Sample records for bartonella henselae isolates

  1. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing of Bartonella henselae Isolates from Three Continents Reveals Hypervirulent and Feline-Associated Clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mardjan Arvand; Edward J. Feil; Michael Giladi; Henri-Jean Boulouis; Juliane Viezens; Rosemary Redfield

    2007-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of cat scratch disease and a variety of other disease manifestations in humans. Previous investigations have suggested that a limited subset of B. henselae isolates may be associated with human disease. In the present study, 182 human and feline B. henselae isolates from Europe, North America and Australia were analysed

  2. Combined MLST and AFLP typing of Bartonella henselae isolated from cats reveals new sequence types and suggests clonal evolution.

    PubMed

    Mietze, A; Morick, D; Köhler, H; Harrus, S; Dehio, C; Nolte, I; Goethe, R

    2011-03-24

    Bartonella species are Gram-negative, fastidious bacteria. Bartonella henselae is found in cats and transmitted to humans via cat scratches or bites causing cat-scratch disease, characterized by clinical symptoms with varying severity. The prevalence of bartonellosis among humans in Germany appears to be high, and severe clinical cases have been described. However, epidemiological data of B. henselae in cats are rare. In this study we determined the detection rates of Bartonella ssp. in cats by culture and real-time PCR. Furthermore, B. henselae isolates were genetically characterized by highly discriminatory amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Bartonella spp. were isolated by culture from 11 (2.2%) of 507 blood samples. Out of 169 blood samples additionally analyzed by PCR, 28 (16.6%) were found positive for Bartonella spp., illustrating the advantage of PCR in Bartonella spp. detection. PCR-REA identified B. henselae in 27 cats and Bartonella clarridgeiae in one cat. B. henselae isolates from different geographical regions in Germany were genetically characterized by AFLP and MLST. Both methods confirmed genetic diversity of B. henselae on the strain level. MLST identified 11 new sequence types, all of them assigned to three clonal complexes as determined by eBURST. AFLP typing revealed genetic relation among the B. henselae isolates from the same geographical region. Combining AFLP typing and MLST/eBURST analyses revealed that B. henselae of the same AFLP subcluster belonged to the same clonal complex. Altogether these results indicate that B. henselae may evolve clonally. PMID:20863631

  3. Combined MLST and AFLP typing of Bartonella henselae isolated from cats reveals new sequence types and suggests clonal evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mietze; D. Morick; H. Köhler; S. Harrus; C. Dehio; I. Nolte; R. Goethe

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella species are Gram-negative, fastidious bacteria. Bartonella henselae is found in cats and transmitted to humans via cat scratches or bites causing cat-scratch disease, characterized by clinical symptoms with varying severity. The prevalence of bartonellosis among humans in Germany appears to be high, and severe clinical cases have been described. However, epidemiological data of B. henselae in cats are rare.

  4. Bartonella henselae in captive and hunter-harvested beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Raverty, Stephen A; Lester, Sally J; Huff, David G; Haulena, Martin; Ford, Susan L; Nielsen, Ole; Robinson, John H; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2008-10-01

    Previously, we reported the isolation of Bartonella henselae from the blood of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from the North Carolina coast. Hematologic, pathologic, and microbiologic findings surrounding the death of a juvenile captive beluga in Vancouver initiated an outbreak investigation designed to define the molecular prevalence of Bartonella infection in belugas. Using polymerase chain reaction analyses targeting the intergenic spacer region (ITS), two B. henselae ITS strains were identified in 78% of captive and free-ranging hunter-harvested belugas. These findings may have public health implications and may influence aquarium management procedures for captive marine mammals. PMID:18957643

  5. Detection and identification of two Bartonella henselae variants in domestic cats in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Sander, A; Bühler, C; Pelz, K; von Cramm, E; Bredt, W

    1997-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of bacteremia caused by Bartonella henselae in domestic cats in the region of Freiburg, Germany, we investigated culture of blood from 100 cats from 89 different households over a 12-month period. B. henselae could be isolated from 13% (13 of 100) of these cats. In eight households with two cats each and in one household with three cats, B. henselae bacteremia was found either in all of the animals or in none of the animals. Positive cultures were more likely to be found for female, young (24 months of age or younger) cats than for male or older cats. Identification of the Bartonella isolates was made by colony morphology, by Gram staining, biochemically by RapID ANA II or Rapid ID 32 A systems, and by whole-cell fatty acid analysis. Differentiation between B. henselae and Bartonella quintana was only possible by 16S rRNA sequencing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Genomic fingerprinting of the B. henselae isolates by ERIC-PCR yielded two different patterns based on three distinct bands. PMID:9041393

  6. Did Bartonella henselae contribute to the deaths of two veterinarians?

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a flea-transmitted bacterium, causes chronic, zoonotic, blood stream infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients throughout the world. As an intra-erythrocytic and endotheliotropic bacterium, B. henselae causes a spectrum of symptomatology ranging from asymptomatic bacteremia to fever, endocarditis and death. Veterinary workers are at occupational risk for acquiring bartonellosis. As an emerging, and incompletely understood, stealth bacterial pathogen, B. henselae may or may not have been responsible for the deaths of two veterinarians; however, recent evidence indicates that this genus is of much greater medical importance than is currently appreciated by the majority of the biomedical community. PMID:26062543

  7. Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family from the Netherlands contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960), designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae (son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy. Methods Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform. Results The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification. Conclusions Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely source of transmission and the mother, a physician, reported that clinical symptoms developed following tick exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a B. henselae organism has been visualized in and amplified from a striae lesion. As the tick bites occurred three years prior to documentation of B. henselae bacteremia, the mode of transmission could not be determined. PMID:23587194

  8. Bartonella henselae Endocarditis in Laos – ‘The Unsought Will Go Undetected’

    PubMed Central

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chu, Vang; Frichitthavong, Khamthavy; Kesone, Pany; Mayxay, Mayfong; Mirabel, Mariana; Newton, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos), probably because people have neglected to look. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective (2006–2012), and subsequent prospective study (2012–2013), at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis. Conclusions/Significance We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than “conventional” endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for Bartonella endocarditis and the importance of vectors and vector control. PMID:25503777

  9. Interaction of Bartonella henselae with the Murine Macrophage Cell Line J774: Infection and Proinflammatory Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIZIANA MUSSO; RAFFAELE BADOLATO; DANIELA RAVARINO; SARAH STORNELLO; PATRIZIA PANZANELLI; CHIARA MERLINO; DIANELLA SAVOIA; ROSSANA CAVALLO; ALESSANDRO NEGRO PONZI; MARIO ZUCCA

    2001-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), a self-limiting condition characterized by a subacute regional lymphadenopathy that may develop into disseminated bartonellosis in immunocom- promised subjects. Mice experimentally infected with B. henselae display typical liver and spleen granulomas rich in T cells and macrophages. So far there are no data on the interaction between bartonellae and

  10. Monoclonal and biclonal gammopathy in two patients infected with Bartonella henselae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krause; H. W. Auner; F. Daxböck; A. Mulabecirovic; G. J. Krejs; C. Wenisch; E. C. Reisinger

    2003-01-01

    Two immunocompetent patients with cat-scratch disease due to infection with Bartonella henselae developed monoclonal and biclonal gammopathy. Neither patient had evidence of any other known cause of plasma cell dyscrasia, and antibiotic eradication of Bartonella henselae infection resulted in the prompt disappearance of the gammopathy. Hence, cat-scratch disease should be added to the list of possible underlying disorders in individuals

  11. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish Family.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Bradley, Julie M; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2015-05-01

    Bartonella species constitute emerging, vector-borne, intravascular pathogens that produce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (natural host or passive carrier of a microorganism) and opportunistic hosts. With the advent of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, there is evolving microbiological evidence supporting concurrent infection with one or more Bartonella spp. in more than one family member; however, the mode(s) of transmission to or among family members remains unclear. In this study, we provide molecular microbiological evidence of Bartonella henselae genotype San Antonio 2 (SA2) infection in four of six Danish family members, including a child who died of unknown causes at 14 months of age. PMID:25740763

  12. Bartonella henselae Invasion of Feline Erythrocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mehock, Jane R.; Greene, Craig E.; Gherardini, Frank C.; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Krause, Duncan C.

    1998-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, establishes long-term bacteremia in cats, in which it attaches to and invades feline erythrocytes (RBC). Feline RBC invasion was assessed in vitro, based on gentamicin selection for intracellular bacteria or by laser confocal microscopy and digital sectioning. Invasion rates ranged from 2 to 20% of the inoculum, corresponding to infection of less than 1% of the RBC. Invasion was a slow process, requiring >8 h before significant numbers of intracellular bacteria were detected. Pretreatment of the bacteria with trypsin, or of the RBC with trypsin or neuraminidase, had no effect, but pronase pretreatment of RBC resulted in a slight increase in invasion frequency. The ability to model B. henselae invasion of feline RBC in vitro should permit identification of bacterial surface components involved in this process and elucidate the significance of RBC invasion to transmission and infection in cats. PMID:9632625

  13. Bartonella henselae in Ixodes ricinus Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) Removed from Humans, Belluno Province, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Sanogo, Yibayiri O.; Zeaiter, Zaher; Caruso, Guiseppe; Merola, Francesco; Shpynov, Stanislav; Brouqui, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The potential role of ticks as vectors of Bartonella species has recently been suggested. In this study, we investigated the presence of Bartonella species in 271 ticks removed from humans in Belluno Province, Italy. By using primers derived from the 60-kDa heat shock protein gene sequences, Bartonella DNA was amplified and sequenced from four Ixodes ricinus ticks (1.48%). To confirm this finding, we performed amplification and partial sequencing of the pap31 protein and the cell division protein FtsZ encoding genes. This process allowed us to definitively identify B. henselae (genotype Houston-1) DNA in the four ticks. Detection of B. henselae in these ticks might represent a highly sensitive form of xenodiagnosis. B. henselae is the first human-infecting Bartonella identified from Ixodes ricinus, a common European tick and the vector of various tickborne pathogens. The role of ticks in the transmission of bartonellosis should be further investigated. PMID:12643827

  14. Canine bartonellosis: serological and molecular prevalence in Brazil and evidence of co-infection with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Paulo; Ricardo Guillermo M; Julie Meredith; Edward Bealmear

    The purpose of this study was to determine the serological and molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in a sick dog population from Brazil. At the São Paulo State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Botucatu, 198 consecutive dogs with clinicopathological abnor- malities consistent with tick-borne infections were sampled. Antibodies to Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii were detected in

  15. Bartonella henselae Pap31, an Extracellular Matrix Adhesin, Binds the Fibronectin Repeat III13 Module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Dabo; A. W. Confer; B. E. Anderson; Snehalata Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Bartonella henselae wound-associated infections suggest involvement of extracellular matrix molecules in adhesion and invasion. Pap31 was previously identified as a hemin-binding protein. Our recent studies suggest the protein is an adhesin that is recognized by the host's immune systems. In this study we examined the interactions of B. henselae Pap31 with fibronectin (Fn), heparin (Hep), and human umbilical vein endothelial

  16. Human Coinfection with Bartonella henselae and Two Hemotropic Mycoplasma Variants Resembling Mycoplasma ovis?

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Jane E.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    Two variants of an organism resembling the ovine hemoplasma, Mycoplasma ovis, were detected by PCR in blood samples from a veterinarian in Texas. Coinfection with similar variants has been described in sheep. This represents the first report of human infection with this organism. The veterinarian was coinfected with Bartonella henselae. PMID:20702675

  17. Prostatitis, Steatitis, and Diarrhea in a Dog following Presumptive Flea-Borne Transmission of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

  18. Bartonella henselae in Skin Biopsy Specimens of Patients with Cat-Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Edouard, Sophie; La Scola, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    During the past 2 years, we identified live Bartonella henselae in the primary inoculation sites of 3 patients after a cat scratch. Although our data are preliminary, we report that a cutaneous swab of the skin lesion from a patient in the early stage of cat-scratch disease can be useful for diagnosis of the infection. PMID:21122232

  19. Occurrence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in ticks collected from humans in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mietze, A; Strube, C; Beyerbach, M; Schnieder, T; Goethe, R

    2011-06-01

    Bartonella (B.) henselae is the zoonotic agent of cat scratch disease. B. henselae has been associated with therapy-resistant Lyme disease in humans suggesting that B. henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato might be transmitted concurrently by ticks. In the present study we found that 16 (6.9%) of 230 Ixodes ricinus collected from humans harboured DNA of Bartonella spp. Fifteen positive ticks were infected with B. henselae and one tick with B. clarridgeiae. Twenty-five percent of the 16 Bartonella positive ticks were co-infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Our data show that B. henselae is present in Ixodes ricinus and that ticks may serve as source of infection for humans. PMID:21682805

  20. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Bartonella henselae IN A SERONEGATIVE CAT SCRATCH DISEASE PATIENT WITH AIDS IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Favacho, Alexsandra R.m.; Roger, Isabelle; Akemi, Amanda K.; Pessoa, Adonai A.; Varon, Andrea G.; Gomes, Raphael; Godoy, Daniela T.; Pereira, Sandro; Lemos, Elba R.s.

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including cat scratch disease, endocarditis and meningoencephalitis, in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We report the first molecularly confirmed case of B. henselae infection in an AIDS patient in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although DNA sequence of B. henselae has been detected by polymerase chain reaction in a lymph node biopsy, acute and convalescent sera were nonreactive. PMID:25076441

  1. Bartonella henselae osteoarthritis of the upper cervical spine in a 14-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mirouse, G; Journe, A; Casabianca, L; Moreau, P E; Pannier, S; Glorion, C

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of Bartonella henselae, an agent of cat scratch disease, C1-C2 osteoarthritis with osteolysis of the lateral mass of C2 in a 14-year-old boy. Oral antibiotics did not successfully treat the infection and surgery was necessary to treat the septic arthritis. The case opens discussion about bacterial osteoarthritis of the cervical spine and bone involvement in disseminated bartonellosis. PMID:25881557

  2. Proteomic analysis of the sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, Thomas A; Karlberg, Olof; Mini, Thierry; Zimny-Arndt, Ursula; Wickenberg, Ulrika; Röttgen, Marlene; Jungblut, Peter R; Jenö, Paul; Andersson, Siv G E; Dehio, Christoph

    2004-10-01

    Bartonella henselae is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing a wide range of disease manifestations in humans. In this study, we report on the analysis of the sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction of B. henselae ATCC 49882 Houston-1 by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1-D SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D NEPHGE). Protein species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and subsequent database query against the B. henselae genome sequence. Subcellular fractionation, application of the ionic detergent lauryl sarcosine, assessment of trypsin sensitivity, and heat modifiability of surface-exposed proteins represented valuable tools for the analysis of the outer membrane subproteome of B. henselae. 2-D NEPHGE was applied to display and catalogue a substantial number of proteins associated with the B. henselae sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction, resulting in the establishment of a first 2-D reference map of this compartment. Thus, 53 distinct protein species associated with the outer membrane subproteome fraction were identified. This study provides novel insights into the membrane biology and the associated putative virulence factors of this pathogen of increasing medical importance. PMID:15378747

  3. Duplex PCR Assay Simultaneously Detecting and Differentiating Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, and Coxiella burnetii in Surgical Heart Valve Specimens?

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    A duplex PCR (dPCR) assay was developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, and Coxiella burnetii from surgical heart valve tissue specimens with an analytic sensitivity of 10 copies/reaction. Among 17 specimens collected from patients with a clinical diagnosis of culture-negative endocarditis, 2, 4, and 2 were positive for B. quintana, B. henselae, and C. burnetii, respectively, by the dPCR assay, which matched the results obtained by universal bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. PMID:19553582

  4. Characterization of an Immunogenic Outer Membrane Autotransporter Protein, Arp, of Bartonella henselae?

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Christine M.; Rawlins, Mindy L.; Swenson, Erica M.

    2007-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a recently recognized pathogenic bacterium associated with cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and bacillary peliosis. This study describes the cloning, sequencing, and characterization of an antigenic autotransporter gene from B. henselae. A cloned 6.0-kb BclI-EcoRI DNA fragment expresses a 120-kDa B. henselae protein immunoreactive with 21.2% of sera from patients positive for B. henselae immunoglobulin G antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence, with 97.3% specificity and no cross-reactivity with antibodies against various other organisms. DNA sequencing of the clone revealed one open reading frame of 4,320 bp with a deduced amino acid sequence that shows homology to the family of autotransporters. The autotransporters are a group of proteins that mediate their own export through the outer membrane and consist of a passenger region, the ?-domain, and an outer membrane transporter region, the ?-domain. The passenger domain shows homology to a family of pertactin-like adhesion proteins and contains seven, nearly identical 48-amino-acid repeats not found in any other bacterial or Bartonella DNA sequences. The passenger ?-domain has a calculated molecular mass of 117 kDa, and the transporter ?-domain has a calculated molecular mass of 36 kDa. The clone expresses a 120-kDa protein and a protein that migrates at approximately 38 kDa exclusively in the outer membrane protein fraction, suggesting that the 120-kDa passenger protein remains associated with the outer membrane after cleavage from the 36-kDa transporter. PMID:17785470

  5. Study of Genotypes and virB4 Secretion Gene of Bartonella henselae Strains from Patients with Clinically Defined Cat Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Woestyn, Sophie; Olivé, Nathalie; Bigaignon, Geoffroy; Avesani, Véronique; Delmée, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), which usually presents as a self-limiting lymphadenopathy. Occasionally, the bacteria will spread and be responsible for tissue and visceral involvement. Two B. henselae genotypes (genotypes I and II) have been described to be responsible for uncomplicated CSD on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. A type IV secretion system (T4SS) similar to the virulence-associated VirB system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was recently identified in the B. henselae Houston-1 genotype I strain. We studied the correlations of the B. henselae genotypes with the clinical presentations and with the presence of T4SS. Isolates originated from CSD patients whose lymph nodes were prospectively analyzed. B. henselae genotype I was identified in 13 of 42 patients (30%). Among these, two teenage twins presented with hepatosplenic CSD and one immunocompetent adult presented with osteomyelitis. Genotype II was detected in 28 of 42 patients (67%), all of whom presented with uncomplicated CSD. The last patient was infected with both genotypes. T4SS was studied by PCR amplification of the virB4 gene. Amplification of virB4 codons 146 to 256, 273 to 357, and 480 to 537 enabled us to detect 66, 90, and 100% of the B. henselae isolates, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed sequence variations that correlated with genotype distribution. Our studies suggest that B. henselae genotype I strains harbor virB4 genes that are different from those harbored by genotype II strains and that genotype I strains might be more pathogenic. PMID:15070983

  6. Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).

    PubMed

    Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission. PMID:25325313

  7. BID-F1 and BID-F2 Domains of Bartonella henselae Effector Protein BepF Trigger Together with BepC the Formation of Invasome Structures

    E-print Network

    Truttmann, Matthias C.

    The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with ...

  8. Evaluation of Human Seroreactivity to Bartonella Species in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. HOLMBERG; S. M CGILL; C. EHRENBORG; L. WESSLEN; E. HJELM; J. DARELID; L. BLAD; L. ENGSTRAND; R. REGNERY; G. FRIMAN

    1999-01-01

    Among the species that compose the expanding genus Bartonella, thus far only B. henselae and B. quintana have reportedly been isolated from humans in Europe. To evaluate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in Sweden, we conducted a retrospective serological examination of 126 human serum samples. These samples were analyzed for antibodies to B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae. Serum

  9. Isolation and characterization of Bartonella bacilliformis from an expatriate Ecuadorian.

    PubMed

    Lydy, Shari L; Eremeeva, Marina E; Asnis, Deborah; Paddock, Christopher D; Nicholson, William L; Silverman, David J; Dasch, Gregory A

    2008-02-01

    Carrion's disease is typically biphasic with acute febrile illness characterized by bacteremia and severe hemolytic anemia (Oroya fever), followed by benign, chronic cutaneous lesions (verruga peruana). The causative agent, Bartonella bacilliformis, is endemic in specific regions of Peru and Ecuador. We describe atypical infection in an expatriate patient who presented with acute splenomegaly and anemia 3 years after visiting Ecuador. Initial serology and PCR of the patient's blood and serum were negative for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and B. bacilliformis. Histology of splenic biopsy was suggestive of bacillary angiomatosis, but immunohistochemistry ruled out B. henselae and B. quintana. Bacilli (isolate EC-01) were subsequently cultured from the patient's blood and analyzed using multilocus sequence typing, protein gel electrophoresis with Western blotting, and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against a panel of sera from patients with Oroya fever in Peru. The EC-01 nucleotide sequences (gltA and internal transcribed spacer) and protein band banding pattern were most similar to a subset of B. bacilliformis isolates from the region of Caraz, Ancash, in Peru, where B. bacilliformis is endemic. By IFA, the patient's serum reacted strongly to two out of the three Peruvian B. bacilliformis isolates tested, and EC-01 antigen reacted with 13/20 Oroya fever sera. Bacilliary angiomatosis-like lesions were also detected in the spleen of the patient, who was inapparently infected with B. bacilliformis and who presumably acquired infection in a region of Ecuador where B. bacilliformis was not thought to be endemic. This study suggests that the range of B. bacilliformis may be expanding from areas of endemicity in Ecuador and that infection may present as atypical clinical disease. PMID:18094131

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Bartonella bacilliformis from an Expatriate Ecuadorian?

    PubMed Central

    Lydy, Shari L.; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Asnis, Deborah; Paddock, Christopher D.; Nicholson, William L.; Silverman, David J.; Dasch, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    Carrion's disease is typically biphasic with acute febrile illness characterized by bacteremia and severe hemolytic anemia (Oroya fever), followed by benign, chronic cutaneous lesions (verruga peruana). The causative agent, Bartonella bacilliformis, is endemic in specific regions of Peru and Ecuador. We describe atypical infection in an expatriate patient who presented with acute splenomegaly and anemia 3 years after visiting Ecuador. Initial serology and PCR of the patient's blood and serum were negative for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and B. bacilliformis. Histology of splenic biopsy was suggestive of bacillary angiomatosis, but immunohistochemistry ruled out B. henselae and B. quintana. Bacilli (isolate EC-01) were subsequently cultured from the patient's blood and analyzed using multilocus sequence typing, protein gel electrophoresis with Western blotting, and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against a panel of sera from patients with Oroya fever in Peru. The EC-01 nucleotide sequences (gltA and internal transcribed spacer) and protein band banding pattern were most similar to a subset of B. bacilliformis isolates from the region of Caraz, Ancash, in Peru, where B. bacilliformis is endemic. By IFA, the patient's serum reacted strongly to two out of the three Peruvian B. bacilliformis isolates tested, and EC-01 antigen reacted with 13/20 Oroya fever sera. Bacilliary angiomatosis-like lesions were also detected in the spleen of the patient, who was inapparently infected with B. bacilliformis and who presumably acquired infection in a region of Ecuador where B. bacilliformis was not thought to be endemic. This study suggests that the range of B. bacilliformis may be expanding from areas of endemicity in Ecuador and that infection may present as atypical clinical disease. PMID:18094131

  11. IrSPI, a Tick Serine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Tick Feeding and Bartonella henselae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C.; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its potentialities as vaccine against the ticks and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:25057911

  12. Original article Prevalence of Bartonella infection in domestic cats

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Prevalence of Bartonella infection in domestic cats in Denmark Bruno B. CHOMELa; accepted 19 October 2001) Abstract ­ Whole blood and serum from 93 cats (44 pets and 49 shelter/stray cats of Bartonella antibodies by serology. Bartonella henselae was isolated from 21 (22.6%) cats. Bacteremia preva

  13. The role of Bartonella spp. in veterinary and human medicine with special emphasis on pathogenicity mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. J. Kempf; F. Krämer

    Bartonella spp. are important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. Currently, B. henselae is considered to be the most relevant zoonotic Bartonella species responsible for cat scratch disease (CSD), bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis. Besides B. henselae, several other species have been isolated from cats, dogs and humans suffering from a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from mild infections to

  14. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. PMID:25355744

  15. Isolation of Bartonella capreoli from elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Cross, P.C.; Malania, L.; Kosoy, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella infections in elk populations. We report the isolation of four Bartonella strains from 55 elk blood samples. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all four strains belong to Bartonella capreoli, a bacterium that was originally described in the wild roe deer of Europe. Our finding first time demonstrated that B. capreoli has a wide geographic range, and that elk may be another host for this bacterium. Further investigations are needed to determine the impact of this bacterium on wildlife.

  16. A flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin prevents flea transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. Methods Specific pathogen free cats (n = 19) were housed in three adjoining enclosures that were separated by mesh to allow C. felis to pass among groups but prevent cats in different enclosures from contacting one another. One group of 4 cats was inoculated intravenously with B. henselae and after infection was confirmed in all cats based on positive PCR assay results, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. The B. henselae infected cat group was flanked by a group of 8 cats that had the collar placed and maintained for the duration of the study and a group of 7 cats that were not treated. Ctenocephalides felis (50 males and 50 females) raised in an insectary were placed on each of the 4 cats in the B. henselae infected group monthly for 7 applications and then every 2 weeks for 4 applications starting the day the collar was applied. Blood was collected from all cats weekly for Bartonella spp. PCR, serology and culture. Results While side-effects associated with the collars were not noted, persistent fever necessitating enrofloxacin therapy occurred in two of the untreated cats. While B. henselae infection was ultimately confirmed in 4 of 7 of the untreated cats, none of the cats with collars became infected (P = 0.026). Conclusions In this study design, use of a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was well tolerated and prevented C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. PMID:23351927

  17. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  18. Presence of Bartonella spp. in various human populations.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Tomasz; Podsiad?y, Edyta; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanis?awa

    2007-01-01

    Bartonella spp. bacteria are significant human pathogens and the agents of bacterial zoonosis acquired from an animal companion. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of two of the most common Bartonella species B. henselae and B. quintana in various human populations. The studied groups included: alcoholics, intravenous drug users, veterinarians, cats' owners. Blood samples were collected and cultured on chocolate agar plates and in mouse fibroblasts L-929 cell line culture. The levels of Bartonella henselae IgM and IgG antibodies were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Specific B. henselae IgG were detected in 48.3% of homeless alcoholics, in 45.0% veterinarians and in 53.3% cats' owners. The differences in the prevalence of B. henselae antibodies between the studied groups and a control group were statistically supported. No homeless intravenous drug users had specific B. henselae and B. quintana antibodies. High titers of B. quintana IgG antibodies were detected in two homeless alcoholics. Bartonella spp. was cultured on chocolate blood agar plates from blood samples from 2 alcoholics. The isolates were identified as B. henselae by PCR amplification of the riboflavin synthase gene (ribC). The results prove that B. henselae and B. quintana, emerging human pathogens, are present and widely distributed in Poland in such specific risk groups as: alcoholics, veterinarians and cats' owners. PMID:17419187

  19. Bartonella Strains from Ground Squirrels Are Identical to Bartonella washoensis Isolated from a Human Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kosoy, Michael; Murray, Mike; Gilmore, Jr., Robert D.; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in question and of Bartonella isolates obtained from the following Nevada rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus (17 isolates), Tamias minimus (11 isolates), Spermophilus lateralis (3 isolates), and Spermophilus beecheyi (7 isolates). Sequence analyses of gltA amplicons obtained from Bartonella from the rodents demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and resulted in the identification of 16 genetic variants that were clustered within three groups in phylogenetic analysis. Each of the three groups was associated with a rodent genus, Peromyscus, Tamias, or Spermophilus. The gltA, 16S rRNA gene, and groEL sequences of a Bartonella isolate obtained from a California ground squirrel (S. beecheyi) were completely identical to homologous sequences of B. washoensis, strongly suggesting that these animals were the source of infection in the human case. PMID:12574261

  20. Bartonella strains from ground squirrels are identical to Bartonella washoensis isolated from a human patient.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Murray, Mike; Gilmore, Robert D; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L

    2003-02-01

    The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in question and of Bartonella isolates obtained from the following Nevada rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus (17 isolates), Tamias minimus (11 isolates), Spermophilus lateralis (3 isolates), and Spermophilus beecheyi (7 isolates). Sequence analyses of gltA amplicons obtained from Bartonella from the rodents demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and resulted in the identification of 16 genetic variants that were clustered within three groups in phylogenetic analysis. Each of the three groups was associated with a rodent genus, Peromyscus, Tamias, or Spermophilus: The gltA, 16S rRNA gene, and groEL sequences of a Bartonella isolate obtained from a California ground squirrel (S. beecheyi) were completely identical to homologous sequences of B. washoensis, strongly suggesting that these animals were the source of infection in the human case. PMID:12574261

  1. Exposure and Risk Factors to Coxiella burnetii, Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among Volunteer Blood Donors in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Noden, Bruce H.; Tshavuka, Filippus I.; van der Colf, Berta E.; Chipare, Israel; Wilkinson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia) are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG) in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8%) had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1?16), and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1?100) for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P<0.021). Donors with occupations involving animals (P>0.012), especially cattle (P>0.006), were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013) and typhus (P<0.011) group rickettsiae. Three (2.9%) samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms. PMID:25259959

  2. Bartonellae in animals and vectors in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, Bernard; Cabre, Olivier; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-12-01

    Bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family Bartonellaceae. The natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. In order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of Bartonella infection in animals and vectors in New Caledonia, we collected the blood samples of 64 dogs, 8 cats, 30 bovines, 25 horses and 29 wild deer Cervus timorensis russa and 308 associated blood-sucking parasites (14 keds Hippobosca equina, 258 ticks (22 Rhipicephalus microplus, 235 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Haemaphysalis longicornis), 12 fleas Ctenocephalides felis and 24 dog lice Trichodectes canis). We isolated ten strains of Bartonella: four Bartonella henselae from cats and six Bartonella chomelii from cattle. The strains were characterized by sequencing of five genes (16S, ITS, rpoB, gltA and ftsZ). The six strains isolated from cattle were close to the reference strain of B. chomelii and were, probably, imported from France with cattle of Limousin race. PCR showed that 35% of keds collected from deer and 31% of deer were infected by B. aff. schoenbuchensis; all other samples were negative. Our data confirmed that in New Caledonia, as in other regions of the world, cats are the major reservoirs of B. henselae. We also confirmed that Hippoboscidae flies may serve as the vectors of ruminant-associated bartonellae. PMID:22018646

  3. Bacteriological and molecular identification of Bartonella species in cats from different regions of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Congli; Zhu, Caixia; Wu, Yanbing; Pan, Xueying; Hua, Xiuguo

    2011-09-01

    With the improvements in diagnostic techniques, Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) infection has recently been recognized to cause a widening spectrum of diseases. Cats are the natural reservoir hosts of B. henselae. The current study aims to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae infection in the cat populations in China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial cultures confirm that 12.7% of the tested cats were positive for the infection. Old age and outdoor exposure were statistically associated with the infection. Multilocus sequence typing and eBURST analysis of the cat isolates collected in the present study show that 65.4% of the isolates belong to sequence type 1 (ST1). Three new STs (ST16-18) were identified in Midwestern China. These results may aid our understanding of the population structure of B. henselae in China and the relationship between human and cat strains in subsequent studies. PMID:21909443

  4. Bacteriological and Molecular Identification of Bartonella Species in Cats from Different Regions of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Congli Yuan; Caixia Zhu; Yanbing Wu; Xueying Pan; Xiuguo Hua

    2011-01-01

    With the improvements in diagnostic techniques, Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) infection has recently been recognized to cause a widening spectrum of diseases. Cats are the natural reservoir hosts of B. henselae. The current study aims to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae infection in the cat populations in China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial cultures confirm that 12.7% of

  5. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-28

    The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

  6. Bartonella dromedarii sp. nov. isolated from domesticated camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rasis, Michal; Rudoler, Nir; Schwartz, David; Giladi, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious, Gram-negative bacilli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Most Bartonella spp. have adapted to a specific host, generally a domestic or wild mammal. Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) have become a focus of growing public-health interest because they have been identified as a reservoir host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Nevertheless, data on camel zoonoses are limited. We aimed to study the occurrence of Bartonella bacteremia among dromedaries in Israel. Nine of 51 (17.6%) camels were found to be bacteremic with Bartonella spp.; bacteremia levels ranged from five to >1000 colony-forming units/mL. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB genes demonstrated that the dromedary Bartonella isolates are closely related to other ruminant-derived Bartonella spp., with B. bovis being the nearest relative. Using electron microscopy, the novel isolates were shown to be flagellated, whereas B. bovis is nonflagellated. Sequence comparisons analysis of the housekeeping genes ftsZ, ribC, and groEL showed the highest homology to B. chomelii, B. capreoli, and B. birtlesii, respectively. Sequence analysis of the gltA and rpoB revealed ?96% identity to B. bovis, a previously suggested cutoff value for sequence-based differentiation of Bartonella spp., suggesting that this approach does not have sufficient discriminatory power for differentiating ruminant-related Bartonella spp. A comprehensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis based on nine genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ftsZ, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rRNA, ribC, groEL, nuoG, and SsrA) identified seven sequence types of the new dromedary isolates. This is the first description of a Bartonella sp. from camelids. On the basis of a distinct reservoir and ecological niche, sequence analyses, and expression of flagella, we designate these isolates as a novel Bartonella sp. named Bartonella dromedarii sp. nov. Further studies are required to explore its zoonotic potential. PMID:25409267

  7. Bartonella Strains from Ground Squirrels Are Identical to Bartonella washoensis Isolated from a Human Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kosoy; Mike Murray; Robert D. Gilmore; Ying Bai; Kenneth L. Gage

    2003-01-01

    Received 22 April 2002\\/Returned for modification 2 September 2002\\/Accepted 13 October 2002 The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in

  8. Infection and replication of Bartonella species within a tick cell line

    PubMed Central

    Billeter, Sarah A.; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Battisti, James M.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are fastidious, gram negative bacteria, some of which are transmitted by arthropod vectors, including fleas, sandflies, and lice. There is very little information regarding the interaction and/or transmission capabilities of Bartonella species by ticks. In the present study, we demonstrate successful infection of the Amblyomma americanum cell line, AAE12, by seven Bartonella isolates and three Candidatus Bartonella species by electron or light microscopy. With the exception of Bartonella bovis, infection with all other examined Bartonella species induced cytopathic effects characterized by heavy cellular vacuolization and eventually cell lysis. Furthermore, using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR), we demonstrated significant amplification of two B. henselae genotype I isolates in the A. americanum cell line over a 5 days period. Ultimately, tick-cell derived Bartonella antigens may prove useful for the development of more sensitive diagnostic reagents and may assist in the development of an effective vaccine to prevent the further spread of disease caused by these organisms. PMID:19242658

  9. Characterization of Bartonella strains isolated from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Martin, Andrew; Ray, Chris; Sheff, Kelly; Chalcraft, Linda; Collinge, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    Thirty bartonella strains were isolated from the blood of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from Boulder County, Colorado, USA. The bacteria appeared as small, fastidious, aerobic, Gram-negative rods. The partial sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) demonstrated five unique genetic variants. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of gltA, 16S rRNA, rpoB, ftsZ, and ribC showed that the black-tailed prairie dog-related Bartonella variants comprise a distinct monophyletic clade that is closely related to Bartonella washoensis, a species isolated from a human patient and subsequently from ground squirrels. These variants, however, are grouped together in 100% of the bootstrapped trees. These variants were not found in other small mammals trapped during the same study, showing some evidence of host specificity. We believe that the group being described here is typical of the black-tailed prairie dog. We propose to name the bacteria Candidatus Bartonella washoensis subsp. cynomysii. The type strain is CL8606co(T)(=ATCC BAA-1342(T) = CCUG 53213(T)), which is the representative isolate of the dominant variant of the characterized group. PMID:18237261

  10. Adhesins of Bartonella spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona O’Rourke; Thomas Schmidgen; Patrick O. Kaiser; Dirk Linke; Volkhard A. J. Kempf

    \\u000a Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity\\u000a of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis,\\u000a trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia

  11. Laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella infections.

    PubMed

    Agan, Brian K; Dolan, Matthew J

    2002-12-01

    Bartonella species are pathogens of emerging and reemerging significance, causing a wide array of clinical syndromes. In North America and Europe, they are increasingly recognized as a cause of culture negative endocarditis, neuroretinitis, and disease among homeless, HIV-infected, and other immunosuppressed individuals. In South America, bartonellosis continues to plague those in endemic regions and poses a significant threat to travelers in these areas. As the clinician is increasingly faced with these illnesses, which may be difficult to diagnose, laboratory techniques to confirm or refute the diagnosis are becoming increasingly important. Culture methods have improved over the past decade demonstrating increased sensitivity, but still require prolonged periods before isolation of the organism. Specimen handling, media selection, and growth conditions all may affect results and must be optimized in order to provide the highest likelihood of recovering the organism. Pure culture of the bacteria not only provides morphologic information, but also provides material for further diagnostic testing. Work with liquid media, which may provide a more rapid means of cultivation has shown some promise and should continue to be pursued. Improved blood culture techniques were a primary factor in the discovery of Bartonella endocarditis and continued improvements will likely demonstrate further clinical insights. Serologic testing for B henselae infections has become the cornerstone of clinical diagnosis, replacing the skin test that was poorly standardized and posed a potential risk to the patient. Immunofluorescence assays have been well characterized and validated in clinical trials, however they are not universally available. Vero cell cocultivated antigens appear to provide higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with agar-derived antigens. IFA assays are inherently difficult to perform, requiring significant expertise to provide reproducible results. On the contrary, enzyme immunoassays offer ease of use and a high level of reproducibility, however ideal antigens for use in the diagnosis of Bartonella infections have not been clearly identified. Continued work to define antigenic targets of the human response to infection and incorporation of these into a widely available EIA will provide a cost-effective tool for the clinician and epidemiologist alike. Due to the close phylogenetic relationship of B henselae and B quintana, differentiation between these species by serologic means may prove difficult. Molecular techniques including PCR offer high sensitivity and specificity, rapid availability of information, and the ability to differentiate Bartonella organisms at the highest level. Results of studies to date are promising and as methods are refined it will be important to conduct clinical studies to define the role of these assays. In disseminated Bartonella infections such as bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis, endocarditis, and urban trench fever, PCR currently offers the ability to establish the diagnosis when other tests may be unrevealing. For CSD, this technique should be used as a confirmatory technique when the diagnosis is unclear by other means. PCR analysis of blood specimens offers a minimally invasive approach to diagnosis, but clinical data are scarce and further studies are needed. As DNA microarrays move into the clinical arena, specific hybridization probes may allow improved identification and differentiation of Bartonellae at the molecular level. PMID:12489289

  12. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L; Solangi, Mobashir; Rotstein, David S; Fair, Patricia A; Hansen, Larry J; Hohn, Aleta A; Lovewell, Gretchen N; McLellan, William A; Pabst, D Ann; Rowles, Teri K; Schwacke, Lori H; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S

    2008-01-01

    We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 Risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. Whole blood (n = 95 live animals) and tissues (n = 15 freshly dead animals) were screened by PCR (n = 106 animals), PCR of enrichment cultures (n = 50 animals), and subcultures (n = 50 animals). Bartonella spp. were detected from 17 cetaceans, including 12 by direct extraction PCR of blood or tissues, 6 by PCR of enrichment cultures, and 4 by subculture isolation. Bartonella spp. were more commonly detected from the captive (6/14, 43%) than from free-ranging (2/71, 2.8%) bottlenose dolphins, and were commonly detected from the stranded animals (9/21, 43%; 3/11 striped dolphins, 3/4 harbor porpoises, 2/3 Risso's dolphins, 1/1 pygmy sperm whale, 0/1 dwarf sperm whale, 0/1 bottlenose dolphin). Sequencing identified a Bartonella spp. most similar to B. henselae San Antonio 2 in eight cases (4 bottlenose dolphins, 2 striped dolphins, 2 harbor porpoises), B. henselae Houston 1 in three cases (2 Risso's dolphins, 1 harbor porpoise), and untyped in six cases (4 bottlenose dolphins, 1 striped dolphin, 1 pygmy sperm whale). Although disease causation has not been established, Bartonella species were detected more commonly from cetaceans that were overtly debilitated or were cohabiting in captivity with a debilitated animal than from free-ranging animals. The detection of Bartonella spp. from cetaceans may be of pathophysiological concern. PMID:18721502

  13. Bartonella Species Bacteremia in Two Patients with Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma ?

    PubMed Central

    Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Iredell, Jonathan R.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Weinberg, Guy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae bacteremia was documented in two epithelioid hemangioendothelioma patients and B. koehlerae bacteremia in an asymptomatic partner of one of the patients. Considering the biology and clinically variable natural history of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, these results suggest that chronic Bartonella infection could have a role in the development of this vascular neoplasm. Bartonella spp. are known to induce vasoproliferative tumors in immunocompromised patients and may play a role in the development of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma in immunocompetent patients. PMID:21918021

  14. Bartonellae in domestic and stray cats from Israel: comparison of bacterial cultures and high-resolution melt real-time PCR as diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; Gross, Ifat; Winkler, Ronen; Abdeen, Ziad; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    To determine the occurrence of feline bartonellosis in Israel, blood samples were collected from 179 stray and 155 domestic cats from 18 cities or villages in central and northcentral Israel. Samples were screened for Bartonella infection by culture isolation and molecular detection using high-resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS). All positive samples were confirmed by two additional HRM real-time PCR assays targeting two fragments of the ?-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and the 16S rRNA genes. The prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in the general tested population was 25.1% (84/334). A higher prevalence was detected in the stray (30.7%; 55/179) than the domestic cats (18.7%; 29/155). Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae were highly prevalent in both cat populations, however their distribution among the two populations varied significantly (p=0.016). B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae were found to be more prevalent in stray than domestic cats, whereas B. henselae was evenly distributed. Co-infection with two or more different Bartonella spp. was determined in 2.1% (7) of the cats. The ITS HRM real-time PCR assay used in this study was shown to have a greater screening power than bacterial isolation, detecting 94.0% (79/84) compared to 35.7% (30/84), respectively, of all positive samples. The high prevalence of these zoonotic Bartonella species, coupled with the overpopulation of stray cats, and increased numbers of domestic cats in the major urban centers in Israel represent a significant threat for the public health in this country. PMID:24107217

  15. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. in Canine Cutaneous Histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Pultorak, E L; Linder, K; Maggi, R G; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2015-07-01

    Canine cutaneous histiocytoma (CCH) is a common, benign neoplastic proliferation of histiocytes of Langerhans cell origin that often ulcerate, become secondarily infected and regress spontaneously. Bartonella is a fastidious genus of facultative intracellular pathogens that can be transmitted through arthropod bites and epidermal animal scratches and has been identified previously in the cytoplasm of histiocytes within granulomatous lesions and in skin biopsy samples of inflammatory pustules and papules. Based on the established inflammatory and oncogenic properties of Bartonella, we hypothesized that Bartonella spp. DNA could be amplified from CCH more often than from non-lesional skin and bacteria could be localized within skin tumours using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Paraffin wax-embedded surgical biopsy samples from dogs with CCH and non-neoplastic skin adjacent to osteosarcomas (control group selected due to wide surgical margins) were retrieved from the archive of the pathology service of North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. DNA was extracted and regions of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the pap31 and gltA genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Bartonella-specific primers. IIF was performed using a primary Bartonella henselae monoclonal antibody to localize B. henselae in tissues of PCR-positive dogs. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was amplified from 1/17 (5.8%) control tissues and B. henselae was amplified from 4/29 (13.8%) CCH tissues. The prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (P = 0.37) or B. henselae (P = 0.28) did not vary statistically between study groups. B. henselae could be visualized in 2/4 (50.0%) CCH tissues using IIF. Based on this study, Bartonella spp. are unlikely to cause CCH. PMID:25980841

  16. 16S/23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Regions for Phylogenetic Analysis, Identification, and Subtyping of Bartonella Species

    PubMed Central

    Houpikian, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2001-01-01

    Species of the genus Bartonella are currently recognized in growing numbers and are involved in an increasing variety of human diseases, mainly trench fever, Carrion's disease, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, cat scratch disease, neuroretinitis, and asymptomatic bacteremia. Such a wide spectrum of infections makes it necessary to develop species and strain identification tools in order to perform phylogenetic and epidemiological studies. The 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ITS) was sequenced for four previously untested species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, B. tribocorum, B. alsatica, and B. koehlerae, as well as for 28 human isolates of B. quintana (most of them from French homeless people), six human or cat isolates of B. henselae, five cat isolates of B. clarridgeiae, and four human isolates of B. bacilliformis. Phylogenetic trees inferred from full ITS sequences of the 14 recognized Bartonella species using parsimony and distance methods revealed high statistical support, as bootstrap values were higher than those observed with other tested genes. Five well-supported lineages were identified within the genus and the proposed phylogenetic organization was consistent with that resulting from protein-encoding gene sequence comparisons. The ITS-derived phylogeny appears, therefore, to be a useful tool for investigating the evolutionary relationships of Bartonella species and to identify Bartonella species. Further, partial ITS amplification and sequencing offers a sensitive means of intraspecies differentiation of B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. bacilliformis isolates, as each strain had a specific sequence. The usefulness of this approach in epidemiological investigations should be highlighted. Among B. quintana strains, however, the genetic heterogenity was low, as only three ITS genotypes were identified. It was nevertheless sufficient to show that the B. quintana population infecting homeless people in France was not clonal. PMID:11473990

  17. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  18. Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis Reveals Profound Genetic Diversity among Isolates of the Human Pathogen Bartonella bacilliformis

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, Gemma L.; Palmira Ventosilla; Birtles, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the aetiological agent of human bartonellosis, a potentially life threatening infection of significant public health concern in the Andean region of South America. Human bartonellosis has long been recognised in the region but a recent upsurge in the number of cases of the disease and an apparent expansion of its geographical distribution have re-emphasized its contemporary medical importance. Here, we describe the development of a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for B. bacilliformis and its application to an archive of 43 isolates collected from patients across Peru. MLST identified eight sequence types among these isolates and the delineation of these was generally congruent with those of the previously described typing scheme. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequence data derived from MLST loci revealed that seven of the eight sequence types were closely related to one another; however, one sequence type, ST8, exhibited profound evolutionary divergence from the others. The extent of this divergence was akin to that observed between other members of the Bartonella genus, suggesting that ST8 strains may be better considered as members of a novel Bartonella genospecies. PMID:21811647

  19. Genomics of host-restricted pathogens of the genus bartonella.

    PubMed

    Engel, P; Dehio, C

    2009-01-01

    The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises numerous arthropod-borne pathogens that share a common host-restricted life-style, which is characterized by long-lasting intraerythrocytic infections in their specific mammalian reservoirs and transmission by blood-sucking arthropods. Infection of an incidental host (e.g. humans by a zoonotic species) may cause disease in the absence of intra-erythrocytic infection. The genome sequences of four Bartonella species are known, i.e. those of the human-specific pathogens Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana, the feline-specific Bartonella henselae also causing incidental human infections, and the rat-specific species Bartonella tribocorum. The circular chromosomes of these bartonellae range in size from 1.44 Mb (encoding1,283 genes) to 2.62 Mb (encoding 2,136 genes). They share a mostly synthenic core genome of 959 genes that features characteristics of a host-integrated metabolism. The diverse accessory genomes highlight dynamic genome evolution at the species level, ranging from significant genome expansion in B. tribocorum due to gene duplication and lateral acquisition of prophages and genomic islands (such as type IV secretion systems that adopted prominent roles in host adaptation and specificity) to massive secondary genome reduction in B. quintana. Moreover, analysis of natural populations of B. henselae revealed genomic rearrangements, deletions and amplifications, evidencing marked genome dynamics at the strain level. PMID:19696500

  20. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Questing Adult Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C. C.; Chomel, B. B.; Kasten, R. W.; Romano, V.; Tietze, N.

    2001-01-01

    Ticks are the vectors of many zoonotic diseases in the United States, including Lyme disease, human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Most known Bartonella species are arthropod borne. Therefore, it is important to determine if some Bartonella species, which are emerging pathogens, could be carried or transmitted by ticks. In this study, adult Ixodes pacificus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in three sites in Santa Clara County, Calif. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing of 273 bp of the gltA gene were applied for Bartonella identification. Twenty-nine (19.2%) of 151 individually tested ticks were PCR positive for Bartonella. Male ticks were more likely to be infected with Bartonella than female ticks (26 versus 12%, P = 0.05). None of the nine ticks collected at Baird Ranch was PCR positive for Bartonella. However, 7 (50%) of 14 ticks from Red Fern Ranch and 22 (17%) of 128 ticks from the Windy Hill Open Space Reserve were infected with Bartonella. In these infected ticks, molecular analysis showed a variety of Bartonella strains, which were closely related to a cattle Bartonella strain and to several known human-pathogenic Bartonella species and subspecies: Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. washoensis, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. These findings indicate that I. pacificus ticks may play an important role in Bartonella transmission among animals and humans. PMID:11283031

  1. Bartonella clarridgeiae, a Newly Recognized Zoonotic Pathogen Causing Inoculation Papules, Fever, and Lymphadenopathy (Cat Scratch Disease)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DORSEY L. KORDICK; EDWARD J. HILYARD; TED L. HADFIELD; KENNETH H. WILSON; ARNOLD G. STEIGERWALT; DON J. BRENNER; EDWARD B. BREITSCHWERDT

    1997-01-01

    Shortly after adopting a 6-week-old cat, a veterinarian was bitten on the left index finger. Within 3 weeks, he developed headache, fever, and left axillary lymphadenopathy. Initial blood cultures from the cat and veterinarian were sterile. Repeat cultures from the cat grew Bartonella-like organisms with lophotrichous flagella. Sera from the veterinarian were not reactive against Bartonella henselae, B. quintana ,o

  2. Identification of different Bartonella species in the cattle tail louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in cattle blood.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Harrus, Shimon; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2014-09-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  3. Bartonella species in fleas from Palestinian territories: prevalence and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, A; Risheq, A; Harrus, S; Azmi, K; Ereqat, S; Baneth, G; Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Abdeen, Z

    2014-12-01

    Bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. The prevalence and genetic characteristics of Bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from Palestinian territories are described. Flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern Palestinian territories (n=11). The prevalent flea species were: Ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), Ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and Xenopsylla sp. (n=7/289; 2.4%). Targeting the Intergenic Transcribed Spacer (ITS) locus, DNA of Bartonella was detected in 22% (64/289) of all fleas. Fifty percent of the C. felis and 57% of the Xenopsylla sp. contained Bartonella DNA. DNA sequencing showed the presence of Bartonella clarridgeiae (50%), Bartonella henselae (27%), and Bartonella koehlerae (3%) in C. felis. Xenopsylla sp. collected from Rattus rattus rats were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae. Phylogenetic sequence analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene obtained four genetic clusters, B. henselae and B. koehlerae as subcluster 1, B. clarridgeiae as cluster 2, while the rat Bartonella species (B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae) were an outgroup cluster. These findings showed the important role of cat and rat fleas as vectors of zoonotic Bartonella species in Palestinian territories. It is hoped that this publication will raise awareness among physicians, veterinarians, and other health workers of the high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas in Palestinian territories and the potential risk of these pathogens to humans and animals in this region. PMID:25424254

  4. Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Kikuchi, Yoko; Martenson, Janice S; Roelke-Parker, Melodie E; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Janet E; Laudre, John; Murphy, Kerry; Swift, Pamela K; Kramer, Vicki L; O'brien, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in North America, Central America and South America were screened for B. henselae antibodies. The overall prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was respectively 19.4% in pumas and 23.1% in bobcats, with regional variations. In the USA, pumas from the southwestern states were more likely to be seropositive for B. henselae (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55, 5.11) than pumas from the Northwest and Mountain states. Similarly, adults were more likely to be B. henselae seropositive than juveniles and kittens (PR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.93). Adult pumas were more likely to have higher B. henselae antibody titers than juveniles and kittens (p = 0.026). B. henselae antibody prevalence was 22.4% (19/85) in bobcats from the USA and 33.3% (2/6) in the Mexican bobcats. In the USA, antibody prevalence varied depending on the geographical origin of the bobcats. In California, the highest prevalence was in bobcats from the coastal range (37.5%). These results suggest a potential role of wild felids in the epidemiological cycle of Bartonella henselae or closely related Bartonella species. PMID:15099499

  5. A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

  6. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

  7. An Immunocompromised Murine Model of Chronic Bartonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiaraviglio, Lucius; Duong, Scott; Brown, Daniel A.; Birtles, Richard J.; Kirby, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Bartonella are ubiquitous Gram-negative pathogens that cause chronic blood stream infections in mammals. Two species most often responsible for human infection, B. henselae and B. quintana, cause prolonged febrile illness in immunocompetent hosts, known as cat scratch disease and trench fever, respectively. Fascinatingly, in immunocompromised hosts, these organisms also induce new blood vessel formation leading to the formation of angioproliferative tumors, a disease process named bacillary angiomatosis. In addition, they cause an endothelial-lined cystic disease in the liver known as bacillary peliosis. Unfortunately, there are as yet no completely satisfying small animal models for exploring these unique human pathologies, as neither species appears able to sustain infection in small animal models. Therefore, we investigated the potential use of other Bartonella species for their ability to recapitulate human pathologies in an immunodeficient murine host. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Bartonella taylorii to cause chronic infection in SCID/BEIGE mice. In this model, Bartonella grows in extracellular aggregates, embedded within collagen matrix, similar to previous observations in cat scratch disease, bacillary peliosis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Interestingly, despite overwhelming infection later in disease, evidence for significant intracellular replication in endothelial or other cell types was not evident. We believe that this new model will provide an important new tool for investigation of Bartonella–host interaction. PMID:20395436

  8. Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Hagiya, Keiko; Izumi, Yasuhito; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cause human endocarditis and neuroretinitis and 6 novel Bartonella spp. at a high prevalence (26.0%, 142/546). We conclude that exotic small mammals potentially serve as reservoirs of several zoonotic Bartonella spp. PMID:19331727

  9. Novel Bartonella Agent as Cause of Verruga Peruana

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Kristin; Smoak, Bonnie L.; Jiang, Ju; Canal, Enrique; Solorzano, Nelson; Hall, Eric; Meza, Rina; Maguina, Ciro; Myers, Todd; Richards, Allen L.; Laughlin, Larry

    2013-01-01

    While studying chronic verruga peruana infections in Peru from 2003, we isolated a novel Bartonella agent, which we propose be named Candidatus Bartonella ancashi. This case reveals the inherent weakness of relying solely on clinical syndromes for diagnosis and underscores the need for a new diagnostic paradigm in developing settings. PMID:23764047

  10. The 75-kilodalton antigen of Bartonella bacilliformis is a structural homolog of the cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Padmalayam, I; Anderson, B; Kron, M; Kelly, T; Baumstark, B

    1997-07-01

    A genomic library of Bartonella bacilliformis was constructed and screened with human anti-Bartonella serum from a patient with the chronic, verruga peruana phase of bartonellosis. An immunoreactive clone isolated from this library was found to code for a 591-amino-acid protein with a high degree of sequence similarity to the FtsZ family of proteins. The degree of amino acid identity between the B. bacilliformis protein (FtsZ[Bb]) and the other FtsZ proteins is especially pronounced over the N-terminal 321 amino acids (N-terminal domain) of the sequence, with values ranging from 45% identity for the homolog from Micrococcus luteus (FtsZ[Ml]) to 91% identity for the homolog from Rhizobium melliloti, (FtsZ[Rm1]). All of the functional domains required for FtsZ activity are conserved in FtsZ(Bb) and are located within the N-terminal domain of the protein. FtsZ(Bb) is approximately twice as large as most of the other FtsZ proteins previously reported, a property it shares with FtsZ(Rm1). Like the Rhizobium homolog, FtsZ(Bb) has a C-terminal region of approximately 256 amino acids that is absent in the other FtsZ proteins. Evidence is presented that implicates this region in the protein's antigenicity and suggests that, unlike most other FtsZ homologs, FtsZ(Bb) is at least partly exposed at the cell surface. PCR analysis revealed that an ftsZ gene similar in size to the B. bacilliformis gene is present in Bartonella henselae, a bacterium that is closely related to B. bacilliformis. PMID:9226264

  11. Diversity of Bartonella genotypes in Richardson's ground squirrel populations.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire; McColl, Dorothy; Wobeser, Gary; Leighton, Frederick A

    2006-01-01

    The diversity and dynamics of Bartonella genotypes found in wild Richardson's ground squirrels (RGS), Spermophilus richardsonii were monitored at multiple sites in Saskatchewan, Canada from 2002 to 2004. Based on sequence analysis of a portion of the Bartonella citrate synthase (gltA) gene, four different genotypes were detected in 233 isolates from 176 animals. The majority (87%) of sequences were identified as genotype H, with genotypes I, J, and K accounting for 8%, 4%, and 1% of sequences, respectively. Only one animal was concurrently infected with multiple Bartonella genotypes. Of 23 animals sampled four times or more, 26% were never infected with Bartonella. Of 32 RGS infected with Bartonella at first capture and then sampled again the following month, 50% were infected with the same Bartonella genotype, 41% were no longer infected, and 9% were infected with a different Bartonella genotype in the subsequent sample. The diversity of Bartonella genotypes varied among sites. At one site almost all RGS were infected with genotype H in September, and up to 60% of the same population was infected with genotype I the following spring. We compare our results with previous studies of Bartonella infections in rodents and discuss possible explanations for the observed differences. PMID:17187575

  12. Molecular Typing of “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” a New Human Pathogen Causing Verruga Peruana

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Kristin E.; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguiña, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G.; Blazes, David L.

    2013-01-01

    A recently described clinical isolate, “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty. PMID:23985925

  13. Molecular typing of "Candidatus Bartonella ancashi," a new human pathogen causing verruga peruana.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Kristin E; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R; Maguiña, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G; Blazes, David L; Richards, Allen L

    2013-11-01

    A recently described clinical isolate, "Candidatus Bartonella ancashi," was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty. PMID:23985925

  14. CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Rats of the Genus Rattus are Reservoir Hosts for Pathogenic Bartonella

    E-print Network

    Beati, Lorenza

    Bartonella species were isolated from the blood of 63 of 325 Rattus norvegicus and 11 of 92 Rattus rattus species iso- lated from the blood of sylvatic Rattus norvegicus was described from isolation attempts from220 CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Rats of the Genus Rattus are Reservoir Hosts for Pathogenic Bartonella

  15. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  16. Novel Chemically Modified Liquid Medium That Will Support the Growth of Seven Bartonella Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo G. Maggi; Ashlee W. Duncan; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella, a member of the Alphaproteobacteria, are fastidious, gram-negative, aerobic bacilli that comprise numerous species, subspecies, and subtypes. In human and veterinary medicine, species isolation remains a vital component of the diagnostic and therapeutic management of Bartonella infection. We describe a novel, chemically modified, insect-based liquid culture medium that supports the growth of at least seven

  17. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kosoy, Michael Y.; Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas; Baggett, Henry; Maloney, Susan A.; Boonmar, Sumalee; Bhengsri, Saithip; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Peruski, Leonard F.

    2012-01-01

    We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA. PMID:22607728

  18. Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abtract Background In the Pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. To our knowledge, human infections due to Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. have never been reported in French Polynesia; and infections due to C. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. To evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among French Polynesian blood donors. Methods The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against R. felis, R. typhi, R. conorii, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 472 French Polynesian blood donors collected from 2011 to 2013. In addition, 178 ticks and 36 cat fleas collected in French Polynesia were also collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect Rickettsia spp., B. henselae and Ehrlichia spp. Results None of the blood donors had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. All tested ticks and cat fleas were PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp., B. henselae, and Ehrlichia spp. Conclusion We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in French Polynesia but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. C. burnetii has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. It may also be absent from French Polynesia. PMID:24885466

  19. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in rodents from northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Suzán, Gerardo; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-12-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in wild rodents from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 489 rodents belonging to 14 species were surveyed in four areas. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 50.1% of rodent samples (245/489). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 83.3% per rodent species, with no significant difference between sites except for Cynomys ludovicianus. Phylogenetic analyses of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of the Bartonella isolates revealed 23 genetic variants (15 novel and 8 previously described), clustering into five phylogroups. Three phylogroups were associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, and B. washoensis, respectively. The other two phylogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. The genetic variants and phylogenetic groups exhibited a high degree of host specificity, mainly at the genus and family levels. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in wild rodents from Mexico. Considering that some variants found in this study are associated with Bartonella species that have been reported as zoonotic, more investigations are needed to further understand the ecology of Bartonella species in Mexican wildlife and their implications for human health. PMID:25514119

  20. Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Cully, Jack F; Bala, Thiagarajan; Ray, Chris; Collinge, Sharon K

    2007-09-01

    Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. PMID:17672850

  1. New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

    2002-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites. PMID:12558350

  2. Survey of Bartonella species infecting intradomicillary animals in the Huayllacallán Valley, Ancash, Peru, a region endemic for human bartonellosis.

    PubMed

    Birtles, R J; Canales, J; Ventosilla, P; Alvarez, E; Guerra, H; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Raoult, D; Doshi, N; Harrison, T G

    1999-05-01

    The natural cycle of Bartonella bacilliformis remains uncertain, and the suspected existence of animal reservoirs for the bacterium has never been convincingly demonstrated. We conducted a survey of Bartonella species infecting intradomicillary animals in a bartonellosis-endemic region of Peru, obtaining blood from 50 animals living in the homes of 11 families whose children had recently had bartonellosis. Bartonella-like bacteria were recovered from four of nine small rodents included in the study, but from none of the 41 domesticated animals. Identification and comparison of these isolates, and two Bartonella-like isolates obtained from Phyllotis mice in a different endemic region of Peru using serologic and genotypic methods indicated that although none were strains of B. bacilliformis, five were probably representatives of three previously unrecognized Bartonella species and one was a likely strain of the pathogenic species B. elizabethae. PMID:10344656

  3. Persistent infection or successive reinfection of deer mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H; Kosoy, Michael Y; Root, J Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B

    2011-03-01

    Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

  4. Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis?

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B.

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

  5. Heterologous Expression of Bartonella Adhesin A in Escherichia coli by Exchange of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin Domains Results in Enhanced Adhesion Properties and a Pathogenic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O.; Ballhorn, Wibke; Franz, Bettina; Göttig, Stephan; Linke, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Human-pathogenic Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders. An important pathogenicity factor of B. henselae is the trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), which is modularly constructed, consisting of a head, a long and repetitive neck-stalk module, and a membrane anchor. BadA is involved in bacterial autoagglutination, binding to extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, and in proangiogenic reprogramming. The slow growth of B. henselae and limited tools for genetic manipulation are obstacles for detailed examination of BadA and its domains. Here, we established a recombinant expression system for BadA mutants in Escherichia coli allowing functional analysis of particular BadA domains. Using a BadA mutant lacking 21 neck-stalk repeats (BadA HN23), the BadA HN23 signal sequence was exchanged with that of E. coli OmpA, and the BadA membrane anchor was additionally replaced with that of Yersinia adhesin A (YadA). Constructs were cloned in E. coli, and hybrid protein expression was detected by immunoblotting, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Functional analysis revealed that BadA hybrid proteins mediate autoagglutination and binding to collagen and endothelial cells. In vivo, expression of this BadA construct correlated with higher pathogenicity of E. coli in a Galleria mellonella infection model. PMID:24682330

  6. Prevalence and Diversity of Small Mammal-Associated Bartonella Species in Rural and Urban Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Jo E. B.; Knobel, Darryn L.; Agwanda, Bernard; Bai, Ying; Breiman, Robert F.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species are human pathogens but little is known about their epidemiology. We trapped rodents and shrews around human habitations at two sites in Kenya (rural Asembo and urban Kibera) to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection. Bartonella were detected by culture in five of seven host species. In Kibera, 60% of Rattus rattus were positive, as compared to 13% in Asembo. Bartonella were also detected in C. olivieri (7%), Lemniscomys striatus (50%), Mastomys natalensis (43%) and R. norvegicus (50%). Partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of isolates showed that Kibera strains were similar to reference isolates from Rattus trapped in Asia, America, and Europe, but that most strains from Asembo were less similar. Host species and trapping location were associated with differences in infection status but there was no evidence of associations between host age or sex and infection status. Acute febrile illness occurs at high incidence in both Asembo and Kibera but the etiology of many of these illnesses is unknown. Bartonella similar to known human pathogens were detected in small mammals at both sites and investigation of the ecological determinants of host infection status and of the public health significance of Bartonella infections at these locations is warranted. PMID:25781015

  7. Identification of the Feline Humoral Immune Response to Bartonella henselae Infection by Protein Microarray

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    proteins involved in transcription (1/78 or 1.3%, p-val- ue = 3.9610 22 ) and translation (Protein microarray chip printing The expression of cloned ORFs was carried out for five hours in in vitro transcription-translation (

  8. Identification of Bartonellae in the soft tick species Ornithodoros sonrai in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Kasongo, Kangaji; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Ticks, belonging to the soft ticks species Ornithodorus sonrai, have been collected from six sites in Senegal and were tested for the presence of Bartonella spp. Initial screening by PCR revealed the presence of these bacteria in ticks from two villages, Soulkhou Thissé (5/8, 62.5%) and Maka Gouye (1/24, 4.2%). Three bacterial strains were isolated from live ticks, and the genetic characterization of these strains suggests that they belong to two previously unknown species. The pathogenicity of these two new species of Bartonella is not yet known. The new isolates described here are the first strains of Bartonella spp. from soft ticks and the first isolates from any arthropod species in Africa. PMID:24359424

  9. PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cats appear to be the primary reservoir host for Bartonella koehlerae, an alpha Proteobacteria that is most likely transmitted among cat populations by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Bartonella koehlerae has caused endocarditis in a dog and in one human patient from Israel, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. Despite publication of numerous, worldwide epidemiological studies designed to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats, B. koehlerae has never been isolated using conventional blood agar plates. To date, successful isolation of B. koehlerae from cats and from the one human endocarditis patient has consistently required the use of chocolate agar plates. Results In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers < 1:16) in 30 healthy human control sera, whereas five of eight patient samples had B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater. Conclusions Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or cofactor in the development of arthritis, peripheral neuropathies or tachyarrhythmias in patients. PMID:20735840

  10. Bartonella spp. as emerging human pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B E; Neuman, M A

    1997-01-01

    Members of the genus Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) were virtually unknown to modern-day clinicians and microbiologists until they were associated with opportunistic infections in AIDS patients about 6 years ago. Since that time, Bartonella species have been associated with cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and a variety of other disease syndromes. Clinical presentation of infection with Bartonella ranges from a relatively mild lymphadenopathy with few other symptoms, seen in cat scratch disease, to life-threatening systemic disease in the immunocompromised patient. In some individuals, infection manifests as lesions that exhibit proliferation of endothelial cells and neovascularization, a pathogenic process unique to this genus of bacteria. As the spectrum of disease attributed to Bartonella is further defined, the need for reliable laboratory methods to diagnose infections caused by these unique organisms also increases. A brief summary of the clinical presentations associated with Bartonella infections is presented, and the current status of laboratory diagnosis and identification of these organisms is reviewed. PMID:9105751

  11. Detection of novel Bartonella strains and Yersinia pestis in prairie dogs and their fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae and Pulicidae) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Heather L; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Montenieri, John A; Lowell, Jennifer L; Chu, May C; Gage, Kenneth L

    2003-05-01

    We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that simultaneously detects three types of flea-associated microorganisms. Targets for the assay were sequences encoding portions of the gltA, a 17-kDa antigen, and pla genes of Bartonella spp. Strong et al., Rickettsia spp. da Rocha-Lima, and Yersinia pestis Yersin, respectively. A total of 260 flea samples containing bloodmeal remnants were analyzed from fleas collected from abandoned prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows at the site of an active plague epizootic in Jefferson County, CO. Results indicated that 34 (13.1%) fleas were positive for Bartonella spp., 0 (0%) were positive for Rickettsia spp., and 120 (46.2%) were positive for Y. pestis. Twenty-three (8.8%) of these fleas were coinfected with Bartonella spp. and Y. pestis. A second group of 295 bloodmeal-containing fleas was collected and analyzed from abandoned burrows in Logan County, CO, where a prairie dog die-off had occurred 2-4 mo before the time of sampling. Of these 295 fleas, 7 (2.4%) were positive for Bartonella spp., 0 (0%) were positive for Rickettsia spp., and 46 (15.6%) were positive for Y. pestis. Coinfections were not observed in fleas from the Logan County epizootic site. The multiplex PCR also was used to identify Y. pestis and Bartonella in prairie dog blood and tissues. This report represents the first identification of Bartonella from prairie dogs and their fleas. Prairie dog fleas were tested with PCR, and the Bartonella PCR amplicons produced were sequenced and found to be closely related to similar sequences amplified from Bartonella that had been isolated from prairie dog blood samples. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the sequences of bartonellae from prairie dogs and prairie dog fleas cluster tightly within a clade that is distinct from those containing other known Bartonella genotypes. PMID:12943112

  12. Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R

    2015-02-01

    Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue. PMID:25498979

  13. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. Bed Bugs Detects Burkholderia multivorans but Not Bartonella

    E-print Network

    Vargo, Ed

    Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. Bed Bugs Detects Burkholderia multivorans but Not Bartonella of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America Abstract Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites

  14. Whole Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Bartonella bacilliformis Strain INS, the Causative Agent of Carrion’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona, D.; Padilla, C.; Cáceres, O.; Montenegro, J. D.; Bailón, H.; Ventura, G.; Mendoza, G.; Anaya, E.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of human bartonellosis, which is highly endemic to Peru. Here, we report the first genome that was sequenced and analyzed from an isolate of B. bacilliformis strain INS, which originally was isolated from the blood of an infected patient with an acute phase of Carrion’s disease from Jaén-Cajamarca, Peru. PMID:23409255

  15. Ectoparasites of gray squirrels in two different habitats and screening of selected ectoparasites for bartonellae.

    PubMed

    Durden, Lance A; Ellis, Barbara A; Banks, Craig W; Crowe, John D; Oliver, James H

    2004-06-01

    Gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, were livetrapped in 2 different habitat types, woodland (67 squirrels) and parkland (53 squirrels), in southeastern Georgia. Ectoparasites were recovered from anesthetized squirrels and compared between hosts from the 2 habitats. Because of the absence of low vegetation in parkland habitats, it was hypothesized that the ectoparasite fauna, especially ticks and chiggers, would be more diverse on woodland squirrels. The results were generally in agreement with this hypothesis. Seventeen species of ectoparasites were recovered from woodland squirrels, compared with 6 species from parkland squirrels. Five species of ticks and 3 species of chiggers parasitized the woodland squirrels compared with no ticks or chiggers on the parkland squirrels. Significantly higher infestation prevalences were recorded on woodland compared with parkland squirrels for the flea Orchopeas howardi, the tick Amblyomma americanum, and the mesostigmatid mite Androlaelaps fahrenholzi. The mean intensity for O. howardi also was significantly higher on woodland than on parkland squirrels. Because a new strain of Bartonella sp. was isolated recently from S. carolinensis in Georgia, selected ectoparasites from this study were screened for bartonellae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some of the fleas and lice, but none of the mites tested, were PCR positive, suggesting that fleas, or lice, or both, might be vectors of bartonellae between squirrels. Six distinct strains of Bartonella sp. were detected, 2 in fleas and 4 in lice. PMID:15270090

  16. Bartonella chomelii is the most frequent species infecting cattle grazing in communal mountain pastures in Spain.

    PubMed

    Antequera-Gómez, M L; Lozano-Almendral, L; Barandika, J F; González-Martín-Niño, R M; Rodríguez-Moreno, I; García-Pérez, A L; Gil, H

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

  17. Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T S; McDonald, Katherine D; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2013-01-01

    Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world. PMID:24223261

  18. PCR Characterization Suggests that an Unusual Range of Bartonella Species Infect the Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

  19. PCR characterization suggests that an unusual range of Bartonella species infect the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Joanna; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zalesny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D

    2013-08-01

    Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

  20. A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

  1. Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Minnick, Michael F; Battisti, James M

    2009-01-01

    It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains understudied compared with most other bacterial pathogens. Numerous questions regarding Bartonella's molecular pathogenesis and epidemiology remain unanswered. Virtually every mammal harbors one or more Bartonella species and their transmission typically involves a hematophagous arthropod vector. However, many details regarding epidemiology and the public health threat imposed by these animal reservoirs is unclear. A handful of studies have shown that bartonellae are highly-adapted pathogens whose parasitic strategy has evolved to cause persistent infections of the host. To this end, virulence attributes of Bartonella include the subversion of host cells with effector molecules delivered via a type IV secretion system, induction of pathological angiogenesis through various means, including inhibition of apoptosis and activation of hypoxia-inducing factor 1, use of afimbrial adhesins that are orthologs of Yersinia adhesin A, incorporation of lipopolysaccharides with low endotoxic potency in the outer membrane, and several other virulence factors that help Bartonella infect and persist in erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the host circulatory system. PMID:19659429

  2. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Virna L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector. PMID:24040015

  3. Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes. PMID:22369683

  4. Gray Foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) as a Potential Reservoir of a Bartonella clarridgeiae-Like Bacterium and Domestic Dogs as Part of a Sentinel System for Surveillance of Zoonotic Arthropod-Borne Pathogens in Northern California?

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Jennifer B.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Brown, Richard N.; Theis, Jerold H.; Foley, Janet E.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2007-01-01

    Two species of Bartonella, a novel Bartonella clarridgeiae-like bacterium and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, were isolated from rural dogs and gray foxes in northern California. A novel B. clarridgeiae-like species was isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 182 dogs and 22 (42%) of 53 gray foxes, while B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was isolated from 1 dog (0.5%) and 5 gray foxes (9.4%). PCR and DNA sequence analyses of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region suggested that strains infecting dogs and gray foxes were identical. Fifty-four dogs (29%) and 48 gray foxes (89%) had reciprocal titers of antibodies against Bartonella spp. of ?64. The high prevalence of bacteremia and seroreactivity to Bartonella spp. in gray foxes suggests that they may act as a reservoir species for the B. clarridgeiae-like species in this region. Domestic dogs were also tested for other arthropod-borne infectious agents. Fifty-one dogs (28%) were positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigen, seventy-four (40%) were seroreactive to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and five (2.7%) were seropositive for Yersinia pestis. Fourteen dogs (7.6%) were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the association of Bartonella antibody titer categories with potential risk factors and the presence of other vector-borne agents in domestic dogs. Older dogs were more likely to be seroreactive to Bartonella spp. There was no association between the exposure of dogs to Bartonella and the exposure of dogs to A. phagocytophilum in this study. PMID:17553970

  5. Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease. PMID:22232371

  6. Effects of Bartonella spp. on Flea Feeding and Reproductive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Fielden, Laura J.; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathogens are transmitted from one host to another by hematophagous insect vectors. The interactions between a vector-borne organism and its vector vary in many ways, most of which are yet to be explored and identified. These interactions may play a role in the dynamics of the infection cycle. One way to evaluate these interactions is by studying the effects of the tested organism on the vector. In this study, we tested the effects of infection with Bartonella species on fitness-related variables of fleas by using Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and Meriones crassus jirds as a model system. Feeding parameters, including blood meal size and metabolic rate during digestion, as well as reproductive parameters, including fecundity, fertility, and life span, were compared between fleas experimentally infected with Bartonella and uninfected fleas. In addition, the developmental time, sex ratio, and body size of F1 offspring fleas were compared between the two groups. Most tested parameters did not differ between infected and uninfected fleas. However, F1 males produced by Bartonella-positive females were significantly smaller than F1 males produced by Bartonella-negative female fleas. The findings in this study suggest that bartonellae are well adapted to their flea vectors, and by minimally affecting their fitness they have evolved to better spread themselves in the natural environment. PMID:23542614

  7. BALB/c Mice resist infection with Bartonella bacilliformis

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Beronica; Villar, Sandra; Palma, Sandra; Merello, Jenny; Valencia, Roberto; Torres, Luis; Cok, Jamie; Ventosilla, Palmira; Manguiña, Ciro; Guerra, Humberto; Henriquez, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    Background Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis is a highly lethal endemic and sometimes epidemic infectious disease in South America, and a serious public health concern in Perú. There is limited information on the immunologic response to B. bacilliformis infection. The objective of this research was to produce experimental infection of BALB/c mice to B. bacilliformis inoculation. Findings BALB/c mice were inoculated with 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 × 108 live B. bacilliformis using different routes: intraperitoneal, intradermal, intranasal, and subcutaneous. Cultures of spleen, liver, and lymph nodes from one to 145 days yielded no cultivable organisms. No organs showed lesions at any time. Previously inoculated mice showed no changes in the reinoculation site. Conclusion Parenteral inoculation of live B. bacilliformis via different infection routes produced no macroscopic or microscopic organ lesions in BALB/c mice. It was not possible to isolate B. bacilliformis using Columbia blood agar from 1 to 15 days after inoculation. PMID:18957122

  8. DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF BARTONELLA INFECTIONS IN RICHARDSON'S GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS RICHARDSONII)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jardine; C. Waldner; G. Wobeser; F. A. Leighton

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiology of Bartonella infections in Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) was studied at multiple sites in Saskatchewan, Canada, from 2002 to 2004. The overall prevalence of Bartonella infection was 48%. Juvenile squirrels were significantly more likely to be infected with Bartonella than were adults (58% and 37%, respectively), and juvenile animals also were significantly more likely to have high

  9. Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Commensal Rodents and Ectoparasites from Nigeria, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamani, Joshua; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. In recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. To date, no studies investigating the presence of Bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria were carried out. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp. in commensal rodents and their ectoparasites in Nigeria. We report, for the first time, the molecular detection of Bartonella in 26% (46/177) of commensal rodents (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and Cricetomys gambianus) and 28% (9/32) of ectoparasite pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, Haemolaelaps spp., Ctenophthalmus spp., Hemimerus talpoides, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) from Nigeria. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) revealed diversity of Bartonella spp. and genotypes in Nigerian rodents and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum and Bartonella grahamii were detected. Conclusions/Significance High prevalence of infection with Bartonella spp. was detected in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria. The Bartonella spp. identified were previously associated with human diseases highlighting their importance to public health. Further studies need to be conducted to determine whether the identified Bartonella species could be responsible for human cases of febrile illness in Nigeria. PMID:23738028

  10. Transmission Dynamics of Bartonella sp. Strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's Jirds (Meriones crassus)

    PubMed Central

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors. PMID:23241972

  11. Bartonella clarridgeiae bacteremia detected in an asymptomatic blood donor.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Sowy, Stanley; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Soares, Tânia Cristina Benetti; Barjas-Castro, Maria de Lourdes; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to Bartonella clarridgeiae has been reported only on the basis of antibody detection. We report for the first time an asymptomatic human blood donor infected with B. clarridgeiae, as documented by enrichment blood culture, PCR, and DNA sequencing. PMID:25392353

  12. Rickettsia and Bartonella species in fleas from Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

  13. Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

    2013-01-01

    Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880

  14. Demographic features of Bartonella infections in Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii).

    PubMed

    Jardine, C; Waldner, C; Wobeser, G; Leighton, F A

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiology of Bartonella infections in Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) was studied at multiple sites in Saskatchewan, Canada, from 2002 to 2004. The overall prevalence of Bartonella infection was 48%. Juvenile squirrels were significantly more likely to be infected with Bartonella than were adults (58% and 37%, respectively), and juvenile animals also were significantly more likely to have high levels of bacteremia compared to adult animals. Prevalence of Bartonella infection appeared to decrease with age; only 24% of animals known to be > or = 2 yr old were infected with Bartonella. Prevalence of infection was lowest in May (27%) and highest in late summer and early autumn (71%). The prevalence of fleas also varied seasonally, and animals were more likely to have fleas in the late summer and early autumn than in early summer. We found no relationship between Bartonella prevalence and host density or flea prevalence. PMID:17255440

  15. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul virus, and Bartonella spp. among Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the urban slum environment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health. PMID:24359425

  16. Temporal and spatial patterns of Bartonella infection in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, M Y; Ray, C; Brinkerhoff, R J; Collinge, S K

    2008-08-01

    We describe the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of Bartonella in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) based on a longitudinal study conducted in 20 black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD) colonies in Boulder County, CO from 2003 to 2005. Bartonella infection was widely distributed in all colonies with an overall prevalence of 23.1%, but varied by colony from 4.8% to 42.5% and by year from 9.1 to 39.0%, with a marked increase in Bartonella activity in 2005. Levels of bacteremia varied from 40 to 12,000 colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter of BTPD blood, but were highly skewed with a median of 240 CFU. Bartonella infection rates were unimodal with respect to BTPD body mass, first increasing among growing juveniles, then declining among adults. Infection rates exhibited a sigmoidal response to body mass, such that 700g may prove to be a useful threshold value to evaluate the likelihood of Bartonella infection in BTPDs. Bartonella prevalence increased throughout the testing season for each year, as newly emerged juveniles developed bacteremia. Data from recaptured animals suggest that Bartonella infections did not persist in individual BTPDs, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of Bartonella in BTPDs compared to other rodent species. No association was found between Bartonella prevalence and host population density. Prevalence did not differ between males and females. The spatio-temporal pattern of Bartonella infection among colonies suggests epizootic spread from northern to central and southern portions of the study area. The potential significance of the BTPD-associated Bartonella for public health needs to be further investigated. PMID:18176820

  17. EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL ECTOPARASITE CONTROL ON BARTONELLA INFECTIONS IN WILD RICHARDSON'S GROUND SQUIRRELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jardine; C. Waldner; G. Wobeser; F. A. Leighton

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of ectoparasites in transmitting Bartonella infections in wild Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii). Richardson's ground squirrels were trapped, examined for fleas, and tested for Bartonella bacteremia once monthly, at six sites, from April to September 2004. After the initial trapping session in April, burrows at three sites were treated with

  18. Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Collinge, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

  19. Identification of Bartonella bacilliformis Genotypes and Their Relevance to Epidemiological Investigations of Human Bartonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Birtles, Richard J.; Fry, Norman K.; Ventosilla, Palmira; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Sánchez, Eduardo; Vizcarra, Hugo; Raoult, Didier

    2002-01-01

    Genotypic diversity among 26 isolates of Bartonella bacilliformis obtained from different areas of Peru, and at different times, was assessed by comparison of DNA sequences derived from 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (ISR) and a citrate synthase gene (gltA) fragment and by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. gltA comparison divided the isolates into two groups, whereas ISR comparison revealed six sequences. AFLP analysis using a selective primer delineated five profiles that correlated well with those obtained by sequence comparison. Combination of all three data sets divided the isolates into six genotypes. One of these genotypes was common to isolates collected from a large area in western Peru that corresponded to the region of endemicity for bartonellosis; however, isolates belonging to two other genotypes were also found within this region. Two of these genotypes were found in isolates isolated more than 35 years apart. The remaining three genotypes were each specifically associated with three outbreaks of bartonellosis that have recently occurred in areas where the disease had not previously been recognized. Demonstration of the unique nature of these isolates indicates that the outbreaks with which they were associated did not result from the introduction of disease by individuals who acquired their infection in the recognized region of endemicity. The sources of these outbreaks remain unknown. A consensus approach to bacterial typing using comparative sequence analysis of multiple genetic loci and the pan-genomic sampling of AFLP appears to offer a well-supported assessment of B. bacilliformis diversity, and the genotypic differences identified appear to have epidemiological significance. PMID:12354853

  20. Retinal and choroidal manifestations of cat-scratch disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. David Ormerod; Keith A Skolnick; Matthew M Menosky; P. Reed Pavan; David M Pon

    1998-01-01

    ObjectiveThe ability to diagnose cat-scratch disease (CSD) has been facilitated greatly by the recent isolation and characterization of Bartonella henselae (formerly genus Rochalimaea) and Afipia felis and by the subsequent development of specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serologic tests. This study will help define the patterns of posterior segment ocular involvement in patients with confirmed CSD.

  1. Detection of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents in Israel using HRM real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Baneth, Gad; Avidor, Boaz; Kosoy, Michael Y; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Mintz, Dvir; Eyal, Osnat; Goethe, Ralph; Mietze, Andreas; Shpigel, Nahum; Harrus, Shimon

    2009-11-18

    The prevalence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents was studied in 19 geographical locations in Israel. One hundred and twelve rodents belonging to five species (Mus musculus, Rattus rattus, Microtus socialis, Acomys cahirinus and Apodemus sylvaticus) were included in the survey. In addition, 156 ectoparasites were collected from the rodents. Spleen sample from each rodent and the ectoparasites were examined for the presence of Bartonella DNA using high resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR. The method was designed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight Bartonella spp. according to the nucleotide variation in each of two gene fragments (rpoB and gltA) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) locus, using the same PCR protocol which allowed the simultaneous amplification of the three different loci. Bartonella DNA was detected in spleen samples of 19 out of 79 (24%) black rats (R. rattus) and in 1 of 4 (25%) Cairo spiny mice (A. cahirinus). In addition, 15 of 34 (44%) flea pools harbored Bartonella DNA. Only rat flea (Xenopsyla cheopis) pools collected from black rats (R. rattus) were positive for Bartonella DNA. The Bartonella sp. detected in spleen samples from black rats (R. rattus) was closely related to both B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae. The species detected in the Cairo spiny mouse (A. cahirinus) spleen sample was closely related to the zoonotic pathogen, B. elizabethae. These results indicate that Bartonella species are highly prevalent in suburban rodent populations and their ectoparasites in Israel. Further investigation of the prevalence and zoonotic potential of the Bartonella species detected in the black rats and the Cairo spiny mouse is warranted. PMID:19595521

  2. Bartonella and Rickettsia in arthropods from the Lao PDR and from Borneo, Malaysia?

    PubMed Central

    Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Wells, Konstans; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Inthalad, Saythong; Slesak, Günther; Boudebouch, Najma; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Newton, Paul N.; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. Yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in South-east Asia. We conducted entomological field surveys in the Lao PDR (Laos) and Borneo, Malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domestic cows and pigs in Laos. Rickettsia felis was detected by real-time PCR with similar overall flea infection rate in Laos (76.6%, 69/90) and Borneo (74.4%, 268/360). Both of the encountered flea vectors Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were infected with R. felis. The degrees of similarity of partial gltA and ompA genes with recognized species indicate the rickettsia detected in two Boophilus spp. ticks collected from a cow in Laos may be a new species. Isolation and further characterization will be necessary to specify it as a new species. Bartonella clarridgeiae was detected in 3/90 (3.3%) and 2/360 (0.6%) of examined fleas from Laos and Borneo, respectively. Two fleas collected in Laos and one flea collected in Borneo were co-infected with both R. felis and B. clarridgeiae. Further investigations are needed in order to isolate these agents and to determine their epidemiology and aetiological role in unknown fever in patients from these areas. PMID:22153360

  3. High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

  4. Bartonella Species and Trombiculid Mites of Rats from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012–March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7–19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini–Blankaartia and Schoengastiini–Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.–positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.–negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68–43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.–positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.–negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human—rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human cases of Bartonella infection that may arise. PMID:25629779

  5. Bartonella species and trombiculid mites of rats from the mekong delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012-March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7-19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini-Blankaartia and Schoengastiini-Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.-positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.-negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.-positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.-negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human-rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human cases of Bartonella infection that may arise. PMID:25629779

  6. Bartonella quintana Aortitis in a Man with AIDS, Diagnosed by Needle Biopsy and 16S rRNA Gene Amplification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sulggi A; Plett, Sara K; Luetkemeyer, Anne F; Borgo, Gina M; Ohliger, Michael A; Conrad, Miles B; Cookson, Brad T; Sengupta, Dhruba J; Koehler, Jane E

    2015-08-01

    A man with newly diagnosed AIDS presented with months of back pain and fever. Computed tomography (CT) results demonstrated aortitis with periaortic tissue thickening. DNA amplification of biopsy tissue revealed Bartonella quintana, and Bartonella serologies were subsequently noted to be positive. The patient improved with prolonged doxycycline and rifabutin treatment. This case illustrates how molecular techniques are increasingly important in diagnosing Bartonella infections. PMID:26063867

  7. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Bartonella Infection in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Bai; M. Y. Kosoy; C. Ray; R. J. Brinkerhoff; S. K. Collinge

    2008-01-01

    We describe the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of Bartonella in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) based on a longitudinal study conducted in 20 black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD) colonies in Boulder County, CO from 2003 to\\u000a 2005. Bartonella infection was widely distributed in all colonies with an overall prevalence of 23.1%, but varied by colony from 4.8% to 42.5%\\u000a and

  8. Mixed Infections, Cryptic Diversity, and Vector-Borne Pathogens: Evidence from Polygenis Fleas and Bartonella Species?

    PubMed Central

    Abbot, Patrick; Aviles, Alena E.; Eller, Lauren; Durden, Lance A.

    2007-01-01

    Coinfections within hosts present opportunities for horizontal gene transfer between strains and competitive interactions between genotypes and thus can be a critical element of the lifestyles of pathogens. Bartonella spp. are Alphaproteobacteria that parasitize mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Their vectors are thought to be various biting arthropods, such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice, and they are commonly cited as agents of various emerging diseases. Coinfections by different Bartonella strains and species can be common in mammals, but little is known about specificity and coinfections in arthropod vectors. We surveyed the rate of mixed infections of Bartonella in flea vectors (Polygenis gwyni) parasitizing cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in which previous surveys indicated high rates of infection. We found that nearly all fleas (20 of 21) harbored one or more strains of Bartonella, with rates of coinfection approaching 90%. A strain previously identified as common in cotton rats was also common in their fleas. However, another common strain in cotton rats was absent from P. gwyni, while a rare cotton rat strain was quite common in P. gwyni. Surprisingly, some samples were also coinfected with a strain phylogenetically related to Bartonella clarridgeiae, which is typically associated with felids and ruminants. Finally, a locus (pap31) that is characteristically borne on phage in Bartonella was successfully sequenced from most samples. However, sequence diversity in pap31 was novel in the P. gwyni samples, relative to other Bartonella previously typed with pap31, emphasizing the likelihood of large reservoirs of cryptic diversity in natural populations of the pathogen. PMID:17693558

  9. Molecular identification of Bartonella species in dogs with leishmaniosis (leishmania infantum) with or without cytological evidence of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Soubasis, Nectarios; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Theodorou, Konstantina; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Saridomichelakis, Manolis; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggest that Bartonella species may cause polyarthritis and lameness in dogs. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a multi-systemic disease often occurring in association with arthritis. We hypothesized that concurrent Bartonella infection may be a contributing factor for the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. Hence the primary objective of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in dogs with naturally occurring CanL, with or without cytologically documented arthritis. Thirty-eight dogs with CanL (31 with neutrophilic arthritis and 7 without arthritis) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four archived clinical specimens from these 38 dogs, including 33 blood samples, 19 bone marrow (BM) samples and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from 22 dogs were tested for Bartonella spp. DNA using the Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Overall, eight (21.1%) dogs were infected with one or two Bartonella species; however, Bartonella spp. infection was not associated with arthritis in dogs with CanL. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine if there is a correlation between Bartonella spp. infection and the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. PMID:25258172

  10. Detection of Bartonella quintana in African body and head lice.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Socolovschi, Cristina; Barker, Stephen C; Diatta, Georges; Rogier, Christophe; Olive, Marie-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of Bartonella quintana, an organism that causes trench fever. In this work, we investigated the prevalence of this bacterium in human lice in different African countries. We tested 616 head lice and 424 body lice from nine African countries using real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting intergenic spacer region 2 and specific B. quintana genes. Overall, B. quintana DNA was found in 54% and 2% of body and head lice, respectively. Our results also show that there are more body lice positive for B. quintana in poor countries, which was determined by the gross domestic product, than in wealthy areas (228/403 versus 0/21, P < 0.001). A similar finding was obtained for head lice (8/226 versus 2/390, P = 0.007). Our findings suggest that head lice in Africa may be infected by B. quintana when patients live in poor economic conditions and are also exposed to body lice. PMID:24935950

  11. Mixed Infections, Cryptic Diversity, and Vector-Borne Pathogens: Evidence from Polygenis Fleas and Bartonella Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Abbot; Alena E. Aviles; Lauren Eller; Lance A. Durden

    2007-01-01

    Coinfections within hosts present opportunities for horizontal gene transfer between strains and competitive interactions between genotypes and thus can be a critical element of the lifestyles of patho- gens. Bartonella spp. are Alphaproteobacteria that parasitize mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Their vectors are thought to be various biting arthropods, such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice, and they are commonly

  12. 16S rRNA sequences of Bartonella bacilliformis and cat scratch disease bacillus reveal phylogenetic relationships with the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, S P; Dorsch, M; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Stackebrandt, E

    1991-01-01

    The primary structures of 16S rRNAs of Bartonella bacilliformis, an isolate of the cat scratch disease (CSD) bacillus, and a strain phenotypically similar to the CSD bacillus were determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing. These microorganisms were found to be members of the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria. The sequence from B. bacilliformis was most closely related to the rRNA of Rochalimaea quintana (91.7% homology), the etiologic agent of trench fever. The sequence from the isolate of the CSD bacillus showed the greatest homology with Brucella abortus (89.7%) and, when compared with oligonucleotide catalog data, formed a cluster with Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Pseudomonas carboxidovorans, Nitrobacter species, and Bradyrhizobium species. The 16S rRNA sequence was also determined for the Cleveland Clinic isolate, which was previously shown to be phenotypically similar to and approximately 30% related, by DNA hybridization, to the CSD bacillus. The Cleveland Clinic isolate was isolated from a patient not diagnosed with CSD. The rRNAs from these bacteria exhibited 98.2% homology, confirming that this isolate is a second species in the same genus as the CSD bacillus. Our data suggest that neither B. bacilliformis nor the CSD bacillus is the etiologic agent of bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis. PMID:1719021

  13. Horizontal Transfers and Gene Losses in the Phospholipid Pathway of Bartonella Reveal Clues about Early Ecological Niches

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiyun; Kosoy, Michael; Olival, Kevin J.; Dittmar, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Bartonellae are mammalian pathogens vectored by blood-feeding arthropods. Although of increasing medical importance, little is known about their ecological past, and host associations are underexplored. Previous studies suggest an influence of horizontal gene transfers in ecological niche colonization by acquisition of host pathogenicity genes. We here expand these analyses to metabolic pathways of 28 Bartonella genomes, and experimentally explore the distribution of bartonellae in 21 species of blood-feeding arthropods. Across genomes, repeated gene losses and horizontal gains in the phospholipid pathway were found. The evolutionary timing of these patterns suggests functional consequences likely leading to an early intracellular lifestyle for stem bartonellae. Comparative phylogenomic analyses discover three independent lineage-specific reacquisitions of a core metabolic gene—NAD(P)H-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpsA)—from Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Transferred genes are significantly closely related to invertebrate Arsenophonus-, and Serratia-like endosymbionts, and mammalian Helicobacter-like pathogens, supporting a cellular association with arthropods and mammals at the base of extant Bartonella spp. Our studies suggest that the horizontal reacquisitions had a key impact on bartonellae lineage specific ecological and functional evolution. PMID:25106622

  14. Dried Blood Spots for qPCR Diagnosis of Acute Bartonella bacilliformis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Pieter W.; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Torres, Lorena L.; Pérez-Lu, José E.; Moore, David; Mabey, David

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of a life-threatening illness. Thin blood smear is the most common diagnostic method for acute infection in endemic areas of Peru but remains of limited value because of low sensitivity. The aim of this study was to adapt a B. bacilliformis-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for use with dried blood spots (DBS) as a sampling method and assess its performance and use for the diagnosis and surveillance of acute Bartonella infection. Only two of 65 children (3%) that participated in this study had positive blood smears for B. bacilliformis, whereas 16 (including these two) were positive by PCR performed on DBS samples (24.6%). The use of DBS in combination with B. bacilliformis-specific PCR could be a useful tool for public health in identifying and monitoring outbreaks of infection and designing control programs to reduce the burden of this life-threatening illness. PMID:24043691

  15. Genome dynamics of Bartonella grahamii in micro-populations of woodland rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva C Berglund; Christian Ehrenborg; Olga Vinnere Pettersson; Fredrik Granberg; Kristina Näslund; Martin Holmberg; Siv GE Andersson

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rodents represent a high-risk reservoir for the emergence of new human pathogens. The recent completion of the 2.3 Mb genome of Bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent blood-borne bacteria in wild rodents, revealed a higher abundance of genes for host-cell interaction systems than in the genomes of closely related human pathogens. The sequence variability within the global B.

  16. 585Vet. Res. 35 (2004) 585595 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2004

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2004-01-01

    clinical dis- ease in humans [35] and in other mammals such as the domestic cat and dog [7]. One article Bartonella henselae IgG antibodies are prevalent in dogs from southeastern USA Laia SOLANO body of literature regarding Bartonella henselae in humans and cats, there is little information about

  17. Use of Shell-Vial Cell Culture Assay for Isolation of Bacteria from Clinical Specimens: 13 Years of Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederique Gouriet; Florence Fenollar; Jean-Yves Patrice; Michel Drancourt; Didier Raoult

    2005-01-01

    The shell-vial culture assay is performed routinely in our laboratory. Recently we revisited our experience of using the shell-vial culture assay for the isolation of microorganisms from various clinical samples. Over a 13-year period, we have isolated 580 bacterial strains (5%) from 11,083 clinical samples tested. Over the same period, 285 isolates of rickettsiae, bartonellae, or Coxiella burnetii were cultured

  18. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  19. Hemin-binding proteins as potent markers for serological diagnosis of infections with Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Mayumi; Sasaki, Toshinori; Seki, Naomi; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Sasaki, Yuko; Shibayama, Keigo; Sasaki, Tsuguo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult to distinguish infections with different Bartonella species using commercially available immunofluorescence (indirect immunofluorescent antibody [IFA]) assay kits. To identify appropriate proteins for serodiagnosis of Bartonella quintana infections, we investigated the antigenicity of B. quintana proteins using sera from homeless people with high B. quintana IgG titers in IFA assay. These sera reacted strongly to an outer membrane protein, hemin-binding protein D (HbpD). Further, serum from an endocarditis patient infected with B. quintana reacted to HbpB and HbpD. To locate the antigenic sites within the proteins, we generated deletion mutants of HbpB and HbpD. Amino acid residues 89 to 220 of HbpB and 151 to 200 of HbpD were identified as the minimum regions required for recognition by these sera. Several oligopeptides comprising parts of the minimum regions of HbpB and HbpD were synthesized, and their immunoreactivity with the above-mentioned sera was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum from the endocarditis patient reacted similarly to synthetic peptides HbpB2 (amino acid residues 144 to 173 of HbpB) and HbpD3 (151 to 200 residues of HbpD), while sera from the other subjects reacted to HbpD3. These results indicate that synthetic peptides HbpB2 and HbpD3 might be suitable for developing serological tools for differential diagnosis of B. quintana infections from other Bartonella infections. PMID:23408526

  20. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Methodology/Principal findings Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Conclusion Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high. PMID:25299702

  1. Prevalence of selected vector-borne organisms and identification of Bartonella species DNA in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis).

    PubMed

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Blanton, Hunter L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Belfiore, Natalia; Marr, Henry S; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    Trapper-killed North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA, were screened for multiple vector-borne bacteria known to be pathogenic to mammals. Blood was collected from 30 carcasses in 2006, from 35 in 2007, and from one live otter in 2008. Samples were screened using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for DNA from Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. All samples were negative for Rickettsia spp. Twelve of 30 samples from 2006 produced amplicons using the assay designed to detect Ehrlichia spp., but sequencing revealed that the amplified DNA fragment was from a novel Wolbachia sp., thought to be an endosymbiote of a Dirofilaria sp. Between 2006 and 2007, DNA from a novel Bartonella sp. was detected in 19 of 65 animals (29%). Blood from one live otter captured in 2008 was found positive for this Bartonella sp. by both PCR and culture. The pathogenicity of this Bartonella species in river otters or other mammals is unknown. PMID:20688703

  2. Prevalence of Bartonella quintana in patients with fever and head lice from rural areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Bassene, Hubert; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ratmanov, Pavel; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Trench fever is poorly known by the staff of health facilities that manage febrile patients in Senegal. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in 5 of 274 (2%) febrile patients from two rural dispensaries and 2 of 71 (3%) head lice specimens collected from the same villages. PMID:24799368

  3. A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors

    E-print Network

    Okujava, Rusudan

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, ...

  4. L'endocardite à Bartonella en Tunisie: particularités lésionnelles et évolutives

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Rania; Abid, Dorra; Abid, Leila; Znazen, Abir; Hentati, Mourad; Hammami, Adnene; Kammoun, Samir

    2013-01-01

    L'endocardite à Bartonalla est une infection ubiquitaire, son diagnostic est difficile vu qu'il s'agit souvent d'endocardite à hémoculture négative. Le but de cette étude est d'analyser les particularités lésionnelles et évolutives de cette entité dans un pays du nord d'Afrique, la Tunisie et de démontrer la gravité de cette infection. Nous avons étudié rétrospectivement les dossiers médicaux de 20 patients atteints d'endocardite à Bartonella, confirmée selon les critères de Dukes modifiés. L’âge moyen de nos patients était 37 ans avec une prédominance masculine (SR=3). Tous nos malades avaient un niveau socio-économique bas. Le motif essentiel de consultation était la dyspnée, 6 patients étaient admis dans un tableau d'insuffisance cardiaque congestive. Une prédilection des lésions au niveau de la valve aortique a été notée (14 cas). Quatorze patients avaient des végétations endocarditiques avec une taille qui dépasse 10 mm chez 8 malades. La majorité des patients (18 patients) présentaient une régurgitation valvulaire massive en rapport principalement avec des mutilations importantes (6 cas de ruptures de cordages mitraux, 2 cas de déchirures des sigmoïdes aortiques, un cas de perforation valvulaire aortique, un cas de désinsertion de prothèse mitrale). Quinze malades (3/4) avaient nécessité une chirurgie à la phase active de la maladie, l'indication majeure était l'insuffisance cardiaque. Une complication neurologique était notée chez 2 malades et une complication rénale chez 3 malades. Treize patients étaient guéris, 5 malades étaient décédés et 2 malades opérés ont présenté une réinfection à staphylococcus aureus et à candida albicans en postopératoire. L'endocardite à Bartonella est une infection grave. Cette Bactérie possède un potentiel destructif important. Le recours à la chirurgie est quasi constant. La morbi-mortalité est élevée. La recherche de cette bactérie devrait être alors systématique chez nos malades suspects d'endocardite d'autant plus que la bartonellose est endémique sur nos terres. PMID:24570785

  5. A Case of Multi-vector and Multi-host Epidemiological Model: Bartonella Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Brettschneider, H.; Bastos, A. D. S.

    2010-11-01

    We consider a compartmental model for the Bartonella infection on rodents. More precisely, on the co-occurring populations of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus where the vectors are two species of ectoparasites, namely ticks and fleas. As usual for such models a key stage is the modelling of the forces of infection. While the vital dynamics and the progression of the infection within each of the four species are sufficiently well known to determine the rest of the transfer rates, there is practically no data on the probability of infection. In order to determine appropriate values for the coefficients of the forces of infection we solve an optimal control problem where the objective function is the norm of the difference between the observed and the predicted by the model equilibrium infection prevalence rates in the four species. Within this setting the conjecture that the higher prevalence of the infection in Rattus norvegicus can be explained solely by their higher ectoparasite load is tested and disproved.

  6. Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment. PMID:21347280

  7. Reproductive Isolation Isolating Barriers

    E-print Network

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.

    ;Isolating Barriers Premating barriers. Spatial. Geographical isolation Habitat isolation. Temporal. OverlapReproductive Isolation Isolating Barriers: Premating Postmating-Prezygotic Postzygotic #12 in flowering times. Antirrhinum majus striatum Antirrhinum majus pseudomajus #12;Isolating Barriers Premating

  8. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  9. Comparison of the 'Ca Liberibacter asiaticus' genome adapted for an intracellular lifestyle with other members of the rhizobiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 52 clust...

  10. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae . The disease is spread through contact with an infected cat (a bite or scratch). It also can be spread through contact with cat saliva on broken skin or mucosal surfaces like those ...

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  13. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia. PMID:22857007

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats.

    PubMed

    Al-Kappany, Y M; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Dubey, J P

    2011-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus and human leukemia virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii , Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv and Dirofilaria immitis antigens was determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 172 (95.5%) of the 180 cats with titers of 1?5 in 9, 1?10 in 9, 1?20 in 3, 1?40 in 5, 1?80 in 5, 1?160 in 15, 1?320 in 22, and 1?640 or higher in 104. Thus, 57.4% had high T. gondii titers. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 105 (59.6%) of 178, with titers of 1?64 in 45, 1?128 in 39, 1?256 in 13, 1?512 in 3, 1?1,024 in 4, and 1?2,048 in 1 cat. Antibodies to FIV were detected in 59 (33.9%) of 174 cats. Of 174 cats tested, antigens to FeLv, and D. immitis were detected in 8 (4.6%) and 6 (3.4%) cats, respectively. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV infections in cats from Cairo, Egypt. This is the first report of Bartonella spp., and D. immitis infection in cats in Egypt. PMID:21506874

  15. Cat scratch disease encephalopathy in an immunocompetent patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dyachenko; M. Ziv; R. Raz; B. Chazan; A. Lev; D. Rozenman

    2005-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is typically a self-limited regional lymphadenopathy in children and young adults that is caused by Bartonella henselae. The majority of CSD cases resolve spontaneously; however, many systemic complications have been described. We report an unusual case of CSD presenting as an epitrochlear arm mass and complicated by encephalopathy. Identification of B. henselae DNA in the affected

  16. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Previte, D.; Olds, B. P.; Yoon, K.; Sun, W.; Muir, W.; Paige, K. N.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J.; Koehler, J. E.; Pittendrigh, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days postinfection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days postinfection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  17. An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species. PMID:25629777

  18. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Berenger, Jean Michel; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean Marc; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B. quintana bacterium from day one (D1) to D5; subsequently they were fed with pathogen-free human blood until the end of the experiment. Bed bugs and feces were collected in time series, to evaluate their capacities to acquire, multiply and expel viable B. quintana using molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and cultures assays. B. quintana was detected molecularly in 100% of randomly selected experimentally infected bed bug specimens (D3). The monitoring of B. quintana in bed bug feces showed that the bacterium was detectable starting on the 3rd day post-infection (pi) and persisted until day 18±1 pi. Although immunohistochemistry assays localized the bacteria to the gastrointestinal bed bug gut, the detection of B. quintana in the first and second instar larva stages suggested a vertical non-transovarial transmission of the bacterium. Conclusion The present work demonstrated for the first time that bed bugs can acquire, maintain for more than 2 weeks and release viable B. quintana organisms following a stercorarial shedding. We also observed the vertical transmission of the bacterium to their progeny. Although the biological role of bed bugs in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions has yet to be confirmed, the present work highlights the need to reconsider monitoring of these arthropods for the transmission of human pathogens. PMID:26000974

  19. A challenging differential diagnosis of optic neuropathy in ED: CSD.

    PubMed

    Ak, Rohat; Doganay, Fatih; Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Cimilli Ozturk, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    Optic neuropathy due to cat scratch disease (CSD) is a rare occurrence associated with macular star formation and is characterised by sudden mostly unilateral painless loss of vision. The aetiological agent in CSD is Bartonella henselae. Ocular complications present in up to 10% of patients and include neuroretinitis, conjunctivitis or uveitis. Ocular bartonelosis is usually self-limited. A case of a man patient with neuroretinitis caused by B. henselae is reported. PMID:26077806

  20. Vibration isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on vibration isolation are presented. Techniques to control and isolate centrifuge disturbances were identified. Topics covered include: disturbance sources in the microgravity environment; microgravity assessment criteria; life sciences centrifuge; flight support equipment for launch; active vibration isolation system; active balancing system; and fuzzy logic control.

  1. Cat-scratch disease in Hawaii: Etiology and seroepidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise M. Demers; James W. Bass; Judy M. Vincent; Donald A. Person; Diane K. Noyes; Cathy M. Staege; Curt P. Samlaska; Neal H. Lockwood; Russell L. Regnery; Burt E. Anderson

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and seroepidemiology of cat-scratch disease (CSD) in Hawaii. Methods: Blood and fine-needle aspirate (FNA) from the lymph nodes of 39 consecutive patients with clinical CSD were cultured for Bartonella henselae, and blood samples from index cats, stray cats, and dogs were cultured and their sera were tested by indirect fluorescence antibody test for antibodies to

  2. Isolated Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Claudio Ferracchiati; Emanuele Garofalo

    \\u000a The isolated storage in Silverlight for Windows Phone 7 follows in some ways the architectural model used for the desktop\\u000a version. The concept of this storage is to isolate the physical memory of one application from another. Isolated storage undoubtedly\\u000a has its advantages: the application’s data is available only to us, which means that no one else can compromise security

  3. The Bartonella quintana extracytoplasmic function sigma factor RpoE has a role in bacterial adaptation to the arthropod vector environment.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, Stephanie; Koehler, Jane E

    2013-06-01

    Bartonella quintana is a vector-borne bacterial pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans. During the infectious cycle, B. quintana transitions from the hemin-restricted human bloodstream to the hemin-rich body louse vector. Because extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors often regulate adaptation to environmental changes, we hypothesized that a previously unstudied B. quintana ECF sigma factor, RpoE, is involved in the transition from the human host to the body louse vector. The genomic context of B. quintana rpoE identified it as a member of the ECF15 family of sigma factors found only in alphaproteobacteria. ECF15 sigma factors are believed to be the master regulators of the general stress response in alphaproteobacteria. In this study, we examined the B. quintana RpoE response to two stressors that are encountered in the body louse vector environment, a decreased temperature and an increased hemin concentration. We determined that the expression of rpoE is significantly upregulated at the body louse (28°C) versus the human host (37°C) temperature. rpoE expression also was upregulated when B. quintana was exposed to high hemin concentrations. In vitro and in vivo analyses demonstrated that RpoE function is regulated by a mechanism involving the anti-sigma factor NepR and the response regulator PhyR. The ?rpoE ?nepR mutant strain of B. quintana established that RpoE-mediated transcription is important in mediating the tolerance of B. quintana to high hemin concentrations. We present the first analysis of an ECF15 sigma factor in a vector-borne human pathogen and conclude that RpoE has a role in the adaptation of B. quintana to the hemin-rich arthropod vector environment. PMID:23564167

  4. Social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Norman, Greg J; Berntson, Gary G

    2011-08-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation; and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  5. Isolated galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vettolani; R. de Souza; G. Chincarini

    1986-01-01

    Using a catalogue of galaxies complete to mz <= 14.5, the authors investigate the possibility of extracting a sample of nonclustered galaxies and identifying it with a homogeneous background of objects. They conclude, in agreement with previous findings, that such a background does not exist observationally and stress the fact that the sample of isolated galaxies listed in this paper

  6. Isolation and characterization by immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Rochalimaea quintana from a patient with bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Roux, V; Stein, A; Ferrier, F; Viraben, R; Raoult, D

    1994-01-01

    Rochalimaea quintana was isolated from the blood of a French human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with bacillary angiomatosis. The isolate showed the typical growth characteristics of Rochalimaea species and was inert when typical biochemical testing was used. The purpose of the present work was to characterize and compare this new isolate with reference strains of R. quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and Rochalimaea henselae by using immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot (immunoblot), restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the citrate synthase gene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR with TaqI enzyme, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing could differentiate the three Rochalimaea species and allowed characterization of the French isolate as R. quintana. However, identification of the Rochalimaea isolate to the species level was more easily obtained by immunofluorescence with specific murine antisera. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis allowed differentiation of the French R. quintana isolate from R. quintana Fuller and may serve as an epidemiological tool. Images PMID:7519628

  7. Cat scratch disease encephalopathy in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, P; Ziv, M; Raz, R; Chazan, B; Lev, A; Rozenman, D

    2005-12-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is typically a self-limited regional lymphadenopathy in children and young adults that is caused by Bartonella henselae. The majority of CSD cases resolve spontaneously; however, many systemic complications have been described. We report an unusual case of CSD presenting as an epitrochlear arm mass and complicated by encephalopathy. Identification of B. henselae DNA in the affected lymph node and cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CSD. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered and the patient improved without any neurological deficit. PMID:16314249

  8. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Pawe?; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; S?u?ewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  9. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Pawe?; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; S?u?ewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  10. Integrated optical isolators

    E-print Network

    Zaman, Tauhid R

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Optical isolators are important components in lasers. Their main function is to eliminate noise caused by back-reflections into these lasers. The need for integrated isolators comes from the continuing growth ...

  11. Psychopathology of social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

  12. Vibration isolation technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end of a shuttle-attached flexible structure such as MAST. The disturbance generator, located on top of the isolation system, will be energized at selected and broadband frequencies to simulate a typical spacecraft vibration environment. Sensors located on the isolation system and the flexible structures element will be used to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system.

  13. Molecular diagnosis of cat scratch disease: a two-step approach.

    PubMed Central

    Avidor, B; Kletter, Y; Abulafia, S; Golan, Y; Ephros, M; Giladi, M

    1997-01-01

    Amplification of Bartonella henselae DNA has been proposed as a diagnostic test for cat scratch disease (CSD). The sensitivities of the following three PCR assays were compared. PCR/rRNA with universal primers amplifies part of the 16S rRNA gene, followed by hybridization with a specific B. henselae probe; PCR/CS and PCR/HSP amplify portions of the gltA and the htrA genes, respectively, each followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The threshold of detection of B. henselae DNA in pus was 10(-4), 10(-3), and 10(-2) ng for PCR/rRNA, PCR/CS, and PCR/HSP, respectively. By these three assays, B. henselae DNA was detected in 100, 94, and 69% of 32 pus and lymph node specimens from CSD patients, respectively. The similar sensitivities of the PCR/rRNA and the PCR/CS assays for detecting B. henselae DNA in clinical specimens are in contrast to the 10-fold difference in sensitivities in favor of PCR/rRNA demonstrated with purified B. henselae DNA in sterile pus, suggesting that in the majority of cases, the bacterial load in clinical specimens is large enough to be identified by the PCR/CS assay. A two-step approach is suggested to achieve maximal sensitivity for detecting B. henselae in clinical specimens: initial testing by PCR/CS (which does not require hybridization), followed by PCR/rRNA with PCR/CS-negative specimens when CSD is strongly suspected. PMID:9230357

  14. Isolated central vestibular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Isolated vestibular syndrome may occur all along the vestibular pathways from the peripheral labyrinth to the brain. By virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging, however, diagnosis of isolated central vestibulopathy is increasing. Here, we review five distinct syndromes of isolated central vestibular syndrome from lesions restricted to the vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the flocculus, the tonsil, and the nodulus, and introduce a new vestibular syndrome from isolated involvement of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreased responses to head impulses do not exclude a central lesion as a cause of isolated vestibular syndrome. Brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be falsely negative during the acute phase in patients with isolated vestibular syndrome because of a stroke. Central signs should be sought carefully in patients with isolated vertigo, even when the patients show the features of peripheral vestibulopathy and negative MRIs. Recognition of these isolated central vestibular syndromes would aid in defining the lesions responsible for various vestibular manifestations in central vestibulopathy. PMID:25735822

  15. Wrentit Genetic Isolation Map

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This map of the Thousand Oaks, Calif. area visualizes the degree of genetic isolation being experienced by the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a small songbird. USGS and National Park Service biologists discovered that as urban development fragmented the Santa Monica Mountains scrubland into isolated

  16. Isolation of Thermophilic Actinomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Gregory; Maureen E. Lacey

    1962-01-01

    To judge from reports in the literature, thermophilic Actinomycetes have proved difficult to isolate. For isolations from mouldy hay we have developed a convenient method which promises to be useful in other contexts1. The method uses the fact that dry air removes spores of the Streptomycetaceae in preference to bacteria. Instead of suspending the spores in water and plating dilutions

  17. Low-loss, high-isolation, fiber-optic isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, George F. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A low-loss, high-isolation, fiber-optic isolator for use in single-mode fiber systems utilizes a Faraday rotator and two polarizers, one at each end angularly oriented from each other at the angle of rotation for isolation, and two aspheric lens connectors to couple optical fibers to the Faraday isolator to reduce forward loss to about 2.5 dB and improve isolation to greater than 70 dB.

  18. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  19. High voltage gas isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An isolator is provided which has an inlet at ground electrical potential which receives gas, and which has an outlet at a high electrical potential through which gas is discharged, the isolator being compactly and simply constructed while providing a long narrow path that minimizes the possibility of electrical breakdown through the gas. The isolator includes a first element forming a cylindrical core and a cup-shaped second element forming a sleeve portion that closely receives the core. The core has a helical groove on its outside to form a passage between the groove and the inner walls of the sleeve. The core also has a vertical hole extending to the bottom of the core and a radial groove in the bottom of the core that extends between the hole and the bottom of the helical groove.

  20. Sexual isolation in bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Majewski

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria exchange genes rarely but are promiscuous in the choice of their genetic partners. Inter-specific recombination has the advantage of increasing genetic diversity and promoting dissemination of novel adaptations, but suffers from the negative effect of importing potentially harmful alleles from incompatible genomes. Bacterial species experience a degree of 'sexual isolation' from genetically divergent organisms ^ recombination occurs more frequently

  1. Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spross, F. R.

    1968-01-01

    Biological Isolation Garment /BIG/ is a one-piece loose fitting garment fabricated from a tightly woven, permeable, 100 percent-cotton fabric. Its headpiece, incorporates an integral oronsal respirator with 0.3-micron-particle filters, and a full width visor. All fabrication seams are sealed on the inside of the garment.

  2. Aircraft EMP isolation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finci, A.; Price, H.; Chao, P.; Mercer, S.; Naff, T.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary study into methods for electrically isolating the E-4B, the EC-135, and the EC-130 aircraft during EMP tests where the aircraft under test is directly driven by a high-voltage pulser.

  3. Biological Isolation Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  4. Isolated prompt photon production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Guo, Xiaofeng [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Qiu, Jianwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-08-15

    We show that the conventionally defined partonic cross section for the production of isolated prompt photons is not an infrared safe quantity. We work out the case of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma} + X in detail, and we discuss implications for hadron reactions such as p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} + X.

  5. Chiral fiber optical isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Victor I.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Sheng; Genack, Azriel Z.; Neugroschl, Dan

    2009-02-01

    We propose an in-fiber chiral optical isolator based on chiral fiber polarizer technology and calculate its performance by incorporating the magnetic field into the scattering matrix. The design will be implemented in a special preform, which is passed through a miniature heat zone as it is drawn and twisted. The birefringence of the fiber is controlled by adjusted the diameter of a dual-core optical fiber. By adjusting the twist, the fiber can convert linear to circular polarization and reject one component of circular polarization. In the novel central portion of the isolator, the fiber diameter is large. The effective birefringence of the circular central core with high Verdet constant embedded in an outer core of slightly smaller index of refraction is small. The central potion is a non-reciprocal polarization converter which passes forward traveling left circularly polarized (LCP) light as LCP, while converting backward propagating LCP to right circularly polarized (RCP) light. Both polarizations of light traveling backwards are scattered out of the isolator. Since it is an all-glass structure, we anticipate that the isolator will be able to handle several watts of power and will be environmentally robust.

  6. Scalable statistical bug isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Liblit; Mayur Naik; Alice X. Zheng; Alexander Aiken; Michael I. Jordan

    2005-01-01

    We present a statistical debugging algorithm that isolates bugs in programs containing multiple undiagnosed bugs. Earlier statistical algorithms that focus solely on identifying predictors that correlate with program failure perform poorly when there are multiple bugs. Our new technique separates the effects of different bugs and identifies predictors that are associated with individual bugs. These predictors reveal both the circumstances

  7. Modeling oceanic isolated vortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Cushman-Roisin

    1985-01-01

    On March 25-26, 1985, with the support of the Office of Naval Research, a 2-day workshop was held at the Florida State University, Tallahassee, to discuss and summarize the recent developments in modeling of oceanic isolated vortices such as intense eddies and solitary waves. The interest in these oceanic features stems from their ubiquity and large amplitudes. Indeed, they contribute

  8. Reproductive Isolation in Angiosperms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alexander F. Motten (Duke University; )

    1996-01-01

    This resource is a suitable exercise for use in plant reproductive biology laboratory courses. Its purpose is to illustrate mechanisms of isolation in angiosperms by the species Silene by observing the success or failure of inter-specific pollination. This lab exercise is also suitable for courses in plant biology, concepts of the biological species or botany, and evolution.

  9. Broadband Faraday isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berent, Micha?; Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-01-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.

  10. Neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Raihan, Abdul-Rahim; Zunaina, Embong; Wan-Hazabbah, Wan-Hitam; Adil, Hussein; Lakana-Kumar, Thavaratnam

    2014-01-01

    We report a case series of neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis and describe the serologic verification for Bartonella henselae. This is a retrospective interventional case series of four patients who presented in the ophthalmology clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from June 2012 to March 2013. All four patients had a history of contact with cats and had fever prior to ocular symptoms. Each patient presented with neuroretinitis characterized by optic disc swelling with macular star. Serology analysis showed strongly positive for B. henselae in all of the patients. All patients were treated with oral azithromycin (except case 4, who was treated with oral doxycycline), and two patients (case 1 and case 3) had poor vision at initial presentation that warranted the use of oral prednisolone. All patients showed a good visual outcome except case 3. Vision-threatening ocular manifestation of cat scratch disease can be improved with systemic antibiotics and steroids. PMID:25120352

  11. Vibration isolating engine mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Stanley I.; Dawes, Peter W.; Butler, Lawrence

    1993-07-01

    An improved engine suspension system is provided for attenuating vibration in a gas turbine engine. In one embodiment, the invention is directed to an aircraft engine suspension system for mounting a gas turbine engine to a supporting frame by mounts arranged in first and second parallel, spaced axial mounting planes of the engine. First and second vibration isolation mounts are aligned in the first mounting plane and couple the engine to the supporting frame. Each of the first and second mounts provides both radial and axial vibration damping to the engine as well as radial and axial stiffness. A third vibration isolation mount is aligned in the second mounting plane and couples the engine and support frame together to provide radial and tangential vibration damping to the engine as well as radial and tangential stiffness. The mounts are arranged axially and radially such that the suspension system is statically and dynamically determinate.

  12. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  13. Mechanical beam isolator

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam.

  14. Denali: a scalable isolation kernel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Whitaker; Marianne Shaw; Steven D. Gribble

    2002-01-01

    The Denali project provides system support for running sev- eral mutually distrusting Internet services on the same physical infrastructure. For example, this would enable a developer to push dynamic content into third party hosting infrastructure such as content distribution networks. To accomplish this, we propose a new kernel architecture called an isolation kernel to isolate un- trusted applications. An isolation

  15. Home humidifier thermophilic actinomycete isolates.

    PubMed

    Seabury, J; Becker, B; Salvaggio, J

    1976-02-01

    Twenty-seven thermophilic actinomycete isolates obtained from humidification systems or living-bedroom areas of individuals with suspected but unproved home environment-related respiratory disease were characterized morphologically and biochemically. All isolates were demonstrated to be members of the Thermoactinomyces genus. Two previously misidentified isolates were reclassified as a Thermoacetinomyces sp. Thus, all of our thermophilic actinomycete humidifier isolates studied to date have been identified as either Thermoactinomyces vulgaris or Thermoactinomyces sp. Large numbers of unidentified thermotolerant bacteria have also been isolated from virtually all residual humidifier water samples and their possible role in production of "humidifier-associated" respiratory disease is unknown. PMID:1078519

  16. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  17. Fundamentals of Microgravity Vibration Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. This presentation provides a tutorial discussion of microgravity vibration isolation technology with the objective of elaborating on the relative merits of passive and active isolation approaches. The concepts of control bandwidth, isolation performance, and robustness will be addressed with illustrative examples. Concluding the presentation will be a suggested roadmap for future technology development activities to enhance the acceleration environment for microgravity science experiments.

  18. [Isolated malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy].

    PubMed

    Riquet, M; Bagan, P; Fabre-Guillevin, E; Scotté, F; Cazes, A; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F

    2010-02-01

    Mediastinal adenopathies without pulmonary disease may be benign, lymphomatous or the metastases from intra- or extrathoracic malignancy or more rarely metastases with unknown primary site. We observed 507 patients with isolated mediastinal adenopathies: benign, lymphomatous and metastatic disease represented 41.4% (210/507), 26.8% (136/507), 31.8% (161/507) of them, respectively. Management of the latter was the most challenging. Surgery was generally diagnostic, restricted to confirming the metastatic process, because of too numerous and disseminated or unresectable lymph nodes in 84% of patients (135/161). However, radical surgery consisting in lymphadenectomy proved effective in case of mediastinal lymph node malignancy without other extra- and intrathoracic disease. We observed long-term good results in such cases, which also was demonstrated by case reports in the literature. We suggest that including surgery in the multimodality treatment of mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes may be advisable in selected patients. PMID:20207295

  19. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Isolated Leptons at HERA Events with Isolated Leptons and

    E-print Network

    experiment HERA Asymmetric Desgin 4 Coverage Excellent Lepton ID + HFS Reconstruction #12;3 / 25 Isolated at HERA G. BrandtBackground from the SM: NC and CC in DIS Neutral Current: Enters due to fake missing background? Remove anti-CC cuts on Djet Fake electrons described within 50% #12;12 / 25 Isolated Leptons

  1. Silica waveguide integrated optical isolator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Rasmussen; Anders Bjarklev; Jorn Hedegaard Povlsen; Bo Pedersen; Frands B. Pedersen; Ole Lumholt; Karsten Rottwitt

    1993-01-01

    An integrated optical waveguide isolator based on adiabatic polarization splitters in the silica- on-silicon technology and non-reciprocal elements are proposed and investigated with an accurate Finite Difference Beam Propagation Method. Improvements of noise figure of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using this type of isolator are calculated and discussed.

  2. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  3. Model extraction for fault isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rattikorn Hewett

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation-based approach for fault isolation in complex dynamic systems. A machine learning technique is used to extract, from simulated data, models representing regularities in system behavior. A heuristic based on the degree of coverage of the model on the data is then applied to isolate faults. To test tolerance to incomplete models, our simulation model only

  4. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-01-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

  5. Isolation Procedures for Farrowing Operations 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2002-01-31

    breeding swine is to prevent the herd from being exposed to new disease-causing organisms. During the isolation period, keep feed and water free of antibacterial agents to avoid ?covering up? signs of disease. If breed- ing swine in isolation become sick...

  6. Fungi isolated from Antarctic mosses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solveig Tosi; Begoña Casado; Renato Gerdol; Giuseppe Caretta

    2002-01-01

    Microfungi were isolated from different moss species in Victoria Land. Twenty-eight taxa belonging to 18 genera were identified. New records for continental Antarctica were: Arthrobotrys superba, Conidiobolus sp., Penicillium minioluteum, Verticillium psalliotae and V. lamellicola. The most frequently isolated fungal species were: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Geomyces pannorum var. pannorum, G. pannorum var. vinaceus, Mortierella antarctica, Cadophora malorum,

  7. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  8. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sulentic

    2010-01-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated

  9. Anti-Francisella tularensis DNA aptamers detect tularemia antigen from different subspecies by Aptamer-Linked Immobilized Sorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2006-06-01

    Aptamers are powerful candidates for molecular detection of targets due to their unique recognition properties. These affinity probes can be used to recognize and bind to their targets in the various types of assays that are currently used to detect and capture molecules of interest. They are short single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotides composed of DNA or RNA sequences that are selected in vitro based on their affinity and specificity for the target. Using combinatorial oligonucleotide libraries, we have selected ssDNA aptamers that bind to Francisella tularensis subspecies (subsp) japonica bacterial antigen. F. tularensis is an intracellular, nonmotile, nonsporulating, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes tularemia in man and animals. Just as antibodies have been used to detect specific targets in varying formats, it is possible that nucleic acid-binding species or aptamers could be used to specifically detect biomolecules. Aptamers offer advantages over antibody-based affinity molecules in production, regeneration and stability due to their unique chemical properties. We have successfully isolated a set of 25 unique DNA sequences that specifically bind to F. tularensis subspecies japonica. When tested in a sandwich Aptamer-Linked Immobilized Sorbent Assay (ALISA) and dot blot analysis, the aptamer cocktail exhibited specificity in its ability to bind only to tularemia bacterial antigen from subspecies japonica, holarctica (also known as palaearctica) and tularensis but not to Bartonella henselae. Moreover, there is no binding observed either to pure chicken albumin or chicken lysozyme. Thus, it appears that this novel antitularemia aptamer cocktail may find application as a detection reagent for a potential biological warfare agent like F. tularensis. PMID:16550191

  10. Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation Signal machines : localization of isolated

    E-print Network

    Durand-Lose, Jérôme

    Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation Signal machines : localization of isolated'Orléans, Orléans, FRANCE 6 mars 2011 Journées Calculabilités Paris 1 / 39 #12;Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation 1 Signal machines and isolated accumulations 2 Necessary conditions

  11. Study of base isolation systems

    E-print Network

    Manarbek, Saruar

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to outline the relevant issues concerning the conceptual design of base isolated structures. A 90 feet high, 6 stories tall, moment steel frame structure with tension cross ...

  12. GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

  13. Optical isolators: Nonlinear dynamic reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Kerr optical nonlinearities are known to be well suited for achieving optical isolation, but the fact that the degree of non-reciprocity is signal-level dependent brings new opportunities as well as limitations.

  14. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States) [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  15. Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

  16. Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Smith

    Using Maple or Mathmatica, learner should be able to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities.

  17. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  18. Microcalorimetry of isolated mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Nedergaard; Barbara Cannon; Olov Lindberg

    1977-01-01

    USING microcalorimetry1,2, we have measured the heat evolved by isolated cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT). This tissue generates heat in newborn and cold-adapted mammals and in hibernators during arousal from hibernation and during cold stress3-5. The method can be applied generally in work with, for example, mitochondria and isolated cells and has, especially in studies of thermogenesis, the advantage

  19. Cat-scratch disease in Crete: an update

    PubMed Central

    Minadakis, Georgios; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2011-01-01

    There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11%) cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56) were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05). Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002) and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity. PMID:24470912

  20. Catalogues of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argudo-Fernández, M.; Verley, S.; Bergond, G.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Ramos Carmona, E.; Sabater, J.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Espada, D.; Sulentic, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Leon, S.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The construction of catalogues of galaxies and the a posteriori study of galaxy properties in relation to their environment have been hampered by scarce redshift information. The new 3-dimensional (3D) surveys permit small, faint, physically bound satellites to be distinguished from a background-projected galaxy population, giving a more comprehensive 3D picture of the surroundings. Aims: We aim to provide representative samples of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets for testing galaxy evolution and secular processes in low density regions of the local Universe, as well as to characterise their local and large-scale environments. Methods: We used spectroscopic data from the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR10) to automatically and homogeneously compile catalogues of 3702 isolated galaxies, 1240 isolated pairs, and 315 isolated triplets in the local Universe (z ? 0.080). To quantify the effects of their local and large-scale environments, we computed the projected density and the tidal strength for the brightest galaxy in each sample. Results: We find evidence of isolated pairs and isolated triplets that are physically bound at projected separations up to d ? 450 kpc with radial velocity difference ?? ? 160 km s-1, where the effect of the companion typically accounts for more than 98% of the total tidal strength affecting the central galaxy. For galaxies in the catalogues, we provide their positions, redshifts, and degrees of relation with their physical and large-scale environments. The catalogues are publicly available to the scientific community. Conclusions: For isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets, there is no difference in their degree of interaction with the large-scale structure (up to 5 Mpc), which may suggest that they have a common origin in their formation and evolution. We find that most of them belong to the outer parts of filaments, walls, and clusters, and generally differ from the void population of galaxies. Full Tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A110

  1. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  2. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  3. 305 Stimulus Isolator WORLD PRECISION INSTRUMENTS 1

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    , 67 1/2V or equivalent #12;305 Stimulus Isolator WORLD PRECISION INSTRUMENTS 3 Operation Connect305 Stimulus Isolator WORLD PRECISION INSTRUMENTS 1 Description The Model 305 Stimulus Isolator Dual Stimulus Isolator. The outputs of two units can be combined to produce bipolar and other complex

  4. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. PMID:25102429

  5. Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

  6. Resonant isolator for maser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C.; Quinn, R. B. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    An isolator is described for use in a low noise maser amplifier, which provides low loss across a wide bandwidth and which can be constructed at moderate cost. The isolator includes a train of garnet or ferrite elements extending along the length of a microwave channel parallel to the slow wave structure, with the elements being of staggered height, so that the thin elements which are resonant to the microwaves are separated by much thicker elements. The thick garnet or ferrite elements reduce the magnetic flux passing through the thin elements to permit altering of the shape of the thin elements so as to facilitate their fabrication and to provide better isolation with reduced loss, by increasing the thickness of the thin elements and decreasing their length and width.

  7. Content-Based Isolation: Rethinking Isolation Policy in Modern Client Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Moshchuk; Helen J. Wang; Yunxin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Modern client platforms, such as iOS, Android, Windows Phone 7, and Windows 8, have progressed from a per-user isolation policy, where users are isolated, but a user's applications run in the same isolation container, to an application isolation policy, where different applications are isolated from one another. However, this is not enough because mutually distrusting content can interfere with one

  8. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    K?sao?lu, Abdullah; Özo?ul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimo?lu, Berhan; Ayd?nl?, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies. PMID:25917590

  9. Optical Isolators With Transverse Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Yuan X.; Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    New design for isolator includes zigzag, forward-and-backward-pass beam path and use of transverse rather than longitudinal magnetic field. Design choices produce isolator with as large an aperture as desired using low-Verdet-constant glass rather than more expensive crystals. Uses commercially available permanent magnets in Faraday rotator. More compact and less expensive. Designed to transmit rectangular beam. Square cross section of beam extended to rectangular shape by increasing one dimension of glass without having to increase magnetic field. Potentially useful in laser systems involving slab lasers and amplifiers. Has applications to study of very-high-power lasers for fusion research.

  10. Snapshots of Isolated Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buote, David

    2009-10-01

    The properties of dark matter halos on galactic scales remain a largely untapped resource for cosmological studies. X-ray observations offer potentially the most promising means to study dark matter in isolated elliptical galaxies, but there is presently a lack of known suitable candidates for study. Therefore, we propose a snapshot survey of 9 systems to identify isolated elliptical galaxies with X-ray properties similar to the best examples currently known. Deep follow-up exposures with XMM and Chandra of promising targets will then be sought for detailed analysis of their dark matter distributions.

  11. Prospective isolation of human MSC.

    PubMed

    Harichandan, Abhishek; Bühring, Hans-Jörg

    2011-03-01

    Conventionally, mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSC) are functionally isolated from primary tissue based on their capacity to adhere to the plastic surface. This isolation procedure is hampered by the unpredictable influence of secreted molecules or interactions with co-cultured hematopoietic and other unrelated cells as well as by the arbitrarily selected removal time of non-adherent cells prior to expansion of MSC. Early removal of non-adherent cells may result in the elimination of a late adhering MSC subsets and late removal increases the influence of undesired cells on the growth and differentiation of MSC. Finally, in conventional protocols MSC are co-expanded together with macrophages, endothelial cells and other adherent cells. To circumvent these limitations, several strategies have been developed to facilitate the prospective isolation of MSC based on the selective expression or absence of surface markers. Here we summarize the most frequently used markers and introduce new targets for antibody-based isolation procedures of primary bone marrow-derived MSC. PMID:21396590

  12. Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Lang

    Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  13. Characterization of citrus HSVd isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Palacio-Bielsa; J. Romero-Durbán; N. Duran-Vila

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Seven citrus isolates of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) were subjected to retrotranscription and DNA amplification (RT-PCR), cloning and sequencing. Single stranded polymorphism (SSCP) analysis demonstrated the existence of variability among and within cachexia inducing sources of HSVd. The electrophoretic profiles of SSCP appeared to be able to discriminate between non-cachexia and cachexia sources of HSVd. Sequence analysis demonstrated that

  14. New Calicivirus isolated from walrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilia Ganova-Raeva; Alvin W. Smith; Howard Fields; Yury Khudyakov

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a new member of Caliciviridae was determined. Cell culture inoculated with fecal matter from walrus was used to recover fragments of a new virus by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). The isolate was identified as a member of the Vesivirus genus of Caliciviridae and designated the name Walrus Calicivirus (WCV). Sets of PCR primers

  15. NASDA's activities on vibration isolation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency's (NASDA) activities in providing various vibration isolation technologies for the Space Station Mission are covered in viewgraph form. Technologies covered include an active vibration isolation system for extra sensitive missions in the low frequency range, a passive damping system consisting of a damping rack for the reduction of resonance amplification, and an isolator for vibration isolation from low frequencies. Information is given in viewgraph form on the active vibration isolation concept, voice coil type electromagnetic suspension, a profile of an active vibration isolation system, a three degree of freedom ground experiment, and acceleration feedback.

  16. Isolated Malignant Melanoma Metastasis to the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field. PMID:25289269

  17. Dielectrophoresis for biomarker isolation from biological samples

    E-print Network

    Sonnenberg, Avery Renault

    of this DEP technology by showing the rapid isolation andDEP technology by now showing: (1) the rapid isolation andisolation of DNA from the sample. Our group has now developed an electrokinetic DEP technology

  18. Surface plasmon enhanced magneto-optic isolator

    E-print Network

    Ram, Rajeev J.

    Here we present an integrated isolator design based on nonreciprocal coupling into a magnetooptic surface-plasmon waveguide that achieves an isolation >30 dB with an insertion <3 dB in a device length <100 mum.

  19. Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

    1983-07-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

  20. GLUTARALDEHYDE FIXATION OF ISOLATED EUCARYOTIC NUCLEI

    E-print Network

    Olins, Ada L.

    National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 ABSTRACT Isolated chicken erythrocyte nuclei have been proximity within the isolated erythrocyte nucleus . MATERIALS AND METHODS Reagents Glutaraldehyde substituted for tris(hydroxymethyl)- aminomethane buffers . Preparation of Nuclei Chicken erythrocyte nuclei

  1. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Sulentic

    2009-01-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This\\u000ais partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies\\u000aisolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be\\u000astatistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were\\u000amarginally successful--too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If\\u000areally isolated

  2. Visible optical isolator using ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunderlich, J. A.; Deshazer, L. G.

    1977-01-01

    A compact Faraday effect optical isolator was constructed for visible wavelengths and tested at 5145 A. The nonreciprocal element of the isolator was polycrystalline zinc selenide placed in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. For 5145 A the isolator had a 2.06-dB insertion loss and a 25.5-dB isolation. Indices of refraction and Verdet constants were measured for zinc selenide in the wavelength region from 4700 to 6300 A.

  3. Isolation of mitochondria from CNS

    PubMed Central

    Kristian, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    This unit contains a protocol describing the isolation of brain mitochondria by using discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation. The Percoll density gradient centrifugation separates synaptosomes, myelin, and free non-synaptic mitochondria released from cells during tissue homogenization into individual fractions. Mitochondria entrapped in synaptosomes (synaptic mitochondria) can be liberated using nitrogen cavitation and then further purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation. These methods yield mitochondria that exhibit good respiratory coupling and high respiratory rates. PMID:20578034

  4. Isolation of Allium pollen protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Fellner; Pavel Havrfinek

    1992-01-01

    Studies on protoplasts isolation were carried out with mature pollen grains of 29 samples of species of Allium aflatunense, A. cepa, A. fistulosum, A. karataviense, A. longicuspis, A. nutans, A. odorum, A. sativum and A. schoenoprasum. Surface sterilized pollen grains drifted from crushed anthers were incubated in an enzyme solution containing 1% (w\\/v) cellulase Onozuka R-10, 1% (w\\/v) Macerozyme R-10,

  5. Isolated genital annular lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Badri, T; Kenani, N; Benmously, R; Debbiche, A; Mokhtar, I; Fenniche, S

    2011-01-01

    Annular lichen planus is a rarely reported variant of lichen planus (LP). Although genital lesions are frequent in patients with LP, isolated genital LP is rarely reported. We present a case of a 29-year- -old circumcised man with an asymptomatic annular lesion of the penis. Histopathological features were consistent with LP. Topical clobetasol was prescribed, with clinical improvement. It is important to consider annular LP among the possible diagnoses of individual annular genital lesions. PMID:21879203

  6. Current management of isolated sphenoiditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Güven Güvenç; As?m Kaytaz; Gül Özbilen Acar; Mehmet Ada

    2009-01-01

    Isolated sphenoiditis (IS) is a relatively rare clinical entity which might present with serious complications. The clinical\\u000a records of ten patients with IS were reviewed. The presenting symptoms, the findings, and the treatments given were noted.\\u000a Eight patients were female and two were male, and their age varied between 9 and 65 years (mean 31 years). The main presenting\\u000a symptom was headache

  7. Passive earthquake-resistance through base isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Shu Wu; R. W. Seidensticker

    1990-01-01

    Base isolation is an effective approach in mitigating the seismic forces transmitted to the superstructure. It is able to provide reliable protection for the superstructure, its contents and occupants. With base isolation, dynamic characteristics of the superstructure and its contents become more predictable and controllable. In recent years, different base isolation systems have been installed in various new and existing

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Isolation, identification, and technological

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Isolation, identification, and technological characterization of wild leuconostocs are currently missing. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize wild strains of lactococci characteristics. Dominant lactic acid cocci were isolated on M17 and MRS-vancomycin plates from Algerian cow

  9. Low-technology techniques for seismic isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huantian Xiao; J. W. Butterworth; Tam Larkin

    2004-01-01

    This project sought to improve the seismic performance of low-rise buildings by the introduction of a simple, low cost seismic isolation system at the time of construction, or re-construction. The main advantage of the friction sliding isolation layer is that the seismic base shear force transmitted from the ground to the isolated structure can be controlled at the level of

  10. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTIVE INTERSPECIES ISOLATION OF

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    analysis of the whole system of the reproductive isolation of two related species may reveal a lot aboutEXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTIVE INTERSPECIES ISOLATION OF APIS MELLIFERA L. AND APIS CERANA, is regarded as the basic unit in evolution (DOBSHANSKY, 1951, MAYR, 1953). Reproductive isolation

  12. Fiber-embedded in-line isolator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Shiraishi; Takuya Yanagi; Yoshizo Aizawa; Shojiro Kawakami

    1991-01-01

    A fiber-embedded optical isolator with a low forward loss has been developed. The isolator consists of thermally diffused expanded core fibers, laminated polarizers, and a Faraday rotation garnet. Backward and forward losses at 1.3 ?m wavelength are 44.0 and 0.9 dB, respectively. The isolator has a minute size, and its alignment is simple

  13. Bacillary angiomatosis in an HIV-positive man with multiple risk factors: A clinical and epidemiological puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Mateen, Farrah J; Newstead, Jill C; McClean, Karen L

    2005-01-01

    A 36-year-old man with advanced AIDS presented with skin lesions, fever and weight loss. Physical examination revealed skin lesions suggestive of bacillary angiomatosis. Diagnostic imaging identified bone lesions, soft tissue masses and a single hepatic lesion. His clinical presentation was most consistent with Bartonella quintana; however, his risk for infection with B quintana was limited to a remote, brief period of homelessness. In contrast, his frequent contact with cats presented substantial potential exposure to Bartonella henselae. Diagnosing a Bartonella infection presents challenges. The detection of bacteremia is hindered by slow growth in BACTEC media (BD Diagnostic Systems, Canada). In the present case, recovery of the organism required blind subcultures after at least eight days of incubation. Speciation by 16s ribosomal RNA analysis confirmed B quintana as the pathogen. Because the patient presented with skin lesions, the diagnosis was straightforward; however, skin lesions are nondiagnostic in some cases. Microbiological confirmation of the diagnosis rests on sufficient clinical suspicion to apply labour-intensive laboratory protocols. PMID:18159553

  14. Frequency response characteristics and response spectra of base-isolated and un-isolated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Namba, H. [Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-06

    The transmissibility of seismic loads through a linear base-isolation system is analyzed using an impedance method. The results show that the system acts like a {open_quotes}low-pass{close_quotes} filter. It attenuates high-frequency loads but passes through low-frequency ones. The filtering effect depends on the vibration frequencies and damping of the isolated structure and the isolation system. This paper demonstrates the benefits and design principles of base isolation by comparing the transmissibilities and response spectra of isolated and un-isolated structures. Parameters of typical isolated buildings and ground motions of the 1994 Northridge earthquake are used for the demonstration.

  15. Preparation of white sunflower protein isolates

    E-print Network

    Wen, Hwei-Mei

    1982-01-01

    the extraction time at 24'0 from 60 min to less than 10 min. Higher yields of pro- tein isolates were achieved when extracted at 49'C rather than at 24'C. The yield of isolate was reduced by about 10X when the extrac- tion time was reduced from 90 min to 10... facilitated production of protein isolate with acceptable color. Residual free chlorogenic acid contents of isolates ranged 0. 46-0. 96X, which needs to be reduced by washing the acid curd. Residual borate in the isolate ranged 500-1000 ppm, necessitating...

  16. Influence of isolator characteristics on the response of base-isolated structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasant A. Matsagar; R. S. Jangid

    2004-01-01

    The influence of isolator characteristics on the seismic response of multi-story base-isolated structure is investigated. The isolated building is modeled as a shear type structure with lateral degree-of-freedom at each floor. The isolators are modeled by using two different mathematical models depicted by bi-linear hysteretic and equivalent linear elastic–viscous behaviors. The coupled differential equations of motion for the isolated system

  17. Ribosomal Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajamäki, Marja; Kataja, Janne; Seppälä, Helena; Elliot, John; Leinonen, Maija; Huovinen, Pentti; Jalava, Jari

    2002-01-01

    Eleven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated in Finland during 1996 to 2000, had an unusual macrolide resistance phenotype. They were resistant to macrolides and streptogramin B but susceptible, intermediate, or low-level resistant to lincosamides. No acquired macrolide resistance genes were detected from the strains. The isolates were found to have mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA or ribosomal protein L4. Seven isolates had an A2059C mutation in two to four out of the four alleles encoding the 23S rRNA, two isolates had an A2059G mutation in two alleles, one isolate had a C2611G mutation in all four alleles, and one isolate had a 69GTG71-to-69TPS71 substitution in ribosomal protein L4. PMID:11850244

  18. Isoflavonoids isolated from Cuban propolis.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; De Simone, Francesco; Rastrelli, Luca

    2005-11-16

    Chemical investigation of a red-type Cuban propolis sample has led to the isolation of 11 isoflavonoids (2 isoflavones, 3 isoflavans, and 6 pterocarpans), together with gallic acid, isoliquiritigenin, and (-)-liquiritigenin. Structural determination, including the absolute stereochemistry, was accomplished by spectroscopic analysis, particularly CD and 2D NMR techniques. The fragmentation behavior of pterocarpans was studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion-trap analyzer, and a generalized fragmentation pathway, useful in the identification and structural characterization of pterocarpans, is proposed. Isoflavonoids are reported for the first time from propolis samples. PMID:16277396

  19. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  20. Preparation of white sunflower protein isolates 

    E-print Network

    Wen, Hwei-Mei

    1982-01-01

    . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 57 12 Residual boron contents in the various fractions of sunflower protein isolation procedure 58 13 Proximate analysis of sunflower flour and isolates. 60 14 Material balance (solids) of sunflower protein isolate production in the pilot plant... al. , 1968; Pomenta and Burns, 1971; Sabir et al. , 1974b). Recently, gas chromatography (GC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques were reported as effective means to analyze phenolic compounds (Court, 1977; Pelice et al...

  1. Models of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Nei, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Takeo; Wu, Chung-I

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical models are presented for the evolution of postmating and premating reproductive isolation. In the case of postmating isolation it is assumed that hybrid sterility or inviability is caused by incompatibility of alleles at one or two loci, and evolution of reproductive isolation occurs by random fixation of different incompatibility alleles in different populations. Mutations are assumed to occur following either the stepwise mutation model or the infinite-allele model. Computer simulations by using Itô's stochastic differential equations have shown that in the model used the reproductive isolation mechanism evolves faster in small populations than in large populations when the mutation rate remains the same. In populations of a given size it evolves faster when the number of loci involved is large than when this is small. In general, however, evolution of isolation mechanisms is a very slow process, and it would take thousands to millions of generations if the mutation rate is of the order of 10-5 per generation. Since gene substitution occurs as a stochastic process, the time required for the establishment of reproductive isolation has a large variance. Although the average time of evolution of isolation mechanisms is very long, substitution of incompatibility genes in a population occurs rather quickly once it starts. The intrapopulational fertility or viability is always very high. In the model of premating isolation it is assumed that mating preference or compatibility is determined by male- and female-limited characters, each of which is controlled by a single locus with multiple alleles, and mating occurs only when the male and female characters are compatible with each other. Computer simulations have shown that the dynamics of evolution of premating isolation mechanism is very similar to that of postmating isolation mechanism, and the mean and variance of the time required for establishment of premating isolation are very large. Theoretical predictions obtained from the present study about the speed of evolution of reproductive isolation are consistent with empirical data available from vertebrate organisms. PMID:6840540

  2. MSCs Isolation and Culture Ex Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojie Xie; Chun Gui

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can almost be found in any adult organ. They can be isolated and expanded within several weeks\\u000a up to hundreds of millions of cells. The cell isolation based on the surface antigen expression may significantly enrich for\\u000a the desired cell population and reduce the time required for cell expansion. This chapter aims to introduce the isolation

  3. Fault Detection and Isolation for Hydraulic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Pressure sensors and isolation valves act to shut down defective servochannel. Redundant hydraulic system indirectly senses failure in any of its electrical control channels and mechanically isolates hydraulic channel controlled by faulty electrical channel so flat it cannot participate in operating system. With failure-detection and isolation technique, system can sustains two failed channels and still functions at full performance levels. Scheme useful on aircraft or other systems with hydraulic servovalves where failure cannot be tolerated.

  4. Recent advances in micro-vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunchuan; Jing, Xingjian; Daley, Steve; Li, Fengming

    2015-05-01

    Micro-vibration caused by disturbance sources onboard spacecraft can severely degrade the working environment of sensitive payloads. Some notable vibration control methods have been developed particularly for the suppression or isolation of micro-vibration over recent decades. Usually, passive isolation techniques are deployed in aerospace engineering. Active isolators, however, are often proposed to deal with the low frequency vibration that is common in spacecraft. Active/passive hybrid isolation has also been effectively used in some spacecraft structures for a number of years. In semi-active isolation systems, the inherent structural performance can be adjusted to deal with variation in the aerospace environment. This latter approach is potentially one of the most practical isolation techniques for micro-vibration isolation tasks. Some emerging advanced vibration isolation methods that exploit the benefits of nonlinearity have also been reported in the literature. This represents an interesting and highly promising approach for solving some challenging problems in the area. This paper serves as a state-of-the-art review of the vibration isolation theory and/or methods which were developed, mainly over the last decade, specifically for or potentially could be used for, micro-vibration control.

  5. DC isolation and protection system and circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A. (Inventor); Kellogg, Gary V. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A precision analog electronic circuit that is capable of sending accurate signals to an external device that has hostile electric characteristics, including the presence of very large common mode voltages. The circuit is also capable of surviving applications of normal mode overvoltages of up to 120 VAC/VDC for unlimited periods of time without damage or degradation. First, the circuit isolates the DC signal output from the computer. Means are then provided for amplifying the isolated DC signal. Further means are provided for stabilizing and protecting the isolating and amplifying means, and the isolated and amplified DC signal which is output to the external device, against overvoltages and overcurrents.

  6. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    PubMed

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

  7. Propellant isolation shutoff valve program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

  8. Isolated quasi-axisymmetric sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchmy, Serge; Le Piouffle, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    We briefly review the question of the origin, during a sunspot cycle, of well isolated sunspots. This includes big sunspots like the one observed in Nov. 2006. An overall axi-symmetric morphology is not perfectly observed when the morphological details of both the umbra and of the penumbra are considered. This is especially the case of umbral dots always present inside the core of a sunspot and also of penumbral filaments with non radial parts. However, the distribution of the surrounding fields, including deep layers, the occurrence of persistent coherent running penumbral waves, the magnetic moat behavior, the bright ring phenomena, etc. seem to justify a revival of the naive former but revised (converging motions are considered) Larmor model of a sunspot (as suggested by Lorrain et al. 2006). To discuss the “emergence” of single isolated sunspots from deep layers we performed a quasi-statistical analysis limited to cycle 23. It is based on MDI data taken in the continuum, using the accompanying magnetograms to check our assertion. Surprisingly, single sunspots are definitely and preferably found to occur at low latitude and during the descending branch of the cycle. To explain our observations we speculate about the behavior of the deeply seated magnetic loop, following the original idea of H. Alfven (with whirl rings which follow the global dipolar field when approaching the surface). It could lead to a closed loop approximately orthogonal to the local radius, similar to “smoke rings” arriving at the surface of the Sun and sometimes also called a plasmoid. The ring will only very weakly feel the destabilizing Coriolis force, when emerging at very low latitudes, which seems consistent with our observations.

  9. Seismic Response of Base-Isolated Benchmark Building with Variable Sliding Isolators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay Sharma; R. S. Jangid

    2010-01-01

    The seismic response of base-isolated benchmark building with variable sliding isolators like variable friction pendulum system (VFPS), variable frequency pendulum isolator (VFPI), and variable curvature friction pendulum system (VCFPS), along with conventional friction pendulum system (FPS), was studied under the seven earthquakes. The earthquakes are applied bi-directionally in the horizontal plane ignoring vertical ground motion component. The shear type base-isolated

  10. Thrombolytic therapy in an isolated limb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg R. Goodman; Steve Tersigni; Ke Li; Peter F. Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    Intraoperative thrombolytic therapy is a useful adjunct to balloon catheter thromboembolectomy for treatment of acute embolism or thrombosis, but the technique is frequently limited by incomplete thrombolysis and systemic hemorrhage. In an attempt to improve results and reduce complications of conventional thrombolytic therapy, urokinase was infused into a limb that was isolated with a tourniquet. This isolated limb perfusion technique

  11. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Toads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Malone; Brian E. Fontenot; Robert Desalle

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the general features of speciation is an important goal in evolutionary biology, and despite significant progress, several unresolved questions remain. We analyzed an extensive comparative dataset consisting of more than 1900 crosses between 92 species of toads to infer patterns of reproductive isolation. This unique dataset provides an opportunity to examine the strength of reproductive isolation, the development and

  12. Electrical Stimulation in Isolated Rabbit Retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeng-Shyong Shyu; Mauricio Maia; James D. Weiland; T. O'Hearn; Shih-Jen Chen; E. Margalit; S. Suzuki; M. S. Humayun

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of stimulating electrode parameters (size, position, and waveform shape) on electrically elicited ganglion cell action potentials from isolated rabbit retina. Thirty-eight isolated rabbit retinas were stimulated with bipolar stimulating electrodes (either 125 or 25 mum in diameter) positioned on either the ganglion or the photoreceptor side. Recording electrodes were placed between the optic

  13. Mycotoxin production from fungi isolated from grapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Abrunhosa; R. R. M. Paterson; Z. Kozakiewicz; N. Lima; A. Venancio

    2001-01-01

    L. A BRUNHOSA, R.R.M. P ATERSON, Z. K OZAKIEWICZ, N. L IMA A ND A. V ENAN C I O. 2001. Aims: In order to assess the potential for producing mycotoxins, fungi were isolated from wine producing grapes. Methods and Results: The isolates were identified and Penicillium expansum, the most well recognized mycotoxin producer, was analysed for mycotoxin production by

  14. Vibration isolation technology development to demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos

    1992-01-01

    The main thrust of these studies has resulted in an active inertial feedforward/feedback isolation system. This prototype magnetic suspension system has been demonstrated in a laboratory setting in six degrees-of-freedom and has been preliminarily characterized in its isolation performance with favorable results. This isolation system consists of a closed loop digital control system referencing a platform around six relative and six inertial sensors. These sensors control the isolated mass through nine attractive electromagnetic actuators with a system capability of +/- three-tenths of an inch travel in three dimensions. The development of a prototype system from design to fabrication leads directly into the demonstration phase of the project which will attempt a low gravity environmental demonstration of engineering hardware for the isolation of a scientific payload. The demonstration phase of the project will use an aircraft low gravity maneuver to establish a research testbed for the study of isolation hardware and control strategies in an off-loaded environment. In developing this demonstration capability the Lewis Learjet aircraft has been characterized through its parabolic flight maneuvers and a trunnioned experimental volume has been designed for the test of both active and passive isolation packages. This vibration isolation testbed is operational and has two data acquisition systems available for both autonomous and interactive operation, with a combined input capability of 32 channels.

  15. Child maltreatment: Testing the social isolation hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Coohey

    1996-01-01

    Several barriers limit our attempts to untangle the social context of child maltreatment. One major barrier is our inability to agree on or effectively communicate what social isolation is. In an attempt to clarify this construct, the introductory section traces the evolution of the social isolation construct over the last three decades and concludes it is not one etiologic factor

  16. Experimental Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Isolators

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Gaetano; Pauletta, Margherita; Cortesia, Andrea; Dal Bianco, Alberto [Civil Engineering and Architecture Department, University of Udine, Viale delle Scienze 208-33100 Udine (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    This paper describes an investigation on the experimental behavior of innovative elastomeric isolators reinforced by carbon fiber fabrics. These fabrics are very much lighter than steel plates used in conventional isolators and able to transfer to the adjacent elastomer layers tangential stresses adequate to oppose the transversal deformation of rubber under vertical loads. The isolators are not bonded to the sub- and super-structure (elimination of the steel end-plates), hence their weight and cost are reduced. The experimental investigation is carried out on small-scale isolator prototypes reinforced by quadridirectional carbon fiber fabrics. The isolators are subjected to the following qualification tests prescribed by the Italian Code 'Ordinanza 3274' for steel reinforced isolators: 1) 'Static assessment of the compression stiffness'; 2) 'Static assessment of the shear modulus G'; 3) 'Dynamic assessment of the dynamic shear modulus G{sub din} and of the damping coefficient {xi}; 4) 'Assessment of the G{sub din}-{gamma} and {xi}-{gamma} diagrams by means of dynamic tests'; 5) 'Assessment of creep characteristics'; 6) 'Evaluation of the capacity of sustaining at least 10 cycles'. As a result of the tests, the isolators survived large shear strains, comparable to those expected for conventional isolators.

  17. Spectral characteristics of isolated blowfly rhabdoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Paulsen; Allgemeine Zoologie; Oberer Eselsberg; Accepted April

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the isolation of rhabdoms from the eye of the blowflyCalliphora erythrocephala Meig. is described. Essentially this involves i) the excision of the retina, then its disintegration using a hypoosmotic buffer and ii) separation of the rhabdoms from other cell fragments by isopycnic centrifugation on Percoll.1.The isolated rhabdoms consist almost exclusively of the microvillar membranes

  18. Plasmid Profiling of Japanese Flavobacterium psychrophilum Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shotaro Izumi; Futoshi Aranishi

    2004-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome in salmonids, cyprinids, and ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. To investigate genetic variability of this bacterium, plasmid profiling analysis was undertaken in 104 isolates of F. psychrophilum from Japan (n = 92), Europe (n = 9) and the USA (n = 3). Plasmids were isolated by a

  19. A Critique of ANSI SQL Isolation Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hal Berenson; Philip A. Bernstein; Jim Gray; Jim Melton; Elizabeth J. O'Neil; Patrick E. O'Neil

    1995-01-01

    ANSI SQL-92 [MS, ANSI] defines Isolation Dirty Reads, Non-Repeatable Reads, and Phantoms. This paper shows that these phenomena and the ANSI SQL definitions fail to properly characterize several popular isolation levels, including the standard locking implementations of the levels covered. Ambiguity in the statement of the phenomena is investigated and a more formal statement is arrived at; in addition new

  20. Application of active base isolation control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Ming Chang; Zhihao Wang; Billie F. Spencer

    2009-01-01

    The structural control can provide the potential protection through passive and active control techniques. Structures with base isolations have been successfully implemented and proven effective in the vibration mitigation. To enhance the functionality of base isolations, a hybrid control system can be considered using a combination with active control devices. This research applies the hybrid control technique to a three-story

  1. Satellite ultraquiet isolation technology experiment (SUITE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Anderson; J. P. Fumo; R. S. Erwin

    2000-01-01

    An experimental active vibration isolation called Satellite Ultraquiet Isolation Technology Experiment (SUITE) is described in detail. SUITE is a piezoelectric-based technology demonstration scheduled to fly in 2000 or 2001 on board the PICOSat spacecraft. SUITE is designed to show that the effect of small vibrations on spacecraft instrument effectiveness can be reduced significantly. Control from the ground station is planned

  2. Isolation of human rotavirus in cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sato; Y. Inaba; T. Shinozaki; R. Fujii; M. Matumoto

    1981-01-01

    Summary Three cytopathic rotavirus strains were isolated in MA104 cells from faecal specimens of pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. Pre-treatment of virus with trypsin and incorporation of a small amount of trypsin in maintenance medium were important for establishment of the strains in these cells. The isolates were antigenically closely related with strain Wa of human rotavirus and had some

  3. 5, 33413366, 2005 Isolation of EC for

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 3341­3366, 2005 Isolation of EC for AMS: isotopic particulate standards L. A. Currie and J.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/5/3341/ SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acpd/2005-5-3341 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry spectrometry; evaluation of alternative isolation procedures, and accuracy assurance using a hybrid isotopic

  4. Magnetism in Isolated and Binary White Dwarfs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Wickramasinghe; Lilia Ferrario

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first isolated magnetic white dwarf (MWD) Grw +70°8047 nearly 60 years ago, the number of stars belonging to this class has grown steadily. There are now some 65 isolated white dwarfs classified as magnetic, and a roughly equal number of MWDs are found in the close interacting binaries known as the magnetic cataclysmic variables (MCVs).

  5. Outcome following isolated tricuspid valve replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arduino A Mangoni; Thomas G DiSalvo; Gus J Vlahakes; Carisi A Polanczyk; Michael A Fifer

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical outcome of isolated tricuspid valve replacement is not well defined because this procedure is usually performed concomitantly with other valve surgery. Methods: We retrospectively studied the short and long-term outcome of 15 consecutive patients (six men and nine women, aged 61±3 years) undergoing isolated tricuspid valve replacement from 1984 to 1996. The cause of valve dysfunction was

  6. CONCATENATIVE MANDARIN TTS ACCOMMODATING ISOLATED ENGLISH WORDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenli YU; Dongjian YUE; Jian-Cheng HUANG

    An experiment to explore the method realizing a concatenative Chinese TTS accommodating isolated English words is presented. The experiment was based on an existing concatenative Mandarin TTS system, developed in Motorola China Research Center. The experimental system employs an English word synthesizer based on the concatenation of speech segments stored in an English corpus. The original English corpus contains isolated

  7. Gene Diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Valadkhani, Z; Kazemi, F; Hassan, N; Aghighi, Z; Esmaili, I; Talebi, M

    2011-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is protozoan parasite responsible for trichomoniasis and is more common in high-risk behavior group such as prostitute individuals. Interest in trichomoniasis is due to increase one's susceptibility to viruses such as herpes, human papillomavirus and HIV. The aim of this study was to find genotypic differences between the isolates. Methods Forty isolates from prisoners' women in Tehran province were used in this study. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine genetic differences among isolates and was correlated with patient's records. By each primer the banding pattern size of each isolates was scored (bp), genetic differences were studied, and the genealogical tree was constructed by using NTSYS software program and UPGMA method. Results The least number of bands were seen by using primer OPD8 and the most by using OPD3. Results showed no significant difference in isolates from different geographical areas in Iran. By using primer OPD1 specific amplified fragment with length 1300 base pair were found in only 8 isolates. All these isolates were belonged to addicted women; however, six belonged to asymptomatic patients and two to symptomatic ones. Conclusion There was not much genetic diversity in T vaginalis isolates from three different geographical areas. PMID:22347304

  8. Isolation and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from retail foods in Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weisong; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong; Yang, Baowei; Xi, Meili; Meng, Jianghong

    2013-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen of public health concern. A total of 902 retail food samples, including 342 ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, 366 infant foods, and 194 raw chickens were collected randomly in supermarkets and farmers' markets in 12 geographic areas in Shaanxi Province, China and screened for L. monocytogenes. All L. monocytogenes isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, serotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twenty-seven (3.0%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes, and 39 L. monocytogenes isolates were recovered from positive samples. Of these L. monocytogenes isolates, 21 isolates (53.8%) showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial. The isolates displayed resistance most frequently to oxacillin (18 isolates, 46.2%), followed by tetracycline (five isolates, 12.8%), erythromycin (four isolates, 10.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (three isolates, 7.7%), chloramphenicol (two isolates, 5.1%), and vancomycin (one isolate, 2.6%). All isolates were sensitive or displayed intermediate resistance to gentamicin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. Four serotypes including serotype 1/2b, 4b, 4e, and 1/2a were identified in those foodborne isolates. PFGE analysis demonstrated that some isolates with the same PFGE patterns came from different food sources, and isolates from the same food source tend to cluster closely. Presence of L. monocytogenes of clinically important serotypes in retail foods and their antimicrobial resistance constitute a potential risk for the public. Appropriate measures should be taken by government, industry, and consumers to reduce the risk posed by this ubiquitous pathogen. PMID:23841657

  9. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  10. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  11. Isolation of circulating angiogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Erin E; O'Brien, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were first identified by Ashara et al. in 1997 (Asahara et al. Science 275:964-967, 1997) and were thought to contribute to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Since their discovery, circulating levels of EPCs were found to serve as biomarkers as low levels correlate with increased cardiovascular events and death from cardiovascular causes (Werner et al. N Engl J Med 353:999-1007, 2005; Fadini et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:1449-1457, 2005; Hill et al. N Engl J Med 348:593-600, 2003; Schmidt-Lucke et al. Circulation 111:2981-2987, 2005). Additionally, EPC dysfunction has been associated with diabetes mellitus and other disease states. However, recently there has been a great deal of controversy in the field over the exact definition and function of an EPC. To help classify EPCs, they have been divided into two distinct groups (1) circulating angiogenic cells (also referred to as early EPCs) and (2) endothelial colony forming cells (also referred to as late outgrowth EPCs). Circulating angiogenic cells are believed to represent a cell population enriched in monocytes and exert their angiogenic effects via paracrine and signaling mechanisms whereas endothelial colony forming cells are true EPCs and may enhance angiogenesis and vasculogenesis by incorporating into the newly forming vessels. Here the isolation and identification of circulating angiogenic cells are described. PMID:22914952

  12. Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Pamela (Palo Alto, CA); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-02-23

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

  13. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum torque orientation and other experimental activities will occur continually, both inside and outside the station. Since all vibration sources cannot be controlled, the task of attenuating the disturbances is the only realistic alternative. Several groups have independently developed technology to isolate payloads from the space environment. Since 1970, Honeywell's Satellite Systems Division has designed several payload isolation systems and vibration attenuators. From 1987 to 1992, NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) performed research on isolation technology and developed a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) isolator and tested the system during 70 low gravity aircraft flight trajectories. Beginning in early 1995, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) jointly developed the STABLE (Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation Evaluation) isolation system. This 5 month accelerated effort produced the first flight of an active microgravity vibration isolation system on STS-73/USML-02 in late October 1995. The Canadian Space Agency developed the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) for isolating microgravity payloads and this system began operating on the Russian Mir Space Station in May 1996. The Boeing Defense & Space Group, Missiles & Space Division developed the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for isolating payloads in a standard payload rack. ARIS was tested in September 1996 during the STS-79 mission to Mir. Although these isolation systems differ in their technological approach, the objective is to isolate payloads from disturbances. The following sections describe the technologies behind these systems and the different types of hardware used to perform isolation. The purpose of these descriptions is not to detail the inner workings of the hardware but to give the reader an idea of the technology and uses of the hardware components. Also included in the component descriptions is a paragraph detailing some of the advances in isolation technology for that particular component. The final s

  14. Comparative Genomics of Staphylococcus aureus Musculoskeletal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Cassat, James E.; Dunman, Paul M.; McAleese, Fionnuala; Murphy, Ellen; Projan, Steven J.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research aimed at defining the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus has been done with a limited number of strains, most notably the 8325-4 derivative RN6390. Several lines of evidence indicate that this strain is unique by comparison to clinical isolates of S. aureus. Based on this, we have focused our efforts on two clinical isolates (UAMS-1 and UAMS-601), both of which are hypervirulent in our animal models of musculoskeletal infection. In this study, we used comparative genomic hybridization to assess the genome content of these two isolates relative to RN6390 and each of seven sequenced S. aureus isolates. Our comparisons were done by using an amplicon-based microarray from the Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center and an Affymetrix GeneChip that collectively represent the genomes of all seven sequenced strains. Our results confirmed that UAMS-1 and UAMS-601 share specific attributes that distinguish them from RN6390. Potentially important differences included the presence of cna and the absence of isaB, sarT, sarU, and sasG in the UAMS isolates. Among the sequenced strains, the UAMS isolates were most closely related to the dominant European clone EMRSA-16. In contrast, RN6390, NCTC 8325, and COL formed a distinct cluster that, by comparison to the other four sequenced strains (Mu50, N315, MW2, and SANGER-476), was the most distantly related to the UAMS isolates and EMRSA-16. PMID:15629929

  15. Seismic Behaviour of Vertical Mass Isolated Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nekooei, M.; Ziyaeifar, M. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), P.O. Box 19395-3913, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-08

    In this paper, the seismic behaviour of vertical mass isolated structures against the earthquake is studied. These structures are assumed to be consisted of two subsystems. Mass subsystem possesses low lateral stiffness but carries the major part of mass of the system. Stiffness subsystem, however, controls the deformation of the mass subsystem and attributes with much higher stiffness. The isolator layer is, therefore, located in between the mass and the stiffness subsystems and assumed to be a viscous damper layer. The analytical model used for this investigation is a dual mass-spring model which is an extended form of the three element Maxwell model. In this study, the ability of mass isolation techniques in reducing earthquake effects on buildings with two approaches, parametric and numerical approaches, is shown. In the parametric approach, by definition an isolation factor for structure and determination the dynamic characteristics of system, the relative optimum value of the isolator damping coefficient is obtained. The results provide an insight on role of relative stiffness and mass ratio of the two subsystems. Finally, in the numerical approach, the spectral responses of these structures due to the earthquake are investigated. The results show a noticeable decrease in earthquake input force to vertical mass isolated structures in comparison with non-isolated structures.

  16. Comparative genomics of Staphylococcus aureus musculoskeletal isolates.

    PubMed

    Cassat, James E; Dunman, Paul M; McAleese, Fionnuala; Murphy, Ellen; Projan, Steven J; Smeltzer, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research aimed at defining the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus has been done with a limited number of strains, most notably the 8325-4 derivative RN6390. Several lines of evidence indicate that this strain is unique by comparison to clinical isolates of S. aureus. Based on this, we have focused our efforts on two clinical isolates (UAMS-1 and UAMS-601), both of which are hypervirulent in our animal models of musculoskeletal infection. In this study, we used comparative genomic hybridization to assess the genome content of these two isolates relative to RN6390 and each of seven sequenced S. aureus isolates. Our comparisons were done by using an amplicon-based microarray from the Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center and an Affymetrix GeneChip that collectively represent the genomes of all seven sequenced strains. Our results confirmed that UAMS-1 and UAMS-601 share specific attributes that distinguish them from RN6390. Potentially important differences included the presence of cna and the absence of isaB, sarT, sarU, and sasG in the UAMS isolates. Among the sequenced strains, the UAMS isolates were most closely related to the dominant European clone EMRSA-16. In contrast, RN6390, NCTC 8325, and COL formed a distinct cluster that, by comparison to the other four sequenced strains (Mu50, N315, MW2, and SANGER-476), was the most distantly related to the UAMS isolates and EMRSA-16. PMID:15629929

  17. Molecular characterization of Danish Cryptosporidium parvum isolates.

    PubMed

    Enemark, H L; Ahrens, P; Juel, C D; Petersen, E; Petersen, R F; Andersen, J S; Lind, P; Thamsborg, S M

    2002-10-01

    The genetic polymorphism among 271 Danish Cryptosporidium isolates of human and animal origin was studied by partial amplification and sequencing of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene, the 1 8S rDNA, and a microsatellite locus. Furthermore, the microsatellite locus was studied directly using fragment analysis. A comparative analysis of DNA sequences showed the presence of 3 different subgenotypes (Cl, C2 and C3) in C. parvum isolates from Danish cattle, with prevalences of 16.7, 17.2 and 73.1% including 13 (7.0%) mixed infections. Subgenotype Cl was significantly more prevalent (P < 0.001) in the southern part of Denmark. In Cryptosporidium isolates of human origin the anthroponotic subgenotype H1 was identified, in addition to the zoonotic subgenotypes C1, C2, and C3. Of 44 human samples, 56.8% were anthroponotic, whereas 40.9% were zoonotic genotypes. One human isolate was characterized as C. meleagridis. The porcine Cryptosporidium isolates (N = 4) revealed a pattern which was genetically distinct from human and bovine isolates. Cryptosporidium in a hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L.) was identified for the first time. By microsatellite sequencing the hedgehog isolate showed a subgenotype distinct from the previously detected types. The assignment to subgenotype by microsatellite sequencing and fragment typing was 100% identical in samples where results were achieved by both methods. In addition, the fragment analysis proved more sensitive, easier, faster, and less expensive compared to sequencing. PMID:12403321

  18. EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ISOLATION DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    N.T. Raczka

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this analysis is to review and refine key design concepts related to the control system presently under consideration for remotely operating the emplacement drift isolation doors at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will discuss the key design concepts of the control system that may be utilized for remotely monitoring, opening, and closing the emplacement drift isolation doors. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Discuss the purpose and function of the isolation doors (Presented in Section 7.1). (2) Review the construction of the isolation door and other physical characteristics of the doors that the control system will interface with (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Discuss monitoring and controlling the operation of the isolation doors with a digital control system (either a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system or a Distributed Control System (DCS)) (Presented in Section 7.3). (4) Discuss how all isolation doors can be monitored and controlled from a subsurface central control center (Presented in Section 7.4). This analysis will focus on the development of input/output (I/O) counts including the types of I/O, redundancy and fault tolerance considerations, and processor requirements for the isolation door control system. Attention will be placed on operability, maintainability, and reliability issues for the system operating in the subsurface environment with exposure to high temperatures and radiation.

  19. Very Isolated Early-Type Galaxies

    E-print Network

    J. T. Stocke; B. A. Keeney; A. D. Lewis; H. W. Epps; R. E. Schild

    2003-11-25

    We use the Karachentseva (1973) ``Catalogue of Very Isolated Galaxies'' to investigate a candidate list of >100 very isolated early-type galaxies. Broad-band imaging and low resolution spectroscopy are available for a large fraction of these candidates and result in a sample of 102 very isolated early-type galaxies, including 65 ellipticals and 37 S0 galaxies. Many of these systems are quite luminous and the resulting optical luminosity functions of the Es and early-types (E+S0s) show no statistical differences when compared to luminosity functions dominated by group and cluster galaxies. However, whereas S0s outnumber Es 4:1 in the CfA survey, isolated Es outnumber S0s by nearly 2:1. We conclude that very isolated elliptical galaxies show no evidence for a different formation and/or evolution process compared to Es formed in groups or clusters, but that most S0s are formed by a mechanism (e.g., gas stripping) that occurs only in groups and rich clusters. Our luminosity function results for ellipticals are consistent with very isolated ellipticals being formed by merger events, in which no companions remain. CHANDRA observations were proposed to test specifically the merger hypothesis for isolated ellipticals. However, this program has resulted in the observation of only one isolated early-type galaxy, the S0 KIG 284, which was not detected at a limit well below that expected for a remnant group of galaxies. Therefore, the hypothesis remains untested that very isolated elliptical galaxies are the remains of a compact group of galaxies which completely merged.

  20. Isolation and contraction of the stress fiber.

    PubMed

    Katoh, K; Kano, Y; Masuda, M; Onishi, H; Fujiwara, K

    1998-07-01

    Stress fibers were isolated from cultured human foreskin fibroblasts and bovine endothelial cells, and their contraction was demonstrated in vitro. Cells in culture dishes were first treated with a low-ionic-strength extraction solution and then further extracted using detergents. With gentle washes by pipetting, the nucleus and the apical part of cells were removed. The material on the culture dish was scraped, and the freed material was forced through a hypodermic needle and fractionated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Isolated, free-floating stress fibers stained brightly with fluorescently labeled phalloidin. When stained with anti-alpha-actinin or anti-myosin, isolated stress fibers showed banded staining patterns. By electron microscopy, they consisted of bundles of microfilaments, and electron-dense areas were associated with them in a semiperiodic manner. By negative staining, isolated stress fibers often exhibited gentle twisting of microfilament bundles. Focal adhesion-associated proteins were also detected in the isolated stress fiber by both immunocytochemical and biochemical means. In the presence of Mg-ATP, isolated stress fibers shortened, on the average, to 23% of the initial length. The maximum velocity of shortening was several micrometers per second. Polystyrene beads on shortening isolated stress fibers rotated, indicating spiral contraction of stress fibers. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation was detected in contracting stress fibers, and a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, KT5926, inhibited isolated stress fiber contraction. Our study demonstrates that stress fibers can be isolated with no apparent loss of morphological features and that they are truly contractile organelle. PMID:9658180

  1. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Scott D. (inventor); Gray, David L. (inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

  2. 21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section...Devices § 880.5450 Patient care reverse isolation chamber. (a) Identification. A patient care reverse isolation chamber is a...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section...Devices § 880.5450 Patient care reverse isolation chamber. (a) Identification. A patient care reverse isolation chamber is a...

  4. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  5. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  6. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  7. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  8. 46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section 153.980...980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in § 153.408(b)...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2620 - Line isolation monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Line isolation monitor. 870...Monitoring Devices § 870.2620 Line isolation monitor. (a) Identification. A line isolation monitor is a device used to monitor the electrical leakage current from a...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2620 - Line isolation monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Line isolation monitor. 870...Monitoring Devices § 870.2620 Line isolation monitor. (a) Identification. A line isolation monitor is a device used to monitor the electrical leakage current from a...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2620 - Line isolation monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line isolation monitor. 870...Monitoring Devices § 870.2620 Line isolation monitor. (a) Identification. A line isolation monitor is a device used to monitor the electrical leakage current from a...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2620 - Line isolation monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Line isolation monitor. 870...Monitoring Devices § 870.2620 Line isolation monitor. (a) Identification. A line isolation monitor is a device used to monitor the electrical leakage current from a...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2620 - Line isolation monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line isolation monitor. 870...Monitoring Devices § 870.2620 Line isolation monitor. (a) Identification. A line isolation monitor is a device used to monitor the electrical leakage current from a...

  14. Using Partial Isolation Rings to Test Core-Based Designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nur A. Touba; Bahram Pouya

    1997-01-01

    A partial isolation ring provides the same fault coverage as a full isolation ring but avoids adding multiplexers on critical timing paths and reduces area overhead. The authors examine several partial isolation ring selection strategies that vary in computational complexity

  15. TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation of microsatellite loci from endangered members

    E-print Network

    Helenurm, Kaius

    TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation of microsatellite loci from endangered members of Lotus (Fabaceae throughout the California floristic province. Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from two the characterization of eight microsatellite loci isolated from L. argophyllus var. adsurgens and seven microsatellite

  16. The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology.

    PubMed

    Machielse, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed. PMID:25588026

  17. Controlling the exotic diseases: 1. Isolation facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, A J; Best, H R

    1980-01-01

    The exotic diseases are highly virulent transmissible conditions that include Lassa fever, some viral hemorrhagic fevers, smallpox and plague. Any of these diseases could be brought into or diagnosed in Canada as the result of natural or laboratory acquired infection. The patients must be isolated until the presumptive diagnosis is proved. High-security isolation is necessary and needs to be backed up by high-security laboratory services. In Canada facilities for high-security isolation are generally not available; therefore, hospitals must preplan and be ready to effect the best possible isolation under the existing conditions. The plan should address construction, ventilation, filtration, temperature and humidity, together with protective measures for staff and careful handling of laboratory specimens. Materials the patient has contacted and areas or vehicles he or she has been in will have to be decontaminated, and appropriate, safe disposal of corpses must be considered. PMID:7437989

  18. Isolating the Ricochet-induced Vaporization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Sugita, S.; Eberhardy, C. A.; Ernst, C. M.

    2004-03-01

    Experiments were designed to isolate the ricochet contribution to impact-generated vaporization of calcium carbonate. High-speed spectroscopy reveals that downrange impacts by the ricocheting projectile play a significant role.

  19. Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation System

    E-print Network

    Yang, Cheng-Ken

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system which is capable to diagnosis multiple sensor faults in nonlinear cases. In order to lead this study closer to real world applications in oil industries...

  20. Local complex singularity exponents for isolated singularities

    E-print Network

    Hou, Zuoliang, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, I studied the stability of local complex'singularity exponents (lcse) for holomorphic functions whose zero sets have only isolated singularities. For a given holomorphic function f defined on a neighborhood ...

  1. Hereditary characteristic of isolated congenital vomer aplasia.

    PubMed

    Verim, Ay?egül; Faruk Çal?m, Ömer; Yenigün, Alper; Kocagöz, Gamze Didem; Kökten, Numan; Özkul, Haluk

    2012-12-01

    Malformation of the inner nose is often found in conjunction with different types of cleft palate or may be seen with severe and complex craniofacial anomalies. Among such malformations, however, isolated vomer aplasia is rarely reported in the literature. This study sets forth our findings that congenital vomeral defect of the nasal septum is an isolated disorder with hereditary characteristics. Between 2001 and 2009, nine cases of isolated congenital vomeral bone defect were detected on endoscopic examination of patients referred to our clinic with nasal and otologic complaints. The files of these patients were reviewed and vomer aplasia was identified as an isolated hereditary condition with concomitant sinonasal symptoms. The defect of the posteroinferior part of the nasal septum was defined as a genetic disease presenting with no significant medical problems. Chromosomal analysis of these patients may help to reveal the relationship of this anomaly with different malformations of the maxillofacial complex. PMID:22484230

  2. Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

    1992-01-01

    Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

  3. Isolation, cultivation and transfection of human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zare, Sona; Zarei, Mohammad Ali; Ghadimi, Tayyeb; Fathi, Fardin; Jalili, Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Human keratinocytes could be used in the repair of damaged skin, in tissue engineering applications, gene therapy and recently, the generation of iPS cells. We isolated human keratinocytes from foreskin and subsequently cultured them on fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin-coated dishes that contained three different types of serum-free medium (epilife, KSM or CnT). We developed improved conditions for efficient transfection of these human keratinocytes by testing three common transfection methods and a GFP plasmid vector. The isolated cells showed typical keratinocyte morphology and expressed the epithelial cell specific antigen, cytokeratin 14. Collagen type 1, epilife medium and lipofectamin 2000 gave the best results for isolation and transfection of human keratinocytes. Our protocol can be used as a reproducible, simple and efficient method for isolation, cultivation and genetic manipulation of human keratinocytes, which may be useful in cell and gene therapy applications. PMID:24323435

  4. Electrically Isolating Transmission-Line Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic coupling circuit used to insert signal in transmission line and to isolate transmission line from ground of circuit in which signal originates. Made from commercially available components, reduces susceptibility to interference along transmission path.

  5. Isolated Curves for Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wenhan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of isolated genus two curves. As there is no known efficient algorithm to explicitly construct isogenies between two genus two curves with large conductor gap, the discrete log problem (DLP) cannot be efficiently carried over from an isolated curve to a large set of isogenous curves. Thus isolated genus two curves might be more secure for DLP based hyperelliptic curve cryptography. We establish results on explicit expressions for the index of an endomorphism ring in the maximal CM order, and give conditions under which the index is a prime number or an almost prime number for three different categories of quartic CM fields. We also derived heuristic asymptotic results on the densities and distributions of isolated genus two curves with CM by any fixed quartic CM field. Computational results, which are also shown for three explicit examples, agree with heuristic prediction with errors within a tolerable range.

  6. Wire mesh isolator protects sensitive electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J. J., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Sensitive electronic components are enclosed in wire mesh for protection. The wire mesh isolates the component from shock and vibration. It acts as a heat sink and as a screen against RF interference.

  7. Isolation of endothelial cells from murine tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federica M Marelli-Berg; Emma Peek; Elaine A Lidington; Hans J Stauss; Robert I Lechler

    2000-01-01

    The isolation and long-term culture of murine endothelial cells (ECs) has often proven a difficult task. In this paper we describe a quick, efficient protocol for the isolation of microvascular endothelial cells from murine tissues. Murine lung or heart are mechanically minced and enzymatically digested with collagenase and trypsin. The single cell suspension obtained is then incubated with an anti-CD31

  8. Extracellular enzymatic activity of Malassezia spp. isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Mancianti; Antonello Rum; Simona Nardoni; Michele Corazza

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular enzymatic activity of different species of Malassezia spp was evaluated. Thirty-three isolates of animal origin (dogs and cats) and stock culture samples were studied. Twenty\\u000a isolates of M. pachydermatis, 8 of M. furfur, 2 of M. sympodialis and M. globosa and one of M. restricta, M. obtusa and M. slooffiae were examined. The enzymatic activity was investigatedusing Api Zym

  9. Mycological flora isolated from people in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henryk Prochacki

    1970-01-01

    It has been shown that in Poland the most frequently encountered pathogenic fungi are the zoophilic ones:T. mentagrophytes, M. canis andT. verrucosum. The zoophilic fungi have been isolated in 69.6 % of cases, while the anthropophilic fungi in 30.3 % of cases. In Poland, the most frequently isolated fungus among anthropophilic fungi have beenT. rubrum (36.2 %) andT. violaceum (34.3

  10. Isolation of acetic acid bacteria from honey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanlaya Kappeng; Wasu Pathom-aree

    Four thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria designated as CMU1, CMU2, CMU3 and CMU4 were isolated from six honey samples produced by three native bee species in northern Thailand, namely the dwarf honey bee (Apis florea), Asian honey bee (A. cerena) and giant honey bee (A. dorsata). All isolates were tested for their tolerance to acetic acid and ethanol at 30?C and

  11. Seismic analysis of base isolated buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Barbat; L. M. Bozzo

    1997-01-01

    Summary  This paper presents a survey of the numerical simulation of base isolation systems for the vibration control of buildings\\u000a and their equipment, primarilly against earthquakes. Base isolation has received much attention in the recent twenty years\\u000a and many buildings have been protected using this technology. The article focusses mainly on the different numerical methods\\u000a used in the analysis of base

  12. Shear building representations of seismically isolated buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cenk Alhan; Melih Sürmeli

    Seismic isolation, with its capability of reducing floor accelerations and interstory drifts simultaneously, is recognized\\u000a as an earthquake resistant design method that protects contents of a building along with the building itself. In research\\u000a studies, superstructures of seismically isolated buildings are commonly modeled as idealized shear buildings. Shear building\\u000a representation corresponds to an idealized structure where the beams are infinitely

  13. (Surveying isolated diesel power stations in Guatemala)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-02-26

    I travelled to Guatemala City, Guatemala, to lead a team of specialists to study the operating, administrative, and management efficiency of isolated diesel power plants, operated by Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE). The study is part of a global initiative managed jointly by the Agency for International Development and the World Bank. The power plants were audited, including INDE's largest isolated diesel station, and two, much smaller municipal and privately owned stations. I returned to Oak Ridge on February 22, 1990.

  14. Epidemic Model with Isolation in Multilayer Networks.

    PubMed

    Zuzek, L G Alvarez; Stanley, H E; Braunstein, L A

    2015-01-01

    The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model has successfully mimicked the propagation of such airborne diseases as influenza A (H1N1). Although the SIR model has recently been studied in a multilayer networks configuration, in almost all the research the isolation of infected individuals is disregarded. Hence we focus our study in an epidemic model in a two-layer network, and we use an isolation parameter w to measure the effect of quarantining infected individuals from both layers during an isolation period tw. We call this process the Susceptible-Infected-Isolated-Recovered (SIIR) model. Using the framework of link percolation we find that isolation increases the critical epidemic threshold of the disease because the time in which infection can spread is reduced. In this scenario we find that this threshold increases with w and tw. When the isolation period is maximum there is a critical threshold for w above which the disease never becomes an epidemic. We simulate the process and find an excellent agreement with the theoretical results. PMID:26173897

  15. Epidemic Model with Isolation in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zuzek, L. G. Alvarez; Stanley, H. E.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model has successfully mimicked the propagation of such airborne diseases as influenza A (H1N1). Although the SIR model has recently been studied in a multilayer networks configuration, in almost all the research the isolation of infected individuals is disregarded. Hence we focus our study in an epidemic model in a two-layer network, and we use an isolation parameter w to measure the effect of quarantining infected individuals from both layers during an isolation period tw. We call this process the Susceptible-Infected-Isolated-Recovered (SIIR) model. Using the framework of link percolation we find that isolation increases the critical epidemic threshold of the disease because the time in which infection can spread is reduced. In this scenario we find that this threshold increases with w and tw. When the isolation period is maximum there is a critical threshold for w above which the disease never becomes an epidemic. We simulate the process and find an excellent agreement with the theoretical results. PMID:26173897

  16. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Scott D. (inventor); Gray, David L. (inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

  17. Geographically isolated wetlands: rethinking a misnomer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  18. Vector-borne agents detected in fleas of the northern white-breasted hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Földvári, Gábor; Rigó, Krisztina; Meli, Marina L; Tóth, Mária; Molnár, Viktor; Gönczi, Enik?; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-01-01

    This is the first large-scale molecular investigation of fleas from a geographically widespread and highly urbanized species, the northern white-breasted hedgehog. In this study, 759 fleas (the majority were Archaeopsylla erinacei) collected from 134 hedgehogs were molecularly analyzed individually or in pools for the presence of three groups of vector-borne pathogens. All flea samples were positive for rickettsiae: In two samples (1.5%) Rickettsia helvetica and in 10% of the others a novel rickettsia genotype were identified. Additionally, Bartonella henselae (the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans) was demonstrated in one flea (0.7%), and hemoplasmas of the hemofelis group were identified in seven other samples (5.2%). The findings of vector-borne agents not detected before in A. erinacei fleas broaden the range of those diseases of veterinary-medical importance, of which hedgehogs may play a role in the epidemiology. PMID:24359423

  19. A case report of seronegative cat scratch disease, emphasizing the histopathologic point of view

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat scratch disease, necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by Bartonella henselae, usually benign and self-limited. However, various clinical manifestations and no pathognomonic histopathologic features can lead to misinterpretations and diagnostic disputes. We report a case of cat scratch disease in a 39-yr-old male patient with fever and left axillary lymphadenitis. He had a history of cat bite on the left hand dorsum. On excision, the lymph node showed follicular hyperplasia, stellate microabscesses with a rim of granulomatous inflammation. Warthin-Starry silver staining showed many clumps of silver-stained bacilli within the necrotic foci. Serological tests were negative. Diagnosis was established by PCR analysis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1877499238123059 PMID:24641870

  20. Hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in immunocompetent adults: report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    García, Juan C; Núñez, Manuel J; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M; López, Asunción; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A

    2014-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%-20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  1. An 8-year-old boy with altered mental status.

    PubMed

    High, Kevin; Van Meter, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Management of an acutely ill pediatric patient with undifferentiated altered mental status is a common challenge facing air medical crewmembers. The transport team is often the vital link between the referring agency and a tertiary care center; it is incumbent upon the team to be able to meet the challenges of patient management including airway management, providing hemodynamic support, and addressing presenting symptoms. This case presents a child with altered mental status and seizure activity requiring advanced interventions and support. His hospital course is described and reveals an encephalopathy caused by the Bartonella henselae bacterium also known as cat-scratch disease. This case shows the pathology, symptomology, and management along with the importance of proper management and interventions by air medical crewmembers to maximize outcomes. PMID:25934240

  2. Adult systemic cat scratch disease associated with therapy for hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Zahida; Berenson, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    Background We describe the first case of systemic cat scratch disease in a patient receiving peginterferon ?-2a and ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C. Cases of adult systemic CSD are extremely infrequent and immunomodulatory treatment for hepatitis C has been associated with aberrant host responses to common pathogens. Case presentation A 52 year old man being treated for hepatitis C presented with diffuse lymphadenopathy, weight loss, fevers and splenic lesions. Symptoms were initially confused with adverse effects of his regimen, delaying recognition of his infection. Diagnostic investigation, including histopathology, microbiology and serologic parameters, confirmed that his illness was due to disseminated cat scratch disease with Bartonella henselae. Conclusion Disseminated CSD is exceptionally rare in adults. We describe the first case of disseminated cat scratch disease associated with peginterferon ? and ribavirin to alert clinicians of the need to be aware of unusual manifestations of common infections in this population. PMID:17319959

  3. Atypical Presentation of Cat-Scratch Disease in an Immunocompetent Child with Serological and Pathological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    At?c?, Serkan; Kaday?fc?, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ay?e; Toper, Muhammed Hasan; Celikel, Cigdem Ataizi; Soysal, Ahmet; Bak?r, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Typical cat-scratch disease (CSD) is characterized by local lymphadenopathy following the scratch or bite from a cat or kitten. An atypical presentation which includes liver and/or spleen lesions is rarely reported in an immunocompetent child. Systemic CSD may mimic more serious disorders like malignancy or tuberculosis. Although a diagnosis is difficult to establish in systemic CSD, an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications. Bartonella henselae is difficult to culture, and culture is not routinely recommended. Clinical, serological, radiological, and pathological findings are used for the diagnosis of CSD. Herein we present a case of systemic CSD presenting with hepatic mass in an immunocompetent child. The differential diagnosis is made by serological and pathological evidence. He was successfully treated with gentamicin (7.5?mg/kg) and rifampin (15?mg/kg) for six weeks. PMID:25610689

  4. Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Angela P.; Supawat, Krongkaew; Liamsuwan, Sahas; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Laptikulthum, Somsak; Viriyavejakul, Akravudh; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Vasiknanonte, Punnee; Janjindamai, Supachai; Boonluksiri, Pairoj; Rajborirug, Kiatsak; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Khetsuriani, Nino; Dowell, Scott F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003–August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0–83) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown. PMID:25627940

  5. Bacterial isolates from the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea: influence of culture media on isolation and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Herwig; Thiel, Vera; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2012-03-01

    From specimens of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea collected in the Baltic Sea, bacteria were isolated on four different media, which significantly increased the diversity of the isolated groups. All isolates were classified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and tested for antimicrobial properties using a panel of five indicator strains and six different media. Each medium featured a unique set of isolated phylotypes, and a phylogenetically diverse collection of isolates was obtained. A total of 96 isolates were assigned to 49 phylotypes and 29 genera. Only one-third of the members of these genera had been isolated previously from comparable sources. The isolates were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria. A comparable large portion of up to 22 isolates, i.e., 15 phylotypes, probably represent new species. Likewise, 47 isolates (approximately 50%) displayed antibiotic activities, mostly against grampositive indicator strains. Of the active strains, 63.8 % had antibiotic traits only on one or two of the growth media, whereas only 12.7 % inhibited growth on five or all six media. The application of six different media for antimicrobial testing resulted in twice the number of positive hits as obtained with only a single medium. The use of different media for the isolation of bacteria as well as the variation of media considered suitable for the production of antibiotic substances significantly enhanced both the number of isolates obtained and the proportion of antibiotic active cultures. Thus the approach described herein offers an improved strategy in the search for new antibiotic compounds. PMID:22837149

  6. Frequency response characteristics and response spectra of base-isolated and un-isolated structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Mok; H. Namba

    1995-01-01

    The transmissibility of seismic loads through a linear base-isolation system is analyzed using an impedance method. The results show that the system acts like a {open_quotes}low-pass{close_quotes} filter. It attenuates high-frequency loads but passes through low-frequency ones. The filtering effect depends on the vibration frequencies and damping of the isolated structure and the isolation system. This paper demonstrates the benefits and

  7. Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a system for isolating ground interference from a transmission line, e.g., a ground isolation circuit for isolating a wideband transmission signal (such as a video signal) from ground by modulating the base signal on a carrier signal to permit the transmission signal to be isolated. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a pair of matched mixer circuits, each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input, after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In a preferred embodiment the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which can comprise an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer connects to an isolation transformer to ensure isolation from ground interference. The circuit is considered to be of commercial value in that it can provide isolation between transmitting and receiving circuits, e.g., ground isolation for television circuits or high frequency transmitters, without the need for video transformers or optical isolators, thereby reducing the complexity, power consumption, and weight of the system.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan (Plan) for identified nitrate salt bearing waste disposed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  9. Ris-R-1257(EN) Isolated Systems with Wind Power

    E-print Network

    Risø-R-1257(EN) Isolated Systems with Wind Power An Implementation Guideline Niels-Erik Clausen energy in isolated communities. So far most studies of isolated systems with wind power have been case studies of isolated systems with wind power have mostly been case- oriented. Thus it has been difficult

  10. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Vicca, J.; Stakenborg, T.; Maes, D.; Butaye, P.; Peeters, J.; de Kruif, A.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 21 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates were determined using a broth microdilution technique. One isolate showed acquired resistance to lincomycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin, while five isolates were resistant to flumequine and enrofloxacin. Acquired resistance against these antimicrobials in M. hyopneumoniae field isolates was not reported previously. PMID:15504886

  11. Siderophore Production by Cystic Fibrosis Isolates of Burkholderia cepacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PATRICIA DARLING; MARIA CHAN; ANDREW D. COX; PAMELA A. SOKOL

    Sixty-one Burkholderia cepacia isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and four plant isolates were screened for production of the siderophores salicylic acid (SA), pyochelin, cepabactin, and ornibactins and fingerprinted by a PCR-based randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Of the 24 RAPD types determined, 22 (92%) were associated with isolates that produced SA, 21 (87%) were associated with isolates

  12. Potential of enterococci isolated from horses.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Simonová, Monika; Strompfová, Viola; Styriak, Igor; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Várady, Marián

    2008-10-01

    Faecal samples of 122 horses (from farms in Slovakia) were examined to select enterococci to study their probiotic potential for their further use as additives. Each gram of faeces contained 1.0-5.0 cfu (log 10) of enterococci. Of the 43 isolates, 25 (58.1%) were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 3 strains were (6.9%) Enterococcus mundtii and one strain was identified as E. faecalis. Fourteen isolates were not characterized further. A significant proportion of the isolates were resistant to kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. Low urease activity of enterococci dominated. The values of lactic acid ranged from 0.98 to 1.91 mmol/L. Porcine fibronectectin and bovine lactoferrin were bound weakly by tested enterococci, while bovine fibrinogen was bound more strongly. Enterococci from horses did not bind bovine apotransferrin. The isolates adhered with the same ability to human as well as to canine mucus. At least one enterocin gene was detected among 16 analyzed isolates. Ent B gene was detected in all strains tested (16, 100%), followed by the genes ent A, ent P and ent L50B. Three suitable candidates-the strains of E. faecium EF 412, EF 462 and EF 491 were selected for further detail studies and possibilities to be used as additives. PMID:18508395

  13. Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.

    PubMed

    Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

  14. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

  15. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi

    2014-01-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

  16. Linear and passive silicon optical isolator

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    On-chip optical isolation plays a key role in optical communications and computing based on silicon integrated photonic structures and has attracted great attentions for long years. Recently there have appeared hot controversies upon whether isolation of light can be realized via linear and passive photonic structures. Here we demonstrate optical isolation of infrared light in purely linear and passive silicon photonic structures. Both numerical simulations and experimental measurements show that the round-trip transmissivity of in-plane infrared light across a silicon photonic crystal slab heterojunction diode could be two orders of magnitudes smaller than the forward transmissivity at around 1,550?nm with a bandwidth of about 50?nm, indicating good performance of optical isolation. The occurrence of in-plane light isolation is attributed to the information dissipation due to off-plane and side-way scattering and selective modal conversion in the multiple-channel structure and has no conflict with the reciprocal principle. PMID:22993699

  17. Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Traditional Jeotgal Product in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyu Sung Cho; Hyung Ki Do

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen lactic acid bacterial strains (LAB) were isolated using MRS agar medium from Jeotgal, a Korean fermented food, purchased at the Jukdo market of Pohang. To identify the strains isolated, they were tested by examining their cell morphologies, gram-staining, catalase activity, arginine hydrolase activity, D-L lactate form and carbohydrate fermentation. According to the phenotypic characteristics, three strains were tent atively

  18. AS TFT semiactive controller for base isolated buildings with variable stiffness isolation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sriram Narasimhana

    An ew short time Fourier transformation (STFT) control algorithm is developed for reducing the response of base isolated buildings with variable stiffness isolation systems in near fault earthquakes. The central idea of STFT is to break up the signal into small time segments and Fourier analyze each time segment to ascertain the frequencies that exist in it. For each different

  19. Smart base-isolated benchmark building part IV: Phase II sample controllers for nonlinear isolation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Narasimhan; S. Nagarajaiah; E. A. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The first phase of the seismically excited base-isolated benchmark building was received well by the structural control community, culminating in the March 2006 journal special issue. The special issue contained contributions from over dozen participants world-wide. While the focus of the Phase I effort was on linear isolation systems, Phase II attempts to galvanize research efforts on control of

  20. A STFT semiactive controller for base isolated buildings with variable stiffness isolation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sriram Narasimhan; Satish Nagarajaiah

    2005-01-01

    A new short time Fourier transformation (STFT) control algorithm is developed for reducing the response of base isolated buildings with variable stiffness isolation systems in near fault earthquakes. The central idea of STFT is to break up the signal into small time segments and Fourier analyze each time segment to ascertain the frequencies that exist in it. For each different

  1. TrustworthyNetworkingProgram Autonomous System IsolationAutonomous System Isolation

    E-print Network

    Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    researchers characterize the design space: risks, mitigation techniques and deployment costs. ­ Expedite1 TrustworthyNetworkingProgram Autonomous System IsolationAutonomous System Isolation Under BGP@nist.gov, dougm@nist.gov November 9, 2005November 9, 2005 This research was supported by the Department

  2. GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED WETLANDS IN EASTERN CAROLINA: SOUTHEAST ISOLATED WETLANDS ASSESSMENT, QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN (JULY 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southeastern Isolated Wetlands Assessment is the new Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) project in EPA Region 4. The project will produce data and synthesis on the ways that isolated wetlands can protect downstream water quality at a watershed s...

  3. Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An isolation circuit is disclosed for isolating ground interference from a wideband transmission signal. The ground isolation circuit of the present invention is constructed using a pair of matched mixer circuits. each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In the preferred embodiment, the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which preferably comprises an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer circuits connects to an isolation transformer to insure isolation from ground interference.

  4. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black racial isolation is associated with a higher body mass index and higher odds of obesity among women, but not men, highlighting important sex differences in the influence of neighborhood structure on health. Furthermore, the influence of high racial isolation on women’s weight status is mediated, in part, by the physically disordered nature of such neighborhoods. Disorder of a more social nature (as measured by incident crime) is not associated with weight status. PMID:20179775

  5. Privacy Amplification in the Isolated Qubits Model

    E-print Network

    Yi-Kai Liu

    2015-02-11

    Isolated qubits are a special class of quantum devices, which can be used to implement tamper-resistant cryptographic hardware such as one-time memories (OTM's). Unfortunately, these OTM constructions leak some information, and standard methods for privacy amplification cannot be applied here, because the adversary has advance knowledge of the hash function that the honest parties will use. In this paper we show a stronger form of privacy amplification that solves this problem, using a fixed hash function that is secure against all possible adversaries in the isolated qubits model. This allows us to construct single-bit OTM's which only leak an exponentially small amount of information. We then study a natural generalization of the isolated qubits model, where the adversary is allowed to perform a polynomially-bounded number of entangling gates, in addition to unbounded local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We show that our technique for privacy amplification is also secure in this setting.

  6. Isolated repeated anastomotic recurrence after sigmoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Conzo, Giovanni; Mauriello, Claudio; Gambardella, Claudio; Cavallo, Fabio; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Napolitano, Salvatore; Santini, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Repeated anastomotic recurrence (AR) of colonic cancer is uncommon. We report a case of a double-isolated AR after sigmoidectomy. In 2003, a 60-year-old woman underwent stapled sigmoid resection for a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further rectal bleeding occurred after six months, and colonoscopy detected an AR. Thus, an additional stapled colorectal anastomosis was performed. Ten months later, a colonoscopy detected a circumferential AR that prompted the completion of a second colorectal resection, with a double-stapled colorectal anastomosis. Twenty-four hours after surgery, a massive pulmonary embolism occurred, and the patient died within a few hours. At present, only six cases of repeated isolated AR have been described. Repeated segmental colorectal resections are generally associated with a favourable prognosis, with a median survival rate of 45 mo (range, 13-132 mo). Repeated isolated ARs are rare, and segmental colorectal resections are generally associated with long-term disease-free survival. PMID:25473193

  7. Isolated pancreatic metastasis from melanoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Portale, T R; Di Benedetto, V; Mosca, F; Trovato, M A; Scuderi, M G; Puleo, S

    2011-03-01

    Pancreas is frequently site of isolated metastasis, approximately in the 40% of cases in patient with previous history of malignant neoplasia, more frequently from renal cell carcinoma. The melanoma metastasis can also interest the pancreas in case of disseminated disease (50% of the cases); more rarely the pancreas is site of isolated metastases from melanoma. The treatment of the pancreatic metastases from melanoma is controversial: the therapeutic choices are few and the role of surgery is not well defined. If the metastasis are confined to the pancreas, the surgical treatment can be useful for better long time survival. We report a rare case of melanoma with pancreatic isolated metastasi in a patient with a previous melanotic metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes without evidence of primitive tumor. PMID:21453593

  8. THK: CLB Crossed Linear Bearing Seismic Isolators

    SciTech Connect

    Toniolo, Roberto [THK GmbH, Italian Branch, Via Buonarroti, 182 20052 Monza (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    This text highlights the new seismic isolation technology called CLB (Crossed Linear Bearing), which is made of linear guides with recirculating steel ball technology. It describes specifications and building characteristics, provides examples of seismic isolation and application functionalities and shows experimental data. Since 1994, the constant commitment by Japan to develop diversified anti-seismic systems based on the precise needs of the structures to protect and the areas where they were built has led to the creation of important synergy between the research institutions of leading Japanese companies and THK's Centre for Research and Development. Their goal has been to develop new technology and solutions to allow seismic isolation to be effective in the following cases:.

  9. Neo-allopatry and rapid reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Daniel; Santiago, Gilberto; Callaway, Ragan M

    2012-10-01

    Over the past 3 centuries, many species have been dispersed beyond their natural geographic limits by humans, but to our knowledge, reproductive isolation has not been demonstrated for such neo-allopatric species. We grew seeds from three species of Centaurea (Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea calcitrapa, and Centaurea sulphurea) that are native to Spain and have been introduced into California, and we tested to what extent seed production was affected by pollen source. Compared with within-population crosses, seed production decreased by 52% and 44%, respectively, when C. solstitialis and C. sulphurea from California were pollinated with conspecific pollen from native populations in Spain. This implies rapid evolution of reproductive isolation between populations in their native and nonnative ranges. Whether reproductive isolation has evolved following the introduction of other species is unknown, but additional cases are likely, considering the large number of neo-allopatric species. PMID:22976015

  10. Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, W. A.; de Novais, P. M.; Sodré, L., Jr.; de Oliveira, C. M.

    2010-10-01

    A search for galaxy pairs was performed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 6 (SDSS-DR6), using the SQL language. We have analyzed the isolation of these pairs, in a 0.5 h70-1 Mpc radius. The isolation criteria used are similar to the fossil group ones, where the difference in the r-band magnitude between the brightest galaxy of the pair and the next brightest galaxy is larger than 2, taking into account redshift constraints. Our results show that around 3.5% of all the pairs found in SDSS can be considered isolated, according to the r-band magnitude criterion. We also analyzed properties of the galaxies in the pair, such as their colors, classifying them in early or late types.

  11. A case of isolated splenic tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Basa, Johanna V.; Singh, Lilly; Jaoude, Wassim Abi; Sugiyama, Gainosuke

    2014-01-01

    There are few cases of isolated splenic tuberculosis reported in the literature internationally, and nearly none from western medical centers. The incidence of tuberculosis has declined in the United States since the 1950s, with 11,585 reported cases in 2009, 21% of which were exclusively extrapulmonary. Splenic tuberculosis occurs mostly as part of miliary tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients. Isolated splenic tuberculosis is extremely rare, particularly in the immunocompetent patient. Patients susceptible to acquiring splenic tuberculosis usually have one of the following risk factors: immunosuppression, preceding pyogenic infections, splenic abnormalities, prior trauma to the spleen, sickle cell disease and other hemopathies, and in the immunocompetent patient another body site infected by M. tuberculosis. In this report we present the case of a young immunocompetent male with no other significant past medical history with isolated splenic tuberculosis. PMID:25667987

  12. Isolation for high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Ronald T. D.

    1976-01-01

    Standard isolation accommodation provides adequate protection against the infectious diseases prevalent in the U.K. but higher standards are necessary for more dangerous infections imported from overseas. These may be provided reasonably cheaply by modifying existing wards but staff are still exposed to risk. By physically separating the patient from the attendants, the Trexler plastic isolator affords a greater degree of protection and is of particular value when dealing with a dangerous infection against which there is no form of immunization. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:981101

  13. Isolation and Characterization of a Thymic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Robey, G.; Campbell, B. J.; Luckey, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A protein was isolated from bovine thymus that was shown to accelerate the appearance of hemolysin to sheep erythrocytes in neonatal mice. The isolation procedure consisted of saline homogenization, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and methanol precipitation, followed by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and two chromatographies on Sephadex G-150. The protein was shown to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation. The molecular weight was determined to be 79,950. Additional physical and chemical characteristics were also determined. Images PMID:4637294

  14. Toscana virus isolated from sandflies, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Es-sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Anga, Latifa; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the transmission of phleboviruses, a total of 7,057 sandflies were collected in well-known foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis and were identified to species level according to morphological characters.Collected sandflies were tested by Nested PCR for the presence of Phleboviruses and subsequently by viral isolation on Vero cells. The corresponding products were sequenced. Toscana virus was isolated, for the first time, from 5 pools of sandflies.Hence, Toscana virus should be considered a potential risk that threatens public health and clinicians should be aware of the role of Toscana virus in cases of meningitis and encephalitis in Morocco. PMID:25886511

  15. Isolation of Usutu Virus in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jöst, Hanna; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Sambri, Vittorio; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin H.; Günther, Stephan; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged 2001 in Austria and caused deaths in wild birds. In Germany, 70,378 female mosquitoes were captured in 2009 and 2010 and assayed for USUV. Virus was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes trapped exclusively in August 2010 in Weinheim, Germany. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the isolated USUV strain from Germany and a USUV strain from Austria, which was detected in a dead blackbird in 2004. PMID:21896821

  16. Time Distance Study of Isolated Sunspots

    E-print Network

    S. Zharkov; C. Nicholas; M. J. Thompson

    2008-02-18

    We present a comparative seismic study of conditions around and beneath isolated sunspots. Using the European Grid of Solar Observations' Solar Feature Catalogue of sunspots derived from SOHO/MDI continuum and magnetogram data, 1996-2005, we identify a set of isolated sunspots by checking that within a Carrington Rotation there were no other spots detected in the vicinity. We then use level-2 tracked MDI Dopplergrams available from SOHO website to investigate wave-speed perturbations of such sunspots using time-distance helioseismology.

  17. High-Voltage Measurements and Isolation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial is part of the National Instruments Measurement Fundamentals series. Each tutorial in this series teaches you a specific topic of common measurement applications by explaining theoretical concepts and providing practical examples. There are many issues to consider when measuring high voltage. When specifying a data acquisition (DAQ) system, the first question one should ask is whether the system will be safe. Making high-voltage measurements can be hazardous to the equipment, to the unit under test, and to you and your colleagues. This tutorial covers the concept of isolation, as well as discussing National Instruments' isolated products. A PDF of the material is available for download as well.

  18. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Iverson, David

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modern technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  19. Seismic isolation of an electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Godden, W.G.; Aslam, M.; Scalise, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A unique two-stage dynamic-isolation problem is presented by the conflicting design requirements for the foundations of an electron microscope in a seismic region. Under normal operational conditions the microscope must be isolated from ambient ground noise; this creates a system extremely vulnerable to seismic ground motions. Under earthquake loading the internal equipment forces must be limited to prevent damage or collapse. An analysis of the proposed design solution is presented. This study was motivated by the 1.5 MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) to be installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) located near the Hayward Fault in California.

  20. Vibration Isolation, Suppression, Steering, and Pointing (VISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Rahman, Zahidul; Kedikian, Roland

    1996-01-01

    The design of a six degree of freedom flight vibration isolation suppression and steering (VISS) subsystem for a mid-wave infrared camera on the top of a spacecraft is presented. The development of a long stroke piezoelectric, redundant, compact, low stiffness and power efficient actuator is summarized. A subsystem that could be built and validated for flight within 15 months was investigated. The goals of the VISS are 20 dB vibration isolation above 2 Hz, 15 dB vibration suppression of disturbances at about 60 Hz and 120 Hz, and +/- 0.3 deg steering at 2 Hz and 4 Hz.

  1. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modem technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  2. Extremal isolated horizon/CFT correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaoning; Tian Yu [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China) and Hua Loo-Keng Key Laboratory of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The near-horizon limit of the extremal (weakly) isolated horizon is obtained under the Bondi-like coordinates. For the vacuum case, explicit coordinate transformation relating the near-horizon metric under the Bondi-like coordinates and the standard Poincare-type or global near-horizon metric of the extremal Kerr black hole is found, which shows that the two geometries are the same. Combined with the known thermodynamics of the (weakly) isolated horizon, it is argued that the Kerr/conformal field theory correspondence can be generalized to the case of a large class of nonstationary extremal black holes.

  3. Optical isolation via unidirectional resonant photon tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Moccia, Massimo; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo, E-mail: vgaldi@unisannio.it [Waves Group, Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, I-82100 Benevento (Italy); Alù, Andrea [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Engheta, Nader [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    We show that tri-layer structures combining epsilon-negative and magneto-optical material layers can exhibit unidirectional resonant photon tunneling phenomena that can discriminate between circularly polarized (CP) waves of given handedness impinging from opposite directions, or between CP waves with different handedness impinging from the same direction. This physical principle, which can also be interpreted in terms of a Fabry-Perot-type resonance, may be utilized to design compact optical isolators for CP waves. Within this framework, we derive simple analytical conditions and design formulae, and quantitatively assess the isolation performance, also taking into account the unavoidable imperfections and nonidealities.

  4. Shrapnel injury of isolated third cranial nerve.

    PubMed

    Uluta?, Murat; Seçer, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    Isolated third nerve palsy develops in numerous intracranial pathologies such as closed head trauma, tumor, and aneurysm. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy caused by shrapnel injury is uncommon. After a penetrating intracranial shrapnel injury, our patient with oculomotor ophthalmoplegia underwent surgery. Microsurgery removed the shrapnel that was applying pressure on the third nerve, resulting in contusion. A partial recovery associated with regeneration was observed at month 9. Extraocular muscle surgery should be planned if palsy does not resolve over a prolonged period of time. PMID:25485217

  5. Seismic isolation systems with distinct multiple frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ting-shu (Downers Grove, IL); Seidensticker, Ralph W. (Wheaton, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for isolating a building or other structure from smic vibratory motion which provides increased assurance that large horizontal motion of the structure will not occur than is provided by other isolation systems. Increased assurance that large horizontal motion will not occur is achieved by providing for change of the natural frequency of the support and structure system in response to displacement of the structure beyond a predetermined value. The natural frequency of the support and structure system may be achieved by providing for engaging and disengaging of the structure and some supporting members in response to motion of the supported structure.

  6. Transfer of R388 Derivatives by a Pathogenesis-Associated Type IV Secretion System into both Bacteria and Human Cells ?

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Esther; de Paz, Héctor D.; Alperi, Anabel; Agúndez, Leticia; Faustmann, Marco; Sangari, Félix J.; Dehio, Christoph; Llosa, Matxalen

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are involved in processes such as bacterial conjugation and protein translocation to animal cells. In this work, we have switched the substrates of T4SSs involved in pathogenicity for DNA transfer. Plasmids containing part of the conjugative machinery of plasmid R388 were transferred by the T4SS of human facultative intracellular pathogen Bartonella henselae to both recipient bacteria and human vascular endothelial cells. About 2% of the human cells expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from the plasmid. Plasmids of different sizes were transferred with similar efficiencies. B. henselae codes for two T4SSs: VirB/VirD4 and Trw. A ?virB mutant strain was transfer deficient, while a ?trwE mutant was only slightly impaired in DNA transfer. DNA transfer was in all cases dependent on protein TrwC of R388, the conjugative relaxase, implying that it occurs by a conjugation-like mechanism. A DNA helicase-deficient mutant of TrwC could not promote DNA transfer. In the absence of TrwB, the coupling protein of R388, DNA transfer efficiency dropped 1 log. The same low efficiency was obtained with a TrwB point mutation in the region involved in interaction with the T4SS. TrwB interacted with VirB10 in a bacterial two-hybrid assay, suggesting that it may act as the recruiter of the R388 substrate for the VirB/VirD4 T4SS. A TrwB ATPase mutant behaved as dominant negative, dropping DNA transfer efficiency to almost null levels. B. henselae bacteria recovered from infected human cells could transfer the mobilizable plasmid into recipient Escherichia coli under certain conditions, underscoring the versatility of T4SSs. PMID:21908662

  7. Transfer of R388 derivatives by a pathogenesis-associated type IV secretion system into both bacteria and human cells.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Esther; de Paz, Héctor D; Alperi, Anabel; Agúndez, Leticia; Faustmann, Marco; Sangari, Félix J; Dehio, Christoph; Llosa, Matxalen

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are involved in processes such as bacterial conjugation and protein translocation to animal cells. In this work, we have switched the substrates of T4SSs involved in pathogenicity for DNA transfer. Plasmids containing part of the conjugative machinery of plasmid R388 were transferred by the T4SS of human facultative intracellular pathogen Bartonella henselae to both recipient bacteria and human vascular endothelial cells. About 2% of the human cells expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from the plasmid. Plasmids of different sizes were transferred with similar efficiencies. B. henselae codes for two T4SSs: VirB/VirD4 and Trw. A ?virB mutant strain was transfer deficient, while a ?trwE mutant was only slightly impaired in DNA transfer. DNA transfer was in all cases dependent on protein TrwC of R388, the conjugative relaxase, implying that it occurs by a conjugation-like mechanism. A DNA helicase-deficient mutant of TrwC could not promote DNA transfer. In the absence of TrwB, the coupling protein of R388, DNA transfer efficiency dropped 1 log. The same low efficiency was obtained with a TrwB point mutation in the region involved in interaction with the T4SS. TrwB interacted with VirB10 in a bacterial two-hybrid assay, suggesting that it may act as the recruiter of the R388 substrate for the VirB/VirD4 T4SS. A TrwB ATPase mutant behaved as dominant negative, dropping DNA transfer efficiency to almost null levels. B. henselae bacteria recovered from infected human cells could transfer the mobilizable plasmid into recipient Escherichia coli under certain conditions, underscoring the versatility of T4SSs. PMID:21908662

  8. In-vacuum optical isolation changes by heating in a Faraday isolator.

    PubMed

    Acernese, Fausto; Alshourbagy, Mohamed; Amico, Paolo; Antonucci, Federica; Aoudia, S; Astone, P; Avino, Saverio; Ballardin, G; Baggio, L; Barone, Fabrizio; Barsotti, Lisa; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bauer, Th S; Bigotta, Stefano; Birindelli, Simona; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Boccara, Albert-Claude; Bondu, François; Bosi, Leone; Braccini, Stefano; Bradaschia, Carlo; Brillet, Alain; Brisson, Violette; Buskulic, Damir; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, Enrico; Campagna, Enrico; Carbognani, Franco; Carbone, L; Cavalier, Fabien; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cesarini, E; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterji, S; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Corda, C; Corsi, A; Cottone, F; Coulon, J-P; Cuoco, E; D'Antonio, S; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Davier, M; De Rosa, R; Del Prete, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Paolo Emilio, M; Di Virgilio, A; Evans, M; Fafone, V; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Gammaitoni, L; Garufi, F; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Giordano, L; Granata, V; Greverie, C; Grosjean, D; Guidi, G; Hamdani, S; Hebri, S; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Huet, D; La Penna, P; Laval, M; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Lopez, B; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Losurdo, G; Mackowski, J-M; Majorana, E; Man, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Masserot, A; Menzinger, F; Milano, L; Minenkov, Y; Moins, C; Morgado, N; Mosca, S; Mours, B; Neri, I; Nocera, F; Pagliaroli, G; Palomba, C; Paoletti, F; Pardi, S; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Persichetti, G; Piergiovanni, F; Pinard, L; Poggiani, R; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabaste, O; Rapagnani, P; Regimbau, T; Remillieux, A; Ricci, F; Ricciardi, I; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Romano, R; Ruggi, P; Russo, G; Sentenac, D; Solimeno, S; Swinkels, B L; Tarallo, M; Terenzi, R; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Vajente, G; van den Brand, J F J; van der Putten, S; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinet, J-Y; Vocca, H; Yvert, M

    2008-11-01

    We describe a model evaluating changes in the optical isolation of a Faraday isolator when passing from air to vacuum in terms of different thermal effects in the crystal. The changes are particularly significant in the crystal thermal lensing (refraction index and thermal expansion) and in its Verdet constant and can be ascribed to the less efficient convection cooling of the magneto-optic crystal of the Faraday isolator. An isolation decrease by a factor of 10 is experimentally observed in a Faraday isolator that is used in a gravitational wave experiment (Virgo) with a 10 W input laser when going from air to vacuum. A finite element model simulation reproduces with a great accuracy the experimental data measured on Virgo and on a test bench. A first set of measurements of the thermal lensing has been used to characterize the losses of the crystal, which depend on the sample. The isolation factor measured on Virgo confirms the simulation model and the absorption losses of 0.0016 +/- 0.0002/cm for the TGG magneto-optic crystal used in the Faraday isolator. PMID:19122727

  9. Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-05-17

    An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

  10. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  11. Fish Diversity in an Isolated Artificial Wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Pezold

    1998-01-01

    Adult, juvenile and larval fishes were sampled in a managed isolated wetland in the Red Chute Bayou floodplain, LA from December 1994 to July 1995. Nineteen species were captured. Principal components analysis of adult fishes showed little difference between sites, but a gradient of habitats and seasons reflecting variable richness was observed. Bowfin (Amia calva), black bullhead (Ameiurus meals), spotted

  12. Main group chemistry: Small silicon oxides isolated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apeloig, Yitzhak

    2015-06-01

    Bulk SiO2 is widespread in nature, and silicon oxide clusters are important to a variety of applications, yet molecular silicon oxides have remained elusive. Two molecular compounds featuring silicon oxide moieties, Si2O3 and Si2O4, have now been isolated by oxidation of a carbene-stabilized disilicon precursor.

  13. Isolated triplets of galaxies. I - List

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Karachentseva; I. D. Karachentsev; A. L. Shcherbanovsky

    1979-01-01

    A list of 84 northern isolated galaxy triplets with component apparent magnitudes no fainter than 15.7 is compiled on the basis of a complete examination of Palomar Sky Survey prints. Equatorial coordinates, photographic apparent magnitudes, angular diameters, angular separations, morphological types, radial velocities, and other characteristics of the triplet members are provided, along with finding charts. Three main types of

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Resistant to Telithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, M.; Haanperä-Heikkinen, M.; Lindgren, M.; Seppälä, H.; Huovinen, P.; Jalava, J.

    2006-01-01

    The telithromycin susceptibility of 210 erythromycin-resistant pneumococci was tested with the agar diffusion method. Twenty-six erm(B)-positive isolates showed heterogeneous resistance to telithromycin, which was manifested by the presence of colonies inside the inhibition zone. When these cells were cultured and tested, they showed stable, homogeneous, and high-level resistance to telithromycin. PMID:16641460

  15. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

  16. Microsatellite markers isolated from saltgrass (Distichlis spicata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLGA V. TSYUSKO; MAUREEN B. PETERS; TRACEY D. TUBERVILLE; CRIS HAGEN; SARAH M. EPPLEY; TRAVIS C. GLENN

    2007-01-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were isolated from saltgrass ( Distichlis spicata ) and optimized for future studies of its breeding system. The loci were screened for variability among 24 individuals from two populations. The primers amplified loci with numbers of alleles ranging from four to 14 per locus and polymorphic information content from 0.481 to 0.951. Observed heterozygosity varied

  17. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  18. Isolation of roquefortine C from feed grain.

    PubMed

    Häggblom, P

    1990-09-01

    Roquefortine C was isolated from feed grain heavily infected by Penicillium roqueforti. The identity of the mycotoxin was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Other mycotoxins that are known to be produced by P. roqueforti such as PR toxin, patulin, and penicillic acid were not detected in the grain. PMID:16348301

  19. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Shim, Sangjo

    2014-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a) the principles of DEP; (b) the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c) why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d) instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies. PMID:24662940

  20. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

  1. The NASA Langley Isolator Dynamics Research Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Humphreys, William M.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2010-01-01

    The Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) is under construction at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A unique test apparatus is being fabricated to support both wall and in-stream measurements for investigating the internal flow of a dual-mode scramjet isolator model. The test section is 24 inches long with a 1-inch by 2-inch cross sectional area and is supplied with unheated, dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The test section is being fabricated with two sets (glass and metallic) of interchangeable sidewalls to support flow visualization and laser-based measurement techniques as well as static pressure, wall temperature, and high frequency pressure measurements. During 2010, a CFD code validation experiment will be conducted in the lab in support of NASA s Fundamental Aerodynamics Program. This paper describes the mechanical design of the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab test apparatus and presents a summary of the measurement techniques planned for investigating the internal flow field of a scramjet isolator model.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF PHASED-ISOLATION DITCH TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents an assessment of phased isolation ditch technologies currently used in Denmark. They include process modifications to T and DE ditches for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Key objectives of the assessment were to (1) present a technology profile, (2) determine ...

  3. The cytoskeleton of isolated murine primitive erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Koury; E. A. Repasky; B. S. Eckert

    1987-01-01

    Cytoskeletons of primitive erythrocytes have been isolated from the embryos of day 12 pregnant C57\\/Bl mice and examined by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Microtubules are the most prominent cytoskeletal component. They are found either singly or organized into loose bundles just under the plasma membrane, but do not form classical marginal bands in most cells.

  4. Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. Isolated From Seaweed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium WH0801T was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801T shared 96.1% identity with Agarivorans albus MKT 10...

  5. Culture media for the isolation of campylobacters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet E. L. Corry; D. E. Post; P. Colin; M. J. Laisney

    1995-01-01

    The history of the development of selective media for isolation of campylobacters, including the rationale for choice of selective agents is described. Developments have included modifications to allow incubation at 37 °C instead of 42 or 43 °C and changes in the types and concentrations of antibiotics in order nol to inhibit organisms such as Campy-lobacter upsaliensis, C. jejuni subsp.

  6. Isolation and growth physiology of novel thermoactinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Yallop, C A; Edwards, C; Williams, S T

    1997-12-01

    A total of 34 thermophilic isolates identified as members of the genus Thermoactinomyces by a range of chemotaxonomic, microscopic and determinative biochemical tests, were isolated from two acid soils. Growth studies in shake flask and fermenter identified the isolates to be moderately acidophilic with growth occurring between pH 4.5 and 6.0 with optima at pH 5.0. The isolates differed considerably from known Thermoactinomyces cultures in their pH profile, colony morphology and in several biochemical tests. Extracellular enzyme activities are identified and partially characterized in terms of their thermostability, pH and temperature profiles from crude supernatant fluid samples. Optimal protease, amylase and pullulanase activity was observed at pH 5.0-5.5 and 75-80 degrees C with each showing T(50) values of 10, 30 and 30 min, respectively. A highly thermotolerant extracellular esterase was also identified which retained 50% activity after 8 h at 90 degrees C. This is the first report of an acidophilic member of the genus Thermoactinomyces. PMID:9449806

  7. Isolation and characterization; of ?-santonin assimilating pseudomonad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. M. X. Sangodkar; S. Mavinkurve

    1982-01-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii strainS, isolated by soil enrichment technique, utilized santonin as the sole source of carbon, forming chromatographically destinguishable\\u000a transformation products. One of the intermediary transformation products was identified as 1,2-dihydro ?-santonin.

  8. Phenotypic methods for speciating clinical Aeromonas isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M H Wilcox; A M Cook; K J Thickett; A Eley; R C Spencer

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To establish the suitability of currently available phenotypic methods for speciation of clinical Aeromonas isolates in diagnostic microbiology laboratories. METHODS: Using 62 Aeromonas spp, three schemes based on biochemical reactions were compared: a series of conventional tests; a system based on the suicide phenomenon, comprising two tubes in total; and a commercially available test, API 20 NE, augmented with

  9. Mechanisms leading to electrically isolated cell

    E-print Network

    , isolated cell area Crack mode: #12;Power loss after mechanical load · Some solar cells with mode A cracks[%] -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 · Initially all cells show micro cracks · Micro cracks in solar cells may reduce · Determine power and detect cracks · Inflict cracks to cells in PV module by mechanical load test (IEC 61215

  10. Electron energy loss for isolated cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarke, J. M.; Rivacoba, A.

    1997-04-01

    The interaction of STEM electrons with cylindrical surfaces is investigated within the framework of the self-energy formalism. The energy loss is studied as a function of the impact parameter and for the case of broad beam geometries. An expression for the effective inverse longitudinal dielectric function of isolated cylinders is derived, and applications of this theory are reviewed.

  11. Nonlinear effects in seismic base isolations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DINU BRATOSIN

    By interposing a layer with low horizontal stiffness but with high damping characteristics between the structure and his foundation, an aseismic isolation system partly decouples the building structure from the horizontal components of the earthquake ground motion and thus diminishes the structural demand. As a result of the lateral flexibilization, the natural period of the former fixed-base structure undergoes a

  12. Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    Brønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a new class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

  13. Astrometric Telescope Facility isolation and pointing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibble, William; Allen, Terry; Jackson, Louis; Medbery, James; Self, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF), an optical telescope designed to detect extrasolar planetary systems, is scheduled to be a major user of the Space Station's Payload Pointing System (PPS). However, because the ATF has such a stringent pointing stability specification and requires + or - 180 deg roll about its line of sight, mechanisms to enhance the basic PPS capability are required. The ATF pointing performance achievable by the addition of a magnetic isolation and pointing system (MIPS) between the PPS upper gimbal and the ATF, and separately, by the addition of a passive isolation system between the Space Station and the PPS base was investigated. The candidate MIPS can meet the ATF requirements in the presence of a 0.01 g disturbance. It fits within the available annular region between the PPS and the ATF while meeting power and weight limitations and providing the required roll motion, payload data and power services. By contrast, the passive base isolator system must have an unrealistically low isolation bandwidth on all axes to meet ATF pointing requirements and does not provide roll about the line of sight.

  14. Isolated prompt photon production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, P.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); CDF Collaboration

    1992-11-01

    This note describes measurements of isolated prompt photon production at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV using the CDF experiment. The measurements are compared to recent NLO QCD calculations, including recently obtained parton distribution functions. Qualitatively, the QCD calculation with the new parton distribution functions agrees better with the data than the previous parton distribution functions.

  15. New secondary metabolites isolated from dondonae viscosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dodonaea viscosa Linn. from Egypt, resulted in the isolation and identification of three new compounds, including two new clerodane diterpenoids and a new myo-inositol derivative, along with nine...

  16. Nonoperatively treated isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Keller; K. Donald Shelbourne; John R. McCarroll; Arthur C. Rettig

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the theory that isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries do well when treated nonoperatively, we reviewed 40 patients (mean age, 33 years at fol lowup ; average interval from injury, 6 years) who com pleted a modified Noyes knee questionnaire and were reevaluated by physical examination, radiographs, and isokinetic testing. Thirty of the injuries to the posterior cruciate ligament

  17. Isolation of herpotrichiellacious fungi from the environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vânia Aparecida Vicente; Derlene Attili de Angelis; Flávio Queiróz-Telles Filho; Aline Aparecida Pizzirani-Kleiner

    2001-01-01

    Herpotrichiellaceous fungi, common agents of chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis, were searched in samples of rotten wood, leaf littler, bark and soil of the rhizosphere, collected in the Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Florestas\\/EMBRAPA, Colombo, PR, Brazil. Morphological analyses of macro, optic and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the determination of the nutritional pattern of the isolated strains were carried out

  18. Natural proteins: Sources, isolation, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Jitendra Y.; Bhambar, Rajendra S.; Narkhede, Minal R.; Gawali, Sonali R.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, plant protein contributes substantially as a food resource because it contains essential amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. However, many versatile plant proteins are used as medicinal agents as they are produced by using molecular tools of biotechnology. Proteins can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganism cells. The abundant economical proteins can be obtained from plant seeds. These natural proteins are obtained by isolation procedures depending on the physicochemical properties of proteins. Isolation and purification of single protein from cells containing mixtures of unrelated proteins is achievable due to the physical and chemical attributes of proteins. The following characteristics are unique to each protein: Amino acid composition, sequence, subunit structures, size, shape, net charge, isoelectric point, solubility, heat stability and hydrophobicity. Based on these properties, various methods of isolation exist, like salting out and isoionic precipitation. Purification of proteins is quiet challenging and, therefore, several approaches like sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and chromatography are available. Characterization of proteins can be performed by mass spectrometry/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The amino acid sequence of a protein can be detected by using tandem mass spectrometry. In this article, a review has been made on the sources, isolation, purification and characterization of natural proteins. PMID:24347918

  19. Incremental Fault Isolation for Dynamic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghill, George M.; Wu, Guofu

    In this paper wc present an extension to the HS tree method for fault isolation developed by Reiter. This tool is combined with an ITMS based on root antecedents and used to perform incremental state based diagnosis on dynamic process systems. The approach is demonstrated to work by application to an industrial process — an ammonia washer system.

  20. Optical pointing stability achievement through isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Le Du

    1995-01-01

    The requirements concerning optical instruments stability on satellites are getting more and more stringent. At the same time, those instruments have to put up with a disturbed dynamic environment caused by other on- board equipments which can be made worse by flexible structures. A possible design option for achieving pointing stability can consist in isolating the optical sensitive payload from

  1. GLUTAMINE CYCLING IN ISOLATED WORKING RAT HEART

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To what extent does glutamine turnover keep pace with oxidative metabolism in the rat heart? To address this question, the following substrates were presented to the isolated, working rat heart: (1) glucose (5 mM), insulin (40 mU/ml) and [2-13C]acetate (5mM) (high workload, n= 5); (2) pyruvate (2....

  2. Characteristics of some psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dufrenne; M. Bijwaard; M. te Giffel; R. Beumer; S. Notermans

    1995-01-01

    Twelve strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from different food products and foodborne disease outbreaks, and able to grow at temperatures < 7 °C were characterised. Generation times at 7 °C varied from 9.4 h up to 75 h. Lag phase of the vegetative cells at 7 °C was strongly influenced by the previous temperature history of the cells. Preincubation at

  3. Isolation and characterisation of impurities in adapalene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Brenna; Samuele Frigoli; Giovanni Fronza; Claudio Fuganti; Federico Sala

    2007-01-01

    Three impurities of structure 2–4 were isolated and characterised during the optimisation of a synthetic procedure to adapalene. Impurity 1 was a by-product of the Friedel–Crafts reaction of adamantanol with 4-bromoanisole. Impurities 3 and 4 were due to side reactions of the final Negishi coupling.

  4. Isolated dilatation of the inferior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Goo, Ja-Jun; Kim, Kyoung-Nyoun; Lee, Ja-Young; Kim, Seong-Man

    2014-01-01

    The diameter and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava (IVC) should be interpreted in consideration with other clinical and echocardiographic parameters before drawing definitive diagnostic conclusions. We report a case of a 46-year-old female with isolated IVC dilation and diminished inspiratory collapse without other abnormalities, and provide a brief review of the literature. PMID:24648809

  5. Bug isolation via remote program sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Liblit; Alexander Aiken; Alice X. Zheng; Michael I. Jordan

    2003-01-01

    We propose a low-overhead sampling infrastructure for gathering information from the executions experienced by a program's user community. Several example applications illustrate ways to use sampled instrumentation to isolate bugs. Assertion-dense code can be transformed to share the cost of assertions among many users. Lacking assertions, broad guesses can be made about predicates that predict program errors and a process

  6. OPTIMAL LOCATION OF ISOLATION VALVES IN WATER

    E-print Network

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 7 OPTIMAL LOCATION OF ISOLATION VALVES IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A RELIABILITY The cornerstone of any healthy population is access to safe drinking water. The goal of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade from 1981 to 1990 was safe drinking water for all

  7. Triterpene alcohol isolation from oil shale.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, P; Ourisson, G

    1969-03-14

    Isoarborinol, an intact pentacyclic unsaturated alcohol, was isolated from the Messel oil shale (about 50 x 106 years old). Complex organic substances, even those very sensitive to oxidation, reduction, or acidic conditions, can thus survive without alteration for long periods. PMID:17847547

  8. Isolation of chicken follicular dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Del Cacho; Margarita Gallego; Fernando López-Bernard; Caridad Sánchez-Acedo; Hyun S. Lillehoj

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which had been infected with Eimeria tenella. CD45? dendritic cells were selected using the specific monoclonal antibody against

  9. The dynamics of isolated Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Cohen, Judith G.

    2014-03-01

    We measured velocities of 862 individual red giant stars in seven isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: NGC 6822, IC 1613, VV 124 (UGC 4879), the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 216), Leo A, Cetus and Aquarius (DDO 210). We also computed velocity dispersions, taking into account the measurement uncertainties on individual stars. None of the isolated galaxies is denser than the densest Local Group satellite galaxy. Furthermore, the isolated dwarf galaxies have no obvious distinction in the velocity dispersion-half-light radius plane from the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and M31. The similarity of the isolated and satellite galaxies' dynamics and structural parameters imposes limitations on environmental solutions to the `too big to fail' problem, wherein there are fewer dense dwarf satellite galaxies than would be expected from cold dark matter simulations. This data set also has many other applications for dwarf galaxy evolution, including the transformation of dwarf irregular into dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We intend to explore these issues in future work.

  10. Microsample preparation by dielectrophoresis: isolation of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Becker, Frederick F.

    2009-01-01

    An important enabling factor for realising integrated micro fluidic analysis instruments for medical diagnostics purposes is front-end sample preparation. Dielectrophoresis is a method that offers great potential for cell discrimination and isolation for sample processing, and here we have applied it to the problem of isolating malaria-infected cells from blood. During development of the malarial pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, increases occur in the ionic permeability of the plasma membrane of infected erythrocytes. When challenged by suspension in a low conductivity medium, infected cells lose internal ions while uninfected cells retain them. The resultant dielectric differences between infected and uninfected cells were exploited by dielectrophoretic manipulation in spatially inhomogeneous, travelling electrical fields produced by two types of microelectrode arrays. Parasitised cells of ring form or later stage from cultures and clinical specimens were isolated by steric dielectric field-flow-fractionation, focused at the centre of a spiral electrode array, and identified and counted. The dielectrophoretic methods require only a few micro litres of blood, and should be applicable to the production of small, low-cost automated devices for assessing parasite concentrations with potential applicability to drug sensitivity studies and the diagnosis of malaria. By simple adjustment of the electrical field parameters, other cell subpopulations that characterise disease, such as residual cancer cells in blood, can be similarly isolated and analysed. PMID:15100837

  11. A practical vibration isolation workstation for electrophysiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Collette N. O'Reilly; Thomas L. Richardson

    1995-01-01

    Vibration control is a major concern in electrophysiological research, particularly during intracellular recording where movements of only a few micrometers may disrupt the cell membrane. The workstation described here is based on the concept of a table nested within a second table. The inner table supports a vibration-isolated surface while the outer table provides protection and a bench-top for equipment.

  12. Primordial (pseudo)bulges in isolated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lorenzo, M.; Sulentic, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Blasco-Herrera, J.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Ramírez-Moreta, P.; Garrido, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Sánchez-Expósito, S.; Santander-Vela, J. D.

    2015-05-01

    Important clues about spiral galaxy formation lie in the nature of their central bulges. In this sense, properties of bulges in isolated galaxies best reflect their origin because of their minimized environmental evolutionary effects. We report here the structural parameters and (g-i) bulge/disk colors for a sample of 189 isolated galaxies selected from the AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies). A 2D bulge/disk/bar decomposition of SDSS i-band images was performed in order to identify the pseudobulges in our sample. We derived (g-i) bulge colors using aperture photometry. Pseudobulges in our sample show median colors (g-i)˜ 1.06, while their associated disks are much bluer, (g-i)˜ 0.77. Moreover, 64 % (113/177) of pseudobulges follow the red sequence of early-type galaxies. The bluer pseudobulges in our sample tend to be located in those galaxies more affected by the tidal interactions. The red bulge colors and low B/T values for AMIGA isolated galaxies are consistent with an early formation epoch. The results found here suggest that environment could be playing a role in rejuvenating the pseudobulges.

  13. Inferring Geographic Isolation of Wolverines in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delineating a species' geographic range using the spatial distribution of museum specimens or even contemporary detection- non-detection data can be difficult. This is particularly true at the periphery of a species range where species' distributions are often disjunct. Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are wide-ranging mammals with discontinuous and potentially isolated populations at the periphery of their range. One potentially disjunct population

  14. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. CRESPO; M. L. ABARCA; F. J. CABANES

    1999-01-01

    The genus Malassezia consists of lipophilic yeasts which are known to be components of the microflora of human skin and many mammals and birds and are rarely isolated from the environment (11). These yeasts have the typical physiological property of using lipids as a source of carbon. Except for Malassezia pachydermatis, the remaining species of the genus Malassezia require supplementation

  15. Halotolerant Ability and ?-Amylase Activity of Some Saltwater Fungal Isolates.

    PubMed

    Niknejad, Farhad; Moshfegh, Mahsa; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Houbraken, Jos; Rezaei, Shahla; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran

    2013-01-01

    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and ?-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the ?-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (isolate U1; CBS 132820), Fusarium incarnatum (isolate U2; CBS 132821), and Penicillium polonicum (isolate U3; CBS 132822, and isolate U4; CBS 132823). The growth of these isolates was determined by measuring the colony diameter and mycelia dry weight in Sabouraud dextrose agar and yeast nitrogen base medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl. Isolate U4 showed a growth up in 15% NaCl and U1 was the only isolate that could grow in 20% KCl. None of the strains grew in a media containing LiCl. The salt supplemented medium did not increase the size of colony diameter in all isolates (p > 0.05). The ability of the selected isolates for amylase production was quantitatively tested and showed that P. polonicum isolate U4 was the most potent producer of amylase with a yield of 260.9 U/L after 60 h, whereas P. polonicum isolate U3 was the lowest one with a production level of 97.9 U/L after 48 h. P. polonicum isolate U4 could be a suitable candidate for production of amylase on an industrial scale after optimization. PMID:24250679

  16. Halotolerant Ability and ?-Amylase Activity of Some Saltwater Fungal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, Farhad; Moshfegh, Mahsa; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Houbraken, Jos; Rezaei, Shahla; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran

    2013-01-01

    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and ?-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the ?-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (isolate U1; CBS 132820), Fusarium incarnatum (isolate U2; CBS 132821), and Penicillium polonicum (isolate U3; CBS 132822, and isolate U4; CBS 132823). The growth of these isolates was determined by measuring the colony diameter and mycelia dry weight in Sabouraud dextrose agar and yeast nitrogen base medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl. Isolate U4 showed a growth up in 15% NaCl and U1 was the only isolate that could grow in 20% KCl. None of the strains grew in a media containing LiCl. The salt supplemented medium did not increase the size of colony diameter in all isolates (p > 0.05). The ability of the selected isolates for amylase production was quantitatively tested and showed that P. polonicum isolate U4 was the most potent producer of amylase with a yield of 260.9 U/L after 60 h, whereas P. polonicum isolate U3 was the lowest one with a production level of 97.9 U/L after 48 h. P. polonicum isolate U4 could be a suitable candidate for production of amylase on an industrial scale after optimization. PMID:24250679

  17. Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from Bananas

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

  18. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Toads

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the general features of speciation is an important goal in evolutionary biology, and despite significant progress, several unresolved questions remain. We analyzed an extensive comparative dataset consisting of more than 1900 crosses between 92 species of toads to infer patterns of reproductive isolation. This unique dataset provides an opportunity to examine the strength of reproductive isolation, the development and sex ratios of hybrid offspring, patterns of fertility and infertility, and polyploidization in hybrids all in the context of genetic divergence between parental species. We found that the strength of intrinsic postzygotic isolation increases with genetic divergence, but relatively high levels of divergence are necessary before reproductive isolation is complete in toads. Fertilization rates were not correlated to genetic divergence, but hatching success, the number of larvae produced, and the percentage of tadpoles reaching metamorphosis were all inversely related with genetic divergence. Hybrids between species with lower levels of divergence developed to metamorphosis, while hybrids with higher levels of divergence stopped developing in gastrula and larval stages. Sex ratios of hybrid offspring were biased towards males in 70% of crosses and biased towards females in 30% of crosses. Hybrid females from crosses between closely related species were completely fertile, while approximately half (53%) of hybrid males were sterile, with sterility predicted by genetic divergence. The degree of abnormal ploidy in hybrids was positively related to genetic divergence between parental species, but surprisingly, polyploidization had no effect on patterns of asymmetrical inviability. We discuss explanations for these patterns, including the role of Haldane's rule in toads and anurans in general, and suggest mechanisms generating patterns of reproductive isolation in anurans. PMID:19065271

  19. Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Traditional Jeotgal Product in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyu Sung Cho; Hyung Ki Do

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen lactic acid bacterial strains (LAB) were isolated using MRS agar medium from Jeotgal, a Korean fermented food, purchased\\u000a at the Jukdo market of Pohang. To identify the strains isolated, they were tested by examining their cell morphologies, gram-staining,\\u000a catalase activity, arginine hydrolase activity, D-L lactate form and carbohydrate fermentation. According to the phenotypic\\u000a characteristics, three strains were tent atively

  20. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of wild isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from pig feces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deog Yong Lee; Yeon-Soo Seo; Nabin Rayamajhi; Mi Lan Kang; Su In Lee; Han Sang Yoo

    2009-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a well-used probiotics for health improvements in both humans and animals. Despite of several\\u000a benefits, non-host-specific LAB showed poor probiotics effects due to difficulty in colonization and competition with normal\\u000a flora. Therefore, the feasibility of porcine LAB isolates was evaluated as a probiotics. Ten of 49 Lactobacillus spp. isolates harbored 2?10 kb plasmid DNA. Seven

  1. Numerical simulation of seismic response of a base isolated building with low shear modulus rubber isolators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes seismic-response simulations of a base-isolated building subjected to actual earthquakes using the 3-D computer program, SISEC, developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The isolation system consists of six medium shape factor, high damping, and low shear modulus rubber bearings. To ensure the accuracy of analytical simulation, recorded data of full-size reinforced concrete structures located in Sendai, Japan are

  2. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie; Umhang, Gérald; Aspan, Anna; Juremalm, Mikael; Chirico, Jan; van der Wal, Fimme J.; Sprong, Hein; Boye Pihl, Thomas P.; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Bødker, Rene; Fach, Patrick; Moutailler, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia venatorum), unexpected (Borrelia miyamotoi), and rare (Bartonella henselae) pathogens in the three European countries. Moreover we detected Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia divergens, and Babesia venatorum for the first time in Danish ticks. This surveillance method represents a major improvement in epidemiological studies, able to facilitate comprehensive testing of TBPs, and which can also be customized to monitor emerging diseases. PMID:25120960

  3. Isolation and molecular characterization of a new Neospora caninum isolate from cattle in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Campero, L M; Venturini, M C; Moore, D P; Massola, L; Lagomarsino, H; García, B; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Leunda, M R; Schares, G; Campero, C M

    2015-08-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of bovine abortion, but isolation of live parasites from infected tissue is difficult. The aims of the present study were to obtain new isolates of N. caninum from congenitally infected asymptomatic newborn cattle in Argentina and to perform characterization by multilocus-microsatellite analysis. Five clinically normal born calves, with demonstrable N. caninum antibodies in precolostrum serum by indirect fluorescent antibody test, were euthanized and their brain samples were processed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and for bioassay in ?-interferon knockout (GKO) mice. Although N. caninum DNA was detected in brain from all the calves by PCR, viable N. caninum was isolated in GKO mice from only one calf. Neospora caninum tachyzoites of this Argentinean isolate, designated NC-Argentina LP1, were propagated in VERO cell cultures seeded with tachyzoites from the infected GKO mice tissues. Multilocus-microsatellite typing on DNA derived from cell cultured tachyzoites revealed a unique genetic pattern, different from reported isolates. This is the first bovine isolation and genetic characterization of N. caninum in Argentina. PMID:25913666

  4. Isolation and characterization of acid- and bile-tolerant isolates from strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Chou, L S; Weimer, B

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to be useful as a health adjunct and are commonly added to food as the delivery mechanism. The literature contains many conflicting observations for their proposed benefits, and the mechanism of action is undefined. One source of variation is the large number of strains used without proper controls supplemented. Additionally, many of the organisms are not characterized for their acid shock response or the acid-tolerance response, which are known to vary among bacterial species. Our objective was to isolate acid-resistant and bile-resistant variants of Lactobacillus acidophilus and to determine the phenotypic changes. The acid- and bile-tolerant isolates were obtained using natural selection techniques after sequential exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 3.5 to 7.0) and mixed bile salts. The acid- and bile-tolerant isolates retained their ability to grow at pH 3.5 with 0.3% bile after the selective pressure was removed and reapplied. Isolates varied from their parents for stability in freezing, lactose utilization, protease activity, aminopeptidase activity, plasmid profile, and cell-wall fatty acid profile. These data suggest that the isolated acid- and bile-tolerant isolates possess growth advantages over that of the parents under stress conditions and may be considered as candidates for probiotic strains after further characterization with animal models. PMID:10022003

  5. Protective isolation in a burns unit: the use of plastic isolators and air curtains

    PubMed Central

    Lowbury, E. J. L.; Babb, J. R.; Ford, Pamela M.

    1971-01-01

    The use of plastic isolators and of an `air curtain' isolator for protection of patients against infection was studied in a burns unit. Preliminary bacteriological tests showed that very few airborne bacteria gained access to a plastic ventilated isolator; even when the filter and pre-filter were removed from the air inflow, settle-plate counts inside the isolator were much lower than those in the open ward, but the difference was smaller in tests made with an Anderson air sampler, which showed also that fewer large bacteria-carrying particles appeared inside the isolator than outside it. An open-topped isolator allowed virtually free access of bacteria from ambient air. The numbers of airborne bacteria inside an air curtain were appreciably lower than the counts of airborne bacteria in the open ward, but not as low as those in the plastic ventilated isolator. Controlled trials of isolators were made on patients with fresh burns of 4-30% of the body surface; the patients were given no topical chemoprophylaxis against Staphylococcus aureus or Gram-negative bacilli. Patients treated in plastic isolators showed a significantly lower incidence of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa than those treated in the open ward; this protective effect was shown by isolators with or without filters or with an open top. Ventilated isolators, which protected patients against personal contact and airborne infection, gave a limited protection against multi-resistant `hospital' strains of Staph. aureus, but no such protection was given by an open-topped isolator, which protected only against personal contact infection, or by air curtains, which protected only against airborne infection; the air curtain gave no protection against Ps. aeruginosa, and there was no evidence of protection by any isolator against Proteus spp. and coliform bacilli. Both the controlled trials and evidence from the bacteriology of air, hands, fomites and rectal and nasal swabs taken on admission and later, supported the view that Ps. aeruginosa is transferred mainly by personal contact, Staph. aureus probably by air as well as by contact and coliform bacilli mainly by self infection with faecal flora, many of which are first acquired from the hospital environment in food or on fomites. The use of plastic isolators is cumbersome, and of limited value except in the control of infection with Ps. aeruginosa. For this reason and because of the effectiveness of topical chemoprophylaxis such isolators are unlikely to have more than an occasional use in the treatment of burns. Though air curtains greatly reduce airborne contamination, their use in a burns unit does not appear to protect patients against infection when the alternative (and, for Ps. aeruginosa, more important) routes of contamination by personal contact and fomites are left open. ImagesPlate 2Fig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5002642

  6. Q Fever Endocarditis in Romania: The First Cases Confirmed by Direct Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cotar, Ani Ioana; Badescu, Daniela; Oprea, Mihaela; Dinu, Sorin; Banu, Otilia; Dobreanu, Dan; Dobreanu, Minodora; Ionac, Adina; Flonta, Mirela; Straut, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious, life-threatening disease with highly variable clinical signs, making its diagnostic a real challenge. A diagnosis is readily made if blood cultures are positive, but in 2.5 to 31% of all infective endocarditis cases, routine blood cultures are negative. In such situations, alternative diagnostic approaches are necessary. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. are the etiological agents of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) most frequently identified by serology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of molecular assays, as complementary methods to the conventional serologic methods for the rapid confirmatory diagnostic of Q fever endocarditis in patients with BCNE. Currently, detection of C. burnetii by culture or an antiphase I IgG antibody titers >800 represents a major Duke criterion for defining IE, while a titers of >800 for IgG antibodies to either B. henselae or B. quintana is used for the diagnosis of endocarditis due to Bartonella spp. We used indirect immunofluorescence assays for the detection of IgG titers for C. burnetii, B. henselae and B. quintana in 57 serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of IE. Thirty three samples originated from BCNE patients, whereas 24 were tested before obtaining the blood cultures results, which finally were positive. The results of serologic testing showed that nine out of 33 BCNE cases exhibited antiphase I C. burnetii IgG antibody titer >800, whereas none has IgG for B. henselae or B. quintana. Subsequently, we used nested-PCR assay for the amplification of C. burnetii DNA in the nine positive serum samples, and we obtained positive PCR results for all analyzed cases. Afterwards we used the DNA sequencing of amplicons for the repetitive element associated to htpAB gene to confirm the results of nested-PCR. The results of sequencing allowed us to confirm that C. burnetii is the causative microorganism responsible for BCNE. In conclusion, the nested PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing is a reliable and accurate method when applied to serum samples, and it may be used as an additional test to the serological methods for the confirmatory diagnosis of BCNE cases determined by C. burnetii. PMID:22272146

  7. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  8. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  9. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  10. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  11. Original article AFLP analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates

    E-print Network

    Lan, Ruiting

    Original article AFLP analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates of phage types fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to 35 and 34 isolates, respectively, of Salmonella enterica scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium; Classification

  12. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  13. A Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. This paper provides a tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements as well as a comparison of the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation. This paper also surveys the flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation (STABLE); the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM); and the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS).

  14. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Shaneyfelt; P. E. Dodd; B. L. Draper; R. S. Flores

    1998-01-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide.

  15. Limitations of nonlinear optical isolators due to dynamic reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the demands of integrated and silicon photonics, there is significant interest in optical isolators in on-chip integrated systems. Recent works have therefore explored nonlinear optical isolators and demonstrated non-reciprocal transmission contrast when waves are injected in forward or backward directions. However, whether such nonlinear isolators can provide complete isolation under practical operating conditions remains an open question. Here, we analytically prove and numerically demonstrate a dynamic reciprocity in nonlinear optical isolators based on Kerr or Kerr-like nonlinearity. We show that, when a signal is transmitting through, such isolators are constrained by a reciprocity relation for a class of small-amplitude additional waves and, as a result, cannot provide isolation for arbitrary backward-propagating noise. This result points to an important limitation on the use of nonlinear optical isolators for signal processing and for laser protection.

  16. Salmonella enteritidis and Arizona hinshawii isolated from wild sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Windingstad, R M; Trainer, D O; Duncan, R

    1977-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis serotype Rubislaw and Arizona hinshawii were isolated from cloacal swabs of "healthy" live-trapped sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in Indiana and Wisconsin. These respective isolations were the first reported from wild sandhill cranes. PMID:343779

  17. agronomie: agriculture and environment Isolement et activit nitrognasique

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agronomie: agriculture and environment Isolement et activité nitrogénasique de Burkholderia and nitrogenase activity of Burkholderia vietnamiensis, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with rice (Oryza. Twelve representative isolates were further studied and proved to be Burkholderia vietnamiensis

  18. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  19. Shape memory alloy for vibration isolation and damping 

    E-print Network

    Machado, Luciano G

    2008-10-10

    This work investigates the use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) for vibration isolation and damping of mechanical systems. The first part of this work evaluates the nonlinear dynamics of a passive vibration isolation and ...

  20. Acid soluble platelet aggregating material isolated from human umbilical cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-12-27

    An acid soluble, pepsin sensitive platelet aggregating material is isolated from human umbilical cord tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation is disclosed and its use to control bleeding is described. 2 figs.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Cattle at Slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Since 1997, the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has monitored changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates from animal origin. Additionally, since 2000, susceptibility of bovine Salmonella isolates collected in the US has ...

  2. Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Evolution in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Evolution in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome A.Crimia, OCRMBM, Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, Marseille, France; ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease, clinically isolated syndrome, spectral clustering 1. DESCRIPTION OF PURPOSE Multiple Sclerosis (MS

  3. Extinction Deficits in Socially Isolated Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, John P.; Sackett, Gene P.

    1976-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were reared in total isolation, in partial isolation, or under normal conditions with access to mothers and peers. Each group was compared on the rate of acquisition of a simple operant response. (GO)

  4. Perfusion and ventilation of isolated canine lungs

    PubMed Central

    Otto, T. J.; Trenkner, M.; Stopczyk, A.; Gawdzi?ski, M.; Che?stowska, B.

    1968-01-01

    In order to evaluate methods of preserving lungs for use in transplantation, experiments on 28 mongrel dogs were carried out. Two methods were tried—first, mechanical respiration of isolated lungs under deep hypothermia, with the vascular bed filled with blood; and, secondly, the perfusion of isolated lungs with the aid of a modified DeWall's apparatus. Allogenic transplantations of lungs preserved in both ways were carried out. Gasometric and histological examinations of preserved lungs, before and after transplantation, were performed. The best results were obtained with perfusion under hypothermic conditions; ventilation without perfusion resulted in failure. Lung transplantation was successful when, after being preserved, the lung remained unchanged. Major discrepancies between the macroscopic and microscopic findings in preserved lungs were observed. An original classification of the changes occurring in preserved lungs is proposed. PMID:4886091

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant alcove gas barrer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.S. (Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Van Sambeek, L.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A full-scale composite, precast concrete and steel lining system was designed to seal and isolate test alcoves within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The lining system and internal bulkheads are designed to control gas leakage along an alcove access drift and through damaged rock surrounding the drift. Flow along the access drift is prevented by redundant membranes included in the rigid structural lining . Flow through the rock will be minimized by providing a rigid lining that will induce healing of damaged salt rock and arrest ongoing damage in clay and anhydrite interbeds. Provisions for grouting disturbed zones of rock are also provided. Instrumentation is specified to measure the structural response of the lining.

  6. Strategies for microsatellite isolation: a review.

    PubMed

    Zane, L; Bargelloni, L; Patarnello, T

    2002-01-01

    In the last few years microsatellites have become one of the most popular molecular markers used with applications in many different fields. High polymorphism and the relative ease of scoring represent the two major features that make microsatellites of large interest for many genetic studies. The major drawback of microsatellites is that they need to be isolated de novo from species that are being examined for the first time. The aim of the present paper is to review the various methods of microsatellite isolation described in the literature with the purpose of providing useful guidelines in making appropriate choices among the large number of currently available options. In addition, we propose a fast and easy protocol which is a combination of different published methods. PMID:11903900

  7. Isolation of murine natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Pak-Wittel, Melissa A; Piersma, Sytse J; Plougastel, Beatrice F; Poursine-Laurent, Jennifer; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes the isolation of natural killer (NK) cells from mouse spleen. The basic protocol describes a method for preparing a highly purified NK cell population from mouse spleen by depletion of contaminating cells with selected monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and magnetic separation. There are several advantages to this negative selection process. One of these is that the NK cells are not coated with antibody and, therefore, are not at risk of functional perturbation by antibody cross-linking. Additionally, negative selection provides a way to isolate diverse subpopulations of NK cells without selectively purifying a specific subpopulation. Following enrichment, NK cell purity can be assessed by cell surface phenotype using flow cytometry. Curr. Protoc. Immunol.. 105:3.22.1-3.22.9. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24700324

  8. Wave aberrations of the isolated crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Roorda, Austin; Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    A method to measure wave aberrations in the isolated crystalline lens is demonstrated. The method employs a laser scanning technique in which the trajectories of narrow refracted laser beams are measured for an array of sample positions incident on the lens. The local slope of the emerging wavefront is calculated for each sample position, and a least squares procedure is used to fit a Zernike polynomial function to define the wave aberration. Measurements of the aberrations of an isolated porcine lens and macaque lens undergoing changes in accommodative state with mechanical stretching are shown. Many aberrations were present, but negative spherical aberration dominated. In the macaque lens, many aberrations underwent systematic changes with accommodation, most notably the 4th order spherical aberration, which became more negative, and the 6th order spherical aberration, which progressed from negative to positive. PMID:15134472

  9. Alicyclobacillus spoilage and isolation--a review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Yvette; Cameron, Michelle; Venter, Pierre; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2011-05-01

    Until recently, acidic products such as fruit juice and fruit based products were generally thought to be susceptible to spoilage by yeasts, mycelia fungi and lactic acid bacteria, as the low pH of these products acts as natural control measures against spoilage by most bacteria. Alicyclobacillus seem to be prevalent in fruit based products as they survive the acidic fruit juice environment, even when they are exposed to pasteurisation temperatures during production. In this review the historical background of the discovery of these bacteria is summarised. The bacterial characteristics and the reported spoilage incidences caused by members of this genus are discussed. As the isolation methods for these bacteria are controversial, this review includes a discussion of the various media that have been reported in the literature for the use in the isolation and enumeration of members of the genus Alicyclobacillus. PMID:21356436

  10. Isolated lichen planus of the lip.

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Schiller, P; Gilli, L; Buechner, S A

    1995-06-01

    Oral lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common disorder of unknown aetiology. Oral LP occurs most often on the buccal mucosa, but the gingivae, tongue, floor of the mouth, retromalar pads and lips may also be affected. Usually, patients have multiple sites of involvement. We report a 44-year-old patient with a 3-year history of isolated swelling of the lower lip, erosions and crusting. Histology of a biopsy from the lip revealed features of LP. Oral treatment with acitretin and low-dose steroid led to complete resolution of the lesions within 10 weeks. This is the first well-documented case of isolated LP of the lip. Diagnostic difficulties and differential diagnosis are reviewed. PMID:7662551

  11. Reconstituting the motility of isolated intracellular cargoes.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Adam G; Goldman, Yale E; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2014-01-01

    Kinesin, dynein, and myosin transport intracellular cargoes including organelles, membrane-bound vesicles, and mRNA along the cytoskeleton. These motor proteins work collectively in teams to transport cargoes over long distances and navigate around obstacles in the cell. In addition, several types of motors often interact on the same cargo to allow bidirectional transport and switching between the actin and microtubule networks. To examine transport of native cargoes in a simplified in vitro system, techniques have been developed to isolate endogenous cargoes and reconstitute their motility. Isolated cargoes can be tracked and manipulated with high precision using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and optical trapping. Through use of native cargoes, we can examine vesicular transport in a minimal system while retaining endogenous motor stoichiometry and the biochemical and mechanical characteristics of both motor and cargo. PMID:24630111

  12. Friendly protection of houses by affordable isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzolani, Federico M. [Department of Structural Engineering, University Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80 - 80125 Naples (Italy); Mandara, Alberto [Department of Civil Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy); Froncillo, Salvatore [Consulting Engineer, Via Michelangelo, 44 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    The paper deals with a case of seismic isolation carried out in Campania (Italy), referring to the construction of a house building. The concerned case is a three-storey reinforced concrete frame building, in which the isolation system has been applied between the basement top and the first floor deck. The paper reports the main steps of this work, starting from the design, carried out according to the latest Italian seismic code, going throughout the construction stage, up to the extensive on-site testing program performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the building. Relevant technological solutions are illustrated and discussed. Both theoretical calculation and experimental measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution adopted, not only from the technical point of view, but also in an economic perspective.

  13. Thermally isolated deployable shield for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, John W., Jr. (inventor); Miller, Andre E. (inventor); Lawson, Bobby E. (inventor); Cobb, William E. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A thermally isolated deployable shield for spacecraft is provided utilizing a plurality of lattice panels stowable generally against the craft and deployable to some fixed distance from the craft. The lattice panels are formed from replaceable shield panels affixed to lattice structures. The lattice panels generally encircle the craft providing 360 degree coverage therearound. Actuation means are provided from translating the shield radially outward from the craft and thermally isolating the shield from the craft. The lattice panels are relatively flexible, allowing the shield to deploy to variable diameters while retaining uniform curvature thereof. Restraining means are provided for holding the shield relatively tight in its stowed configuration. Close-out assemblies provide light sealing and protection of the annular spaces between the deployed shield and the crafts end structure.

  14. Isolated Fifth Metatarsocuboid Coalition: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hayato; Kageyama, Yasunori; Shido, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tarsometatarsal coalitions are extremely rare, and the previous 5 documented cases involved the first and third metatarsocuneiform joints. We report the case of a 69-year-old female with symptomatic fifth metatarsocuboid coalition associated with ipsilateral varus-type ankle osteoarthritis and instability. The patient was successfully treated by arthrodesis of the fifth metatarsocuboid joint, resection of the hypertrophied tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal, advancement of the peroneus brevis tendon, opening wedge distal tibial osteotomy, and calcaneal displacement osteotomy. After 1 year, 6 months, she was able to walk well, although she complained of minor discomfort under the fifth metatarsal base, which resolved with the use of protective padding. Radiographs at this stage confirmed consolidation of both the arthrodesis and the osteotomy sites. Although isolated fifth metatarsocuboid coalition is less likely to be encountered than other tarsal coalitions, it can sometimes be painful enough to necessitate surgery. PMID:25135105

  15. ISOL TARGET-VAPOR TRANSPORT SYSTEM SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yan [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Liu, Zhengzheng [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Computational simulation studies with state-of-the-art codes offer cost effective means for designing ISOL targets with optimized diffusion release properties and vapor transport systems with short effusion path lengths. To demonstrate the power of the technique for designing optimum thickness targets, analytic solutions to the diffusion equation are compared with those obtained from a finite-difference code for radioactive isotope diffusion release from simple geometry targets. The viability of the Monte Carlo technique as a practical means for optimally designing target-vapor transport systems is demonstrated by simulating the effusive-flow of neutral particles through several complex target-vapor transport systems. Important issues which affect the yield rates of short-lived species generated in high power ISOL targets are also discussed

  16. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1994-06-01

    This paper deals with mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base-isolation systems. A numerical algorithm is described for system response analysis of isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings. The focus of this paper is on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive equation for the isolation bearing, and the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the mitigating effect of using base-isolation systems.

  17. Actinomycetes of Moroccan habitats: Isolation and screening for antifungal activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yedir Ouhdouch; Mustapha Barakate

    2001-01-01

    During a search for non-polyenic antifungal antibiotics, 320 actinomycete strains were isolated from several Moroccan habitats. Antibiotic productions of the isolates have been tested at various temperatures and production media. Thirty-two isolates showed strong activity against yeast, moulds and bacteria. The production of non-polyenic antifungal metabolites by active isolates was investigated using some of their biological activities: antibacterial activity, spheroplast regeneration

  18. OPTIMUM DAMPING IN A NON-LINEAR BASE ISOLATION SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Jangid

    1996-01-01

    Optimum isolation damping for minimum acceleration of a base-isolated structure subjected to earthquake ground excitation is investigated. The stochastic model of theEl-Centro1940 earthquake, which preserves the non-stationary evolution of amplitude and frequency content of ground motion, is used as an earthquake excitation. The base isolated structure consists of a linear flexible shear type multi-storey building supported on a base isolation

  19. Total rotor isolation system (TRIS) flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halwes, D. R.; Cline, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The total rotor isolation system (TRIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom helicopter rotor vibration isolation system that has been installed on a 206LM helicopter in order to demonstrate a better-than-90-percent isolation of the fuselage from main rotor forces and moments. The results thus far obtained indicate a 95-percent suppression of vibration levels from the rotor hub to the pilot's seat, with considerable weight savings over traditional antiresonant isolation concepts.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Brucella Strains Isolated from Marine Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BETSY J. BRICKER; DARLA R. EWALT; ALASTAIR P. MACMILLAN; GEOFF FOSTER; SIMON BREW

    2000-01-01

    Recently, gram-negative bacteria isolated from a variety of marine mammals have been identified as Brucella species by conventional phenotypic analysis. This study found the 16S rRNA gene from one representative isolate was identical to the homologous sequences of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. canis, and B. suis. IS711-based DNA fingerprinting of 23 isolates from marine mammals showed all the isolates

  1. Diffractive production of isolated photons at HERA

    E-print Network

    Peter Bussey; for the ZEUS Collaboration

    2015-07-14

    The ZEUS detector at HERA has been used to measure the photoproduction of isolated photons in diffractive events. Cross sections are evaluated in the photon transverse-energy and pseudorapidity ranges 5 energy an pseudorapidity in the ranges 4 energy and of the colourless exchange ("Pomeron") energy that are imparted to a photon-jet final state. Comparison is made to predictions from the RAPGAP Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Isolation of the toxin in Daubentonia longifolia

    E-print Network

    Robey, Ashley

    1925-01-01

    THE ISOLATION OF THE TOXIN IN DAUBENTONIA LONGIFOLIA A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE BY ASHLEY ROBEY&B. S... . r the following classi fication by Small Sub-kin"dom, Spermatophyta; class Angiospermae; sub-class, Dicoteledons; order, 3osales; family, Vabacsae; tribe Galageae; genus, Daubentonia (D. C. ); species, Longifolia ( Cav. D. C. ). It is a shrub...

  3. The JPL isolated application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The technical, operational, and economic readiness of parabolic dish power systems for a variety of applications in the power range below 10 MWe are discussed. Power systems are developed and tested to the point where commercialization efforts lead to successful market penetration. A key element in this strategy is the use of experiments to test hardware and assess operational readiness. The Isolated Application Experiments are described and their objectives discussed.

  4. An evaluation of SCATS Master Isolated control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahmi Akçelik; Mark Besley; Edward Chung

    The effectiveness of SCATS Master Isolated (SMI) control for non-coordinated signalised intersections was evaluated using vehicle-by-vehicle simulation including an evaluation of the effects of detector failure, as well as field surveys. Various SCATS-like adaptive control algorithms were developed and tested through extensive simulation tests with a wide range of demand flow patterns and a large number of control parameter combinations.

  5. Isolation and removal of waste products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borshchenko, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of isolation and elimination of waste products in spacecraft cabins are described. The role of waste products in the environment, collection and transport of waste products to storage containers, or to recovery systems, preservation of waste products, and storage and removal of waste products are among the factors discussed. Regeneration of the waste products to recover water and/or oxygen, is briefly considered.

  6. Isolated toad skin epithelium: Transport characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Rawlins; L. Mateu; F. Fragachan; G. Whittembury

    1970-01-01

    A procedure that allows areas up to 1 cm2 of the epithelium to be separated from the corium of the toad skin is described. For several hours the preparation maintains the transport characteristics of the isolated intact skin, namely electrical potential differences up to 100 mV (outer side negative) and short-circuit currents up to 80 µAmp\\/cm2, which are equal to

  7. Isolation and characterization of Phycomyces blakesleeanus ferritin.

    PubMed Central

    LaBombardi, V J; Pisano, M A; Klavins, J V

    1982-01-01

    Ferritin was isolated from the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and compared biochemically and immunologically with horse spleen ferritin. Phycomyces and horse spleen ferritins were shown to exhibit similar electrophoretic patterns on polyacrylamide gels. Both preparations yielded an identical single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing polyacrylamide gels. Tryptic digests of Phycomyces ferritin yielded 17 ninhydrin-positive spots as compared to 26 for horse spleen ferritin tryptic digests. Phycomyces ferritin was immunologically unrelated to horse spleen ferritin. Images PMID:6175618

  8. Mercury resistant bacteria isolated from sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack T. Trevors

    1986-01-01

    Studies have shown that mercury resistance and mercuric reductase activity in some bacteria may be plasmid-encoded (Meissner and Falkinham, 1984). These researchers isolated a strain of Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, containing a 115 x 106 daltons plasmid that encoded for resistance to mercuric chloride (HgCI2). A plasmid cured derivative of the same organism failed to grow in the presence of I00 pM

  9. CMOS technology using SEG isolation technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Endo; N. Kasai; A. Ishitani; Y. Kurogi

    1983-01-01

    An advanced bulk CMOS process has been developed using SEG (Selective Epitaxial Growth) isolation technique and high impurity concentration substrate, in order to suppress latch-up phenomenon. CMOS devices are fabricated on epitiaxial layer, which is selectively grown over p-type silicon substrate surrounded by a 2 µm thick SiO2insulator, using a reduced pressure SiH2Cl2-H2-HCl system. P-channel devices are formed in an

  10. SoftLanding Base-Isolation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Kusunoki; Masaomi Teshigawara

    \\u000a The authors are developing a new retrofitting method for low seismic performance buildings, especially for soft-first-story\\u000a buildings. The concept of the method is that the new column, which has the base-isolation system at its middle height, is\\u000a attached to the existing column by the compression force with PC bars. The existing column will fail in shear during an earthquake,\\u000a and

  11. Extremality conditions for isolated and dynamical horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Fairhurst, Stephen [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53201 (United States); LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF2 3YB (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    A maximally rotating Kerr black hole is said to be extremal. In this paper we introduce the corresponding restrictions for isolated and dynamical horizons. These reduce to the standard notions for Kerr but in general do not require the horizon to be either stationary or rotationally symmetric. We consider physical implications and applications of these results. In particular we introduce a parameter e which characterizes how close a horizon is to extremality and should be calculable in numerical simulations.

  12. Leishmania braziliensis isolated from sloths in Panama.

    PubMed

    Herrer, A; Telford, S R

    1969-06-20

    Two edentates, the twotoed sloth Choloepus hoffmanni and the three-toed sloth Bradypus infuscatus, infected with Leishmania were found in Panama. The rates of infection were 14.1 and 1.3 percent in Choloepus and Bradypus, respectively. Leishmania braziliensis sensu lato was cultured from skin, blood, spleen, liver, or bone marrow of 13 sloths often from two or more tissues from the same animal. This strain is indistinguishable from Leishmania strains isolated from hunmanis in Panama. PMID:5783717

  13. Isolation and Characterization of SRF Accessory Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dalton; R. Marais; J. Wynne; R. Treisman

    1993-01-01

    Many genes which are regulated by growth factors contain a common regulatory element, the serum response element (SRE). Activation of transcription by the SRE involves a ternary complex formed between a ubiquitous factor, serum response factor (SRF), and a second protein, p62\\/TCF. We used a yeast genetic screen to isolate cDNAs encoding a protein, SAP-1, with the DNA binding properties

  14. Cell Isolation and Expansion Using Dynabeads ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axl A. Neurauter; Mark Bonyhadi; Eli Lien; Lars Nøkleby; Erik Ruud; Stephanie Camacho; Tanja Aarvak

    This chapter describes the use of Dynabeads for cell isolation and expansion. Dynabeads are uniform\\u000a polystyrene spherical beads that have been made magnetisable and superparamagnetic, meaning they are only\\u000a magnetic in a magnetic field. Due to this property, the beads can easily be resuspended when the magnetic\\u000a field is removed. The invention of Dynabeads made, by Professor John Ugelstad, has revolutionized

  15. Astrometric Study of Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch, Christian

    2006-09-01

    We propose to take advantage of the excellent imaging performance of Chandra to measure the proper motion of the X-ray bright and radio-quiet isolated neutron star RX J1308.6+2127 with the goal to constrain its space velocity, birth place and age. The five year time interval between the proposed Cycle 8 and former Cycle 3 observations obtained by our group will provide a very sensitive measurement.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Isolated Intervertebral Disc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. F. Lemos; J. E. Tomazini; U. G. Oliveira

    \\u000a The study on several components of intervertebral joints is essential to understand the spine’s degenerative mechanisms and\\u000a to assess the best method for their treatment. For such study it is necessary to know the mechanical properties of the isolated\\u000a intervertebral disc (ID) mechanical properties and, it is necessary to evaluate its stresses and strains. In order to assess\\u000a the ID

  17. Interferometric gravitational wave detectors vibrational isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSalvo, Riccardo

    2000-10-01

    Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors, coming online lin late 2000, look for small space strains, leading to apparent motions of test masses of 10-19 m or less; isolation from other forces is crucial. They require a formidable vibration isolation level in a frequency range between few Hz and few kHz. The off-band residual motion must be kept below 10-12 m not to saturate the phase sensors. These exceptional requirements are met, in all degrees of freedom, with a chain of active and passive filters. The key isolation mechanism is the use of mechanical oscillators above their resonant frequencies, pendula horizontally, springs vertically. Very high quality pendular suspensions are needed at the mirror level to limit the thermal noise from fluctuations in the dissipation mechanisms. Off-band electromagnetic actuators on or near the mirror keep its magnitude of attenuation in the longitudinal direction. To provide the bulk of the attenuation, virtually all in the vertical direction, they are suspended from Seismic Noise Attenuation Systems. Attenuation filters, either active or passive, are chained, each providing 2 or 3 orders of magnitude of attenuation. Passive attenuation is obtained with springs and pendula. The vertical is the toughest direction to deal with because the oscillators also fight against gravity. The vertical attenuation requirements, although orthogonal to the beam direction, are only slightly less stringent than the vertical ones due to cross-couplings (Earth curvature is the source of one of them). High internal damping springs organized in hierarchical stacks are used in most early designs. More advanced designs increasingly rely on chains of filters equipped with high quality cantilever springs driven to low resonant frequencies by different mechanisms. The Quality Factors of each resonance are actively and/or passively spoiled at the chain suspension point. IN the latest designs, Ultra Low Frequency Oscillators filter out the microseismic and other low frequency perturbations. This paper addresses one approach to achieving the required seismic isolation level.

  18. Isolation of symbiotic dinoflagellates by centrifugal elutriation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.E.; Quinn, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation, a method combining centripetal liquid flow with centrifugal force, has been used to isolate symbiotic dinoflagellates from a cnidarian host. The elutriated cells were shown to be viable by photosynthetic incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and low release of photosynthetic products into the incubation medium. The level of contamination by clinging debris was low and by host solids was negligible.

  19. Laparoscopic Splenectomy for Isolated Splenic Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Tempes, Bruna Cogo; Lambert, Bruna Franco; Trindade, Eduardo Neubarth; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology. The pulmonary interstitium is mainly involved, with noncaseating granulomas and lymphadenopathy. It is a multisystemic disease, and the differential diagnosis should include infectious, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases to prevent inappropriate treatment and unnecessary surgery. Abdominal disease without evidence of pulmonary abnormalities on chest radiography in sarcoidosis can be found in approximately 25% to 38% of cases. The approach to isolated splenic nodules in a patient with nonspecific abdominal symptoms should be focused on exclusion of malignancies and infections, and may require computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography imaging; scintigraphy; bone marrow biopsy; breast and genital examinations; and endoscopies. This report documents a rare case of isolated granulomatous disease of the spleen that was diagnosed and treated laparoscopically. Case: A 29-year-old woman presented with nonspecific complaints such as nausea, vomiting, and epigastric discomfort. Further laboratory test results were normal. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple splenic lesions. Additional examination findings were negative for occult neoplasia or infectious disease. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed as a diagnostic procedure, without complications, and the final diagnosis was sarcoidosis. Conclusion: Isolated splenic sarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary disease. The final diagnosis may be achieved only by histology, requiring biopsy or splenectomy. Minimally invasive surgery is a safe and efficient method for diseases of the spleen and should be the first option when feasible. The patient did well; however, further monitoring is required to diagnose recurrence. PMID:24680162

  20. Preparing cytotoxic agents in an isolator.

    PubMed

    Favier, M; Hansel, S; Bressolle, F

    1993-11-01

    The design of an isolator and its use by an oncology satellite pharmacy for preparing cytotoxic drugs are described. The isolator (Iso Concept, Boulogne, France) is a totally enclosed ventilated biological-safety cabinet of class III polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with positive air pressure, a half-suit with a rotating seal, and attached neoprene gloves. There are three work-stations, one for the half-suit and two along one side of the isolator. The ventilation and air filtration system consists of one entry pipe with a full ventilation-filtration box fitted with one prefilter, one blower, one ball valve, one high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, one airtight nipple connected to an automatic sterilizer, alarms, and one exhaust pipe protected by a HEPA filter. The air lock consists of a rigid, transparent Plexiglas pass-through. The chamber is sterilized with heated compressed air mixed with 3.5% peracetic acid. Maintenance includes regular changing of gloves and HEPA filters; checking of the integrity of the PVC, half-suit, and gloves; and washing and decontamination procedures. Preparation of cytotoxics is planned in advance with prescription data and manufacturing sheets. In the half-suit, a pharmacy technician reads the label, supervises preparation of the sterile admixture, and writes a label. The operators on the side of the unit read the manufacturing sheet and prepare the dose identified by the label.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8266957