated zoonotic microbial pathogens. A total of 4,889 small mammals were collected from Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea, from 2008 through 2010, including: Apodemus agrarius (4,122, 84.3%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (282, 5.8%), Microtus fortis (257, 5.3%), Myodes regulus (77, 1.6%), Micromys minutus (71, 1.5%), Mus musculus (63, 1.3%), and 4 other species (17, 0.3%). A total of 1,099 fleas belonging to 10 species and 7 genera were collected. Ctenophthalmus congeneroides (724, 65.9%) was the most commonly collected flea, followed by Stenoponia sidimi (301, 27.4%), Neopsylla bidentatiformis (29, 2.6%), and Rhadinopsylla insolita (25, 2.3%). The remaining species accounted for only 1.8% (20, range 1-6) of all fleas collected. The 2 dominant flea species, C. congeneroides and S. sidimi, showed an inverse seasonal pattern, with higher populations of C. congeneroides from January-September, whereas S. sidimi was more frequently collected during October-December. The overall flea infestation rates (FIR) and flea indices (FI) were 14.1% and 0.22, respectively, and were highest during April-June (19.7% and 0.30, respectively). A total of 735 of the 1,099 fleas were assayed for the detection of Bartonella spp. by PCR using Bartonella-specific primers, of which 515 were positive for Bartonella, with an overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of 700.7/1,000. The highest MLE values were observed during April-June (899.2) and July-September (936.2) trapping periods and, although lower, were similar for January-March (566.7) and October-December (574.1). C. congeneroides demonstrated high MLEs for all seasons (range 752.5-934.8), while S. sidimi was positive for Bartonella only during January-March (MLE=342.1) and October-December (MLE=497.2) collection periods. Continued long-term surveillance of small mammals and associated ectoparasites is needed to improve our understanding of the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas and the role of fleas in the zoonotic maintenance and transmission of Bartonella to humans. PMID:23590324

Kim, Baek-Jun; Kim, Su-Jin; Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Won, Sohyun; Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Heung-Chul; Kim, Myung-Soon; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Lee, Sanghun; Chae, Joon-Seok

2013-07-01

291

Evaluation of the association of Bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis.  

PubMed

Gingivostomatitis (GS) is a significant condition in cats because of oral discomfort and associated periodontal disease. Several infectious agents have been associated with the presence of GS, but a causal relationship is unclear. The cats in this study were housed together, had a history of flea exposure, and were vaccinated with a modified live FVRCP product. There were nine cats with active GS and 36 unaffected cats at the time of sample collection. Serum was tested for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus, feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay). PCR assays for Bartonella species and FHV-1 and a reverse transcriptase PCR assay for FCV were performed on blood and throat swabs. All cats were negative for FeLV. Assay results failed to correlate to the presence of GS in the group of cats studied. PMID:17766156

Quimby, Jessica M; Elston, Thomas; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Miller, Arianne; Lappin, Michael R

2008-02-01

292

Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on public health issues.

2011-01-01

293

Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium.  

PubMed

Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days post-infection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days post-infection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

Previte, D; Olds, B P; Yoon, K; Sun, W; Muir, W; Paige, K N; Lee, S H; Clark, J; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R

2014-04-01

294

Cat scratch disease: the rare role of Afipia felis.  

PubMed

Since its isolation in 1988, Afipia felis has been associated with cat scratch disease (CSD) in only one report and its role in CSD has been questioned. We have cultured A. felis from a lymph node of a patient with CSD. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA relatedness studies, fatty acid analysis, and PCR of the A. felis ferredoxin gene showed that the isolate is identical to the previously reported A. felis isolate. To determine the role of A. felis in CSD, PCR of the 16S rRNA gene followed by hybridizations with specific probes were performed with lymph node specimens from CSD patients. All 32 specimens tested positive for Bartonella henselae and negative for A. felis. We conclude that A. felis is a rare cause of CSD. Diagnostic tests not conducive to the identification of A. felis might cause the diagnosis of CSD due to A. felis to be missed. PMID:9705382

Giladi, M; Avidor, B; Kletter, Y; Abulafia, S; Slater, L N; Welch, D F; Brenner, D J; Steigerwalt, A G; Whitney, A M; Ephros, M

1998-09-01

295

Characterization of a two-gene locus from Bartonella bacilliformis associated with the ability to invade human erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis, the agent of human Oroya fever, invades erythrocytes and causes a severe hemolytic anemia. The ability of two minimally invasive strains of Escherichia coli (DH5 alpha and HB101) to invade human erythrocytes was enhanced 6- to 39-fold by transformation with pIAL1, a plasmid containing a 1,469-bp BamHI fragment from the B. bacilliformis chromosome. Invasiveness was confirmed by gentamicin protection and transmission electron microscopy. DNA hybridization analysis confirmed the presence of the locus in B. bacilliformis KC583 and KC584 and its absence in E. coli chromosomal DNA. Sequencing of the DNA insert of pIAL1 revealed tandem open reading frames of 510 and 558 bp, designated ialA and ialB, respectively. Invasion assays with E. coli containing only an ialA or ialB recombinant suggest that both genes are necessary for invasiveness. The ialA gene is predicted to code for a polypeptide of 170 amino acids (20.1 kDa), and ialB is predicted to code for a polypeptide of 186 amino acids (19.9 kDa). In vitro transcription and translation of pIAL1 produced insert-specific protein bands with masses of approximately 21 and 20 kDa when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Expression of ialA and ialB in E. coli maxicells produced proteins with masses of approximately 21 kDa (IalA) and 18 kDa (IalB). Maxicell and computer analyses suggest that IalB contains an N-terminal secretory signal sequence which is posttranslationally cleaved. Searches of various DNA and protein databases revealed that IalA contains an N-terminal region of 35 amino acids with a high degree of homology to an NTPase consensus domain. There is 63.6% sequence conservation between the IalB protein and the invasion-associated protein Ail of Yersinia enterocolitica.

Mitchell, S J; Minnick, M F

1995-01-01

296

Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.  

PubMed

To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223

Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

2008-02-14

297

Are isolated wetlands isolated?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H., Jr.; Haukos, David A.

2011-01-01

298

Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Microorganisms Known To Cause Arterial and Myocardial Damage in Patients with or without Coronary Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections are assumed to play a role in coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathies. It is unknown whether the seroprevalence of antibodies to these microorganisms is higher in patients with than without CAD. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Coxiella bur- netii, Helicobacter pylori, human granulocytic Ehrlichia, Leptospira, Rickettsia conorii, and Treponema pallidum was assessed

C. Stollberger; G. Molzer; J. Finsterer

2001-01-01

299

MECHANIZMY SEKRECJI BAKTERII GRAM-UJEMNYCH ñ SYSTEMY SEKRECJI IV TYPU  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the third part of our overview of secretion systems and describes the Type IV secretion systems in Gram- negative bacteria. The Type IV systems are produced by several bacterial pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bordetella pertussis, Brucella spp., Bartonella henselae, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila and are critical for the pathogenic process. The virulence factors that are

Ewa Karwicka; Adrianna Raczkowska; Katarzyna Brzostek

2006-01-01

300

Cat scratch disease in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect fluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, B quintana, and B elizabethae was performed in all 18 children who presented to our paediatric outpatient clinic with cat scratch disease over a six year period. Serum samples were taken on admission, after 15 days, and after six months. Diagnosis was confirmed in 15 patients (83%) and was based on seroconversion

T Karpathios; C Golphinos; P Psychou; A Garoufi; A Papadimitriou; P Nicolaidou

1998-01-01

301

[Cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever: report of one case].  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site after cat scratch or bite. This paper reported a case of cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever, and discussed the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment methods of CSD. PMID:23552796

Wang, Xing; Meng, Jian

2013-02-01

302

Type IV transporters of pathogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type IV transporters are produced by several bacterial pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bordetella pertussis, Brucella spp., Bartonella henselae, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila. These transporters are critical for the pathogenic process in that they export important virulence factors across the membranes of the bacteria. Although the virulence factors that are exported by these transporters can be either nucleic acid

Drusilla L Burns

2003-01-01

303

An Evaluation Study of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Using Recombinant Protein Pap31 for Detection of Antibody against Bartonella bacilliformis Infection among the Peruvian Population.  

PubMed

Abstract. Reliable laboratory testing is of great importance to detect Bartonella bacilliformis infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant protein Pap31 (rPap31) for the detection of antibodies against B. bacilliformis as compared with immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Of the 302 sera collected between 1997 and 2000 among an at-risk Peruvian population, 103 and 34 samples tested positive for IFA-immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IFA-IgM, respectively. By using Youden's index, the cutoff values of ELISA-IgG at 0.915 gave a sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 94%. The cutoff values of ELISA-IgM at 0.634 gave a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 85.1%. Using latent class analysis, estimates of sensitivity and specificity of almost all the assays were slightly higher than those of a conventional method of calculation. The test is proved beneficial for discriminating between infected and non-infected individuals with the advantage of low-cost and high-throughput capability. PMID:24515944

Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Atkins, Erin H; Romero, Sofia; Grieco, John; Chao, Chien Chung; Ching, Wei Mei

2014-04-01

304

The Bartonella quintana extracytoplasmic function sigma factor RpoE has a role in bacterial adaptation to the arthropod vector environment.  

PubMed

Bartonella quintana is a vector-borne bacterial pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans. During the infectious cycle, B. quintana transitions from the hemin-restricted human bloodstream to the hemin-rich body louse vector. Because extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors often regulate adaptation to environmental changes, we hypothesized that a previously unstudied B. quintana ECF sigma factor, RpoE, is involved in the transition from the human host to the body louse vector. The genomic context of B. quintana rpoE identified it as a member of the ECF15 family of sigma factors found only in alphaproteobacteria. ECF15 sigma factors are believed to be the master regulators of the general stress response in alphaproteobacteria. In this study, we examined the B. quintana RpoE response to two stressors that are encountered in the body louse vector environment, a decreased temperature and an increased hemin concentration. We determined that the expression of rpoE is significantly upregulated at the body louse (28°C) versus the human host (37°C) temperature. rpoE expression also was upregulated when B. quintana was exposed to high hemin concentrations. In vitro and in vivo analyses demonstrated that RpoE function is regulated by a mechanism involving the anti-sigma factor NepR and the response regulator PhyR. The ?rpoE ?nepR mutant strain of B. quintana established that RpoE-mediated transcription is important in mediating the tolerance of B. quintana to high hemin concentrations. We present the first analysis of an ECF15 sigma factor in a vector-borne human pathogen and conclude that RpoE has a role in the adaptation of B. quintana to the hemin-rich arthropod vector environment. PMID:23564167

Abromaitis, Stephanie; Koehler, Jane E

2013-06-01

305

Differential expression of the invasion-associated locus B (ialB) gene of Bartonella bacilliformis in response to environmental cues  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of the biphasic human disease, Oroya fever. During the primary disease phase, up to 100% of the circulating erythrocytes can be parasitized and 80% lysed. During the secondary phase of this disease, bacterial invasion shifts to endothelial cells lining the vasculature. B. bacilliformis is transferred between human hosts by the sandfly, Lutzomyia verrucarum. To investigate the regulation of ialB by environmental cues signaling vector-to-host transmission; nuclease protection assays were performed to compare the amount of ialB mRNA in bacteria subjected to temperature shift, pH change, oxidative stress, or hemin limitation. The amount of ialB mRNA increased by 223–310% in acid-treated samples and decreased by 28–39% in base-treated samples as compared to bacteria kept at pH 7.2. B. bacilliformis samples showed a 56–63% and 74–80% decrease in ialB mRNA when shifted to 37 °C from growth temperatures of 20 and 30 °C, respectively. Oxidative stress (1 mM H2O2) and hemin limitation had no significant effect on mRNA levels. Determination of ialB protein amounts using SDS–PAGE and immunoblotting showed the greatest amounts of ialB under acidic conditions or at 20 °C. The least amount of ialB was synthesized under basic conditions or at 37 °C. The viability of wild-type B. bacilliformis under the various experimental culture conditions was determined and found not to affect ialB mRNA amounts in these experiments. Finally, we compared the survival of wild-type and ialB mutant B. bacilliformis and found no difference in the viability of these two strains, demonstrating that ialB does not aid bacterial survival under these conditions.

Coleman, Sherry A.; Minnick, Michael F.

2014-01-01

306

Isolation precautions  

MedlinePLUS

Isolation precautions create barriers between people and germs. These types of precautions help prevent the spread of germs in the hospital. Anybody who visits a hospital patient who has an isolation ...

307

Vibration isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on vibration isolation are presented. Techniques to control and isolate centrifuge disturbances were identified. Topics covered include: disturbance sources in the microgravity environment; microgravity assessment criteria; life sciences centrifuge; flight support equipment for launch; active vibration isolation system; active balancing system; and fuzzy logic control.

Bastin, Paul

1990-01-01

308

EKG isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Light beam transmits heartbeat signal from electrodes on patient to electrocardiograph without exposing patient to possible severe electrical shock. System provides complete isolation between patient and EKG instrumentation.

Palmer, E.; Rasquin, J. R.; Smith, H. E.

1971-01-01

309

Visceral Manifestation of Cat Scratch Disease in Children. A Consequence of Altered Immunological State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a A 12-year-old girl with a 2-month history of fever and abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Ultrasound and CT scans\\u000a of the abdomen showed multiple hypoechoic lesions of liver and spleen. Screening for zoonosis revealed high positive titers\\u000a to Bartonella henselae. T-cell deficiency was demonstrated and remained almost unchanged during a follow-up of 11 months. A review of

A. Kahr; R. Kerbl; K. Gschwandtner; B. Heinzl; H. Lackner; W. Schwinger; D. Stünzner; F. Lindbichler; E. C. Urban

2000-01-01

310

Do plant and human pathogens have a common pathogenicity strategy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a novel ‘two-step’ model of pathogenicity has been described that suggests host-cell-derived vasculoproliferative factors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of bacillary angiomatosis, a disease caused by the human pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae. The resulting proliferation of endothelial cells could be interpreted as bacterial pathogens triggering the promotion of their own habitat: the host cell. Similar disease mechanisms

Volkhard A. J Kempf; Niclas Hitziger; Tanja Riess; Ingo B Autenrieth

2002-01-01

311

Neuroretinitis with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Female  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis with significant disc and peripapillary edema, branch retinal artery occlusion without macula involvement and well preserved central vision. A 15-year-old female presented with loss of vision over 4 weeks in the left eye. She had a history of cat exposure, but a cat scratch, insect bite or conjunctivitis was not reported. An inferotemporal arcuate scotoma developed during the acute phase and persisted over the course of the follow-up.

Ahmadi, Sina; Azizi, Behrooz; Tsang, Adrian C.; Coupland, Stuart; Gottlieb, Chloe; Zackon, David

2013-01-01

312

[Visceral localizations of cat-scratch disease in an immunocompetent patient].  

PubMed

Locoregional expression of cat scratch disease is well known, but despite advances in microbiology over the last 10 years leading to the description of two new bacteria (Afipia felis, Bartonella henselae) the infective agent responsible for cat scratch syndrome remains unknown. Until the 80s, only one systemic disease was attributed to infection with a germ in the Bartonella genus: trench fever. With the onset of the AIDS epidemic, new clinical syndromes caused by Bartonella bacteria have been described: bacillary angiomatosis, hepatic peliosis, cases of recurrent septicemia, cases of endocarditis, etc. More recently, atypical forms of cat scratch disease including systemic diseases have been reported in immunocompetent subjects. Although quite rare (1% of the cases), such types of expression can raise questions as to diagnosis both in terms of clinical signs and in terms of bacteriological findings. Clinical and experimental data do not provide a clear direction for treatment but would suggest that prolonged use of aminoglycosides is useful. PMID:8729380

Bouchard, O; Bosseray, A; Leclercq, P; Micoud, M

1996-02-10

313

The structure of Rv3717 reveals a novel amidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Bacterial N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases are cell-wall hydrolases that hydrolyze the bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and l-alanine in cell-wall glycopeptides. Rv3717 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been identified as a unique autolysin that lacks a cell-wall-binding domain (CBD) and its structure has been determined to 1.7?Å resolution by the Pt-­SAD phasing method. Rv3717 possesses an ?/?-fold and is a zinc-dependent hydrolase. The structure reveals a short flexible hairpin turn that partially occludes the active site and may be involved in autoregulation. This type of autoregulation of activity of PG hydrolases has been observed in Bartonella henselae amidase (AmiB) and may be a general mechanism used by some of the redundant amidases to regulate cell-wall hydrolase activity in bacteria. Rv3717 utilizes its net positive charge for substrate binding and exhibits activity towards a broad spectrum of substrate cell walls. The enzymatic activity of Rv3717 was confirmed by isolation and identification of its enzymatic products by LC/MS. These studies indicate that Rv3717, an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase from M. tuberculosis, represents a new family of lytic amidases that do not have a separate CBD and are regulated conformationally.

Kumar, Atul; Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Dilip; Mishra, Arpit; Dewangan, Rikeshwer P.; Shrivastava, Priyanka; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Taneja, Bhupesh

2013-01-01

314

Functional Identification of Two Novel Genes from Pseudomonas sp. Strain HZN6 Involved in the Catabolism of Nicotine  

PubMed Central

Nicotine is a natural alkaloid produced by tobacco plants, and the mechanisms of its catabolism by microorganisms are diverse. In the present study, we reported the mutation, cloning, and identification of two novel genes involved in nicotine degradation from the newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain HZN6. Transposon mutagenesis identified a HZN6 mutant in which the nicotine-degrading pathway was blocked at pseudooxynicotine. A 3,874-bp DNA fragment flanking the transposon insertion site was obtained through self-formed adaptor PCR. Two open reading frames (designated pao and sap) were analyzed, and the deduced amino acid sequences shared 29% identity with 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and 49% identity with an aldehyde dehydrogenase from Bartonella henselae. Both pao and sap were cloned and functionally expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21. The pao gene encoded a novel pseudooxynicotine amine oxidase with noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and exhibited substrate specificity removing the methylamine from pseudooxynicotine with the formation of 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine and hydrogen dioxide. The sap gene encoded a NADP+-dependent 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine dehydrogenase that catalyzed the dehydrogenation of 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine to 3-succinoyl-pyridine. Genetic analyses indicated that the pao gene played an essential role in nicotine or pseudooxynicotine mineralization in strain HZN6, whereas the sap gene did not. This study provides novel insight into the nicotine-degrading mechanism at the genetic level in Pseudomonas spp.

Qiu, Jiguo; Ma, Yun; Wen, Yuezhong; Chen, Liansheng; Wu, Lifei

2012-01-01

315

Optically Isolated Amplifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design presented was used for biomedical signal detection and monitoring. The amplifier was successfully applied for EMG and ECG research studies. The patient is safely isolated from the processing equipment when using the amplifier. This opto-isolate...

C. J. Smith

1982-01-01

316

Bacillus Odysseyi Isolate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosp...

K. Venkateswaran M. T. La Duc

2007-01-01

317

Psychopathology of social isolation  

PubMed Central

The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered.

Baek, Sang-Bin

2014-01-01

318

Flexure Elastomer Antenna Isolation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vibration isolation system for a payload. The vibration isolation system provides a level of vibration isolation for all vibration translational and rotational components, while minimizing the moment of the payload mass relative to the isolation system....

A. J. Vajanyi D. Calhoun M. Hoffman R. I. Harless R. T. Fandrich

2004-01-01

319

Study on ticks and tick-borne zoonoses in public parks in Italy.  

PubMed

A survey on tick density and on tick-borne zoonoses was carried out in four public parks in the outskirts of Imola (northern Italy) from June to October 2006. All stages of Ixodes ricinus and only larvae of Riphicephalus sanguineus were recovered by dragging, performed on 100-m transects. Almost all ticks (99%) were harvested in one park. I. ricinus density (nymphs/100?m(2) ) ranged from 0 in park L to 6.3 in park F. Nymphs and adults of I. ricinus were subjected to PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. and Rickettsia spp. The observed prevalences were 38.3% for Bartonella henselae, 5.2% for Bartonella clarridgeiae, 10.4% for B. burgdorferi s. l., 2.6% for Rickettsia helvetica and 13% for Rickettsia monacensis, respectively. No DNA of A. phagocytophilum was found. Acarological risks (AR) were calculated as probabilities of collecting at least one infected nymph per transect. The AR values calculated for the various zoonotic agents were 11.4% for R. helvetica, 27.7% for B. clarridgeiae, 49.7% for B. burgdorferi s. l., 57.2% for R. monacensis and 90.4% for B. henselae, respectively. In this study, B. clarridgeiae was for the first time identified in I. ricinus ticks. PMID:22551055

Corrain, R; Drigo, M; Fenati, M; Menandro, M L; Mondin, A; Pasotto, D; Martini, M

2012-11-01

320

Vibration isolation technology experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end of a shuttle-attached flexible structure such as MAST. The disturbance generator, located on top of the isolation system, will be energized at selected and broadband frequencies to simulate a typical spacecraft vibration environment. Sensors located on the isolation system and the flexible structures element will be used to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system.

Keckler, C. R.

1984-01-01

321

Isolated colonic tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of isolated colonic tuberculosis are reported, and recent literature on this field is reviewed. Isolated colonic tuberculosis is defined as a tuberculosis which exists in the colon except for ileocaecum, without focus in any other organ. The morphological changes are tuberculous granulation primarily located to the submucosa layer of the colon with smooth surfaces of both mucous and

Y. A. Wang; W. Y. Yu

1987-01-01

322

Cell isolation and culture.  

PubMed

Cell isolation and culture are essential tools for the study of cell function. Isolated cells grown under controlled conditions can be manipulated and imaged at a level of resolution that is not possible in whole animals or even tissue explants. Recent advances have allowed for large-scale isolation and culture of primary C. elegans cells from both embryos and all four larval stages. Isolated cells can be used for single-cell profiling, electrophysiology, and high-resolution microscopy to assay cell autonomous development and behavior. This chapter describes protocols for the isolation and culture of C. elegans embryonic and larval stage cells. Our protocols describe isolation of embryonic and L1 stage cells from nematodes grown on high-density NA22 bacterial plates and isolation of L2 through L4 stage cells from nematodes grown in axenic liquid culture. Both embryonic and larval cells can be isolated from nematode populations within 3 hours and can be cultured for several days. A primer on sterile cell culture techniques is given in the appendices. PMID:23430760

Zhang, Sihui; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

2013-01-01

323

Improved active vibration isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active vibration isolator simultaneously isolates a flexible structure or payload from disturbances, attenuates the response of a flexible structure to transient disturbances, and maintains the equilibrium position of the payload within predetermined limits over a wide range of steady loads and accelerators.

Dixon, G. V.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Stephens, D. G.

1968-01-01

324

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-02-01

325

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-01-01

326

Whole Spacecraft Vibration Isolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense identified launch vibration isolation as a major research interest. Reducing the loads a satellite experiences during launch will greatly enhance the reliability, lifetime, and payload to structure ratio. DoD satellite programs s...

G. G. Karahalis

1999-01-01

327

Base isolation: Fresh insight  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

Shustov, V.

1993-07-15

328

Broadband RF Isolator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A broadband RF isolator system for connection between RF devices such as colinear antennas is disclosed. In accordance with this invention, two or more antennas are spaced several wavelengths apart, connected to coaxial feeds and choked at their adjacent ...

C. M. Desantis

1981-01-01

329

Isolated lateral rectus myositis.  

PubMed

Orbital myositis is a rare non-granulomatous inflammatory process within the orbit. Grave's disease and lymphoproliferative disorders are considered the most common cause of orbital myositis. The idiopathic form should be considered after exclusion of known causes or associations. Isolated orbital myositis is a very rare form of this disease. We report a case of an isolated lateral rectus myositis to draw the attention of physicians to this condition, as prompt treatment in our patient resulted in complete recovery. PMID:21063661

Obeid, Tahir H; Qanash, Sultan A; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Al-Shamy, Abdalrhman M

2010-11-01

330

[Cat scratch disease as fever of unknown origin].  

PubMed

The cat scratch disease is a relatively rare disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Only a small proportion of the cases that described extranodal involvement occurs. We report a 11 year old male patient with persistent fever, liver and osteoarticular involvement with a predominance of dorsolumbar spine. Evolution was satisfactory with complete clinical and imaging evidenced recovery in several months of monitoring. Case was analyzed considering EAG published literature, emphasizing the need to include this condition in the differential diagnoses in patients with bone involvement suggestive of systemic disease. PMID:24248115

Santarcángelo, Salomé; Sosa, Rubén; Dondoglio, Patricia; Valle, Lidia E; Navacchia, Daniel

2013-08-01

331

Macular hole: a rare complication of ocular bartonellosis.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old woman presented with an anterior optic neuropathy related to Bartonella henselae. Twenty-nine days after symptom onset, a partial thickness macular hole developed in the involved eye. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography confirmed the conversion to a full-thickness macular hole in 2 months. Macular hole as a complication of cat scratch disease is a rare entity, with 2 prior reported cases in children. The development of a macular hole following cat scratch disease can appear without the clinical picture of multiple white chorioretinal lesions, macular star, or vitritis. PMID:23681239

Alterman, Michael Adam; Young, Blair Katherine; Eggenberger, Eric Robert; Kaufman, David Irwin

2013-06-01

332

Will the real agent of cat-scratch disease please stand up?  

PubMed

Cat-scratch disease has been recognized since 1889 in association with the oculoglandular syndrome of Parinaud. The epidemiologic association with cats was first made in 1931 and further substantiated throughout the years, refining the interaction predominantly to kittens. Putative infectious agents have included numerous species of bacteria, chlamydiae, and viruses. The cultivation of Afipia spp. in the late 1980s appeared to answer the mystery of the identity of the agent. However, even more recent analysis, which has combined traditional microbiology, molecular methods, and additional epidemiology, has demonstrated that Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae is the definitive agent of cat-scratch disease. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of cat-scratch disease and other diseases caused by Bartonella species is incomplete and the spectrum of diseases continues to emerge. We review historic and modern efforts to understand the etiology of cat-scratch disease and related syndromes. PMID:8905096

Jerris, R C; Regnery, R L

1996-01-01

333

Isolation of Shigellae  

PubMed Central

The efficiencies of three enrichment broths and four plating media for isolation of enteric pathogens were compared from 1,117 stool specimens. Direct streaking proved to be inferior to enrichment, detecting only 50% of the salmonellae and 61% of the shigellae. By contrast, Selenite Broth (SF) found 90% of the total salmonellae isolates and 82% of the shigellae isolates. Gram-Negative Broth (GN) found 82% and 85%, respectively, but Tetrathionate found only 60% and 39%. Thus, SF and GN were comparable for both salmonellae and shigellae and significantly better than Tetrathionate Broth for both. The plating media compared were MacConkey (MAC), deoxycholate citrate (DC), xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), and xylose lysine Brilliant Green (XLBG) Agars. Of the total salmonellae isolated, XLD produced 94%; XLBG, 71%; MAC, 55%; and DC, only 35%. Of shigellae, XLD found 89%; MAC, 75%; XLBG, 63%; and DC, but 27%. The efficacy of XLD is observed to be almost threefold that of DC. The most successful combination of media for the detection of fecal pathogens was GN or SF enrichment broths streaked to XLD plates. These analyses resulted in the isolation of 118 strains of salmonellae and 33 of shigellae.

Taylor, Welton I.; Schelhart, Dorothy

1968-01-01

334

Isolated syndesmosis ankle injury.  

PubMed

Isolated syndesmosis injuries often go unrecognized and are diagnosed as lateral ankle sprains; however, they are more disabling than lateral ankle sprains. The reported incidence of isolated syndesmosis injuries in acute ankle sprains ranges between 1% and 16%. When ankle disability lasts for more than 2 months after an ankle sprain, the incidence increases to 23.6%. Diagnostic workup may include stress radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, or diagnostic arthroscopy. A simple stress test radiograph may reveal an unstable grade III syndesmosis sprain that may go unrecognized on plain anteroposterior and mortise or lateral radiographs of the ankle. The duration of symptoms in isolated syndesmosis injury is longer and more severe, often leading to chronic symptoms or ankle instability requiring operative stabilization.This article describes the clinical presentation, injury classification, and operative stabilization techniques of isolated syndesmosis injuries. The authors performed their preferred operative stabilization technique for isolated syndesmosis injury-arthroscopic debridement of the ankle with syndesmotic stabilization with a syndesmotic screw-in 4 patients. All patients were evaluated 1 year postoperatively with subjective and objective assessment scales. Three of 4 patients showed good improvement of general subjective ankle symptoms and subjective ankle instability rating and a high Sports Ankle Rating System score after 1 year. PMID:23218625

Valkering, Kars P; Vergroesen, Diederik A; Nolte, Peter A

2012-12-01

335

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

336

Isolated facial cutaneous sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis is a rare multisystemic granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Cutaneous lesions have been classified into specific and nonspecific depending on the presence of noncaseating granulomas on histopathologic studies. Macrophages most likely initiate the response of sarcoidosis by presenting unidentified antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes. A persistent poorly degradable antigen-driven CMI response leads to cytokine cascade, granulomaformation, and fibrosis. In the present study, we report a case of isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis, localized to the face, in an adolescent girl without systemic manifestations which is a rare entity.

Kumar, Sumir; Garg, Ravinder; Aggarwal, Simmi; Kaur, Jaskanwal

2012-01-01

337

Molecular detection of feline arthropod-borne pathogens in cats in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, central-western region of Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas, Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT). Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4%) were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2%) for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (0.5%) for 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One cat (0.5%), a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis', based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7%) for B. henselae and one (0.5%) for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showed Cytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas and Bartonella species. PMID:24142170

Miceli, Natasha Gandolfi; Gavioli, Fernando Antonio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

2013-01-01

338

Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discussion of treatment options. Methods A systematic computerized database search (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), and EMBASE) was performed in March 2009. The quality of the studies was assessed independently by two authors using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results We extracted data from 44 articles. The best available evidence for treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is sparse and of generally low methodological quality. Nonoperative treatment using physiotherapy (GRADE: high quality, weak recommendation for use), taping (GRADE: moderate quality, weak recommendation for use), or injection therapy (GRADE: very low quality, weak recommendation for use) may result in short-term relief. Joint-preserving surgical treatment may result in insufficient, unpredictable, or only short-term improvement (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation against use). Total knee replacement with patellar resurfacing results in predictable and good, durable results (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Outcome after patellofemoral arthroplasty in selected patients is good to excellent (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Interpretation Methodologically good quality comparative studies, preferably using a patient-relevant outcome instrument, are needed to establish the optimal treatment strategy for patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

Poolman, Rudolf W; van Kampen, Albert

2010-01-01

339

Isolated ACTH Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated ACTH is a rare cause of secondary adrenocortical insufficiency. The diagnosis is made by the demonstration of low cortisol production with low plasma ACTH, absent adrenal responses to stimulation for pituitary or hypothalamus with intact adrenal response to exogenous ACTH, and normal secretory indices of other pituitary hormones. We conclude that the diagnosis of this condition may be difficult

D. A. de Luis; R. Aller; E. Romero

1998-01-01

340

Aircraft EMP isolation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents the results of a preliminary study into methods for electrically isolating the E-4B, the EC-135, and the EC-130 aircraft during EMP tests where the aircraft under test is directly driven by a high-voltage pulser.

Finci, A.; Price, H.; Chao, P.; Mercer, S.; Naff, T.

1980-07-01

341

Isolated gastric Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract characterized by segmental and transmural involvement of gastrointestinal tract. Ileocolonic and colonic/anorectal is a most common and account for 40% of cases and involvement of small intestine in about 30%. The stomach is rarely the sole or predominant site of CD. To date there are only a few documented case reports of adults with isolated gastric CD and no reports in the pediatric population. Isolated stomach involvement is very unusual presentation accounting for less than 0.07% of all gastrointestinal CD. The diagnosis is difficult to establish in cases of atypical presentation as in isolated gastroduodenal disease. In the absence of any other source of disease and in the presence of nonspecific upper GI endoscopy and histological findings, serological testing can play a vital role in the diagnosis of atypical CD. Recent studies have suggested that perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and anti-Saccharomycescervisia antibody may be used as additional diagnostic tools. The effectiveness of infliximab in isolated gastric CD is limited to only a few case reports of adult patients and the long-term outcome is unknown.

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge, Chitra R; Dakhure, Sarita; Bhosale, Smita S

2013-01-01

342

Mammary Stem Cell Isolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to identify mouse mammary gland stem cells, with the ultimate goal being their isolation. We hypothesized that mammary gland stem cells can be identified by generating transgenic mice using a LEF/TCF-dependent reporter g...

D. J. Sussman

2004-01-01

343

Biological Isolation Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

1976-01-01

344

Fault isolation techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three major areas that are considered in the development of an overall maintenance scheme of computer equipment are described. The areas of concern related to fault isolation techniques are: the programmer (or user), company and its policies, and the manufacturer of the equipment.

Dumas, A.

1981-01-01

345

Isolated severe bilateral bronchomalacia.  

PubMed

Airway malacia is uncommon condition having symptoms similar to common respiratory illnesses. Any child having persistent wheeze during infancy should be evaluated for airway malacia. The authors report a case of isolated severe bilateral bronchomalacia managed with tracheostomy and continuous positive pressure ventilation. PMID:23715795

Saikia, Bhaskar; Sharma, Pradeep Kumar; Sharma, Rachna; Gagneja, Vikram; Khilnani, Praveen

2014-07-01

346

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

SciTech Connect

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

2007-09-12

347

High voltage isolation transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (inventors)

1985-01-01

348

Bacillus odysseyi isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

2007-01-01

349

DNA Isolation from Onion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students find studying DNA difficult because it is so small that the concepts are quite abstract. This lab enables students to work with DNA concretely by easily isolating chromosomal DNA using the same basic tools and methods that scientists use. The lab is a good introduction to using pipets and to using the metric system. If the chemistry of the solutions is taught it is also a great practical application.

Kate Dollard (Cambridge Rindge and Latin REV)

1994-07-30

350

Isolated polycystic liver disease.  

PubMed

Isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant disease with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Apart from liver cysts, it exhibits few extrahepatic manifestations, and the majority of patients with this condition are asymptomatic or subclinical. However, a small fraction of these patients develop acute liver cyst-related complications and/or massive cystic liver enlargement, causing morbidity and mortality. Currently, the management for symptomatic PCLD is centered on palliating symptoms and treating complications. PMID:20219621

Qian, Qi

2010-03-01

351

ISOLATED POLYCYSTIC LIVER DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant disease with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Apart from liver cysts, it exhibits few extra-hepatic manifestations and the majority of patients with this condition are asymptomatic or subclinical. However, a small fraction of these patients develop acute liver-cyst-related complications and/or massive cystic liver enlargement, causing morbidity and mortality. Currently, the management for symptomatic PCLD is centered on palliating symptoms and treating complications.

Qian, Qi

2010-01-01

352

Isolated Coccygeal Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Isolated tuberculosis of the coccyx is extremely rare. A 35-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of coccygeal and gluteal pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osseous destruction and a large enhancing mass involving the coccyx with anterior and posterior extension. Pathologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed necrosis, chronic granulomatous inflammation, and multinucleated giant cells consistent with tuberculosis. This case highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis even though unusual sites are involved.

Kim, Do Un; Ju, Chang IL

2012-01-01

353

Isolated systems in general relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated systems in General Relativity were studied. Radiation effects on composite isolated systems are examined. The non-linear asymptotic vacuum field equations were solved in the formalism of Newman and Penrose. A Spin Weight Spherical Harmonics representation of the source was used. The concept of angular momentum is examined for isolated systems in General Relativity. It is argued that, on physical

A. Cresswell

1984-01-01

354

Geographical Isolation Factors: The Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawn from a larger paper on geographical isolation, these pages present a review of literature pertaining to geographical isolation factors. The inclusion of a geographical isolation factor in a state's distribution formula for foundation aid is a mechanism for providing additional revenue to small schools or school districts that, because of…

Bass, Gerald R.

355

High performance rotational vibration isolator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 +/- 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

2013-10-01

356

Impact of isolation on hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems scores: is isolation isolating?  

PubMed

The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey was used to measure the effect of isolation on patient satisfaction. Isolated patients reported lower scores for questions regarding physician communication and staff responsiveness. Overall scores for these domains were lower in isolated than in nonisolated patients. PMID:22476279

Vinski, Joan; Bertin, Mary; Sun, Zhiyuan; Gordon, Steven M; Bokar, Daniel; Merlino, James; Fraser, Thomas G

2012-05-01

357

Computer system isolates faults  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining transaction processing systems in continuous operation, a minicomputer system made by tolerant systems detects and isolates faults, then transfers work loads to the appropriate backup resource. An eternity system is actually 1 to 15 computer systems, called system building blocks, interconnected by a communication network. Modularity is provided by tolerant's flexible architecture technique. This allows a user to expand system capacity with nondedicated computers which can be assigned to tasks such as increasing processing power, user accessibility and database size as dictated by needs. The loosely-coupled nature of the system increases reliability.

Hall, D.E.

1983-11-01

358

Investigation of mercury thruster isolators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

Mantenieks, M. A.

1973-01-01

359

Statistical comparison of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a superposed epoch analysis of the morphology and energy deposition of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms. The study is based on auroral data acquired by the global ultraviolet imager (GUVI) on board the TIMED satellite and a total number of 13717 geomagnetic bay onsets identified with magnetometer data from SuperMAG and published previously by Newell and Gjerloev [2011]. Here the isolated substorms are those having separation of two consecutive onsets no less than 3 hours. While the three phases substorm are clearly shown in both isolated and non-isolated substorms, there are noticeable differences between the two types of substorms: (1) In the growth phase, the nighttime auroral power slightly increases for both types of substorms; isolated (non-isolated) substorms are associated with smaller (greater) nighttime auroral power; (2) In the expansion phase, substorm energy release is greater and more explosive for isolated than non-isolated substorms; (3) The recovery phase period is longer for isolated than for non-isolated substorms; (4) The winter-to-summer auroral power ratio is approximately constant throughout the three substorm phases and the ratio is larger for isolated (30%) than for non-isolated (20%) substorms. We also found that the polar cap area increases during the growth phase until ~10 min prior to the magnetic substorm onset and decreases rapidly after onset. The decrease is associated with the closure of the nightside auroral oval associated with substorm expansion. We found most of these differences can be related to the differences in their solar wind driving. We will present the results in detail and make a conclusion.

Liou, K.; Newell, P. T.; Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L. J.

2012-12-01

360

A prospective study of Cat-Scratch Disease in Lima-Peru.  

PubMed

Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD) is a benign lymphadenitis that may progress to severe or recurrent forms, and it is occasionally associated with morbidity. Between January of 1998 and March of 1999, forty-three suspected CSD patients were assessed in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia and the Instituto de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Twelve patients had a confirmed diagnosis, 8 of whom were women, and the mean age was 10 years old. The majority (53%) of the cases were encountered in the summer. All patients reported having had contact with cats. Fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy and skin lesions were the most frequent clinical features. Twelve patients had indirect immunofluorescence antibody test titers of between 1/50 and 1/800 for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. Two lymph node biopsies were histologically compatible with CSD. No positive blood cultures could be obtained. This is the first Peruvian prospective study able to identify B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in pediatric patients. PMID:12532216

Huarcaya, Erick; Maguiña, Ciro; Merello, Jenny; Cok, Jaime; Birtles, Richard; Infante, Berónica; Vidal, José; Tello, Afilio; Ventosilla, Palmira

2002-01-01

361

Cat-scratch disease in Crete: an update  

PubMed Central

There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11%) cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56) were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05). Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002) and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity.

Minadakis, Georgios; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2011-01-01

362

Mechanical strain isolator mount  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

James, Gordon E. (inventor)

1991-01-01

363

Cyclotide isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

Cyclotides are disulfide-rich cyclic peptides produced by plants with the presumed natural function of defense agents against insect pests. They are present in a wide range of plant tissues, being ribosomally synthesized via precursor proteins that are posttranslationally processed to produce mature peptides with a characteristic cyclic backbone and cystine knot motif associated with their six conserved cysteine residues. Their processing is not fully understood but involves asparaginyl endoproteinase activity. In addition to interest in their defense roles and their unique topologies, cyclotides have attracted attention as potential templates in peptide-based drug design applications. This chapter provides protocols for the isolation of cyclotides from plants, their detection and sequencing by mass spectrometry, and their structural analysis by NMR, as well as describing methods for the isolation of nucleic acid sequences that encode their precursor proteins. Assays to assess their membrane-binding interactions are also described. These protocols provide a "starter kit" for researchers entering the cyclotide field. PMID:23034223

Craik, David J; Henriques, Sonia Troeira; Mylne, Joshua S; Wang, Conan K

2012-01-01

364

Isolation of restrictible DNA.  

PubMed

A simple method for the isolation of pure and high-yield DNA from whole blood, suitable for restriction enzyme digestion, is described. The steps of the procedure are as follows: cell lysis with NH4Cl, NaHCO3, EDTA; digestion with proteinase K in the presence of SDS; extraction with phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol; and precipitation with ethanol. The 260 nm/280 nm absorbance ratio showed a mean value of 2, and the average yield of DNA was 212 micrograms/l. Such DNA preparations were found to be quite suitable for digestion by a variety of restriction endonucleases, as well as for the analysis of gene disorders by different biological methods. The method proposed appears to be useful in clinical chemistry laboratories. PMID:1892954

Topi?, E; Gluhak, J

1991-05-01

365

Fuel pump isolation mount  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a fuel system for passenger vehicles wherein an electric fuel pump is utilized to move fuel from a fuel tank to a fuel distribution device at an internal combustion engine and having a pressure regulator valve to direct excess fuel back to the fuel tank, an improvement to reduce noise emission and vibration. It comprises a fuel pump having a generally cylindrical casing with side walls and end walls, an open-ended enclosure surrounding the pump having walls spaced from the side walls and the end walls of the pump casing to allow the flow of fuel around the pump casing, means to suspend the enclosure in a fuel tank, and resilient coil springs at each end of the pump casing bearing at one end respectively against an end wall of the pump casing and bearing at the other end against the interior of the enclosure to resiliently isolate and float the pump within the enclosure.

Hoover, T.M.; Talaski, E.J.

1990-10-09

366

Magnetically coupled signal isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

367

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, Calvin J. (Los Alamos, NM); Dahlby, Joel W. (Los Alamos, NM); Gallimore, Bradford F. (Los Alamos, NM); Comer, Bob E. (Versailles, MO); Stone, Water A. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlson, David O. (Tesugue, NM)

1993-01-01

368

Isolated Northern Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

369

Genomics of isolation in hybrids  

PubMed Central

Hybrid zones are common in nature and can offer critical insights into the dynamics and components of reproductive isolation. Hybrids between diverged lineages are particularly informative about the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation, because introgression in an admixed population is a direct measure of isolation. In this paper, we combine simulations and a new statistical model to determine the extent to which different genetic architectures of isolation leave different signatures on genome-level patterns of introgression. We found that reproductive isolation caused by one or several loci of large effect caused greater heterogeneity in patterns of introgression than architectures involving many loci with small fitness effects, particularly when isolating factors were closely linked. The same conditions that led to heterogeneous introgression often resulted in a reasonable correspondence between outlier loci and the genetic loci that contributed to isolation. However, demographic conditions affected both of these results, highlighting potential limitations to the study of the speciation genomics. Further progress in understanding the genomics of speciation will require large-scale empirical studies of introgression in hybrid zones and model-based analyses, as well as more comprehensive modelling of the expected levels of isolation with different demographies and genetic architectures of isolation.

Gompert, Zachariah; Parchman, Thomas L.; Buerkle, C. Alex

2012-01-01

370

Molds Isolated from Pet Dogs  

PubMed Central

Pet dogs have been considered to be involved in the contamination of indoor air by serving as a source of providing molds at houses. Currently, information on the molds originated from pet dogs is rarely available in Korea. The present study was carried out to obtain basic information on the fungi present on pet dogs. For this, fungal isolation was performed to the skin and hairs of 70 pet dogs at different houses and veterinary hospitals. A total of 44 fungal isolates were obtained from skin (27 isolates) and hairs (17 isolates) of the dogs investigated. Based on the observation of microstructures and colony morphology, and the ITS rDNA sequence analysis, the fungal isolates were identified at the level of genus. The identified isolates belong to the genera of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis, and Trichoderma. Among these genera, Aspergillus (25%), Cladosporium (23%) and Penicillium (20.5%) were 3 major genera. 63% of the 44 isolates showed color changes on dermatophyte test medium (DTM). When we tested the growth ability of 44 isolates at 37?, 45% of the isolates were able to grow. These results show that pet dogs could carry fungi having a potentiality of affecting on human health.

Jang, Kye-Seung; Yun, Yeo-Hong; Yoo, Hun-Dal

2007-01-01

371

Cotton roll isolation versus Vac-Ejector isolation.  

PubMed

A visible-light-cured, white pit-and-fissure sealant was applied to 523 teeth in school children using either cotton rolls or a VacEjector for isolation. After a minimum of six months, the patients were recalled and the retention of the sealants was evaluated. No significant difference in sealant retention was found between the two isolation methods. PMID:2530257

Wood, A J; Saravia, M E; Farrington, F H

1989-01-01

372

Vibration isolation mounting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

373

Seismic isolation for Advanced LIGO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The baseline design concept for a seismic isolation component of the proposed 'Advanced LIGO' detector upgrade has been developed with proof-of-principle experiments and computer models. It consists of a two-stage in-vacuum active isolation platform that is supported by an external hydraulic actuation stage. Construction is underway for prototype testing of a full-scale preliminary design.

R Adhikari; G. Allen; S. Cowley; E. Daw; D. DeBra; J. Giaime; G. Hammond; M. Hammond; C. Hardham; J. How; W. Hua; W. Johnson; B. Lantz; K. Mason; R. Mittleman; J. Nichol; S. Richman; J. Rollins; D. Shoemaker; G. Stapfer; R. Stebbins

2002-01-01

374

Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

Foster, John E.

2000-01-01

375

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

376

Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolation in layers.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolations in live chickens have been made from swabs obtained primarily from the trachea or nasal exudates. As tracheal swabs are often contaminated with feed and because tracheal swabbing may be stressful to the bird, this study was conducted to determine if swabs from the choanal cleft (palatine fissure) would yield MG isolation rates comparable to MG isolation rates of swabs taken from the trachea. Commercial Leghorns from 17 to 22 weeks of age were inoculated via eyedrop with the F strain of MG. Swabs were made from the trachea or the choanal cleft region (palatine fissure) when the chickens were 58 to 63 weeks of age; MG was isolated from 15 of 101 tracheal swab samples and from 51 of 108 choanal cleft swab samples. This study indicates that swabs taken from the choanal cleft region yield higher isolation rates and are more easily obtained than tracheal swabs. PMID:6387691

Branton, S L; Gerlach, H; Kleven, S H

1984-10-01

377

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

378

Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis.  

PubMed

In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:23400696

Berghoff, Walter

2012-01-01

379

A translocation motif in relaxase TrwC specifically affects recruitment by its conjugative type IV secretion system.  

PubMed

Type IV secretion system (T4SS) substrates are recruited through a translocation signal that is poorly defined for conjugative relaxases. The relaxase TrwC of plasmid R388 is translocated by its cognate conjugative T4SS, and it can also be translocated by the VirB/D4 T4SS of Bartonella henselae, causing DNA transfer to human cells. In this work, we constructed a series of TrwC variants and assayed them for DNA transfer to bacteria and human cells to compare recruitment requirements by both T4SSs. Comparison with other reported relaxase translocation signals allowed us to determine two putative translocation sequence (TS) motifs, TS1 and TS2. Mutations affecting TS1 drastically affected conjugation frequencies, while mutations affecting either motif had only a mild effect on DNA transfer rates through the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. henselae. These results indicate that a single substrate can be recruited by two different T4SSs through different signals. The C terminus affected DNA transfer rates through both T4SSs tested, but no specific sequence requirement was detected. The addition of a Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain, the translocation signal for the Bartonella VirB/D4 T4SS, increased DNA transfer up to 4% of infected human cells, providing an excellent tool for DNA delivery to specific cell types. We show that the R388 coupling protein TrwB is also required for this high-efficiency TrwC-BID translocation. Other elements apart from the coupling protein may also be involved in substrate recognition by T4SSs. PMID:23995644

Alperi, Anabel; Larrea, Delfina; Fernández-González, Esther; Dehio, Christoph; Zechner, Ellen L; Llosa, Matxalen

2013-11-01

380

Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for Campylobacter jejuni.

Berghoff, Walter

2012-01-01

381

A Translocation Motif in Relaxase TrwC Specifically Affects Recruitment by Its Conjugative Type IV Secretion System  

PubMed Central

Type IV secretion system (T4SS) substrates are recruited through a translocation signal that is poorly defined for conjugative relaxases. The relaxase TrwC of plasmid R388 is translocated by its cognate conjugative T4SS, and it can also be translocated by the VirB/D4 T4SS of Bartonella henselae, causing DNA transfer to human cells. In this work, we constructed a series of TrwC variants and assayed them for DNA transfer to bacteria and human cells to compare recruitment requirements by both T4SSs. Comparison with other reported relaxase translocation signals allowed us to determine two putative translocation sequence (TS) motifs, TS1 and TS2. Mutations affecting TS1 drastically affected conjugation frequencies, while mutations affecting either motif had only a mild effect on DNA transfer rates through the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. henselae. These results indicate that a single substrate can be recruited by two different T4SSs through different signals. The C terminus affected DNA transfer rates through both T4SSs tested, but no specific sequence requirement was detected. The addition of a Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain, the translocation signal for the Bartonella VirB/D4 T4SS, increased DNA transfer up to 4% of infected human cells, providing an excellent tool for DNA delivery to specific cell types. We show that the R388 coupling protein TrwB is also required for this high-efficiency TrwC-BID translocation. Other elements apart from the coupling protein may also be involved in substrate recognition by T4SSs.

Alperi, Anabel; Larrea, Delfina; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Esther; Dehio, Christoph; Zechner, Ellen L.

2013-01-01

382

Browsing Isolated Population Data  

PubMed Central

Background In our studies of genetically isolated populations in a remote mountain area in the center of Sardinia (Italy), we found that 80–85% of the inhabitants of each village belong to a single huge pedigree with families strictly connected to each other through hundreds of loops. Moreover, intermarriages between villages join pedigrees of different villages through links that make family trees even more complicated. Unfortunately, none of the commonly used pedigree drawing tools are able to draw the complete pedigree, whereas it is commonly accepted that the visual representation of families is very important as it helps researchers in identifying clusters of inherited traits and genotypes. We had a representation issue that compels researchers to work with subsets extracted from the overall genealogy, causing a serious loss of information on familiar relationships. To visually explore such complex pedigrees, we developed PedNavigator, a browser for genealogical databases properly suited for genetic studies. Results The PedNavigator is useful for genealogical research due to its capacity to represent family relations between persons and to make a visual verification of the links during family history reconstruction. As for genetic studies, it is helpful to follow propagation of a specific set of genetic markers (haplotype), or to select people for linkage analysis, showing relations between various branch of a family tree of affected subjects. Availability PedNavigator is an application integrated into a Framework designed to handle data for human genetic studies based on the Oracle platform. To allow the use of PedNavigator also to people not owning the same required informatics infrastructure or systems, we developed PedNavigator Lite with mainly the same features of the integrated one, based on MySQL database server. This version is free for academic users, and it is available for download from our site

Mancosu, Gianmaria; Cosso, Massimiliano; Marras, Francesca; Borlino, Cesare Cappio; Ledda, Giuseppe; Manias, Teresa; Adamo, Mauro; Serra, Donatella; Melis, Paola; Pirastu, Mario

2005-01-01

383

Characterization of Haemophilus paragallinarum isolates from Mexico.  

PubMed

The carbohydrate fermentation, antimicrobial drug resistance and serological properties of 40 isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum from outbreaks of infectious coryza in Mexico are described. Four biochemical biovariants and five antimicrobial drug resistance patterns were recognized. All isolates were serotyped by the Page scheme, with 21 isolates being assigned to serogroup A, five isolates to serogroup B and 14 isolates to serogroup C. PMID:19184840

Fernandez, R P; Garcia-Delgado, G A; Ochoa, P; Soriano, V E

2000-10-01

384

Isolated vastus lateralis tendon avulsion.  

PubMed

Isolated avulsion of the vastus lateralis tendon is a very rare injury. To our knowledge, only 1 case has been reported in the literature. This tendon is crucial to knee stability and proper patellofemoral tracking. As isolated avulsion of the tendon tends to occur in young, active males, early surgical repair is recommended to allow them to maintain a high level of functional ability. We present the case of a 49-year-old man who sustained an isolated vastus lateralis tendon avulsion injury. The injury was successfully treated with suture anchor repair. PMID:24278905

Frank, Jonathan M; Riedel, Matthew D; McCormick, Frank M; Nho, Shane J

2013-10-01

385

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

386

Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States) [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

2012-10-12

387

Isolation of Lignocellulose Transforming Microbes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research demonstrated that a Basidiomycete fungus, Irpex lacteus, isolated from active galleries of the beetle Xyloterinus politus in Quercus (oak) trees, degraded approximately five times as much lignin from the standard hardwood substrate, No. 002 wood,...

D. M. Norris

1980-01-01

388

Isolation of microbial natural products.  

PubMed

In principle, the isolation of secondary metabolites from microbes does not differ from their isolation from other organisms. The extraction procedure may of course be quite different, especially if it is carried out in an industrial scale, but when an extract containing the metabolites of interest is at hand, it is the same palette of adsorbents and chromatographic techniques that provide the major tools for the fractionation and eventual isolation of the pure compounds. Compared to plants, in which one is sure to find secondary metabolites of certain types, e.g., flavonoids, microbes can be expected to produce virtually anything and it is important to go about the fractionation procedure with an open mind. This chapter presents an overview of preparation of extracts from microbial sources, and various methods and strategies involved in the isolation and characterization of microbial natural products. PMID:22367905

Sterner, Olov

2012-01-01

389

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperchlorhidrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... XII is able to control the amount of salt released in sweat. The CA12 gene mutation involved in isolated hyperchlorhidrosis leads to reduction of CA XII protein function. Researchers speculate that ...

390

Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation  

PubMed Central

Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications.

Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

391

Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation.  

PubMed

Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

392

Study Of Active Vibration Isolators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents study of single-link ibration-isolating active suspensions, used to suppress vibrations in structures or to protect delicate scientific instruments from vibrations generated by nearby machinery. In study, suspensions analyzed in terms of mechanical impedance.

Lurie, Boris J.; Fanson, James L.; Laskin, Robert A.

1993-01-01

393

Protocol for Isolation of HCEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Microvascular HCEC are isolated from fresh biopsies of normal human brain following a modified version of the isolation protocol\\u000a by Bowman (1). The samples of normal human brain tissue are gained on occasion of surgical approach to deep seated lesions\\u000a or after resection of epileptogeneic foci. Informed consent of the patients has to be obtained in each case and the

Roland H. Goldbrunner; Martin Bendszus; Jörg-Christian Tonn

394

Mechanical isolation for gravity gradiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In principle, gravity gradiometers are immune to the effects of acceleration and vibrations. In real instruments, scale factor errors and structural compliance lead to undesired instrument outputs. Described here are the instruments and the fundamental sources of the problems, a calculation of the magnitude of the effects, a demonstration of the need for isolation in the Shuttle (indeed, almost any spacecraft), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory eddy current isolation technique and its current development status.

Sonnabend, David

1990-08-01

395

Market study: Biological isolation garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

1975-01-01

396

Mechanical isolation for gravity gradiometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In principle, gravity gradiometers are immune to the effects of acceleration and vibrations. In real instruments, scale factor errors and structural compliance lead to undesired instrument outputs. Described here are the instruments and the fundamental sources of the problems, a calculation of the magnitude of the effects, a demonstration of the need for isolation in the Shuttle (indeed, almost any spacecraft), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory eddy current isolation technique and its current development status.

Sonnabend, David

1990-01-01

397

Isolation of Pseudomonas corrugata from Sikkim Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two isolates of Pseudomonas corrugata, P. corrugata 1, a rhizosphere associate, and P. corrugata 7, a rhizoplane associate have been isolated and characterized from maize soils; these isolates are from the subtropical and temperate regions, respectively in Sikkim Himalaya. The two isolates have been found to be positive for: (i) production of antifungal compounds; (ii) phosphate-solubilizing activity; (iii) nitrogenase activity;

A. Pandey; L. M. S. Palni

1998-01-01

398

Mass Isolation of Pea Nuclei  

PubMed Central

Improvements in conventional filtration and centrifugation procedures made it possible to increase the yield of intact cytoplasm-free pea (Pisum sativum) nuclei from the usual 3 to 10% to 32% (6 × 108 nuclei per 7 grams fresh weight of pea apices) and to complete the isolation in 80 to 90 minutes. The isolated nuclei appeared to retain their structural integrity as revealed in electron photomicrographs, and remained intact for at least 5 hours at 20 Celsius. The DNA:RNA: protein ratio of isolated pea nuclei was found to be 3.1:1:9.9. Their RNA polymerase activity, monitored by incorporation of 14C into RNA from 14C-UTP, was linear for about 10 minutes, and then gradually declined over the next 15 to 20 minutes. Images

Tautvydas, Kestutis J.

1971-01-01

399

Isolated systems in general relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated systems in General Relativity were studied. Radiation effects on composite isolated systems are examined. The non-linear asymptotic vacuum field equations were solved in the formalism of Newman and Penrose. A Spin Weight Spherical Harmonics representation of the source was used. The concept of angular momentum is examined for isolated systems in General Relativity. It is argued that, on physical grounds, the definition of angular momentum in General Relativity should stem from the expression linear momentum in a way similar to the expression L = rxP used for theories in pseudo-Euclidian spaces. Starting from the most commonly accepted definitions of energy-momentum, it is found that the Landau and Lifshitz quantity which is the only one derived from a symmetric energy momentum expression is also the only one to reduce to the angular momentum of the non-radiative exact Kerr solution. This result is strikingly different from what is usually proposed in the literature.

Cresswell, A.

400

Arabidopsis organelle isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

The subcellular energy organelles (chloroplast, mitochondria, and peroxisome) in plants are responsible for major metabolic processes including photosynthesis, photorespiration, oxidative phosphorylation, ?-oxidation, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Arabidopsis thaliana provides a considerable challenge to organellar researchers that have traditionally focused their methods on the use of larger plants and storage organs from which organelles are relatively easy to isolate. In contrast, the small size and lack of abundant heterotrophic organs in Arabidopsis thaliana means that many traditional techniques have required significant modification to yield enough isolated organelles for experimentation. However, these challenges are balanced by the advantages of working in an organism that has such a wide array of publically available genetic resources. Here we present methods for the isolation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes from Arabidopsis thaliana plants and heterotrophic cell cultures as well as a number of commonly used assays to assess their functional integrity and purity. PMID:24057386

Taylor, Nicolas L; Ströher, Elke; Millar, A Harvey

2014-01-01

401

Perceived Social Isolation and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e., loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, more negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism, and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact emotions, decisions, behaviors, and interpersonal interactions that may contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally.

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.

2009-01-01

402

Resonant isolator for maser amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isolator is described for use in a low noise maser amplifier, which provides low loss across a wide bandwidth and which can be constructed at moderate cost. The isolator includes a train of garnet or ferrite elements extending along the length of a microwave channel parallel to the slow wave structure, with the elements being of staggered height, so that the thin elements which are resonant to the microwaves are separated by much thicker elements. The thick garnet or ferrite elements reduce the magnetic flux passing through the thin elements to permit altering of the shape of the thin elements so as to facilitate their fabrication and to provide better isolation with reduced loss, by increasing the thickness of the thin elements and decreasing their length and width.

Clauss, R. C.; Quinn, R. B. (inventors)

1983-01-01

403

Fusarochromanone production by Fusarium isolates.  

PubMed Central

Sixty two Fusarium isolates representing nine species from many parts of the world were screened for fusarochromanone production. A simplified method for the detection of fusarochromanone in culture filtrates or grain cultures was used. Under UV irradiation (364 nm) the chloroform phase from fusarochromanone-positive culture extracts fluoresced a characteristic bright blue color. Results were confirmed by thin-layer-chromatography comparison with pure fusarochromanone standards. Detection was possible in cultures as young as 1 week old. Biosynthesis of fusarochromanone was rare in Fusarium spp. and was only detected in three isolates of Fusarium equiseti, namely R-4482 (barley [Federal Republic of Germany]), R-6137 (barley [Alaska]), and R-8508 (potato [Denmark]), among all the isolates tested from various geographic sources. Images

Wu, W D; Nelson, P E; Cook, M E; Smalley, E B

1990-01-01

404

Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

1977-01-01

405

Plantar fibromatosis: an isolated disease.  

PubMed

Plantar fibromatosis is a relatively uncommon benign disease characterized by bilateral nodular thickening of the plantar fascia similar in appearance to the disease which occurs in the palm of the hand. Descriptions of plantar fibromatosis in the literature were usually included as a part of a syndrome described as ectopic diseases of Dupuytren. Isolated case reports have described Dupuytren-like contractures of the plantar fascia but often suggested a relationship with palmar lesions. We have recently treated four patients with isolated plantar fibromatosis without other stigmata of Dupuytren's disease. These patients were treated by removal of all the involved plantar fascia with a wide margin of normal-appearing fascia. PMID:2911628

Haedicke, G J; Sturim, H S

1989-02-01

406

Isolated cleft of alar rim  

PubMed Central

Alar rim defects are most commonly acquired as a result of trauma, burns, tumor excision or sometimes accompanying craniofacial clefts. However, isolated congenital alar defects are extremely rare occurring in about 1 in 20,000 to 40,000 live births. We are presenting a case report of an isolated congenital cleft of the alar rim. The defect was closed by the use of a rotation advancement full-thickness flap. With this technique, both symmetry and desired thickness of the nostrils were achieved. The skin color and texture of the alar rim were good with minimal scars.

Kannan, R.; John, Reena; Elangovan, Rethish

2012-01-01

407

Isolated Horner's syndrome and syringomyelia  

PubMed Central

Although syringomyelia has been associated with Horner's syndrome, it is typically associated with other neurological findings such as upper limb weakness or numbness. A patient is described who had an isolated Horner's syndrome as the only manifestation of syringomyelia. A 76 year old woman was discovered to have right upper lid ptosis and right pupillary miosis. Neurological examination was unremarkable, and pharmacological testing was consistent with localisation of the lesion to a first or second order sympathetic neuron. Neuroimaging disclosed a Chiari I malformation with a syrinx extending to the C2 to C4 level. An isolated Horner's syndrome may be the presenting manifestation of syringomyelia.??

Kerrison, J.; Biousse, V.; Newman, N.

2000-01-01

408

Content-Based Isolation: Rethinking Isolation Policy in Modern Client Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern client platforms, such as iOS, Android, Windows Phone 7, and Windows 8, have progressed from a per-user isolation policy, where users are isolated, but a user's applications run in the same isolation container, to an application isolation policy, where different applications are isolated from one another. However, this is not enough because mutually distrusting content can interfere with one

Alexander Moshchuk; Helen J. Wang; Yunxin Liu

2012-01-01

409

Protein synthesis by isolated chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated chloroplasts show substantial rates of protein synthesis when illuminated. This ‘in organello’ protein synthesis system has been advantageously utilised to elucidate the coding capacity of chloroplast and the regulation of chloroplast genes. The system is also being used recently to transcribe and translate homologous and heterologous templates. In this mini-review, we attempt to critically ecaluate the available literature and

A. Gnanam; C. C. Subbaiah; R. Mannar Mannan

1988-01-01

410

Seismic Isolation of Highway Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 200 bridges have been designed or retrofitted in the United States using seismic isolation in the last 20 years, and more than a thousand bridges around the world now use this cost- effective technique for seismic protection. Intended to supplem...

2006-01-01

411

Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-06-30

412

Isolation of saprophytic Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed

Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans was carried out on sunflower seed agar medium (SFA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Out of 346 environmental substrates (133 fruits, 107 avian extreta, 91 vegetables and 15 wooden scrapings) tested, 3 specimens were positive for C. neoformans. The positive isolations came from the fruits of 2 banana (Musa sapientum) and a potato tuber (Solnum tuberosum). The pathogen could not be demonstrated in 107 samples of avian droppings and 15 of wooden materials. All the 3 isolates of the yeast were obtained on SFA, while they were not cultured on the plates of SDA with chloramphenicol which were badly contaminated with rapidly growing molds, yeasts and bacteria. To the present author's knowledge, this appears to be the first reports of the isolation of this pathogenic basidiomycetous yeast from contaminated fruits of banana. We suggest more comprehensive ecological surveys to search for environmental niche of C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii as the latter variety is also implicated in the etiology of cryptococcosis. PMID:2287124

Pal, M; Onda, C; Hasegawa, A

1990-12-01

413

Substances isolated from Mandragora species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of knowledge in the chemistry of mandragora plant is reviewed. Isolations and identifications of the compounds were done from all parts of this plant. Up-to-date more than 80 substances were identified in different species of the genus Mandragora.

Lumír O. Hanuš; Tomáš ?ezanka; Jaroslav Spížek; Valery M. Dembitsky

2005-01-01

414

Substances isolated from Mandragora species.  

PubMed

The present state of knowledge in the chemistry of mandragora plant is reviewed. Isolations and identifications of the compounds were done from all parts of this plant. Up-to-date more than 80 substances were identified in different species of the genus Mandragora. PMID:16137728

Hanus, Lumír O; Rezanka, Tomás; Spízek, Jaroslav; Dembitsky, Valery M

2005-10-01

415

Are Small, Isolated Wetlands Expendable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is most evident in the recent debate concerning new wetland regulations drafted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is that small, isolated wetlands will likely continue to be lost. The critical biological question is whether small wetlands are expendable, and the fundamental issue is the lack of biologically rele- vant data on the value of wetlands, especially so-called

Raymond D. Semlitsch; J. Russell Bodie

1998-01-01

416

HTLV III Virus Isolation Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systematic viral isolation study has been performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from Air Force personnel positive for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) as assessed by HIV-ELISA and/or immunoblot assays. The co-culture t...

T. C. Chanh

1989-01-01

417

Isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.  

PubMed

Isolated pulmonary involvement in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is rare in childhood. The authors report a 6-y- old boy presenting with recurrent pneumothorax, whose CT thorax showed diffuse pulmonary cystic lucencies bilaterally. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed pulmonary LCH with Cd1a and S 100 positivity. PMID:23001923

Varkki, Sneha; Tergestina, Mintoo; Bhonsle, Vaishali Sharad; Moses, Prabhakar D; Mathai, John; Korula, Sophy

2013-08-01

418

Isolated noncompaction of the myocardium.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 42-year-old female with fatigue on exertion and palpitation consequent to the existence of isolated noncompaction of the myocardium. We discuss clinical and familial findings, diagnostic possibilities, and prognostic and therapeutical implications of this rare disorder of endomyocardial morphogenesis. PMID:10951828

Elias, J; Valadão, W; Kuniyoshi, R; Queiroz, A; Peixoto, C A

2000-03-01

419

SAG Compensated Vibration Isolation Mount.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sag-compensated vibration isolation mount includes a cylindrical rubber body element and a circular band extending around the body element. The band is formed from a shape-memory alloy metal which has a predetermined transition temperature. The band is ...

S. Dickinson

1993-01-01

420

Active suspensions for vibration isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of mechanical impedances is used to analyze constraints on a single-link vibration isolation suspension. In particular, an assessment is made of the effects of the limited feedback bandwidth on the achievable suspension impedance and corresponding limits of attenuation of the transmitted force using Bode integral constraints and Blackman's formula. The performance of a piezoelectric strut is evaluated as an example.

Lurie, B. J.; Fanson, J. L.; Laskin, R. A.

1991-01-01

421

Breaking the Barriers of Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the College of Eastern Utah's San Juan Center for Higher Education which was designed to serve San Juan County's isolated and economically disadvantaged population. Describes the diverse educational needs of county residents, the center's administration, cooperative arrangements, the use of community facilities and itinerant instructors,…

Potter, Van

1980-01-01

422

Evolution of reproductive isolation in plants.  

PubMed

Reproductive isolation is essential for the process of speciation and much has been learned in recent years about the ecology and underlying genetics of reproductive barriers. But plant species are typically isolated not by a single factor, but by a large number of different pre- and postzygotic barriers, and their potentially complex interactions. This phenomenon has often been ignored to date. Recent studies of the relative importance of different isolating barriers between plant species pairs concluded that prezygotic isolation is much stronger than postzygotic isolation. But studies of the patterns of reproductive isolation in plants did not find that prezygotic isolation evolves faster than postzygotic isolation, in contrast to most animals. This may be due to the multiple premating barriers that isolate most species pairs, some of which may be controlled by few genes of major effect and evolve rapidly, whereas others have a complex genetic architecture and evolve more slowly. Intrinsic postzygotic isolation in plants is correlated with genetic divergence, but some instrinsic postzygotic barriers evolve rapidly and are polymorphic within species. Extrinsic postzygotic barriers are rarely included in estimates of different components of reproductive isolation. Much remains to be learned about ecological and molecular interactions among isolating barriers. The role of reinforcement and reproductive character displacement in the evolution of premating barriers is an open topic that deserves further study. At the molecular level, chromosomal and genic isolation factors may be associated and act in concert to mediate reproductive isolation, but their interactions are only starting to be explored. PMID:18648386

Widmer, A; Lexer, C; Cozzolino, S

2009-01-01

423

BENCHMARK BASE ISOLATED BUILDING WITH CONTROLLED BILINEAR ISOLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a sample control design for the base isolated benchmark building with bilinear hysteretic bearings (e.g., lead-rubber bearings). Designing a standard linear optimal controller (e.g. ,L QR) requires a linear model of the structure. An appropriate linearized model of the nonlinear structure requires knowledge of the response characteristics of the structure. However, the response depends on the controller,

Baris Erkus; Erik A. Johnson

424

SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43. Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

425

NASDA's activities on vibration isolation technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Space Development Agency's (NASDA) activities in providing various vibration isolation technologies for the Space Station Mission are covered in viewgraph form. Technologies