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1

Comparison of Different DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for Molecular Typing of Bartonella henselae Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen isolates of Bartonella henselae from the region of Freiburg, Germany, obtained from blood cultures of domestic cats, were examined for their genetic heterogeneity. On the basis of different DNA fingerprinting methods, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR, repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR, and arbitrarily primed (AP)-PCR, three different variants were identified among the isolates (variants

ANNA SANDER; MICHAEL RUESS; STEFAN BERESWILL; MARKUS SCHUPPLER; BERNHARD STEINBRUECKNER

1998-01-01

2

Comparative Activity of Pradofloxacin, Enrofloxacin, and Azithromycin against Bartonella henselae Isolates Collected from Cats and a Human ?  

PubMed Central

Using Bartonella henselae isolates from cats and a human, the activity of pradofloxacin was compared with those of enrofloxacin and azithromycin. By Etest and disc diffusion assay, pradofloxacin showed greater antimicrobial activity than did other antibiotics. We conclude that pradofloxacin may prove useful for the treatment of B. henselae infections. PMID:20007401

Biswas, Silpak; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Papich, Mark G.; Keil, Daniel; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2010-01-01

3

Comparative activity of pradofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and azithromycin against Bartonella henselae isolates collected from cats and a human.  

PubMed

Using Bartonella henselae isolates from cats and a human, the activity of pradofloxacin was compared with those of enrofloxacin and azithromycin. By Etest and disc diffusion assay, pradofloxacin showed greater antimicrobial activity than did other antibiotics. We conclude that pradofloxacin may prove useful for the treatment of B. henselae infections. PMID:20007401

Biswas, Silpak; Maggi, Ricardo G; Papich, Mark G; Keil, Daniel; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2010-02-01

4

Multispacer Typing To Study the Genotypic Distribution of Bartonella henselae Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae, a worldwide fastidious bacterium, has a feline reservoir and is pathogenic for humans. However, the relationship between human and cat isolates of B. henselae, as well as its population dynamics and geographic heterogeneity, is not fully understood, in part because of the absence of appropriate typing methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most discriminatory genotyping method for B.

Wenjun Li; Bruno B. Chomel; Soichi Maruyama; Lynn Guptil; Anna Sander; Didier Raoult; Pierre-Edouard Fournier

2006-01-01

5

Experimental Transmission ofBartonella henselae by the Cat Flea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is an emerging bacterial pathogen, causing cat scratch disease and bacillary angioma- tosis. Cats bacteremic with B. henselae constitute a large reservoir from which humans become infected. Prevention of human infection depends on elucidation of the natural history and means of feline infection. We studied 47 cattery cats in a private home for 12 months to determine the

BRUNO B. CHOMEL; RICKIE W. KASTEN; KIM FLOYD-HAWKINS; BANGHEE CHI; KAZUHIRO YAMAMOTO; JILL ROBERTS-WILSON; A. NIKOS GURFIELD; RACHEL C. ABBOTT; NIELS C. PEDERSEN; ANDJANE E. KOEHLER

6

Genetic Variability and Prevalence of Bartonella henselae in Cats in Berlin, Germany, and Analysis of Its Genetic Relatedness to a Strain from Berlin That Is Pathogenic for Humans  

PubMed Central

Nineteen Bartonella henselae strains and one Bartonella clarridgeiae strain were isolated from blood samples of 97 pet cats and 96 stray cats from Berlin, Germany, indicating prevalence rates of 1 and 18.7%, respectively, for B. henselae and 0 and 1%, respectively, for B. clarridgeiae. Eighteen of 19 B. henselae isolates corresponded to 16S rRNA type II. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed seven different PFGE types among the feline B. henselae strains. Interestingly, all feline isolates displayed low genetic relatedness to B. henselae strain Berlin-1, which is pathogenic for humans. PMID:11158141

Arvand, Mardjan; Klose, Alexander J.; Schwartz-Porsche, Dorothea; Hahn, Helmut; Wendt, Constanze

2001-01-01

7

Genetic Variability and Prevalence of Bartonella henselae in Cats in Berlin, Germany, and Analysis of Its Genetic Relatedness to a Strain from Berlin That Is Pathogenic for Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen Bartonella henselae strains and one Bartonella clarridgeiae strain were isolated from blood samples of 97 pet cats and 96 stray cats from Berlin, Germany, indicating prevalence rates of 1 and 18.7%, respectively, for B. henselae and 0 and 1%, respectively, for B. clarridgeiae. Eighteen of 19 B. henselae isolates corresponded to 16S rRNA type II. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)

MARDJAN ARVAND; ALEXANDER J. KLOSE; DOROTHEA SCHWARTZ-PORSCHE; HELMUT HAHN; CONSTANZE WENDT

2001-01-01

8

Strategy to detect and identify Bartonella species in routine clinical laboratory yields Bartonella henselae from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient and unique Bartonella strain from his cat.  

PubMed Central

We wished to develop a cost-effective, rapid strategy to detect and identify Bartonella species in the clinical laboratory and to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection in the Houston veteran population. Bartonella colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, RapID ANA, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR) and whole-cell fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and these methods were compared for their usefulness. A new test order for "Rochalimaea culture" (the genus Bartonella was previously known as the genus Rochalimaea) was instituted, and in addition, all blood specimens submitted for fungal culture (obtained in an isolator tube) were processed for Bartonella culture. Over a 16-month period we isolated Bartonella henselae from only 0.4% (2 of 533) of total cultures but from 1% (2 of 204) of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. After sufficient growth, identification of the Bartonella isolates to the species level could be obtained in 2 days. The REP-PCR allowed discrimination of all known species, whereas CFA analysis distinguished all except B. henselae and Bartonella quintana. The RapID ANA results failed to differentiate between B. henselae and B. quintana, and results for other species differed by only one or two tests. Blood obtained from a kitten which had been introduced into the household of one patient 2 months before the onset of fever yielded a Bartonella strain which was shown to be different from the strain from the patient and distinct from other Bartonella species by a combination of REP-PCR, CFA, and growth characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7559957

Clarridge, J E; Raich, T J; Pirwani, D; Simon, B; Tsai, L; Rodriguez-Barradas, M C; Regnery, R; Zollo, A; Jones, D C; Rambo, C

1995-01-01

9

Detection and identification of two Bartonella henselae variants in domestic cats in Germany.  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence of bacteremia caused by Bartonella henselae in domestic cats in the region of Freiburg, Germany, we investigated culture of blood from 100 cats from 89 different households over a 12-month period. B. henselae could be isolated from 13% (13 of 100) of these cats. In eight households with two cats each and in one household with three cats, B. henselae bacteremia was found either in all of the animals or in none of the animals. Positive cultures were more likely to be found for female, young (24 months of age or younger) cats than for male or older cats. Identification of the Bartonella isolates was made by colony morphology, by Gram staining, biochemically by RapID ANA II or Rapid ID 32 A systems, and by whole-cell fatty acid analysis. Differentiation between B. henselae and Bartonella quintana was only possible by 16S rRNA sequencing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Genomic fingerprinting of the B. henselae isolates by ERIC-PCR yielded two different patterns based on three distinct bands. PMID:9041393

Sander, A; Bühler, C; Pelz, K; von Cramm, E; Bredt, W

1997-01-01

10

Bartonella henselae Invasion of Feline Erythrocytes In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, establishes long-term bacteremia in cats, in which it attaches to and invades feline erythrocytes (RBC). Feline RBC invasion was assessed in vitro, based on gentamicin selection for intracellular bacteria or by laser confocal microscopy and digital sectioning. Invasion rates ranged from 2 to 20% of the inoculum, corresponding to infection of

JANE R. MEHOCK; CRAIG E. GREENE; FRANK C. GHERARDINI; TAE-WOOK HAHN

1998-01-01

11

Experimental infection and horizontal transmission of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats.  

PubMed

In order to study B. henselae transmission among cats, five young cats were kept in confinement for two years, one of them being inoculated by SC route with B. henselae (10(5) UFC). Only occasional contact among cats occurred but the presence of fleas was observed in all animals throughout the period. Blood culture for isolation of bacteria, PCR-HSP and FTSZ (gender specific), and BH-PCR (species-specific), as well as indirect immunofluorescence method for anti-B. henselae antibodies were performed to confirm the infection of the inoculated cat as well as the other naive cats. Considering the inoculated animal, B. henselae was first isolated by blood culture two months after inoculation, bacteremia last for four months, the specific antibodies being detected by IFI during the entire period. All contacting animals presented with bacteremia 6 months after experimental inoculation but IFI did not detect seroconversion in these animals. All the isolates from these cats were characterized as Bartonella (HSP and FTSZ-PCR), henselae (BH-PCR). However, DNA of B. henselae could not be amplified directly from peripheral blood by the PCR protocols used. Isolation of bacteria by blood culture was the most efficient method to diagnose infection compared to PCR or IFI. The role of fleas in the epidemiology of B. henselae infection in cats is discussed. PMID:11696847

de Souza Zanutto, M; Mamizuka, E M; Raiz, R; de Lima, T M; Diogo, C L; Okay, T S; Hagiwara, M K

2001-01-01

12

Bartonella henselae Endocarditis in Laos – ‘The Unsought Will Go Undetected’  

PubMed Central

Background Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos), probably because people have neglected to look. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective (2006–2012), and subsequent prospective study (2012–2013), at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis. Conclusions/Significance We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than “conventional” endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for Bartonella endocarditis and the importance of vectors and vector control. PMID:25503777

Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chu, Vang; Frichitthavong, Khamthavy; Kesone, Pany; Mayxay, Mayfong; Mirabel, Mariana; Newton, Paul N.

2014-01-01

13

Bartonella henselae infection of prosthetic aortic valve associated with colitis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of infective endocarditis can be difficult, particularly with atypical presentation and negative blood cultures. A 61-year-old man with a porcine aortic valve presented with fever, intermittent confusion, diarrhea, and fatigue. In the community clinic setting, a colonoscopy performed for anemia demonstrated colitis. Symptoms progressed for months; elicitation of a history of significant kitten exposure and the finding of an axillary lymph node prompted testing for Bartonella henselae antibodies. High titer antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated chronic B. henselae infection. Surgical valve replacement followed by prolonged doxycycline and rifampin led to cure. This case illustrates the complexities of infective endocarditis and is the first description B. henselae endocarditis associated with colitis in an immunocompetent adult. PMID:21702667

Karris, Maile Young; Litwin, Christine M; Dong, Hong S; Vinetz, Joseph

2011-11-01

14

Granulomatous hepatitis due to Bartonella henselae infection in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) is considered a rare cause of granulomatous hepatitis. Due to the fastidious growth characteristics of the bacteria, the limited sensitivity of histopathological stains, and the non-specific histological findings on liver biopsy, the diagnosis of hepatic bartonellosis can be difficult to establish. Furthermore, the optimal treatment of established hepatic bartonellosis remains controversial. Case presentation We present a case of hepatic bartonellosis in an immunocompetent woman who presented with right upper quadrant pain and a five cm right hepatic lobe mass on CT scan. The patient underwent a right hepatic lobectomy. Surgical pathology revealed florid necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis, favoring an infectious etiology. Despite extensive histological and serological evaluation a definitive diagnosis was not established initially. Thirteen months after initial presentation, hepatic bartonellosis was diagnosed by PCR studies from surgically excised liver tissue. Interestingly, the hepatic granulomas persisted and Bartonella henselae was isolated from the patient's enriched blood culture after several courses of antibiotic therapy. Conclusion The diagnosis of hepatic bartonellosis is exceedingly difficult to establish and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. Recently developed, PCR-based approaches may be required in select patients to make the diagnosis. The optimal antimicrobial therapy for hepatic bartonellosis has not been established, and close follow-up is needed to ensure successful eradication of the infection. PMID:22269175

2012-01-01

15

Bilateral mandibular pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis and pulmonary nodules in a dog with Bartonella henselae bacteremia  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 2-year-old collie dog with pulmonary nodules, visualized by computed tomographic (CT) scan, with evidence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia and pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. Clinical signs resolved with antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25320386

Tucker, Melissa D.; Sellon, Rance K.; Tucker, Russell L.; Wills, Tamara B.; Simonsen, Andrea; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2014-01-01

16

Unusual trafficking pattern of Bartonella henselae -containing vacuoles in macrophages and endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bartonella henselae , the agent of cat-scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders in humans, is a fastidious facultative intracellular pathogen, whose interaction with macrophages and endothelial cells (ECs) is crucial in the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, little is known about the subcellular com- partment in which B. henselae resides. Two hours after infection of murine macrophages and human ECs,

Pierre A. Kyme; Albert Haas; Martin Schaller; Andreas Peschel; Jon Iredell; Volkhard A. J. Kempf

17

Bartonella henselae Infection: An Uncommon Mimicker of Autoimmune Disease  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was negative. Abdominal imaging demonstrated multifocal lesions of the liver and spleen (later proved to be granulomata), chest X-ray showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and ophthalmology review revealed uveitis. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards sarcoidosis. Subsequently, raised titers (IgM 1 : 32, IgG 1 : 256) against Bartonella confirmed the diagnosis of B. henselae infection. She was treated with gentamycin followed by ciprofloxacin; repeat investigations showed complete resolution of findings. The presence of hepatic and splenic lesions in children with bartonellosis is well documented. Our case, however, exhibited certain unusual findings such as the coexistence of acute ocular and systemic involvement in an immunocompetent host. Serological testing is an inexpensive and effective way to diagnose bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients; we suggest that bartonella serology is included in the baseline tests performed on children with prolonged fever even in the absence of contact with cats in countries where bartonellosis is prevalent. PMID:23424700

Maritsi, Despoina N.; Zarganis, Diagoras; Metaxa, Zoi; Papaioannou, Georgia; Vartzelis, George

2013-01-01

18

Managing iron supply during the infection cycle of a flea borne pathogen, Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe3+ transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe2+ transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3–5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle. PMID:24151576

Liu, MaFeng; Biville, Francis

2013-01-01

19

Genomic variation of Bartonella henselae strains detected in lymph nodes of patients with cat scratch disease.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the primary agent of cat scratch disease (CSD). In order to study the genetic variation of B. henselae and the correlation of the various genotypes with epidemiological and clinical findings, two seminested, groEL- and pap31-based PCR assays were carried out with specimens from 273 patients. Amplicons were sequenced to determine the genotype of the causative Bartonella species. Compared to our reference intergenic spacer region-based PCR, the groEL- and pap31-based assays were 1.7 and 1.9 times more sensitive, respectively. All 107 positive patients were infected with B. henselae; neither Bartonella clarridgeiae nor other species were detected. Based on the groEL and pap31 sequences, B. henselae amplicons were classified into two genogroups, Marseille and Houston-1, and into four variants, Marseille, CAL-1, Houston-1, and a new variant, ZF-1. Patients infected with either one or the other genogroup did not exhibit different epidemiological or clinical characteristics. Our study highlights the genotypic heterogeneity of B. henselae in patients with CSD. PMID:11880432

Zeaiter, Zaher; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

2002-03-01

20

Prostatitis, steatitis, and diarrhea in a dog following presumptive flea-borne transmission of Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-09-01

21

Prostatitis, Steatitis, and Diarrhea in a Dog following Presumptive Flea-Borne Transmission of Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

2014-01-01

22

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more

Edward B Breitschwerdt; Ricardo G Maggi; Paul M Lantos; Christopher W Woods; Barbara C Hegarty; Julie M Bradley

2010-01-01

23

Identification of Bartonella henselae in 2 cats with pyogranulomatous myocarditis and diaphragmatic myositis.  

PubMed

Most cats infected with Bartonella henselae remain outwardly healthy carriers for years; however, self-limiting fever, transient anemia, neurologic dysfunction, lymphadenopathy, reproductive disorders, aortic valvular endocarditis, and neutrophilic myocarditis have been described in experimentally or naturally infected cats. Two cats in a North Carolina shelter died with pyogranulomatous myocarditis and diaphragmatic myositis. Bacteria were visualized in the lesions by Warthin-Starry silver impregnation and by B. henselae immunohistochemistry. B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from the heart of 1 cat and from multiple tissue samples, including heart and diaphragm, from the second cat. This study supports a potential association between B. henselae and what has been historically described as "transmissible myocarditis and diaphragmitis" of undetermined cause in cats. PMID:21490304

Varanat, M; Broadhurst, J; Linder, K E; Maggi, R G; Breitschwerdt, E B

2012-07-01

24

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Bartonella henselae IN A SERONEGATIVE CAT SCRATCH DISEASE PATIENT WITH AIDS IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including cat scratch disease, endocarditis and meningoencephalitis, in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We report the first molecularly confirmed case of B. henselae infection in an AIDS patient in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although DNA sequence of B. henselae has been detected by polymerase chain reaction in a lymph node biopsy, acute and convalescent sera were nonreactive. PMID:25076441

Favacho, Alexsandra R.m.; Roger, Isabelle; Akemi, Amanda K.; Pessoa, Adonai A.; Varon, Andrea G.; Gomes, Raphael; Godoy, Daniela T.; Pereira, Sandro; Lemos, Elba R.s.

2014-01-01

25

Full-thickness macular hole in Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis in an 11-year-old girl  

PubMed Central

Cat scratch disease is a febrile illness caused by Bartonella henselae and is associated with rash at the site of cat bite or scratch and regional lymphadenopathy. Various ocular manifestations of cat scratch disease have been described, mainly retinochoroiditis, optic disc swelling, neuroretinitis, vascular occlusive events, serous retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, intermediate uveitis, inflammatory lesions of the optic nerve head and rarely full thickness macular hole. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl who presented 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms, with B. Henselae neuroretinitis with full thickness macular hole at presentation. PMID:25709274

Seth, Anisha; Raina, Usha K.; Thirumalai, Sriram; Batta, Supriya; Ghosh, Basudeb

2015-01-01

26

Prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae in patients with suspected cat scratch disease (CSD) in Italy.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a relatively new diagnosed illness with clinical signs of self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy accompanied by symptoms of fever and malaise, to encephalopathy and neuropathy, occurring after a cat scratch or flea bite. Bartonella henselae is now accepted as the etiologic agent of CSD. From January 1994 to September 1998, 412 patients were evaluated for suspect CSD in Italy. Sera were tested for antibodies to B. henselae by a commercially available indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), based on B. henselae-infected Vero-cells as the antigen substrate. Of the 412 patients, 26 (6.3%) were considered positive having titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to B. henselae of 64 or higher. In these patients CSD was indeed confirmed by either histopathologic examination of lymph nodes biopsy or fourfold raise in antibody titers. Nevertheless, sera were tested by IFA for Afipia felis and one showed a double reactivity to B. henselae and A. felis. Finally, three sera, negative to B. henselae serology, were positive to A. felis. Three hundred and eighty-six patients received alternative diagnoses. One hundred and twenty-five serum samples from control subjects were negative by IFA for either B. henselae or A. felis. Moreover, a cross-reactivity with sera from patients affected by other diseases was not observed. Our study shows that the ascertained cases of CSD are etiologically determined by B. henselae, IFA assay is confirmed as a useful tool in the laboratory diagnosis and, over a 5 years period of study, the incidence of CSD in Italy has been low. PMID:10485354

Del Prete, R; Fumarola, D; Fumarola, L; Basile, V; Mosca, A; Miragliotta, G

1999-07-01

27

Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian  

PubMed Central

Background During a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. Prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in Grenada and Ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in South Africa. The woman reported contact with fleas, ticks, lice, biting flies, mosquitoes, spiders and mites and had also been scratched or bitten by dogs, cats, birds, horses, reptiles, rabbits and rodents. Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient’s symptoms. Methods PCR assays targeting Anaplasma spp. Bartonella spp. and hemotopic Mycoplasma spp. were used to test patient blood samples. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced directly and compared to GenBank sequences. In addition, Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture was used to facilitate bacterial growth and Bartonella spp. serology was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Results Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum DNA was amplified and sequenced from the woman’s blood, serum or blood culture samples. Her serum was variably seroreactive to several Bartonella sp. antigens. Despite symptomatic improvement, six months of doxycycline most likely failed to eliminate the B. henselae infection, whereas A. platys and Candidatus M. haematoparvum DNA was no longer amplified from post-treatment samples. Conclusions As is typical of many veterinary professionals, this individual had frequent exposure to arthropod vectors and near daily contact with persistently bacteremic reservoir hosts, including cats, the primary reservoir host for B. henselae, and dogs, the presumed primary reservoir host for A. platys and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Physicians caring for veterinarians should be aware of the occupational zoonotic risks associated with the daily activities of these animal health professionals. PMID:23587235

2013-01-01

28

Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (Vir)B/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail. PMID:21489243

2011-01-01

29

Bartonella henselae Pap31, an Extracellular Matrix Adhesin, Binds the Fibronectin Repeat III13 Module  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae wound-associated infections suggest involvement of extracellular matrix molecules in adhesion and invasion. Pap31 was previously identified as a hemin-binding protein. Our recent studies suggest the protein is an adhesin that is recognized by the host's immune systems. In this study we examined the interactions of B. henselae Pap31 with fibronectin (Fn), heparin (Hep), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The cloned gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified Pap31 protein elicited strong antibody responses in mice and was reactive with rabbit anti-live B. henselae and mouse anti-Pap31 antibodies by Western blotting. Pap31 bound to immobilized Fn and to HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner and to Hep. Fn fragment-binding assays identified the Hep-1 and Hep-2 binding domains of human Fn and in particular the 12-13FnIII repeat module as primary binding sites for this adhesin. Furthermore, Pap31 binding to the above Fn fragments could be inhibited by Hep, suggesting a common binding site involving the 13FnIII repeat module on the Hep-2 domain of Fn. Adherence of intact B. henselae to HUVECs was inhibited by increasing concentrations of anti-Pap31 antibodies. In addition, purified Pap31 coprecipitated effectively with Fn and anti-Fn antibodies. Taken together, these data suggest that Pap31 is an Fn-binding protein mediating the B. henselae-host interaction(s), and they implicate the 13FnIII repeat module as an important binding site for this adhesin on the Fn molecule. These interactions may be important initial steps leading to bacterial attachment and colonization that promote the establishment of B. henselae infections in vivo. PMID:16622186

Dabo, S. M.; Confer, A. W.; Anderson, B. E.; Gupta, Snehalata

2006-01-01

30

Small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets serve as new reservoirs of Bartonella henselae and potential sources of infection for humans.  

PubMed

The prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella species were investigated in small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets in Japan. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD) was isolated from 15.9% (10/63) of the mongooses and 2.0% (1/50) of the masked palm civets, respectively. The bacteraemic level ranged from 3.0 × 10(1) to 8.9 × 10(3) CFU/mL in mongooses and was 7.0 × 10(3) CFU/mL in the masked palm civet. Multispacer typing (MST) analysis based on nine intergenic spacers resulted in the detection of five MST genotypes (MSTs 8, 14, 37, 58 and 59) for the isolates, which grouped in lineage 1 with MST genotypes of isolates from all CSD patients and most of the cats in Japan. It was also found that MST14 from the mongoose strains was the predominant genotype of cat and human strains. This is the first report on the isolation of B. henselae from small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets. The data obtained in the present study suggest that these animals serve as new reservoirs for B. henselae, and may play a role as potential sources of human infection. PMID:23433322

Sato, S; Kabeya, H; Shigematsu, Y; Sentsui, H; Une, Y; Minami, M; Murata, K; Ogura, G; Maruyama, S

2013-12-01

31

Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in Dog and Cat Fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia. PMID:24445204

Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-01-01

32

Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.  

PubMed

The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature. PMID:19416269

Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

2009-07-01

33

Genomic fingerprinting of Bartonella species by repetitive element PCR for distinguishing species and isolates.  

PubMed Central

Repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) with primers based on repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) repeated DNA sequences was used for genomic finger-printing of Bartonella species. This technique was applied by using either extracted genomic DNA or preparations of whole bacterial cells directly. PCR fingerprints with either the REP-based primers (REP-PCR) or primers based on the ERIC repeat (ERIC-PCR) revealed species-specific band patterns for the various Bartonella isolates. DNA fingerprints obtained from rep-PCR of extracted genomic DNA or from preparations of whole cells yielded comparable patterns. ERIC-PCR banding patterns were less complex than those obtained by REP-PCR but allowed better discrimination between strains within species. By combining results of REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR, five different fingerprint profiles were identified among 17 isolates of Bartonella henselae, but only one profile was identified among the five isolates of Bartonella quintana. Other Bartonella species yielded distinct rep-PCR fingerprints. rep-PCR is a useful technique for identification of Bartonella organisms to the species level and offers the advantage of ease of performance, with only small quantities of cells needed for the whole-cell procedure. This technique also appears to be useful for subtyping B. henselae isolates. PMID:7615711

Rodriguez-Barradas, M C; Hamill, R J; Houston, E D; Georghiou, P R; Clarridge, J E; Regnery, R L; Koehler, J E

1995-01-01

34

BID-F1 and BID-F2 Domains of Bartonella henselae Effector Protein BepF Trigger Together with BepC the Formation of Invasome Structures  

E-print Network

The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with ...

Truttmann, Matthias C.

35

Experimental infection and horizontal transmission of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 5 UFC). Only occasional contact among cats occurred but the presence of fleas was observed in all animals throughout the period. Blood culture for isolation of bacteria, PCR-HSP and FTSZ (gender specific), and BH- PCR (species-specific), as well as indirect immunofluorescence method for anti- B. henselae antibodies were performed to confirm the infection of the inoculated cat as well

Marcelo de Souza ZANUTTO; Elza Masae MAMIZUKA; Roberto RAIZ-JÚNIOR; Thais Martins de LIMA; Constância Lima DIOGO; Thelma Suely OKAY; Mitika Kuribayashi HAGIWARA

2001-01-01

36

Bartonella henselae infection in cats: evaluation during primary infection, treatment, and rechallenge infection.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae infection was established in eight cats of various ages by experimental inoculation. All cats remained persistently bacteremic until they were treated 4 to 7 weeks after primary inoculation. Antibody titers increased and peaked between 4 and 12 weeks for all cats. Treatment with doxycycline for 1 week was effective in suppressing bacteremia in all cats but was effective in clearing infection from only four cats. Amoxicillin, given subsequently, was effective in clearing the infection from three of the remaining cats. One kitten that remained bacteremic was treated unsuccessfully with enrofloxacin, and its bacteremia was finally cleared when it was treated with a clavulanate-amoxicillin combination. After the bacteremia was cleared, with a corresponding reduction in serum antibody titers, all eight cats were rechallenged with B. henselae. None of the cats became bacteremic after secondary challenge, and all had higher and more rapid increases in serum antibody titers than after primary inoculation. The cats became resistant to reinfection following recovery from infection, indicating that immunoprophylaxis in cats might be beneficial in helping to reduce their public health risk. PMID:8784569

Greene, C E; McDermott, M; Jameson, P H; Atkins, C L; Marks, A M

1996-01-01

37

Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B.?henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B.?henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of Bartonella. PMID:23163798

Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

2013-05-01

38

IrSPI, a tick serine protease inhibitor involved in tick feeding and Bartonella henselae infection.  

PubMed

Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its potentialities as vaccine against the ticks and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:25057911

Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I

2014-07-01

39

IrSPI, a Tick Serine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Tick Feeding and Bartonella henselae Infection  

PubMed Central

Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its potentialities as vaccine against the ticks and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:25057911

Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C.; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

2014-01-01

40

Bartonella henselae infections in solid organ transplant recipients: report of 5 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis. The spectrum of disease, diagnosis, and management of B. henselae infection in solid organ transplant recipients has not been well characterized. We identified 29 cases of solid organ transplant recipients who had Bartonella infection, 24 by a review of the English-language literature and 5 from our institution. Localized cat scratch disease was found in 8 patients (28%), and disseminated infection was found in 21 patients (72%). The mean time after transplantation to development of Bartonella infection among those with cat scratch disease was 5.6 ± 5.3 years, and among those with disseminated infection was 2.7 ± 2.4 years. Prominent clinical features included cat exposure in 26 patients (90%), fever in 27 patients (93%), lymphadenopathy in 12 patients (41%), and skin lesions in 7 patients (24%). Methods used in establishing the diagnosis of Bartonella infection included culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, serologic assays, and histopathologic examination. Culture was positive in 2 of only 4 patients in whom this was performed, and PCR was positive in 12 of 14 patients (86%) in whom this test was performed. Serologic assays were positive in all 23 patients who were tested. Histopathologic examination of tissues in all 8 patients who had cat scratch disease revealed granulomatous inflammation in 4 (50%) and bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis in 2 (25%). Among the 15 patients who had disseminated infection and who had tissue examined, 8 (53%) had only granulomatous inflammation, 4 had only bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis (27%), and 2 had both granulomas and bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis (13%). A positive Warthin-Starry or Steiner stain was noted in 12 of 19 patients (63%) who had 1 of these stains performed. All 8 patients with cat scratch disease and 19 of 21 patients with disseminated bartonellosis were cured with antimicrobial therapy. Two patients, both of whom had endocarditis, died. Among solid organ transplant recipients, infection with B. henselae is uncommon and has diverse disease manifestations including disseminated disease. Persistent fevers or lymphadenopathy in a transplant recipient who has been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for B. henselae infection. Identifying B. henselae as the causative organism often requires multiple diagnostic studies. Once the diagnosis is established, most solid organ transplant recipients respond appropriately to antimicrobial treatment. PMID:22391473

Psarros, Georgios; Riddell, James; Gandhi, Tejal; Kauffman, Carol A; Cinti, Sandro K

2012-03-01

41

Original article Prevalence of Bartonella infection in domestic cats  

E-print Network

Original article Prevalence of Bartonella infection in domestic cats in Denmark Bruno B. CHOMELa; accepted 19 October 2001) Abstract ­ Whole blood and serum from 93 cats (44 pets and 49 shelter/stray cats of Bartonella antibodies by serology. Bartonella henselae was isolated from 21 (22.6%) cats. Bacteremia preva

Boyer, Edmond

42

Heme Binding Proteins of Bartonella henselae Are Required when Undergoing Oxidative Stress During Cell and Flea Invasion  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. These heme auxotroph alphaproteobacteria must import heme for their growth, since they cannot synthesize it. To import exogenous heme, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme uptake system enabling transportation of this compound into the cytoplasm and degrading it to release iron. In addition, these bacteria encode for four or five outer membrane heme binding proteins (Hbps). The structural genes of these highly homologous proteins are expressed differently depending on oxygen, temperature and heme concentrations. These proteins were hypothesized as being involved in various cellular processes according to their ability to bind heme and their regulation profile. In this report, we investigated the roles of the four Hbps of Bartonella henselae, responsible for cat scratch disease. We show that Hbps can bind heme in vitro. They are able to enhance the efficiency of heme uptake when co-expressed with a heme transporter in Escherichia coli. Using B. henselae Hbp knockdown mutants, we show that these proteins are involved in defense against the oxidative stress, colonization of human endothelial cell and survival in the flea. PMID:23144761

Liu, MaFeng; Ferrandez, Yann; Bouhsira, Emilie; Monteil, Martine; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2012-01-01

43

A bipartite signal mediates the transfer of type IV secretion substrates of Bartonella henselae into human cells.  

PubMed

Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems mediate the transfer of macromolecular substrates into various target cells, e.g., the conjugative transfer of DNA into bacteria or the transfer of virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The T4S apparatus VirB of the vascular tumor-inducing pathogen Bartonella henselae causes subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. Here we report the identification of multiple protein substrates of VirB, which, upon translocation into HEC, mediate all known VirB-dependent cellular changes. These Bartonella-translocated effector proteins (Beps) A-G are encoded together with the VirB system and the T4S coupling protein VirD4 on a Bartonella-specific pathogenicity island. The Beps display a modular architecture, suggesting an evolution by extensive domain duplication and reshuffling. The C terminus of each Bep harbors at least one copy of the Bep-intracellular delivery domain and a short positively charged tail sequence. This biparte C terminus constitutes a transfer signal that is sufficient to mediate VirB/VirD4-dependent intracellular delivery of reporter protein fusions. The Bep-intracellular delivery domain is also present in conjugative relaxases of bacterial conjugation systems. We exemplarily show that the C terminus of such a conjugative relaxase mediates protein transfer through the Bartonella henselae VirB/VirD4 system into HEC. Conjugative relaxases may thus represent the evolutionary origin of the here defined T4S signal for protein transfer into human cells. PMID:15642951

Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Rhomberg, Thomas A; Schmid, Michael C; Schröder, Gunnar; Vergunst, Annette C; Carena, Ilaria; Dehio, Christoph

2005-01-18

44

A bipartite signal mediates the transfer of type IV secretion substrates of Bartonella henselae into human cells  

PubMed Central

Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems mediate the transfer of macromolecular substrates into various target cells, e.g., the conjugative transfer of DNA into bacteria or the transfer of virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The T4S apparatus VirB of the vascular tumor-inducing pathogen Bartonella henselae causes subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. Here we report the identification of multiple protein substrates of VirB, which, upon translocation into HEC, mediate all known VirB-dependent cellular changes. These Bartonella-translocated effector proteins (Beps) A-G are encoded together with the VirB system and the T4S coupling protein VirD4 on a Bartonella-specific pathogenicity island. The Beps display a modular architecture, suggesting an evolution by extensive domain duplication and reshuffling. The C terminus of each Bep harbors at least one copy of the Bep-intracellular delivery domain and a short positively charged tail sequence. This biparte C terminus constitutes a transfer signal that is sufficient to mediate VirB/VirD4-dependent intracellular delivery of reporter protein fusions. The Bep-intracellular delivery domain is also present in conjugative relaxases of bacterial conjugation systems. We exemplarily show that the C terminus of such a conjugative relaxase mediates protein transfer through the Bartonella henselae VirB/VirD4 system into HEC. Conjugative relaxases may thus represent the evolutionary origin of the here defined T4S signal for protein transfer into human cells. PMID:15642951

Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Rhomberg, Thomas A.; Schmid, Michael C.; Schröder, Gunnar; Vergunst, Annette C.; Carena, Ilaria; Dehio, Christoph

2005-01-01

45

Isolation of Bartonella capreoli from elk  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella infections in elk populations. We report the isolation of four Bartonella strains from 55 elk blood samples. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all four strains belong to Bartonella capreoli, a bacterium that was originally described in the wild roe deer of Europe. Our finding first time demonstrated that B. capreoli has a wide geographic range, and that elk may be another host for this bacterium. Further investigations are needed to determine the impact of this bacterium on wildlife.

Bai, Y.; Cross, P.C.; Malania, L.; Kosoy, M.

2011-01-01

46

Experimental infection of cats with Afipia felis and various Bartonella species or subspecies.  

PubMed

Based upon prior studies, domestic cats have been shown to be the natural reservoir for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella koehlerae. However, other Bartonella species, such as Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella quintana or Bartonella bovis (ex weissii) have been either isolated from or Bartonella DNA sequences PCR amplified and sequenced. In the late 1980s, before B. henselae was confirmed as the etiological agent of cat scratch disease, Afipia felis had been proposed as the causative agent. In order to determine the feline susceptibility to A. felis, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella rochalimae, B. quintana or B. bovis, we sought to detect the presence of bacteremia and seroconversion in experimentally-inoculated cats. Most of the cats seroconverted, but only the cats inoculated with B. rochalimae became bacteremic, indicating that cats are not natural hosts of A. felis or the other Bartonella species or subspecies tested in this study. PMID:24972870

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G; Henn, Jennifer B; Koehler, Jane E; Chang, Chao-chin

2014-08-27

47

Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella koehlerae and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' in a cat diagnosed with splenic plasmacytosis and multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Anaplasma platys (Apl), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMh), Bartonella henselae (Bh) and Bartonella koehlerae (Bk) were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing in a cat diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Other inconsistently documented hematologic abnormalities included anemia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia and hypoglycemia. Persistent Apl infection was confirmed for the first time in a North American cat by sequencing three bacterial genes (16S rRNA, p44 and GroEL) in peripheral blood samples collected 100 days apart. Following doxycycline treatment for Apl, multiple myeloma was diagnosed based upon a monoclonal gammopathy and splenic plasmacytosis, and the cat was treated with melphalan, chlorambucil and prednisolone. Apl DNA was not amplified from post-treatment blood samples and the hyperglobulinemia resolved temporarily following chemotherapy. Retrospective PCR analysis of stored DNA extracts identified CMh, Bk and Bh infections. Retrospective PCR for antigen receptor rearrangements (PARR) of splenic aspirates did not confirm B- or T-cell clonality. Co-infection with multiple vector-borne pathogens should be a diagnostic consideration in cats with chronic hypergammaglobulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy and splenic plasmacytosis. PMID:24445821

Qurollo, Barbara A; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Cannon, Coralie Zegre; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-08-01

48

A report of cat scratch disease in Korea confirmed by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region of Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

We report a case of cat scratch disease in an 8-yr-old girl who presented with fever and enlargement of both axillary lymph nodes. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the lymph node aspirate were negative for microbial growth. Gram staining and Warthin-Starry silver staining did not reveal any organism. Purified DNA from the PCR-amplicon of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region was sequenced and showed 99.7% identity with the corresponding sequence of Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1. Our findings suggest that the internal transcribed spacer is a reliable region for PCR identification of Bartonella species. In patients with lymphadenitis, a history of contact with cats or dogs necessitates the use of diagnostic approaches that employ not only the conventional staining and culture but also molecular methods to detect B. henselae. PMID:20197720

Suh, Borum; Chun, Jin-Kyoung; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Yang Soon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Dong Soo

2010-02-01

49

A flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin prevents flea transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. Methods Specific pathogen free cats (n = 19) were housed in three adjoining enclosures that were separated by mesh to allow C. felis to pass among groups but prevent cats in different enclosures from contacting one another. One group of 4 cats was inoculated intravenously with B. henselae and after infection was confirmed in all cats based on positive PCR assay results, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. The B. henselae infected cat group was flanked by a group of 8 cats that had the collar placed and maintained for the duration of the study and a group of 7 cats that were not treated. Ctenocephalides felis (50 males and 50 females) raised in an insectary were placed on each of the 4 cats in the B. henselae infected group monthly for 7 applications and then every 2 weeks for 4 applications starting the day the collar was applied. Blood was collected from all cats weekly for Bartonella spp. PCR, serology and culture. Results While side-effects associated with the collars were not noted, persistent fever necessitating enrofloxacin therapy occurred in two of the untreated cats. While B. henselae infection was ultimately confirmed in 4 of 7 of the untreated cats, none of the cats with collars became infected (P = 0.026). Conclusions In this study design, use of a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was well tolerated and prevented C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. PMID:23351927

2013-01-01

50

Transcriptional Activation of the htrA (High-Temperature Requirement A) Gene from Bartonella henselae  

Microsoft Academic Search

downstream of P1. This second promoter region, termed P2, had no sequence identity to sE-type heat-inducible promoters. Promoter regions were cloned individually and in tandem into pANT3 upstream of a promoterless version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (gfpmut3) and transformed into B. henselae by electropo- ration. The contiguous promoter region containing both P1 and P2 were necessary for

SANDRA I. RESTO-RUIZ; DEBRA SWEGER; RAYMOND H. WIDEN; NIKOLA VALKOV; BURT E. ANDERSON

2000-01-01

51

The efficacy of a selamectin (Stronghold(®)) spot on treatment in the prevention of Bartonella henselae transmission by Ctenocephalides felis in cats, using a new high-challenge model.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans, which is recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease. Ctenocephalides felis is the main vector, and transmission of B. henselae infection between cats and humans occurs mainly through infected flea feces. Control of feline infestation with this arthropod vector therefore provides an important strategy for the prevention of infection of both humans and cats. In the present study, a new challenge model is used to evaluate the efficacy of selamectin (Stronghold(®) spot on) in the prevention of B. henselae transmission by C. felis. In this new challenge model, domestic cats were infected by direct application of B. henselae-positive fleas. The fleas used for infestation were infected by feeding on blood that contained in vitro-cultured B. henselae. The direct application of the fleas to the animals and the use of different B. henselae strains ensured a high and consistent challenge. Two groups of six cats were randomly allocated on pre-treatment flea counts to either control (untreated cats) or the selamectin-treated group with one pipette per cat according to the label instruction. Stronghold (selamectin 6 % spot on solution) was administered on days 0 and 32. On days 3, 10, 19, 25, and 31, each cat was infested by direct application of 20 fleas that fed on blood inoculated with B. henselae. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on pooled fleas confirmed that the fleas were infected. Blood samples were collected from each cat on days -3 (prior to flea infestation and treatment), 9, 17, 24, 30, 37, and 44 and assayed for B. henselae antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), for the presence of bacteria by bacterial culture and for B. henselae DNA presence by PCR. Cats were also assessed on a daily basis for general health. There were no abnormal health observations during the study and none of the animals required concomitant treatment. None of the cats displayed any clinical signs of bartonellosis during the study. In the untreated group, all cats became bacteremic within 17 to 44 days. None of the selamectin-treated cats became positive during the study. It was concluded that Stronghold(®) spot on administered to cats was efficacious in the prevention of the transmission of B. henselae by fleas to cats in a high-challenge model. PMID:25582566

Bouhsira, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Lienard, Emmanuel; Bouillin, Corinne; Gandoin, Christelle; Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Jacquiet, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Boulouis, Henri Jean

2015-03-01

52

Isolation of Bartonella washoensis from a dog with mitral valve endocarditis.  

PubMed

We report the first documented case of Bartonella washoensis bacteremia in a dog with mitral valve endocarditis. B. washoensis was isolated in 1995 from a human patient with cardiac disease. The main reservoir species appears to be ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) in the western United States. Based on echocardiographic findings, a diagnosis of infective vegetative valvular mitral endocarditis was made in a spayed 12-year-old female Doberman pinscher. A year prior to presentation, the referring veterinarian had detected a heart murmur, which led to progressive dyspnea and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure the week before examination. One month after initial presentation, symptoms worsened. An emergency therapy for congestive heart failure was unsuccessfully implemented, and necropsy evaluation of the dog was not permitted. Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the dog was strongly seropositive (titer of 1:4,096) for several Bartonella antigens (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. henselae), highly suggestive of Bartonella endocarditis. Standard aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic cultures were negative. However, a specific blood culture for Bartonella isolation grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 7 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), groEL, and 16S rRNA genes, indicated that this organism was identical to B. washoensis. The dog was seronegative for all tick-borne pathogens tested (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia rickettsii), but the sample was highly positive for B. washoensis (titer of 1:8,192) and, according to indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay, weakly positive for phase II Coxiella burnetii infection. PMID:14605197

Chomel, Bruno B; Wey, Aaron C; Kasten, Rickie W

2003-11-01

53

Bartonella strains from ground squirrels are identical to Bartonella washoensis isolated from a human patient.  

PubMed

The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in question and of Bartonella isolates obtained from the following Nevada rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus (17 isolates), Tamias minimus (11 isolates), Spermophilus lateralis (3 isolates), and Spermophilus beecheyi (7 isolates). Sequence analyses of gltA amplicons obtained from Bartonella from the rodents demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and resulted in the identification of 16 genetic variants that were clustered within three groups in phylogenetic analysis. Each of the three groups was associated with a rodent genus, Peromyscus, Tamias, or Spermophilus: The gltA, 16S rRNA gene, and groEL sequences of a Bartonella isolate obtained from a California ground squirrel (S. beecheyi) were completely identical to homologous sequences of B. washoensis, strongly suggesting that these animals were the source of infection in the human case. PMID:12574261

Kosoy, Michael; Murray, Mike; Gilmore, Robert D; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L

2003-02-01

54

Conjugative DNA transfer into human cells by the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) mediate interbacterial conjugative DNA transfer and transkingdom protein transfer into eukaryotic host cells in bacterial pathogenesis. The sole bacterium known to naturally transfer DNA into eukaryotic host cells via a T4SS is the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Here we demonstrate T4SS-mediated DNA transfer from a human bacterial pathogen into human cells. We show that the zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae can transfer a cryptic plasmid occurring in the bartonellae into the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 via its T4SS VirB/VirD4. DNA transfer into EA.hy926 cells was demonstrated by using a reporter derivative of this Bartonella-specific mobilizable plasmid generated by insertion of a eukaryotic egfp-expression cassette. Fusion of the C-terminal secretion signal of the endogenous VirB/VirD4 protein substrate BepD with the plasmid-encoded DNA-transport protein Mob resulted in a 100-fold increased DNA transfer rate. Expression of the delivered egfp gene in EA.hy926 cells required cell division, suggesting that nuclear envelope breakdown may facilitate passive entry of the transferred ssDNA into the nucleus as prerequisite for complementary strand synthesis and transcription of the egfp gene. Addition of an eukaryotic neomycin phosphotransferase expression cassette to the reporter plasmid facilitated selection of stable transgenic EA.hy926 cell lines that display chromosomal integration of the transferred plasmid DNA. Our data suggest that T4SS-dependent DNA transfer into host cells may occur naturally during human infection with Bartonella and that these chronically infecting pathogens have potential for the engineering of in vivo gene-delivery vectors with applications in DNA vaccination and therapeutic gene therapy. PMID:21844337

Schröder, Gunnar; Schuelein, Ralf; Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Christoph

2011-01-01

55

Exposure and Risk Factors to Coxiella burnetii, Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among Volunteer Blood Donors in Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia) are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG) in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8%) had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1?16), and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1?100) for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P<0.021). Donors with occupations involving animals (P>0.012), especially cattle (P>0.006), were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013) and typhus (P<0.011) group rickettsiae. Three (2.9%) samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms. PMID:25259959

Noden, Bruce H.; Tshavuka, Filippus I.; van der Colf, Berta E.; Chipare, Israel; Wilkinson, Rob

2014-01-01

56

Bartonella bovis isolated from a cow with endocarditis.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old pregnant Angus cow was found dead in the field. At necropsy, the aortic valve was expanded by moderate fibrous connective tissue and acidophilic coagulum containing multifocal marked bacteria, mineral, neutrophils, and red blood cells. Numerous tiny grayish, opaque bacterial colonies were detected on blood agar plates at 7 days after inoculation with a swab of the heart valve of the cow. The bacterium was a Gram-negative, very small coccobacillus that was catalase, oxidase, and urease negative, and did not change litmus milk, triple sugar iron agar, and sulfide-indole-motility medium. The bacterium was negative for esculin hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, nitrate reduction, and gelatin hydrolysis. The isolate did not produce acid from glycerol, inulin, lactose, maltose, mannose, raffinose, salicin, sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, glycogen, ribose, or starch. Polymerase chain reaction tests for the gltA, ssrA, ftsZ, ribC, rpoB, and 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Bartonella species were positive for the isolate. Amplicons were sequenced, and the gltA, ribC, ssrA, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were found to have 100% homology to the type strain of Bartonella bovis, whereas the fts and rpoB sequences showed 99.9% and 99.6% homology, respectively, to the type strain of Bartonella bovis. Diagnosticians should be aware of slow-growing microorganisms, and culture media should be incubated beyond the standard period to enhance the recovery of Bartonella species. PMID:23512923

Erol, Erdal; Jackson, Carney; Bai, Ying; Sells, Stephen; Locke, Steve; Kosoy, Michael

2013-03-01

57

The BatR/BatS Two-Component Regulatory System Controls the Adaptive Response of Bartonella henselae during Human Endothelial Cell Infection ? † ‡  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the first comprehensive study of Bartonella henselae gene expression during infection of human endothelial cells. Expression of the main cluster of upregulated genes, comprising the VirB type IV secretion system and its secreted protein substrates, is shown to be under the positive control of the transcriptional regulator BatR. We demonstrate binding of BatR to the promoters of the virB operon and a substrate-encoding gene and provide biochemical evidence that BatR and BatS constitute a functional two-component regulatory system. Moreover, in contrast to the acid-inducible (pH 5.5) homologs ChvG/ChvI of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, BatR/BatS are optimally activated at the physiological pH of blood (pH 7.4). By conservation analysis of the BatR regulon, we show that BatR/BatS are uniquely adapted to upregulate a genus-specific virulence regulon during hemotropic infection in mammals. Thus, we propose that BatR/BatS two-component system homologs represent vertically inherited pH sensors that control the expression of horizontally transmitted gene sets critical for the diverse host-associated life styles of the alphaproteobacteria. PMID:20418395

Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Michaela; Tropel, David; Basler, Andrea; Toller, Isabella; Raddatz, Guenter; Engel, Philipp; Huser, Sonja; Schein, Hermine; Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Dehio, Christoph

2010-01-01

58

Bartonella spp.: throwing light on uncommon human infections.  

PubMed

After 2 decades of Bartonella research, knowledge on transmission and pathology of these bacteria is still limited. Bartonella spp. have emerged to be important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. For humans, B. henselae is considered to represent the most relevant zoonotic Bartonella species and is responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and other disorders. Over the years, many Bartonella species have been isolated from humans, cats, dogs, and other mammals, and infections range from an asymptomatic state (e.g., animal-specific species) to even life-threatening diseases (e.g., Oroya fever). It is obvious that the analysis of pathogenicity mechanisms underlying Bartonella infections is needed to increase our understanding of how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts resulting in acute or chronic diseases. PMID:20833105

Kaiser, Patrick O; Riess, Tanja; O'Rourke, Fiona; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

2011-01-01

59

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Species Isolated from Wild Rodents in Japan?  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella organisms in wild rodents in Japan. We captured 685 wild rodents throughout Japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated Bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). Those Bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. Sequence analysis of rpoB and gltA revealed that the Bartonella isolates obtained were classified into eight genetic groups, comprising isolates closely related to B. grahamii (A-I group), B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae (B-J group), B. tribocorum and B. rattimassiliensis (C-K group), B. rattimassiliensis (D-L group), B. phoceensis (F-N group), B. taylorii (G-O group), and probably two additional novel Bartonella species groups (E-M and H-P). B. grahamii, which is one of the potential causative agents of human neuroretinitis, was found to be predominant in Japanese rodents. In terms of the relationships between these Bartonella genetic groups and their rodent species, (i) the A-I, E-M, and H-P groups appear to be associated with Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus; (ii) the C-K, D-L, and F-N groups are likely implicated in Rattus rattus; (iii) the B-J group seems to be involved in Apodemus mice and R. rattus; and (iv) the G-O group is probably associated with A. speciosus and Clethrionomys voles. Furthermore, dual infections with two different genetic groups of bartonellae were found in A. speciosus and R. rattus. These findings suggest that the rodent in Japan might serve as a reservoir of zoonotic Bartonella infection. PMID:18606803

Inoue, Kai; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamada, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Sato, Yukita; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Kadosaka, Teruki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki

2008-01-01

60

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

2012-12-28

61

Bartonella Strains from Ground Squirrels Are Identical to Bartonella washoensis Isolated from a Human Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 22 April 2002\\/Returned for modification 2 September 2002\\/Accepted 13 October 2002 The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in

Michael Kosoy; Mike Murray; Robert D. Gilmore; Ying Bai; Kenneth L. Gage

2003-01-01

62

BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.  

PubMed

The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation. PMID:22043280

Truttmann, Matthias C; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

2011-01-01

63

BID-F1 and BID-F2 Domains of Bartonella henselae Effector Protein BepF Trigger Together with BepC the Formation of Invasome Structures  

PubMed Central

The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation. PMID:22043280

Truttmann, Matthias C.; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

2011-01-01

64

Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).  

PubMed

Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (P<0.001). While Bartonella infection was also detected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California. PMID:24629902

Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-06-01

65

Bartonellae in domestic and stray cats from Israel: comparison of bacterial cultures and high-resolution melt real-time PCR as diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

To determine the occurrence of feline bartonellosis in Israel, blood samples were collected from 179 stray and 155 domestic cats from 18 cities or villages in central and northcentral Israel. Samples were screened for Bartonella infection by culture isolation and molecular detection using high-resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS). All positive samples were confirmed by two additional HRM real-time PCR assays targeting two fragments of the ?-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and the 16S rRNA genes. The prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in the general tested population was 25.1% (84/334). A higher prevalence was detected in the stray (30.7%; 55/179) than the domestic cats (18.7%; 29/155). Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae were highly prevalent in both cat populations, however their distribution among the two populations varied significantly (p=0.016). B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae were found to be more prevalent in stray than domestic cats, whereas B. henselae was evenly distributed. Co-infection with two or more different Bartonella spp. was determined in 2.1% (7) of the cats. The ITS HRM real-time PCR assay used in this study was shown to have a greater screening power than bacterial isolation, detecting 94.0% (79/84) compared to 35.7% (30/84), respectively, of all positive samples. The high prevalence of these zoonotic Bartonella species, coupled with the overpopulation of stray cats, and increased numbers of domestic cats in the major urban centers in Israel represent a significant threat for the public health in this country. PMID:24107217

Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; Gross, Ifat; Winkler, Ronen; Abdeen, Ziad; Harrus, Shimon

2013-12-01

66

Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease).  

PubMed Central

Shortly after adopting a 6-week-old cat, a veterinarian was bitten on the left index finger. Within 3 weeks, he developed headache, fever, and left axillary lymphadenopathy. Initial blood cultures from the cat and veterinarian were sterile. Repeat cultures from the cat grew Bartonella-like organisms with lophotrichous flagella. Sera from the veterinarian were not reactive against Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, or B. elizabethae antigens but were seroreactive (reciprocal titer, 1,024) against the feline isolate. Sequential serum samples from the cat were reactive against antigens of B. henselae (titer, 1,024), B. quintana (titer, 128), and the feline isolate (titer, 2,048). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of this and six additional feline isolates, including microscopic evaluation, biochemical analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and citrate synthase gene identified the isolates as B. clarridgeiae. This is the first report of cat scratch disease associated with B. clarridgeiae. PMID:9196200

Kordick, D L; Hilyard, E J; Hadfield, T L; Wilson, K H; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Breitschwerdt, E B

1997-01-01

67

Bartonella entry mechanisms into mammalian host cells.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that typically infect mammals in a host-specific manner. Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana are human-specific pathogens, while several zoonotic bartonellae specific for diverse animal hosts infect humans as an incidental host. Clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections range from mild symptoms to life-threatening disease. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods or traumatic contact with infected animals, bartonellae display sequential tropisms towards endothelial and possibly other nucleated cells and erythrocytes, the latter in a host-specific manner. Attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to nucleated cells is mediated by surface-exposed bacterial adhesins, in particular trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). The subsequent engulfment of the pathogen into a vacuolar structure follows a unique series of events whereby the pathogen avoids the endolysosomal compartments. For Bartonella henselae and assumingly most other species, the infection process is aided at different steps by Bartonella effector proteins (Beps). They are injected into host cells through the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 and subvert host cellular functions to favour pathogen uptake. Bacterial binding to erythrocytes is mediated by Trw, another T4SS, in a strictly host-specific manner, followed by pathogen-forced uptake involving the IalB invasin and subsequent replication and persistence within a membrane-bound intra-erythrocytic compartment. PMID:22519749

Eicher, Simone C; Dehio, Christoph

2012-08-01

68

Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq  

PubMed Central

Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

69

Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a Potential New Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Canids from Iraq  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n?=?97), 40.4% in jackals (n?=?57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n?=?39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55–31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

Chomel, Bruno B.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P. V. P.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2012-01-01

70

Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq.  

PubMed

Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55-31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

Chomel, Bruno B; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2012-01-01

71

A Chemically Defined Liquid Medium That Supports Primary Isolation ofRochalimaea(Bartonella)henselaefrom Blood and Tissue Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rochalimaea(Bartonella)henselaeis a fastidious, slowly growing, gram-negative bacillus that is an etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis, cat scratch disease, and related syndromes. Accumulation of direct microbi- ologic evidence of the relationship between the organism and the syndromes compatible with cat scratch disease has been hindered by the difficulties in the primary isolation of the organism from infected tissue specimens. A chemically

MICHAEL T. WONG; DAVID C. THORNTON; RONALD C. KENNEDY; ANDMATTHEW J. DOLAN

1995-01-01

72

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas ( Felis concolor ) and bobcats ( Lynx rufus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas

Bruno B. Chomel; Yoko Kikuchi; Janice S. Martenson; Melodie E. Roelke-Parker; Chao-Chin Chang; Rickie W. Kasten; Janet E. Foley; John Laudre; Kerry Murphy; Pamela K. Swift; Vicki L. Kramer

2004-01-01

73

Bartonella spp. bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from Lyme disease-endemic region.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. Among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae, B. koehlerae, or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and Bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. Conditions diagnosed before referral included Lyme disease (46.6%), arthralgia/arthritis (20.6%), chronic fatigue (19.6%), and fibromyalgia (6.1%). B. henselae bacteremia was significantly associated with prior referral to a neurologist, most often for blurred vision, subcortical neurologic deficits, or numbness in the extremities, whereas B. koehlerae bacteremia was associated with examination by an infectious disease physician. This cross-sectional study cannot establish a causal link between Bartonella spp. infection and the high frequency of neurologic symptoms, myalgia, joint pain, or progressive arthropathy in this population; however, the contribution of Bartonella spp. infection, if any, to these symptoms should be systematically investigated. PMID:22516098

Maggi, Ricardo G; Mozayeni, B Robert; Pultorak, Elizabeth L; Hegarty, Barbara C; Bradley, Julie M; Correa, Maria; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2012-05-01

74

Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) quintana is the etiological agent of trench fever, a disease extensively reported during the World Wars. Recent molecular biology approaches have allowed dramatic extension of the spectrum of Bartonella infections. B. quintana is now also recognized as an etiological agent of fever and bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and chronic lymphadenopathy. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and/or homeless people are the most vulnerable to infection. Poverty and louse infestation were the main epidemiological factors associated with B. quintana infections during wartime. Although poverty and chronic alcoholism have been associated with modern cases of trench fever and bacteremia due to B. quintana in Europe and the United States, vectors for B. quintana have not been clearly identified and B. quintana has not been isolated from modern-day lice. Microscopic bacillary angiomatosis lesions are characterized by tumor-like capillary lobules, with proliferating endothelial cells. In vitro experiments have shown that B. quintana survives within endothelial cells and stimulates cell proliferation. These observations, together with the finding that lesions may regress when antibiotic therapy is administered, strongly suggest that B. quintana itself stimulates angiogenesis. Bartonella infections are characterized by a high frequency of relapses after brief courses of antibiotic therapy. It is to be noted that in vitro, although Bartonella species are highly susceptible to antibiotics, only the aminoglycosides have proved to be bactericidal. However, the most effective antibiotic regimen for Bartonella infections remains to be established. PMID:8809460

Maurin, M; Raoult, D

1996-01-01

75

Bartonella Genotypes in Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) Collected from Rodents in the Negev Desert, Israel?  

PubMed Central

Fleas collected from rodents in the Negev Desert in southern Israel were molecularly screened for Bartonella species. A total of 1,148 fleas, collected from 122 rodents belonging to six species, were pooled in 245 pools based on flea species, sex, and rodent host species. Two Bartonella gene fragments, corresponding to RNA polymerase B (rpoB) and citrate synthase (gltA), were targeted, and 94 and 74 flea pools were found positive by PCR, respectively. The Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was also targeted, and 66 flea pools were found to be positive by PCR. Sixteen different Bartonella gltA genotypes were detected in 94 positive flea pools collected from 5 different rodent species, indicating that fleas collected from each rodent species can harbor several Bartonella genotypes. Based on gltA analysis, identified Bartonella genotypes were highly similar or identical to strains previously detected in rodent species from different parts of the world. A gltA fragment 100% similar to Bartonella henselae was detected in one flea pool. Another 2 flea pools contained gltA fragments that were closely related to B. henselae (98% similarity). The high sequence similarities to the zoonotic pathogen B. henselae warrant further investigation. PMID:20802081

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Shenbrot, Georgy I.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Harrus, Shimon

2010-01-01

76

Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America. PMID:24892580

Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

2015-02-01

77

Bartonella clarridgeiae, a Newly Recognized Zoonotic Pathogen Causing Inoculation Papules, Fever, and Lymphadenopathy (Cat Scratch Disease)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after adopting a 6-week-old cat, a veterinarian was bitten on the left index finger. Within 3 weeks, he developed headache, fever, and left axillary lymphadenopathy. Initial blood cultures from the cat and veterinarian were sterile. Repeat cultures from the cat grew Bartonella-like organisms with lophotrichous flagella. Sera from the veterinarian were not reactive against Bartonella henselae, B. quintana ,o

DORSEY L. KORDICK; EDWARD J. HILYARD; TED L. HADFIELD; KENNETH H. WILSON; ARNOLD G. STEIGERWALT; DON J. BRENNER; EDWARD B. BREITSCHWERDT

1997-01-01

78

Bartonella species in fleas from Palestinian territories: prevalence and genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. The prevalence and genetic characteristics of Bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from Palestinian territories are described. Flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern Palestinian territories (n=11). The prevalent flea species were: Ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), Ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and Xenopsylla sp. (n=7/289; 2.4%). Targeting the Intergenic Transcribed Spacer (ITS) locus, DNA of Bartonella was detected in 22% (64/289) of all fleas. Fifty percent of the C. felis and 57% of the Xenopsylla sp. contained Bartonella DNA. DNA sequencing showed the presence of Bartonella clarridgeiae (50%), Bartonella henselae (27%), and Bartonella koehlerae (3%) in C. felis. Xenopsylla sp. collected from Rattus rattus rats were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae. Phylogenetic sequence analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene obtained four genetic clusters, B. henselae and B. koehlerae as subcluster 1, B. clarridgeiae as cluster 2, while the rat Bartonella species (B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae) were an outgroup cluster. These findings showed the important role of cat and rat fleas as vectors of zoonotic Bartonella species in Palestinian territories. It is hoped that this publication will raise awareness among physicians, veterinarians, and other health workers of the high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas in Palestinian territories and the potential risk of these pathogens to humans and animals in this region. PMID:25424254

Nasereddin, A; Risheq, A; Harrus, S; Azmi, K; Ereqat, S; Baneth, G; Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Abdeen, Z

2014-12-01

79

Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans. PMID:21501464

2011-01-01

80

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in North America, Central America and South America were screened for B. henselae antibodies. The overall prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was respectively 19.4% in pumas and 23.1% in bobcats, with regional variations. In the USA, pumas from the southwestern states were more likely to be seropositive for B. henselae (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55, 5.11) than pumas from the Northwest and Mountain states. Similarly, adults were more likely to be B. henselae seropositive than juveniles and kittens (PR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.93). Adult pumas were more likely to have higher B. henselae antibody titers than juveniles and kittens (p = 0.026). B. henselae antibody prevalence was 22.4% (19/85) in bobcats from the USA and 33.3% (2/6) in the Mexican bobcats. In the USA, antibody prevalence varied depending on the geographical origin of the bobcats. In California, the highest prevalence was in bobcats from the coastal range (37.5%). These results suggest a potential role of wild felids in the epidemiological cycle of Bartonella henselae or closely related Bartonella species. PMID:15099499

Chomel, Bruno B; Kikuchi, Yoko; Martenson, Janice S; Roelke-Parker, Melodie E; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Janet E; Laudre, John; Murphy, Kerry; Swift, Pamela K; Kramer, Vicki L; O'brien, Stephen J

2004-01-01

81

A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2013-01-01

82

Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats in Peru  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.–bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

83

Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause characteristic host-restricted hemotropic infections in mammals and are typically transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In the mammalian reservoir, these bacteria initially infect a yet unrecognized primary niche, which seeds organisms into the blood stream leading to the establishment of a long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia as the hall-mark of infection. Bacterial type IV secretion systems, which are supra-molecular transporters ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems, represent crucial pathogenicity factors that have contributed to a radial expansion of the Bartonella lineage in nature by facilitating adaptation to unique mammalian hosts. On the molecular level, the type IV secretion system VirB/VirD4 is known to translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins into host cells, which subvert multiple cellular functions to the benefit of the infecting pathogen. Furthermore, bacterial adhesins mediate a critical, early step in the pathogenesis of the bartonellae by binding to extracellular matrix components of host cells, which leads to firm bacterial adhesion to the cell surface as a prerequisite for the efficient translocation of type IV secretion effector proteins. The best-studied adhesins in bartonellae are the orthologous trimeric autotransporter adhesins, BadA in Bartonella henselae and the Vomp family in Bartonella quintana. Genetic diversity and strain variability also appear to enhance the ability of bartonellae to invade not only specific reservoir hosts, but also accidental hosts, as shown for B. henselae. Bartonellae have been identified in many different blood-sucking arthropods, in which they are typically found to cause extracellular infections of the mid-gut epithelium. Adaptation to specific vectors and reservoirs seems to be a common strategy of bartonellae for transmission and host diversity. However, knowledge regarding arthropod specificity/restriction, the mode of transmission, and the bacterial factors involved in arthropod infection and transmission is still limited. PMID:19284965

Chomel, Bruno B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Birtles, Richard J.; Koehler, Jane E.; Dehio, Christoph

2009-01-01

84

Bartonella and Rickettsia in fleas and lice from mammals in South Carolina, U.S.A.  

PubMed

Species in the genera Bartonella and Rickettsia are vector-borne pathogens of humans and domestic animals. The natural reservoirs and enzootic transmission cycles of these bacteria are poorly known in South Carolina. Thirteen species of lice and fleas were collected from urban animals and screened for the presence of Bartonella and Rickettsia by PCR amplification using genus-specific primers. Bartonella henselae was present in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and a novel genotype of Bartonella was detected in Orchopeas howardi from an eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). We detected R. typhi and three novel genotypes Rickettsia in other species of fleas and lice. Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of murine typhus, was detected in two pools of lice (Enderleinellus marmotae) from the woodchuck (Marmota monax). Cat fleas harbored one of two novel genotypes of Rickettsia. A third novel Rickettsia was detected in Orchopeas howardi from an eastern gray squirrel. PMID:16599169

Reeves, Will K; Nelder, Mark P; Korecki, James A

2005-12-01

85

Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cause human endocarditis and neuroretinitis and 6 novel Bartonella spp. at a high prevalence (26.0%, 142/546). We conclude that exotic small mammals potentially serve as reservoirs of several zoonotic Bartonella spp. PMID:19331727

Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Hagiya, Keiko; Izumi, Yasuhito; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2009-01-01

86

Bartonella quintana infections in captive monkeys, China.  

PubMed

Bartonella quintana has been considered to be specifically adapted to humans. Our isolation of the organism from 2 of 36 captive rhesus macaques in China and finding antibodies against B. quintana in 12 of 33 indicates that the reservoir hosts of B. quintana may include primates other than humans. PMID:21888799

Huang, Ruting; Liu, Qiyong; Li, Genping; Li, Dongmei; Song, Xiuping; Birtles, Richard J; Zhao, Fan

2011-09-01

87

Bats as Reservoir Hosts of Human Bacterial Pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis  

PubMed Central

A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton’s bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:24856523

Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Lilley, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

88

CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Rats of the Genus Rattus are Reservoir Hosts for Pathogenic Bartonella  

E-print Network

Bartonella species were isolated from the blood of 63 of 325 Rattus norvegicus and 11 of 92 Rattus rattus species iso- lated from the blood of sylvatic Rattus norvegicus was described from isolation attempts from220 CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Rats of the Genus Rattus are Reservoir Hosts for Pathogenic Bartonella

Beati, Lorenza

89

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the Reservoir for a Human Pathogenic Bartonella sp.: Molecular Epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Infection in Coyotes from Central Coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals

CHAO-CHIN CHANG; RICKIE W. KASTEN; BRUNO B. CHOMEL; DARREN C. SIMPSON; CARRIE M. HEW; DORSEY L. KORDICK; REMY HELLER; YVES PIEMONT

2000-01-01

90

Molecular epidemiologic survey of Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infections in Japanese Iriomote and Tsushima leopard cats.  

PubMed

The Iriomote cat (IC; Prionailurus iriomotensis) and the Tsushima leopard cat (TLC; Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura) are endangered wild felids in Japan. As a part of ongoing conservation activities, we conducted a molecular, epidemiologic survey of Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infections in wild IC and TLC populations. Blood samples (47 from 33 individual IC; 22 from 13 TLC) were collected between August 2002 and January 2011. Using PCR analysis, we confirmed the presence of Bartonella henselae in ICs and Bartonella clarridgeiae in TLCs, with prevalences of 6% and 8%, respectively. Using PCR and basic local alignment search tool analyses, we identified Ehrlichia canis in both cats and Anaplasma bovis in TLCs. The prevalence of E. canis was 12% in ICs and 8% in TLCs, and the prevalence of A. bovis was 15% in TLCs. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, E. canis, and A. bovis infections in these two endangered species. Continuous monitoring of these pathogens is needed for their conservation. PMID:23778615

Tateno, Morihiro; Nishio, Takuma; Sakuma, Masato; Nakanishi, Nozomi; Izawa, Masako; Asari, Yumiko; Okamura, Maki; Maruyama, Soichi; Miyama, Takako Shimokawa; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

2013-07-01

91

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand  

PubMed Central

We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA. PMID:22607728

Kosoy, Michael Y.; Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas; Baggett, Henry; Maloney, Susan A.; Boonmar, Sumalee; Bhengsri, Saithip; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Peruski, Leonard F.

2012-01-01

92

Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia  

PubMed Central

Abtract Background In the Pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. To our knowledge, human infections due to Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. have never been reported in French Polynesia; and infections due to C. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. To evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among French Polynesian blood donors. Methods The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against R. felis, R. typhi, R. conorii, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 472 French Polynesian blood donors collected from 2011 to 2013. In addition, 178 ticks and 36 cat fleas collected in French Polynesia were also collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect Rickettsia spp., B. henselae and Ehrlichia spp. Results None of the blood donors had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. All tested ticks and cat fleas were PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp., B. henselae, and Ehrlichia spp. Conclusion We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in French Polynesia but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. C. burnetii has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. It may also be absent from French Polynesia. PMID:24885466

2014-01-01

93

Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Cully, J.F.; Bala, T.; Ray, C.; Collinge, S.K.

2007-01-01

94

Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in rodents from northwestern Mexico.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections were investigated in wild rodents from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 489 rodents belonging to 14 species were surveyed in four areas. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 50.1% of rodent samples (245/489). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 83.3% per rodent species, with no significant difference between sites except for Cynomys ludovicianus. Phylogenetic analyses of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of the Bartonella isolates revealed 23 genetic variants (15 novel and 8 previously described), clustering into five phylogroups. Three phylogroups were associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, and B. washoensis, respectively. The other two phylogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. The genetic variants and phylogenetic groups exhibited a high degree of host specificity, mainly at the genus and family levels. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in wild rodents from Mexico. Considering that some variants found in this study are associated with Bartonella species that have been reported as zoonotic, more investigations are needed to further understand the ecology of Bartonella species in Mexican wildlife and their implications for human health. PMID:25514119

Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Suzán, Gerardo; Kosoy, Michael Y

2014-12-01

95

Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster).  

PubMed

Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. PMID:17672850

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Cully, Jack F; Bala, Thiagarajan; Ray, Chris; Collinge, Sharon K

2007-09-01

96

Bartonella infection in sylvatic small mammals of central Sweden.  

PubMed

Sylvatic small mammals were captured in rural habitats near Uppsala, Sweden, to measure the prevalence of bartonella infections, characterize bacterial isolates and identify their host range, and increase our understanding of host-pathogen ecology. During 7 nights of trapping at 3 localities, 236 small mammals were captured (trap success 30%). Bartonella were isolated from bloods of Apodemus flavicollis (19 of 110 tested), Apodemus sylvaticus (6/25), Clethrionomys glareolus (9/60), Microtus agrestis (1/3), Mus musculus (1/18), and Sorex araneus (3/20). Nucleotide sequencing (a 338 bp fragment of the gltA gene) of 40 isolates yielded 6 unique genotypes. Five of the 6 genotypes were most similar to other known bartonella isolated from Old World small-mammal hosts. The most frequent genotype (83%) was isolated from A. flavicollis and M. musculus and was identical to Bartonella grahamii, a recently demonstrated human pathogen. These two hosts were most frequently captured in and around human structures and work places, thus providing conditions that could potentially lead to frequent human infections. PMID:12613756

Holmberg, M; Mills, J N; McGill, S; Benjamin, G; Ellis, B A

2003-02-01

97

New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites. PMID:12558350

Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

2002-12-01

98

New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites. PMID:12558350

Bown, K. J.; Ellis, B. A.; Birtles, R. J.; Durden, L. A.; Lello, J.; Begon, M.; Bennett, M.

2002-01-01

99

Diversifying selection and concerted evolution of a type IV secretion system in Bartonella.  

PubMed

We have studied the evolution of a type IV secretion system (T4SS), in Bartonella, which is thought to have changed function from conjugation to erythrocyte adherence following a recent horizontal gene transfer event. The system, called Trw, is unique among T4SSs in that genes encoding both exo- and intracellular components are located within the same duplicated fragment. This provides an opportunity to study the influence of selection on proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions. We sequenced the trw locus from several strains of Bartonella henselae and investigated its evolutionary history by comparisons to other Bartonella species. Several instances of recombination and gene conversion events where detected in the 2- to 5-fold duplicated gene fragments encompassing trwJIH, explaining the homogenization of the anchoring protein TrwI and the divergence of the minor pilus protein TrwJ. A phylogenetic analysis of the 7- to 8-fold duplicated gene coding for the major pilus protein TrwL displayed 2 distinct clades, likely representing a subfunctionalization event. The analyses of the B. henselae strains also identified a recent horizontal transfer event of almost the complete trwL region. We suggest that the switch in function of the T4SS was mediated by the duplication of the genes encoding pilus components and their diversification by combinatorial sequence shuffling within and among genomes. We suggest that the pilus proteins have evolved by diversifying selection to match a divergent set of erythrocyte surface structures, consistent with the trench warfare coevolutionary model. PMID:18065487

Nystedt, Björn; Frank, A Carolin; Thollesson, Mikael; Andersson, Siv G E

2008-02-01

100

Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

101

Heterologous expression of Bartonella adhesin A in Escherichia coli by exchange of trimeric autotransporter adhesin domains results in enhanced adhesion properties and a pathogenic phenotype.  

PubMed

Human-pathogenic Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders. An important pathogenicity factor of B. henselae is the trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), which is modularly constructed, consisting of a head, a long and repetitive neck-stalk module, and a membrane anchor. BadA is involved in bacterial autoagglutination, binding to extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, and in proangiogenic reprogramming. The slow growth of B. henselae and limited tools for genetic manipulation are obstacles for detailed examination of BadA and its domains. Here, we established a recombinant expression system for BadA mutants in Escherichia coli allowing functional analysis of particular BadA domains. Using a BadA mutant lacking 21 neck-stalk repeats (BadA HN23), the BadA HN23 signal sequence was exchanged with that of E. coli OmpA, and the BadA membrane anchor was additionally replaced with that of Yersinia adhesin A (YadA). Constructs were cloned in E. coli, and hybrid protein expression was detected by immunoblotting, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Functional analysis revealed that BadA hybrid proteins mediate autoagglutination and binding to collagen and endothelial cells. In vivo, expression of this BadA construct correlated with higher pathogenicity of E. coli in a Galleria mellonella infection model. PMID:24682330

Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Ballhorn, Wibke; Franz, Bettina; Göttig, Stephan; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

2014-06-01

102

Heterologous Expression of Bartonella Adhesin A in Escherichia coli by Exchange of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin Domains Results in Enhanced Adhesion Properties and a Pathogenic Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Human-pathogenic Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders. An important pathogenicity factor of B. henselae is the trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), which is modularly constructed, consisting of a head, a long and repetitive neck-stalk module, and a membrane anchor. BadA is involved in bacterial autoagglutination, binding to extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, and in proangiogenic reprogramming. The slow growth of B. henselae and limited tools for genetic manipulation are obstacles for detailed examination of BadA and its domains. Here, we established a recombinant expression system for BadA mutants in Escherichia coli allowing functional analysis of particular BadA domains. Using a BadA mutant lacking 21 neck-stalk repeats (BadA HN23), the BadA HN23 signal sequence was exchanged with that of E. coli OmpA, and the BadA membrane anchor was additionally replaced with that of Yersinia adhesin A (YadA). Constructs were cloned in E. coli, and hybrid protein expression was detected by immunoblotting, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Functional analysis revealed that BadA hybrid proteins mediate autoagglutination and binding to collagen and endothelial cells. In vivo, expression of this BadA construct correlated with higher pathogenicity of E. coli in a Galleria mellonella infection model. PMID:24682330

Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O.; Ballhorn, Wibke; Franz, Bettina; Göttig, Stephan; Linke, Dirk

2014-01-01

103

Prevalence and Diversity of Small Mammal-Associated Bartonella Species in Rural and Urban Kenya  

PubMed Central

Several rodent-associated Bartonella species are human pathogens but little is known about their epidemiology. We trapped rodents and shrews around human habitations at two sites in Kenya (rural Asembo and urban Kibera) to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection. Bartonella were detected by culture in five of seven host species. In Kibera, 60% of Rattus rattus were positive, as compared to 13% in Asembo. Bartonella were also detected in C. olivieri (7%), Lemniscomys striatus (50%), Mastomys natalensis (43%) and R. norvegicus (50%). Partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of isolates showed that Kibera strains were similar to reference isolates from Rattus trapped in Asia, America, and Europe, but that most strains from Asembo were less similar. Host species and trapping location were associated with differences in infection status but there was no evidence of associations between host age or sex and infection status. Acute febrile illness occurs at high incidence in both Asembo and Kibera but the etiology of many of these illnesses is unknown. Bartonella similar to known human pathogens were detected in small mammals at both sites and investigation of the ecological determinants of host infection status and of the public health significance of Bartonella infections at these locations is warranted. PMID:25781015

Halliday, Jo E. B.; Knobel, Darryn L.; Agwanda, Bernard; Bai, Ying; Breiman, Robert F.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Kosoy, Michael

2015-01-01

104

Prevalence of zoonotic Bartonella species among rodents and shrews in Thailand.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella species in 10 rodent and one shrew species in Thailand. From February 2008 to May 2010, a total of 375 small animals were captured in 9 provinces in Thailand. Bartonella strains were isolated from 57 rodents (54 from Rattus species and 3 from Bandicota indica) and one shrew (Suncus murinus) in 7 of the 9 provinces, and identified to the species level. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase and RNA polymerase ? subunit genes identified the 58 isolates from each Bartonella-positive animal as B. tribocorum in 27 (46.6%) animals, B. rattimassiliensis in 17 (29.3%) animals, B. elizabethae in 10 (17.2%) animals and B. queenslandensis in 4 (6.9%) animals. R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and Suncus murinus carried B. elizabethae, which causes endocarditis in humans. The prevalence of Bartonella bacteremic animals by province was 42.9% of the animals collected in Phang Nga, 26.8% in Chiang Rai, 20.4% in Sa Kaeo, 16.7% in Nakhon Si Thammarat, 12.0% in Surat Thani, 9.1% in Mae Hong Son and Loei Provinces. These results indicate that Bartonella organisms are widely distributed in small mammals in Thailand and some animal species may serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella species in the country. PMID:24393304

Pangjai, Decha; Maruyama, Soichi; Boonmar, Sumalee; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Nimsuphan, Burin; Petkanchanapong, Wimol; Wootta, Wattanapong; Wangroongsarb, Piyada; Boonyareth, Maskiet; Preedakoon, Poom; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

2014-03-01

105

Prevalence and diversity of small mammal-associated bartonella species in rural and urban kenya.  

PubMed

Several rodent-associated Bartonella species are human pathogens but little is known about their epidemiology. We trapped rodents and shrews around human habitations at two sites in Kenya (rural Asembo and urban Kibera) to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection. Bartonella were detected by culture in five of seven host species. In Kibera, 60% of Rattus rattus were positive, as compared to 13% in Asembo. Bartonella were also detected in C. olivieri (7%), Lemniscomys striatus (50%), Mastomys natalensis (43%) and R. norvegicus (50%). Partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of isolates showed that Kibera strains were similar to reference isolates from Rattus trapped in Asia, America, and Europe, but that most strains from Asembo were less similar. Host species and trapping location were associated with differences in infection status but there was no evidence of associations between host age or sex and infection status. Acute febrile illness occurs at high incidence in both Asembo and Kibera but the etiology of many of these illnesses is unknown. Bartonella similar to known human pathogens were detected in small mammals at both sites and investigation of the ecological determinants of host infection status and of the public health significance of Bartonella infections at these locations is warranted. PMID:25781015

Halliday, Jo E B; Knobel, Darryn L; Agwanda, Bernard; Bai, Ying; Breiman, Robert F; Cleaveland, Sarah; Njenga, M Kariuki; Kosoy, Michael

2015-03-01

106

Global Distribution of Bartonella Infections in Domestic Bovine and Characterization of Bartonella bovis Strains Using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bovis is commonly detected in cattle. One B. bovis strain was recently isolated from a cow with endocarditis in the USA, suggesting its role as an animal pathogen. In the present study, we investigated bartonella infections in 893 cattle from five countries (Kenya, Thailand, Japan, Georgia, and Guatemala) and 103 water buffaloes from Thailand to compare the prevalence of the infection among different regions and different bovid hosts. We developed a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on nine loci (16S rRNA, gltA, ftsZ, groEL, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, ssrA, and ITS) to compare genetic divergence of B. bovis strains, including 26 representatives from the present study and two previously described reference strains (one from French cows and another from a cow with endocarditis in the USA). Bartonella bacteria were cultured in 6.8% (7/103) of water buffaloes from Thailand; all were B. bovis. The prevalence of bartonella infections in cattle varied tremendously across the investigated regions. In Japan, Kenya, and the Mestia district of Georgia, cattle were free from the infection; in Thailand, Guatemala, and the Dusheti and Marneuli districts of Georgia, cattle were infected with prevalences of 10–90%. The Bartonella isolates from cattle belonged to three species: B. bovis (n=165), B. chomelii (n=9), and B. schoenbuchensis (n=1), with the latter two species found in Georgia only. MLST analysis suggested genetic variations among the 28 analyzed B. bovis strains, which fall into 3 lineages (I, II, and III). Lineages I and II were found in cattle while lineage III was restricted to water buffaloes. The majority of strains (17/28), together with the strain causing endocarditis in a cow in the USA, belonged to lineage I. Further investigations are needed to determine whether B. bovis causes disease in bovids. PMID:24278342

Bai, Ying; Malania, Lile; Alvarez Castillo, Danilo; Moran, David; Boonmar, Sumalee; Chanlun, Aran; Suksawat, Fanan; Maruyama, Soichi; Knobel, Darryn; Kosoy, Michael

2013-01-01

107

Identification of Bartonellae in the Soft Tick Species Ornithodoros sonrai in Senegal  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ticks, belonging to the soft ticks species Ornithodorus sonrai, have been collected from six sites in Senegal and were tested for the presence of Bartonella spp. Initial screening by PCR revealed the presence of these bacteria in ticks from two villages, Soulkhou Thissé (5/8, 62.5%) and Maka Gouye (1/24, 4.2%). Three bacterial strains were isolated from live ticks, and the genetic characterization of these strains suggests that they belong to two previously unknown species. The pathogenicity of these two new species of Bartonella is not yet known. The new isolates described here are the first strains of Bartonella spp. from soft ticks and the first isolates from any arthropod species in Africa. PMID:24359424

Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Kasongo, Kangaji

2014-01-01

108

Identification of Bartonellae in the soft tick species Ornithodoros sonrai in Senegal.  

PubMed

Ticks, belonging to the soft ticks species Ornithodorus sonrai, have been collected from six sites in Senegal and were tested for the presence of Bartonella spp. Initial screening by PCR revealed the presence of these bacteria in ticks from two villages, Soulkhou Thissé (5/8, 62.5%) and Maka Gouye (1/24, 4.2%). Three bacterial strains were isolated from live ticks, and the genetic characterization of these strains suggests that they belong to two previously unknown species. The pathogenicity of these two new species of Bartonella is not yet known. The new isolates described here are the first strains of Bartonella spp. from soft ticks and the first isolates from any arthropod species in Africa. PMID:24359424

Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Kasongo, Kangaji; Raoult, Didier

2014-01-01

109

Bartonella spp. as emerging human pathogens.  

PubMed Central

Members of the genus Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) were virtually unknown to modern-day clinicians and microbiologists until they were associated with opportunistic infections in AIDS patients about 6 years ago. Since that time, Bartonella species have been associated with cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and a variety of other disease syndromes. Clinical presentation of infection with Bartonella ranges from a relatively mild lymphadenopathy with few other symptoms, seen in cat scratch disease, to life-threatening systemic disease in the immunocompromised patient. In some individuals, infection manifests as lesions that exhibit proliferation of endothelial cells and neovascularization, a pathogenic process unique to this genus of bacteria. As the spectrum of disease attributed to Bartonella is further defined, the need for reliable laboratory methods to diagnose infections caused by these unique organisms also increases. A brief summary of the clinical presentations associated with Bartonella infections is presented, and the current status of laboratory diagnosis and identification of these organisms is reviewed. PMID:9105751

Anderson, B E; Neuman, M A

1997-01-01

110

Seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. in the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis).  

PubMed

Bartonella clarridgeiae-like strains, presently B. rochalimae, were isolated in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in mainland California. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella infection in the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis) found only on the Channel Islands off the Californian coast. Between 2001 and 2004, 263 serum samples were collected. Antibodies against Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) and B. clarridgeiae (Bc) were detected using an immuno-fluorescence antibody test. Sixty-eight (25.8%) and 73 (27.7%) foxes were positive for Bvb and Bc, respectively. Seroprevalence was the highest on Santa Cruz Island (n=36, Bvb=80.5%; Bc=86.1%) and Santa Rosa Island (n=38, Bvb=52.6%; Bc=65.8%). On San Miguel and San Clemente Islands, seroprevalence for Bvb was 20% and 17.3% respectively, and 0% and 21.3% for Bc. Prevalence ranged between 0% and 5.1% on San Nicolas and Santa Catalina Islands. Foxes from Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands were 17.5 times and 31.5 times as likely to be seropositive for Bvb and Bc than foxes from the other islands (95% confidence interval [95% CI]=8.5, 36.7; 14.4, 70.2). There were no statistically significant differences for presence of Bartonella antibodies by sex, age, origin (captive vs. wild) or year of blood collection. This is the first report of exposure to Bartonella in the island fox population. Further studies are necessary to isolate these bacteria from foxes and determine factors associated with presence or absence of Bartonella species on specific islands. PMID:19058928

Namekata, Michael S; Clifford, Deana L; Kasten, Rickie W; Henn, Jennifer B; Garcelon, David K; Coonan, Timothy J; Chomel, Bruno B

2009-04-14

111

Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis.  

PubMed

Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue. PMID:25498979

Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R

2015-02-01

112

Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana causing fever and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

A 48-yr-old man with stage IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, became neutropenic following chemotherapy and developed a fever. His blood cultures were processed to enhance the yield of fastidious bacteria. A slow-growing, capnophilic Gram-negative rod was isolated. The febrile episode was treated with cefotaxime, imipenem and vancomycin and resolved. The bacterial isolate was identified as Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana by 16S-rDNA gene sequencing. The isolate showed 99.8% sequence homology with the type strain. This is the first isolation of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana from a bacteremic patient in Australia. This bacterium is a fastidious Gram-negative rod requiring prolonged culture for its isolation. Patients with culture-negative pyrexia, especially immunocompromised patients, may need to be investigated for infection with this agent. PMID:8714279

Rathbone, P; Graves, S; Miller, D; Odorico, D; Jones, S; Hellyar, A; Sinickas, V; Grigg, A

1996-01-01

113

Bartonella quintana detection in Demodex from erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients.  

PubMed

We report here the presence of Bartonella quintana in a demodex. Demodex are arthropods associated with acnea. Bartonella quintana was found by broad Spectrum 16rDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, and confirmed by specific PCR. Bartonella quintana may parasite several arthropods and not only lice. PMID:25449254

Murillo, Nathalia; Mediannikov, Oleg; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier

2014-12-01

114

Ectoparasites of gray squirrels in two different habitats and screening of selected ectoparasites for bartonellae.  

PubMed

Gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, were livetrapped in 2 different habitat types, woodland (67 squirrels) and parkland (53 squirrels), in southeastern Georgia. Ectoparasites were recovered from anesthetized squirrels and compared between hosts from the 2 habitats. Because of the absence of low vegetation in parkland habitats, it was hypothesized that the ectoparasite fauna, especially ticks and chiggers, would be more diverse on woodland squirrels. The results were generally in agreement with this hypothesis. Seventeen species of ectoparasites were recovered from woodland squirrels, compared with 6 species from parkland squirrels. Five species of ticks and 3 species of chiggers parasitized the woodland squirrels compared with no ticks or chiggers on the parkland squirrels. Significantly higher infestation prevalences were recorded on woodland compared with parkland squirrels for the flea Orchopeas howardi, the tick Amblyomma americanum, and the mesostigmatid mite Androlaelaps fahrenholzi. The mean intensity for O. howardi also was significantly higher on woodland than on parkland squirrels. Because a new strain of Bartonella sp. was isolated recently from S. carolinensis in Georgia, selected ectoparasites from this study were screened for bartonellae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some of the fleas and lice, but none of the mites tested, were PCR positive, suggesting that fleas, or lice, or both, might be vectors of bartonellae between squirrels. Six distinct strains of Bartonella sp. were detected, 2 in fleas and 4 in lice. PMID:15270090

Durden, Lance A; Ellis, Barbara A; Banks, Craig W; Crowe, John D; Oliver, James H

2004-06-01

115

Bartonella chomelii is the most frequent species infecting cattle grazing in communal mountain pastures in Spain.  

PubMed

The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

Antequera-Gómez, M L; Lozano-Almendral, L; Barandika, J F; González-Martín-Niño, R M; Rodríguez-Moreno, I; García-Pérez, A L; Gil, H

2015-01-01

116

Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally.  

PubMed

Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world. PMID:24223261

Hayman, David T S; McDonald, Katherine D; Kosoy, Michael Y

2013-09-01

117

Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally  

PubMed Central

Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world. PMID:24223261

Hayman, David T S; McDonald, Katherine D; Kosoy, Michael Y

2013-01-01

118

PCR characterization suggests that an unusual range of Bartonella species infect the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe.  

PubMed

Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

Hildebrand, Joanna; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zalesny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D

2013-08-01

119

PCR Characterization Suggests that an Unusual Range of Bartonella Species Infect the Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D.

2013-01-01

120

Variability of Bartonella Genotypes among Small Mammals in Spain?  

PubMed Central

In order to study which Bartonella genotypes are circulating among small mammals in Spain, we analyzed the spleens of 395 animals from three different areas—247 animals from the Basque Country (northern Spain), 121 animals from Catalonia (northeastern Spain), and 27 animals from Madrid (central Spain)—by a triplex PCR combined with a reverse line blot previously described by our group. The prevalence of Bartonella was 26.8% (106/395), and in 4.8% (19/395) of the animals more than one Bartonella genotype was detected. The study of gltA and the intergenic transcribed spacer in the positive samples demonstrated a large diversity, allowing the assignation of them into 22 genotypes. The most prevalent genotypes were 2 and 3, which are closely related to Bartonella taylorii. In addition, nine genotypes were associated with specific mammal species. Genotypes close to the zoonotic Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae were also detected. Ten genotypes showed a percentage of similarity with known Bartonella species lower than 96%, suggesting the presence of potential new species. Further studies of the impact of these pathogens on human health and especially in cases of febrile illness in Spain are strongly recommended. Furthermore, our method has been updated with 21 new probes in a final panel of 36, which represents a robust molecular tool for clinical and environmental Bartonella studies. PMID:20935117

Gil, H.; García-Esteban, C.; Barandika, J. F.; Peig, J.; Toledo, A.; Escudero, R.; Jado, I.; Rodríguez-Vargas, M.; García-Amil, C.; Lobo, B.; Roales, P.; Rodríguez-Moreno, I.; Olmeda, A. S.; García-Pérez, A. L.; Anda, P.

2010-01-01

121

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mode of transmission of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, especially to identify potential vectors, and to determine how humans become infected. PMID:11060089

Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Simpson, D C; Hew, C M; Kordick, D L; Heller, R; Piemont, Y; Breitschwerdt, E B

2000-11-01

122

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

123

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

PubMed Central

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

2014-01-01

124

A translocated effector required for bartonella dissemination from derma to blood safeguards migratory host cells from damage by co-translocated effectors.  

PubMed

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G; Dehio, Christoph

2014-06-01

125

Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella  

PubMed Central

It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains understudied compared with most other bacterial pathogens. Numerous questions regarding Bartonella's molecular pathogenesis and epidemiology remain unanswered. Virtually every mammal harbors one or more Bartonella species and their transmission typically involves a hematophagous arthropod vector. However, many details regarding epidemiology and the public health threat imposed by these animal reservoirs is unclear. A handful of studies have shown that bartonellae are highly-adapted pathogens whose parasitic strategy has evolved to cause persistent infections of the host. To this end, virulence attributes of Bartonella include the subversion of host cells with effector molecules delivered via a type IV secretion system, induction of pathological angiogenesis through various means, including inhibition of apoptosis and activation of hypoxia-inducing factor 1, use of afimbrial adhesins that are orthologs of Yersinia adhesin A, incorporation of lipopolysaccharides with low endotoxic potency in the outer membrane, and several other virulence factors that help Bartonella infect and persist in erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the host circulatory system. PMID:19659429

Minnick, Michael F; Battisti, James M

2009-01-01

126

Review article Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella  

E-print Network

Review article Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts by facilitating adaptation to unique mammalian hosts. On the molecular level, the type IV secretion system Vir / host adaptation / pathogenesis Table of contents 1. INTRODUCTION Bartonella spp. are fastidious

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Infection-associated type IV secretion systems of Bartonella and their diverse roles in host cell interaction  

PubMed Central

Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are transporters of Gram-negative bacteria that mediate interbacterial DNA transfer, and translocation of virulence factors into eukaryotic host cells. The ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that colonize endothelial cells and erythrocytes of their mammalian reservoir hosts, thereby causing long-lasting intraerythrocytic infections. The deadly human pathogen Bartonella bacilliformis holds an isolated position in the Bartonella phylogeny as a sole representative of an ancestral lineage. All other species evolved in a separate ‘modern’ lineage by radial speciation and represent highly host-adapted pathogens of limited virulence potential. Unlike B. bacilliformis, the species of the modern lineage encode at least one of the closely related T4SSs, VirB/VirD4 or Vbh. These VirB-like T4SSs represent major host adaptability factors that contributed to the remarkable evolutionary success of the modern lineage. At the molecular level, the VirB/VirD4 T4SS was shown to translocate several effector proteins into endothelial cells that subvert cellular functions critical for establishing chronic infection. A third T4SS, Trw, is present in a sub-branch of the modern lineage. Trw does not translocate any known effectors, but produces multiple variant pilus subunits critically involved in the invasion of erythrocytes. The T4SSs laterally acquired by the bartonellae have thus adopted highly diverse functions during infection, highlighting their versatility as pathogenicity factors. PMID:18489724

Dehio, Christoph

2008-01-01

128

Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.  

PubMed

Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector. PMID:24040015

Saenz, Virna L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

2013-01-01

129

Classification of Bartonella Strains Associated with Straw-Colored Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa Using a Multi-locus Sequence Typing Platform  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) approach based on nucleotide sequences of eight loci (ftsZ, gltA, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, ssrA, ITS, and 16S rRNA). The analysis of each locus but ribC demonstrated clustering of the isolates into six genogroups (E1 – E5 and Ew), while ribC was absent in the isolates belonging to the genogroup Ew. In general, grouping of all isolates by each locus was mutually supportive; however, nuoG, gltA, and rpoB showed some incongruity with other loci in several strains, suggesting a possibility of recombination events, which were confirmed by network analyses and recombination/mutation rate ratio (r/m) estimations. The MLST scheme revealed 45 unique sequence types (ST1 – 45) among the analyzed bartonella isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences supported the discrimination of six phylogenetic lineages (E1 – E5 and Ew) corresponding to separate and unique Bartonella species. One of the defined lineages, Ew, consisted of only two STs (ST1 and ST2), and comprised more than one-quarter of the analyzed isolates, while other lineages contained higher numbers of STs with a smaller number of isolates belonging to each lineage. The low number of allelic polymorphisms of isolates belonging to Ew suggests a more recent origin for this species. Our findings suggest that at least six Bartonella species are associated with straw-colored fruit bats, and that distinct STs can be found across the distribution of this bat species, including in populations of bats which are genetically distinct. PMID:25635826

Bai, Ying; Hayman, David T. S.; McKee, Clifton D.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2015-01-01

130

Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species  

PubMed Central

Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes. PMID:22369683

2012-01-01

131

Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease. PMID:22232371

Harms, Alexander

2012-01-01

132

Serological evidence of Bartonella spp. infection in the UK.  

PubMed Central

We reviewed serological and epidemiological data relating to 1000 consecutive patients from whom specimens were submitted for estimation of bartonella antibodies, using MRL Diagnostics Bartonella IFA IgM and IgG kits. Using 289 control sera, we estimated the specificity of the kits as > or = 99.0%. Evidence of bartonella infection was found in 16.3% of patients examined. Rates varied by patient group: 20% of patients for whom a diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD) was considered probable had evidence of infection, as did 10.4% of patients with 'possible CSD', 8.1% of patients with possible bacillary angiomatosis, 18.2% of patients with 'culture negative' endocarditis and 17.6% of patients with possible bartonellosis with ophthalmic involvement. An IgM response was seen in 6.6% of patients and IgG in 15.1%. Cases were more frequent among males than females (18.5% vs. 13.9%). Analysis by age showed that although rates of infection were highest in the decades 0-9 years (19.4%) and 10-19 years (20.7%), they fell only slightly in the next three decades. MRL bartonella kits appears to provide a useful and specific approach to the diagnosis of these infections. PMID:10579442

Harrison, T. G.; Doshi, N.

1999-01-01

133

Molecular Method for Bartonella Species Identification in Clinical and Environmental Samples?  

PubMed Central

A new, efficient molecular method for detection of Bartonella, based on the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer and 16S rRNA amplification by multiplex PCR combined with reverse line blotting, was designed. This assay could simultaneously detect 20 different known species and other Bartonella species not described previously. PMID:18094134

García-Esteban, Coral; Gil, Horacio; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Barandika, Jesse; Escudero, Raquel; Jado, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Barral, Marta; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Bhide, Mangesh; Anda, Pedro

2008-01-01

134

Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella  

USGS Publications Warehouse

By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Collinge, S.K.

2009-01-01

135

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella

B. R Hoar; B. B Chomel; D. L Rolfe; C. C Chang; C. L Fritz; B. N Sacks; T. E Carpenter

2003-01-01

136

Genomic analysis of Bartonella identifies type IV secretion systems as host adaptability factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 pathogens causing characteristic intraerythrocytic infections. Bartonella bacilliformis is a severe pathogen representing an ancestral lineage, whereas the other species are benign pathogens that evolved by radial speciation. Here, we have used comparative and functional genomics to infer pathogenicity genes specific to the radiating lineage, and we suggest that these genes may have facilitated adaptation

Henri L Saenz; Philipp Engel; Michèle C Stoeckli; Christa Lanz; Günter Raddatz; Muriel Vayssier-Taussat; Richard Birtles; Stephan C Schuster; Christoph Dehio

2007-01-01

137

Identification of Diverse Bartonella Genotypes among Small Mammals from Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Small mammals from the Democratic Republic (DR) of the Congo and Tanzania were tested to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species. The presence of Bartonella DNA was assessed in spleen samples of the animals by rpoB- and gltA-polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). By rpoB-PCR, Bartonella was detected in 8 of 59 animals of DR Congo and in 16 of 39 Tanzanian animals. By gltA-PCR, Bartonella was detected in 5 and 15 animals of DR Congo and Tanzania, respectively. The gene sequences from Arvicanthis neumanni were closely related to Bartonella elizabethae. The genotypes from Lophuromys spp. and from Praomys delectorum were close to Bartonella tribocorum. Five genogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. These results suggest the need to conduct further studies to establish the zoonotic risks linked with those Bartonella species and, in particular, to verify whether these agents might be responsible for human cases of febrile illness of unknown etiology in Africa. PMID:22855765

Gundi, Vijay A. K. B.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Laudisoit, Anne

2012-01-01

138

Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.  

PubMed

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

2015-02-01

139

Bartonella Infections in Deer Keds (Lipoptena cervi) and Moose (Alces alces) in Norway  

PubMed Central

Infections with Bartonella spp. have been recognized as emerging zoonotic diseases in humans. Large knowledge gaps exist, however, relating to reservoirs, vectors, and transmission of these bacteria. We describe identification by culture, PCR, and housekeeping gene sequencing of Bartonella spp. in fed, wingless deer keds (Lipoptena cervi), deer ked pupae, and blood samples collected from moose, Alces alces, sampled within the deer ked distribution range in Norway. Direct sequencing from moose blood sampled in a deer ked-free area also indicated Bartonella infection but at a much lower prevalence. The sequencing data suggested the presence of mixed infections involving two species of Bartonella within the deer ked range, while moose outside the range appeared to be infected with a single species. Bartonella were not detected or cultured from unfed winged deer keds. The results may indicate that long-term bacteremia in the moose represents a reservoir of infection and that L. cervi acts as a vector for the spread of infection of Bartonella spp. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of L. cervi in the transmission of Bartonella to animals and humans and the possible pathogenicity of these bacteria for humans and animals. PMID:23104416

Duodu, Samuel; Madslien, Knut; Hjelm, Eva; Molin, Ylva; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Harris, Philip D.; Colquhoun, Duncan J.

2013-01-01

140

Bartonella spp. in Fruit Bats and Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

We captured, ectoparasite-combed, and blood-sampled cave-roosting Madagascan fruit bats (Eidolon dupreanum) and tree-roosting Madagascan flying foxes (Pteropus rufus) in four single-species roosts within a sympatric geographic foraging range for these species in central Madagascar. We describe infection with novel Bartonella spp. in sampled Eidolon dupreanum and associated bat flies (Cyclopodia dubia), which nest close to or within major known Bartonella lineages; simultaneously, we report the absence of Bartonella spp. in Thaumapsylla sp. fleas collected from these same bats. This represents the first documented finding of Bartonella infection in these species of bat and bat fly, as well as a new geographic record for Thaumapsylla sp. We further relate the absence of both Bartonella spp. and ectoparasites in sympatrically sampled Pteropus rufus, thus suggestive of a potential role for bat flies in Bartonella spp. transmission. These findings shed light on transmission ecology of bat-borne Bartonella spp., recently demonstrated as a potentially zoonotic pathogen. PMID:25706653

Brook, Cara E.; Bai, Ying; Dobson, Andrew P.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Ranaivoson, Hafaliana C.; Zhu, Qiyun

2015-01-01

141

Bartonella quintana Deploys Host and Vector Temperature-Specific Transcriptomes  

PubMed Central

The bacterial pathogen Bartonella quintana is passed between humans by body lice. B. quintana has adapted to both the human host and body louse vector niches, producing persistent infection with high titer bacterial loads in both the host (up to 105 colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) and vector (more than 108 CFU/ml). Using a novel custom microarray platform, we analyzed bacterial transcription at temperatures corresponding to the host (37°C) and vector (28°C), to probe for temperature-specific and growth phase-specific transcriptomes. We observed that transcription of 7% (93 genes) of the B. quintana genome is modified in response to change in growth phase, and that 5% (68 genes) of the genome is temperature-responsive. Among these transcriptional changes in response to temperature shift and growth phase was the induction of known B. quintana virulence genes and several previously unannotated genes. Hemin binding proteins, secretion systems, response regulators, and genes for invasion and cell attachment were prominent among the differentially-regulated B. quintana genes. This study represents the first analysis of global transcriptional responses by B. quintana. In addition, the in vivo experiments provide novel insight into the B. quintana transcriptional program within the body louse environment. These data and approaches will facilitate study of the adaptation mechanisms employed by Bartonella during the transition between human host and arthropod vector. PMID:23554923

Previte, Domenic; Yoon, Kyong S.; Clark, J. Marshall; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Koehler, Jane E.

2013-01-01

142

High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-01-01

143

Ixodes ricinus is not an epidemiologically relevant vector of Bartonella species in the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus).  

PubMed

Bartonella are hemoparasites exploiting a range of mammals as reservoir hosts. Several species are zoonotic pathogens. Fleas, lice, and other arthropods, such as ticks, have been implicated as vectors. While the competence of ticks as vectors of Bartonella species has recently been demonstrated, the epidemiological significance of ticks as vectors of Bartonella species in wildlife populations remains unknown. We used the presence of deer at study sites to control the presence of Ixodes ricinus ticks, and used this system to determine whether I. ricinus contributes to the epidemiology of Bartonella species infections in small mammals. Ticks were present at all sites with deer, but were absent from all sites without deer; however, the abundance of ticks on small mammals did not affect the probability of wood mice being infected with Bartonella species. Data presented here indicate that I. ricinus is not involved in the transmission of Bartonella in woodland rodents. PMID:22217173

Harrison, Alan; Bown, Kevin J; Montgomery, W Ian; Birtles, Richard J

2012-05-01

144

Bartonella species and trombiculid mites of rats from the mekong delta of Vietnam.  

PubMed

A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012-March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7-19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini-Blankaartia and Schoengastiini-Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.-positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.-negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.-positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.-negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human-rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human cases of Bartonella infection that may arise. PMID:25629779

Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be; Carrique-Mas, Juan

2015-01-01

145

Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.  

PubMed

Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-12-01

146

Partial Disruption of Translational and Posttranslational Machinery Reshapes Growth Rates of Bartonella birtlesii  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Specialization of bacteria in a new niche is associated with genome repertoire changes, and speciation in bacterial specialists is associated with genome reduction. Here, we tested a signature-tagged mutant library of 3,456 Bartonella birtlesii clones to detect mutants that could grow rapidly in vitro. Overall, we found 124 mutants that grew faster than the parental wild-type strain in vitro. We sequenced the genomes of the four mutants with the most rapid growth (formed visible colonies in only 1 to 2 days compared with 5 days for the wild type) and compared them to the parental isolate genome. We found that the number of disrupted genes associated with translation in the 124 rapid-growth clones was significantly higher than the number of genes involved in translation in the full genome (P < 10?6). Analysis of transposon integration in the genome of the four most rapidly growing clones revealed that one clone lacked one of the two wild-type RNA ribosomal operons. Finally, one of the four clones did not induce bacteremia in our mouse model, whereas infection with the other three resulted in a significantly lower bacterial count in blood than that with the wild-type strain. PMID:23611908

Rolain, Jean Marc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Merhej, Vicky; Gimenez, Gregory; Robert, Catherine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Dehio, Christoph; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

147

Development of a Novel Genus-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Bartonella Species and Genotypes  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella includes numerous species with varied host associations, including several that infect humans. Development of a molecular diagnostic method capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of Bartonella species while maintaining genus specificity has been a challenge. We developed a novel real-time PCR assay targeting a 301-bp region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella and demonstrated specific amplification in over 30 Bartonella species, subspecies, and strains. Subsequent analysis of ssrA sequences was sufficient to discriminate Bartonella species and provided phylogenetic data consistent with that of gltA, a commonly used gene for differentiating Bartonella genotypes. Using this assay, we identified Bartonella DNA in 29% and 47% of blood specimens from elk in Wyoming and cattle in the Republic of Georgia, respectively. Sequence analysis of a subset of genotypes from elk specimens revealed a cluster most closely related to Bartonella capreoli, and genotypes from cattle were identified as Bartonella bovis, both Bartonella species commonly found in wild and domestic ruminants. Considering the widespread geographic distribution and infectivity potential to a variety of hosts, this assay may be an effective diagnostic method for identification of Bartonella infections in humans and have utility in Bartonella surveillance studies. PMID:22378904

Bai, Ying; Malania, Lile; Winchell, Jonas M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

148

Mixed Infections, Cryptic Diversity, and Vector-Borne Pathogens: Evidence from Polygenis Fleas and Bartonella Species?  

PubMed Central

Coinfections within hosts present opportunities for horizontal gene transfer between strains and competitive interactions between genotypes and thus can be a critical element of the lifestyles of pathogens. Bartonella spp. are Alphaproteobacteria that parasitize mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Their vectors are thought to be various biting arthropods, such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice, and they are commonly cited as agents of various emerging diseases. Coinfections by different Bartonella strains and species can be common in mammals, but little is known about specificity and coinfections in arthropod vectors. We surveyed the rate of mixed infections of Bartonella in flea vectors (Polygenis gwyni) parasitizing cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in which previous surveys indicated high rates of infection. We found that nearly all fleas (20 of 21) harbored one or more strains of Bartonella, with rates of coinfection approaching 90%. A strain previously identified as common in cotton rats was also common in their fleas. However, another common strain in cotton rats was absent from P. gwyni, while a rare cotton rat strain was quite common in P. gwyni. Surprisingly, some samples were also coinfected with a strain phylogenetically related to Bartonella clarridgeiae, which is typically associated with felids and ruminants. Finally, a locus (pap31) that is characteristically borne on phage in Bartonella was successfully sequenced from most samples. However, sequence diversity in pap31 was novel in the P. gwyni samples, relative to other Bartonella previously typed with pap31, emphasizing the likelihood of large reservoirs of cryptic diversity in natural populations of the pathogen. PMID:17693558

Abbot, Patrick; Aviles, Alena E.; Eller, Lauren; Durden, Lance A.

2007-01-01

149

Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.  

PubMed

Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a reservoir host for Bvb and Br and that ectoparasite control is an important component of shelter intake protocols. PMID:24268654

Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

2014-01-31

150

Seroepidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in California coyotes, 1994-1998.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coyotes (Canis latrans) in California ranged from 51% in central to 34% in southern and 7% in northern California. Seropositive coyotes were more likely to be from coastal than inland counties (p clustered distribution of Bartonella seropositivity in coyotes suggests that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection is vectorborne. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate which arthropods are vectors and what the mode of transmission is from wildlife to domestic dogs and possibly humans. PMID:10511529

Chang, C; Yamamoto, K; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Simpson, D C; Smith, C R; Kramer, V L

1999-01-01

151

Genome dynamics of Bartonella grahamii in micro-populations of woodland rodents  

PubMed Central

Background Rodents represent a high-risk reservoir for the emergence of new human pathogens. The recent completion of the 2.3 Mb genome of Bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent blood-borne bacteria in wild rodents, revealed a higher abundance of genes for host-cell interaction systems than in the genomes of closely related human pathogens. The sequence variability within the global B. grahamii population was recently investigated by multi locus sequence typing, but no study on the variability of putative host-cell interaction systems has been performed. Results To study the population dynamics of B. grahamii, we analyzed the genomic diversity on a whole-genome scale of 27 B. grahamii strains isolated from four different species of wild rodents in three geographic locations separated by less than 30 km. Even using highly variable spacer regions, only 3 sequence types were identified. This low sequence diversity contrasted with a high variability in genome content. Microarray comparative genome hybridizations identified genes for outer surface proteins, including a repeated region containing the fha gene for filamentous hemaggluttinin and a plasmid that encodes a type IV secretion system, as the most variable. The estimated generation times in liquid culture medium for a subset of strains ranged from 5 to 22 hours, but did not correlate with sequence type or presence/absence patterns of the fha gene or the plasmid. Conclusion Our study has revealed a geographic microstructure of B. grahamii in wild rodents. Despite near-identity in nucleotide sequence, major differences were observed in gene presence/absence patterns that did not segregate with host species. This suggests that genetically similar strains can infect a range of different hosts. PMID:20202191

2010-01-01

152

Detection of Bartonella quintana in African body and head lice.  

PubMed

Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of Bartonella quintana, an organism that causes trench fever. In this work, we investigated the prevalence of this bacterium in human lice in different African countries. We tested 616 head lice and 424 body lice from nine African countries using real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting intergenic spacer region 2 and specific B. quintana genes. Overall, B. quintana DNA was found in 54% and 2% of body and head lice, respectively. Our results also show that there are more body lice positive for B. quintana in poor countries, which was determined by the gross domestic product, than in wealthy areas (228/403 versus 0/21, P < 0.001). A similar finding was obtained for head lice (8/226 versus 2/390, P = 0.007). Our findings suggest that head lice in Africa may be infected by B. quintana when patients live in poor economic conditions and are also exposed to body lice. PMID:24935950

Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Socolovschi, Cristina; Barker, Stephen C; Diatta, Georges; Rogier, Christophe; Olive, Marie-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier

2014-08-01

153

Bartonella spp infection as a possible cause of uveitis in a cat.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old castrated mixed-breed cat was evaluated because of unilateral anterior uveitis. The cat was seronegative for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, coronaviruses, and feline immunodeficiency virus, and antigens for FeLV p27 and Cryptococcus neoformans. Antibodies to Bartonella spp were detected in serum and aqueous humor. The antibody coefficient (C value) for IgG antibodies to Bartonella spp in the aqueous humor was 4.42; values > 1 suggest ocular production of antibodies and supports a diagnosis of ocular infection. Topical administration of prednisolone and oral administration of prednisone failed to induce a response; however, the uveitis resolved rapidly after the cat was given doxycycline orally. Clinical or laboratory evidence of immunodeficiency in this cat was not detected. Detection of a serum IgG antibody titer to Bartonella spp and ocular production of IgG antibodies to Bartonella spp, exclusion of other causes of uveitis, and response to doxycycline suggests that the cat may have had bartonellosis resulting in uveal tract inflammation. PMID:10212684

Lappin, M R; Black, J C

1999-04-15

154

Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana DNA in the dental pulp of a homeless patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental pulp has been proposed as a suitable tissue sample for the identification of pathogenic organisms. Using PCR with two specific gene targets, Bartonella quintana DNA was detected in the dental pulp extracted from the tooth of a homeless patient. The patient had been bacteremic 6 months previously but was not when the tooth was sampled.

G. Aboudharam; P.-E. Fournier; M. Drancourt; D. Raoult; C. Foucault; P. Brouqui

2004-01-01

155

Diversifying Selection and Concerted Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Bartonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the evolution of a type IV secretion system (T4SS), in Bartonella, which is thought to have changed function from conjugation to erythrocyte adherence following a recent horizontal gene transfer event. The system, called Trw, is unique among T4SSs in that genes encoding both exo- and intracellular components are located within the same duplicated fragment. This provides an

Björn Nystedt; A. C. Frank; Mikael Thollesson; Siv G. E. Andersson

2008-01-01

156

Hallucinations, sensory neuropathy, and peripheral visual deficits in a young woman infected with Bartonella koehlerae.  

PubMed

A young woman experiencing depression, anxiety, mood swings, severe headaches, muscle spasms, interphalangeal joint stiffness, decreased peripheral vision, diminished tactile sensation, and hallucinations was persistently Bartonella koehlerae seroreactive and bacteremic. Following antibiotic treatment, B. koehlerae antibodies and DNA were not detected and all symptoms resolved. PMID:21734026

Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Schweickert, Lori A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Hegarty, Barbara C; Bradley, Julie M; Woods, Christopher W

2011-09-01

157

Hallucinations, Sensory Neuropathy, and Peripheral Visual Deficits in a Young Woman Infected with Bartonella koehlerae ?  

PubMed Central

A young woman experiencing depression, anxiety, mood swings, severe headaches, muscle spasms, interphalangeal joint stiffness, decreased peripheral vision, diminished tactile sensation, and hallucinations was persistently Bartonella koehlerae seroreactive and bacteremic. Following antibiotic treatment, B. koehlerae antibodies and DNA were not detected and all symptoms resolved. PMID:21734026

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Schweickert, Lori A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Bradley, Julie M.; Woods, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

158

Deciphering Bartonella Diversity, Recombination, and Host Specificity in a Rodent Community  

PubMed Central

Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle. PMID:23894381

Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Pisanu, Benoît; Brisse, Sylvain; Roussel, Sophie; Félix, Benjamin; Halos, Lénaïg; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2013-01-01

159

Contrasting Patterns in Mammal–Bacteria Coevolution: Bartonella and Leptospira in Bats and Rodents  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging bacterial zoonoses in bats and rodents remain relatively understudied. We conduct the first comparative host–pathogen coevolutionary analyses of bacterial pathogens in these hosts, using Bartonella spp. and Leptospira spp. as a model. Methodology/Principal Findings We used published genetic data for 51 Bartonella genotypes from 24 bat species, 129 Bartonella from 38 rodents, and 26 Leptospira from 20 bats. We generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for hosts and bacteria, and tested for coevoutionary congruence using programs ParaFit, PACO, and Jane. Bartonella spp. and their bat hosts had a significant coevolutionary fit (ParaFitGlobal?=?1.9703, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?7.3320, P?0.0001). Bartonella spp. and rodent hosts also indicated strong overall patterns of cospeciation (ParaFitGlobal?=?102.4409, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?86.532, P?0.0001). In contrast, we were unable to reject independence of speciation events in Leptospira and bats (ParaFitGlobal?=?0.0042, P?=?0.84; m2 global value?=?4.6310, P?=?0.5629). Separate analyses of New World and Old World data subsets yielded results congruent with analysis from entire datasets. We also conducted event-based cophylogeny analyses to reconstruct likely evolutionary histories for each group of pathogens and hosts. Leptospira and bats had the greatest number of host switches per parasite (0.731), while Bartonella and rodents had the fewest (0.264). Conclusions/Significance In both bat and rodent hosts, Bartonella exhibits significant coevolution with minimal host switching, while Leptospira in bats lacks evolutionary congruence with its host and has high number of host switches. Reasons underlying these variable coevolutionary patterns in host range are likely due to differences in disease-specific transmission and host ecology. Understanding the coevolutionary patterns and frequency of host-switching events between bacterial pathogens and their hosts will allow better prediction of spillover between mammal reservoirs, and ultimately to humans. PMID:24651646

Lei, Bonnie R.; Olival, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

160

Bartonella, a common cause of endocarditis: a report on 106 cases and review.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative endocarditis and have been increasingly reported. In this study, we included all patients retrospectively and prospectively diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis in our French reference center between 2005 and 2013. Our diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and microbiological findings, including serological and PCR results. To review the published literature, we searched all human Bartonella endocarditis cases published in the PubMed database between January 2005 and October 2013. We report here a large series of 106 cases, which include 59 cases that had not previously been reported or mentioned. Indirect immunofluorescence assays, Western blotting, and real-time PCR from total blood, serum, and valve tissue exhibited sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 33%, 36%, and 91%, respectively. The number of cases reported in the literature between 2005 and 2013 increased to reach a cumulative number of 196 cases. The number of cases reported in the literature by other centers is increasing more rapidly than that reported by our French reference center (P < 10(-2)). Currently, there is a lack of criteria for the diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis. We suggest that a positive PCR result from a cardiac valve or blood specimen, an IgG titer of ?800 using an immunofluorescence assay, or a positive Western blot assay be considered major Duke criteria for Bartonella endocarditis. There is no real increase in the incidence of these infections but rather a better understanding and interest in the disease resulting from the improvement of diagnostic tools. PMID:25540398

Edouard, Sophie; Nabet, Cecile; Lepidi, Hubert; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

2015-03-01

161

Molecular detection of Bartonella grahamii and B. schoenbuchensis-related species in Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of Bartonella spp. and investigated which species of Bartonella naturally infects Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in the Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 70 spleens from KWD carcasses were collected by the Conservation Genome Resource Bank for Korean Wildlife (CGRB) in the ROK between 2008 and 2009. Nested PCRs were performed using the rpoB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region primers to amplify the DNA fragment of Bartonella. Using ITS-based nested PCR, Bartonella grahamii and Bartonella schoenbuchensis-related species were detected in 11 (15.8%) and 9 (12.9%) of 70 KWD spleens, respectively. The 11 B. grahamii amplicons were classified into 2 genotypes by sequence analysis. Using rpoB-based nested PCR, B. grahamii was detected in 5 (7.1%) of 70 KWD spleen samples. This is the first report of B. grahamii and B. schoenbuchensis in KWD, suggesting that KWD may act as reservoirs for the spreading of Bartonella spp. in the ROK. PMID:23473217

Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Su-jin; Kang, Jun-gu; Won, Sohyun; Lee, Hang; Shin, Nam-shik; Choi, Kyoung-seong; Youn, Hwa-young; Chae, Joon-Seok

2013-06-01

162

Horizontal Transfers and Gene Losses in the Phospholipid Pathway of Bartonella Reveal Clues about Early Ecological Niches  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are mammalian pathogens vectored by blood-feeding arthropods. Although of increasing medical importance, little is known about their ecological past, and host associations are underexplored. Previous studies suggest an influence of horizontal gene transfers in ecological niche colonization by acquisition of host pathogenicity genes. We here expand these analyses to metabolic pathways of 28 Bartonella genomes, and experimentally explore the distribution of bartonellae in 21 species of blood-feeding arthropods. Across genomes, repeated gene losses and horizontal gains in the phospholipid pathway were found. The evolutionary timing of these patterns suggests functional consequences likely leading to an early intracellular lifestyle for stem bartonellae. Comparative phylogenomic analyses discover three independent lineage-specific reacquisitions of a core metabolic gene—NAD(P)H-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpsA)—from Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Transferred genes are significantly closely related to invertebrate Arsenophonus-, and Serratia-like endosymbionts, and mammalian Helicobacter-like pathogens, supporting a cellular association with arthropods and mammals at the base of extant Bartonella spp. Our studies suggest that the horizontal reacquisitions had a key impact on bartonellae lineage specific ecological and functional evolution. PMID:25106622

Zhu, Qiyun; Kosoy, Michael; Olival, Kevin J.; Dittmar, Katharina

2014-01-01

163

[Bacillary angiomatosis caused by Bartonella quintana in an human immunodeficiency virus positive patient].  

PubMed

We report the first case of bacillary angiomatosis due to Bartonella quintana affecting a Chilean a HIV positive patient in Chile. He was a 27 years old, heterosexual male, indigent man known to be HIV positive serological status known from September, 2003, under irregular medical control. On April, 2005, he presented a progressive abscess in the frontal region and erythematous papules in the extremities, that extended to face, thorax and mucoses, becoming nodular and violaceous lesions. Bacillary angiomatosis diagnosis was initially sustained on account of the clinical manifestations, and was confirmed by serology and Warthin Starry staining from a skin biopsy. The etiological agent was identified as Bartonella quintana through universal RPC performed from a cutaneous nodule to detect 16S rRNA gen. Azithromycin plus ciprofloxacin was started, besides of anti retroviral therapy antiretroviral, with the lesions being progressively disappearing. PMID:17453076

Vásquez T, Patricia; Chanqueo C, Leonardo; García C, Patricia; Poggi M, Helena; Ferrés G, Marcela; Bustos M, Marisol; Piottante B, Antonio

2007-04-01

164

Potential Limitations of the 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Region for Molecular Detection of Bartonella Species  

PubMed Central

PCR targeting the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been proposed as a rapid and reliable method for the detection of Bartonella species DNA in clinical samples. Because of variation in ITS sequences among Bartonella species, a single PCR amplification can be used to detect different species within this genus. Therefore, by targeting the ITS region, multiple PCRs or additional sample-processing steps beyond the primary amplification can be avoided when attempting to achieve molecular diagnostic detection of Bartonella species. Although PCR amplification targeting this region is considered highly sensitive, amplification specificity obviously depends on primer design. We report evidence of nonspecific PCR amplification of Mesorhizobium species with previously published primers that were designed to amplify the Bartonella consensus ITS region. Use of these or other, less species-specific, primers could lead to a false-positive diagnostic test result when evaluating clinical samples. We also report the presence of Mesorhizobium species DNA as a contaminant in molecular-grade water, a series of homologous sequences in the ITS region that are common to Bartonella and Mesorhizobium species, the amplification of Mesorhizobium DNA with unpublished primers designed in our laboratory targeting the ITS region, and the subsequent design of unambiguous ITS primers that avoid nonspecific amplification of Mesorhizobium species. Our results define some potential limitations associated with the molecular detection of Bartonella species in patient samples and indicate that primer specificity is of critical importance if the ITS region is used as a diagnostic target for detection of Bartonella species. PMID:15750079

Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2005-01-01

165

Genome dynamics of Bartonella grahamii in micro-populations of woodland rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rodents represent a high-risk reservoir for the emergence of new human pathogens. The recent completion of the 2.3 Mb genome of Bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent blood-borne bacteria in wild rodents, revealed a higher abundance of genes for host-cell interaction systems than in the genomes of closely related human pathogens. The sequence variability within the global B.

Eva C Berglund; Christian Ehrenborg; Olga Vinnere Pettersson; Fredrik Granberg; Kristina Näslund; Martin Holmberg; Siv GE Andersson

2010-01-01

166

A SacB Mutagenesis Strategy Reveals that the Bartonella quintana Variably Expressed Outer Membrane Proteins Are Required for Bloodstream Infection of the Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella bacteria adhere to erythrocytes and persistently infect the mammalian bloodstream. We previ- ously identified four highly conserved Bartonella quintana adhesin genes that undergo phase variation during prolonged bloodstream infection. The variably expressed outer membrane proteins (Vomp) encoded by these genes are members of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin family. Each B. quintana Vomp appears to contribute a different adhesion phenotype,

Joanna K. MacKichan; Helen L. Gerns; Yu-Ting Chen; Peng Zhang; Jane E. Koehler

2008-01-01

167

Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in the blood of cats with anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemoplasmas are known causes of anemia in some cats and some Bartonella species have been associated with anemia in people and in dogs. In this retrospective study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to determine the prevalence rates of Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus M haemominutum’, A phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia species, and Bartonella species DNA in the blood of cats with anemia

Anthony M. Ishak; Steve Radecki; Michael R. Lappin

2007-01-01

168

Environmental factors associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seropositivity in free-ranging coyotes from northern California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is a newly recognized pathogen of domestic dogs and humans. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are considered an important reservoir of this bacterium in the western United States, but its vectors are still unknown. Our objective was to identify environmental factors associated with Bartonella antibody prevalence in 239 coyotes from northern California, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, associations were evaluated between B. v. berkhoffii and two pathogens with known vectors and habitat requirements, Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Overall, B. v. berkhoffii seroprevalence was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.3%, 33.7%) and Bartonella seropositive coyotes were more likely than seronegative coyotes to be positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.9) and Dirofilaria immitis (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8). The most likely geographic clusters of Bartonella and Dirofilaria overlapped. Bartonella seropositivity was associated with higher precipitation (p = 0.003) and proximity to the coast (p = 0.007) in univariate analysis. The association with precipitation varied with season, based on a logistic regression model. PMID:16011426

Beldomenico, P M; Chomel, B B; Foley, J E; Sacks, B N; Baldi, C J; Kasten, R W; Gardner, I A

2005-01-01

169

Bartonella bacilliformis GroEL; Effect on Growth of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells in Infected Co-Cultures  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are the only bacteria known to induce angioproliferative lesions of the human vasculature and liver during infection. Previous work from our lab suggests that GroEL participates in the mitogenic response observed in HUVEC cultures supplemented with the soluble fraction of Bartonella bacilliformis. Work in this study shows that exposure to high concentrations of the fraction is actually cytotoxic for HUVECs. To analyze this phenomenon, live B. bacillformis - HUVEC co-cultures were employed to study the effect of excess bacterial GroEL on the host cell during active infection. Four B. bacilliformis strains were generated to produce varying levels of GroEL. HUVEC co-cultures with LSS100, a strain that synthesizes markedly greater quantities of GroEL relative to others, significantly accelerates apoptosis of the co-cultured HUVECs relative to other strains. Acceleration of apoptosis can be inhibited by Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Time course data show that at 18 h of infection, both LSS100 and control strains significantly inhibit spontaneous apoptosis of co-cultured HUVECs, as previously reported for other Bartonella species. However, by 48 h LSS100 significantly increases apoptosis of the host cell. We hypothesize that intracellular Bartonella GroEL functions as an HSP60 analog, a eukaryotic orthologue known to accelerate procaspase 3 activation by enhancing its vulnerability to upstream activator caspases. These data suggest another strategy whereby Bartonella may regulate host cell growth. PMID:16481529

SMITHERMAN, LAURA S.; MINNICK, MICHAEL F.

2007-01-01

170

Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) has created an unprecedented demand for research on its biology. The main objectives of this dissertation research were to investigate several aspects of bed bug biology: infestation and dispersal dynamics at a large and small geographical scale using molecular markers, to determine the impact of aggregation on bed bug development and to screen bed bug populations for a re-emergent pathogen. First, we studied the infestation and dispersal dynamics of bed bugs at large geographical scale (e.g., across cities, states). Although bed bug infestations are on the rise, there is a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. We conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States. We genotyped samples comprised of 8 - 10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5 -- 17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3), we found low genetic diversity (1 -- 4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise FST between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of structuring. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. This work is described in Chapter 2 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Second, we investigated dispersal and infestation dynamics of bed bugs at a fine geographical scale within three multistory apartment buildings: one from Raleigh, NC and two from Jersey City, NJ. Here we describe the development of 24 high resolution microsatellite markers and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread throughout the building. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by extensive spread. Populations within single apartments in all buildings showed low levels of genetic diversity suggesting that few individuals are starting these infestations, possibly a singly mated female or her progeny. This work is described in Chapter 3 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Third, we studied the impact of aggregation in bed bug development. Although it is well known that bed bugs live in aggregations, the adaptive benefits of this behavior are not well understood. In this study, we reared first instars either in isolation or in groups of five from hatching to adult eclosion and recorded their development time. Additionally, we investigated the effects of group-housing on same age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition (nymphs vs. adults). Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation. This work is described in Chapter 4. Fourth, we investigated the prevalence of a re-emergent bacterial pathogen in United States bed bugs populations. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the United States, and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgence of these two medically important species are linked by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs colle

Saenz, Virna Lisa

171

Diagnosis of Bartonella Endocarditis by a Real-Time Nested PCR Assay Using Serum  

PubMed Central

Bartonella endocarditis is a severe disease for which blood cultures frequently remain negative. We tested three PCR assays by using specimens of serum sampled early during the disease from 43 patients diagnosed in our laboratory as having Bartonella endocarditis on the basis of serological, culture, and/or valvular molecular detection. We tested a two-step nested PCR (TSN-PCR), a one-step nested PCR (OSN-PCR) with a regular thermal cycler, and a one-step nested PCR with the LightCycler (LCN-PCR). These assays were performed with primers derived from the riboflavin synthase-encoding gene ribC, never before amplified in our laboratory. Due to contamination of negative controls, the results of the TSN-PCR were not interpretable, and this technique was no longer considered. The LCN-PCR had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 58.1%, higher than those of the OSN-PCR (18.6%; P < 0.01) and prolonged blood culturing (7.1%; P < 0.01). The LCN-PCR results correlated strictly with those of other direct diagnostic tests, when available, and identified the causative species for six patients previously diagnosed on the basis of serological analysis only. The efficacy of the LCN-PCR was not influenced by antibiotics (P = 0.96) but was altered by prolonged storage of serum specimens at ?20°C (P = 0.04). Overall, the LCN-PCR is specific and more sensitive than traditional methods (i.e., culturing and/or PCR with EDTA-treated blood). It can easily be applied to the diagnosis of patients with suspected Bartonella endocarditis, especially when only serum is available. PMID:12624010

Zeaiter, Zaher; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

2003-01-01

172

Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Methodology/Principal findings Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Conclusion Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high. PMID:25299702

Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2014-01-01

173

Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacteremia due to Bartonella quintana in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

We present a 63-year-old man treated with alemtuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia who developed multiple angiomatous papules and fever. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from a skin lesion and blood sample revealed Bartonella quintana as causative agent confirming the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis with bacteremia. Treatment with doxycycline, initially in combination with gentamicin, led to complete resolution of the lesions. This case shows the importance of considering bacillary angiomatosis as a rare differential diagnosis of angiomatous lesions in the immunocompromised patient, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and following lymphocyte depleting treatments as alemtuzumab. PMID:23710386

Bloemberg, Guido; Boggian, Katia

2013-01-01

174

Contrasting dynamics of Bartonella spp. in cyclic field vole populations: the impact of vector and host dynamics  

E-print Network

- stock and humans has important repercussions for conservation, farming and human health (Cleaveland etContrasting dynamics of Bartonella spp. in cyclic field vole populations: the impact of vector) over 3 years. The probability of flea infestation was positively related to field vole density 12

Lambin, Xavier

175

Prevalence of Bartonella quintana in patients with fever and head lice from rural areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal.  

PubMed

Trench fever is poorly known by the staff of health facilities that manage febrile patients in Senegal. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in 5 of 274 (2%) febrile patients from two rural dispensaries and 2 of 71 (3%) head lice specimens collected from the same villages. PMID:24799368

Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Bassene, Hubert; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ratmanov, Pavel; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

2014-08-01

176

Evidence of Transfer by Conjugation of Type IV Secretion System Genes between Bartonella Species and Rhizobium radiobacter in Amoeba  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4T) circular plasmid (pNH4) that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. Principal Findings The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae) and plants (Rhizobiales). We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. Conclusions Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms. PMID:20856925

Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

2010-01-01

177

The World's Top Stealth Bug Ends Marriages, Friendships and Jobs Bartonella Promotes Addiction, Aggression and Character Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

I hate medical drama. If I want drama I will watch a movie, a sporting event or a TV show. Bartonella has almost 2,000 articles on PubMed, but almost no one realizes it is a major source of depression and suicide, panic attacks and social anxiety, seizures, heart attacks, personality change, pushy be- havior, divorce, profound narcissism, eccentric obsessions, irritability,

James Schaller

178

Prevalence of selected vector-borne organisms and identification of Bartonella species DNA in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis).  

PubMed

Trapper-killed North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA, were screened for multiple vector-borne bacteria known to be pathogenic to mammals. Blood was collected from 30 carcasses in 2006, from 35 in 2007, and from one live otter in 2008. Samples were screened using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for DNA from Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. All samples were negative for Rickettsia spp. Twelve of 30 samples from 2006 produced amplicons using the assay designed to detect Ehrlichia spp., but sequencing revealed that the amplified DNA fragment was from a novel Wolbachia sp., thought to be an endosymbiote of a Dirofilaria sp. Between 2006 and 2007, DNA from a novel Bartonella sp. was detected in 19 of 65 animals (29%). Blood from one live otter captured in 2008 was found positive for this Bartonella sp. by both PCR and culture. The pathogenicity of this Bartonella species in river otters or other mammals is unknown. PMID:20688703

Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Blanton, Hunter L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Belfiore, Natalia; Marr, Henry S; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stoskopf, Michael K

2010-07-01

179

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens. PMID:12507856

Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

2003-01-15

180

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

E-print Network

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, ...

Okujava, Rusudan

181

Contrasting dynamics of Bartonella spp. in cyclic field vole populations: the impact of vector and host dynamics  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Many zoonotic disease agents are transmitted between hosts by arthropod vectors, including fleas, but few empirical studies of host-vector-microparasite dynamics have investigated the relative importance of hosts and vectors. This study investigates the dynamics of 4 closely related Bartonella species and their flea vectors in cyclic populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis) over 3 years. The probability of flea infestation was positively related to field vole density 12 months previously in autumn, but negatively related to more recent host densities, suggesting a dilution effect. The 4 Bartonella species exhibited contrasting dynamics. Only B. grahamii, showed a distinct seasonal pattern. Infection probability increased with field vole density for B. doshiae, B. taylorii and BGA (a previously unidentified species) and with density of coexisting wood mice for B. doshiae and B. grahamii. However, only the infection probability of BGA in spring was related to flea prevalence. B. doshiae and BGA were most common in older animals, but the other 2 were most common in non-reproductive hosts. Generally, host density rather than vector abundance appears most important for the dynamics of flea-transmitted Bartonella spp., possibly reflecting the importance of flea exchange between hosts. However, even closely related species showed quite different dynamics, emphasising that other factors such as population age structure can impact on zoonotic risk. PMID:17096870

TELFER, S.; BEGON, M.; BENNETT, M.; BOWN, K. J.; BURTHE, S.; LAMBIN, X.; TELFORD, G.; BIRTLES, R.

2010-01-01

182

A Case of Multi-vector and Multi-host Epidemiological Model: Bartonella Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a compartmental model for the Bartonella infection on rodents. More precisely, on the co-occurring populations of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus where the vectors are two species of ectoparasites, namely ticks and fleas. As usual for such models a key stage is the modelling of the forces of infection. While the vital dynamics and the progression of the infection within each of the four species are sufficiently well known to determine the rest of the transfer rates, there is practically no data on the probability of infection. In order to determine appropriate values for the coefficients of the forces of infection we solve an optimal control problem where the objective function is the norm of the difference between the observed and the predicted by the model equilibrium infection prevalence rates in the four species. Within this setting the conjecture that the higher prevalence of the infection in Rattus norvegicus can be explained solely by their higher ectoparasite load is tested and disproved.

Anguelov, R.; Brettschneider, H.; Bastos, A. D. S.

2010-11-01

183

Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.  

PubMed

Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment. PMID:21347280

Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C; Dehio, Christoph

2011-01-01

184

Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment. PMID:21347280

Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

2011-01-01

185

Cat Scratch Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

186

Conservation of gene order and content in the circular chromosomes of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' asiaticus and other rhizbiales  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The intracellular plant pathogen ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ is a member of the Rhizobiales, as are the nitrogen fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the intracellular mammalian pathogen Bartonella henselae. Whole genome compar...

187

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

188

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

189

Presumed ocular bartonellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDThe spectrum of diseases caused by Bartonella henselae continues to expand and ocular involvement during this infection is being diagnosed with increasing frequency.METHODSThe clinical features and visual prognosis for 13 patients with intraocular inflammatory disease and laboratory evidence of bartonellosis were investigated. There were nine patients with neuroretinitis and four with panuveitis with positive antibody titres against B henselae determined

F. T. Kerkhoff; J. M. Ossewaarde; W. S. de Loos; A. Rothova

1999-01-01

190

Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana.  

PubMed

Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs. PMID:25686301

Clarke, Lorelei L; Ballweber, Lora R; Allen, Kelly; Little, Susan E; Lappin, Michael R

2014-01-01

191

233Vet. Res. 35 (2004) 233241 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2004  

E-print Network

article Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor. Bartonella henselae / bobcat / Felis concolor / Lynx rufus / puma * Corresponding author: bbchomel. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas

Boyer, Edmond

2004-01-01

192

A view on Bartonella quintana endocarditis--confirming the molecular diagnosis by specific fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Culture-negative endocarditis is a frequent problem in cardiology, especially if caused by fastidious organisms. Among these, the diagnostic tools for the detection of Bartonella quintana are still unsatisfactory. In a culture-negative case of suspected endocarditis undergoing aortic valve replacement, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated B. quintana infection. To develop a new diagnostic tool, independent from culture and amplification techniques, we designed and optimized an oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe specific for B. quintana and suitable for FISH. FISH succeeded in simultaneous visualization and identification of vital microorganisms directly within the aortic valve tissue and in fast and univocal diagnosis of B. quintana endocarditis. PMID:17889492

Gescher, Dorothee Maria; Mallmann, Christian; Kovacevic, Dragoljub; Schmiedel, Dinah; Borges, Adrian C; Schweickert, Birgitta; Göbel, Ulf B; Moter, Annette

2008-01-01

193

Chest-wall abscess due to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in an adult with antibodies to Bartonella clarridgeiae: case report and review of the thoracopulmonary manifestations of CSD.  

PubMed

We describe a patient who presented with a massive chest-wall abscess after a severe debilitating illness that lasted 3 months. Steroid therapy, administered for 4 weeks, masked the slow development of an extensive axillary and chest-wall abscess. After multiple negative tests, the patient's prolonged illness was diagnosed as cat-scratch disease (CSD). An indirect fluorescent antibody test revealed that two convalescent serum samples were positive for IgG to Bartonella clarridgeiae, but no other Bartonella species. We also review 12 cases of severe chest and pulmonary disease due to CSD that were reported in the English-language literature. Thoracopulmonary findings associated with CSD, pathogenic mechanisms of bartonella infections, diagnostic criteria, and management of CSD are presented. PMID:9709886

Margileth, A M; Baehren, D F

1998-08-01

194

Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on public health issues. PMID:21762494

2011-01-01

195

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.  

PubMed

A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-03-01

196

Antinuclear antibodies can be detected in dog sera reactive to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis, or Leishmania infantum antigens.  

PubMed

The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) is used to support a clinical diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in dogs. However, clinicians must interpret the detection of ANAs with caution, particularly in light of increasing evidence that dogs with known bacterial and protozoal infections can have high ANA titers. Retrospectively, medical records were reviewed for all dogs that were concurrently tested for antinuclear antigens and Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii), Ehrlichia canis, or Rickettsia rickettsii antigens between 1990 and 2000. When analyzed on the basis of reactivity to a specific infectious agent, 75% of the B vinsonii (berkhoffii) seroreactors, 16.7% of the E canis seroreactors, and 0% of the R rickettsii seroreactors had concurrent ANAs. Subsequent prospective testing did not detect ANAs in convalescent sera from dogs experimentally infected with B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or R rickettsii. However, 10-20% B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or Leishmania infantum reactive sera from naturally infected dogs contained ANAs. In addition, 45% of sera from dogs that are reactive to multiple vectorborne organisms were more likely to contain ANAs when compared to sera from dogs reactive to only 1 test antigen. When interpreting the relevance of seroreactivity to nuclear antigens, clinicians should recognize that dogs with seroreactivity to B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or L infantum antigens (especially those with seroreactivity to more than one of these pathogens) may produce ANAs. PMID:14765731

Smith, Brian E; Tompkins, Mary B; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2004-01-01

197

An Investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul Hantavirus in Rats (Rattus spp.) from an Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: Is Pathogen Presence a Reflection of Global and Local Rat Population Structure?  

PubMed

Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species. PMID:25629777

Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

2015-01-01

198

Characterization of a two-gene locus from Bartonella bacilliformis associated with the ability to invade human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Bartonella bacilliformis, the agent of human Oroya fever, invades erythrocytes and causes a severe hemolytic anemia. The ability of two minimally invasive strains of Escherichia coli (DH5 alpha and HB101) to invade human erythrocytes was enhanced 6- to 39-fold by transformation with pIAL1, a plasmid containing a 1,469-bp BamHI fragment from the B. bacilliformis chromosome. Invasiveness was confirmed by gentamicin protection and transmission electron microscopy. DNA hybridization analysis confirmed the presence of the locus in B. bacilliformis KC583 and KC584 and its absence in E. coli chromosomal DNA. Sequencing of the DNA insert of pIAL1 revealed tandem open reading frames of 510 and 558 bp, designated ialA and ialB, respectively. Invasion assays with E. coli containing only an ialA or ialB recombinant suggest that both genes are necessary for invasiveness. The ialA gene is predicted to code for a polypeptide of 170 amino acids (20.1 kDa), and ialB is predicted to code for a polypeptide of 186 amino acids (19.9 kDa). In vitro transcription and translation of pIAL1 produced insert-specific protein bands with masses of approximately 21 and 20 kDa when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Expression of ialA and ialB in E. coli maxicells produced proteins with masses of approximately 21 kDa (IalA) and 18 kDa (IalB). Maxicell and computer analyses suggest that IalB contains an N-terminal secretory signal sequence which is posttranslationally cleaved. Searches of various DNA and protein databases revealed that IalA contains an N-terminal region of 35 amino acids with a high degree of homology to an NTPase consensus domain. There is 63.6% sequence conservation between the IalB protein and the invasion-associated protein Ail of Yersinia enterocolitica. PMID:7890422

Mitchell, S J; Minnick, M F

1995-04-01

199

An approach for modeling cross-immunity of two strains, with application to variants of Bartonella in terms of genetic similarity.  

PubMed

We developed a two-strain susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model that provides a framework for inferring the cross-immunity between two strains of a bacterial species in the host population with discretely sampled co-infection time-series data. Moreover, the model accounts for seasonality in host reproduction. We illustrate an approach using a dataset describing co-infections by several strains of bacteria circulating within a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Bartonella strains were clustered into three genetically close groups, between which the divergence is correspondent to the accepted level of separate bacterial species. The proposed approach revealed no cross-immunity between genetic clusters while limited cross-immunity might exist between subgroups within the clusters. PMID:24928664

Ahn, Kwang Woo; Kosoy, Michael; Chan, Kung-Sik

2014-06-01

200

Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.  

PubMed

To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223

Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

2008-02-14

201

Metal requirements of a diadenosine pyrophosphatase from Bartonella bacilliformis: magnetic resonance and kinetic studies of the role of Mn2+.  

PubMed

Recombinant IalA protein from Bartonella bacilliformis is a monomeric adenosine 5'-tetraphospho-5'-adenosine (Ap4A) pyrophosphatase of 170 amino acids that catalyzes the hydrolysis of Ap4A, Ap5A, and Ap6A by attack at the delta-phosphorus, with the departure of ATP as the leaving group [Cartwright et al. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 256, 474-479]. When various divalent cations were tested over a 300-fold concentration range, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ ions were found to activate the enzyme, while Ca2+ did not. Sigmoidal activation curves were observed with Mn2+ and Mg2+ with Hill coefficients of 3.0 and 1.6 and K0.5 values of 0.9 and 5.3 mM, respectively. The substrate M2+ x Ap4A showed hyperbolic kinetics with Km values of 0.34 mM for both Mn2+ x Ap4A and Mg2+ x Ap4A. Direct Mn2+ binding studies by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and by the enhancement of the longitudinal relaxation rate of water protons revealed two Mn2+ binding sites per molecule of Ap4A pyrophosphatase with dissociation constants of 1.1 mM, comparable to the kinetically determined K0.5 value of Mn2+. The enhancement factor of the longitudinal relaxation rate of water protons due to bound Mn2+ (epsilon b) decreased with increasing site occupancy from a value of 12.9 with one site occupied to 3.3 when both are occupied, indicating site-site interaction between the two enzyme-bound Mn2+ ions. Assuming the decrease in epsilon(b) to result from cross-relaxation between the two bound Mn2+ ions yields an estimated distance of 5.9 +/- 0.4 A between them. The substrate Ap4A binds one Mn2+ (Kd = 0.43 mM) with an epsilon b value of 2.6, consistent with the molecular weight of the Mn2+ x Ap4A complex. Mg2+ binding studies, in competition with Mn2+, reveal two Mg2+ binding sites on the enzyme with Kd values of 8.6 mM and one Mg2+ binding site on Ap4A with a Kd of 3.9 mM, values that are comparable to the K0.5 for Mg2+. Hence, with both Mn2+ and Mg2+, a total of three metal binding sites were found-two on the enzyme and one on the substrate-with dissociation constants comparable to the kinetically determined K0.5 values, suggesting a role in catalysis for three bound divalent cations. Ca2+ does not activate Ap4A pyrophosphatase but inhibits the Mn2+-activated enzyme competitively with a Ki = 1.9 +/- 1.3 mM. Ca2+ binding studies, in competition with Mn2+, revealed two sites on the enzyme with dissociation constants (4.3 +/- 1.3 mM) and one on Ap4A with a dissociation constant of 2.1 mM. These values are similar to its Ki suggesting that inhibition by Ca2+ results from the complete displacement of Mn2+ from the active site. Unlike the homologous MutT pyrophosphohydrolase, which requires only one enzyme-bound divalent cation in an E x M2+ x NTP x M2+ complex for catalytic activity, Ap4A pyrophosphatase requires two enzyme-bound divalent cations that function in an active E x (M2+)2 x Ap4A x M2+ complex. PMID:10694402

Conyers, G B; Wu, G; Bessman, M J; Mildvan, A S

2000-03-01

202

Transcriptional Regulation of the Heme Binding Protein Gene Family of Bartonella quintana Is Accomplished by a Novel Promoter Element and Iron Response Regulator? †  

PubMed Central

We previously identified a five-member family of hemin-binding proteins (Hbp's) of Bartonella quintana that bind hemin on the outer surface but share no homology with known bacterial heme receptors. Subsequently, we demonstrated that expression of the hbp family is significantly influenced by oxygen, heme, and temperature conditions encountered by the pathogen in the human host and the body louse vector; e.g., we observed a dramatic (>100-fold) increase in hbpC transcript levels in response to the “louse-like” temperature of 30°C. The goal of the present study was to identify a transcription factor(s) involved in the coordinated and differential regulation of the hbp family. First, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to show that the same environmental conditions generate parallels in the transcript profiles of four candidate transcriptional regulators (Irr, Fur, RirA, and BatR) described in the order Rhizobiales, with the greatest overall change in the transcription of irr (a >5-fold decrease) at a “louse-like” temperature, suggesting that Irr may function as an hbpC repressor. Second, a B. quintana strain hyperexpressing Irr was constructed; it exhibits a “bloodstream-like” hbp transcript profile in the absence of an environmental stimulus (i.e., hbpC is repressed and hbpA, hbpD, and hbpE mRNAs are relatively abundant). Furthermore, when this strain is grown at a “louse-like” temperature, an inversion of the transcript profile occurs, where derepression of hbpC and repression of hbpA, hbpD, and hbpE are readily evident, strongly suggesting that Irr and temperature influence hbp family expression. Third, electrophoretic mobility shift analyses show that recombinant Irr binds specifically to the hbpC promoter region at a sequence that is highly conserved in Bartonella hbp genes, which we designated the hbp family box, or “H-box.” Fourth, we used the H-box to search the B. quintana genome and discovered a number of intriguing open reading frames, e.g., five members of a six-member family of cohemolysin autotransporters. Finally, qRT-PCR data regarding the effects of Fur and RirA overexpression on the hbp family are provided; they show that Fur's effect on the hbp family is relatively minor but RirA generates a “bloodstream-like” hbp transcript profile in the absence of an environmental stimulus, as observed for the Irr-hyperexpressing strain. PMID:17576755

Battisti, James M.; Smitherman, Laura S.; Sappington, Kate N.; Parrow, Nermi L.; Raghavan, Rahul; Minnick, Michael F.

2007-01-01

203

Isolation precautions  

MedlinePLUS

Isolation precautions create barriers between people and germs. These types of precautions help prevent the spread of ... who visits a hospital patient who has an isolation sign outside their door should stop at the ...

204

Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. The assay was tested on various Anaplasma, Borrelia, Erhlichia, and Rickettsia species, as well as on Bartonella henselae and Escherichia coli, and the assay was found to be highly specific for A. pha- gocytophilum and the Borrelia species tested (B. burgdorferi, B. parkeri,

Joshua W. Courtney; Leah M. Kostelnik; Nordin S. Zeidner; Robert F. Massung

2004-01-01

205

Cat-scratch disease in Hawaii: Etiology and seroepidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the etiology and seroepidemiology of cat-scratch disease (CSD) in Hawaii. Methods: Blood and fine-needle aspirate (FNA) from the lymph nodes of 39 consecutive patients with clinical CSD were cultured for Bartonella henselae, and blood samples from index cats, stray cats, and dogs were cultured and their sera were tested by indirect fluorescence antibody test for antibodies to

Denise M. Demers; James W. Bass; Judy M. Vincent; Donald A. Person; Diane K. Noyes; Cathy M. Staege; Curt P. Samlaska; Neal H. Lockwood; Russell L. Regnery; Burt E. Anderson

1995-01-01

206

The Bartonella quintana Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor RpoE Has a Role in Bacterial Adaptation to the Arthropod Vector Environment  

PubMed Central

Bartonella quintana is a vector-borne bacterial pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans. During the infectious cycle, B. quintana transitions from the hemin-restricted human bloodstream to the hemin-rich body louse vector. Because extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors often regulate adaptation to environmental changes, we hypothesized that a previously unstudied B. quintana ECF sigma factor, RpoE, is involved in the transition from the human host to the body louse vector. The genomic context of B. quintana rpoE identified it as a member of the ECF15 family of sigma factors found only in alphaproteobacteria. ECF15 sigma factors are believed to be the master regulators of the general stress response in alphaproteobacteria. In this study, we examined the B. quintana RpoE response to two stressors that are encountered in the body louse vector environment, a decreased temperature and an increased hemin concentration. We determined that the expression of rpoE is significantly upregulated at the body louse (28°C) versus the human host (37°C) temperature. rpoE expression also was upregulated when B. quintana was exposed to high hemin concentrations. In vitro and in vivo analyses demonstrated that RpoE function is regulated by a mechanism involving the anti-sigma factor NepR and the response regulator PhyR. The ?rpoE ?nepR mutant strain of B. quintana established that RpoE-mediated transcription is important in mediating the tolerance of B. quintana to high hemin concentrations. We present the first analysis of an ECF15 sigma factor in a vector-borne human pathogen and conclude that RpoE has a role in the adaptation of B. quintana to the hemin-rich arthropod vector environment. PMID:23564167

Abromaitis, Stephanie

2013-01-01

207

Isolated Aortitis  

MedlinePLUS

... are forms of large vessel vasculitis, most commonly giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Other autoimmune diseases ... cases are due to a rheumatic cause like giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Who gets Isolated ...

208

Delegated isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation---the property that a task can access shared data without interference from other tasks---is one of the most basic concerns in parallel programming. In this paper, we present Aida, a new model of isolated execution for parallel programs that perform frequent, irregular accesses to pointer-based shared data structures. The three primary benefits of Aida are dynamism, safety and liveness guarantees,

Roberto Lublinerman; Jisheng Zhao; Zoran Budimli?; Swarat Chaudhuri; Vivek Sarkar

2011-01-01

209

Signal Isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Dubuque, Iowa's new Water Division computer system was experiencing failures of the analog inputs ranging from signals out of tolerance by more than 30 percent to intermittent and sometimes complete loss of signals. The problem stemmed from a lack of signal isolation of the analog input cards, which made the inputs vulnerable to interference from storms and machinery. Electronic technician Bob Ervolino read an article in Tech Briefs describing an Ames Research Center solution to a similar problem. He studied the Technical Support Package and contacted the vendor; the information saved the Water Division more than 50 percent of the cost of commercial isolators.

1991-01-01

210

Isolation and characterization by immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Rochalimaea quintana from a patient with bacillary angiomatosis.  

PubMed Central

Rochalimaea quintana was isolated from the blood of a French human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with bacillary angiomatosis. The isolate showed the typical growth characteristics of Rochalimaea species and was inert when typical biochemical testing was used. The purpose of the present work was to characterize and compare this new isolate with reference strains of R. quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and Rochalimaea henselae by using immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot (immunoblot), restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the citrate synthase gene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR with TaqI enzyme, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing could differentiate the three Rochalimaea species and allowed characterization of the French isolate as R. quintana. However, identification of the Rochalimaea isolate to the species level was more easily obtained by immunofluorescence with specific murine antisera. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis allowed differentiation of the French R. quintana isolate from R. quintana Fuller and may serve as an epidemiological tool. Images PMID:7519628

Maurin, M; Roux, V; Stein, A; Ferrier, F; Viraben, R; Raoult, D

1994-01-01

211

Cat scratch disease (CSD) in patients with stellate neuroretinitis: 3 cases.  

PubMed

This case series describes three patients with a similar clinical picture: unilateral abrupt visual loss, optic nerve edema, and a macular star exudate. In all cases we found significant antibody titers to Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease. Cat scratch disease seems to be the most common cause of stellate neuroretinitis, formerly known as Leber's idiopathic stellate retinopathy. A review of the pertinent literature shows that serologic evidence of B. henselae is sufficient to confirm the diagnosis given the low incidence of significant titers in the general population. Cat scratch disease is usually a self limiting disorder in immunocompetent patients, but treatment with doxycycline is recommended. PMID:12564316

De Schryver, I; Stevens, A M; Vereecke, G; Kestelyn, Ph

2002-01-01

212

Ocular bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompromised man.  

PubMed

An immunocompromised man presented with an inflammatory eyelid lesion. Biopsy was performed; histopathology and special staining confirmed a diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. The man was treated with oral erythromycin, and the lesion resolved. The etiologic agents of bacillary angiomatosis are Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, Gram-negative coccobacilli. The organisms stain positively with the Warthin-Starry silver stain. Lesions can be cutaneous or visceral and have been commonly described in immunocompromised patients. Histopathologic examination of lesions reveals angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. Bacillary angiomatosis can be treated with oral antibiotics. PMID:20683276

Murray, Meltzer A; Zamecki, Katherine J; Paskowski, Joseph; Lelli, Gary J

2010-01-01

213

Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompetent child: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Bacillary angiomatosis is an infectious disease caused by 2 gram-negative bacilli, Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana. This disease is characterized by vascular proliferations in the skin and/or visceral organs, and typically manifests in immunocompromised patients. However, we report a case of a 10-year-old immunocompetent female child with a questionable history of being scratched by a cat. Although initially diagnosed as a pyogenic granuloma, a diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis was made based on histologic examination of the excised lesion demonstrating interstitial bacillary deposition on Warthin-Starry silver stain. The patient was successfully treated with 2 weeks of azithromycin after which all symptoms resolved. PMID:21285862

Zarraga, Matthew; Rosen, Les; Herschthal, David

2011-07-01

214

Cat scratch disease presenting as acute encephalopathy.  

PubMed

An unusual case of primary meningo-encephalitis followed by partial complex seizure in a 9-year-old boy was found to be a symptom of cerebral Bartonella henselae infection or cat scratch disease. Despite one clinical relapse at 4 weeks post-presentation, he remained seizure free on carbamazepine for one year. Six months after stopping carbamazepine, however, he developed deja vu phenomena and absence seizures with EEG abnormality. Restarting carbamazepine improved his symptoms. PMID:18843081

Cherinet, Y; Tomlinson, R

2008-10-01

215

Neuroretinitis with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Female  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis with significant disc and peripapillary edema, branch retinal artery occlusion without macula involvement and well preserved central vision. A 15-year-old female presented with loss of vision over 4 weeks in the left eye. She had a history of cat exposure, but a cat scratch, insect bite or conjunctivitis was not reported. An inferotemporal arcuate scotoma developed during the acute phase and persisted over the course of the follow-up. PMID:24348414

Ahmadi, Sina; Azizi, Behrooz; Tsang, Adrian C.; Coupland, Stuart; Gottlieb, Chloe; Zackon, David

2013-01-01

216

Pradofloxacin: a novel veterinary fluoroquinolone for treatment of bacterial infections in cats.  

PubMed

Pradofloxacin is a novel third-generation oral veterinary fluoroquinolone with activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria and anaerobes (lower minimum inhibitory concentrations in vitro). It also has activity against other bacterial species, including Bartonella henselae, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, extra-intestinal Escherichia coli, and some mycobacterial species. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanism of action, adverse effects, clinical applications, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of pradofloxacin in cats. PMID:24997792

Sykes, Jane E; Blondeau, Joseph M

2014-08-01

217

Integrated optical isolators  

E-print Network

Introduction: Optical isolators are important components in lasers. Their main function is to eliminate noise caused by back-reflections into these lasers. The need for integrated isolators comes from the continuing growth ...

Zaman, Tauhid R

2005-01-01

218

Base isolation case study  

E-print Network

The primary objective of this thesis is the introduction of the current code, ASCE 7-05 into the base isolation design and the analysis of base isolation response due to seismic forces. An eight story irregular structure ...

Ching, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Apostol)

2008-01-01

219

Psychopathology of social isolation  

PubMed Central

The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

Baek, Sang-Bin

2014-01-01

220

Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.  

PubMed

Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indicates that 17.8% of the 213 analyzed dogs were positive for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma with a prevalence of 4.2% for E. canis, 14.1% for Anaplama platys and 0% for A. phagocytophilum. Seven (7.1%) of the tested dogs were positive for Bartonella spp. with two characterized as Bartonella rochalimae, four as B. henselae and one as B.v. subsp. berkhoffii. PMID:25638478

Azzag, Naouelle; Petit, Elisabeth; Gandoin, Christelle; Bouillin, Corinne; Ghalmi, Farida; Haddad, Nadia; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

2015-02-01

221

October 1992 ISOLATOR-11  

E-print Network

generates both high voltage and high current and care should be taken in its operation in any environment The ISOLATOR-11 Stimulus Isolation Unit is a constant current source, and so the voltage it produces Tissues ...7 The Stimulus Artifact 7 Ganging Together Isolators ...8 Power Supply Voltage 9 Grounding

Kleinfeld, David

222

Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.  

PubMed

Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (? 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms. PMID:22925024

Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

2012-11-01

223

Mutation and premating isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

2002-01-01

224

October 1992 ISOLATOR-10  

E-print Network

the control of a data acquisition system, pulse generator, or arbitrary waveform generator. The unit acceptsOctober 1992 ISOLATOR-10 STIMULUS ISOLATION UNIT OPERATOR'S MANUAL Copyright 1992 Axon Instruments form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise

Kleinfeld, David

225

Isolated thoracic aortitis.  

PubMed

Isolated thoracic aortitis is a new pathological entity. We review the histopathological features of this disease, the role of imaging, and diagnostic modalities necessary to make the diagnosis of aortitis and discuss the management of patients with an established diagnosis of isolated thoracic aortitis. PMID:24345043

Omran, Nedal; Laco, Jan; Krbal, Lukas; Vojacek, Jan; Mandak, Jiri

2014-03-01

226

Wrentit Genetic Isolation Map  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This map of the Thousand Oaks, Calif. area visualizes the degree of genetic isolation being experienced by the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a small songbird. USGS and National Park Service biologists discovered that as urban development fragmented the Santa Monica Mountains scrubland into isolated

227

Positive isolation disconnect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

1975-01-01

228

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-01-01

229

MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

2005-08-01

230

Base isolation: Fresh insight  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

Shustov, V.

1993-07-15

231

Understand Quarantine and Isolation  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Shelter in Place Home School Work Vehicle Understand Quarantine and Isolation Questions & Answers Fact Sheet ... preparedness and response plans. In addition to early detection, rapid diagnosis, and treatment with antibiotics or antivirals, ...

232

Isolated Vascular Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Strokes in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present with vertigo, imbalance, and nystagmus. Although the vertigo due to a posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem can develop vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 11% of the patients with an isolated cerebellar infarction present with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness mimicking acute peripheral vestibular disorders. The head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar strokes (particularly within the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Appropriate bedside evaluation is superior to MRIs for detecting central vascular vertigo syndromes. This article reviews the keys to diagnosis of acute isolated vertigo syndrome due to posterior circulation strokes involving the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25328871

2014-01-01

233

Extreme isolated elliptical galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the results of a detailed search for and the photometric and spectroscopic analysis of nine elliptical galaxies isolated from nearest neighbors of MV < -16.5 by distances in excess of 2.5 megaparsec. The extreme isolation of these galaxies makes them ideal laboratories for the study of galaxy evolution, independent of the continual galaxy-galaxy interaction in the clusters

Christian Edward Aars

2002-01-01

234

Isolated sleep paralysis  

PubMed Central

Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months. PMID:20711316

Sawant, Neena S.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Tambe, Ravindra

2005-01-01

235

Original article Dogs are more permissive than cats or guinea pigs  

E-print Network

with a human isolate of Bartonella rochalimae Bruno B. CHOMEL 1*, Jennifer B. HENN 1,2 , Rickie W. KASTEN 1 5 March 2009) Abstract ­ Bartonella rochalimae was first isolated from the blood of a human who traveled to Peru and was exposed to multiple insect bites. Foxes and dogs are likely natural reservoirs

Boyer, Edmond

236

Emerging incidence of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), and Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species (spp.) are recognized tick-borne pathogens in humans worldwide. Using serology and molecular testing, the incidence of these pathogens was investigated in symptomatic patients from Australia. Methods Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) followed by immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM Western blot (WB) assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Simultaneously, patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Most patients reported symptom onset in Australia without recent overseas travel. 28 of 51 (55%) tested positive for LD. Of 41 patients tested for tick-borne coinfections, 13 (32%) were positive for Babesia spp. and nine (22%) were positive for Bartonella spp. Twenty-five patients were tested for Ehrlichia spp. and (16%) were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum while none were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Among the 51 patients tested for LD, 21 (41%) had evidence of more than one tick-borne infection. Positive tests for LD, Babesia duncani, Babesia microti, and Bartonella henselae were demonstrated in an individual who had never left the state of Queensland. Positive testing for these pathogens was found in three others whose movements were restricted to the east coast of Australia. Conclusion The study identified a much larger tick-borne disease (TBD) burden within the Australian community than hitherto reported. In particular, the first cases of endemic human Babesia and Bartonella disease in Australia with coexisting Borrelia infection are described, thus defining current hidden and unrecognized components of TBD and demonstrating local acquisition in patients who have never been abroad. PMID:22267937

Mayne, Peter J

2011-01-01

237

Isolated syndesmosis ankle injury.  

PubMed

Isolated syndesmosis injuries often go unrecognized and are diagnosed as lateral ankle sprains; however, they are more disabling than lateral ankle sprains. The reported incidence of isolated syndesmosis injuries in acute ankle sprains ranges between 1% and 16%. When ankle disability lasts for more than 2 months after an ankle sprain, the incidence increases to 23.6%. Diagnostic workup may include stress radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, or diagnostic arthroscopy. A simple stress test radiograph may reveal an unstable grade III syndesmosis sprain that may go unrecognized on plain anteroposterior and mortise or lateral radiographs of the ankle. The duration of symptoms in isolated syndesmosis injury is longer and more severe, often leading to chronic symptoms or ankle instability requiring operative stabilization.This article describes the clinical presentation, injury classification, and operative stabilization techniques of isolated syndesmosis injuries. The authors performed their preferred operative stabilization technique for isolated syndesmosis injury-arthroscopic debridement of the ankle with syndesmotic stabilization with a syndesmotic screw-in 4 patients. All patients were evaluated 1 year postoperatively with subjective and objective assessment scales. Three of 4 patients showed good improvement of general subjective ankle symptoms and subjective ankle instability rating and a high Sports Ankle Rating System score after 1 year. PMID:23218625

Valkering, Kars P; Vergroesen, Diederik A; Nolte, Peter A

2012-12-01

238

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

E-print Network

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj isolated 50 (30) kpc/h pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of >~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context. (Abridged.)

Elizabeth J. Barton; Jacob A. Arnold; Andrew R. Zentner; James S. Bullock; Risa H. Wechsler

2007-08-21

239

Nucleic acid isolation  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

1988-01-21

240

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

241

High voltage gas isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isolator is provided which has an inlet at ground electrical potential which receives gas, and which has an outlet at a high electrical potential through which gas is discharged, the isolator being compactly and simply constructed while providing a long narrow path that minimizes the possibility of electrical breakdown through the gas. The isolator includes a first element forming a cylindrical core and a cup-shaped second element forming a sleeve portion that closely receives the core. The core has a helical groove on its outside to form a passage between the groove and the inner walls of the sleeve. The core also has a vertical hole extending to the bottom of the core and a radial groove in the bottom of the core that extends between the hole and the bottom of the helical groove.

Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

242

An optically isolated amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design presented was used for biomedical signal detection and monitoring. The amplifier was successfully applied for EMG and ECG research studies. The patient is safely isolated from the processing equipment when using the amplifier. This opto-isolated amplifier was also applied industrially for monitoring mercury arc rectifier control signals. The device has proved itself in an industrial environment as an interface for a microprocessor. This unit can be used whenever large offset voltages are found, and can therefore be put to good use in many power electrical engineering applications.

Smith, C. J.

1982-11-01

243

[Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].  

PubMed

Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding. PMID:19268113

Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

2009-01-01

244

Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discussion of treatment options. Methods A systematic computerized database search (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), and EMBASE) was performed in March 2009. The quality of the studies was assessed independently by two authors using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results We extracted data from 44 articles. The best available evidence for treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is sparse and of generally low methodological quality. Nonoperative treatment using physiotherapy (GRADE: high quality, weak recommendation for use), taping (GRADE: moderate quality, weak recommendation for use), or injection therapy (GRADE: very low quality, weak recommendation for use) may result in short-term relief. Joint-preserving surgical treatment may result in insufficient, unpredictable, or only short-term improvement (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation against use). Total knee replacement with patellar resurfacing results in predictable and good, durable results (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Outcome after patellofemoral arthroplasty in selected patients is good to excellent (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Interpretation Methodologically good quality comparative studies, preferably using a patient-relevant outcome instrument, are needed to establish the optimal treatment strategy for patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. PMID:20175647

Poolman, Rudolf W; van Kampen, Albert

2010-01-01

245

Biological Isolation Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

1976-01-01

246

Reproductive Isolation in Angiosperms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a suitable exercise for use in plant reproductive biology laboratory courses. Its purpose is to illustrate mechanisms of isolation in angiosperms by the species Silene by observing the success or failure of inter-specific pollination. This lab exercise is also suitable for courses in plant biology, concepts of the biological species or botany, and evolution.

Alexander F. Motten (Duke University; )

1996-01-01

247

Positive isolation disconnect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positive-isolation-disconnect (PID) device with two mating halves prevents leakage or spillover when two fluid lines are disconnected. Each half has shutoff poppet to stop fluid flow. When flow is shut, poppets are flush against each other, leaving no space for fluid to remain it.

Friedell, M. V.

1980-01-01

248

Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

David N. Blauch

249

Sexual isolation in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria exchange genes rarely but are promiscuous in the choice of their genetic partners. Inter-specific recombination has the advantage of increasing genetic diversity and promoting dissemination of novel adaptations, but suffers from the negative effect of importing potentially harmful alleles from incompatible genomes. Bacterial species experience a degree of 'sexual isolation' from genetically divergent organisms ^ recombination occurs more frequently

Jacek Majewski

2001-01-01

250

Isolated Anterior Cervical Hypertrichosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a «tuft» of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair

B. Monteagudo; M. Cabanillas; C. de las Heras; J. M. Cacharr?n

2009-01-01

251

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

SciTech Connect

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

2007-09-12

252

Morphology of isolated triads  

PubMed Central

The triad is the junctional association of transverse tubule with sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisternae. A procedure for the isolation of highly enriched triads from skeletal muscle has been described in the previous paper. In the present study, the structural features of isolated triads have been examined by thin-section, negative-staining, and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. In isolated triads, key features of the structure observed in situ have been retained, including the osmiophilic "feet," junctional structures between the transverse tubule and terminal cisternae. New insight into triad structure is obtained by negative staining, which also enables visualization of feet at the junctional face of the terminal cisternae, whereas smaller surface particles, characteristic of calcium pump protein, are not visualized there. Therefore, the junctional face is different from the remainder of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Junctional feet as viewed by thin section or negative staining have similar periodicity and extend approximately 100 A from the surface of the membrane. Freeze-fracture of isolated triads reveals blocklike structures associated with the membrane of the terminal cisternae at the junctional face, interjunctional connections between the terminal cisternae and t-tubule, and intragap particles. The intragap particles can be observed to be closely associated with the t-tubule. The structure of isolated triads is susceptible to osmotic and salt perturbation, and examples are given regarding differential effects on transverse tubules and terminal cisternae. Conditions that adversely affect morphology must be considered in experimentation with triads as well as in their preparation and handling. PMID:6187754

1983-01-01

253

Cat-scratch disease presenting as a solitary splenic abscess in an elderly man.  

PubMed

Patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), which is caused by Bartonella henselae, typically present with local lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. Most cases are self-limiting and usually afflict children and young adults. Although rare, CSD can lead to serious complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. These rare complications often require intensive treatment. We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with general malaise and a high fever. The physical examination findings were unremarkable. Of note, the lymph nodes were not enlarged. An abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast revealed a solitary splenic abscess and no lymphadenopathy. The initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective and a splenectomy was indicated. A history of contact with cats raised the possibility of CSD, which was confirmed by a positive serology test result for B henselae. Antibiotic treatment with azithromycin successfully treated the splenic abscess and splenectomy was avoided. PMID:25804947

Nakamura, Momoko; Kurimoto, Mio; Kato, Takehiro; Kunieda, Takeshige

2015-01-01

254

A serological survey of rural dogs and cats on the southwestern Canadian prairie for zoonotic pathogens.  

PubMed

A survey for antibodies against agents of plague, tularemia, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), and against Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV), Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae was conducted in the summer of 1995 using serum from rural dogs and cats living in the vicinity of four public parks in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. Antibodies to all pathogens were detected in all survey areas. Overall prevalence rates were 0.075 for Yersinia pestis, 0.089 for Francisella tularensis, 0.025 for Rickettsia rickettsii (dogs only), and 0.029, 0.178 and 0.186 for SNV, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, respectively (cats only). This serological survey of rural dogs and cats was more sensitive and efficient than previous surveys based on collection and culture of rodents and ectoparasites. All six pathogens appear endemic to the region. Surveillance for plague, tularemia, RMSF and SNV, and management of associated public risks should be done in endemic regions. PMID:11257996

Leighton, F A; Artsob, H A; Chu, M C; Olson, J G

2001-01-01

255

High voltage isolation transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (inventors)

1985-01-01

256

Isolation of Carbon Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Carbon nanostructures such a single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and fullerene peapods (e.g. C70 at SWCNT) usually occur in the form of bundles. Here, we present application of a novel simple and versatile method for deposition of small isolated nanoribbons of carbon nanotubes on annealed gold surface. The nanoribbons were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and exhibit characteristic features of individual carbon nanostructures. The resonance condition allowed the observation of a distinct spectrum of one inner tube in the nanoribbon from DWCNT. The signal of inner tubes of isolated DWCNT nanoribbons was found to be up to 50 times stronger than the sum of signals of the corresponding tubes in buckypaper sample. This dramatic enhancement is assigned to SERS (surface enhanced resonant Raman scattering) effect.

Kalbac, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, D - 01069 Dresden (Germany); Pelouchova, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Zukalova, Marketa [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Dunsch, Lothar [Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, D - 01069 Dresden (Germany)

2005-09-27

257

Pump isolation valve  

DOEpatents

The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1983-08-02

258

Isolation of platelet granules.  

PubMed

Functional analysis of platelet intracellular structures requires isolation and purification of these cellular compartments. With regard to the function of platelets, both, dense (delta) and alpha granules are relevant target structures. However, the availability of sufficient purification protocols for these structures is rather limited. This unit describes two protocols for isolation and purification of platelet granule structures. The Basic Protocol describes a new technique based on immunolabeling with target-specific antibodies followed by magnetic sorting, whereas the Alternate Protocol describes the more traditional procedure based on differential centrifugation and density-based sedimentation. For both methods, the degree of granule purification can be most easily determined by immunoblotting using various antibodies that recognize structure-specific proteins. The immunomagnetic sorting method is especially good for studies requiring highly purified material (e.g., for the identification of specific transporters and receptors). PMID:20235104

Niessen, Juliane; Jedlitschky, Gabriele; Greinacher, Andreas; Kroemer, Heyo K

2010-03-01

259

The isolated fourth ventricle  

PubMed Central

Isolated enlargement of the fourth ventricle, or ‘encysted’ fourth ventricle is a rare late complication following shunt insertion of the lateral ventricles for hydrocephalus. Caudal and rostral obstruction of the fourth ventricle and its subsequent dilation results in compression of adjacent cerebellum and brain stem structures; treatment with further shunt insertion directly to the fourth ventricle is invariably successful. There is potential for diagnostic delay, when clinical symptoms and signs of cerebellar and brain stem compromise are unrecognised or attributed to other factors, and attention on the CT is focused on the lateral ventricular system and the already existing  ventriculoperitoneal shunt, which will appear unchanged from previous scans. We report two cases with isolated fourth ventricular obstruction and review the literature to highlight the importance of recognising this condition. PMID:23559656

Ali, Khalid; Nannapaneni, Ravindra; Hamandi, Khalid

2013-01-01

260

DNA Isolation from Onion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students find studying DNA difficult because it is so small that the concepts are quite abstract. This lab enables students to work with DNA concretely by easily isolating chromosomal DNA using the same basic tools and methods that scientists use. The lab is a good introduction to using pipets and to using the metric system. If the chemistry of the solutions is taught it is also a great practical application.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Kate Dollard N:Dollard; Kate ORG:Cambridge Rindge and Latin REV:2005-04-12 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

261

Investigation of mercury thruster isolators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

Mantenieks, M. A.

1973-01-01

262

Highly isolated photodetectors  

SciTech Connect

An array of photodetectors is described incorporating a PNP vertical structure in a monosilicon substrate with individual photodetectors optically and electrically isolated from one another by open or oxide filled grooves. Both PN junctions of the PNP structure or originally reverse biased with one junction acting as the photodetector may operate in the forward biased photovoltaic mode with high radiant energy intensity. The minority carriers injected into the N region are absorbed by the other PN junction providing base-collector transistor action to prevent blooming.

Bluzer, N.; Borsuk, G.M.; Kub, F.J.; Turley, A.P.

1984-12-11

263

Vector-borne pathogens in arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, from Canada.  

PubMed

Because of the relatively low biodiversity within arctic ecosystems, arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, could serve as sentinels for the study of changes in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of 5 different genera of vector borne pathogens (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp.) using blood collected from 28 live-trapped arctic foxes from the region of Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. Bartonella henselae (n?=?3), Mycoplasma haemocanis (n?=?1), Ehrlichia canis (n?=?1), and an Anaplasma sp. (n?=?1) DNA were PCR amplified and subsequently identified by sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidence that vector borne pathogens, not typically associated with the arctic ecosystem, exist at low levels in this arctic fox population, and that vector exposure, pathogen transmission dynamics, and changes in the geographic distribution of pathogens over time should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25596149

Mascarelli, Patricia E; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J; Alisauskas, Ray T; Walsh, Mary; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

2015-04-01

264

Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

265

The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.  

PubMed

Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed. PMID:25148851

Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

2015-01-01

266

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, Calvin J. (Los Alamos, NM); Dahlby, Joel W. (Los Alamos, NM); Gallimore, Bradford F. (Los Alamos, NM); Comer, Bob E. (Versailles, MO); Stone, Water A. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlson, David O. (Tesugue, NM)

1993-01-01

267

Magnetically coupled signal isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

268

Positive isolation disconnect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A disconnect composed basically of two halves each consisting of a poppet valve operable to isolate fluid with essentially zero fluid loss is presented. The two halves are coupled together by a quickly releasable coupling which may be either a coupling ring tightened or loosened by a twisting motion, or a clamp operated by a pivoted to prevent disconnecting the two halves until both valves are in closed condition. The positive feature of the device is one requiring a valve closing step before a disconnect step, and takes structural form in an accentric lobe mounted on the valve operating stem. If some obstruction prevents the poppet from moving to its seat, the eccentric lobe cannot be rotated to the closed position, and the interlock prevents a disconnect.

Friedell, M. V. (invento)

1978-01-01

269

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

1993-04-27

270

Isolated Northern Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

271

Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in cats from Arizona.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Bartonella species from feral and relinquished cats in Phoenix and Nogales, Arizona. DNA from one or more of the organisms was amplified from 31 of 112 blood samples (27.7%). DNA consistent with Bartonella clarridgeiae 15 (13.4%), Bartonella henselae 14 (12.5%), 'Candidatus M haemominutum' 9 (8.0%), and M haemofelis 5 (4.5%) were detected. DNA of Ehrlichia species, Neorickettsia risticii, or A phagocytophilum was not amplified. Failure to amplify DNA of A phagocytophilum may relate to the absence of appropriate tick vectors. Failure to amplify Ehrlichia species DNA suggests that cats were not exposed, exposed but not infected, or infected but the DNA was not detected by the PCR assay used in this study. The Bartonella species and hemoplasma results suggest flea control should be maintained. PMID:16443383

Eberhardt, Jason M; Neal, Karter; Shackelford, Tom; Lappin, Michael R

2006-06-01

272

Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunosuppressed dog.  

PubMed

A dog being treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and azathioprine for pancytopenia of unknown origin, developed, over a 2-week period, multiple erythematous nodular lesions in the skin including footpads. Skin samples revealed lesions identical to those of human bacillary angiomatosis (BA). The nodules were composed of multifocal proliferations of capillaries, each lined by protuberant endothelial cells. The capillary clusters were separated by an oedematous connective tissue, lightly infiltrated with degenerate inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages. Tissue sections stained with Warthin-Starry silver stain revealed large numbers of positively stained bacilli in the stromal tissue, most heavily concentrated around the proliferating capillaries. Lesions of vascular degeneration and inflammation were evident. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype 1 was independently amplified and sequenced from the blood and the skin tissue. The pathognomonic nature of the histological lesions, demonstration of compatible silver-stained bacilli in the tissue, and identification of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in the blood and tissue indicates that this is most likely the aetiologic agent responsible for the lesions. Antibiotic therapy was successful in resolving the nodules. It would appear that B. vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, like Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, has the rare ability to induce angioproliferative lesions, most likely in association with immunosuppression. The demonstration of lesions identical to those of human BA in this dog is further evidence that the full range of clinical manifestations of human Bartonella infection occurs also in canines. PMID:20374571

Yager, Julie A; Best, Susan J; Maggi, Ricardo G; Varanat, Mrudula; Znajda, Nadine; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2010-08-01

273

Fungi isolated from Antarctic mosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfungi were isolated from different moss species in Victoria Land. Twenty-eight taxa belonging to 18 genera were identified. New records for continental Antarctica were: Arthrobotrys superba, Conidiobolus sp., Penicillium minioluteum, Verticillium psalliotae and V. lamellicola. The most frequently isolated fungal species were: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Geomyces pannorum var. pannorum, G. pannorum var. vinaceus, Mortierella antarctica, Cadophora malorum,

Solveig Tosi; Begoña Casado; Renato Gerdol; Giuseppe Caretta

2002-01-01

274

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

275

Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

Foster, John E.

2000-01-01

276

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

277

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

278

ISOLATION OF EPIDERMAL DESMOSOMES  

PubMed Central

A method is reported for the isolation of desmosomes in a high yield and of a purity suitable for biochemical analysis. The procedure utilizes the selective solubilizing action of citric acid-sodium citrate (CASC) buffer, pH 2.6, on the non-cornified layers of cow nose epidermis, followed by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Electron microscopy with both thin sections of pellets and unfixed spread preparations reveals that after centrifugation, desmosomes are located mainly at the 55–60% sucrose interface. In the desmosome preparation thus obtained, the characteristic desmosome structure is well preserved, showing the midline, unit membranes, and dense plaques. Furthermore, removal of the epidermal filament bundles by the solubilizing action of CASC buffer has revealed a finely filamentous layer on the cytoplasmic surface of the plaques. The dimensions, location, and appearance of this layer correspond with those of the "connecting component" which has been previously suggested as being responsible for the attachment of epidermal filament bundles to the desmosome. PMID:4138144

Skerrow, Christine J.; Matoltsy, A. Gedeon

1974-01-01

279

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

280

Isolation Procedures for Farrowing Operations  

E-print Network

When receiving breeding stock replacements, swine producers should take precautions against introducing diseases into the herd. This publication discusses isolating, blood testing and vaccinating swine as well as other management techniques...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2002-01-31

281

Study of base isolation systems  

E-print Network

The primary objective of this investigation is to outline the relevant issues concerning the conceptual design of base isolated structures. A 90 feet high, 6 stories tall, moment steel frame structure with tension cross ...

Manarbek, Saruar

2013-01-01

282

Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States) [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

2012-10-12

283

Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation  

PubMed Central

Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

284

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperchlorhidrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... molecule (bicarbonate ion) and a positively charged hydrogen atom (known as a proton). The presence of protons ... glossary definitions help with understanding isolated hyperchlorhidrosis? acidity ; atom ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; bicarbonate ; Ca ; cell ; chloride ; dehydration ; ...

285

Flight representative positive isolation disconnect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

1977-01-01

286

Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems  

E-print Network

The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations ...

Hilbert, Stefan

287

GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

288

Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Maple or Mathmatica, learner should be able to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities.

David Smith

289

Dangers of Isolated Systolic Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... rate and cholesterol levels at the start. The men and women were also asked to complete lifestyle ... heart disease than those with normal blood pressure. Men with isolated systolic hypertension had a 23% increase ...

290

Helicopter gearbox isolation using periodically layered fluidic isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rotorcraft transmissions, vibration generation by meshing gear pairs is a significant source of vibration and cabin noise. This high-frequency gearbox noise is primarily transmitted to the fuselage through rigid connections, which do not appreciably attenuate vibratory energy. The high-frequency vibrations typically include discrete gear-meshing frequencies in the range of 500--2000 Hz, and are often considered irritating and can reduce pilot effectiveness and passenger comfort. Periodically-layered isolators were identified as potential passive attenuators of these high frequency vibrations. Layered isolators exhibit transmissibility "stop bands," or frequency ranges in which there is very low transmissibility. An axisymmetric model was developed to accurately predict the location of these stop bands for isolators in compression. A Ritz approximation method was used to model the axisymmetric elastic behavior of layered cylindrical isolators. This model of layered isolators was validated with experiments. The physical design constraints of the proposed helicopter gearbox isolators were then estimated. Namely, constraints associated with isolator mass, axial stiffness, geometry, and elastomeric fatigue were determined. The passive performance limits of layered isolators were then determined using a design optimization methodology employing a simulated annealing algorithm. The results suggest that layered isolators cannot always meet frequency targets given a certain set of design constraints. Many passive and active design enhancements were considered to address this problem, and the use of embedded inertial amplifiers was found to exhibit a combination of advantageous effects. The first benefit was a lowering of the beginning stop band frequency, and thus a widening of the original stop band. The second was a tuned absorber effect, where the elastomer layer stiffness and the amplified tuned mass combined to act as a vibration absorber within the stop band. The use of embedded fluid elements was identified as an efficient means of implementing inertial amplification. When elastomer layers are compressed quasi-statically, the actual measured axial stiffness is quite higher the than one-dimensional stiffness predicted on the basis of a Young's modulus. Because of this effect, layered isolators can be designed to accommodate the high axial stiffnesses required for helicopter gearbox supports, while also providing broadband high frequency attenuation.

Szefi, Joseph Thomas

2003-07-01

291

Market study: Biological isolation garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

1975-01-01

292

Active Nematocyst Isolation Via Nudibranchs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable tools for biomedical research and drug development. They are contained within nematocysts,\\u000a the stinging organelles of cnidarians. Several methods exist for the isolation of nematocysts from cnidarian tissues; most\\u000a are tedious and target nematocysts from specific tissues. We have discovered that the isolated active nematocyst complement\\u000a (cnidome) of several sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) species is

Ami Schlesinger; Esti Kramarsky-Winter; Yossi Loya

2009-01-01

293

Satellites of Isolated Elliptical Galaxies  

E-print Network

Using well-defined selection criteria applied to the LEDA galaxy catalogue we have derived a sample of elliptical galaxies that can be classified as isolated. From this we have investigated the neighbourhood of these galaxies to determine the frequency and radial distribution of faint galaxies around them and hence derive an estimate of their surrounding satellite population. The results are compared and contrasted to the satellite population around isolated spiral galaxies.

Rodney M. Smith; Vicent J. Martinez

2003-09-30

294

Isolated foveal hypoplasia without nystagmus.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 23-year-old healthy Caucasian male with isolated foveal hypoplasia without nystagmus. Clinical examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated the bilateral absence of a foveal depression and the patient was diagnosed with isolated foveal hypoplasia. This is a rare condition which is probably under-diagnosed since it can exist without nystagmus and low vision. PMID:24442758

Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Witmer, Matthew T; Radcliffe, Nathan M; D'Amico, Donald J

2014-08-01

295

QUANTUM ELECTRONIC DEVICES: Cryogenic Faraday isolator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts.

Zheleznov, D. S.; Zelenogorskii, V. V.; Katin, E. V.; Mukhin, I. B.; Palashov, O. V.; Khazanov, Efim A.

2010-05-01

296

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, R.L.

1995-05-30

297

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1995-01-01

298

Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area. PMID:25210241

Khare, Pratima; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Renu; Chauhan, Nidhi

2014-01-01

299

Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

1977-01-01

300

Resonant isolator for maser amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isolator is described for use in a low noise maser amplifier, which provides low loss across a wide bandwidth and which can be constructed at moderate cost. The isolator includes a train of garnet or ferrite elements extending along the length of a microwave channel parallel to the slow wave structure, with the elements being of staggered height, so that the thin elements which are resonant to the microwaves are separated by much thicker elements. The thick garnet or ferrite elements reduce the magnetic flux passing through the thin elements to permit altering of the shape of the thin elements so as to facilitate their fabrication and to provide better isolation with reduced loss, by increasing the thickness of the thin elements and decreasing their length and width.

Clauss, R. C.; Quinn, R. B. (inventors)

1983-01-01

301

Isolation, purification, and characterization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first reported in the continental United States in November 2004, and is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean worldwide. P. pachyrhizi isolates have been obtained from 2006 and 2007 across the U. S. and are being purified and maintai...

302

Time Dependent Isolation Capability of High Voltage Deep Trench Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term isolation properties of deep trenches in thick SOI have been investigated by current-voltage- characteristics. A strong change of the measured trench leakage current was observed depending on the applied voltage. Further on a marked decrease of the leakage current was observed depending on the duration and polarity of the applied stress. The improvement of the formatted trench

Ralf Lerner; Uwe Eckoldt; Klaus Schottmann; S. Heinz; K. Erler; A. Lange; G. Ebest

2008-01-01

303

Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

2011-01-01

304

Optical Isolators With Transverse Magnets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New design for isolator includes zigzag, forward-and-backward-pass beam path and use of transverse rather than longitudinal magnetic field. Design choices produce isolator with as large an aperture as desired using low-Verdet-constant glass rather than more expensive crystals. Uses commercially available permanent magnets in Faraday rotator. More compact and less expensive. Designed to transmit rectangular beam. Square cross section of beam extended to rectangular shape by increasing one dimension of glass without having to increase magnetic field. Potentially useful in laser systems involving slab lasers and amplifiers. Has applications to study of very-high-power lasers for fusion research.

Fan, Yuan X.; Byer, Robert L.

1991-01-01

305

Isolation of ribosomes and polysomes.  

PubMed

Here we describe a preparative differential centrifugation protocol for the isolation of ribosomes from a crude cell homogenate. The subcellular fraction obtained is enriched in ribosome monomers and polysomes. The protocol has been optimized for the homogenization and collection of the ribosomal fraction from prokaryotic cells, mammalian and plant tissues, reticulocytes, and chloroplasts. The quality of the ribosomal preparation is enhanced by the removal of the remaining cellular components and adsorbed proteins by pelleting through a sucrose cushion with a high concentration of monovalent salts, NH4Cl or KCl. The different components of the ribosomal fraction isolated using this protocol can be further purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation. PMID:25734065

Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

2015-01-01

306

Are Small, Isolated Wetlands Expendable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is most evident in the recent debate concerning new wetland regulations drafted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is that small, isolated wetlands will likely continue to be lost. The critical biological question is whether small wetlands are expendable, and the fundamental issue is the lack of biologically rele- vant data on the value of wetlands, especially so-called

Raymond D. Semlitsch; J. Russell Bodie

1998-01-01

307

High-Voltage Isolation Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arcing and field-included surface erosion reduced by electrostatic shields around windings and ferromagnetic core of 80-kilovolt isolation transformer. Fabricated from high-resistivity polyurethane-based material brushed on critical surfaces, shields maintained at approximately half potential difference of windings.

Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P.

1985-01-01

308

Instrumentation en Milieu Isol -Alimentation -  

E-print Network

Instrumentation en Milieu Isolé - Alimentation - Energie solaire et pile à combustible,Energie la Terre Grenoble, France #12;Energie solaire et pile à combustible, combinaison des deux énergies de l'énergie solaire, mais insuffisante pour Contexte: · Energie solaire insuffisante. · Energie

309

Precession of Isolated Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

I summarize the evidence for precession of isolated neutron stars and theoretical effort to understand the observations. I discuss factors that might set the precession period, describe constraints on the material properties of the crust, and conclude with a brief discussion of possible sources of stress that would deform a neutron star to the extent required.

Bennett Link

2002-11-08

310

Emotional isolation in BBC Forum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from BBC Forum and examine properties of the isolation phenomenon of negative and positive users. Our results show the existence of a percolation threshold dependent on the average emotional value in the network of negatively charged nodes.

Sienkiewicz, J.; Chmiel, A.

2014-03-01

311

Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

312

Isolation and identification among cockle isolates of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from Selangor, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrio vulnificus infections are worldwide public health problems associated with illnesses resulting from consumption of raw or partially cooked seafood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and identification of V. vulnificus in cockles from local wet (40) and supermarkets (38) from Selangor, Malaysia from July 2013 to February 2014. A total of 78(n=78) cockle were examined for the presence of V. vulnificus and at about 32% (25/78) cockle samples were positive to this bacterium. Colonies morphological observation and biochemical characterization for those isolates showed 60% (15/78) of isolates were classified as biotype 1 and 40% (10/78) belong to biotype 2.

Kurdi Al-Dulaimi, Mohammed M.; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Ghani, Ma`aruf Abd.

2014-09-01

313

Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

314

SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43. Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

315

Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis.  

PubMed

In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:23400696

Berghoff, Walter

2012-01-01

316

Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:23400696

Berghoff, Walter

2012-01-01

317

Isolation and characterization of siderophore from cowpea Rhizobium (peanut isolate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an iron-depleted broth culture of cowpeaRhizobium (a peanut isolate), phenolate type of compounds were detected. Chemical characterization showed the presence of 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA) and 3,4-DHBA in the siderophore extract. Lysine and alanine were identified as conjugated amino acids of the siderophore. Maximum concentration of the siderophore in the culture supernatant was found after 24 h of growth.

R. S. Jadhav; A. J. Desai

1992-01-01

318

Heterogeneity of koala retrovirus isolates.  

PubMed

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus which may induce immune suppression, leukemia and lymphoma in koalas. Currently three KoRV subgroups (A, B, and J) have been reported. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that KoRV-B and KoRV-J should be classified as the same subgroup. In long terminal repeat (LTR), a KoRV-B isolate has four 17 bp tandem repeats named direct repeat (DR)-1, while a KoRV-J isolate (strain OJ-4) has three 37 bp tandem repeats named DR-2. We also found that the promoter activity of the KoRV-J strain OJ-4 is stronger than that of original KoRV-A, suggesting that KoRV-J may replicate more efficiently than KoRV-A. PMID:24239536

Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Shojima, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

2014-01-01

319

Stellar Populations in Isolated Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to derive stellar population properties of a sample of isolated galaxies of different morphological types and activity levels. This will enable us to probe the star formation and chemical history induced by internal processes of galaxies independent of their environment. We use a subsample of 194 isolated galaxies from the sample AMIGA (Verley et al. 2009, and references therein) for which we possess SDSS spectra (one spectrum per galaxy, obtained with a 3” diameter fiber); this corresponds to the central regions of the galaxies. The sample contains different morphological types and activity levels. Here we present very preliminary stellar population analysis results of a number of galaxies from our subsample.

Moultaka, J.; Amiga Collaboration

2010-10-01

320

Sleuthing the Isolated Compact Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early 1990's, isolated thermally-emitting neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium were predicted to show up in their thousands in the ROSAT soft X-ray all-sky survey. The glut of sources would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the equation of state of ultra-dense matter. Only seven objects have been firmly identified to date. The reasons for this discrepency are discussed and recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations of these objects are described. Spectra of the brightest of the isolated neutron star candidates, RX J1856.5-3754, continue to present interpretational difficulties for current neutron star model atmospheres and alternative models are briefly discussed. RX J1856.5-3754 remains a valid quark star candidate.

Drake, J. J.

2004-08-01

321

Thalamic chronotaraxis: isolated time disorientation  

PubMed Central

Background Acute isolated disorientation of time, chronotaraxis, is an uncommon manifestation of thalamic stroke. To our knowledge, acute thalamic chronotaraxis with MRI findings has not previously been reported. Objective To describe five patients with chronotaraxis after thalamic stroke and attempt to demonstrate the correlation between lesion location and neurological findings. Patients, methods and results Isolated time disorientation and loss of time sense were found in five of 120 patients (4%) with ischaemic thalamic stroke in our centre. All patients had disorientation to actual date, inability to know the exact time of the day and under or overestimation of the time passed during examination. Patients expressed themselves as having time blindness with an inability to estimate and guess the actual time. Conclusion Acute thalamic chronotaraxis is a specific clinical picture that accurately predicts a small artery disease of the thalamus involving the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus. This clinical syndrome appears to have a good clinical recovery. PMID:17635980

Kumral, Emre; Gulluoglu, Halil; Dramali, Banu

2007-01-01

322

Isolated Malignant Melanoma Metastasis to the Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Summary: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field. PMID:25289269

Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P.

2013-01-01

323

Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

1983-07-01

324

Surface plasmon enhanced magneto-optic isolator  

E-print Network

Here we present an integrated isolator design based on nonreciprocal coupling into a magnetooptic surface-plasmon waveguide that achieves an isolation >30 dB with an insertion <3 dB in a device length <100 mum.

Ram, Rajeev J.

325

The Victoria Isolation Scale, Form A  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors administered the Isolation Symptomatology Questionnaire to persons living in Antarctica who were either well or maladjusted to their environment. Eliminating those items not discriminating between the two groups, the authors constructed a new isolation scale. (SE)

Taylor, A. J. W.; Feletti, Grahame I.

1976-01-01

326

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated ectopia lentis  

MedlinePLUS

... these cases (about 75 percent) are syndromic. What genes are related to isolated ectopia lentis? Mutations in the FBN1 or ADAMTSL4 gene cause isolated ectopia lentis. These genes provide instructions ...

327

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated Pierre Robin sequence  

MedlinePLUS

... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Isolated Pierre Robin sequence On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed August 2013 What is isolated Pierre Robin sequence? Pierre Robin sequence is a set of abnormalities ...

328

Transformerless dc-Isolated Converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient voltage converter employs capacitive instead of transformer coupling to provide dc isolation. Offers buck/boost operation, minimal filtering, and low parts count, with possible application in photovoltaic power inverters, power supplies and battery charges. In photovoltaic inverter circuit with transformerless converter, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q5 form line-commutated inverter. Switching losses and stresses nil because switching performed when current is zero.

Rippel, Wally E.

1987-01-01

329

Isolated systems in general relativity  

SciTech Connect

This work comprises two parts. The first part examines radiation effects on composite isolated systems. The author starts by solving the nonlinear asymptotic vacuum field equations in the formalism of Newman and Penrose. He uses a spin weight spherical harmonics representation of the source. The coupling to matter and the equations of motion are obtained through the conservation laws. The results are then applied to the two body problem. Well known phenomena such as the energy and angular momentum loss of radiating systems are recovered. In addition, a new effect is determined whereby the center of mass of such systems is found to recoil. In favorable cases the recoil velocity can attain a few percent of the speed of light. Part two examines the concept of angular momentum for isolated systems in general relativity. It is argued that, on physical grounds, the definition of angular momentum in general relativity should stem from the expression of linear momentum in a way similar to the expression L = rxP used for theories in pseudo-Euclidian spaces. This idea is implemented for isolated systems where, in a sense, a flat background spacetime is available.

Cresswell, A.

1984-01-01

330

The ISOL-MAFIOS Source (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISOL–MAFIOS is a high-efficiency Min B ECRIS charge state breeder for short-lived ISOL beams in the PIAFE project. The ISOL species issuing from a bombarded target are locally ionized (1+) in a given ion source (ISOLDE type). They are then accelerated, magnetically selected, and transported in a long beam line, before being adequately introduced into ISOL–MAFIOS operating in continuous mode.

R. Geller; C. Tamburella; J. L. Belmont

1996-01-01

331

Visible optical isolator using ZnSe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact Faraday effect optical isolator was constructed for visible wavelengths and tested at 5145 A. The nonreciprocal element of the isolator was polycrystalline zinc selenide placed in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. For 5145 A the isolator had a 2.06-dB insertion loss and a 25.5-dB isolation. Indices of refraction and Verdet constants were measured for zinc selenide in the wavelength region from 4700 to 6300 A.

Wunderlich, J. A.; Deshazer, L. G.

1977-01-01

332

Isolation of an alkaloid from Cassia occidentalis  

E-print Network

)ect: Biochemistry THE ISOLATION OF AN ALKALOID FROM CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS A Thesis Larry Ellis Puleo Approved as to style and oontent by: hairman o mmit e M ber Hea o partment Member ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 8 The writer wishes to express hie appreciationt To Dr. B... Scheme Page II Toxicity of various fractions of Cassia occidentalis 20 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Mass Speotrum of the Isolated Compound 2 Infrared Speotrum of the Isolated Com- pound Ultraviolet Absorption Speotrum oi the Isolated Compound...

Puleo, Larry Ellis

1966-01-01

333

Extremely Isolated Galaxies in the Nearby Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly isolated systems provide a framwork for exploring the role of interactions within galaxy evolution. We use the spectroscopic component of the Sloan Sky Survey to select extremely isolated galaxies in the nearby universe. Redshifts derived from the Sloan spectra permit a three-dimensional assessment of the local environment surrounding candidate isolated systems. The lack of redshifts has strongly limited prior

Michael N. Fanelli; P. M. Marcum; C. Fuse; C. Aars

2007-01-01

334

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTIVE INTERSPECIES ISOLATION OF  

E-print Network

analysis of the whole system of the reproductive isolation of two related species may reveal a lot aboutEXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTIVE INTERSPECIES ISOLATION OF APIS MELLIFERA L. AND APIS CERANA, is regarded as the basic unit in evolution (DOBSHANSKY, 1951, MAYR, 1953). Reproductive isolation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Effects of isolation on patients and staff.  

PubMed

A matched case-control study and a qualitative investigation were used to identify adverse events in diverse dimensions associated with isolation. Overall satisfaction with care was similar among patients in isolation, but staff was found to be less responsive. Isolation was also associated with depression, but not with increased anxiety. PMID:25721058

Lupión-Mendoza, Carmen; Antúnez-Domínguez, María J; González-Fernández, Carmen; Romero-Brioso, Concepción; Rodriguez-Bano, Jesús

2015-04-01

336

Vibration isolation using a shunted electromagnetic transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

By attaching an electromagnetic transducer to a mechanical isolation system and shunting the terminals of the transducer with electrical impedance, we can provide improved isolation performance while eliminating the need for an additional sensor. Simulated and experimental results on a simple electro-mechanical isolation system show that the proposed controller is capable of peak damping and high frequency attenuation.

Sam Behrens; Andrew J. Fleming; S. O. Reza Moheimani

2004-01-01

337

Full bridge converter Transformers and isolated converters  

E-print Network

control. 2. High power factor PFC - discussed previously. 3. Isolation 4. Multiple outputs IsolatedFull bridge converter Transformers and isolated converters Most DC power supplies have the following requirements: 1. Regulated output voltage Solved by a large capacitor at the output, and feedback

Knobloch,Jürgen

338

Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Great Nicobar Islands.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soil samples of Great Nicobar Islands, one of the "hottest biodiversity hotspots," where no collection has been characterized previously. The 36 new Bt isolates were obtained from 153 samples analyzed by crystal protein production with light/phase-contrast microscopy, determination of cry gene profile by SDS-PAGE, evaluation of toxicity against Coleopteran, and Lepidopteran insect pests, finally cloning and sequencing. Majority of the isolates showed the presence of 66-35 kDa protein bands on SDS-PAGE while the rest showed >130, 130, 73, and 18 kDa bands. The variations in crystal morphology and mass of crystal protein(s) purified from the isolates of Bt revealed genetic and molecular diversity. Based on the toxicity test, 50 % of isolates were toxic to Ash weevils, 16 % isolates were toxic to cotton bollworm, 38 % isolates were toxic both to ash weevil as well as cotton bollworm, while 11 % of the isolates did not exhibit any toxicity. PCR analysis unveiled prepotency of cry1B- and cry8b-like genes in these isolates. This study appoints the first isolation and characterization of local B. thuringiensis isolates in Great Nicobar Islands. Some of these isolates display toxic potential and, therefore, could be adopted for future applications to control some agriculturally important insect pests in the area of integrated pest management for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23377491

Asokan, R; Mahadeva Swamy, H M; Birah, Ajanta; Thimmegowda, Geetha G

2013-06-01

339

Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1988-01-01

340

Restraint and Isolation in Tennessee Schools  

E-print Network

Restraint and Isolation in Tennessee Schools revised January 2012 There is a law1 in Tennessee. Restraint means limiting a student's freedom of movement by physical contact or holding. Isolation, also, as punishment, coercion, convenience or retaliation Schools may use restraint or isolation ONLY in emergency

Cui, Yan

341

Isolation of the Unmarried in Later Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports longitudinal research which examined isolation among the unmarried aged and assessed personal characteristics associated with isolation from family and friends. Men and women were more isolated from neighbors and friends than from family, although the never-married maintained more ties with friends. (Author/BL)

Keith, Pat M.

1986-01-01

342

Noninvasive diagnosis of isolated right ventricular infarction  

SciTech Connect

A rare case of isolated right ventricular infarction (RVI) is described. The lack of clinical and electrocardiographic findings characteristic of isolated RVI makes this pathology a diagnostic challenge. The role of the radionuclide scintigraphic procedures as a single possible tool for the diagnosis of isolated RVI is emphasized.

Garty, I.; Antonelli, D.; Barzilay, J.

1984-12-01

343

Ribosomal Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

Eleven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated in Finland during 1996 to 2000, had an unusual macrolide resistance phenotype. They were resistant to macrolides and streptogramin B but susceptible, intermediate, or low-level resistant to lincosamides. No acquired macrolide resistance genes were detected from the strains. The isolates were found to have mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA or ribosomal protein L4. Seven isolates had an A2059C mutation in two to four out of the four alleles encoding the 23S rRNA, two isolates had an A2059G mutation in two alleles, one isolate had a C2611G mutation in all four alleles, and one isolate had a 69GTG71-to-69TPS71 substitution in ribosomal protein L4. PMID:11850244

Pihlajamäki, Marja; Kataja, Janne; Seppälä, Helena; Elliot, John; Leinonen, Maija; Huovinen, Pentti; Jalava, Jari

2002-01-01

344

Investigation of mercury thruster isolators. [service life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators tested occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

Mantenieks, M. A.

1973-01-01

345

Evolution 101: Speciation - Reproductive Isolation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online educational module analyzes reproductive isolation as a cause of speciation. It offers a definition of the term as well as specific examples of barriers to gene flow that may contribute to speciation, including evolution of different mating location, mating time or mating rituals, lack of "fit" between sexual organs, and offspring inviability or sterility. The webpage is part of the Understanding Evolution educational website, a noncommercial resource designed to help you understand what evolution is, how it works, how it factors into your life, how research in evolutionary biology is performed, and how ideas in this area have changed over time.

University of California Museum of Paleontology

346

Strategies for isolation of exosomes.  

PubMed

Exosomes are tiny vesicles (diameter 30-150 nm) secreted by cells in culture and found in all body fluids. These vesicles, loaded with unique RNA and protein cargos, have many biological functions, of which only a small fraction is currently understood-for example, they participate in cell-to-cell communication and signaling within the human body. The spectrum of current scientific interest in exosomes is wide and ranges from understanding their functions and pathways to using them in diagnostics, as biomarkers, and in the development of therapeutics. Here we provide an overview of different strategies for isolation of exosomes from cell-culture media and body fluids. PMID:25834266

Zeringer, Emily; Barta, Timothy; Li, Mu; Vlassov, Alexander V

2015-01-01

347

Isolation of Clostridium thermocellum auxotrophs  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of biomass of fuels and chemical feedstocks by microbial fermentation offers the potential of solving two of today's important problems: waste accumulation and exhaustion of fossil fuels. Microorganisms with the capabilities of converting biomass components such as cellulos and hemicellulose to chemicals and fuels in a single step are of particular interest. One such microorganism is Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe which degrades cellulose to ethanol and organic acids. For efficient industrial use, the cellulolytic capacity of this strain must be improved by genetic means. Spontaneous and UV irradiation-induced auxotrophic mutants of Clostridium thermocellum, an anaerobic cellulolytic thermophile, were isolated after penicillin enrichment in a chemically defined medium.

Mendez, B.S.; Gomez, R.F.

1982-02-01

348

Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.  

PubMed

The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples. PMID:25615053

Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

2014-12-01

349

From rumors to genetic isolates  

PubMed Central

Here we propose a registration process for population genetic isolates, usually geographic clusters of genetic disorders, based on the systematic search of rumors, defined as any type of account regardless of its reliability. Systematically ascertained rumors are recorded, and validated through a progressive process of pre-established steps. This paper outlines the conceptual basis for this approach and presents the preliminary results from a rumor-based nationwide registry of genetically isolated populations, named CENISO (Censo Nacional de Isolados), operating in Brazil since 2009. During the first four years of its existence (2009–2013), a total of 191 Rumors were registered and validated, resulting in a prevalence rate of one per million inhabitants of Brazil. When the five statutory geographic regions of Brazil were considered, more Rumors were registered for the Northeast (2.11; 1.74–2.54 per 106) than for the remaining four regions, North, Center-West, Southeast, and South, which did not differ among themselves. About half (86/191) of the recorded rumors were proven to be geographic clusters; of these disorders, 58 were autosomal recessive, 17 autosomal dominant, 5 X-linked, 3 multifactorial, and one environmental (thalidomide embryopathy). PMID:24764753

Castilla, Eduardo E.; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

2014-01-01

350

Power inverter with optical isolation  

DOEpatents

An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

2005-12-06

351

Models of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation  

PubMed Central

Mathematical models are presented for the evolution of postmating and premating reproductive isolation. In the case of postmating isolation it is assumed that hybrid sterility or inviability is caused by incompatibility of alleles at one or two loci, and evolution of reproductive isolation occurs by random fixation of different incompatibility alleles in different populations. Mutations are assumed to occur following either the stepwise mutation model or the infinite-allele model. Computer simulations by using Itô's stochastic differential equations have shown that in the model used the reproductive isolation mechanism evolves faster in small populations than in large populations when the mutation rate remains the same. In populations of a given size it evolves faster when the number of loci involved is large than when this is small. In general, however, evolution of isolation mechanisms is a very slow process, and it would take thousands to millions of generations if the mutation rate is of the order of 10-5 per generation. Since gene substitution occurs as a stochastic process, the time required for the establishment of reproductive isolation has a large variance. Although the average time of evolution of isolation mechanisms is very long, substitution of incompatibility genes in a population occurs rather quickly once it starts. The intrapopulational fertility or viability is always very high. In the model of premating isolation it is assumed that mating preference or compatibility is determined by male- and female-limited characters, each of which is controlled by a single locus with multiple alleles, and mating occurs only when the male and female characters are compatible with each other. Computer simulations have shown that the dynamics of evolution of premating isolation mechanism is very similar to that of postmating isolation mechanism, and the mean and variance of the time required for establishment of premating isolation are very large. Theoretical predictions obtained from the present study about the speed of evolution of reproductive isolation are consistent with empirical data available from vertebrate organisms. PMID:6840540

Nei, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Takeo; Wu, Chung-I

1983-01-01

352

Fault Detection and Isolation for Hydraulic Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure sensors and isolation valves act to shut down defective servochannel. Redundant hydraulic system indirectly senses failure in any of its electrical control channels and mechanically isolates hydraulic channel controlled by faulty electrical channel so flat it cannot participate in operating system. With failure-detection and isolation technique, system can sustains two failed channels and still functions at full performance levels. Scheme useful on aircraft or other systems with hydraulic servovalves where failure cannot be tolerated.

1987-01-01

353

Isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

Cryptococcosis is a rare infection in HIV-negative individuals. While the lungs and the central nervous system are most commonly infected, skeletal cryptococcosis is uncommon and isolated osteomyelitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans is quite rare. To our knowledge, only 47 cases of isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis have been reported from 1974 to 2005. We report a case of isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient, who received 12 weeks of fluconazole with complete recovery. PMID:21918309

Qadir, Irfan; Ali, Farheen; Malik, Umair Zafar; Umer, Masood

2011-09-01

354

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

355

?-Glucosidase Inhibitor Isolated from Coffee.  

PubMed

The potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor (compound I) was isolated from coffee brews by the activity-based fractionation and identified as a ?-carboline alkaloid norharman (9Hpyrido[ 3.4-b]indole) on the basis of mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and COSY). The norharman showed a potent inhibition against ?-glucosidase enzyme in a concentration dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0.27 mM for maltase and 0.41 mM for sucrase, respectively. A Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that norharman inhibited ?-glucosidase enzyme uncompetitively, with a Ki value of 0.13 mM. PMID:25502825

Kim, Shin Duk

2015-02-28

356

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

357

Braking index of isolated pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities ? , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of ? . This relation leads to the power law ? ? =-K ?n where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1 isolated pulsars are not known) ranging from 1.0 - 2.2 M? , and fixed magnetic dipole moment and inclination angle between the rotational and magnetic field axes. The results are used to solve for the value of the braking index as a function of frequency, and find the effect of the choice of the EoS, MB. The density profile of a star with a given MB is calculated to determine the transition between the crust and the core and used in estimation of the effect of core superfluidity on the braking index. Our results show conclusively that, within the model used in this work, any significant deviation of the braking index away from the value n =3 occurs at frequencies higher than about ten times the frequency of the slow rotating isolated pulsars most accurately measured to date. The rate of change of n with frequency is related to the softness of the EoS and the MB of the star as this controls the degree of departure from sphericity. Change in the moment of inertia in the MDR model alone, even with the more realistic features considered here, cannot explain the observational data on the braking index and other mechanisms have to be sought.

Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

2015-03-01

358

Propellant isolation shutoff valve program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

Merritt, F. L.

1973-01-01

359

Spectroscopy of Isolated Prebiotic Nucleobases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use multiphoton ionization and double resonance spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics of biologically relevant molecules as well as prebiotic nucleobases, isolated in the gas phase. Molecules that are biologically relevant to life today tend to exhibit short excited state lifetimes compared to similar but non-biologically relevant analogs. The mechanism is internal conversion, which may help protect the biologically active molecules from UV damage. This process is governed by conical intersections that depend very strongly on molecular structure. Therefore we have studied purines and pyrimidines with systematic variations of structure, including substitutions, tautomeric forms, and cluster structures that represent different base pair binding motifs. These structural variations also include possible alternate base pairs that may shed light on prebiotic chemistry. With this in mind we have begun to probe the ultrafast dynamics of molecules that exhibit very short excited states and search for evidence of internal conversions.

Svadlenak, Nathan; Callahan, Michael P.; Ligare, Marshall; Gulian, Lisa; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Nachtigallova, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; deVries, Mattanjah

2011-01-01

360

``Smart'' Base Isolation Strategies Employing Magnetorheological Dampers  

E-print Network

``Smart'' Base Isolation Strategies Employing Magnetorheological Dampers H. Yoshioka1 ; J. C magnetorheological MR dampers. The experimental structure, constructed and tested at the Structural Dynamics

Spencer Jr., B.F.

361

Isolated Fast High-Voltage Switching Circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrically isolated switching circuit supplies pulses at potentials up to 6.5 kV and currents up to 6.5 A, lasting as long as few microseconds. Turn-on time about 40 ns; turn-off time about 3 microseconds. Electrically isolated from control circuitry by means of fiber-optic signal coupling and isolated power supply. Electrical isolation protects both technician and equipment. This and similar circuits useful in such industrial and scientific applications as high-voltage, high-frequency test equipment; electrostatic-discharge test equipment; plasma-laboratory instrumentation; spark chambers; and electromagnetic-interference test equipment.

Rizzi, Anthony

1992-01-01

362

Hydrologic considerations in defining isolated wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wetlands that are not connected by streams to other surface-water bodies are considered to be isolated. Although the definition is based on surface-water connections to other water bodies, isolated wetlands commonly are integral parts of extensive ground-water flow systems, and isolated wetlands can spill over their surface divides into adjacent surface-water bodies during periods of abundant precipitation and high water levels. Thus, characteristics of ground-water flow and atmospheric-water flow affect the isolation of wetlands. In general, the degree that isolated wetlands are connected through the ground-water system to other surface-water bodies depends to a large extent on the rate that ground water moves and the rate that hydrologic stresses can be transmitted through the ground-water system. Water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a gravel aquifer can travel many kilometers through the ground-water system in one year. In contrast, water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a clayey or silty substrate may travel less than one meter in one year. For wetlands that can spill over their surface watersheds during periods of wet climate conditions, their isolation is related to the height to a spill elevation above normal wetland water level and the recurrence interval of various magnitudes of precipitation. The concepts presented in this paper indicate that the entire hydrologic system needs to be considered in establishing a definition of hydrologic isolation.

Winter, T.C.; LaBaugh, J.W.

2003-01-01

363

Leclercia Adecarboxylata Isolation: Case Reports and Review  

PubMed Central

Leclercia adecarboxylata is usually isolated as a part of polymicrobial cultures in immunocompetent patients, and as a pure culture in immunocompromised persons. Although generally sensitive to most antibiotics, there are reports of resistant strains. Two case reports of L. adecarboxylata isolation in the lab in pure culture in immunocompetent persons are presented here, L. adecarboxylata being isolated from a vaginal swab in the first case and from a gluteal abscess in the second case. Both the isolates were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested. PMID:25653951

2014-01-01

364

FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) isolates active regulatory  

E-print Network

to nucleases. Here we demonstrate a simple procedure for the isolation of nucleosome-depleted DNA from humanFAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) isolates active regulatory elements 78712-0159, USA DNA segments that actively regulate transcription in vivo are typically characterized

Lieb, Jason

365

Mycotoxin production from fungi isolated from grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

L. A BRUNHOSA, R.R.M. P ATERSON, Z. K OZAKIEWICZ, N. L IMA A ND A. V ENAN C I O. 2001. Aims: In order to assess the potential for producing mycotoxins, fungi were isolated from wine producing grapes. Methods and Results: The isolates were identified and Penicillium expansum, the most well recognized mycotoxin producer, was analysed for mycotoxin production by

L. Abrunhosa; R. R. M. Paterson; Z. Kozakiewicz; N. Lima; A. Venancio

2001-01-01

366

Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus from seawater aquaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seawater bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus was detected in 5 of 20 water samples from seawater aquaria (from 3 of 5 units) and also from the surface of diseased stony corals. A total of 45 isolates were differentiated biochemically, of which 13 isolates (29%) proved to be V. alginolyticus. All those strains produced the virulence factors caseinase and lipase, 11 strains

Stefan Hörmansdorfer; Helmut Wentges; Karin Neugebaur-Büchler; Johann Bauer

2000-01-01

367

Cheese Whey Proteins Isolated with Polyacrylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cottage cheese whey and sweet whey proteins have been recovered from fresh whey solutions by reversible precipitation with polyacrylic acid. The work describes the method of protein isolation and characterizes the final product by electro- phoresis, proximate analysis, mineral analysis, essential amino acids, and solu- bility in buffers. A unique functional property of the isolated cheese whey protein preparation is

M. Sternberg; J. P. Chiang; N. J. Eberts

1976-01-01

368

Seismic isolation: Which way to go?  

SciTech Connect

There are known limitations in current seismic isolation designs which, particularly, use shearing type (e.g. rubber) bearings as isolators. This paper identifies some of the limitations and describes an alternative design. The technical basis and advantages of the new approach are presented.

Shustov, V. [Seismic Risk Evaluation Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

369

Spectral characteristics of isolated blowfly rhabdoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple method for the isolation of rhabdoms from the eye of the blowflyCalliphora erythrocephala Meig. is described. Essentially this involves i) the excision of the retina, then its disintegration using a hypoosmotic buffer and ii) separation of the rhabdoms from other cell fragments by isopycnic centrifugation on Percoll.1.The isolated rhabdoms consist almost exclusively of the microvillar membranes

R. Paulsen; Allgemeine Zoologie; Oberer Eselsberg; Accepted April

1984-01-01

370

Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals  

E-print Network

Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals A. T. KWAN, M. YU. EFREMOV, E. A-film differential scanning calorimetry to investigate the melt- ing of isolated polyethylene single crystals of lamellar single crystals of polyethylene (PE). We obtain thickness, diffraction, and calorimetry data

Allen, Leslie H.

371

Isolation of extracellular protein from greenhouse soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extracellular proteins may play an important role in the soil environment, these proteins are difficult to isolate because they are immediately degraded by soil microbes, or become associated with clay mineral and humic substances. We developed a method of isolating extracellular proteins from greenhouse soils. Phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) was used to extract protein from soil. A phosphate buffer

Akifumi Murase; Masaki Yoneda; Risa Ueno; Koyo Yonebayashi

2003-01-01

372

Nonorthogonally magnetised permanent-magnet Faraday isolators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel configuration of permanent-magnet magnetic systems for high-power Faraday isolators that are used in high-power lasers. An increase in magnetic field is ensured by magnets with a magnetisation vector inclined to the isolator axis. Numerical simulation results agree well with experimentally determined magnetic field distributions. (quantum electronic devices)

Mironov, E A; Voitovich, A V; Palashov, O V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2011-01-31

373

Application of active base isolation control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural control can provide the potential protection through passive and active control techniques. Structures with base isolations have been successfully implemented and proven effective in the vibration mitigation. To enhance the functionality of base isolations, a hybrid control system can be considered using a combination with active control devices. This research applies the hybrid control technique to a three-story

Chia-Ming Chang; Zhihao Wang; Billie F. Spencer

2009-01-01

374

Epidemic model with isolation in multilayer networks  

E-print Network

The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model has successfully mimicked the propagation of such airborne diseases as influenza A (H1N1). Although the SIR model has recently been studied in a multilayer networks configuration, in almost all the research the dynamic movement of infected individuals, e.g., how they are often kept in isolation, is disregarded. We study the SIR model in two multilayer networks and use an isolation parameter, indicating time period, to measure the effect of isolating infected individuals from both layers. This isolation reduces the transmission of the disease because the time in which infection can spread is reduced. In this scenario we find that the epidemic threshold increases with the isolation time and the isolation parameter and the impact of the propagation is reduced. We also find that when isolation is total there is a threshold for the isolation parameter above which the disease never becomes an epidemic. We also find that regular epidemic models always overestimate the e...

Zuzek, L G Alvarez; Braunstein, L A

2014-01-01

375

Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. The aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to assess associated risk factors in cats from southern Portugal. Methods Six hundred and forty-nine cats (320 domestic and 329 stray), from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal, were studied. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood samples. Results One hundred and ninety-four (29.9%) cats were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested genera or complex of FVBD agents. Sixty-four (9.9%) cats were positive to Leishmania spp., 56 (8.6%) to Hepatozoon spp., 43 (6.6%) to Babesia spp., 35 (5.4%) to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., 19 (2.9%) to Bartonella spp. and 14 (2.2%) to B. burgdorferi s.l. Thirty-three (5.1%) cats were positive to two (n?=?29) or three (n?=?4) genera/complex. Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were identified by DNA sequencing. Conclusions The occurrence of FVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic character, emphasizes the need to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities for the risk of infection. Control measures should be implemented to prevent the infection of cats, other vertebrate hosts and people. PMID:24655431

2014-01-01

376

Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

2005-01-01

377

Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity  

SciTech Connect

Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

Foreman, Pamela (Palo Alto, CA); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-02-23

378

Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.  

PubMed

A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) (?=?DSM 24998(T) ?=?LMG 26584(T)). PMID:22523164

Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2013-02-01

379

Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum torque orientation and other experimental activities will occur continually, both inside and outside the station. Since all vibration sources cannot be controlled, the task of attenuating the disturbances is the only realistic alternative. Several groups have independently developed technology to isolate payloads from the space environment. Since 1970, Honeywell's Satellite Systems Division has designed several payload isolation systems and vibration attenuators. From 1987 to 1992, NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) performed research on isolation technology and developed a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) isolator and tested the system during 70 low gravity aircraft flight trajectories. Beginning in early 1995, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) jointly developed the STABLE (Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation Evaluation) isolation system. This 5 month accelerated effort produced the first flight of an active microgravity vibration isolation system on STS-73/USML-02 in late October 1995. The Canadian Space Agency developed the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) for isolating microgravity payloads and this system began operating on the Russian Mir Space Station in May 1996. The Boeing Defense & Space Group, Missiles & Space Division developed the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for isolating payloads in a standard payload rack. ARIS was tested in September 1996 during the STS-79 mission to Mir. Although these isolation systems differ in their technological approach, the objective is to isolate payloads from disturbances. The following sections describe the technologies behind these systems and the different types of hardware used to perform isolation. The purpose of these descriptions is not to detail the inner workings of the hardware but to give the reader an idea of the technology and uses of the hardware components. Also included in the component descriptions is a paragraph detailing some of the advances in isolation technology for that particular component. The final s

Alhorn, Dean C.

1997-01-01

380

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

Ernst, W.D.

1999-06-15

381

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

1999-01-01

382

Variation in Sensitivity Among Some Isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina Isolated from Cotton Roots to Flutolanil Fungicide  

PubMed Central

Toxicity of the fungicide Flutolanil was in vitro tested against 20 isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina and cotton seedlings of ten commercial cotton cultivars. The isolates were recovered from roots of cotton plants obtained from different cotton-growing areas in Egypt. Most of the tested isolates were sensitive to Flutolanil; however, they varied in sensitivity. Twenty-five percent of the isolates were highly sensitive where IC50 ranged from < 1 to 5.1 µg/ml, 20% of the isolates were sensitive where IC50 ranged from 15 to 30 µg/ml, 45% of the isolates were moderately sensitive where IC50 ranged from 46 to 58.5 µg/ml, and 10% of the isolates were not much sensitive (tolerant) where IC50 was > 100 µg/ml. Flutolanil was very safe on both shoots and roots of the tested cultivars (IC50 > 100 µg/ml). Treating cotton seeds with Flutolanil resulted in highly significant (P < 0.01) reductions in pathogenicity of 18 isolates and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in pathogenicity of isolate M29. M1 was the only isolate, which was insensitive to the application of Flutolanil. In vivo toxicity to Flutolanil was not correlated with its in vitro toxicity. However, a highly significant correlation (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) was observed between pathogenicity of isolates and the in vivo toxicity of the fungicide. PMID:24039478

Aly, A.A.; Omar, M.R.; Ismail, Abdel-Wahab A.

2006-01-01

383

Ribotype analysis of Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolates.  

PubMed Central

No epidemiological typing system to differentiate among Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolates has been available. Ribotype analysis was developed and used to examine 74 clinical and 10 environmental isolates of P. pseudomallei from Thailand. Six P. pseudomallei ribotypes were identified from restriction fragment polymorphisms of EcoRI chromosomal digests. The predominant ribotype, A, was found in 59 of the isolates examined. By using patterns from hybridizations with SalI, HindIII, and PstI restriction digests, isolates of ribotype A were subdivided into a further five subtypes, giving a total of 10 differentiable P. pseudomallei types. In 23 of 34 melioidosis patients studied, multiple P. pseudomallei isolates were present. In all but one of these patients, a single ribotype of the organism was present. Isolation of two different ribotypes of P. pseudomallei from one patient, one each in sputum and urine, suggests that superinfection may have occurred. The ribotype was shown to be conserved during the course of antibiotic treatments in seven patients studied, although the antibiotic sensitivity patterns in the isolates from these patients varied. The prevalence of subtype A1 in clinical and environmental specimens suggests that this strain may be predominant in this geographical location. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the ribotyping method for epidemiological studies of P. pseudomallei. Images PMID:7679401

Sexton, M M; Goebel, L A; Godfrey, A J; Choawagul, W; White, N J; Woods, D E

1993-01-01

384

Application of seismic isolation to industrial tanks  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art in the application of seismic isolation to industrial tanks is presented. Use of seismic isolation in industrial tanks can reduce lateral shaking forces by factors of 3 to 5 for strong earthquake loadings. This level of force reduction offers a practical and economical means of designing tanks on a linear elastic basis, and thereby reduces the risk of local failures and leakage during earthquakes. The case studies presented include: LNG Storage Tanks, an Ammonia Storage Tank, and an Emergency Fire and Cooling Water Tank. The tank capacities range from 50 thousand gallons to 19 million gallons. Two applications are new tanks, and one is a retrofit of an existing tank. The methodology for the design of the isolation bearings and tank structures is presented. The dynamic analysis methods used to perform the seismic analysis of the isolated tanks are reviewed, including the hydrodynamic modeling methods. The engineering principles and theory of the Friction Pendulum isolation bearings are discussed. This pendulum based isolation system results in the same natural period of vibration regardless of changes in the fluid levels in the tank, or temperature, aging, and environmental conditions. Test results for the isolation bearings are presented, including comparisons of experimental and analytical results for dynamic loadings, and strength, temperature and aging tests.

Zayas, V.A.; Low, S.S. [Earthquake Protection Systems, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

385

Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

2010-01-01

386

Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities  

SciTech Connect

Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

Jessop, J.J.

1986-01-01

387

Seismic Behaviour of Vertical Mass Isolated Structures  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the seismic behaviour of vertical mass isolated structures against the earthquake is studied. These structures are assumed to be consisted of two subsystems. Mass subsystem possesses low lateral stiffness but carries the major part of mass of the system. Stiffness subsystem, however, controls the deformation of the mass subsystem and attributes with much higher stiffness. The isolator layer is, therefore, located in between the mass and the stiffness subsystems and assumed to be a viscous damper layer. The analytical model used for this investigation is a dual mass-spring model which is an extended form of the three element Maxwell model. In this study, the ability of mass isolation techniques in reducing earthquake effects on buildings with two approaches, parametric and numerical approaches, is shown. In the parametric approach, by definition an isolation factor for structure and determination the dynamic characteristics of system, the relative optimum value of the isolator damping coefficient is obtained. The results provide an insight on role of relative stiffness and mass ratio of the two subsystems. Finally, in the numerical approach, the spectral responses of these structures due to the earthquake are investigated. The results show a noticeable decrease in earthquake input force to vertical mass isolated structures in comparison with non-isolated structures.

Nekooei, M.; Ziyaeifar, M. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), P.O. Box 19395-3913, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

388

Comparative Genomics of Staphylococcus aureus Musculoskeletal Isolates  

PubMed Central

Much of the research aimed at defining the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus has been done with a limited number of strains, most notably the 8325-4 derivative RN6390. Several lines of evidence indicate that this strain is unique by comparison to clinical isolates of S. aureus. Based on this, we have focused our efforts on two clinical isolates (UAMS-1 and UAMS-601), both of which are hypervirulent in our animal models of musculoskeletal infection. In this study, we used comparative genomic hybridization to assess the genome content of these two isolates relative to RN6390 and each of seven sequenced S. aureus isolates. Our comparisons were done by using an amplicon-based microarray from the Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center and an Affymetrix GeneChip that collectively represent the genomes of all seven sequenced strains. Our results confirmed that UAMS-1 and UAMS-601 share specific attributes that distinguish them from RN6390. Potentially important differences included the presence of cna and the absence of isaB, sarT, sarU, and sasG in the UAMS isolates. Among the sequenced strains, the UAMS isolates were most closely related to the dominant European clone EMRSA-16. In contrast, RN6390, NCTC 8325, and COL formed a distinct cluster that, by comparison to the other four sequenced strains (Mu50, N315, MW2, and SANGER-476), was the most distantly related to the UAMS isolates and EMRSA-16. PMID:15629929

Cassat, James E.; Dunman, Paul M.; McAleese, Fionnuala; Murphy, Ellen; Projan, Steven J.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

2005-01-01

389

Nonlinear vibration isolator with adjustable restoring force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a vertical quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator with a mechanism for adjusting restoring force. QZS vibration isolators have high initial stiffness and QZS around the static equilibrium position. This way, excessive deformation due to self-weight can be avoided while having enough vibration reduction capability to dynamic excitations. One of the main issues left for QZS vibration isolators is the difficulty in keeping the vibration reduction capability when the vibration isolated object is replaced. In such a case, adjustment of its restoring force becomes necessary in accordance with the self-weight of the newly placed vibration isolated object. This paper attempts to address this issue by proposing a mechanism that enables quick and easy adjustment of the restoring force of a QZS vibration isolator. The proposed mechanism consists of cranks and a screw jack. With the present mechanism, the restoring force provided by horizontally placed springs can be converted into the vertical restoring force of the vibration isolator. In the conversion, the vertical resisting force can be adjusted simply by applying and removing torque to the screw jack to change and hold the angle of inclined bars placed in the cranks. In this study, a prototype of a class of QZS vibration isolator having the proposed mechanism is produced. Shaking table tests are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the present mechanism, where the produced prototype is subjected to various sinusoidal and earthquake ground motions. It is demonstrated through the shaking table tests that the produced prototype can reduce the response acceleration within the same tolerance even when the mass of the vibration isolated object is changed.

Araki, Yoshikazu; Asai, Takehiko; Kimura, Kosuke; Maezawa, Kosei; Masui, Takeshi

2013-11-01

390

Isolation, Pathogenicity and Safety of Curvularia eragrostidis Isolate QZ-2000 as a Bioherbicide Agent for Large Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pathogen isolated from lesions on blighted leaves of crabgrass in three different locations of China was identified as Curvularia eragrostidis. Isolate QZ-2000 was the most virulent of six isolates tested. Experiments on morphology, pathogenicity, effect of environmental factors, and host-range of isolate QZ-2000 were conducted in the laboratory, greenhouse and field to assess the potential of this isolate as

Yunzhi Zhu; Sheng Qiang

2004-01-01

391

Waveguide optical isolator - A new design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design of a thin film waveguide optical isolator is described. It is composed of a nonreciprocal mode converter by the Faraday effect, a reciprocal mode converter by the Cotton-Mouton effect, an integrated mirror, and TE-mode selectors. Its mode transfer matrices are derived. Numerical calculations show that wider tolerances of the film parameters and smaller dimensions are obtained compared with the ordinary tandem type waveguide isolators without the integrated mirror. This structure is free of the problem of the localized control of the directions of the magnetization, which has been required for the ordinary tandem type waveguide isolator.

Ando, Koji

1991-03-01

392

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

Martinson, Scott D. (inventor); Gray, David L. (inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (inventor)

1994-01-01

393

21 CFR 870.2620 - Line isolation monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...isolation monitor. (a) Identification. A line isolation monitor is a device used to monitor the electrical leakage current from a power supply electrically isolated from the commercial power supply received from a utility company....

2010-04-01

394

42 CFR 71.33 - Persons: Isolation and surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Persons: Isolation and surveillance. 71.33 Section...Communicable Diseases § 71.33 Persons: Isolation and surveillance. (a) Persons held in isolation under this subpart may be held in...

2012-10-01

395

46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping COAST GUARD...and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally isolated...

2012-10-01

396

42 CFR 71.33 - Persons: Isolation and surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Persons: Isolation and surveillance. 71.33 Section...Communicable Diseases § 71.33 Persons: Isolation and surveillance. (a) Persons held in isolation under this subpart may be held in...

2011-10-01

397

21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880...880.5450 Patient care reverse isolation chamber. (a) Identification. A patient care reverse isolation chamber is a device...

2014-04-01

398

42 CFR 71.33 - Persons: Isolation and surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Persons: Isolation and surveillance. 71.33 Section...Communicable Diseases § 71.33 Persons: Isolation and surveillance. (a) Persons held in isolation under this subpart may be held in...

2013-10-01

399

21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880...880.5450 Patient care reverse isolation chamber. (a) Identification. A patient care reverse isolation chamber is a device...

2012-04-01

400

46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping COAST GUARD...and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally isolated...

2014-10-01

401

21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880...880.5450 Patient care reverse isolation chamber. (a) Identification. A patient care reverse isolation chamber is a device...

2011-04-01

402

21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880...880.5450 Patient care reverse isolation chamber. (a) Identification. A patient care reverse isolation chamber is a device...

2013-04-01

403

42 CFR 71.33 - Persons: Isolation and surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons: Isolation and surveillance. 71.33 Section...Communicable Diseases § 71.33 Persons: Isolation and surveillance. (a) Persons held in isolation under this subpart may be held in...

2010-10-01

404

42 CFR 71.33 - Persons: Isolation and surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Persons: Isolation and surveillance. 71.33 Section...Communicable Diseases § 71.33 Persons: Isolation and surveillance. (a) Persons held in isolation under this subpart may be held in...

2014-10-01

405

46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping COAST GUARD...and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally isolated...

2013-10-01

406

21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5450 Patient care reverse isolation chamber. (a) Identification. A patient care reverse isolation chamber...

2010-04-01

407

Optical Observations of Isolated Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Only 1% of the Isolated Neutron Star (INS) population has been identified in the optical, albeit with different degrees of confidence. Optical observations of INSs are reviewed and their emission properties discussed in an evolutionary framework.

R. Mignani

1998-10-02

408

A case of familial isolated hemihyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Hemihyperplasia (hemihypertrophy) is defined as asymmetric body overgrowth of one or more body parts. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or be part of well-defined syndromes such as in the case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Isolated hemihyperplasia is usually sporadic, but a number of familial occurrences have been described. Case presentation We describe a Tunisian family in which three maternal cousins and their maternal grandfather present with isolated hemihyperplasia. Conclusions The etiology of isolated hemihyperplasia is unknown although in BWS, genomic imprinting has been shown to play a role in the asymmetric overgrowth. Given the similarity between these two conditions, it is possible that both may share a common pathogenesis. We also discuss the possible genetic mechanisms leading to the production of hemihyperplasia in this family. PMID:15040809

Heilstedt, Heidi A; Bacino, Carlos A

2004-01-01

409

Genetics Home Reference: Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism  

MedlinePLUS

... and symptoms of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, such as kidney stones, nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure (hypertension), weakness, and ... gene transcription ; hormone ; hypercalcemia ; hyperparathyroidism ; hypertension ; inherited ; ... osteoporosis ; parathyroid ; parathyroid gland ; prevalence ; proliferating ; ...

410

Isolation, cultivation and transfection of human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Human keratinocytes could be used in the repair of damaged skin, in tissue engineering applications, gene therapy and recently, the generation of iPS cells. We isolated human keratinocytes from foreskin and subsequently cultured them on fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin-coated dishes that contained three different types of serum-free medium (epilife, KSM or CnT). We developed improved conditions for efficient transfection of these human keratinocytes by testing three common transfection methods and a GFP plasmid vector. The isolated cells showed typical keratinocyte morphology and expressed the epithelial cell specific antigen, cytokeratin 14. Collagen type 1, epilife medium and lipofectamin 2000 gave the best results for isolation and transfection of human keratinocytes. Our protocol can be used as a reproducible, simple and efficient method for isolation, cultivation and genetic manipulation of human keratinocytes, which may be useful in cell and gene therapy applications. PMID:24323435

Zare, Sona; Zarei, Mohammad Ali; Ghadimi, Tayyeb; Fathi, Fardin; Jalili, Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed

2014-04-01

411

Do O-stars form in isolation?  

E-print Network

Around 4% of O-stars are observed in apparent isolation, with no associated cluster, and no indication of having been ejected from a nearby cluster. We define an isolated O-star as a star > 17.5 M_\\odot in a cluster with total mass 10 M_\\odot) stars. We show that the fraction of apparently isolated O-stars is reproduced when stars are sampled (randomly) from a standard initial mass function and a standard cluster mass function of the form N(M) \\propto M^-2. This result is difficult to reconcile with the idea that there is a fundamental relationship between the mass of a cluster and the mass of the most massive star in that cluster. We suggest that such a relationship is a typical result of star formation in clusters, and that `isolated O-stars' are low-mass clusters in which massive stars have been able to form.

Richard J. Parker; Simon P. Goodwin

2007-07-04

412

Isolated Curves for Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography  

E-print Network

We introduce the notion of isolated genus two curves. As there is no known efficient algorithm to explicitly construct isogenies between two genus two curves with large conductor gap, the discrete log problem (DLP) cannot be efficiently carried over from an isolated curve to a large set of isogenous curves. Thus isolated genus two curves might be more secure for DLP based hyperelliptic curve cryptography. We establish results on explicit expressions for the index of an endomorphism ring in the maximal CM order, and give conditions under which the index is a prime number or an almost prime number for three different categories of quartic CM fields. We also derived heuristic asymptotic results on the densities and distributions of isolated genus two curves with CM by any fixed quartic CM field. Computational results, which are also shown for three explicit examples, agree with heuristic prediction with errors within a tolerable range.

Wang, Wenhan

2012-01-01

413

Pneumatic isolation systems with linear passive damping  

SciTech Connect

Pneumatic isolators provide good vibration isolation. Damping can be effected with a secondary volume and a flow restrictor to dissipate energy as oscillations force gas to flow from the primary compliance chamber to the secondary damping chamber. Automatic leveling is required in some cases. The feedback inflates or deflates the pneumatic isolator as the load or required height is changed. With feedback however there is the possibility of instability if the isolation system is not properly damped. The design of simple laminar-flow restrictors and their application in pneumatic leveling systems is discussed. The experimental results of a successful retrofit to a design applied to a diamond turning machine (DTM No. 3) is presented.

DeBra, D.B.; Warner, R.E.

1982-01-19

414

Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

James, Daniel E.

1984-01-01

415

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated Duane retraction syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... percent of all cases of abnormal eye alignment (strabismus). For unknown reasons, isolated Duane syndrome affects females ... eye ; nervous system ; pattern of inheritance ; protein ; recessive ; strabismus ; syndrome You may find definitions for these and ...

416

Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation System  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is to develop a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system which is capable to diagnosis multiple sensor faults in nonlinear cases. In order to lead this study closer to real world applications in oil industries...

Yang, Cheng-Ken

2014-08-01

417

Isolation and Adaptation in Passage Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the phenomena of isolation and adaptation in the context of two recognition experiments investigating retroactive interference. Results suggest a framework for predicting errors and accuracies in passage memory based on integrative processing. (DF)

Hertel, Paula T.

1985-01-01

418

Triterpene Alcohol Isolation from Oil Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoarborinol, an intact pentacyclic unsaturated alcohol, was isolated from the Messel oil shale (about 50 × 106 years old). Complex organic substances, even those very sensitive to oxidation, reduction, or acidic conditions, can thus survive without alteration for long periods.

P. Albrecht; G. Ourisson

1969-01-01

419

Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

1992-01-01

420

Selective medium for Corynebacterium equi isolation.  

PubMed Central

The development of a selective medium for the isolation of Corynebacterium equi is described. The medium has been used to examine fecal samples from 127 horses of which 90 have been found to carry the organism. Images PMID:479362

Woolcock, J B; Farmer, A M; Mutimer, M D

1979-01-01

421

An optoelectronic switching matrix with high isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-isolation (60 dB) 10×10 optoelectronic switch matrix with surface-depleted photoconductive crosspoints is reported. The device is designed for a bandwidth greater than 1 GHz and an isolation level greater than 60 dB. Ten 1.8-GHz channels are supported with 0-dB insertion loss and >125 dB\\/Hz dynamic range. The novel crosspoints require reliability improvement because they are unstable

M. Veilleux; R. Ian MacDonald

1992-01-01

422

Mycological flora isolated from people in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that in Poland the most frequently encountered pathogenic fungi are the zoophilic ones:T. mentagrophytes, M. canis andT. verrucosum. The zoophilic fungi have been isolated in 69.6 % of cases, while the anthropophilic fungi in 30.3 % of cases. In Poland, the most frequently isolated fungus among anthropophilic fungi have beenT. rubrum (36.2 %) andT. violaceum (34.3

Henryk Prochacki

1970-01-01

423

Naphthopyranones - isolation, bioactivity, biosynthesis and synthesis.  

PubMed

Covering: up to 2014The 1H-naphtho[2,3-c]pyran-1-one (naphthopyranone) moiety forms the structural framework of a group of secondary metabolites that have been isolated from a range of organisms including fungi, bacteria, lichen and plants. This review documents the known naturally occurring naphthopyranones - their isolation, biosynthesis and biological activity. A survey of methods reported for the synthesis of naphthopyranone natural products is presented. PMID:25531639

Donner, Christopher D

2015-03-25

424

Novel Actinomycete Isolated from Bulking Industrial Sludge  

PubMed Central

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images PMID:16347238

White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.

1986-01-01

425

Spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon  

E-print Network

The spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon (WIH) has been investigated. We obtain an equally spaced entropy spectrum with its quantum equal to the one given by Bekenstein [5]. We demonstrate that the quantization of entropy and area is a generic property of horizon, and the results exit in a wide class of spacetimes admitting weakly isolated horizons. Our results also indicate that the entropy quantum of the black hole horizon is closely related to Hawking temperature.

Ge-Rui Chen; Yong-Chang Huang

2015-02-12

426

Vector-borne agents detected in fleas of the northern white-breasted hedgehog.  

PubMed

This is the first large-scale molecular investigation of fleas from a geographically widespread and highly urbanized species, the northern white-breasted hedgehog. In this study, 759 fleas (the majority were Archaeopsylla erinacei) collected from 134 hedgehogs were molecularly analyzed individually or in pools for the presence of three groups of vector-borne pathogens. All flea samples were positive for rickettsiae: In two samples (1.5%) Rickettsia helvetica and in 10% of the others a novel rickettsia genotype were identified. Additionally, Bartonella henselae (the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans) was demonstrated in one flea (0.7%), and hemoplasmas of the hemofelis group were identified in seven other samples (5.2%). The findings of vector-borne agents not detected before in A. erinacei fleas broaden the range of those diseases of veterinary-medical importance, of which hedgehogs may play a role in the epidemiology. PMID:24359423

Hornok, Sándor; Földvári, Gábor; Rigó, Krisztina; Meli, Marina L; Tóth, Mária; Molnár, Viktor; Gönczi, Enik?; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2014-01-01

427

Cat-Scratch Disease: Unusual Perivascular Chorioretinal Lesions  

PubMed Central

This study is a case report of bilateral perivascular chorioretinal lesions associated with Bartonella henselae. A 37-year-old woman presented with headache and blurred vision in both eyes aggravating occasionally during five years. She was otherwise healthy, with best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes. History of close contact with cats was more than merely eye-catching upon examination of her fundus. In both eyes, fundi were coated with yellow-brown pigmented perivenous chorioretinal lesions along the superotemporal and inferotemporal vascular arcades and their branches. The perivenous lesions were associated with vascular fibrous bands and corresponding changes in vascular calibers. There were no associated intraocular inflammatory signs in both eyes. The serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. The patient received no treatment, and she was followed for three years without any signs of ocular inflammation

Sahin, Ozlem

2014-01-01

428

Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005  

PubMed Central

Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003–August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0–83) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown. PMID:25627940

Campbell, Angela P.; Supawat, Krongkaew; Liamsuwan, Sahas; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Laptikulthum, Somsak; Viriyavejakul, Akravudh; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Vasiknanonte, Punnee; Janjindamai, Supachai; Boonluksiri, Pairoj; Rajborirug, Kiatsak; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Khetsuriani, Nino; Dowell, Scott F.

2015-01-01

429

HIV-negative case of bacillary angiomatosis with chronic hepatitis B.  

PubMed

Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is an infectious disease which occurs predominantly in immunosuppressive patients and rarely in immunocompetent individuals. We had a case of BA who presented with a red cutaneous nodule on his left leg of which histopathological examination revealed marked lobular proliferation of capillaries throughout the interstitium and clusters of bacilli with hematoxylin-eosin and Warthin-Starry stains, respectively. Antibody titer against Bartonella henselae was 1/32. The only systemic disease the patient had was chronic hepatitis B. HIV was negative and no other immunosuppressive status was established. In this case we believe that the immunological differences secondary to chronic hepatitis B could have caused a tendency for the disease development. PMID:20649715

Kaçar, Nida; Ta?li, Levent; Demirkan, Ne?e; Ergin, Ca?ri; Ergin, Seniz

2010-08-01

430

Atypical Presentation of Cat-Scratch Disease in an Immunocompetent Child with Serological and Pathological Evidence  

PubMed Central

Typical cat-scratch disease (CSD) is characterized by local lymphadenopathy following the scratch or bite from a cat or kitten. An atypical presentation which includes liver and/or spleen lesions is rarely reported in an immunocompetent child. Systemic CSD may mimic more serious disorders like malignancy or tuberculosis. Although a diagnosis is difficult to establish in systemic CSD, an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications. Bartonella henselae is difficult to culture, and culture is not routinely recommended. Clinical, serological, radiological, and pathological findings are used for the diagnosis of CSD. Herein we present a case of systemic CSD presenting with hepatic mass in an immunocompetent child. The differential diagnosis is made by serological and pathological evidence. He was successfully treated with gentamicin (7.5?mg/kg) and rifampin (15?mg/kg) for six weeks. PMID:25610689

At?c?, Serkan; Kaday?fc?, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ay?e; Toper, Muhammed Hasan; Celikel, Cigdem Ataizi; Soysal, Ahmet; Bak?r, Mustafa

2014-01-01

431

Retinal Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Young Patient with Cat Scratch Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonella henselae. Results Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Conclusions Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease. PMID:24019792

Batsos, Georgios; Kabanarou, Stamatina A.; Fotiou, Pantelis; Rouvas, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina

2013-01-01

432

A case report of seronegative cat scratch disease, emphasizing the histopathologic point of view  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cat scratch disease, necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by Bartonella henselae, usually benign and self-limited. However, various clinical manifestations and no pathognomonic histopathologic features can lead to misinterpretations and diagnostic disputes. We report a case of cat scratch disease in a 39-yr-old male patient with fever and left axillary lymphadenitis. He had a history of cat bite on the left hand dorsum. On excision, the lymph node showed follicular hyperplasia, stellate microabscesses with a rim of granulomatous inflammation. Warthin-Starry silver staining showed many clumps of silver-stained bacilli within the necrotic foci. Serological tests were negative. Diagnosis was established by PCR analysis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1877499238123059 PMID:24641870

2014-01-01

433

Cervical lymphadenitis and cat scratch disease (CSD): an overlooked disease?  

PubMed

Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is a benign disease characterized by regional lymphadenopathy affecting most frequently the head and neck region in children and young adults. In the present paper, the authors describe four cases of CSD focusing on clinical history, diagnostic management and therapy. The main germ responsible for this lymph node disease is Bartonella henselae. Diagnosis is based on history, serology and histological findings. Clinical evolution is generally favorable despite the fact that complications occur in about 5% to 13% of patients including encephalitis, hepatitis and Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. Antibiotic treatment is only considered for highly symptomatic patients. Surgical excision of the lymphadenopathy is useful to establish the diagnosis when serology is not available and/or when the adenopathy become fluctuating. The authors emphasize the increasing incidence of patients with CSD in the ENT population and the algorithm for CSD disease affecting the cervical lymph nodes. PMID:11205454

Rombaux, P; M'Bilo, T; Badr-el-Din, A; Theate, I; Bigaignon, G; Hamoir, M

2000-01-01

434

Microgravity isolation system design: A case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

1994-01-01

435

Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

2011-10-01

436

A Multiwavelength View of Isolated Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years interest in isolated galaxies has been renewed within a context regarding secular evolution. This adds to their value as a control sample for environmental studies of galaxies. This presentation will review important results from recent studies of isolated galaxies. I will emphasize work involving statistically significant samples of isolated galaxies culminating with refinement of the CIG in the AMIGA program. The AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies, http://amiga.iaa.es) has identified a significant sample of the most isolated (Tcc(nearest-neighbor) ˜ 2-3Gyr) galaxies in the local Universe and revealed that they have different properties than galaxies in richer environments. Our analysis of a multiwavelength database includes quantification of degree of isolation, morphologies, as well as FIR and radio line/continuum properties. Properties usually regarded as susceptible to interaction enhancement show lower averages in AMIGA-lower than any galaxy sample yet identified. We find lower MIR/ FIR measures, low levels of radio continuum emission, no radio excess above the radio-FIR correlation, a small number of AGN, and lower molecular gas content. The late-type spiral majority in our sample show very small bulge/total ratios (largely < 0.1) and Sersic indices consistent with an absence of classical bulges. They have redder g-r colors and lower color dispersion for AMIGA subtypes and larger disks, and present the narrowest (Gaussian) distribution of HI profile asymmetries of any sample yet studied.

Verdes-Montenegro, L.

2014-03-01

437

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D. (inventor); Gray, David L. (inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (inventor)

1994-01-01

438

Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

Sulentic, J.

2010-10-01

439

Phenotypic variability among strains of Pasteurella multocida isolated from avian, bovine, caprine, leporine and ovine origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic diversity among 69 field isolates plus 3 vaccine strains previously identified as Pasteurella multocida were investigated by extended phenotypic characterization. The field isolates were obtained in Nigeria from chickens (15 isolates), quail (5 isolates), cattle (31 isolates), goats (7 isolates), sheep (8 isolates), rabbits (3 isolates) and the vaccine strains (3 isolates), which are used as prophylaxis against fowl

Sarah O. Ekundayo; Moses O. Odugbo; Atanda O. Olabode; Philip A. Okewole

2008-01-01

440

Bacterial isolates from the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea: influence of culture media on isolation and antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

From specimens of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea collected in the Baltic Sea, bacteria were isolated on four different media, which significantly increased the diversity of the isolated groups. All isolates were classified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and tested for antimicrobial properties using a panel of five indicator strains and six different media. Each medium featured a unique set of isolated phylotypes, and a phylogenetically diverse collection of isolates was obtained. A total of 96 isolates were assigned to 49 phylotypes and 29 genera. Only one-third of the members of these genera had been isolated previously from comparable sources. The isolates were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria. A comparable large portion of up to 22 isolates, i.e., 15 phylotypes, probably represent new species. Likewise, 47 isolates (approximately 50%) displayed antibiotic activities, mostly against grampositive indicator strains. Of the active strains, 63.8 % had antibiotic traits only on one or two of the growth media, whereas only 12.7 % inhibited growth on five or all six media. The application of six different media for antimicrobial testing resulted in twice the number of positive hits as obtained with only a single medium. The use of different media for the isolation of bacteria as well as the variation of media considered suitable for the production of antibiotic substances significantly enhanced both the number of isolates obtained and the proportion of antibiotic active cultures. Thus the approach described herein offers an improved strategy in the search for new antibiotic compounds. PMID:22837149

Heindl, Herwig; Thiel, Vera; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

2012-03-01