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1

Molecular Epidemiology of Feline and Human Bartonella henselae Isolates  

PubMed Central

Multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis was performed on 178 Bartonella henselae isolates from 9 countries; 99 profiles were distributed into 2 groups. Human isolates/strains were placed into the second group. Genotype I and II isolates shared no common profile. All genotype I isolates clustered within group B. The evolutive implications are discussed. PMID:19402978

Bouchouicha, Rim; Durand, Benoit; Monteil, Martine; Chomel, B.B.; Berrich, Moez; Arvand, Mardjan; Birtles, Richard J.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Koehler, Jane E.; Maggi, Ricardo; Maruyama, Soichi; Kasten, Rick; Petit, Elisabeth; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

2009-01-01

2

Sequence Variation in the ftsZ Gene of Bartonella henselae Isolates and Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

In a search for methods for subtyping of Bartonella henselae in clinical samples, we amplified and sequenced a 701-bp region in the 3? end of the ftsZ gene in 15 B. henselae isolates derived from cats and humans in the United States and Europe. The ftsZ sequence variants that were discovered were designated variants Bh ftsZ 1, 2, and 3 and were compared with 16S rRNA genotypes I and II of the same isolates. There was no ftsZ gene variation in the strains of 16S rRNA type I, all of which were Bh ftsZ 1. The type II strains constituted two groups, with nucleotide sequence variation in the ftsZ gene resulting in amino acid substitutions at three positions, one of which was shared by the two groups. One 16S rRNA type II isolate had an ftsZ gene sequence identical to those of the type I strains. Variants Bh ftsZ 1 and 2 were detected in tissue specimens from seven Swedish patients with diagnoses such as chronic multifocal osteomyelitis, cardiomyopathy, and lymphadenopathy. Patients with similar clinical entities displayed either Bh ftsZ variant. The etiological role of B. henselae in these patients was supported by positive Bartonella antibody titers and/or amplification and sequencing of a part of the B. henselae gltA gene. B. henselae ftsZ gene sequence variation may be useful in providing knowledge about the epidemiology of various B. henselae strains in clinical samples, especially when isolation attempts have failed. This report also describes manifestations of atypical Bartonella infections in Sweden. PMID:10655367

Ehrenborg, C.; Wesslén, L.; Jakobson, ?.; Friman, G.; Holmberg, M.

2000-01-01

3

Coinfection with Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and with Different Bartonella henselae Strains in Domestic Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella clarridgeiae and several strains of Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease, with variations in the 16S rRNA gene have been found to infect the blood of cats. An epidemiologic study of Bartonella infection in domestic French cats revealed that of 436 cats sampled, 5 cats (1.1%) were coinfected with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae and 2 cats

A. NIKOS GURFIELD; HENRI-JEAN BOULOUIS; BRUNO B. CHOMEL; R EMY HELLER; RICKIE W. KASTEN; KAZUHIRO YAMAMOTO; YVES PIEMONT

1997-01-01

4

Experimental infection of dogs with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii.  

PubMed

The lack of a suitable infection model remains an important obstacle for the pathophysiological understanding of Bartonella spp. The following pilot study was designed to determine whether cell culture-grown Bartonella henselae SA2 and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III would cause persistent bacteremia in dogs. Pre-inoculation screening established that two laboratory-raised Golden retrievers were naturally-infected with Bartonella koehlerae. Despite prior infection, one dog each was inoculated subcutaneously with 5 × 10(4)B. henselae (SA2 strain) or 3 × 10(4)B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III. Dogs were bled weekly for serological testing and culture using Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Dog 1 seroconverted to B. henselae and Dog 2 seroconverted to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III. Throughout the study period, Bartonella spp. DNA was neither amplified nor isolated in ante-mortem BAPGM enrichment blood cultures. B. henselae SA2 was isolated from a postmortem bone marrow from Dog 1 and B. koehlerae DNA was amplified from postmortem lung from Dog 2 following BAPGM enrichment culture. Limitations include lack of uninfected controls, a potentially suboptimal B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii inoculum and a relatively short duration of study. We conclude that following intradermal infection, sequestration of Bartonella spp. in tissues may limit diagnostic detection of these bacteria in dog blood samples. PMID:24120155

Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Cherry, Natalie A; Linder, Keith E; Pierce, Eric; Sontakke, Neal; Hegarty, Barbara C; Bradley, Julie M; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-11-15

5

Molecular Evidence of Perinatal Transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae to a Child?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, or DNA of both organisms was amplified and sequenced from blood, enrichment blood cultures, or autopsy tissues from four family members. Historical and microbiological results support perinatal transmission of Bartonella species in this family. It is of clinical relevance that Bartonella spp. may adversely influence human reproductive performance. PMID:20392912

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Farmer, Peter; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

6

Acute endogenous endophthalmitis due to Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man presented with progressively worsening vitreitis of 1 week's duration. Treatment for cat-scratch disease 3 years prior to presentation and persistent vitreitis led to vitrectomy, and analysis of the vitrectomy specimen revealed inflammatory cells and necrotic debris; polymerase-chain-reaction analysis of the vitreous fluid sample, done by use of a novel heminested protocol, demonstrated the presence of Bartonella henselae DNA. Treatment with doxycycline led to improvement in the intraocular inflammation but resulted in a poor visual outcome. PMID:11486295

Goldstein, D A; Mouritsen, L; Friedlander, S; Tessler, H H; Edward, D P

2001-09-01

7

Population Structure of Bartonella henselae in Algerian Urban Stray Cats  

PubMed Central

Whole blood samples from 211 stray cats from Algiers, Algeria, were cultured to detect the presence of Bartonella species and to evaluate the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA). Bartonella henselae was the only species isolated from 36 (17%) of 211 cats. B. henselae genotype I was the predominant genotype (64%). MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles as compared to only 3 profiles using MLST. Of these 52 profiles, 48 (92.3%) were identified for the first time. One-third of the cats harbored one MLVA profile only. As there was a correlation between the age of cats and the number of MLVA profiles, we hypothesized that the single profile in these cats was the profile of the initial infecting strain. Two-third of the cats harbored 2 to 6 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering indicate that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously: independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain. PMID:22956995

Azzag, Naouelle; Haddad, Nadia; Durand, Benoit; Petit, Elisabeth; Ammouche, Ali; Chomel, Bruno; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

2012-01-01

8

Strategy to detect and identify Bartonella species in routine clinical laboratory yields Bartonella henselae from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient and unique Bartonella strain from his cat.  

PubMed Central

We wished to develop a cost-effective, rapid strategy to detect and identify Bartonella species in the clinical laboratory and to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection in the Houston veteran population. Bartonella colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, RapID ANA, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR) and whole-cell fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and these methods were compared for their usefulness. A new test order for "Rochalimaea culture" (the genus Bartonella was previously known as the genus Rochalimaea) was instituted, and in addition, all blood specimens submitted for fungal culture (obtained in an isolator tube) were processed for Bartonella culture. Over a 16-month period we isolated Bartonella henselae from only 0.4% (2 of 533) of total cultures but from 1% (2 of 204) of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. After sufficient growth, identification of the Bartonella isolates to the species level could be obtained in 2 days. The REP-PCR allowed discrimination of all known species, whereas CFA analysis distinguished all except B. henselae and Bartonella quintana. The RapID ANA results failed to differentiate between B. henselae and B. quintana, and results for other species differed by only one or two tests. Blood obtained from a kitten which had been introduced into the household of one patient 2 months before the onset of fever yielded a Bartonella strain which was shown to be different from the strain from the patient and distinct from other Bartonella species by a combination of REP-PCR, CFA, and growth characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7559957

Clarridge, J E; Raich, T J; Pirwani, D; Simon, B; Tsai, L; Rodriguez-Barradas, M C; Regnery, R; Zollo, A; Jones, D C; Rambo, C

1995-01-01

9

[Fever of unknown origin and detection of Bartonella henselae IgG seropositivity: a case report].  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae, is a gram-negative bacterium which causes cat scratch disease (CSD) in man. There are sporadic case reports of CSD in Turkey. Cats play an important reservoir role for B.henselae transmission to man. In this report, a cat owner with fever of unknown origin was presented. Bartonella spp. was isolated from the blood culture of cat which had chronic progressive gingivostomatitis. B.henselae was identified by amplification of a region of citrate synthase (gltA) gene by using polymerase cha-in reaction and typed as genotype I by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Following this identification the cat owner was investigated for the history of CSD and it was learned that he had a history of fever of unknown origin. The investigation of the patient's serum for the presence of specific B.henselae antibodies by immune fluorescence antibody test (Vircell, Spain) revealed B.henselae IgG type antibodies at a titer of 1:128. Gingivostomatitis in cats may act as a reservoir for Bartonella infection. Thus during the evaluation of patients with fever of unknown origin, Bartonella infections should be considered and possible contact with cats/dogs should be investigated. PMID:21064000

Celebi, Bekir; Yalç?n, Ebru; Babür, Cahit

2010-07-01

10

Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family from the Netherlands contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960), designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae (son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy. Methods Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform. Results The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification. Conclusions Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely source of transmission and the mother, a physician, reported that clinical symptoms developed following tick exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a B. henselae organism has been visualized in and amplified from a striae lesion. As the tick bites occurred three years prior to documentation of B. henselae bacteremia, the mode of transmission could not be determined. PMID:23587194

2013-01-01

11

Bartonella henselae Endocarditis in Laos – ‘The Unsought Will Go Undetected’  

PubMed Central

Background Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos), probably because people have neglected to look. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective (2006–2012), and subsequent prospective study (2012–2013), at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis. Conclusions/Significance We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than “conventional” endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for Bartonella endocarditis and the importance of vectors and vector control. PMID:25503777

Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chu, Vang; Frichitthavong, Khamthavy; Kesone, Pany; Mayxay, Mayfong; Mirabel, Mariana; Newton, Paul N.

2014-01-01

12

Assessment of Persistence of Bartonella henselae in Ctenocephalides felis  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) is a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium of veterinary and zoonotic importance. The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is the main recognized vector of B. henselae, and transmission among cats and humans occurs mainly through infected flea feces. The present study documents the use of a quantitative molecular approach to follow the daily kinetics of B. henselae within the cat flea and its excreted feces after exposure to infected blood for 48 h in an artificial membrane system. B. henselae DNA was detected in both fleas and feces for the entire life span of the fleas (i.e., 12 days) starting from 24 h after initiation of the blood meal. PMID:24056468

Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Jacquiet, Philippe; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Liénard, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

13

Chronic vasculitis and polyneuropathy due to infection with Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis, is associated with an expanding spectrum of diseases. Here, we report on a 40-year-old patient suffering from chronic recurrent painful ulcers of the toes, distal axonal sensomotor polyneuropathy and Raynaud's phenomenon. Biopsy of the sural nerve demonstrated an axonal neuropathy with a neurogenic muscular atrophy. Treatment with high dose corticosteroids had no beneficial effect. A biopsy taken from a recurring ulcer 7 years after the beginning of the disease revealed superficial ulcerated hyperkeratosis with subepithelial proliferation of small vessels compatible with a diagnosis of verruca peruana, however, without detection of microorganism. Serologic analysis revealed an elevated IFT titer of 1:1,024 against B. henselae. Treatment with erythromycin induced healing of the ulcer, remission of the vasculitis and the polyneuropathy, and a decline of the IFT titer. This case illustrates that B. henselae infection should be considered in patients with vasculitis and polyneuropathic syndromes. PMID:17401716

Stockmeyer, B; Schoerner, C; Frangou, P; Moriabadi, T; Heuss, D; Harrer, T

2007-04-01

14

Bartonella henselaePrevalence in Domestic Cats in California: Risk Factors and Association between Bacteremia and Antibody Titers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease, from the blood of naturally infected domestic cats and the demonstration that cats remain bacteremic for several months suggest that cats play a major role as a reservoir for this bacterium. A convenience sample of 205 cats from northern California was selected between 1992 and 1994 to evaluate the

BRUNO B. CHOMEL; RACHEL C. ABBOTT; RICKIE W. KASTEN; KIM A. FLOYD-HAWKINS; PHILIP H. KASS; CAROL A. GLASER; NIELS C. PEDERSEN; ANDJANE E. KOEHLER

1995-01-01

15

Differential Effects of Bartonella henselae on Human and Feline Macro- and Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae, a zoonotic agent, induces tumors of endothelial cells (ECs), namely bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis in immunosuppressed humans but not in cats. In vitro studies on ECs represent to date the only way to explore the interactions between Bartonella henselae and vascular endothelium. However, no comparative study of the interactions between Bartonella henselae and human (incidental host) ECs vs feline (reservoir host) ECs has been carried out because of the absence of any available feline endothelial cell lines. To this purpose, we have developed nine feline EC lines which allowed comparing the effects of Bartonella strains on human and feline micro-vascular ECs representative of the infection development sites such as skin, versus macro-vascular ECs, such as umbilical vein. Our model revealed intrinsic differences between human (Human Skin Microvascular ECs –HSkMEC and Human Umbilical Vein ECs – iHUVEC) and feline ECs susceptibility to Bartonella henselae infection. While no effect was observed on the feline ECs upon Bartonella henselae infection, the human ones displayed accelerated angiogenesis and wound healing. Noticeable differences were demonstrated between human micro- and macro-vasculature derived ECs both in terms of pseudo-tube formation and healing. Interestingly, Bartonella henselae effects on human ECs were also elicited by soluble factors. Neither Bartonella henselae-infected Human Skin Microvascular ECs clinically involved in bacillary angiomatosis, nor feline ECs increased cAMP production, as opposed to HUVEC. Bartonella henselae could stimulate the activation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in homologous cellular systems and trigger VEGF production by HSkMECs only, but not iHUVEC or any feline ECs tested. These results may explain the decreased pathogenic potential of Bartonella henselae infection for cats as compared to humans and strongly suggest that an autocrine secretion of VEGF by human skin endothelial cells might induce their growth and ultimately lead to bacillary angiomatosis formation. PMID:21637717

Berrich, Moez; Kieda, Claudine; Grillon, Catherine; Monteil, Martine; Lamerant, Nathalie; Gavard, Julie; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Haddad, Nadia

2011-01-01

16

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae as potential causes of proliferative vascular diseases in animals.  

PubMed

Bartonella species are highly fastidious, vector borne, zoonotic bacteria that cause persistent intraerythrocytic bacteremia and endotheliotropic infection in reservoir and incidental hosts. Based upon prior in vitro research, three Bartonella sp., B. bacilliformis, B. henselae, and B. quintana can induce proliferation of endothelial cells, and each species has been associated with in vivo formation of vasoproliferative tumors in human patients. In this study, we report the molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. koehlerae, or DNA of two of these Bartonella species simultaneously in vasoproliferative hemangiopericytomas from a dog, a horse, and a red wolf and in systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis lesions from cats and a steer. In addition, we provide documentation that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infections induce activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and production of vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby providing mechanistic evidence as to how these bacteria could contribute to the development of vasoproliferative lesions. Based upon these results, we suggest that a fourth species, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, should be added to the list of bartonellae that can induce vasoproliferative lesions and that infection with one or more Bartonella sp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis and hemangiopericytomas in animals. PMID:22450733

Beerlage, Christiane; Varanat, Mrudula; Linder, Keith; Maggi, Ricardo G; Cooley, Jim; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2012-08-01

17

Granulomatous hepatitis due to Bartonella henselae infection in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) is considered a rare cause of granulomatous hepatitis. Due to the fastidious growth characteristics of the bacteria, the limited sensitivity of histopathological stains, and the non-specific histological findings on liver biopsy, the diagnosis of hepatic bartonellosis can be difficult to establish. Furthermore, the optimal treatment of established hepatic bartonellosis remains controversial. Case presentation We present a case of hepatic bartonellosis in an immunocompetent woman who presented with right upper quadrant pain and a five cm right hepatic lobe mass on CT scan. The patient underwent a right hepatic lobectomy. Surgical pathology revealed florid necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis, favoring an infectious etiology. Despite extensive histological and serological evaluation a definitive diagnosis was not established initially. Thirteen months after initial presentation, hepatic bartonellosis was diagnosed by PCR studies from surgically excised liver tissue. Interestingly, the hepatic granulomas persisted and Bartonella henselae was isolated from the patient's enriched blood culture after several courses of antibiotic therapy. Conclusion The diagnosis of hepatic bartonellosis is exceedingly difficult to establish and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. Recently developed, PCR-based approaches may be required in select patients to make the diagnosis. The optimal antimicrobial therapy for hepatic bartonellosis has not been established, and close follow-up is needed to ensure successful eradication of the infection. PMID:22269175

2012-01-01

18

Bartonella henselae Infection: An Uncommon Mimicker of Autoimmune Disease  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was negative. Abdominal imaging demonstrated multifocal lesions of the liver and spleen (later proved to be granulomata), chest X-ray showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and ophthalmology review revealed uveitis. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards sarcoidosis. Subsequently, raised titers (IgM 1 : 32, IgG 1 : 256) against Bartonella confirmed the diagnosis of B. henselae infection. She was treated with gentamycin followed by ciprofloxacin; repeat investigations showed complete resolution of findings. The presence of hepatic and splenic lesions in children with bartonellosis is well documented. Our case, however, exhibited certain unusual findings such as the coexistence of acute ocular and systemic involvement in an immunocompetent host. Serological testing is an inexpensive and effective way to diagnose bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients; we suggest that bartonella serology is included in the baseline tests performed on children with prolonged fever even in the absence of contact with cats in countries where bartonellosis is prevalent. PMID:23424700

Maritsi, Despoina N.; Zarganis, Diagoras; Metaxa, Zoi; Papaioannou, Georgia; Vartzelis, George

2013-01-01

19

Comparative microbiological features of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with fever of unknown origin and granulomatous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

We report the first documented case of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog from France and the first isolation of B. henselae from a dog with fever of unknown origin. This observation contributes to the "One Health" concept focusing on zoonotic pathogens emerging from companion animals. A 1-year-old female German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of fever of unknown origin of 1 month duration. Diagnostic investigations confirmed diffuse pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. The dog became afebrile, and lymph node size normalized in response to a 6-week course of doxycycline. Retrospectively, Bartonella DNA was amplified from an EDTA-anticoagulated blood sample obtained before antimicrobial therapy, with the gtlA fragment sharing 99 % identity with the 350-bp gtlA fragment of the B. henselae Houston-1 strain. The same strain was isolated in the blood of three healthy cats from the household. Two months after discontinuation of doxycycline, the dog experienced a febrile relapse. Bartonella DNA was again amplified from blood prior to and immediately after administration of a 6-week course azithromycin therapy. However, without administration of additional medications, PCR was negative 9 months after azithromycin therapy and the dog remains clinically healthy 12 months following the second course of antibiotics. The medical management of this case raises several clinically relevant comparative infectious disease issues, including the extent to which Bartonella spp. contribute to fever of unknown origin and pyogranulomatous inflammatory diseases in dogs and humans, and the potential of doxycycline and azithromycin treatment failures. The possibility that dogs could constitute an underestimated reservoir for B. henselae transmission to people is also discussed. PMID:24310419

Drut, Amandine; Bublot, Isabelle; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Chabanne, Luc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

2014-04-01

20

Managing iron supply during the infection cycle of a flea borne pathogen, Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe3+ transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe2+ transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3–5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle. PMID:24151576

Liu, MaFeng; Biville, Francis

2013-01-01

21

Managing iron supply during the infection cycle of a flea borne pathogen, Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe(3+) transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe(2+) transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3-5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle. PMID:24151576

Liu, Mafeng; Biville, Francis

2013-01-01

22

Heme Degrading Protein HemS Is Involved in Oxidative Stress Response of Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are hemotropic bacteria, agents of emerging zoonoses. These bacteria are heme auxotroph Alphaproteobacteria which must import heme for supporting their growth, as they cannot synthesize it. Therefore, Bartonella genome encodes for a complete heme uptake system allowing the transportation of this compound across the outer membrane, the periplasm and the inner membranes. Heme has been proposed to be used as an iron source for Bartonella since these bacteria do not synthesize a complete system required for iron Fe3+uptake. Similarly to other bacteria which use heme as an iron source, Bartonellae must transport this compound into the cytoplasm and degrade it to allow the release of iron from the tetrapyrrole ring. For Bartonella, the gene cluster devoted to the synthesis of the complete heme uptake system also contains a gene encoding for a polypeptide that shares homologies with heme trafficking or degrading enzymes. Using complementation of an E. coli mutant strain impaired in heme degradation, we demonstrated that HemS from Bartonella henselae expressed in E. coli allows the release of iron from heme. Purified HemS from B. henselae binds heme and can degrade it in the presence of a suitable electron donor, ascorbate or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Knocking down the expression of HemS in B. henselae reduces its ability to face H2O2 induced oxidative stress. PMID:22701524

Liu, MaFeng; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2012-01-01

23

Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B. henselae represents an antecedent infection for GBS, CIDP, and non-specific neurocognitive abnormalities. PMID:23587343

2013-01-01

24

Phylogenetic classification of Bartonella species by comparing groEL sequences.  

PubMed

Bartonella is a bacterial genus classified in the alpha-Proteobacteria on the basis of 165 rDNA sequence comparison. The highly conserved heat-shock chaperonin protein, GroEL, has proved to be a valuable resolving tool to classify ten Bartonella species. The groEL gene was amplified and sequenced from ten Bartonella isolates: Bartonella alsatica, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, Bartonella taylorii, Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella birtlesii, Bartonella henselae Marseille (URLLY8), B. henselae (90-615), B. henselae (Fizz), B. henselae (CAL-1) and B. henselae (SA-2). Then, phylogenetic relationships were inferred between our isolates and eight other species and subspecies from the comparison of both 16S rDNA and groEL sequences using parsimony, neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood methods. By using groEL sequences, the first reliable classification of most known Bartonella species and subspecies was established. Four strongly supported subgroups were distinguished: firstly, the two human pathogens B. henselae and Bartonella quintana; secondly, a cluster including four rodent isolates, Bartonella elizabethae, B. tribocorum, Bartonella grahamii and B. taylorii; thirdly, a cluster including the B. vinsonii subspecies (B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, arupensis and berkhoffii); and lastly, B. birtlesii and 'Bartonella weissi'. 'Bartonella washoensis', B. alsatica, Bartonella doshiae, Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella clarridgeiae did not reliably cluster with any other Bartonella species. In addition, the groEL gene was shown to be useful in subtyping six B. henselae isolates into three variants: Houston, Marseille and Fizz. PMID:11837299

Zeaiter, Zaher; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Raoult, Didier

2002-01-01

25

Does coinfection of Bartonella henselae and FIV induce clinical disorders in cats?  

PubMed

It was found that Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) may induce clinical disorders in cats in natural conditions from a comparison of the serological status for B. henselae with the serostatus for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and several clinical characteristics in 170 domestic cats. Seropositivity for B. henselae was not significantly different between FIV antibody-positive and -negative cats (18.4% vs 16.0%). The incidence of clinical characteristics were compared among four cat groups distinguished by the reactivity of sera against B. henselae and FIV. The incidence of lymph node swelling was lower in only FIV antibody-positive cats (3.0%), but higher in B. henselae antibody-positive cats (13.6%) and significantly higher in both B. henselae and FIV antibody-positive cats (42.9%) compared with the incidence of lymph node swelling in cats which were negative for both antibodies (5.5%). The same relation was also observed for the incidence of gingivitis among the 4 cat groups, suggesting that coinfection of B. henselae and FIV may be associated with gingivitis and lymphadenopathy in cats. PMID:8908605

Ueno, H; Hohdatsu, T; Muramatsu, Y; Koyama, H; Morita, C

1996-01-01

26

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii among healthy individuals in Thailand.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii among apparently healthy individuals, mainly blood donors, in Thailand was investigated by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique and by a latex agglutination test, respectively. Of 163 serum samples examined, 9 (5.5%) were found to be positive for B. henselae-IgG, 2 (1.2%) for B. henselae-IgM, and 5 (3.1%) for the T. gondii antibody. No significant difference was observed between male and female samples in the serological test with either B. henselae or T. gondii. The age of individuals with B. henselae-IgG was distributed from the 20s to the 70s, and B. henselae-IgM was found in the individuals of the 30s and 60s. The age of T. gondii positive samples ranged from the 20s to the 60s. In this study, the prevalence of B. henselae infection among healthy individuals in Thailand was serologically demonstrated for the first time. PMID:10907691

Maruyama, S; Boonmar, S; Morita, Y; Sakai, T; Tanaka, S; Yamaguchi, F; Kabeya, H; Katsube, Y

2000-06-01

27

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Bartonella henselae IN A SERONEGATIVE CAT SCRATCH DISEASE PATIENT WITH AIDS IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including cat scratch disease, endocarditis and meningoencephalitis, in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We report the first molecularly confirmed case of B. henselae infection in an AIDS patient in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although DNA sequence of B. henselae has been detected by polymerase chain reaction in a lymph node biopsy, acute and convalescent sera were nonreactive. PMID:25076441

Favacho, Alexsandra R.m.; Roger, Isabelle; Akemi, Amanda K.; Pessoa, Adonai A.; Varon, Andrea G.; Gomes, Raphael; Godoy, Daniela T.; Pereira, Sandro; Lemos, Elba R.s.

2014-01-01

28

Cervical lymphadenitis in a patient coinfected with Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease, caused by Bartonella henselae, is a worldwide zoonosis that is most frequently associated with the bite or scratch of a kitten under 6 months of age, as well as from a fleabite. Toxoplsma gondii is also another important zoonotic agent in cats and humans, which is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with oocytes shed by cats or by eating undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts. Here, we report a first case of young patient with cervical lymphadenitis, which shows serological and histological evidence of B. henselae and T. gondii coinfection in Korea with literature review. PMID:19874186

Yoon, Hee Jung; Lee, Woong Chul; Choi, Young Sill; Cho, Sounghoon; Song, Young Goo; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, Ee-Jin; Kim, June Myung

2010-05-01

29

Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian  

PubMed Central

Background During a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. Prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in Grenada and Ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in South Africa. The woman reported contact with fleas, ticks, lice, biting flies, mosquitoes, spiders and mites and had also been scratched or bitten by dogs, cats, birds, horses, reptiles, rabbits and rodents. Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient’s symptoms. Methods PCR assays targeting Anaplasma spp. Bartonella spp. and hemotopic Mycoplasma spp. were used to test patient blood samples. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced directly and compared to GenBank sequences. In addition, Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture was used to facilitate bacterial growth and Bartonella spp. serology was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Results Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum DNA was amplified and sequenced from the woman’s blood, serum or blood culture samples. Her serum was variably seroreactive to several Bartonella sp. antigens. Despite symptomatic improvement, six months of doxycycline most likely failed to eliminate the B. henselae infection, whereas A. platys and Candidatus M. haematoparvum DNA was no longer amplified from post-treatment samples. Conclusions As is typical of many veterinary professionals, this individual had frequent exposure to arthropod vectors and near daily contact with persistently bacteremic reservoir hosts, including cats, the primary reservoir host for B. henselae, and dogs, the presumed primary reservoir host for A. platys and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Physicians caring for veterinarians should be aware of the occupational zoonotic risks associated with the daily activities of these animal health professionals. PMID:23587235

2013-01-01

30

Hemin Binding Protein C Is Found in Outer Membrane Vesicles and Protects Bartonella henselae against Toxic Concentrations of Hemin  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are Gram-negative, emerging bacterial pathogens found in two distinct environments. In the gut of the obligately hematophagous arthropod vector, bartonellae are exposed to concentrations of heme that are toxic to other bacteria. In the bloodstream of the mammalian host, access to heme and iron is severely restricted. Bartonellae have unusually high requirements for heme, which is their only utilizable source of iron. Although heme is essential for Bartonella survival, little is known about genes involved in heme acquisition and detoxification. We developed a strategy for high-efficiency transposon mutagenesis to screen for genes in B. henselae heme binding and uptake pathways. We identified a B. henselae transposon mutant that constitutively expresses the hemin binding protein C (hbpC) gene. In the wild-type strain, transcription of B. henselae hbpC was upregulated at arthropod temperature (28°C), compared to mammalian temperature (37°C). In the mutant strain, temperature-dependent regulation was absent. We demonstrated that HbpC binds hemin and localizes to the B. henselae outer membrane and outer membrane vesicles. Overexpression of hbpC in B. henselae increased resistance to heme toxicity, implicating HbpC in protection of B. henselae from the toxic levels of heme present in the gut of the arthropod vector. Experimental inoculation of cats with B. henselae strains demonstrated that both constitutive expression and deletion of hbpC affect the ability of B. henselae to infect the cat host. Modulation of hbpC expression appears to be a strategy employed by B. henselae to survive in the arthropod vector and the mammalian host. PMID:22232189

Roden, Julie A.; Wells, Derek H.; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kasten, Rickie W.

2012-01-01

31

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii infections among pet cats in Kanagawa and Saitama Prefectures.  

PubMed

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii was investigated among 471 pet cats obtained from seven private animal hospitals in Kanagawa and Saitama Prefectures during the period from May 1994 to June 1995. 'Furthermore, 67 randomly selected from the 471 serum samples were examined for the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen. The antibody to B. henselae was examined by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. T. gondii, FIV and FeLV infections in cats were detected with respective commercial kits. Of the cat serum samples tested, 43 (9.1%) were found to be seropositive for B. henselae and 41 (8.7%) for T. gondii. The B. henselae-positive rate (12.9%) of male cats was significantly higher than that (5.2%) of female cats. On the other hand, T. gondii-positive rate was 9.1% in male and 8.7% in female cats and there was no significant difference in the positivity between sexes. The positive rate in each hospital varied from 0 to 19.5% for B. henselae and 4.9 to 18.8% for T. gondii. The ages of B. henselae- and T. gondii-positive cats were distributed from < 1-year-old to 14-year-old and the seropositivity increased with age of cats. Of the 67 cat serum samples, 16 and 6 cases were positive for FIV and FeLV, respectively. There was no relationship between these viral and B. henselae infections in cats. PMID:9795899

Maruyama, S; Hiraga, S; Yokoyama, E; Naoi, M; Tsuruoka, Y; Ogura, Y; Tamura, K; Namba, S; Kameyama, Y; Nakamura, S; Katsube, Y

1998-09-01

32

Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (Vir)B/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail. PMID:21489243

2011-01-01

33

Duplex PCR assay simultaneously detecting and differentiating Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, and Coxiella burnetii in surgical heart valve specimens.  

PubMed

A duplex PCR (dPCR) assay was developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, and Coxiella burnetii from surgical heart valve tissue specimens with an analytic sensitivity of 10 copies/reaction. Among 17 specimens collected from patients with a clinical diagnosis of culture-negative endocarditis, 2, 4, and 2 were positive for B. quintana, B. henselae, and C. burnetii, respectively, by the dPCR assay, which matched the results obtained by universal bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. PMID:19553582

Tang, Yi-Wei

2009-08-01

34

Small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets serve as new reservoirs of Bartonella henselae and potential sources of infection for humans.  

PubMed

The prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella species were investigated in small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets in Japan. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD) was isolated from 15.9% (10/63) of the mongooses and 2.0% (1/50) of the masked palm civets, respectively. The bacteraemic level ranged from 3.0 × 10(1) to 8.9 × 10(3) CFU/mL in mongooses and was 7.0 × 10(3) CFU/mL in the masked palm civet. Multispacer typing (MST) analysis based on nine intergenic spacers resulted in the detection of five MST genotypes (MSTs 8, 14, 37, 58 and 59) for the isolates, which grouped in lineage 1 with MST genotypes of isolates from all CSD patients and most of the cats in Japan. It was also found that MST14 from the mongoose strains was the predominant genotype of cat and human strains. This is the first report on the isolation of B. henselae from small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets. The data obtained in the present study suggest that these animals serve as new reservoirs for B. henselae, and may play a role as potential sources of human infection. PMID:23433322

Sato, S; Kabeya, H; Shigematsu, Y; Sentsui, H; Une, Y; Minami, M; Murata, K; Ogura, G; Maruyama, S

2013-12-01

35

Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).  

PubMed

After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission. PMID:25325313

Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-10-01

36

Identification of Bartonella species in rodents, shrews and cats in Denmark: detection of two B. henselae variants, one in cats and the other in the long-tailed field mouse.  

PubMed

Small mammals and stray cats were trapped in two areas of North Zealand, Denmark, and their blood cultured for hemotrophic bacteria. Bacterial isolates were recovered in pure culture and subjected to 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Bartonella species were isolated from five mammalian species: B. grahamii from Microtus agrestis (field vole) and Apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked field mouse); B. taylorii from M. agrestis, A. flavicollis and A. sylvaticus (long-tailed field mouse); B. tribocorum from A. flavicollis; B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii from M. agrestis and A. sylvaticus; and B. birtlesii from Sorex vulgaris (common shrew). In addition, two variant types of B. henselae were identified: variant I was recovered from three specimens of A. sylvaticus, and B. henselae variant II from 11 cats; in each case this was the only B. henselae variant found. No Bartonella species was isolated from Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) or Micromys minutus (harvest mouse). These results suggest that B. henselae occurs in two animal reservoirs in this region, one of variant I in A. sylvaticus, which may be transmitted between mice by the tick Ixodes ricinus, and another of variant II in cats, which may be transmitted by the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of B. henselae and B. tribocorum in Apodemus mice. PMID:15511270

Engbaek, Kraesten; Lawson, Paul A

2004-06-01

37

Experimental infection and horizontal transmission of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 5 UFC). Only occasional contact among cats occurred but the presence of fleas was observed in all animals throughout the period. Blood culture for isolation of bacteria, PCR-HSP and FTSZ (gender specific), and BH- PCR (species-specific), as well as indirect immunofluorescence method for anti- B. henselae antibodies were performed to confirm the infection of the inoculated cat as well

Marcelo de Souza ZANUTTO; Elza Masae MAMIZUKA; Roberto RAIZ-JÚNIOR; Thais Martins de LIMA; Constância Lima DIOGO; Thelma Suely OKAY; Mitika Kuribayashi HAGIWARA

2001-01-01

38

Cat scratch disease: detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in archival biopsies from patients with clinically, serologically, and histologically defined disease.  

PubMed Central

Serological and epidemiological studies suggest that Bartonella henselae is the etiological agent of cat scratch disease. We designed a study to detect B. henselae in archival biopsies by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by Southern blot hybridization. Forty-two histologically defined cat scratch disease biopsies and eighteen controls were selected for blinded analysis. After testing, charts were reviewed for clinical, immunological, and microbial evidence of infection. Results were correlated with duration of illness and antimicrobial therapy. B. henselae DNA was identified in 27 of 42 (64%) histologically defined patients and 23 of 34 (68%) patients defined both clinically and histologically. There were no false positives (0 of 18). A small subset (n = 14) had cat scratch disease serological tests performed. B. henselae was identified in 8 of 10 serologically positive patients. Polymerase chain reaction detected 50% of our DNA-positive cases (most of these early in the clinical course). Southern blotting of amplicons both doubled sensitivity (detecting patients > 4 weeks into illness) and confirmed B. henselae as the causative species. Our study strongly associates B. henselae with cat scratch disease, suggesting that it may be the most likely etiological agent in the majority of patients with cat scratch disease. PMID:8952548

Scott, M. A.; McCurley, T. L.; Vnencak-Jones, C. L.; Hager, C.; McCoy, J. A.; Anderson, B.; Collins, R. D.; Edwards, K. M.

1996-01-01

39

Isolation & characterization of Bartonella sp. from optic neuritis patients  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Optic neuritis (ON) is characterized by sudden and rapid impairment of vision. Bartonella henselae is a known aetiological agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), which is a common cause of neuroretinitis, the least common type of optic neuritis. The present study was carried out to determine the microbiological aetiology of optic neuritis in patients attending a tertiary care eye hospital in north India, which was later confirmed with molecular characterization. Methods: Of the 50 patients suffering from optic neuritis reported to the Ophthalmology OPD of a tertiary care eye hospital in New Delhi, India, 29 were included in the study. Blood culture from these patients were processed for aerobic and anerobic cultures to rule out infective aetiology. Subsequently, PCR was done on archive, glycerol-stocked cultures. Results: Gram-negative pleomorphic coccobacilli grew in four of 29 patients tested. Characterization of these revealed Bartonella like organism as tested by the API 20E, API Staph, API Strept and RapID ANA systems. Electron microscopy revealed presence of polar flagella and bleb like projection all over the bacterial surface. PCR performed on preserved culture confirmed these as Bartonella sp. Interpretation & conclusions: Infections with Bartonella like organisms have not been demonstrated from India in cases of optic neuritis or in any of the other clinical syndromes in the past. The present study shows the isolation and characterization of Bartonella like organisms from optic neuritis patients. From clinical point of view it will be important to look for these organisms as aetiological agents in ON cases in order to treat with appropriate antibiotics. PMID:23391794

Chaudhry, Rama; Mukherjee, Anjan; Menon, Vimala

2012-01-01

40

Original article Prevalence of Bartonella infection in domestic cats  

E-print Network

Original article Prevalence of Bartonella infection in domestic cats in Denmark Bruno B. CHOMELa; accepted 19 October 2001) Abstract ­ Whole blood and serum from 93 cats (44 pets and 49 shelter/stray cats of Bartonella antibodies by serology. Bartonella henselae was isolated from 21 (22.6%) cats. Bacteremia preva

Boyer, Edmond

41

Isolation of Bartonella rattimassiliensis sp. nov. and Bartonella phoceensis sp. nov. from European Rattus norvegicus  

PubMed Central

Thirty-three isolates of Bartonella spp., including 11 isolates not belonging to previously known species, were isolated from 66 Rattus norvegicus subjects trapped in the city of Marseille, France. Based on seven different gene sequences, the 11 isolates were assigned to Bartonella rattimassiliensis sp. nov. and Bartonella phoceensis sp. nov. PMID:15297537

Gundi, Vijay A. K. B.; Davoust, Bernard; Khamis, Atieh; Boni, Mickaël; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

2004-01-01

42

Distribution of Bartonella henselae Variants in Patients, Reservoir Hosts and Vectors in Spain  

PubMed Central

We have studied the diversity of B. henselae circulating in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain. In total, we have fully characterized 53 clinical samples from 46 patients, as well as 78 B. henselae isolates obtained from 35 cats from La Rioja and Catalonia (northeastern Spain), four positive cat blood samples from which no isolates were obtained, and three positive fleas by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis. This study represents the largest series of human cases characterized with these methods, with 10 different sequence types and 41 MLVA profiles. Two of the sequence types and 35 of the profiles were not described previously. Most of the B. henselae variants belonged to ST5. Also, we have identified a common profile (72) which is well distributed in Spain and was found to persist over time. Indeed, this profile seems to be the origin from which most of the variants identified in this study have been generated. In addition, ST5, ST6 and ST9 were found associated with felines, whereas ST1, ST5 and ST8 were the most frequent sequence types found infecting humans. Interestingly, some of the feline associated variants never found on patients were located in a separate clade, which could represent a group of strains less pathogenic for humans. PMID:23874563

Gil, Horacio; Escudero, Raquel; Pons, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; García-Esteban, Coral; Rodríguez-Moreno, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Lobo, Bruno; Valcárcel, Félix; Pérez, Azucena; Jiménez, Santos; Jado, Isabel; Juste, Ramón; Segura, Ferrán; Anda, Pedro

2013-01-01

43

IrSPI, a Tick Serine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Tick Feeding and Bartonella henselae Infection  

PubMed Central

Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its potentialities as vaccine against the ticks and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:25057911

Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C.; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

2014-01-01

44

Heme Binding Proteins of Bartonella henselae Are Required when Undergoing Oxidative Stress During Cell and Flea Invasion  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. These heme auxotroph alphaproteobacteria must import heme for their growth, since they cannot synthesize it. To import exogenous heme, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme uptake system enabling transportation of this compound into the cytoplasm and degrading it to release iron. In addition, these bacteria encode for four or five outer membrane heme binding proteins (Hbps). The structural genes of these highly homologous proteins are expressed differently depending on oxygen, temperature and heme concentrations. These proteins were hypothesized as being involved in various cellular processes according to their ability to bind heme and their regulation profile. In this report, we investigated the roles of the four Hbps of Bartonella henselae, responsible for cat scratch disease. We show that Hbps can bind heme in vitro. They are able to enhance the efficiency of heme uptake when co-expressed with a heme transporter in Escherichia coli. Using B. henselae Hbp knockdown mutants, we show that these proteins are involved in defense against the oxidative stress, colonization of human endothelial cell and survival in the flea. PMID:23144761

Liu, MaFeng; Ferrandez, Yann; Bouhsira, Emilie; Monteil, Martine; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2012-01-01

45

Relevance of feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus and Bartonella henselae in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.  

PubMed

Despite its common occurrence, the aetiology of chronic gingivostomatitis in cats remains uncertain. Aetiology is likely multifactorial, and several infectious agents may be associated with chronic gingivostomatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline herpesvirus (FHV), and Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and in an age-matched control group. In addition, other factors, e. g., environmental conditions were investigated. In 52 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 50 healthy age-matched control cats, the presence of FCV ribonucleic acid (RNA), and FHV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] from oropharyngeal swabs), and B. henselae DNA (PCR from oropharyngeal swabs and blood), as well as FeLV antigen (serum), and antibodies against FCV, B. henselae, and FIV (serum) were examined. FCV RNA was significantly more common in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (53.8%, p < 0.001) than in controls (14.0%); a significant difference was also found in the prevalence of antibodies to FCV between the cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (78.8%, p = 0.023) and controls (58.0%). Of the other infectious agents investigated, there was no significant difference in the prevalence between the cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and the controls. The results of this study allow the conclusion that FCV, but no other infectious agents, is commonly associated with chronic gingivostomatitis in cats. PMID:21038808

Belgard, Sylvia; Truyen, Uwe; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

2010-01-01

46

Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. PMID:25355744

van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

2014-01-01

47

A nested-PCR with an Internal Amplification Control for the detection and differentiation of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae: An examination of cats in Trinidad  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella species are bacterial blood parasites of animals capable of causing disease in both animals and man. Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD) in humans is caused mainly by Bartonella henselae and is acquired from the cat, which serves as a reservoir for the bacteria. A second species, B. clarridgeiae is also implicated in the disease. Diagnosis of Bartonellosis by culture requires a week or more of incubation on enriched media containing blood, and recovery is often complicated by faster growing contaminating bacteria and fungi. PCR has been explored as an alternative to culture for both the detection and species identification of Bartonella, however sensitivity problems have been reported and false negative reactions due to blood inhibitors have not generally been addressed in test design. Methods A novel, nested-PCR was designed for the detection of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae based on the strategy of targeting species-specific size differences in the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic regions. An Internal Amplification Control was used for detecting PCR inhibition. The nested-PCR was utilized in a study on 103 blood samples from pet and stray cats in Trinidad. Results None of the samples were positive by primary PCR, but the Nested-PCR detected Bartonella in 32/103 (31%) cats where 16 were infected with only B. henselae, 13 with only B. clarridgeiae and 3 with both species. Of 22 stray cats housed at an animal shelter, 13 (59%) were positive for either or both species, supporting the reported increased incidence of Bartonella among feral cats. Conclusion The usefulness of a single PCR for the detection of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in the blood of cats is questionable. A nested-PCR offers increased sensitivity over a primary PCR and should be evaluated with currently used methods for the routine detection and speciation of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae. In Trinidad, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae are the predominant species in cats and infection appears highest with stray cats, however B. clarridgeiae may be present at levels similar to that of B. henselae in the pet population. PMID:16098227

Rampersad, Joanne N; Watkins, John D; Samlal, Michael S; Deonanan, Raymond; Ramsubeik, Shalini; Ammons, David R

2005-01-01

48

Experimental infection of cats with Afipia felis and various Bartonella species or subspecies.  

PubMed

Based upon prior studies, domestic cats have been shown to be the natural reservoir for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella koehlerae. However, other Bartonella species, such as Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella quintana or Bartonella bovis (ex weissii) have been either isolated from or Bartonella DNA sequences PCR amplified and sequenced. In the late 1980s, before B. henselae was confirmed as the etiological agent of cat scratch disease, Afipia felis had been proposed as the causative agent. In order to determine the feline susceptibility to A. felis, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella rochalimae, B. quintana or B. bovis, we sought to detect the presence of bacteremia and seroconversion in experimentally-inoculated cats. Most of the cats seroconverted, but only the cats inoculated with B. rochalimae became bacteremic, indicating that cats are not natural hosts of A. felis or the other Bartonella species or subspecies tested in this study. PMID:24972870

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G; Henn, Jennifer B; Koehler, Jane E; Chang, Chao-chin

2014-08-27

49

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Toxoplasma gondii, FIV and FeLV infections in domestic cats in Japan.  

PubMed

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was investigated in 1,447 domestic cats derived from the north (Hokkaido) to the south (Okinawa) prefectures in Japan. Of the cats investigated, 8.8% (128/1,447) were seropositive to B. henselae, 5.4% (78/1,447) to T. gondii, 9.8% (107/1,088) to FIV, and 2.9% (32/1,088) to FeLV, respectively. For B. henselae infection, the positive rate varied from 11.5% in cats of 1 to <2 years old to 7.2% in those over 3 years old. Outdoor cats showed higher positive rate (14.5%) than that (7.0%) in indoor ones. The rate (13.5%) in flea-infested cats was significantly higher than that (7.4%) in flea-negative cats. The positive rates in southern and urban sites were more likely to be higher than those in northern and suburban sites, suggesting that warm and humid environments, density of cat population, and raising status, including hygienic condition and flea infestation in cats may correlate to higher seroprevalence of B. henselae infection. For T. gondii, FIV and FeLV infections, the seroprevalence also tended to be higher in outdoor, flea-infested cats and advanced age groups. For FIV infection, the positive rates in male (14.3%) and outdoor cats (15.0%) were significantly higher than those in female (5.0%) and indoor cats (4.6%). On the other hand, no significant difference in seropositivities was observed in FeLV and T. gondii infections concerning to both genders and raising status. PMID:12680718

Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Nakao, Ruriko; Tanaka, Shigeo; Sakai, Takeo; Xuan, Xuenan; Katsube, Yasuji; Mikami, Takeshi

2003-01-01

50

Bartonella spp. Bacteremia in Blood Donors from Campinas, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

2015-01-01

51

The efficacy of a selamectin (Stronghold(®)) spot on treatment in the prevention of Bartonella henselae transmission by Ctenocephalides felis in cats, using a new high-challenge model.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans, which is recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease. Ctenocephalides felis is the main vector, and transmission of B. henselae infection between cats and humans occurs mainly through infected flea feces. Control of feline infestation with this arthropod vector therefore provides an important strategy for the prevention of infection of both humans and cats. In the present study, a new challenge model is used to evaluate the efficacy of selamectin (Stronghold(®) spot on) in the prevention of B. henselae transmission by C. felis. In this new challenge model, domestic cats were infected by direct application of B. henselae-positive fleas. The fleas used for infestation were infected by feeding on blood that contained in vitro-cultured B. henselae. The direct application of the fleas to the animals and the use of different B. henselae strains ensured a high and consistent challenge. Two groups of six cats were randomly allocated on pre-treatment flea counts to either control (untreated cats) or the selamectin-treated group with one pipette per cat according to the label instruction. Stronghold (selamectin 6 % spot on solution) was administered on days 0 and 32. On days 3, 10, 19, 25, and 31, each cat was infested by direct application of 20 fleas that fed on blood inoculated with B. henselae. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on pooled fleas confirmed that the fleas were infected. Blood samples were collected from each cat on days -3 (prior to flea infestation and treatment), 9, 17, 24, 30, 37, and 44 and assayed for B. henselae antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), for the presence of bacteria by bacterial culture and for B. henselae DNA presence by PCR. Cats were also assessed on a daily basis for general health. There were no abnormal health observations during the study and none of the animals required concomitant treatment. None of the cats displayed any clinical signs of bartonellosis during the study. In the untreated group, all cats became bacteremic within 17 to 44 days. None of the selamectin-treated cats became positive during the study. It was concluded that Stronghold(®) spot on administered to cats was efficacious in the prevention of the transmission of B. henselae by fleas to cats in a high-challenge model. PMID:25582566

Bouhsira, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Lienard, Emmanuel; Bouillin, Corinne; Gandoin, Christelle; Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Jacquiet, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Boulouis, Henri Jean

2015-03-01

52

Isolation of Bartonella washoensis from a Dog with Mitral Valve Endocarditis  

PubMed Central

We report the first documented case of Bartonella washoensis bacteremia in a dog with mitral valve endocarditis. B. washoensis was isolated in 1995 from a human patient with cardiac disease. The main reservoir species appears to be ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) in the western United States. Based on echocardiographic findings, a diagnosis of infective vegetative valvular mitral endocarditis was made in a spayed 12-year-old female Doberman pinscher. A year prior to presentation, the referring veterinarian had detected a heart murmur, which led to progressive dyspnea and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure the week before examination. One month after initial presentation, symptoms worsened. An emergency therapy for congestive heart failure was unsuccessfully implemented, and necropsy evaluation of the dog was not permitted. Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the dog was strongly seropositive (titer of 1:4,096) for several Bartonella antigens (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. henselae), highly suggestive of Bartonella endocarditis. Standard aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic cultures were negative. However, a specific blood culture for Bartonella isolation grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 7 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), groEL, and 16S rRNA genes, indicated that this organism was identical to B. washoensis. The dog was seronegative for all tick-borne pathogens tested (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia rickettsii), but the sample was highly positive for B. washoensis (titer of 1:8,192) and, according to indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay, weakly positive for phase II Coxiella burnetii infection. PMID:14605197

Chomel, Bruno B.; Wey, Aaron C.; Kasten, Rickie W.

2003-01-01

53

Bartonella birtlesii sp. nov., isolated from small mammals (Apodemus spp.).  

PubMed

Three strains isolated from Apodemus spp. were similar to Bartonella species on the basis of phenotypic characteristics. Futhermore, genotypic analysis based on sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes and on DNA-DNA hybridization showed that the three isolates represented a distinct and new species of Bartonella. The name Bartonella birtlesii is proposed for the new species. The type strain of B. birtlesii sp. nov. is IBS 325T (= CIP 106294T = CCUG 44360T). PMID:11155970

Bermond, D; Heller, R; Barrat, F; Delacour, G; Dehio, C; Alliot, A; Monteil, H; Chomel, B; Boulouis, H J; Piémont, Y

2000-11-01

54

Association between Bartonella species infection and disease in pet cats as determined using serology and culture.  

PubMed

This study's objective was to determine whether a relationship exists between infection or seropositivity to Bartonella species and clinical illness in cats. Blood samples were obtained for Bartonella species isolation and immunofluorescent antibody serology from 298 cats presenting to a tertiary referral hospital. Medical records were searched and the history, physical examination findings and the results of diagnostic testing relating to the visit at which Bartonella species testing was performed were recorded. Fifty-two (17%) samples were seropositive for Bartonella henselae, four (1%) for Bartonella clarridgeiae, and 57 (19%) for both organisms. Nineteen (6.4%) samples were culture positive, 17 for B henselae and two for B clarridgeiae. Gingivostomatitis was associated with Bartonella species isolation (P=0.001), but not seropositivity. There was no association with uveitis, neurologic signs, or chronic kidney disease, and a weak association between seropositivity and idiopathic lower urinary tract disease (feline interstitial cystitis) (P=0.05). PMID:20570199

Sykes, Jane E; Westropp, Joellen L; Kasten, Rick W; Chomel, Bruno B

2010-08-01

55

Bartonella Strains from Ground Squirrels Are Identical to Bartonella washoensis Isolated from a Human Patient  

PubMed Central

The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in question and of Bartonella isolates obtained from the following Nevada rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus (17 isolates), Tamias minimus (11 isolates), Spermophilus lateralis (3 isolates), and Spermophilus beecheyi (7 isolates). Sequence analyses of gltA amplicons obtained from Bartonella from the rodents demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and resulted in the identification of 16 genetic variants that were clustered within three groups in phylogenetic analysis. Each of the three groups was associated with a rodent genus, Peromyscus, Tamias, or Spermophilus. The gltA, 16S rRNA gene, and groEL sequences of a Bartonella isolate obtained from a California ground squirrel (S. beecheyi) were completely identical to homologous sequences of B. washoensis, strongly suggesting that these animals were the source of infection in the human case. PMID:12574261

Kosoy, Michael; Murray, Mike; Gilmore, Jr., Robert D.; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L.

2003-01-01

56

Bartonella strains from ground squirrels are identical to Bartonella washoensis isolated from a human patient.  

PubMed

The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in question and of Bartonella isolates obtained from the following Nevada rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus (17 isolates), Tamias minimus (11 isolates), Spermophilus lateralis (3 isolates), and Spermophilus beecheyi (7 isolates). Sequence analyses of gltA amplicons obtained from Bartonella from the rodents demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and resulted in the identification of 16 genetic variants that were clustered within three groups in phylogenetic analysis. Each of the three groups was associated with a rodent genus, Peromyscus, Tamias, or Spermophilus: The gltA, 16S rRNA gene, and groEL sequences of a Bartonella isolate obtained from a California ground squirrel (S. beecheyi) were completely identical to homologous sequences of B. washoensis, strongly suggesting that these animals were the source of infection in the human case. PMID:12574261

Kosoy, Michael; Murray, Mike; Gilmore, Robert D; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L

2003-02-01

57

Genome Sequence of Bartonella birtlesii, a Bacterium Isolated from Small Rodents of the Genus Apodemus  

PubMed Central

Bartonella birtlesii is a facultative intracellular bacterium isolated from the blood of small mammals of the genus Apodemus. The present study reports the draft genome of Bartonella birtlesii strain IBS 135T (CIP 106691T). PMID:22887676

Rolain, Jean-Marc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Gimenez, Gregory; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

2012-01-01

58

Genome sequence of Bartonella birtlesii, a bacterium isolated from small rodents of the genus Apodemus.  

PubMed

Bartonella birtlesii is a facultative intracellular bacterium isolated from the blood of small mammals of the genus Apodemus. The present study reports the draft genome of Bartonella birtlesii strain IBS 135(T) (CIP 106691(T)). PMID:22887676

Rolain, Jean-Marc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Gimenez, Gregory; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

2012-09-01

59

Analysis of the BadA stalk from Bartonella henselae reveals domain-specific and domain-overlapping functions in the host cell infection process.  

PubMed

Human pathogenic Bartonella henselae cause cat scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders. An important pathogenicity factor of B.?henselae is the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) which is modularly constructed and consists of a head, a long and repetitive neck-stalk module with 22 repetitive neck/stalk repeats and a membrane anchor. The BadA head is crucial for bacterial adherence to host cells, binding to several extracellular matrix proteins and for the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. Here, we analysed the biological role of the BadA stalk in the infection process in greater detail. For this purpose, BadA head-bearing and headless deletion mutants with different lengths (containing one or four neck/stalk repeats in the neck-stalk module) were produced and functionally analysed for their ability to bind to fibronectin, collagen and endothelial cells and to induce VEGF secretion. Whereas a head-bearing short version (one neck/stalk element) of BadA lacks exclusively fibronectin binding, a substantially truncated headless BadA mutant was deficient for all of these biological functions. The expression of a longer headless BadA mutant (four neck/stalk repeats) restored fibronectin and collagen binding, adherence to host cells and the induction of VEGF secretion. Our data suggest that (i) the stalk of BadA is exclusively responsible for fibronectin binding and that (ii) both the head and stalk of BadA mediate adherence to collagen and host cells and the induction of VEGF secretion. This indicates overlapping functions of the BadA head and stalk. PMID:21981119

Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Schwarz, Heinz; Leo, Jack C; Kempf, Volkhard A J

2012-02-01

60

Bartonella bovis isolated from a cow with endocarditis.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old pregnant Angus cow was found dead in the field. At necropsy, the aortic valve was expanded by moderate fibrous connective tissue and acidophilic coagulum containing multifocal marked bacteria, mineral, neutrophils, and red blood cells. Numerous tiny grayish, opaque bacterial colonies were detected on blood agar plates at 7 days after inoculation with a swab of the heart valve of the cow. The bacterium was a Gram-negative, very small coccobacillus that was catalase, oxidase, and urease negative, and did not change litmus milk, triple sugar iron agar, and sulfide-indole-motility medium. The bacterium was negative for esculin hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, nitrate reduction, and gelatin hydrolysis. The isolate did not produce acid from glycerol, inulin, lactose, maltose, mannose, raffinose, salicin, sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, glycogen, ribose, or starch. Polymerase chain reaction tests for the gltA, ssrA, ftsZ, ribC, rpoB, and 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Bartonella species were positive for the isolate. Amplicons were sequenced, and the gltA, ribC, ssrA, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were found to have 100% homology to the type strain of Bartonella bovis, whereas the fts and rpoB sequences showed 99.9% and 99.6% homology, respectively, to the type strain of Bartonella bovis. Diagnosticians should be aware of slow-growing microorganisms, and culture media should be incubated beyond the standard period to enhance the recovery of Bartonella species. PMID:23512923

Erol, Erdal; Jackson, Carney; Bai, Ying; Sells, Stephen; Locke, Steve; Kosoy, Michael

2013-03-01

61

Exposure and Risk Factors to Coxiella burnetii, Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among Volunteer Blood Donors in Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia) are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG) in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8%) had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1?16), and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1?100) for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P<0.021). Donors with occupations involving animals (P>0.012), especially cattle (P>0.006), were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013) and typhus (P<0.011) group rickettsiae. Three (2.9%) samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms. PMID:25259959

Noden, Bruce H.; Tshavuka, Filippus I.; van der Colf, Berta E.; Chipare, Israel; Wilkinson, Rob

2014-01-01

62

Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

2012-01-01

63

Presence of Bartonella species in wild carnivores of northern Spain.  

PubMed

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R A; Barral, Marta

2012-02-01

64

Detection of Rochalimaea henselae DNA in specimens from cat scratch disease patients by PCR.  

PubMed Central

A PCR assay was developed by using degenerate primers that allow amplification of a 414-bp fragment of DNA from the rickettsia-like organisms Rochalimaea henselae and R. quintana. Internal oligonucleotides were used as hybridization probes, permitting rapid differentiation of these two Rochalimaea species. DNAs from 12 different isolates of R. henselae were amplified with the PCR primers, and the resulting 414-bp PCR product hybridized only with the R. henselae-specific probe. DNAs from four different isolates of R. quintana were amplified and produced a PCR product of the same size that hybridized only with the R. quintana-specific probe. DNAs from isolates of R. elizabethae, R. vinsonii, Bartonella bacilliformis, and Afipia felis failed to amplify the 414-bp fragment in the PCR assay. This two-step assay was applied to DNAs extracted from 16 fresh (unfixed) lymph node biopsy specimens and nine aspirates from patients with clinical cat scratch disease (CSD) to assay for the presence of R. henselae or R. quintana DNA in these samples. Twenty-one (84%) of 25 lymph node samples from CSD patients were positive for R. henselae, while none were positive for R. quintana. The characteristic 414-bp fragment was not amplified from eight lymph node tissue samples from non-CSD cases. These results provide evidence that R. henselae, and not R. quintana, plays the central role in the etiology of CSD. Images PMID:8027347

Anderson, B; Sims, K; Regnery, R; Robinson, L; Schmidt, M J; Goral, S; Hager, C; Edwards, K

1994-01-01

65

Genetic classification and differentiation of Bartonella species based on comparison of partial ftsZ gene sequences.  

PubMed

Currently, 19 species are recognized in the genus Bartonella, 7 of which are involved in an increasing variety of human diseases. Development of molecular tools for detection, identification, and subtyping of strains and isolates has promoted research on Bartonella spp. We amplified and sequenced the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the N-terminal region of the cell division protein for 13 Bartonella species: Bartonella alsatica, B. birtlesii, B. doshiae, B. elizabethae, B. grahami, B. koehlerae, B. schoenbuchensis, B. taylorii, B. tribocorum, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, and B. bovis Bermond et al.("B. weissii"). Phylogenetically derived trees revealed four statistically supported groups, indicating that sequencing of the ftsZ gene is a useful tool for identifying evolutionary relationships among Bartonella species. Furthermore, we amplified and sequenced the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the C-terminal region of the protein for 4 B. bacilliformis isolates, 14 B. clarridgeiae isolates, 14 B. quintana isolates, and 30 B. henselae isolates that were obtained from different geographic regions, hosts, and clinical specimens. B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana sequences were highly conserved, while those of the four B. bacilliformis isolates differed from the type strain at 5 positions. Among B. henselae strains isolated from cats and patients, only two genotypes were detected: Houston and Marseille. Among 80 clinical samples we detected Bartonella spp. in 35 (43.75%) and found the assay to be comparable to that of a combined intergenic-spacer-region- and pap31-based PCR assay. Our results show the usefulness of the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the C-terminal region for diagnosis of Bartonella infections. More samples should be tested to study its usefulness for epidemiological investigations. PMID:12354859

Zeaiter, Zaher; Liang, Zhongxing; Raoult, Didier

2002-10-01

66

Genetic Classification and Differentiation of Bartonella Species Based on Comparison of Partial ftsZ Gene Sequences  

PubMed Central

Currently, 19 species are recognized in the genus Bartonella, 7 of which are involved in an increasing variety of human diseases. Development of molecular tools for detection, identification, and subtyping of strains and isolates has promoted research on Bartonella spp. We amplified and sequenced the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the N-terminal region of the cell division protein for 13 Bartonella species: Bartonella alsatica, B. birtlesii, B. doshiae, B. elizabethae, B. grahami, B. koehlerae, B. schoenbuchensis, B. taylorii, B. tribocorum, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, and B. bovis Bermond et al.(“B. weissii”). Phylogenetically derived trees revealed four statistically supported groups, indicating that sequencing of the ftsZ gene is a useful tool for identifying evolutionary relationships among Bartonella species. Furthermore, we amplified and sequenced the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the C-terminal region of the protein for 4 B. bacilliformis isolates, 14 B. clarridgeiae isolates, 14 B. quintana isolates, and 30 B. henselae isolates that were obtained from different geographic regions, hosts, and clinical specimens. B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana sequences were highly conserved, while those of the four B. bacilliformis isolates differed from the type strain at 5 positions. Among B. henselae strains isolated from cats and patients, only two genotypes were detected: Houston and Marseille. Among 80 clinical samples we detected Bartonella spp. in 35 (43.75%) and found the assay to be comparable to that of a combined intergenic-spacer-region- and pap31-based PCR assay. Our results show the usefulness of the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the C-terminal region for diagnosis of Bartonella infections. More samples should be tested to study its usefulness for epidemiological investigations. PMID:12354859

Zeaiter, Zaher; Liang, Zhongxing; Raoult, Didier

2002-01-01

67

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Species Isolated from Wild Rodents in Japan?  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella organisms in wild rodents in Japan. We captured 685 wild rodents throughout Japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated Bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). Those Bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. Sequence analysis of rpoB and gltA revealed that the Bartonella isolates obtained were classified into eight genetic groups, comprising isolates closely related to B. grahamii (A-I group), B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae (B-J group), B. tribocorum and B. rattimassiliensis (C-K group), B. rattimassiliensis (D-L group), B. phoceensis (F-N group), B. taylorii (G-O group), and probably two additional novel Bartonella species groups (E-M and H-P). B. grahamii, which is one of the potential causative agents of human neuroretinitis, was found to be predominant in Japanese rodents. In terms of the relationships between these Bartonella genetic groups and their rodent species, (i) the A-I, E-M, and H-P groups appear to be associated with Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus; (ii) the C-K, D-L, and F-N groups are likely implicated in Rattus rattus; (iii) the B-J group seems to be involved in Apodemus mice and R. rattus; and (iv) the G-O group is probably associated with A. speciosus and Clethrionomys voles. Furthermore, dual infections with two different genetic groups of bartonellae were found in A. speciosus and R. rattus. These findings suggest that the rodent in Japan might serve as a reservoir of zoonotic Bartonella infection. PMID:18606803

Inoue, Kai; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamada, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Sato, Yukita; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Kadosaka, Teruki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki

2008-01-01

68

Life-threatening angioedema of the tongue: the detection of the RNA of B henselae in the saliva of a male patient and his dog as well as of the DNA of three Bartonella species in the blood of the patient.  

PubMed

Non-hereditary angioedema is a common disease with a prevalence between 5% and 19% and approximately half of the patients experience a swelling of the tongue. We report a case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man with a gross life-threatening angioedema of the tongue, whose attacks occurred every 4 weeks. The most frequent causes of angioedema were excluded. We detected DNA and RNA from Bartonella henselae in the blood and saliva of the patient and in the saliva of the patient's hunting dog. Treatment with azithromycin plus minocycline cleared the blood and saliva of RNA and DNA of Bartonella species, and the patient has been free from angioedema for 1 year. None of the therapy modalities used to treat the hereditary form or ACE or allergy-induced angioedema affect the detrimental course caused by Bartonella species. We therefore suggest that a molecular Bartonella test be included in the analysis of angioedema. PMID:24654245

Lösch, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf

2014-01-01

69

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

2012-12-28

70

Bartonella dromedarii sp. nov. Isolated from Domesticated Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Israel.  

PubMed

Abstract Bartonella spp. are fastidious, Gram-negative bacilli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Most Bartonella spp. have adapted to a specific host, generally a domestic or wild mammal. Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) have become a focus of growing public-health interest because they have been identified as a reservoir host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Nevertheless, data on camel zoonoses are limited. We aimed to study the occurrence of Bartonella bacteremia among dromedaries in Israel. Nine of 51 (17.6%) camels were found to be bacteremic with Bartonella spp.; bacteremia levels ranged from five to >1000 colony-forming units/mL. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB genes demonstrated that the dromedary Bartonella isolates are closely related to other ruminant-derived Bartonella spp., with B. bovis being the nearest relative. Using electron microscopy, the novel isolates were shown to be flagellated, whereas B. bovis is nonflagellated. Sequence comparisons analysis of the housekeeping genes ftsZ, ribC, and groEL showed the highest homology to B. chomelii, B. capreoli, and B. birtlesii, respectively. Sequence analysis of the gltA and rpoB revealed ?96% identity to B. bovis, a previously suggested cutoff value for sequence-based differentiation of Bartonella spp., suggesting that this approach does not have sufficient discriminatory power for differentiating ruminant-related Bartonella spp. A comprehensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis based on nine genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ftsZ, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rRNA, ribC, groEL, nuoG, and SsrA) identified seven sequence types of the new dromedary isolates. This is the first description of a Bartonella sp. from camelids. On the basis of a distinct reservoir and ecological niche, sequence analyses, and expression of flagella, we designate these isolates as a novel Bartonella sp. named Bartonella dromedarii sp. nov. Further studies are required to explore its zoonotic potential. PMID:25409267

Rasis, Michal; Rudoler, Nir; Schwartz, David; Giladi, Michael

2014-11-01

71

Bartonella Strains from Ground Squirrels Are Identical to Bartonella washoensis Isolated from a Human Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 22 April 2002\\/Returned for modification 2 September 2002\\/Accepted 13 October 2002 The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in

Michael Kosoy; Mike Murray; Robert D. Gilmore; Ying Bai; Kenneth L. Gage

2003-01-01

72

The Trw Type IV Secretion System of Bartonella Mediates Host-Specific Adhesion to Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals. PMID:20548954

Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Le Rhun, Danielle; Deng, Hong Kuan; Biville, Francis; Cescau, Sandra; Danchin, Antoine; Marignac, Geneviève; Lenaour, Evelyne; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Mavris, Maria; Arnaud, Lionel; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jing; Quebatte, Maxime; Engel, Philipp; Saenz, Henri; Dehio, Christoph

2010-01-01

73

The Trw type IV secretion system of Bartonella mediates host-specific adhesion to erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals. PMID:20548954

Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Le Rhun, Danielle; Deng, Hong Kuan; Biville, Francis; Cescau, Sandra; Danchin, Antoine; Marignac, Geneviève; Lenaour, Evelyne; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Mavris, Maria; Arnaud, Lionel; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jing; Quebatte, Maxime; Engel, Philipp; Saenz, Henri; Dehio, Christoph

2010-01-01

74

Bartonella infection in domestic cats and wild felids.  

PubMed

Bartonella are vector-borne, fastidious Gram-negative bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in their reservoir hosts. Felids represent a major reservoir for several Bartonella species. Domestic cats are the main reservoir of B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease. Prevalence of infection is highest in warm and humid climates that are optimal for the survival of cat fleas, as fleas are essential for the transmission of the infection. Flea feces are the likely infectious substrate. Prevalence of B. henselae genotypes among cat populations varies worldwide. Genotype Houston I is more prevalent in the Far East and genotype Marseille is dominant in western Europe, Australia, and the western United States. Cats are usually asymptomatic, but uveitis, endocarditis, neurological signs, fever, necrotic lesions at the inoculation site, lymphadenopathy, and reproductive disorders have been reported in naturally or experimentally infected cats. Domestic cats are also the reservoir of B. clarridgeiae and co-infection has been demonstrated. B. koehlerae has been isolated from domestic cats, and was identified in cat fleas and associated with a human endocarditis case. B. bovis was isolated from a few cats in the United States and B. quintana DNA was recently identified in a cat tooth. Bartonella spp. have also been isolated from free-ranging and captive wild felids from North America and Africa. Whereas, B. henselae was identified in African lions and a cheetah, some strains specific to these wild cats have also been identified, leading to the concept of a B. henselae group including various subspecies, as previously described for B. vinsonii. PMID:17114749

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Henn, Jennifer B; Molia, Sophie

2006-10-01

75

Characterization of Bartonella strains isolated from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).  

PubMed

Thirty bartonella strains were isolated from the blood of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from Boulder County, Colorado, USA. The bacteria appeared as small, fastidious, aerobic, Gram-negative rods. The partial sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) demonstrated five unique genetic variants. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of gltA, 16S rRNA, rpoB, ftsZ, and ribC showed that the black-tailed prairie dog-related Bartonella variants comprise a distinct monophyletic clade that is closely related to Bartonella washoensis, a species isolated from a human patient and subsequently from ground squirrels. These variants, however, are grouped together in 100% of the bootstrapped trees. These variants were not found in other small mammals trapped during the same study, showing some evidence of host specificity. We believe that the group being described here is typical of the black-tailed prairie dog. We propose to name the bacteria Candidatus Bartonella washoensis subsp. cynomysii. The type strain is CL8606co(T)(=ATCC BAA-1342(T) = CCUG 53213(T)), which is the representative isolate of the dominant variant of the characterized group. PMID:18237261

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Martin, Andrew; Ray, Chris; Sheff, Kelly; Chalcraft, Linda; Collinge, Sharon K

2008-01-01

76

Epidemiology of Bartonella infection in domestic cats in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples were collected between February and June 1996 from a convenience sample of 436 domestic French cats living in Paris and its environs and were tested for Bartonella bacteremia and seropositivity. Seventy-two cats (16.5%) were Bartonella bacteremic, of which 36 cats (50%) were infected with Bartonella henselae type II (B.h. II) only, 15 cats (21%) were infected with Bartonella

A. N. Gurfield; H.-J. Boulouis; B. B. Chomel; R. W. Kasten; R. Heller; C. Bouillin; C. Gandoin; D. Thibault; C.-C. Chang; F. Barrat; Y. Piemont

2001-01-01

77

Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).  

PubMed

Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (P<0.001). While Bartonella infection was also detected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California. PMID:24629902

Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-06-01

78

Prevalence of rickettsia felis-like and Bartonella Spp. in Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis from La Rioja (Northern Spain).  

PubMed

Our aim was to determine the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis from La Rioja (Spain). A total of 88 specimens were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gltA and ompB genes as targets for Rickettsia spp., and 16S rRNA and ribC genes for Bartonella spp. Rickettsia felis-like (28.4%), Bartonella clarridgeiae (6.8%), and Bartonella henselae (3.4%) were detected in Ctenocephalides spp. Other Bartonella sp. different from B. clarridgeiae and B. henselae could also be present in fleas from La Rioja. PMID:17114721

Blanco, José Ramón; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Vallejo, Manuel; Santibáñez, Sonia; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José Antonio

2006-10-01

79

Cat Scratch Disease Caused by Bartonella grahamii in an Immunocompromised Patient  

PubMed Central

Bartonella grahamii colonizes rodents worldwide and has been detected in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Here, the first human B. grahamii infection confirmed by multilocus sequence typing is reported. The route of transmission and clinical picture of the patient are similar to those seen in patients with cat scratch disease, which is typically diagnosed as a Bartonella henselae infection. PMID:23740723

Oksi, Jarmo; Rantala, Sari; Kilpinen, Sanna; Silvennoinen, Raija; Vornanen, Martine; Veikkolainen, Ville; Eerola, Erkki

2013-01-01

80

Skin diseases associated with Bartonella infection: facts and controversies.  

PubMed

The genus Bartonella is composed of a series of species and subspecies. Ten of them are responsible for human infections. The best-identified diseases are cat scratch disease (B henselae and possibly B clarridgeiae), trench fever (B quintana), bacillary angiomatosis (B quintana and B henselae), and the spectrum of verruga peruana, Carrion disease, and Oroya fever (B bacilliformis). Controversies exist about the implication of a few other microorganisms being involved in these diseases. Several other conditions have been associated with the presence of Bartonella spp, but these observations await confirmation. PMID:20797506

Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Quatresooz, Pascale; Piérard, Gérald E

2010-01-01

81

Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq  

PubMed Central

Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

82

Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.  

PubMed

Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

2013-12-01

83

Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a Potential New Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Canids from Iraq  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n?=?97), 40.4% in jackals (n?=?57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n?=?39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55–31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

Chomel, Bruno B.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P. V. P.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2012-01-01

84

Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis Reveals Profound Genetic Diversity among Isolates of the Human Pathogen Bartonella bacilliformis  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis is the aetiological agent of human bartonellosis, a potentially life threatening infection of significant public health concern in the Andean region of South America. Human bartonellosis has long been recognised in the region but a recent upsurge in the number of cases of the disease and an apparent expansion of its geographical distribution have re-emphasized its contemporary medical importance. Here, we describe the development of a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for B. bacilliformis and its application to an archive of 43 isolates collected from patients across Peru. MLST identified eight sequence types among these isolates and the delineation of these was generally congruent with those of the previously described typing scheme. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequence data derived from MLST loci revealed that seven of the eight sequence types were closely related to one another; however, one sequence type, ST8, exhibited profound evolutionary divergence from the others. The extent of this divergence was akin to that observed between other members of the Bartonella genus, suggesting that ST8 strains may be better considered as members of a novel Bartonella genospecies. PMID:21811647

Chaloner, Gemma L.; Palmira Ventosilla; Birtles, Richard J.

2011-01-01

85

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas ( Felis concolor ) and bobcats ( Lynx rufus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas

Bruno B. Chomel; Yoko Kikuchi; Janice S. Martenson; Melodie E. Roelke-Parker; Chao-Chin Chang; Rickie W. Kasten; Janet E. Foley; John Laudre; Kerry Murphy; Pamela K. Swift; Vicki L. Kramer

2004-01-01

86

Human isolates of Bartonella tamiae induce pathology in experimentally inoculated immunocompetent mice  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella tamiae, a newly described bacterial species, was isolated from the blood of three hospitalized patients in Thailand. These patients presented with headache, myalgia, anemia, and mild liver function abnormalities. Since B. tamiae was presumed to be the cause of their illness, these isolates were inoculated into immunocompetent mice to determine their relative pathogenicity in inducing manifestations of disease and pathology similar to that observed in humans. Methods Three groups of four Swiss Webster female mice aged 15-18 months were each inoculated with 106-7 colony forming units of one of three B. tamiae isolates [Th239, Th307, and Th339]. A mouse from each experimental group was sampled at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-inoculation. Two saline inoculated age-matched controls were included in the study. Samples collected at necropsy were evaluated for the presence of B. tamiae DNA, and tissues were formalin-fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined for histopathology. Results Following inoculation with B. tamiae, mice developed ulcerative skin lesions and subcutaneous masses on the lateral thorax, as well as axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. B. tamiae DNA was found in subcutaneous masses, lymph node, and liver of inoculated mice. Histopathological changes were observed in tissues of inoculated mice, and severity of lesions correlated with the isolate inoculated, with the most severe pathology induced by B. tamiae Th239. Mice inoculated with Th239 and Th339 demonstrated myocarditis, lymphadenitis with associated vascular necrosis, and granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis with associated hepatocellular and renal necrosis. Mice inoculated with Th307 developed a deep dermatitis and granulomas within the kidneys. Conclusions The three isolates of B. tamiae evaluated in this study induce disease in immunocompetent Swiss Webster mice up to 6 weeks after inoculation. The human patients from whom these isolates were obtained had clinical presentations consistent with the multi-organ pathology observed in mice in this study. This mouse model for B. tamiae induced disease not only strengthens the causal link between this pathogen and clinical illness in humans, but provides a model to further study the pathological processes induced by these bacteria. PMID:20673363

2010-01-01

87

Isolation of a new subspecies, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, from a cattle rancher: identity with isolates found in conjunction with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti among naturally infected mice.  

PubMed

Bacteremia with fever due to a novel subspecies of Bartonella vinsonii was found in a cattle rancher. The subspecies shared major characteristics of the genus Bartonella in terms of most biochemical features and cellular fatty acid profile, but it was distinguishable from other subspecies of B. vinsonii by good growth on heart infusion agar supplemented with X factor and by its pattern of enzymatic hydrolysis of peptide substrates. DNA relatedness studies verified that the isolate belonged to the genus Bartonella and that it was genotypically related to B. vinsonii. The highest level of relatedness was observed with recently characterized strains from naturally infected mice that were coinfected with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti. We propose the name Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis subsp. nov. as the new subspecies to accommodate these human and murine isolates. PMID:10405408

Welch, D F; Carroll, K C; Hofmeister, E K; Persing, D H; Robison, D A; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J

1999-08-01

88

Bartonella Genotypes in Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) Collected from Rodents in the Negev Desert, Israel?  

PubMed Central

Fleas collected from rodents in the Negev Desert in southern Israel were molecularly screened for Bartonella species. A total of 1,148 fleas, collected from 122 rodents belonging to six species, were pooled in 245 pools based on flea species, sex, and rodent host species. Two Bartonella gene fragments, corresponding to RNA polymerase B (rpoB) and citrate synthase (gltA), were targeted, and 94 and 74 flea pools were found positive by PCR, respectively. The Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was also targeted, and 66 flea pools were found to be positive by PCR. Sixteen different Bartonella gltA genotypes were detected in 94 positive flea pools collected from 5 different rodent species, indicating that fleas collected from each rodent species can harbor several Bartonella genotypes. Based on gltA analysis, identified Bartonella genotypes were highly similar or identical to strains previously detected in rodent species from different parts of the world. A gltA fragment 100% similar to Bartonella henselae was detected in one flea pool. Another 2 flea pools contained gltA fragments that were closely related to B. henselae (98% similarity). The high sequence similarities to the zoonotic pathogen B. henselae warrant further investigation. PMID:20802081

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Shenbrot, Georgy I.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Harrus, Shimon

2010-01-01

89

Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) quintana is the etiological agent of trench fever, a disease extensively reported during the World Wars. Recent molecular biology approaches have allowed dramatic extension of the spectrum of Bartonella infections. B. quintana is now also recognized as an etiological agent of fever and bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and chronic lymphadenopathy. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and/or homeless people are the most vulnerable to infection. Poverty and louse infestation were the main epidemiological factors associated with B. quintana infections during wartime. Although poverty and chronic alcoholism have been associated with modern cases of trench fever and bacteremia due to B. quintana in Europe and the United States, vectors for B. quintana have not been clearly identified and B. quintana has not been isolated from modern-day lice. Microscopic bacillary angiomatosis lesions are characterized by tumor-like capillary lobules, with proliferating endothelial cells. In vitro experiments have shown that B. quintana survives within endothelial cells and stimulates cell proliferation. These observations, together with the finding that lesions may regress when antibiotic therapy is administered, strongly suggest that B. quintana itself stimulates angiogenesis. Bartonella infections are characterized by a high frequency of relapses after brief courses of antibiotic therapy. It is to be noted that in vitro, although Bartonella species are highly susceptible to antibiotics, only the aminoglycosides have proved to be bactericidal. However, the most effective antibiotic regimen for Bartonella infections remains to be established. PMID:8809460

Maurin, M; Raoult, D

1996-01-01

90

Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America. PMID:24892580

Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

2015-02-01

91

Bartonella species in fleas from Palestinian territories: Prevalence and genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. The prevalence and genetic characteristics of Bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from Palestinian territories are described. Flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern Palestinian territories (n=11). The prevalent flea species were: Ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), Ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and Xenopsylla sp. (n=7/289; 2.4%). Targeting the Intergenic Transcribed Spacer (ITS) locus, DNA of Bartonella was detected in 22% (64/289) of all fleas. Fifty percent of the C. felis and 57% of the Xenopsylla sp. contained Bartonella DNA. DNA sequencing showed the presence of Bartonella clarridgeiae (50%), Bartonella henselae (27%), and Bartonella koehlerae (3%) in C. felis. Xenopsylla sp. collected from Rattus rattus rats were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae. Phylogenetic sequence analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene obtained four genetic clusters, B. henselae and B. koehlerae as subcluster 1, B. clarridgeiae as cluster 2, while the rat Bartonella species (B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae) were an outgroup cluster. These findings showed the important role of cat and rat fleas as vectors of zoonotic Bartonella species in Palestinian territories. It is hoped that this publication will raise awareness among physicians, veterinarians, and other health workers of the high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas in Palestinian territories and the potential risk of these pathogens to humans and animals in this region. PMID:25424254

Nasereddin, A; Risheq, A; Harrus, S; Azmi, K; Ereqat, S; Baneth, G; Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Abdeen, Z

2014-12-01

92

Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic

Kai Inoue; Soichi Maruyama; Hidenori Kabeya; Keiko Hagiya; Yasuhito Izumi; Yumi Une; Yasuhiro Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

93

Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya  

PubMed Central

We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region. PMID:21122216

Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2010-01-01

94

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in North America, Central America and South America were screened for B. henselae antibodies. The overall prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was respectively 19.4% in pumas and 23.1% in bobcats, with regional variations. In the USA, pumas from the southwestern states were more likely to be seropositive for B. henselae (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55, 5.11) than pumas from the Northwest and Mountain states. Similarly, adults were more likely to be B. henselae seropositive than juveniles and kittens (PR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.93). Adult pumas were more likely to have higher B. henselae antibody titers than juveniles and kittens (p = 0.026). B. henselae antibody prevalence was 22.4% (19/85) in bobcats from the USA and 33.3% (2/6) in the Mexican bobcats. In the USA, antibody prevalence varied depending on the geographical origin of the bobcats. In California, the highest prevalence was in bobcats from the coastal range (37.5%). These results suggest a potential role of wild felids in the epidemiological cycle of Bartonella henselae or closely related Bartonella species. PMID:15099499

Chomel, Bruno B; Kikuchi, Yoko; Martenson, Janice S; Roelke-Parker, Melodie E; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Janet E; Laudre, John; Murphy, Kerry; Swift, Pamela K; Kramer, Vicki L; O'brien, Stephen J

2004-01-01

95

A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2013-01-01

96

Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats in Peru  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.–bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

97

Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

2012-09-01

98

Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause characteristic host-restricted hemotropic infections in mammals and are typically transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In the mammalian reservoir, these bacteria initially infect a yet unrecognized primary niche, which seeds organisms into the blood stream leading to the establishment of a long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia as the hall-mark of infection. Bacterial type IV secretion systems, which are supra-molecular transporters ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems, represent crucial pathogenicity factors that have contributed to a radial expansion of the Bartonella lineage in nature by facilitating adaptation to unique mammalian hosts. On the molecular level, the type IV secretion system VirB/VirD4 is known to translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins into host cells, which subvert multiple cellular functions to the benefit of the infecting pathogen. Furthermore, bacterial adhesins mediate a critical, early step in the pathogenesis of the bartonellae by binding to extracellular matrix components of host cells, which leads to firm bacterial adhesion to the cell surface as a prerequisite for the efficient translocation of type IV secretion effector proteins. The best-studied adhesins in bartonellae are the orthologous trimeric autotransporter adhesins, BadA in Bartonella henselae and the Vomp family in Bartonella quintana. Genetic diversity and strain variability also appear to enhance the ability of bartonellae to invade not only specific reservoir hosts, but also accidental hosts, as shown for B. henselae. Bartonellae have been identified in many different blood-sucking arthropods, in which they are typically found to cause extracellular infections of the mid-gut epithelium. Adaptation to specific vectors and reservoirs seems to be a common strategy of bartonellae for transmission and host diversity. However, knowledge regarding arthropod specificity/restriction, the mode of transmission, and the bacterial factors involved in arthropod infection and transmission is still limited. PMID:19284965

Chomel, Bruno B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Birtles, Richard J.; Koehler, Jane E.; Dehio, Christoph

2009-01-01

99

Bartonella and Rickettsia in fleas and lice from mammals in South Carolina, U.S.A.  

PubMed

Species in the genera Bartonella and Rickettsia are vector-borne pathogens of humans and domestic animals. The natural reservoirs and enzootic transmission cycles of these bacteria are poorly known in South Carolina. Thirteen species of lice and fleas were collected from urban animals and screened for the presence of Bartonella and Rickettsia by PCR amplification using genus-specific primers. Bartonella henselae was present in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and a novel genotype of Bartonella was detected in Orchopeas howardi from an eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). We detected R. typhi and three novel genotypes Rickettsia in other species of fleas and lice. Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of murine typhus, was detected in two pools of lice (Enderleinellus marmotae) from the woodchuck (Marmota monax). Cat fleas harbored one of two novel genotypes of Rickettsia. A third novel Rickettsia was detected in Orchopeas howardi from an eastern gray squirrel. PMID:16599169

Reeves, Will K; Nelder, Mark P; Korecki, James A

2005-12-01

100

An Immunocompromised Murine Model of Chronic Bartonella Infection  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are ubiquitous Gram-negative pathogens that cause chronic blood stream infections in mammals. Two species most often responsible for human infection, B. henselae and B. quintana, cause prolonged febrile illness in immunocompetent hosts, known as cat scratch disease and trench fever, respectively. Fascinatingly, in immunocompromised hosts, these organisms also induce new blood vessel formation leading to the formation of angioproliferative tumors, a disease process named bacillary angiomatosis. In addition, they cause an endothelial-lined cystic disease in the liver known as bacillary peliosis. Unfortunately, there are as yet no completely satisfying small animal models for exploring these unique human pathologies, as neither species appears able to sustain infection in small animal models. Therefore, we investigated the potential use of other Bartonella species for their ability to recapitulate human pathologies in an immunodeficient murine host. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Bartonella taylorii to cause chronic infection in SCID/BEIGE mice. In this model, Bartonella grows in extracellular aggregates, embedded within collagen matrix, similar to previous observations in cat scratch disease, bacillary peliosis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Interestingly, despite overwhelming infection later in disease, evidence for significant intracellular replication in endothelial or other cell types was not evident. We believe that this new model will provide an important new tool for investigation of Bartonella–host interaction. PMID:20395436

Chiaraviglio, Lucius; Duong, Scott; Brown, Daniel A.; Birtles, Richard J.; Kirby, James E.

2010-01-01

101

Clinical impact of persistent Bartonella bacteremia in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are emerging vector-borne pathogens that cause persistent, often asymptomatic bacteremia in their natural hosts. As our knowledge progresses, it appears that chronic infection may actually predispose the host to mild, insidious nonspecific manifestations or induce, in selected instances, severe diseases. Persistent asymptomatic bacteremia is most common in animals that serve as the main reservoir for the specific Bartonella. In humans, these organisms are B. bacilliformis and B. quintana. Other Bartonella species, for which humans are not the natural reservoir, tend to cause persistent bacteremia only in immunodeficient individuals. In some of these individuals, endothelial cell proliferation may create lesions such as bacillary angiomatosis or bacillary peliosis. In cats, bacteremia of variable level and continuity may last for years. Some strains of B. henselae may induce clinical manifestations, including fever, mild neurological signs, reproductive disorders, whereas others do not induce clinically obvious disease. Reproductive disorders have also been reported in mice experimentally infected with B. birtlesii. Finally, canids constitute the most interesting naturally occurring animal model for the human disease. Like immunocompetent people, healthy dogs only occasionally demonstrate long-term bacteremia when infected with Bartonella spp. However, some dogs develop severe clinical manifestations, such as endocarditis, and the pathologic spectrum associated with Bartonella spp. infection in domestic dogs is rapidly expanding and resembles the infrequently reported clinical entities observed in humans. In coyotes, persistent bacteremia is more common than in domestic dogs. It will be of interest to determine if coyotes develop clinical or pathological indications of infection. PMID:12860639

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Sykes, Jane E; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2003-06-01

102

Bartonella and intraocular inflammation: a series of cases and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To present various forms of uveitis and/or retinal vasculitis attributed to Bartonella infection and review the impact of this microorganism in patients with uveitis. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana intraocular inflammation from 2001 to 2010 in the Ocular Inflammation Department of the University Eye Clinic, Ioannina, Greece. Presentation of epidemiological and clinical data concerning Bartonella infection was provided by the international literature. Results: Eight patients with the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae and two patients with B. quintana intraocular inflammation were identified. Since four patients experienced bilateral involvement, the affected eyes totaled 14. The mean age was 36.6 years (range 12–62). Uveitic clinical entities that we found included intermediate uveitis in seven eyes (50%), vitritis in two eyes (14.2%), neuroretinitis in one eye (7.1%), focal retinochoroiditis in one eye (7.1%), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) due to vasculitis in one eye (7.1%), disc edema with peripapillary serous retinal detachment in one eye (7.1%), and iridocyclitis in one eye (7.1%). Most of the patients (70%) did not experience systemic symptoms preceding the intraocular inflammation. Antimicrobial treatment was efficient in all cases with the exception of the case with neuroretinitis complicated by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Conclusion: Intraocular involvement caused not only by B. henselae but also by B. quintana is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. A high index of suspicion is needed because the spectrum of Bartonella intraocular inflammation is very large. In our study the most common clinical entity was intermediate uveitis. PMID:21750616

Kalogeropoulos, Chris; Koumpoulis, Ioannis; Mentis, Andreas; Pappa, Chrisavgi; Zafeiropoulos, Paraskevas; Aspiotis, Miltiadis

2011-01-01

103

Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cause human endocarditis and neuroretinitis and 6 novel Bartonella spp. at a high prevalence (26.0%, 142/546). We conclude that exotic small mammals potentially serve as reservoirs of several zoonotic Bartonella spp. PMID:19331727

Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Hagiya, Keiko; Izumi, Yasuhito; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2009-01-01

104

Evolutional and Geographical Relationships of Bartonella grahamii Isolates from Wild Rodents by Multi-locus Sequencing Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the relationship between Bartonella grahamii strains and both the rodent host species and the geographic location of the rodent habitat, we have investigated 31 B. grahamii strains from ten rodent host species from Asia (Japan and China), North America (Canada and the USA), and Europe (Russia\\u000a and the UK). On the basis of multi-locus sequencing analysis of 16S

Kai Inoue; Hidenori Kabeya; Michael Y. Kosoy; Ying Bai; George Smirnov; Dorothy McColl; Harvey Artsob; Soichi Maruyama

2009-01-01

105

Bartonella Species as a Potential Cause of Epistaxis in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Infection with a Bartonella species was implicated in three cases of epistaxis in dogs, based upon isolation, serology, or PCR amplification. These cases, in conjunction with previously published reports, support a potential role for Bartonella spp. as a cause of epistaxis in dogs and potentially in other animals, including humans. PMID:15872304

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Maggi, Ricardo; Hawkins, Eleanor; Dyer, Page

2005-01-01

106

Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella in rodents of northern Thailand: a comparison with Bartonella in rodents from southern China.  

PubMed

We report results of the first study to investigate the distribution and diversity of Bartonella in rodents from Thailand. Whole blood from 195 rodents, representing six species, was tested for the presence of Bartonella species using standard culture techniques. Isolates were obtained from 17 (8.7%) of the samples, and 14 of those isolates represented distinct strains, based upon partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates and other Bartonella species indicated that five unique isolates from Bandicota indica form a cluster that may represent a new Bartonella species. Two additional isolates from B. indica clustered together, and were nearly identical to an isolate from Apodemus draco collected in southern China. Importantly, a number of the isolates from Thailand rodents are closely related to B. grahamii and B. elizabethae, species which have been associated with human illness. PMID:15100459

Castle, Kevin T; Kosoy, Michael; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Phelan, Lori; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Leepitakrat, Warisa; Monkanna, Taweesak; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Chandranoi, Kirkvich; Jones, James W; Coleman, Russell E

2004-04-01

107

Bartonella Species in Small Mammals and Their Ectoparasites in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. prevalence in small mammals and their ectoparasites was investigated in Taiwan. Blood samples were obtained from 66 rats, 20 shrews, 276 mites (Laelaps spp.), 74 fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), 81 lice (Polyplax spp.), and 47 ticks (41 Dermacentor spp. and 6 Ixodes spp.). Bartonellae were isolated or detected in 27 (31.4%) animals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 48 (64.9%) fleas and 11 (64.7%) pooled lice samples, but not in mite and tick samples. Bartonella phoceensis, B. queenslandensis, B. tribocorum, B. elizabethae, and B. rattimassiliensis were isolated or detected in bacteremic mammals. For the first time in Taiwan, B. tribocorum, B. elizabethae, B. queenslandensis, and a B. rochalimae-like strain were detected in fleas, and B. tribocorum, B. phoceensis, and B. rattimassiliensis were detected in lice obtained from small mammals. A broader range of Bartonella species was identified in the ectoparasites than in the small mammals. PMID:20889892

Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chuang, Shih-Te; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

2010-01-01

108

Molecular Typing of “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” a New Human Pathogen Causing Verruga Peruana  

PubMed Central

A recently described clinical isolate, “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty. PMID:23985925

Mullins, Kristin E.; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguiña, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G.; Blazes, David L.

2013-01-01

109

Rodent-associated Bartonella in Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

Six species of wild rodents were sampled at 10 sites in 2002 and 2003 to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infections in rodent communities near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Isolates were characterized genotypically and compared with isolates found at other locations. Of 104 wild rodents examined, 57% were infected with Bartonella and prevalence within species varied from 49% for Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) to 90% for Franklin's ground squirrels (S. franklinii). Infected rodents were found at all sites. Sequencing of a 379-bp portion of the citrate synthase gene was performed on 54 isolates and revealed 13 distinct genotypes, eight of which had not been described previously. The most common genotype detected in red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) was 99.1% similar to B. grahamii, a known human pathogen. Two of 10 Franklin's ground squirrels were concurrently infected with multiple Bartonella genotypes. All genotypes, with the exception of one detected in both Franklin's and thirteen-lined ground squirrels (S. tridecemlineatus), were found in only one host, and all genotypes from each species, with the exception of genotypes detected in red-backed voles, clustered together within the same relatedness group, suggesting that at least some Bartonella genotypes are specific to some rodent hosts. PMID:16417436

Jardine, Claire; Appleyard, Greg; Kosoy, Michael Y; McColl, Dorothy; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Wobeser, Gary; Leighton, Frederick A

2005-01-01

110

Cosegregation of a novel Bartonella species with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus.  

PubMed

During surveillance for various tickborne pathogens in the upper Midwest during the summer and early fall of 1995, a Bartonella-like agent was detected in the blood of mice that were concurrently infected with Borrelia burgdorferi or Babesia microti (or both). The organism was isolated in pure culture after inoculation of blood from wild-caught mice into C.B-17 scid/scid mice. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and the citrate synthase genes showed that the novel Bartonella species and a Bartonella isolate from a mouse captured on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, were closely related to each other and secondarily related to Bartonella grahamii and Bartonella vinsonii. Further analysis of Peromyscus leucopus blood and tissue samples demonstrated that the novel Bartonella species was exclusively found in conjunction with B. burgdorferi and B. microti. Patent coinfection with these agents may be relatively frequent in naturally infected mice. PMID:9466529

Hofmeister, E K; Kolbert, C P; Abdulkarim, A S; Magera, J M; Hopkins, M K; Uhl, J R; Ambyaye, A; Telford, S R; Cockerill, F R; Persing, D H

1998-02-01

111

Identification of a novel nanoRNase in Bartonella.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli, only one essential oligoribonuclease (Orn) can degrade oligoribonucleotides of five residues and shorter in length (nanoRNA). In Bacillus subtilis, NrnA and NrnB, which do not show any sequence similarity to Orn, have been identified as functional analogues of Orn. Sequence comparisons did not identify orn, nrnA or nrnB homologues in the genomes of the Chlamydia/Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria family members. Screening a genomic library from Bartonella birtlesii, a member of the Alphaproteobacteria, for genes that can complement a conditional orn mutant in E. coli, we identified BA0969 (NrnC) as a functional analogue of Orn. NrnC is highly conserved (more than 80?% identity) in the Bartonella genomes sequenced to date. Biochemical characterization showed that this protein exhibits oligo RNA degradation activity (nanoRNase activity). Like Orn from E. coli, NrnC is inhibited by micromolar amounts of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate in vitro. NrnC homologues are widely present in genomes of Alphaproteobacteria. Knock down of nrnC decreases the growth ability of Bartonella henselae, demonstrating the importance of nanoRNase activity in this bacterium. PMID:22262096

Liu, Ma Feng; Cescau, Sandra; Mechold, Undine; Wang, Jing; Cohen, Dorit; Danchin, Antoine; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2012-04-01

112

Bats as reservoir hosts of human bacterial pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis.  

PubMed

A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton's bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:24856523

Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J; Lilley, Thomas M; Pulliainen, Arto T

2014-06-01

113

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the Reservoir for a Human Pathogenic Bartonella sp.: Molecular Epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Infection in Coyotes from Central Coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals

CHAO-CHIN CHANG; RICKIE W. KASTEN; BRUNO B. CHOMEL; DARREN C. SIMPSON; CARRIE M. HEW; DORSEY L. KORDICK; REMY HELLER; YVES PIEMONT

2000-01-01

114

Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.  

PubMed

To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

2011-07-01

115

Molecular epidemiologic survey of Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infections in Japanese Iriomote and Tsushima leopard cats.  

PubMed

The Iriomote cat (IC; Prionailurus iriomotensis) and the Tsushima leopard cat (TLC; Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura) are endangered wild felids in Japan. As a part of ongoing conservation activities, we conducted a molecular, epidemiologic survey of Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infections in wild IC and TLC populations. Blood samples (47 from 33 individual IC; 22 from 13 TLC) were collected between August 2002 and January 2011. Using PCR analysis, we confirmed the presence of Bartonella henselae in ICs and Bartonella clarridgeiae in TLCs, with prevalences of 6% and 8%, respectively. Using PCR and basic local alignment search tool analyses, we identified Ehrlichia canis in both cats and Anaplasma bovis in TLCs. The prevalence of E. canis was 12% in ICs and 8% in TLCs, and the prevalence of A. bovis was 15% in TLCs. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, E. canis, and A. bovis infections in these two endangered species. Continuous monitoring of these pathogens is needed for their conservation. PMID:23778615

Tateno, Morihiro; Nishio, Takuma; Sakuma, Masato; Nakanishi, Nozomi; Izawa, Masako; Asari, Yumiko; Okamura, Maki; Maruyama, Soichi; Miyama, Takako Shimokawa; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

2013-07-01

116

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella species and haemoplasma infection in cats in South Africa.  

PubMed

Vector-borne agents and Toxoplasma gondii are common in cats, with many being zoonotic. The current study investigated the prevalence of selected infectious agents in cats from Johannesburg, South Africa, for which no published data exists. Whole blood and sera were obtained from 102 cats with a variety of disease conditions. Total DNA was extracted from the blood and assayed using PCR techniques for Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus M haemominutum, Candidatus M turicensis, Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species and Anaplasma species. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies to T gondii and IgG serum antibodies to Bartonella species. Associations between test results, patient characteristics and haematological values were also evaluated. Overall, 56 cats (55%) were positive in one or more of the assays. Haemoplasma DNA was amplified from 26 cats [M haemofelis: four cats (3.9%); Candidatus M haemominutum from 22 cats (21.6%)] and Bartonella species DNA was amplified from eight cats [Bartonella henselae: five cats (4.9%); Bartonella clarridgeieae: three cats (2.9%)]; DNA of Ehrlichia species or Anaplasma species were not amplified. Of the cats, 24 (23.5%) were seropositive for Bartonella IgG and 18 (17.6%) were positive for T gondii IgM (12 cats), IgG (eight cats), or both (two cats). The study concluded that Bartonella species haemoplasmas and T gondii are common in client-owned cats in the region and the diagnosis of feline vector-borne agents and T gondii is difficult without the use of specific diagnostic tests, as there are minimal patient characteristics or haematological changes that indicate infection. PMID:22729571

Lobetti, Remo; Lappin, Michael R

2012-12-01

117

Novel Chemically Modified Liquid Medium That Will Support the Growth of Seven Bartonella Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria of the genus Bartonella, a member of the Alphaproteobacteria, are fastidious, gram-negative, aerobic bacilli that comprise numerous species, subspecies, and subtypes. In human and veterinary medicine, species isolation remains a vital component of the diagnostic and therapeutic management of Bartonella infection. We describe a novel, chemically modified, insect-based liquid culture medium that supports the growth of at least seven

Ricardo G. Maggi; Ashlee W. Duncan; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

2005-01-01

118

Prevalence of Bartonella infection in wild African lions ( Panthera leo) and cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella species are emerging pathogens that have been isolated worldwide from humans and other mammals. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Blood and\\/or serum samples were collected from a convenience sample of 113 lions and 74 cheetahs captured in Africa between 1982 and 2002. Whole blood

S Molia; B. B Chomel; R. W Kasten; C. M Leutenegger; B. R Steele; L Marker; J. S Martenson; D. F Keet; R. G Bengis; R. P Peterson; L Munson; S. J O’Brien

2004-01-01

119

[Prevalence of haemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats in Berlin/Brandenburg (Northeast Germany)].  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Mycoplasma (M.) haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) turicensis, C M. haemominutum, Bartonella spp. (B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana) and Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum in cats in Northeast Germany in relation to their living conditions (indoor/outdoor/ stray cat), and tick/flea exposure. 265 cats were included in the study (150 indoor, 99 outdoor access, 16 stray cats). A questionnaire provided the following data: derivation, housing environment, and previous flea/tick exposure. Serum antibody titers against A. phagocytophilum, B. henselae, and B. quintana were determined by an immunofluorescence test (IFT). PCR tests (EDTA blood) were used to test for A. phagocytophilum, M. haemofelis, C. M. turicensis, C. M. haemominutum, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. In 19 of 265 cats (7.2%) DNA of one or more Mycoplasma spp. was detected: C M. haemominutum (5.3%), M. haemofelis (1.5%) and C M. turicensis (1.1%); three of the cats were tested positive for the feline immunodeficiency virus. All cats were B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae PCR-negative in peripheral blood. However, 91 of 245 cats (37.1%) had antibody titers > 1:200 for B. henselae (Houston I, Marseille type) and 46 (18.8%) for B. quintana. Antibody titers > 1:64 against A. phagocytophilum were detected in 24 cats (9.1%); one cat (0.4%) was PCR-positive. Since infections with haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and also with arthropodborne organisms (Bartonella spp., A. phagocytophilum) occur in cats from the area Berlin/Brandenburg (Germany) an appropriate arthropod-control is recommended. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relevance of these infectious agents for the individual cat. PMID:23045805

Morgenthal, Dinah; Hamel, Dietmar; Arndt, Gisela; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Kohn, Barbara

2012-01-01

120

Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia  

PubMed Central

Abtract Background In the Pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. To our knowledge, human infections due to Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. have never been reported in French Polynesia; and infections due to C. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. To evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among French Polynesian blood donors. Methods The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against R. felis, R. typhi, R. conorii, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 472 French Polynesian blood donors collected from 2011 to 2013. In addition, 178 ticks and 36 cat fleas collected in French Polynesia were also collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect Rickettsia spp., B. henselae and Ehrlichia spp. Results None of the blood donors had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. All tested ticks and cat fleas were PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp., B. henselae, and Ehrlichia spp. Conclusion We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in French Polynesia but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. C. burnetii has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. It may also be absent from French Polynesia. PMID:24885466

2014-01-01

121

Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Cully, J.F.; Bala, T.; Ray, C.; Collinge, S.K.

2007-01-01

122

Prevalence and genetic diversity of bartonella strains in rodents from northwestern Mexico.  

PubMed

Abstract Bartonella infections were investigated in wild rodents from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 489 rodents belonging to 14 species were surveyed in four areas. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 50.1% of rodent samples (245/489). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 83.3% per rodent species, with no significant difference between sites except for Cynomys ludovicianus. Phylogenetic analyses of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of the Bartonella isolates revealed 23 genetic variants (15 novel and 8 previously described), clustering into five phylogroups. Three phylogroups were associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, and B. washoensis, respectively. The other two phylogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. The genetic variants and phylogenetic groups exhibited a high degree of host specificity, mainly at the genus and family levels. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in wild rodents from Mexico. Considering that some variants found in this study are associated with Bartonella species that have been reported as zoonotic, more investigations are needed to further understand the ecology of Bartonella species in Mexican wildlife and their implications for human health. PMID:25514119

Rubio, André V; Avila-Flores, Rafael; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Suzán, Gerardo; Kosoy, Michael Y

2014-12-01

123

Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. Most ticks were Hyalomma rufipes nymphs and larvae with mean infestation rates of 1.7 nymphs and 0.6 larvae per infested bird. Bartonella spp. RNA was not detected in any of the tick specimens. PMID:22957116

Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Jaenson, Thomas G.T.; Ehrenborg, Christian

2011-01-01

124

Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.  

PubMed

Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372

Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J

2010-05-19

125

Bartonella rochalimae in Raccoons, Coyotes, and Red Foxes  

PubMed Central

To determine additional reservoirs for Bartonella rochalimae, we examined samples from several wildlife species. We isolated B. rochalimae from 1 red fox near Paris, France, and from 11 raccoons and 2 coyotes from California, USA. Co-infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was documented in 1 of the coyotes. PMID:19961681

Henn, Jennifer B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Kasten, Rickie W.; Murray, William J.; Bar-Gal, Gila K.; King, Roni; Courreau, Jean-François; Baneth, Gad

2009-01-01

126

Meningitis Due to a “Bartonella washoensis”-Like Human Pathogen?  

PubMed Central

We report the second human case of infection caused by an organism identified as the proposed Bartonella species, “B. washoensis.” The organism was isolated from a blood sample from a patient presenting with meningitis and early sepsis. Oropsylla montana fleas were implicated as the vector for disease transmission in this case. PMID:19439538

Probert, Will; Louie, Janice K.; Tucker, James R.; Longoria, Rose; Hogue, Robin; Moler, Silvia; Graves, Margot; Palmer, Heather J.; Cassady, Joseph; Fritz, Curtis L.

2009-01-01

127

Recombination Within and Between Species of the Alpha Proteobacterium Bartonella Infecting Rodents  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections from wild mice and voles (Apodemus flavicollis, Mi. oeconomus, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus) were sampled from a forest and old-field habitats of eastern Poland; a complex network of Bartonella isolates, referrable to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. birtlesii and B. doshiae, was identified by the sequencing of a gltA fragment, comparable to previous studies of Bartonella diversity in rodents. Nested clade analysis showed that isolates could be assigned to zero- and one-step clades which correlated with host identity and were probably the result of clonal expansion; however, sequencing of other housekeeping genes (rpoB, ribC, ftsZ, groEl) and the 16S RNA gene revealed a more complex situation with clear evidence of numerous recombinant events in which one or both Bartonella parents could be identified. Recombination within gltA was found to have generated two distinct variant clades, one a hybrid between B. taylorii and B. doshiae, the other between B. taylorii and B. grahamii. These recombinant events characterised the differences between the two-step and higher clades within the total nested cladogram, involved all four species of Bartonella identified in this work and appear to have played a dominant role in the evolution of Bartonella diversity. It is clear, therefore, that housekeeping gene phylogenies are not robust indicators of Bartonella diversity, especially when only a single gene (gltA or 16S RNA) is used. Bartonella clades infecting Microtus were most frequently involved in recombination and were most frequently tip clades within the cladogram. The role of Microtus in influencing the frequency of Bartonella recombination remains unknown. PMID:20740281

Harris, Philip D.; Zwoli?ska, Lucyna; Bajer, Anna; Si?ski, Edward

2010-01-01

128

Recombination within and between species of the alpha proteobacterium Bartonella infecting rodents.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections from wild mice and voles (Apodemus flavicollis, Mi. oeconomus, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus) were sampled from a forest and old-field habitats of eastern Poland; a complex network of Bartonella isolates, referrable to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. birtlesii and B. doshiae, was identified by the sequencing of a gltA fragment, comparable to previous studies of Bartonella diversity in rodents. Nested clade analysis showed that isolates could be assigned to zero- and one-step clades which correlated with host identity and were probably the result of clonal expansion; however, sequencing of other housekeeping genes (rpoB, ribC, ftsZ, groEl) and the 16S RNA gene revealed a more complex situation with clear evidence of numerous recombinant events in which one or both Bartonella parents could be identified. Recombination within gltA was found to have generated two distinct variant clades, one a hybrid between B. taylorii and B. doshiae, the other between B. taylorii and B. grahamii. These recombinant events characterised the differences between the two-step and higher clades within the total nested cladogram, involved all four species of Bartonella identified in this work and appear to have played a dominant role in the evolution of Bartonella diversity. It is clear, therefore, that housekeeping gene phylogenies are not robust indicators of Bartonella diversity, especially when only a single gene (gltA or 16S RNA) is used. Bartonella clades infecting Microtus were most frequently involved in recombination and were most frequently tip clades within the cladogram. The role of Microtus in influencing the frequency of Bartonella recombination remains unknown. PMID:20740281

Paziewska, Anna; Harris, Philip D; Zwoli?ska, Lucyna; Bajer, Anna; Si?ski, Edward

2011-01-01

129

Heterologous expression of Bartonella adhesin A in Escherichia coli by exchange of trimeric autotransporter adhesin domains results in enhanced adhesion properties and a pathogenic phenotype.  

PubMed

Human-pathogenic Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders. An important pathogenicity factor of B. henselae is the trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), which is modularly constructed, consisting of a head, a long and repetitive neck-stalk module, and a membrane anchor. BadA is involved in bacterial autoagglutination, binding to extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, and in proangiogenic reprogramming. The slow growth of B. henselae and limited tools for genetic manipulation are obstacles for detailed examination of BadA and its domains. Here, we established a recombinant expression system for BadA mutants in Escherichia coli allowing functional analysis of particular BadA domains. Using a BadA mutant lacking 21 neck-stalk repeats (BadA HN23), the BadA HN23 signal sequence was exchanged with that of E. coli OmpA, and the BadA membrane anchor was additionally replaced with that of Yersinia adhesin A (YadA). Constructs were cloned in E. coli, and hybrid protein expression was detected by immunoblotting, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Functional analysis revealed that BadA hybrid proteins mediate autoagglutination and binding to collagen and endothelial cells. In vivo, expression of this BadA construct correlated with higher pathogenicity of E. coli in a Galleria mellonella infection model. PMID:24682330

Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Ballhorn, Wibke; Franz, Bettina; Göttig, Stephan; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

2014-06-01

130

Persistent infection or successive reinfection of deer mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H; Kosoy, Michael Y; Root, J Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B

2011-03-01

131

[Bartonella henselae infection-cat-scratch disease in children (case report)].  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the 11 year old patient with cat scratch disease. The diagnoes of this infection was based on detailed history, physical examenination and para-clinical data analyses. In case of cat-scratch disease (because it is rare diagnosis), a different approach is required to every specific occaison. A series of investigations (most informative is intrinsic factor antibody - IFA) should be conducted to determain the cat-scratch disease from the various reasons of the lymphocytic leukaemoid reaction. PMID:25214279

2014-01-01

132

Effects of Cow Age and Pregnancy on Bartonella Infection in a Herd of Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnancy status. The putative impact of Bartonella infection on production performance (individual milk cell count, milk yield) and reproductive status (success of artificial insemination [AI], placental retention, embryonic death, and abortion) was also assessed. The overall mean prevalence of B. bovis bacteremia was 59%, with the highest prevalence in heifers (92.5%). No B. chomelii was isolated, and 95% (114/120) of the B. bovis strains isolated and tested by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism belonged to type I. The level of bacteremia was higher in pregnant cows than in nonpregnant cows (P = 0.05), and the level of bacteremia rose during the last two-thirds of gestation (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between bacteremia and milk yield, individual milk cell count, success of first AI, interval between two calvings, or incidence of abortion and embryonic death. The interval from calving to first AI was shorter and the incidence of placental retention was lower in bacteremic animals than in nonbacteremic ones (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). PMID:16390945

Maillard, R.; Grimard, B.; Chastant-Maillard, S.; Chomel, B.; Delcroix, T.; Gandoin, C.; Bouillin, C.; Halos, L.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Boulouis, H.-J.

2006-01-01

133

PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures  

PubMed Central

Background Cats appear to be the primary reservoir host for Bartonella koehlerae, an alpha Proteobacteria that is most likely transmitted among cat populations by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Bartonella koehlerae has caused endocarditis in a dog and in one human patient from Israel, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. Despite publication of numerous, worldwide epidemiological studies designed to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats, B. koehlerae has never been isolated using conventional blood agar plates. To date, successful isolation of B. koehlerae from cats and from the one human endocarditis patient has consistently required the use of chocolate agar plates. Results In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers < 1:16) in 30 healthy human control sera, whereas five of eight patient samples had B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater. Conclusions Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or cofactor in the development of arthritis, peripheral neuropathies or tachyarrhythmias in patients. PMID:20735840

2010-01-01

134

Evaluation of an internally controlled real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the groEL gene for the detection of Bartonella spp. DNA in patients with suspected cat-scratch disease.  

PubMed

Bartonella (B.) henselae is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD), which usually presents as a self-limiting lymphadenopathy. This study reports the development and evaluation of an internally controlled real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the groEL gene for detection of Bartonella spp. DNA was extracted using the MagNA Pure system. The lower detection limit was 10-100 fg DNA and the in vitro sensitivity of the assay was not affected by duplexing with an internal control PCR. The real-time PCR assay detected DNA from all five B. henselae strains tested, and from B. birtlesii, B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and B. doshiae. The assay generated negative results with a selection of other bacteria, including several Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Results of real-time PCR in clinical samples were compared with those of a conventional 16S rDNA-based PCR assay. During the period described in the Material and methods section, real-time PCR and conventional 16S PCR were performed on 73 clinical samples. Of these samples, 29 (40%) were found to give positive results and 44 (60%) gave negative results, both by real-time PCR and by conventional PCR, with a 100% agreement between the two tests. The PCR developed in this study is a rapid, sensitive, and simple method for the detection of Bartonella spp. in CSD and is suitable for implementation in the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:17624560

Diederen, B M W; Vermeulen, M J; Verbakel, H; van der Zee, A; Bergmans, A; Peeters, M F

2007-09-01

135

Microarray for serotyping of Bartonella species  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are responsible for a large variety of human and animal diseases. Serological typing of Bartonella is a method that can be used for differentiation and identification of Bartonella subspecies. Results We have developed a novel multiple antigenic microarray to serotype Bartonella strains and to select poly and monoclonal antibodies. It was validated using mouse polyclonal antibodies against 29 Bartonella strains. We then tested the microarray for serotyping of Bartonella strains and defining the profile of monoclonal antibodies. Bartonella strains gave a strong positive signal and all were correctly identified. Screening of monoclonal antibodies towards the Gro EL protein of B. clarridgeiae identified 3 groups of antibodies, which were observed with variable affinities against Bartonella strains. Conclusion We demonstrated that microarray of spotted bacteria can be a practical tool for serotyping of unidentified strains or species (and also for affinity determination) by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. This could be used in research and for identification of bacterial strains. PMID:17593301

2007-01-01

136

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bartonella florenciae sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella florenciae sp. nov. strain R4T is the type strain of B. florenciae sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bartonella. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated in France from the spleen of the shrew Crocidura russula. B. florenciae is an aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. The 2,010,844 bp-long genome contains 1,909 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes, including two rRNA operons. PMID:24501655

Mediannikov, Oleg; El Karkouri, Khalid; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

137

Infection with Bartonella weissii and Detection of Nanobacterium Antigens in a North Carolina Beef Herd  

PubMed Central

Very recently, Bartonella organisms have been isolated from large ruminants (deer, elk, and dairy and beef cattle) located in the United States and in France. In this study, we report the serologic, microbiologic, and molecular findings related to the isolation of a Bartonella species in North Carolina beef cattle and the detection of nanobacterial antigen using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Between August 1998 and September 1999, blood was collected from 38 cattle ranging in age from 1 month to 6.5 years. After a 1-month incubation period, a Bartonella sp. was isolated on a 5% rabbit blood agar plate from three of six EDTA blood samples. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from all three isolates resulted in a DNA sequence that was 100% identical to that of B. weissii 16S rRNA (GenBank no. AF199502). By IFA testing, 36 of 38 cattle had antibodies (?1:64) to Bartonella weissii (bovine origin) antigens. Nanobacterial antigen was detected in 22 of 22 serum samples. We conclude that infection with an organism similar or closely related to B. weissii can occur in North Carolina cattle and that although their actual existence is still controversial Nanobacterium antigens were detected with a commercially available test kit. The epidemiology, vector biology, and potential pathogenicity of these organisms in cattle deserve future consideration. PMID:11230398

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Sontakke, Sushama; Cannedy, Allen; Hancock, Susan I.; Bradley, Julie M.

2001-01-01

138

Detection of novel Bartonella strains and Yersinia pestis in prairie dogs and their fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae and Pulicidae) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that simultaneously detects three types of flea-associated microorganisms. Targets for the assay were sequences encoding portions of the gltA, a 17-kDa antigen, and pla genes of Bartonella spp. Strong et al., Rickettsia spp. da Rocha-Lima, and Yersinia pestis Yersin, respectively. A total of 260 flea samples containing bloodmeal remnants were analyzed from fleas collected from abandoned prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows at the site of an active plague epizootic in Jefferson County, CO. Results indicated that 34 (13.1%) fleas were positive for Bartonella spp., 0 (0%) were positive for Rickettsia spp., and 120 (46.2%) were positive for Y. pestis. Twenty-three (8.8%) of these fleas were coinfected with Bartonella spp. and Y. pestis. A second group of 295 bloodmeal-containing fleas was collected and analyzed from abandoned burrows in Logan County, CO, where a prairie dog die-off had occurred 2-4 mo before the time of sampling. Of these 295 fleas, 7 (2.4%) were positive for Bartonella spp., 0 (0%) were positive for Rickettsia spp., and 46 (15.6%) were positive for Y. pestis. Coinfections were not observed in fleas from the Logan County epizootic site. The multiplex PCR also was used to identify Y. pestis and Bartonella in prairie dog blood and tissues. This report represents the first identification of Bartonella from prairie dogs and their fleas. Prairie dog fleas were tested with PCR, and the Bartonella PCR amplicons produced were sequenced and found to be closely related to similar sequences amplified from Bartonella that had been isolated from prairie dog blood samples. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the sequences of bartonellae from prairie dogs and prairie dog fleas cluster tightly within a clade that is distinct from those containing other known Bartonella genotypes. PMID:12943112

Stevenson, Heather L; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Montenieri, John A; Lowell, Jennifer L; Chu, May C; Gage, Kenneth L

2003-05-01

139

Bartonella quintana detection in Demodex from erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients.  

PubMed

We report here the presence of Bartonella quintana in a demodex. Demodex are arthropods associated with acnea. Bartonella quintana was found by broad Spectrum 16rDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, and confirmed by specific PCR. Bartonella quintana may parasite several arthropods and not only lice. PMID:25449254

Murillo, Nathalia; Mediannikov, Oleg; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier

2014-12-01

140

Ectoparasites of gray squirrels in two different habitats and screening of selected ectoparasites for bartonellae.  

PubMed

Gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, were livetrapped in 2 different habitat types, woodland (67 squirrels) and parkland (53 squirrels), in southeastern Georgia. Ectoparasites were recovered from anesthetized squirrels and compared between hosts from the 2 habitats. Because of the absence of low vegetation in parkland habitats, it was hypothesized that the ectoparasite fauna, especially ticks and chiggers, would be more diverse on woodland squirrels. The results were generally in agreement with this hypothesis. Seventeen species of ectoparasites were recovered from woodland squirrels, compared with 6 species from parkland squirrels. Five species of ticks and 3 species of chiggers parasitized the woodland squirrels compared with no ticks or chiggers on the parkland squirrels. Significantly higher infestation prevalences were recorded on woodland compared with parkland squirrels for the flea Orchopeas howardi, the tick Amblyomma americanum, and the mesostigmatid mite Androlaelaps fahrenholzi. The mean intensity for O. howardi also was significantly higher on woodland than on parkland squirrels. Because a new strain of Bartonella sp. was isolated recently from S. carolinensis in Georgia, selected ectoparasites from this study were screened for bartonellae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some of the fleas and lice, but none of the mites tested, were PCR positive, suggesting that fleas, or lice, or both, might be vectors of bartonellae between squirrels. Six distinct strains of Bartonella sp. were detected, 2 in fleas and 4 in lice. PMID:15270090

Durden, Lance A; Ellis, Barbara A; Banks, Craig W; Crowe, John D; Oliver, James H

2004-06-01

141

Bartonella chomelii Is the Most Frequent Species Infecting Cattle Grazing in Communal Mountain Pastures in Spain.  

PubMed

The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

Antequera-Gómez, M L; Lozano-Almendral, L; Barandika, J F; González-Martín-Niño, R M; Rodríguez-Moreno, I; García-Pérez, A L; Gil, H

2015-01-15

142

PCR Characterization Suggests that an Unusual Range of Bartonella Species Infect the Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D.

2013-01-01

143

PCR characterization suggests that an unusual range of Bartonella species infect the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe.  

PubMed

Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

Hildebrand, Joanna; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zalesny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D

2013-08-01

144

Flea-borne Bartonella grahamii and Bartonella taylorii in Bank Voles  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are increasingly associated with a range of human and animal diseases. Despite this, we have a poor understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of many species, especially those circulating in wild populations. Previous studies have demonstrated that a diverse range of Bartonella species are abundant in wild rodent populations; little is known regarding their modes of transmission, although both direct and indirect routes have been suggested. In this study, with bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) as the host species, we demonstrate that the rodent flea Ctenophthalmus nobilis is a competent vector of at least two Bartonella species, B. grahamii, which has previously been associated with human infection, and B. taylorii. In contrast, no evidence of either horizontal or vertical transmission was seen in bank voles inoculated with B. taylorii maintained in an arthropod-free environment; this finding suggests that fleas may be essential for transmitting some Bartonella species. PMID:15200860

Bennett, Malcolm; Begon, Michael

2004-01-01

145

First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.  

PubMed

Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (?100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531

Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

2014-09-17

146

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mode of transmission of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, especially to identify potential vectors, and to determine how humans become infected. PMID:11060089

Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Simpson, D C; Hew, C M; Kordick, D L; Heller, R; Piemont, Y; Breitschwerdt, E B

2000-11-01

147

Variability of Bartonella Genotypes among Small Mammals in Spain?  

PubMed Central

In order to study which Bartonella genotypes are circulating among small mammals in Spain, we analyzed the spleens of 395 animals from three different areas—247 animals from the Basque Country (northern Spain), 121 animals from Catalonia (northeastern Spain), and 27 animals from Madrid (central Spain)—by a triplex PCR combined with a reverse line blot previously described by our group. The prevalence of Bartonella was 26.8% (106/395), and in 4.8% (19/395) of the animals more than one Bartonella genotype was detected. The study of gltA and the intergenic transcribed spacer in the positive samples demonstrated a large diversity, allowing the assignation of them into 22 genotypes. The most prevalent genotypes were 2 and 3, which are closely related to Bartonella taylorii. In addition, nine genotypes were associated with specific mammal species. Genotypes close to the zoonotic Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae were also detected. Ten genotypes showed a percentage of similarity with known Bartonella species lower than 96%, suggesting the presence of potential new species. Further studies of the impact of these pathogens on human health and especially in cases of febrile illness in Spain are strongly recommended. Furthermore, our method has been updated with 21 new probes in a final panel of 36, which represents a robust molecular tool for clinical and environmental Bartonella studies. PMID:20935117

Gil, H.; García-Esteban, C.; Barandika, J. F.; Peig, J.; Toledo, A.; Escudero, R.; Jado, I.; Rodríguez-Vargas, M.; García-Amil, C.; Lobo, B.; Roales, P.; Rodríguez-Moreno, I.; Olmeda, A. S.; García-Pérez, A. L.; Anda, P.

2010-01-01

148

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

149

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

PubMed Central

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

2014-01-01

150

Molecular detection of Bartonella species infecting rodents in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Rodents, collected in three zoogeographical regions across Slovenia, were tested for the presence of bartonellae using direct PCR-based amplification of 16S/23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region (ITS) fragments from splenic DNA extracts. Bartonella DNA was detected in four species of rodents, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Apodemus agrarius and Clethrionomys glareolus, in all three zoogeographic regions at an overall prevalence of 40.4%. The prevalence of infection varied significantly between rodent species and zoogeographical regions. Comparison of ITS sequences obtained from bartonellae revealed six sequence variants. Four of these matched the ITS sequences of the previously recognized species, Bartonella taylorii, Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella birtlesii, but one was new. The identity of the bartonellae from which the novel ITS sequences was obtained were further assessed by sequence analysis of cell division protein-encoding gene (ftsZ) fragments. This analysis demonstrated that the strain is most likely a representative of possible new species within the genus. PMID:17374132

Knap, Natasa; Duh, Darja; Birtles, Richard; Trilar, Tomi; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana

2007-06-01

151

[Diversity of blood parasites of genus Bartonella in wild rodents in Mazury Lakes District].  

PubMed

This long-term study of genetic diversity and epidemiology of the alpha-proteobacterium Bartonella in wild rodents from forest (Myodes glareolus and Apodemus flavicollis) and abandoned farmland (Microtus arvalis and Mi. oeconomus) was carried out in the years 2007-2009 in the Mazury Lakes District. In total, 1193 rodents were marked and recaptured, and 2226 blood samples were collected. The highest Bartonella prevalence was found in A. flavicollis (43.5%), the lowest in Mi. oeconomus (9.4%), while prevalence in My. glareolus and Mi. arvalis was, respectively, 13.2% and 11.8% (PCR of citrate synthase gltA gene fragment). Prevalence varied according to year and season, as well as sex of rodents. For woodland animals, a rapid decrease of prevalence was observed in late 2008, due to the dilution effect. Multiple (different species/genotypes of Bartonella in successive months) and mixed infections (more than one bacteria genotype in the same blood sample) were also diagnosed. Between 2835 and 4800000 colony forming units (CFU) per ml blood were recorded, with, for B. taylorii, significant differences between isolates from hosts belonging to different host families. Sequence analysis of 147 isolates revealed 37 gltA variants. In all four rodents, B. taylorii was the most prevalent, and could be divided into three main clades. One clade of B. grahamii was present in My. glareolus, A. flavicollis and Mi. arvalis, and both Microtus species were infected with a single clade of B. doshiae. A single isolate of B. birtlesii from A. flavicollis was collected, while two isolates could not be assigned to any known species. Nested clade analysis showed host specificity of 1st step clades (connected with rodent species) and 2nd step clades (connected with rodent family). Analysis was then extended to other housekeeping genes (cell division proteinftsZ, heat shock protein groEl, riboflavin synthase ribC, beta subunit RNA polymerase rpoB) and gene encoding 16S rRNA. Comparison of alleles of these genes in 27 isolates revealed numerous recombinant events, primarily involving groEl and 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, genetic recombination within housekeeping genes was also identified, and one of the unidentified Bartonella isolates was found to involve recombination within gltA between B. grahamii and B. taylorii. Examination of two T4SS pathogenicity genes (virB5 and bepA), revealed a similar pattern of extensive recombination. BepA from 17 isolates showed little diversity, concomitant with its role as an intra-cellular messenger. The virB5 gene (encoding a putative extra-cellular adhesin) from 22 isolates from voles (Arvicolidae) and A. flavicollis was distinctively different in sequence and putative structure, and showed a clear signature of horizontal gene transfer. Moreover, these recombinant events were often identified in the same isolates in which recombination of groEl or 16S rRNA was observed, suggesting that selection for this pathogenicity gene is important in the microevolution of Bartonella within rodents. In particular, Microtus spp. was central in the appearance of novel Bartonella isolates. PMID:21638804

Paziewska, Anna

2011-01-01

152

Infection-associated type IV secretion systems of Bartonella and their diverse roles in host cell interaction  

PubMed Central

Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are transporters of Gram-negative bacteria that mediate interbacterial DNA transfer, and translocation of virulence factors into eukaryotic host cells. The ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that colonize endothelial cells and erythrocytes of their mammalian reservoir hosts, thereby causing long-lasting intraerythrocytic infections. The deadly human pathogen Bartonella bacilliformis holds an isolated position in the Bartonella phylogeny as a sole representative of an ancestral lineage. All other species evolved in a separate ‘modern’ lineage by radial speciation and represent highly host-adapted pathogens of limited virulence potential. Unlike B. bacilliformis, the species of the modern lineage encode at least one of the closely related T4SSs, VirB/VirD4 or Vbh. These VirB-like T4SSs represent major host adaptability factors that contributed to the remarkable evolutionary success of the modern lineage. At the molecular level, the VirB/VirD4 T4SS was shown to translocate several effector proteins into endothelial cells that subvert cellular functions critical for establishing chronic infection. A third T4SS, Trw, is present in a sub-branch of the modern lineage. Trw does not translocate any known effectors, but produces multiple variant pilus subunits critically involved in the invasion of erythrocytes. The T4SSs laterally acquired by the bartonellae have thus adopted highly diverse functions during infection, highlighting their versatility as pathogenicity factors. PMID:18489724

Dehio, Christoph

2008-01-01

153

Classification of Bartonella Strains Associated with Straw-Colored Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa Using a Multi-locus Sequence Typing Platform  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) approach based on nucleotide sequences of eight loci (ftsZ, gltA, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, ssrA, ITS, and 16S rRNA). The analysis of each locus but ribC demonstrated clustering of the isolates into six genogroups (E1 – E5 and Ew), while ribC was absent in the isolates belonging to the genogroup Ew. In general, grouping of all isolates by each locus was mutually supportive; however, nuoG, gltA, and rpoB showed some incongruity with other loci in several strains, suggesting a possibility of recombination events, which were confirmed by network analyses and recombination/mutation rate ratio (r/m) estimations. The MLST scheme revealed 45 unique sequence types (ST1 – 45) among the analyzed bartonella isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences supported the discrimination of six phylogenetic lineages (E1 – E5 and Ew) corresponding to separate and unique Bartonella species. One of the defined lineages, Ew, consisted of only two STs (ST1 and ST2), and comprised more than one-quarter of the analyzed isolates, while other lineages contained higher numbers of STs with a smaller number of isolates belonging to each lineage. The low number of allelic polymorphisms of isolates belonging to Ew suggests a more recent origin for this species. Our findings suggest that at least six Bartonella species are associated with straw-colored fruit bats, and that distinct STs can be found across the distribution of this bat species, including in populations of bats which are genetically distinct. PMID:25635826

Bai, Ying; Hayman, David T. S.; McKee, Clifton D.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2015-01-01

154

A multi-gene analysis of diversity of Bartonella detected in fleas from Algeria.  

PubMed

We report the molecular detection of several Bartonella species in 44 (21.5%) of 204 fleas from Algeria collected from 26 rodents and 7 hedgehogs. Bartonella elizabethae and B. clarridgeiae were detected in the fleas collected on hedgehogs. Bartonella tribocorum and B. elizabethae were detected in fleas collected from rats and mice, and sequences similar to an unnamed Bartonella sp. detected in rodents from China were detected in rats as well as a genotype of Bartonella closely related to Bartonella rochalimae detected in fleas collected on brown rats (Rattus norvegicus). PMID:22153359

Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean Marc; Nicolas, Violaine; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Parola, Philippe; Gundi, Vijay A K B; Chomel, Bruno B; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

155

Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species  

PubMed Central

Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes. PMID:22369683

2012-01-01

156

Role of the spleen in Bartonella spp. infection.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are intra-erythrocytic pathogens of mammals. In this study, we investigated the role of the spleen, and other tissue and organs in Bartonella infection. Using an in vivo model of mice infection by Bartonella birtlesii, we detected accumulation of bacteria in the spleen, with transient infection of the liver, but failed to detect any bacteria in brain or lymph nodes. We then compared bacteraemia in normal Balb/C mice and in splenectomized mice. Bacteraemia in splenectomized mice was 10-fold higher than in normal mice and lasted 2 weeks longer. In conclusion, the spleen seems to retain and filter infected erythrocytes rather than to be a sanctuary for chronic Bartonella infection. PMID:22098417

Deng, Hong Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Le Naour, Evelyne; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-02-01

157

Fatal myocarditis-associated Bartonella quintana endocarditis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bartonella spp. infection is not rare and must be considered with great care in patients with suspected infective endocarditis, particularly if regular blood cultures remain sterile. Management of these infections requires knowledge of the identification and treatment of these bacteria. Case presentation A 50-year-old Senegalese man was admitted to our Department of Cardiac Surgery with a culture-negative endocarditis. Despite valvular surgery and adequate antibiotic treatment, recurrence of the endocarditis was observed on the prosthetic mitral valve. Heart failure required circulatory support. Weaning off the circulatory support could not be attempted owing to the absence of heart recovery. Bacteriological diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis was performed by molecular methods retrospectively after the death of the patient. Conclusions This case report underlines the severity and difficulty of the diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis. The clinical picture suggested possible Bartonella quintana associated myocarditis, a feature that should be considered in new cases. PMID:19830188

2009-01-01

158

Bartonella spp. in a Puerto Rican Bat Community.  

PubMed

Abstract We captured and sampled 68 bats of six species from a shared roosting site in Puerto Rico in April 2012. Bats were screened for Bartonella spp. by culture and confirmed by PCR and sequencing for the gltA gene. Bartonella cultures were obtained from blood specimens of 9/51 (18%) individuals from three species (Artibeus jamaicensis, Brachyphylla cavernarum, and Monophyllus redmani). Phylogenetic analysis of the gltA sequences showed that M. redmani was infected with multiple, diverse Bartonella strains, and A. jamaicensis was infected with a strain related to a strain from a congeneric host. Ectoparasite load could possibly explain observed differences in Bartonella diversity and prevalence between bat species in this community, and we suggest future research to substantiate these preliminary findings. PMID:25380361

Olival, Kevin J; Dittmar, Katharina; Bai, Ying; Rostal, Melinda K; Lei, Bonnie R; Daszak, Peter; Kosoy, Michael

2015-01-01

159

Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease. PMID:22232371

Harms, Alexander

2012-01-01

160

Bartonella-like bacteria carried by domestic mite species.  

PubMed

Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed. PMID:24711066

Kopecký, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Hubert, Jan

2014-09-01

161

Effects of Bartonella spp. on Flea Feeding and Reproductive Performance  

PubMed Central

Numerous pathogens are transmitted from one host to another by hematophagous insect vectors. The interactions between a vector-borne organism and its vector vary in many ways, most of which are yet to be explored and identified. These interactions may play a role in the dynamics of the infection cycle. One way to evaluate these interactions is by studying the effects of the tested organism on the vector. In this study, we tested the effects of infection with Bartonella species on fitness-related variables of fleas by using Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and Meriones crassus jirds as a model system. Feeding parameters, including blood meal size and metabolic rate during digestion, as well as reproductive parameters, including fecundity, fertility, and life span, were compared between fleas experimentally infected with Bartonella and uninfected fleas. In addition, the developmental time, sex ratio, and body size of F1 offspring fleas were compared between the two groups. Most tested parameters did not differ between infected and uninfected fleas. However, F1 males produced by Bartonella-positive females were significantly smaller than F1 males produced by Bartonella-negative female fleas. The findings in this study suggest that bartonellae are well adapted to their flea vectors, and by minimally affecting their fitness they have evolved to better spread themselves in the natural environment. PMID:23542614

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Fielden, Laura J.; Gottlieb, Yuval

2013-01-01

162

Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Commensal Rodents and Ectoparasites from Nigeria, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. In recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. To date, no studies investigating the presence of Bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria were carried out. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp. in commensal rodents and their ectoparasites in Nigeria. We report, for the first time, the molecular detection of Bartonella in 26% (46/177) of commensal rodents (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and Cricetomys gambianus) and 28% (9/32) of ectoparasite pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, Haemolaelaps spp., Ctenophthalmus spp., Hemimerus talpoides, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) from Nigeria. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) revealed diversity of Bartonella spp. and genotypes in Nigerian rodents and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum and Bartonella grahamii were detected. Conclusions/Significance High prevalence of infection with Bartonella spp. was detected in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria. The Bartonella spp. identified were previously associated with human diseases highlighting their importance to public health. Further studies need to be conducted to determine whether the identified Bartonella species could be responsible for human cases of febrile illness in Nigeria. PMID:23738028

Kamani, Joshua; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

2013-01-01

163

Transmission Dynamics of Bartonella sp. Strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's Jirds (Meriones crassus)  

PubMed Central

A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors. PMID:23241972

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gottlieb, Yuval

2013-01-01

164

Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Infection in Domestic Dogs from Algeria, North Africa, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are being recognized as important bacterial human and canine pathogens, and are associated with multiple arthropod vectors. Bartonella DNA extracted from blood samples was obtained from domestic dogs in Algiers, Algeria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analyses of the ftsZ gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ITS) were performed. Three Bartonella species: Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonells elizabethae were detected infecting Algerian dogs. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of detection by PCR amplification of Bartonella in dogs in North Africa. PMID:20682871

Kernif, Tahar; Aissi, Meriem; Doumandji, Salah-Eddine; Chomel, Bruno B.; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir

2010-01-01

165

“Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque” and Bartonella quintana Bacteremia in Cynomolgus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism. PMID:23408694

Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M.; Kelly, Catherine M.; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2013-01-01

166

Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul Virus, and Bartonella spp. Among Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Urban Slum Environment in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health. PMID:24359425

Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.

2014-01-01

167

Detection of Bartonella DNA in roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) and in ticks removed from deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential role of roe deer as a sylvatic reservoir of Bartonella in north-west Poland has been assessed. In addition, ticks infesting roe deer were screened to assess their role as a vector and reservoir of Bartonella. Blood and tissue samples of 72 animals from north-western Poland were PCR-screened. Bartonella DNA was detected by using primers complementary to the intergenic

Bogumi?a Skotarczak; Ma?gorzata Adamska

2005-01-01

168

Experimental infection of three laboratory mouse stocks with a shrew origin Bartonella elizabethae strain: an evaluation of bacterial host switching potential  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella elizabethae has been reported as a causative agent of human illnesses and strains of this bacterium are commonly isolated from commensal small mammals in Asia. Methods Since the zoonotic potential of a pathogen is often related to its host switching ability, we explored the capacity of a B. elizabethae strain to host switch by subcutaneously inoculating groups of Swiss Webster, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice with the bacteria at a range of doses. Results A low number of mice in each of the three groups showed susceptibility to infection at high doses (105 and 106 bacteria), and developed bacteremias of 6–8 weeks duration. Conclusion The capacity of this B. elizabethae strain to switch hosts can have important public health consequences for humans in areas of Asia where many small mammal populations have high bartonellae infection prevalences and live as commensals with humans. PMID:22957127

Colton, Leah; Kabeya, Hidenori; Kosoy, Michael

2012-01-01

169

Temporal and spatial patterns of Bartonella infection in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).  

PubMed

We describe the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of Bartonella in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) based on a longitudinal study conducted in 20 black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD) colonies in Boulder County, CO from 2003 to 2005. Bartonella infection was widely distributed in all colonies with an overall prevalence of 23.1%, but varied by colony from 4.8% to 42.5% and by year from 9.1 to 39.0%, with a marked increase in Bartonella activity in 2005. Levels of bacteremia varied from 40 to 12,000 colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter of BTPD blood, but were highly skewed with a median of 240 CFU. Bartonella infection rates were unimodal with respect to BTPD body mass, first increasing among growing juveniles, then declining among adults. Infection rates exhibited a sigmoidal response to body mass, such that 700g may prove to be a useful threshold value to evaluate the likelihood of Bartonella infection in BTPDs. Bartonella prevalence increased throughout the testing season for each year, as newly emerged juveniles developed bacteremia. Data from recaptured animals suggest that Bartonella infections did not persist in individual BTPDs, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of Bartonella in BTPDs compared to other rodent species. No association was found between Bartonella prevalence and host population density. Prevalence did not differ between males and females. The spatio-temporal pattern of Bartonella infection among colonies suggests epizootic spread from northern to central and southern portions of the study area. The potential significance of the BTPD-associated Bartonella for public health needs to be further investigated. PMID:18176820

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, M Y; Ray, C; Brinkerhoff, R J; Collinge, S K

2008-08-01

170

ETIOLOGY OF OROYA FEVER : III. THE BEHAVIOR OF BARTONELLA BACILLIFORMIS IN MACACUS RHESUS.  

PubMed

The experiments reported here were carried on in the main with passage strains of Bartonella bacilliformis, and the results indicate that the virulence of the organism has been considerably enhanced by passage through susceptible animals. While the animals of the earlier experimental series showed no anemia, some of the present group manifested a definite reduction in the number of red cells and in hemoglobin, and in one instance (M. rhesus 25) anemia was of the extreme type so often associated with Oroya fever in man. The anemic condition appeared to be secondary in character, however, nucleated red cells being few in number. In this animal also Bartonella bacilliformis was readily demonstrated in the erythrocytes by means of stained smears, though the number of cells invaded by the parasites was by no means so great as in the human infection. In most instances of experimental Bartonella infection so far induced the demonstration of the parasites by ordinary routine examination of stained film preparations is possible only when the titer of the blood exceeds 1:1,000. Prolonged search of many slides has not been attempted, however. The number of microorganisms in the blood, as shown by culture tests of ascending dilutions, was in most instances highest (1:100,000 to 1:10,000,000) during the early period of the infection coincident usually with the period of highest fever, falling to a titer of 1:10 during the last half of the disease. In one of the fatally infected monkeys, however, the titer increased from 1:10 on the 4th day to 1:1,000,000 on the 24th day. The titer of the blood was equally great in Monkeys 5 and 6, although the former was inoculated locally, the other intravenously and intraperitoneally. The largest proportion of infected red cells was found in Monkey 25, while the blood titer, as shown by culture test, was highest in Monkey 7. The febrile reaction varied in the animals of this series from a severe continuous fever of 104-105 degrees F., lasting 2 to 3 months, in one instance, with a remittence during the 3rd to 5th weeks, to the acute high fever (106 degrees F.) of 1 day's duration in the fatally infected monkey, No. 25. The more usual reaction, however, is an irregular course of moderate fever with one or more periods of high temperature (105 degrees ). Bartonella bacilliformis was constantly demonstrated, both microscopically and by culture tests, in the lymph glands of animals sacrificed 2 to 3 months after inoculation, and in two of three instances it was present also in the spleen, bone marrow, and heart blood. In the case of M. rhesus 6, which died 26 days after inoculation, the microorganism was obtained also in culture from the lymph glands, spleen, and heart blood taken at autopsy. In the other animal which died, a terminal bactelial infection, while not obscuring the effects of the Bartonella infection, made it impossible to isolate the parasite from either blood or tissues. The skin lesions, whether of the nodular type, induced by introduction of the virus intradermally or by application to the scarified skin, or of the miliary character occurring spontaneously as a result of systemic infection, always yielded cultures of Bartonella bacilliformis, and stained sections of such lesions revealed the parasites in large numbers in their characteristic situation in the endothelial cells. A chronic, systemic infection, in which the lymph glands are enlarged and Bartonella bacilliformis is present in the blood in high titer, may be induced by local inoculation, as shown in the case of M. rhesus 5. The local lesions induced in one instance by introduction of a passage strain, both intradermally and by scarification, attained within 2 months extraordinary size, the nodules arising at adjacent sites of inoculation on the right eyebrow having coalesced into a large pedunculated mass which overhung the eye. This type of reaction had not been observed hitherto in the course of the present study but has been described by earlier investigators as a result of the inoculation of monkeys with human verruga t

Noguchi, H

1926-10-31

171

Molecular Method for Bartonella Species Identification in Clinical and Environmental Samples?  

PubMed Central

A new, efficient molecular method for detection of Bartonella, based on the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer and 16S rRNA amplification by multiplex PCR combined with reverse line blotting, was designed. This assay could simultaneously detect 20 different known species and other Bartonella species not described previously. PMID:18094134

García-Esteban, Coral; Gil, Horacio; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Barandika, Jesse; Escudero, Raquel; Jado, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Barral, Marta; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Bhide, Mangesh; Anda, Pedro

2008-01-01

172

Identification of Diverse Bartonella Genotypes among Small Mammals from Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Small mammals from the Democratic Republic (DR) of the Congo and Tanzania were tested to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species. The presence of Bartonella DNA was assessed in spleen samples of the animals by rpoB- and gltA-polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). By rpoB-PCR, Bartonella was detected in 8 of 59 animals of DR Congo and in 16 of 39 Tanzanian animals. By gltA-PCR, Bartonella was detected in 5 and 15 animals of DR Congo and Tanzania, respectively. The gene sequences from Arvicanthis neumanni were closely related to Bartonella elizabethae. The genotypes from Lophuromys spp. and from Praomys delectorum were close to Bartonella tribocorum. Five genogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. These results suggest the need to conduct further studies to establish the zoonotic risks linked with those Bartonella species and, in particular, to verify whether these agents might be responsible for human cases of febrile illness of unknown etiology in Africa. PMID:22855765

Gundi, Vijay A. K. B.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Laudisoit, Anne

2012-01-01

173

Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella  

USGS Publications Warehouse

By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Collinge, S.K.

2009-01-01

174

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella

B. R Hoar; B. B Chomel; D. L Rolfe; C. C Chang; C. L Fritz; B. N Sacks; T. E Carpenter

2003-01-01

175

Identification of Bartonella Trw Host-Specific Receptor on Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Each Bartonella species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir hosts, in which it establishes long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia as the hallmark of infection. Recently, we identified Trw as the bacterial system involved in recognition of erythrocytes according to their animal origin. The T4SS Trw is characterized by a multiprotein complex that spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and possesses a hypothetical pilus structure. TrwJ, I, H and trwL are present in variable copy numbers in different species and the multiple copies of trwL and trwJ in the Bartonella trw locus are considered to encode variant forms of surface-exposed pilus components. We therefore aimed to identify which of the candidate Trw pilus components were located on the bacterial surface and involved in adhesion to erythrocytes, together with their erythrocytic receptor. Using different technologies (electron microscopy, phage display, invasion inhibition assay, far western blot), we found that only TrwJ1 and TrwJ2 were expressed and localized at the cell surface of B. birtlesii and had the ability to bind to mouse erythrocytes, and that their receptor was band3, one of the major outer-membrane glycoproteins of erythrocytes, (anion exchanger). According to these results, we propose that the interaction between TrwJ1, TrwJ2 and band 3 leads to the critical host-specific adherence of Bartonella to its host cells, erythrocytes. PMID:22848496

Deng, Hon Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Bonnet, Sarah; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-01-01

176

Identification of Bartonella Trw host-specific receptor on erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Each Bartonella species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir hosts, in which it establishes long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia as the hallmark of infection. Recently, we identified Trw as the bacterial system involved in recognition of erythrocytes according to their animal origin. The T4SS Trw is characterized by a multiprotein complex that spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and possesses a hypothetical pilus structure. TrwJ, I, H and trwL are present in variable copy numbers in different species and the multiple copies of trwL and trwJ in the Bartonella trw locus are considered to encode variant forms of surface-exposed pilus components. We therefore aimed to identify which of the candidate Trw pilus components were located on the bacterial surface and involved in adhesion to erythrocytes, together with their erythrocytic receptor. Using different technologies (electron microscopy, phage display, invasion inhibition assay, far western blot), we found that only TrwJ1 and TrwJ2 were expressed and localized at the cell surface of B. birtlesii and had the ability to bind to mouse erythrocytes, and that their receptor was band3, one of the major outer-membrane glycoproteins of erythrocytes, (anion exchanger). According to these results, we propose that the interaction between TrwJ1, TrwJ2 and band 3 leads to the critical host-specific adherence of Bartonella to its host cells, erythrocytes. PMID:22848496

Deng, Hon Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Bonnet, Sarah; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-01-01

177

Identification of Bartonella bacilliformis Genotypes and Their Relevance to Epidemiological Investigations of Human Bartonellosis  

PubMed Central

Genotypic diversity among 26 isolates of Bartonella bacilliformis obtained from different areas of Peru, and at different times, was assessed by comparison of DNA sequences derived from 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (ISR) and a citrate synthase gene (gltA) fragment and by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. gltA comparison divided the isolates into two groups, whereas ISR comparison revealed six sequences. AFLP analysis using a selective primer delineated five profiles that correlated well with those obtained by sequence comparison. Combination of all three data sets divided the isolates into six genotypes. One of these genotypes was common to isolates collected from a large area in western Peru that corresponded to the region of endemicity for bartonellosis; however, isolates belonging to two other genotypes were also found within this region. Two of these genotypes were found in isolates isolated more than 35 years apart. The remaining three genotypes were each specifically associated with three outbreaks of bartonellosis that have recently occurred in areas where the disease had not previously been recognized. Demonstration of the unique nature of these isolates indicates that the outbreaks with which they were associated did not result from the introduction of disease by individuals who acquired their infection in the recognized region of endemicity. The sources of these outbreaks remain unknown. A consensus approach to bacterial typing using comparative sequence analysis of multiple genetic loci and the pan-genomic sampling of AFLP appears to offer a well-supported assessment of B. bacilliformis diversity, and the genotypic differences identified appear to have epidemiological significance. PMID:12354853

Birtles, Richard J.; Fry, Norman K.; Ventosilla, Palmira; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Sánchez, Eduardo; Vizcarra, Hugo; Raoult, Didier

2002-01-01

178

Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

2015-02-01

179

The effect of ecological and temporal factors on the composition of Bartonella infection in rodents and their fleas.  

PubMed

The composition of Bartonella infection was explored in wild Gerbillus andersoni rodents and their Synosternus cleopatrae fleas. Rodent blood samples and fleas were collected in two periods (two different seasons; 4 months apart) from juveniles and adult hosts, and their bartonellae lineages were identified by a 454-pyrosequencing analysis targeting a specific Bartonella citrate synthase gene (gltA) fragment. The rate of Bartonella spp. co-infection was estimated and the assemblage and distribution of bartonellae lineages across the samples with respect to ecological and phylogenetic distance similarities were analyzed. Moreover, environmental factors that could explain potential differences between samples were investigated. Out of the 91 bartonellae-positive samples, 89% were found to be co-infected with more than two phylogenetically distant Bartonella genotypes and additional closely related (but distinguishable) variants. These bartonellae lineages were distributed in a non-random manner, and a negative interaction between lineages was discovered. Interestingly, the overall composition of those infections greatly varied among samples. This variability was partially explained by factors, such as type of sample (blood versus fleas), flea sex and period of collection. This investigation sheds light on the patterns of Bartonella infection and the organization of Bartonella lineages in fleas and rodents in nature. PMID:24577352

Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; Cohen, Carmit; Hawlena, Hadas; Harrus, Shimon

2014-08-01

180

Do Bartonella Infections Cause Agitation, Panic Disorder, and Treatment-Resistant Depression?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bartonella is an emerging infection found in cities, suburbs, and rural locations. Routine national labs offer testing for only 2 species, but at least 9 have been discovered as human infections within the last 15 years. Some authors discuss Bartonella cases having atypical presentations, with serious morbidity considered uncharacteristic of more routine Bartonella infections. Some atypical findings include distortion of vision, abdominal pain, severe liver and spleen tissue abnormalities, thrombocytopenic purpura, bone infection, arthritis, abscesses, heart tissue and heart valve problems. While some articles discuss Bartonella as a cause of neurologic illnesses, psychiatric illnesses have received limited attention. Case reports usually do not focus on psychiatric symptoms and typically only as incidental comorbid findings. In this article, we discuss patients exhibiting new-onset agitation, panic attacks, and treatment-resistant depression, all of which may be attributed to Bartonella. Methods Three patients receiving care in an outpatient clinical setting developed acute onset personality changes and agitation, depression, and panic attacks. They were retrospectively examined for evidence of Bartonella infections. The medical and psychiatric treatment progress of each patient was tracked until both were significantly resolved and the Bartonella was cured. Results The patients generally seemed to require higher dosing of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics in order to function normally. Doses were reduced following antibiotic treatment and as the presumed signs of Bartonella infection remitted. All patients improved significantly following treatment and returned to their previously healthy or near-normal baseline mental health status. Discussion New Bartonella species are emerging as human infections. Most do not have antibody or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic testing at this time. Manual differential examinations are of unknown utility, due to many factors such as low numbers of infected red blood cells, the small size of the infecting bacteria, uncertainty of current techniques in viewing such small bacteria, and limited experience. As an emerging infection, it is unknown whether Bartonella occurrence in humans worldwide is rare or common, without further information from epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, and treatment outcomes research. Conclusion Three patients presented with acute psychiatric disorders associated with Bartonella-like signs and symptoms. Each had clear exposure to ticks or fleas and presented with physical symptoms consistent with Bartonella, eg, an enlarged lymph node near an Ixodes tick bite and bacillary angiomatosis found only in Bartonella infections. Laboratory findings and the overall general course of the illnesses seemed consistent with Bartonella infection. The authors are not reporting that these patients offer certain proof of Bartonella infection, but we hope to raise the possibility that patients infected with Bartonella can have a variety of mental health symptoms. Since Bartonella can clearly cause neurologic disorders, we feel the presence of psychiatric disorders is a reasonable expectation. PMID:18092060

Schaller, James L.; Burkland, Glenn A.; Langhoff, P.J.

2007-01-01

181

Bartonella quintana Deploys Host and Vector Temperature-Specific Transcriptomes  

PubMed Central

The bacterial pathogen Bartonella quintana is passed between humans by body lice. B. quintana has adapted to both the human host and body louse vector niches, producing persistent infection with high titer bacterial loads in both the host (up to 105 colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) and vector (more than 108 CFU/ml). Using a novel custom microarray platform, we analyzed bacterial transcription at temperatures corresponding to the host (37°C) and vector (28°C), to probe for temperature-specific and growth phase-specific transcriptomes. We observed that transcription of 7% (93 genes) of the B. quintana genome is modified in response to change in growth phase, and that 5% (68 genes) of the genome is temperature-responsive. Among these transcriptional changes in response to temperature shift and growth phase was the induction of known B. quintana virulence genes and several previously unannotated genes. Hemin binding proteins, secretion systems, response regulators, and genes for invasion and cell attachment were prominent among the differentially-regulated B. quintana genes. This study represents the first analysis of global transcriptional responses by B. quintana. In addition, the in vivo experiments provide novel insight into the B. quintana transcriptional program within the body louse environment. These data and approaches will facilitate study of the adaptation mechanisms employed by Bartonella during the transition between human host and arthropod vector. PMID:23554923

Previte, Domenic; Yoon, Kyong S.; Clark, J. Marshall; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Koehler, Jane E.

2013-01-01

182

Association of Bartonella species, feline calicivirus, and feline herpesvirus 1 infection with gingivostomatitis in cats.  

PubMed

Feline gingivostomatitis (FGS) is a common syndrome in cats; feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species are common differential diagnoses. In this study, blood from 70 cats with FGS and 61 healthy control cats was tested for Bartonella species antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay and DNA in blood using a conventional polymerase chain reaction assay. Additionally, fresh oral biopsies from cats with FGS (n=42) and 19 healthy controls were tested for FCV RNA, FHV-1 DNA and Bartonella species DNA. The prevalence rates for Bartonella species antibodies and DNA in the blood and the tissues did not differ between the two groups. FHV-1 DNA was also not significantly different between groups. Only FCV RNA was present in significantly more cats with FGS (40.5%) than control cats (0%). The results suggest that FCV was associated with FGS in some of the cats. PMID:19959386

Dowers, Kristy L; Hawley, Jennifer R; Brewer, Melissa M; Morris, Arianne K; Radecki, Steven V; Lappin, Michael R

2010-04-01

183

Bartonella Species and Trombiculid Mites of Rats from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Abstract A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012–March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7–19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini–Blankaartia and Schoengastiini–Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.–positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.–negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68–43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.–positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.–negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human—rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human cases of Bartonella infection that may arise. PMID:25629779

Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be

2015-01-01

184

Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Bartonella Infection in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of Bartonella in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) based on a longitudinal study conducted in 20 black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD) colonies in Boulder County, CO from 2003 to\\u000a 2005. Bartonella infection was widely distributed in all colonies with an overall prevalence of 23.1%, but varied by colony from 4.8% to 42.5%\\u000a and

Ying Bai; M. Y. Kosoy; C. Ray; R. J. Brinkerhoff; S. K. Collinge

2008-01-01

185

Bartonella spp. Exposure in Northern and Southern Sea Otters in Alaska and California.  

PubMed

Abstract Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-12-01

186

Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites. PMID:21655306

Reis, Caroline; Cote, Martine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Levin, Michael L; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I

2011-01-01

187

Vector Competence of the Tick Ixodes ricinus for Transmission of Bartonella birtlesii  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites. PMID:21655306

Reis, Caroline; Cote, Martine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Levin, Michael L.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

2011-01-01

188

Partial Disruption of Translational and Posttranslational Machinery Reshapes Growth Rates of Bartonella birtlesii  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Specialization of bacteria in a new niche is associated with genome repertoire changes, and speciation in bacterial specialists is associated with genome reduction. Here, we tested a signature-tagged mutant library of 3,456 Bartonella birtlesii clones to detect mutants that could grow rapidly in vitro. Overall, we found 124 mutants that grew faster than the parental wild-type strain in vitro. We sequenced the genomes of the four mutants with the most rapid growth (formed visible colonies in only 1 to 2 days compared with 5 days for the wild type) and compared them to the parental isolate genome. We found that the number of disrupted genes associated with translation in the 124 rapid-growth clones was significantly higher than the number of genes involved in translation in the full genome (P < 10?6). Analysis of transposon integration in the genome of the four most rapidly growing clones revealed that one clone lacked one of the two wild-type RNA ribosomal operons. Finally, one of the four clones did not induce bacteremia in our mouse model, whereas infection with the other three resulted in a significantly lower bacterial count in blood than that with the wild-type strain. PMID:23611908

Rolain, Jean Marc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Merhej, Vicky; Gimenez, Gregory; Robert, Catherine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Dehio, Christoph; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

189

Development of a Novel Genus-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Bartonella Species and Genotypes  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella includes numerous species with varied host associations, including several that infect humans. Development of a molecular diagnostic method capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of Bartonella species while maintaining genus specificity has been a challenge. We developed a novel real-time PCR assay targeting a 301-bp region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella and demonstrated specific amplification in over 30 Bartonella species, subspecies, and strains. Subsequent analysis of ssrA sequences was sufficient to discriminate Bartonella species and provided phylogenetic data consistent with that of gltA, a commonly used gene for differentiating Bartonella genotypes. Using this assay, we identified Bartonella DNA in 29% and 47% of blood specimens from elk in Wyoming and cattle in the Republic of Georgia, respectively. Sequence analysis of a subset of genotypes from elk specimens revealed a cluster most closely related to Bartonella capreoli, and genotypes from cattle were identified as Bartonella bovis, both Bartonella species commonly found in wild and domestic ruminants. Considering the widespread geographic distribution and infectivity potential to a variety of hosts, this assay may be an effective diagnostic method for identification of Bartonella infections in humans and have utility in Bartonella surveillance studies. PMID:22378904

Bai, Ying; Malania, Lile; Winchell, Jonas M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

190

Molecular identification of Bartonella species in dogs with leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum) with or without cytological evidence of arthritis.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggest that Bartonella species may cause polyarthritis and lameness in dogs. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a multi-systemic disease often occurring in association with arthritis. We hypothesized that concurrent Bartonella infection may be a contributing factor for the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. Hence the primary objective of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in dogs with naturally occurring CanL, with or without cytologically documented arthritis. Thirty-eight dogs with CanL (31 with neutrophilic arthritis and 7 without arthritis) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four archived clinical specimens from these 38 dogs, including 33 blood samples, 19 bone marrow (BM) samples and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from 22 dogs were tested for Bartonella spp. DNA using the Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Overall, eight (21.1%) dogs were infected with one or two Bartonella species; however, Bartonella spp. infection was not associated with arthritis in dogs with CanL. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine if there is a correlation between Bartonella spp. infection and the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. PMID:25258172

Mylonakis, Mathios E; Soubasis, Nectarios; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Theodorou, Konstantina; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Saridomichelakis, Manolis; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-11-01

191

Seroepidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in California coyotes, 1994-1998.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coyotes (Canis latrans) in California ranged from 51% in central to 34% in southern and 7% in northern California. Seropositive coyotes were more likely to be from coastal than inland counties (p clustered distribution of Bartonella seropositivity in coyotes suggests that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection is vectorborne. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate which arthropods are vectors and what the mode of transmission is from wildlife to domestic dogs and possibly humans. PMID:10511529

Chang, C; Yamamoto, K; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Simpson, D C; Smith, C R; Kramer, V L

1999-01-01

192

Murine model for Bartonella birtlesii infection: New aspects.  

PubMed

As a model of persistent infection, various aspects of Bartonella birtlesii infection in laboratory mice, including some immunodeficient mice, are presented, particularly focusing on conditions mimicking natural infection. Bacteraemia was explored using different mice strains routes and inoculum doses (3.4-5x10(7)CFU/mouse). Mice became bacteraemic for 5 (C57Bl6/6) to 10 weeks (Balb/c, Swiss) with peaks ranging from 2x10(3) to 10(5)CFU/mL of blood. The ID route induced the most precocious bacteraemia (day 3) while the higher and longer bacteraemia in immunocompetent mice was obtained with SC when infecting Balb/c with approximately 10(3) CFU/mouse. As opposed to ID, SC and IV routes, bacteraemia was obtained with the oral and ocular routes only for high doses (10(7)) and in 33-66% mice. It was significantly higher and longer in CD4-/- mice compared to CD8-/- and double KO mice at most time points. CD8-/- mice and the control group had near to superimposed kinetics. These results confirm the relevance of the present model. PMID:20097421

Marignac, G; Barrat, F; Chomel, B; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Boulouis, H J

2010-03-01

193

Deciphering Bartonella Diversity, Recombination, and Host Specificity in a Rodent Community  

PubMed Central

Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle. PMID:23894381

Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Pisanu, Benoît; Brisse, Sylvain; Roussel, Sophie; Félix, Benjamin; Halos, Lénaïg; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2013-01-01

194

Contrasting Patterns in Mammal–Bacteria Coevolution: Bartonella and Leptospira in Bats and Rodents  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging bacterial zoonoses in bats and rodents remain relatively understudied. We conduct the first comparative host–pathogen coevolutionary analyses of bacterial pathogens in these hosts, using Bartonella spp. and Leptospira spp. as a model. Methodology/Principal Findings We used published genetic data for 51 Bartonella genotypes from 24 bat species, 129 Bartonella from 38 rodents, and 26 Leptospira from 20 bats. We generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for hosts and bacteria, and tested for coevoutionary congruence using programs ParaFit, PACO, and Jane. Bartonella spp. and their bat hosts had a significant coevolutionary fit (ParaFitGlobal?=?1.9703, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?7.3320, P?0.0001). Bartonella spp. and rodent hosts also indicated strong overall patterns of cospeciation (ParaFitGlobal?=?102.4409, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?86.532, P?0.0001). In contrast, we were unable to reject independence of speciation events in Leptospira and bats (ParaFitGlobal?=?0.0042, P?=?0.84; m2 global value?=?4.6310, P?=?0.5629). Separate analyses of New World and Old World data subsets yielded results congruent with analysis from entire datasets. We also conducted event-based cophylogeny analyses to reconstruct likely evolutionary histories for each group of pathogens and hosts. Leptospira and bats had the greatest number of host switches per parasite (0.731), while Bartonella and rodents had the fewest (0.264). Conclusions/Significance In both bat and rodent hosts, Bartonella exhibits significant coevolution with minimal host switching, while Leptospira in bats lacks evolutionary congruence with its host and has high number of host switches. Reasons underlying these variable coevolutionary patterns in host range are likely due to differences in disease-specific transmission and host ecology. Understanding the coevolutionary patterns and frequency of host-switching events between bacterial pathogens and their hosts will allow better prediction of spillover between mammal reservoirs, and ultimately to humans. PMID:24651646

Lei, Bonnie R.; Olival, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

195

Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrhythmias in patients from South America.  

PubMed

Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i) control patients without clinical disease, ii) patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii) patients with arrhythmias, and iv) patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5%) with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8%) from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina. PMID:22584639

Corrêa, F G; Pontes, C L S; Verzola, R M M; Mateos, J C P; Velho, P E N F; Schijman, A G; Selistre-de-Araujo, H S

2012-07-01

196

Horizontal Transfers and Gene Losses in the Phospholipid Pathway of Bartonella Reveal Clues about Early Ecological Niches  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are mammalian pathogens vectored by blood-feeding arthropods. Although of increasing medical importance, little is known about their ecological past, and host associations are underexplored. Previous studies suggest an influence of horizontal gene transfers in ecological niche colonization by acquisition of host pathogenicity genes. We here expand these analyses to metabolic pathways of 28 Bartonella genomes, and experimentally explore the distribution of bartonellae in 21 species of blood-feeding arthropods. Across genomes, repeated gene losses and horizontal gains in the phospholipid pathway were found. The evolutionary timing of these patterns suggests functional consequences likely leading to an early intracellular lifestyle for stem bartonellae. Comparative phylogenomic analyses discover three independent lineage-specific reacquisitions of a core metabolic gene—NAD(P)H-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpsA)—from Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Transferred genes are significantly closely related to invertebrate Arsenophonus-, and Serratia-like endosymbionts, and mammalian Helicobacter-like pathogens, supporting a cellular association with arthropods and mammals at the base of extant Bartonella spp. Our studies suggest that the horizontal reacquisitions had a key impact on bartonellae lineage specific ecological and functional evolution. PMID:25106622

Zhu, Qiyun; Kosoy, Michael; Olival, Kevin J.; Dittmar, Katharina

2014-01-01

197

Kinetics of Bartonella birtlesii infection in experimentally infected mice and pathogenic effect on reproductive functions.  

PubMed

The kinetics of infection and the pathogenic effects on the reproductive function of laboratory mice infected with Bartonella birtlesii recovered from an Apodemus species are described. B. birtlesii infection, as determined by bacteremia, occurred in BALB/c mice inoculated intravenously. Inoculation with a low-dose inoculum (1.5 x 10(3) CFU) induced bacteremia in only 75% of the mice compared to all of the mice inoculated with higher doses (> or =1.5 x 10(4)). Mice became bacteremic for at least 5 weeks (range, 5 to 8 weeks) with a peak ranging from 2 x 10(3) to 10(5) CFU/ml of blood. The bacteremia level was significantly higher in virgin females than in males but the duration of bacteremia was similar. In mice infected before pregnancy (n = 20), fetal loss was evaluated by enumerating resorption and fetal death on day 18 of gestation. The fetal death and resorption percentage of infected mice was 36.3% versus 14.5% for controls (P < 0.0001). Fetal suffering was evaluated by weighing viable fetuses. The weight of viable fetuses was significantly lower for infected mice than for uninfected mice (P < 0.0002). Transplacental transmission of Bartonella was demonstrated since 76% of the fetal resorptions tested was culture positive for B. birtlesii. The histopathological analysis of the placentas of infected mice showed vascular lesions in the maternal placenta, which could explain the reproductive disorders observed. BALB/c mice appeared to be a useful model for studying Bartonella infection. This study provides the first evidence of reproductive disorders in mice experimentally infected with a Bartonella strain originating from a wild rodent. PMID:11500400

Boulouis, H J; Barrat, F; Bermond, D; Bernex, F; Thibault, D; Heller, R; Fontaine, J J; Piémont, Y; Chomel, B B

2001-09-01

198

Kinetics of Bartonella birtlesii Infection in Experimentally Infected Mice and Pathogenic Effect on Reproductive Functions  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of infection and the pathogenic effects on the reproductive function of laboratory mice infected with Bartonella birtlesii recovered from an Apodemus species are described. B. birtlesii infection, as determined by bacteremia, occurred in BALB/c mice inoculated intravenously. Inoculation with a low-dose inoculum (1.5 × 103 CFU) induced bacteremia in only 75% of the mice compared to all of the mice inoculated with higher doses (?1.5 × 104). Mice became bacteremic for at least 5 weeks (range, 5 to 8 weeks) with a peak ranging from 2 × 103 to 105 CFU/ml of blood. The bacteremia level was significantly higher in virgin females than in males but the duration of bacteremia was similar. In mice infected before pregnancy (n = 20), fetal loss was evaluated by enumerating resorption and fetal death on day 18 of gestation. The fetal death and resorption percentage of infected mice was 36.3% versus 14.5% for controls (P < 0.0001). Fetal suffering was evaluated by weighing viable fetuses. The weight of viable fetuses was significantly lower for infected mice than for uninfected mice (P < 0.0002). Transplacental transmission of Bartonella was demonstrated since 76% of the fetal resorptions tested was culture positive for B. birtlesii. The histopathological analysis of the placentas of infected mice showed vascular lesions in the maternal placenta, which could explain the reproductive disorders observed. BALB/c mice appeared to be a useful model for studying Bartonella infection. This study provides the first evidence of reproductive disorders in mice experimentally infected with a Bartonella strain originating from a wild rodent. PMID:11500400

Boulouis, Henri J.; Barrat, Francine; Bermond, Delphine; Bernex, Florence; Thibault, Danièle; Heller, Rémy; Fontaine, Jean-Jacques; Piémont, Yves; Chomel, Bruno B.

2001-01-01

199

Analysis of the First Australian Strains of Bartonella quintana Reveals Unique Genotypes?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella quintana is increasingly recognized as a cause of clinical disease in various geographical locations. We characterized three Australian strains associated with endocarditis, using established molecular-typing techniques, the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS) region, and multispacer typing (MST). All strains examined demonstrated novel ITS and/or MST genotypes. Further characterization of Australian strains is required to determine whether there is an association between genotype and geographical location. PMID:17428928

Woolley, Mark W.; Gordon, David L.; Wetherall, Bruce L.

2007-01-01

200

Bartonella and Coxiella infective endocarditis in Brazil: molecular evidence from excised valves from a cardiac surgery referral center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1998 to 2009.  

PubMed

PCR was used to detect Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp in heart valves obtained during the period 1998-2009 from patients operated on for blood culture-negative endocarditis in a cardiac surgery hospital in Brazil. Of the 51 valves tested, 10 were PCR-positive; two were positive for Bartonella and one for C. burnetii. PMID:23219032

Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Lopes, Gabriel Quintino; Santos, Marisa Silva; Golebiovski, Wilma Felix; Weksler, Clara; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D'Almeida; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

201

Environmental factors associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seropositivity in free-ranging coyotes from northern California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is a newly recognized pathogen of domestic dogs and humans. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are considered an important reservoir of this bacterium in the western United States, but its vectors are still unknown. Our objective was to identify environmental factors associated with Bartonella antibody prevalence in 239 coyotes from northern California, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, associations were evaluated between B. v. berkhoffii and two pathogens with known vectors and habitat requirements, Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Overall, B. v. berkhoffii seroprevalence was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.3%, 33.7%) and Bartonella seropositive coyotes were more likely than seronegative coyotes to be positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.9) and Dirofilaria immitis (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8). The most likely geographic clusters of Bartonella and Dirofilaria overlapped. Bartonella seropositivity was associated with higher precipitation (p = 0.003) and proximity to the coast (p = 0.007) in univariate analysis. The association with precipitation varied with season, based on a logistic regression model. PMID:16011426

Beldomenico, P M; Chomel, B B; Foley, J E; Sacks, B N; Baldi, C J; Kasten, R W; Gardner, I A

2005-01-01

202

Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

203

Presence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of cats in the United States.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of feral cats without evidence of skin disease that were housed in Alabama (n = 24), Florida (n = 27) and Colorado (n = 32). Samples were assessed by use of polymerase chain reaction assays. The Bartonella species IgG prevalence was also determined. While Bartonella species DNA was not amplified from any sample from Colorado cats, it was commonly amplified from blood (56.9%), skin (31.4%), claws (17.6%) and gingiva (17.6%) of the 51 cats housed in Alabama and Florida. All 10 flea groups assessed in this study were infected with a Bartonella species or R. felis. Bartonella species IgG titres did not accurately predict bacteraemia (positive predictive value = 57.1%; negative predictive value = 82.1%). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from blood of cats with and without C. felis. Rickettsia felis DNA was only detected in or on the skin of one cat and the gingiva of an additional cat. It was concluded that cats can be an occupational health risk for veterinarians, particularly in areas with high prevalence of Ctenocephalides felis. Further study is required to determine whether Bartonella species or Rickettsia species infections of cats are associated with dermatological disease. The combination of Bartonella species serological test results with Bartonella species PCR or culture is likely to give the most accurate information concerning the current infection status of individual cats. PMID:20178489

Lappin, Michael R; Hawley, Jennifer

2009-10-01

204

Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Methodology/Principal findings Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Conclusion Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high. PMID:25299702

Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2014-01-01

205

The World's Top Stealth Bug Ends Marriages, Friendships and Jobs Bartonella Promotes Addiction, Aggression and Character Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

I hate medical drama. If I want drama I will watch a movie, a sporting event or a TV show. Bartonella has almost 2,000 articles on PubMed, but almost no one realizes it is a major source of depression and suicide, panic attacks and social anxiety, seizures, heart attacks, personality change, pushy be- havior, divorce, profound narcissism, eccentric obsessions, irritability,

James Schaller

206

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens. PMID:12507856

Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

2003-01-15

207

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

E-print Network

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, ...

Okujava, Rusudan

208

Run-Off Replication of Host-Adaptability Genes Is Associated with Gene Transfer Agents in the Genome of Mouse-Infecting Bartonella grahamii  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella comprises facultative intracellular bacteria adapted to mammals, including previously recognized and emerging human pathogens. We report the 2,341,328 bp genome sequence of Bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent Bartonella species in wild rodents. Comparative genomics revealed that rodent-associated Bartonella species have higher copy numbers of genes for putative host-adaptability factors than the related human-specific pathogens. Many of these gene clusters are located in a highly dynamic region of 461 kb. Using hybridization to a microarray designed for the B. grahamii genome, we observed a massive, putatively phage-derived run-off replication of this region. We also identified a novel gene transfer agent, which packages the bacterial genome, with an over-representation of the amplified DNA, in 14 kb pieces. This is the first observation associating the products of run-off replication with a gene transfer agent. Because of the high concentration of gene clusters for host-adaptation proteins in the amplified region, and since the genes encoding the gene transfer agent and the phage origin are well conserved in Bartonella, we hypothesize that these systems are driven by selection. We propose that the coupling of run-off replication with gene transfer agents promotes diversification and rapid spread of host-adaptability factors, facilitating host shifts in Bartonella. PMID:19578403

Berglund, Eva C.; Frank, A. Carolin; Calteau, Alexandra; Vinnere Pettersson, Olga; Granberg, Fredrik; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Näslund, Kristina; Holmberg, Martin; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2009-01-01

209

L'endocardite à Bartonella en Tunisie: particularités lésionnelles et évolutives  

PubMed Central

L'endocardite à Bartonalla est une infection ubiquitaire, son diagnostic est difficile vu qu'il s'agit souvent d'endocardite à hémoculture négative. Le but de cette étude est d'analyser les particularités lésionnelles et évolutives de cette entité dans un pays du nord d'Afrique, la Tunisie et de démontrer la gravité de cette infection. Nous avons étudié rétrospectivement les dossiers médicaux de 20 patients atteints d'endocardite à Bartonella, confirmée selon les critères de Dukes modifiés. L’âge moyen de nos patients était 37 ans avec une prédominance masculine (SR=3). Tous nos malades avaient un niveau socio-économique bas. Le motif essentiel de consultation était la dyspnée, 6 patients étaient admis dans un tableau d'insuffisance cardiaque congestive. Une prédilection des lésions au niveau de la valve aortique a été notée (14 cas). Quatorze patients avaient des végétations endocarditiques avec une taille qui dépasse 10 mm chez 8 malades. La majorité des patients (18 patients) présentaient une régurgitation valvulaire massive en rapport principalement avec des mutilations importantes (6 cas de ruptures de cordages mitraux, 2 cas de déchirures des sigmoïdes aortiques, un cas de perforation valvulaire aortique, un cas de désinsertion de prothèse mitrale). Quinze malades (3/4) avaient nécessité une chirurgie à la phase active de la maladie, l'indication majeure était l'insuffisance cardiaque. Une complication neurologique était notée chez 2 malades et une complication rénale chez 3 malades. Treize patients étaient guéris, 5 malades étaient décédés et 2 malades opérés ont présenté une réinfection à staphylococcus aureus et à candida albicans en postopératoire. L'endocardite à Bartonella est une infection grave. Cette Bactérie possède un potentiel destructif important. Le recours à la chirurgie est quasi constant. La morbi-mortalité est élevée. La recherche de cette bactérie devrait être alors systématique chez nos malades suspects d'endocardite d'autant plus que la bartonellose est endémique sur nos terres. PMID:24570785

Hammami, Rania; Abid, Dorra; Abid, Leila; Znazen, Abir; Hentati, Mourad; Hammami, Adnene; Kammoun, Samir

2013-01-01

210

Evaluation of clinical specimens for Rickettsia, Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Franciscella and Diplorickettsia positivity using serological and molecular biology methods.  

PubMed

We monitored clinical samples from patients of different age groups from selected regions in Slovakia. Overall seroprevalence evaluated by immunofluorescence (IFA) using nine Bartonella, two Borrelia, six rickettsial (spotted fever and typhus group), two Coxiella, and one human granulocytic ehrlichiosis Anaplasma, Franciscella tularensis and Diplorickettsia massiliensis antigens, in rural and city populations of Slovak Republic, was found to be 32% positive for spotted fever group rickettsiae. Only five (10%) of the rickettsia-positive cases evaluated by IFA were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia slovaca, and Rickettsia raoultii infection appear to be prevalent in Slovakia. Furthermore, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia and, for the first time, Bartonella elisabethae were confirmed in Slovakia. PMID:22098390

Sekeyova, Zuzana; Subramanian, Geetha; Mediannikov, Oleg; Diaz, Marco Quevedo; Nyitray, Alexander; Blaskovicova, Hana; Raoult, Didier

2012-02-01

211

Contrasting dynamics of Bartonella spp. in cyclic field vole populations: the impact of vector and host dynamics  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Many zoonotic disease agents are transmitted between hosts by arthropod vectors, including fleas, but few empirical studies of host-vector-microparasite dynamics have investigated the relative importance of hosts and vectors. This study investigates the dynamics of 4 closely related Bartonella species and their flea vectors in cyclic populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis) over 3 years. The probability of flea infestation was positively related to field vole density 12 months previously in autumn, but negatively related to more recent host densities, suggesting a dilution effect. The 4 Bartonella species exhibited contrasting dynamics. Only B. grahamii, showed a distinct seasonal pattern. Infection probability increased with field vole density for B. doshiae, B. taylorii and BGA (a previously unidentified species) and with density of coexisting wood mice for B. doshiae and B. grahamii. However, only the infection probability of BGA in spring was related to flea prevalence. B. doshiae and BGA were most common in older animals, but the other 2 were most common in non-reproductive hosts. Generally, host density rather than vector abundance appears most important for the dynamics of flea-transmitted Bartonella spp., possibly reflecting the importance of flea exchange between hosts. However, even closely related species showed quite different dynamics, emphasising that other factors such as population age structure can impact on zoonotic risk. PMID:17096870

TELFER, S.; BEGON, M.; BENNETT, M.; BOWN, K. J.; BURTHE, S.; LAMBIN, X.; TELFORD, G.; BIRTLES, R.

2010-01-01

212

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Related Members of the Alpha Subdivision of the Proteobacteria in Dogs with Cardiac Arrhythmias, Endocarditis, or Myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis was identified in 12 dogs, of which 11 were seroreactive to Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii antigens. Historical abnormalities were highly variable but frequently included substantial weight loss, syncope, collapse, or sudden death. Fever was an infrequently detected abnormality. Cardiac disease was diagnosed following an illness of short duration in most dogs, but a protracted illness of at least 6 months' duration was reported for four dogs. Valvular endocarditis was diagnosed echocardiographically or histologically in eight dogs, two of which also had moderate to severe multifocal myocarditis. Four dogs lacking definitive evidence of endocarditis were included because of seroreactivity to B. vinsonii antigens and uncharacterized heart murmurs and/or arrhythmias. Alpha proteobacteria were not isolated from the blood by either conventional or lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques. Using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene, B. vinsonii was identified in the blood or heart valves of three dogs. DNA sequence alignment of PCR amplicons derived from blood or tissue samples from seven dogs clustered among members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria and suggested the possibility of involvement of one or more alpha proteobacteria; however, because of the limited quantity of sequence, the genus could not be identified. Serologic or molecular evidence of coinfection with tick-transmitted pathogens, including Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Babesia gibsonii, or spotted fever group rickettsiae, was obtained for seven dogs. We conclude that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and closely related species of alpha proteobacteria are an important, previously unrecognized cause of arrhythmias, endocarditis, myocarditis, syncope, and sudden death in dogs. PMID:10523564

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Atkins, Clarke E.; Brown, Talmage T.; Kordick, Dorsey L.; Snyder, Patti S.

1999-01-01

213

Cat scratch disease  

MedlinePLUS

... a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). This disease is often not found because it is hard to diagnose. However, the Bartonella henselae IFA test from the blood is an accurate way to ...

214

Comparison of the 'Ca Liberibacter asiaticus' genome adapted for an intracellular lifestyle with other members of the rhizobiales  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 52 clust...

215

Ecological differences and coexistence in a guild of microparasites: Bartonella in wild rodents.  

PubMed

The study of ecological differences among coexisting microparasites has been largely neglected, but it addresses important and unusual issues because there is no clear distinction in such cases between conventional (resource) and apparent competition. Here patterns in the population dynamics are examined for four species of Bartonella (bacterial parasites) coexisting in two wild rodent hosts, bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Using generalized linear modeling and mixed effects models, we examine, for these four species, seasonal patterns and dependencies on host density (both direct and delayed) and, having accounted for these, any differences in prevalence between the two hosts. Whereas previous studies had failed to uncover species differences, here all four were different. Two, B. doshiae and B. taylorii, were more prevalent in wood mice, and one, B. birtlesii, was more prevalent in bank voles. B. birtlesii, B. grahamii, and B. taylorii peaked in prevalence in the fall, whereas B. doshiae peaked in spring. For B. birtlesii in bank voles, density dependence was direct, but for B. taylorii in wood mice density dependence was delayed. B. birtlesii prevalence in wood mice was related to bank vole density. The implications of these differences for species coexistence are discussed. PMID:17645030

Telfer, Sandra; Clough, Helen E; Birtles, L Richard J; Bennett, Malcolm; Carslake, David; Helyar, Sarah; Begon, Michael

2007-07-01

216

Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment. PMID:21347280

Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

2011-01-01

217

An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia. PMID:22857007

Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

2013-05-01

218

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

219

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

220

Sequential Evaluation of Dogs Naturally Infected with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Bartonella vinsonii  

PubMed Central

Historically, disease manifestations in dogs seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis antigens by indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing have been attributed to infection with either E. canis or Ehrlichia ewingii. A 1996 study by Dawson and colleagues provided PCR evidence that healthy dogs from southeastern Virginia could be naturally infected with Ehrlichia chaffeensis. This observation stimulated us to determine which Ehrlichia spp. infected sick dogs that were referred to our hospital from the same region. Based upon PCR amplification with species-specific primers, sick dogs seroreactive to E. canis antigens were determined to be infected with four Ehrlichia species: E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. equi, and E. ewingii. Coinfection with three Ehrlichia species (E. canis, E. ewingii, and E. equi) was documented for one dog. An additional canine pathogen presumed to be tick transmitted, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, was identified in 7 of 12 dogs. Importantly, our results indicate that in naturally infected dogs, E. chaffeensis can cause severe disease manifestations that are clinically and serologically indistinguishable from disease manifestations of E. canis or E. ewingii. In addition, our findings support the efficacy of doxycycline for treatment of E. canis, E. equi, and E. ewingii infections but indicate that, based upon the persistence of E. chaffeensis DNA for 1 year following treatment, E. chaffeensis infection in dogs may be more refractory to doxycycline treatment. Undetected coinfection with Bartonella may also complicate the evaluation of treatment efficacy while resulting in disease manifestations that mimic ehrlichiosis. PMID:9705408

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Hancock, Susan I.

1998-01-01

221

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus and human leukemia virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii , Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv and Dirofilaria immitis antigens was determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 172 (95.5%) of the 180 cats with titers of 1?5 in 9, 1?10 in 9, 1?20 in 3, 1?40 in 5, 1?80 in 5, 1?160 in 15, 1?320 in 22, and 1?640 or higher in 104. Thus, 57.4% had high T. gondii titers. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 105 (59.6%) of 178, with titers of 1?64 in 45, 1?128 in 39, 1?256 in 13, 1?512 in 3, 1?1,024 in 4, and 1?2,048 in 1 cat. Antibodies to FIV were detected in 59 (33.9%) of 174 cats. Of 174 cats tested, antigens to FeLv, and D. immitis were detected in 8 (4.6%) and 6 (3.4%) cats, respectively. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV infections in cats from Cairo, Egypt. This is the first report of Bartonella spp., and D. immitis infection in cats in Egypt. PMID:21506874

Al-Kappany, Y M; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Dubey, J P

2011-04-01

222

233Vet. Res. 35 (2004) 233241 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2004  

E-print Network

article Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor. Bartonella henselae / bobcat / Felis concolor / Lynx rufus / puma * Corresponding author: bbchomel. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas

Boyer, Edmond

223

Evaluation of the association of Bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis.  

PubMed

Gingivostomatitis (GS) is a significant condition in cats because of oral discomfort and associated periodontal disease. Several infectious agents have been associated with the presence of GS, but a causal relationship is unclear. The cats in this study were housed together, had a history of flea exposure, and were vaccinated with a modified live FVRCP product. There were nine cats with active GS and 36 unaffected cats at the time of sample collection. Serum was tested for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus, feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay). PCR assays for Bartonella species and FHV-1 and a reverse transcriptase PCR assay for FCV were performed on blood and throat swabs. All cats were negative for FeLV. Assay results failed to correlate to the presence of GS in the group of cats studied. PMID:17766156

Quimby, Jessica M; Elston, Thomas; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Miller, Arianne; Lappin, Michael R

2008-02-01

224

Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on public health issues. PMID:21762494

2011-01-01

225

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.  

PubMed

A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-03-01

226

An Investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul Hantavirus in Rats (Rattus spp.) from an Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: Is Pathogen Presence a Reflection of Global and Local Rat Population Structure?  

PubMed

Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species. PMID:25629777

Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

2015-01-01

227

Serodiagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis Infection by Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Assay: Test Development and Application to a Population in an Area of Bartonellosis Endemicity  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis causes bartonellosis, a potentially life-threatening emerging infectious disease seen in the Andes Mountains of South America. There are no generally accepted serologic tests to confirm the disease. We developed an indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test for the detection of antibodies to B. bacilliformis and then tested its performance as an aid in the diagnosis of acute bartonellosis. The IFA is 82% sensitive in detecting B. bacilliformis antibodies in acute-phase blood samples of laboratory-confirmed bartonellosis patients. When used to examine convalescent-phase sera, the IFA is positive in 93% of bartonellosis cases. The positive predictive value of the test is 89% in an area of Peru where B. bacilliformis is endemic and where the point prevalence of infection is 45%. PMID:11060108

Chamberlin, Judith; Laughlin, Larry; Gordon, Scott; Romero, Sofia; Solórzano, Nelson; Regnery, Russell L.

2000-01-01

228

Serodiagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis infection by indirect fluorescence antibody assay: test development and application to a population in an area of bartonellosis endemicity.  

PubMed

Bartonella bacilliformis causes bartonellosis, a potentially life-threatening emerging infectious disease seen in the Andes Mountains of South America. There are no generally accepted serologic tests to confirm the disease. We developed an indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test for the detection of antibodies to B. bacilliformis and then tested its performance as an aid in the diagnosis of acute bartonellosis. The IFA is 82% sensitive in detecting B. bacilliformis antibodies in acute-phase blood samples of laboratory-confirmed bartonellosis patients. When used to examine convalescent-phase sera, the IFA is positive in 93% of bartonellosis cases. The positive predictive value of the test is 89% in an area of Peru where B. bacilliformis is endemic and where the point prevalence of infection is 45%. PMID:11060108

Chamberlin, J; Laughlin, L; Gordon, S; Romero, S; Solórzano, N; Regnery, R L

2000-11-01

229

Social isolation  

PubMed Central

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

2011-01-01

230

Cat-scratch disease in Hawaii: Etiology and seroepidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the etiology and seroepidemiology of cat-scratch disease (CSD) in Hawaii. Methods: Blood and fine-needle aspirate (FNA) from the lymph nodes of 39 consecutive patients with clinical CSD were cultured for Bartonella henselae, and blood samples from index cats, stray cats, and dogs were cultured and their sera were tested by indirect fluorescence antibody test for antibodies to

Denise M. Demers; James W. Bass; Judy M. Vincent; Donald A. Person; Diane K. Noyes; Cathy M. Staege; Curt P. Samlaska; Neal H. Lockwood; Russell L. Regnery; Burt E. Anderson

1995-01-01

231

Murine typhus associated with Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome in 2 children.  

PubMed

An 11-year-old-girl and a 13-year-old-boy presented with characteristic findings of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. The girl was initially suspected of having Bartonella henselae infection and the boy was initially diagnosed as Francisella tularensis infection. Both children had laboratory-confirmed infection with Rickettsia typhi. PMID:24853542

Shukla, Khushbu; Fergie, Jaime

2014-11-01

232

Rickettsial Seroepidemiology among farm workers, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

High seroprevalence rates for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.8%), Coxiella burnetii (6.4%), Bartonella henselae (9.6%), and Rickettsia typhi (4.1%) in 365 farm workers near Tianjin, People's Republic of China, suggest that human infections with these zoonotic bacteria are frequent and largely unrecognized. Demographic features of seropositive persons suggest distinct epidemiology, ecology, and risks. PMID:18507907

Zhang, Lijuan; Shan, Ailan; Mathew, Bobby; Yin, Jieying; Fu, Xiuping; Zhang, Jingshan; Lu, Jie; Xu, Jianguo; Dumler, J Stephen

2008-06-01

233

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Experimentally Infected Sand Flies by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) of the Pap31 Gene  

PubMed Central

Background Carrion' disease, caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, remains truly neglected due to its focal geographical nature. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including asymptomatic bacteremia, and lack of a sensitive diagnostic test can potentially lead to a spread of the disease into non-endemic regions where competent sand fly vectors may be present. A reliable test capable of detecting B. bacilliformis is urgently needed. Our objective is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the pap31 gene to detect B. bacilliformis. Methods and Findings The sensitivity of the LAMP was evaluated in comparison to qPCR using plasmid DNA containing the target gene and genomic DNA in the absence and presence of human or sand fly DNA. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 to 10 copies/µL, depending on the sample metrics. No cross-reaction was observed when testing against a panel of various closely related bacteria. The utility of the LAMP was further compared to qPCR by the examination of 74 Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies artificially fed on blood spiked with B. bacilliformis and harvested at days (D) 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post feeding. Only 86% of sand flies at D1 and 63% of flies at D3 were positive by qPCR. LAMP was able to detect B. bacilliformis in all those flies confirmed positive by qPCR. However, none of the flies after D3 were positive by either LAMP or qPCR. In addition to demonstrating the sensitivity of the LAMP assay, these results suggest that B. bacilliformis cannot propagate in artificially fed L. longipalpis. Conclusions The LAMP assay is as sensitive as qPCR for the detection of B. bacilliformis and could be useful to support diagnosis of patients in low-resource settings and also to identify B. bacilliformis in the sand fly vector. PMID:25522230

Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Atkins, Erin H.; Johnson, Richard N.; Grieco, John P.; Ching, Wei Mei; Chao, Chien Chung

2014-01-01

234

Differential expression of the invasion-associated locus B (ialB) gene of Bartonella bacilliformis in response to environmental cues  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of the biphasic human disease, Oroya fever. During the primary disease phase, up to 100% of the circulating erythrocytes can be parasitized and 80% lysed. During the secondary phase of this disease, bacterial invasion shifts to endothelial cells lining the vasculature. B. bacilliformis is transferred between human hosts by the sandfly, Lutzomyia verrucarum. To investigate the regulation of ialB by environmental cues signaling vector-to-host transmission; nuclease protection assays were performed to compare the amount of ialB mRNA in bacteria subjected to temperature shift, pH change, oxidative stress, or hemin limitation. The amount of ialB mRNA increased by 223–310% in acid-treated samples and decreased by 28–39% in base-treated samples as compared to bacteria kept at pH 7.2. B. bacilliformis samples showed a 56–63% and 74–80% decrease in ialB mRNA when shifted to 37 °C from growth temperatures of 20 and 30 °C, respectively. Oxidative stress (1 mM H2O2) and hemin limitation had no significant effect on mRNA levels. Determination of ialB protein amounts using SDS–PAGE and immunoblotting showed the greatest amounts of ialB under acidic conditions or at 20 °C. The least amount of ialB was synthesized under basic conditions or at 37 °C. The viability of wild-type B. bacilliformis under the various experimental culture conditions was determined and found not to affect ialB mRNA amounts in these experiments. Finally, we compared the survival of wild-type and ialB mutant B. bacilliformis and found no difference in the viability of these two strains, demonstrating that ialB does not aid bacterial survival under these conditions. PMID:12668141

Coleman, Sherry A.; Minnick, Michael F.

2014-01-01

235

Cryogenic Faraday isolator  

SciTech Connect

A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-05-26

236

Psychopathology of social isolation.  

PubMed

The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

Baek, Sang-Bin

2014-06-01

237

Vibration isolation technology experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end

C. R. Keckler

1984-01-01

238

Cervical cat scratch disease lymphadenitis in a patient with immunoglobulin M antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

We report on a young patient with chronic cervical lymphadenopathy and serological and histological evidence for infection with Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii. Serological follow-up studies, including testing for avidity of Toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies, assisted in the determination of the cause of the acute lymphadenitis. Our results suggest that the clinical symptoms were most likely due to cat scratch disease rather than to acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:11874902

Arvand, Mardjan; Kazak, Ilkay; Jovanovic, Sergije; Foss, Hans-Dieter; Liesenfeld, Oliver

2002-03-01

239

Mutation and premating isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

2002-01-01

240

Making snapshot isolation serializable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snapshot Isolation (SI) is a multiversion concurrency control algorithm, first described in Berenson et al. [1995]. SI is attractive because it provides an isolation level that avoids many of the common concurrency anomalies, and has been implemented by Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server (with certain minor variations). SI does not guarantee serializability in all cases, but the TPC-C benchmark application

Alan Fekete; Dimitrios Liarokapis; Elizabeth J. O'Neil; Patrick E. O'Neil; Dennis Shasha

2005-01-01

241

Wrentit Genetic Isolation Map  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This map of the Thousand Oaks, Calif. area visualizes the degree of genetic isolation being experienced by the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a small songbird. USGS and National Park Service biologists discovered that as urban development fragmented the Santa Monica Mountains scrubland into isolated "h...

2010-09-20

242

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-01-01

243

MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

2005-08-01

244

Isolation of Chlamydomonas Flagella  

PubMed Central

A simple, scalable, and fast procedure for the isolation of Chlamydomonas flagella is described. Chlamydomonas can be synchronously deflagellated by treatment with chemicals, pH shock, or mechanical shear. The Basic Protocol describes the procedure for flagellar isolation using dibucaine to induce flagellar abscission; we also describe the pH shock method as an Alternate Protocol when flagellar regeneration is desirable. Sub-fractionation of the isolated flagella into axonemes and the membrane + matrix fraction is described in a Support Protocol. PMID:23728744

Craige, Branch; Brown, Jason M.; Witman, George B.

2014-01-01

245

Isolated Vascular Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Strokes in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present with vertigo, imbalance, and nystagmus. Although the vertigo due to a posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem can develop vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 11% of the patients with an isolated cerebellar infarction present with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness mimicking acute peripheral vestibular disorders. The head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar strokes (particularly within the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Appropriate bedside evaluation is superior to MRIs for detecting central vascular vertigo syndromes. This article reviews the keys to diagnosis of acute isolated vertigo syndrome due to posterior circulation strokes involving the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25328871

2014-01-01

246

Base isolation: Fresh insight  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

Shustov, V.

1993-07-15

247

Understand Quarantine and Isolation  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Shelter in Place Home School Work Vehicle Understand Quarantine and Isolation Questions & Answers Fact Sheet ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

248

Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.  

PubMed

Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (? 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms. PMID:22925024

Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

2012-11-01

249

The structure of Rv3717 reveals a novel amidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Bacterial N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases are cell-wall hydrolases that hydrolyze the bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and l-alanine in cell-wall glycopeptides. Rv3717 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been identified as a unique autolysin that lacks a cell-wall-binding domain (CBD) and its structure has been determined to 1.7?Å resolution by the Pt-­SAD phasing method. Rv3717 possesses an ?/?-fold and is a zinc-dependent hydrolase. The structure reveals a short flexible hairpin turn that partially occludes the active site and may be involved in autoregulation. This type of autoregulation of activity of PG hydrolases has been observed in Bartonella henselae amidase (AmiB) and may be a general mechanism used by some of the redundant amidases to regulate cell-wall hydrolase activity in bacteria. Rv3717 utilizes its net positive charge for substrate binding and exhibits activity towards a broad spectrum of substrate cell walls. The enzymatic activity of Rv3717 was confirmed by isolation and identification of its enzymatic products by LC/MS. These studies indicate that Rv3717, an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase from M. tuberculosis, represents a new family of lytic amidases that do not have a separate CBD and are regulated conformationally. PMID:24311595

Kumar, Atul; Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Dilip; Mishra, Arpit; Dewangan, Rikeshwer P.; Shrivastava, Priyanka; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Taneja, Bhupesh

2013-01-01

250

The structure of Rv3717 reveals a novel amidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Bacterial N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases are cell-wall hydrolases that hydrolyze the bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and L-alanine in cell-wall glycopeptides. Rv3717 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been identified as a unique autolysin that lacks a cell-wall-binding domain (CBD) and its structure has been determined to 1.7?Å resolution by the Pt-SAD phasing method. Rv3717 possesses an ?/?-fold and is a zinc-dependent hydrolase. The structure reveals a short flexible hairpin turn that partially occludes the active site and may be involved in autoregulation. This type of autoregulation of activity of PG hydrolases has been observed in Bartonella henselae amidase (AmiB) and may be a general mechanism used by some of the redundant amidases to regulate cell-wall hydrolase activity in bacteria. Rv3717 utilizes its net positive charge for substrate binding and exhibits activity towards a broad spectrum of substrate cell walls. The enzymatic activity of Rv3717 was confirmed by isolation and identification of its enzymatic products by LC/MS. These studies indicate that Rv3717, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase from M. tuberculosis, represents a new family of lytic amidases that do not have a separate CBD and are regulated conformationally. PMID:24311595

Kumar, Atul; Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Dilip; Mishra, Arpit; Dewangan, Rikeshwer P; Shrivastava, Priyanka; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Taneja, Bhupesh

2013-12-01

251

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

252

Generic weak isolated horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak isolated horizon boundary conditions have been relaxed supposedly to their weakest form so that both zeroth and first laws of black hole mechanics hold. This makes the formulation more amenable for applications in both analytic and numerical relativities. It also unifies the phase spaces of non-extremal and extremal black holes.

Chatterjee, Ayan; Ghosh, Amit

2006-12-01

253

Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

Blauch, David N.

254

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

E-print Network

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj ~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context. (Abridged.)

Elizabeth J. Barton; Jacob A. Arnold; Andrew R. Zentner; James S. Bullock; Risa H. Wechsler

2007-08-21

255

Isolation of Carbon Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Carbon nanostructures such a single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and fullerene peapods (e.g. C70 at SWCNT) usually occur in the form of bundles. Here, we present application of a novel simple and versatile method for deposition of small isolated nanoribbons of carbon nanotubes on annealed gold surface. The nanoribbons were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and exhibit characteristic features of individual carbon nanostructures. The resonance condition allowed the observation of a distinct spectrum of one inner tube in the nanoribbon from DWCNT. The signal of inner tubes of isolated DWCNT nanoribbons was found to be up to 50 times stronger than the sum of signals of the corresponding tubes in buckypaper sample. This dramatic enhancement is assigned to SERS (surface enhanced resonant Raman scattering) effect.

Kalbac, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, D - 01069 Dresden (Germany); Pelouchova, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Zukalova, Marketa [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Dunsch, Lothar [Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, D - 01069 Dresden (Germany)

2005-09-27

256

Cycle isolation monitoring  

SciTech Connect

There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C. [Santee Copper, Moncks Corner, SC (United States)

2009-07-15

257

Pump isolation valve  

DOEpatents

The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1983-08-02

258

ISOLATED POLYCYSTIC LIVER DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant disease with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Apart from liver cysts, it exhibits few extra-hepatic manifestations and the majority of patients with this condition are asymptomatic or subclinical. However, a small fraction of these patients develop acute liver-cyst-related complications and/or massive cystic liver enlargement, causing morbidity and mortality. Currently, the management for symptomatic PCLD is centered on palliating symptoms and treating complications. PMID:20219621

Qian, Qi

2010-01-01

259

DNA Isolation from Onion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students find studying DNA difficult because it is so small that the concepts are quite abstract. This lab enables students to work with DNA concretely by easily isolating chromosomal DNA using the same basic tools and methods that scientists use. The lab is a good introduction to using pipets and to using the metric system. If the chemistry of the solutions is taught it is also a great practical application.

Kate Dollard (Cambridge Rindge and Latin REV)

1994-07-30

260

Mechanical beam isolator  

SciTech Connect

Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam.

Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

1996-10-01

261

Isolated areolar apocrine chromhidrosis.  

PubMed

A case of isolated areolar apocrine chromhidrosis in an 11-year-old female is presented. This is the youngest case cited in Medline. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of apocrine chromhidrosis among primary care providers and to discuss treatment. Capsaicin cream 0.025% is a proven treatment that may reduce the potential psychological impact and embarrassment that patients experience. PMID:15629957

Griffith, Joan R

2005-02-01

262

Denali: a scalable isolation kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Denali project provides system support for running sev- eral mutually distrusting Internet services on the same physical infrastructure. For example, this would enable a developer to push dynamic content into third party hosting infrastructure such as content distribution networks. To accomplish this, we propose a new kernel architecture called an isolation kernel to isolate un- trusted applications. An isolation

Andrew Whitaker; Marianne Shaw; Steven D. Gribble

2002-01-01

263

Mycobacteria isolated from exotic animals.  

PubMed

Mycobacteria were isolated from 263 of 474 specimens submitted from captive exotic (nondomesticated) animals over a 5-year period. Mycobacterium avium was isolated from 128 animals originating in 13 states and the District of Columbia; serotype 1 accounted for 65 of the isolations. Mycobacterium bovi was isolated from 74 animals in 7 zoos, 7 game parks, and 4 primate colonies in 1, states: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 29 animals originating 9 stats; and Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium spp. The widespread occurrence of tuberculosis in exotic animals maintained in captivity emphasizes the public health importance of these infections. PMID:406254

Thoen, C O; Richards, W D; Jarnagin, J L

1977-05-01

264

High performance rotational vibration isolator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

2013-10-01

265

Weak Isolated Horizons  

SciTech Connect

Weak Isolated Horizon (WIH) is the most general definition of a black hole horizon so far i.e. WIH is defined through the weakest possible set of boundary conditions imposed on a generic null surface. We will also show that the laws of black hole mechanics can be derived for these horizons. In addition, the definition enables us to put the extremal and non-extremal black holes on the same phase-space so that one can make sense of extremal limit.

Chatterjee, Ayan [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2007-10-03

266

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2012 What is isolated growth hormone deficiency? Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a ... body against infection (agammaglobulinemia). How common is isolated growth hormone deficiency? The incidence of isolated growth hormone ...

267

Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.  

PubMed

Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified. PMID:9050047

Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

1996-12-01

268

Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

269

Containment testing of isolation rooms.  

PubMed

Results from the tracer containment testing of four 'state-of-the-art' airborne infection isolation rooms, in a new hospital, are presented. A testing technician exited an isolation room several minutes after a small quantity of tracer gas was injected over the patient bed in that room. Easily measurable tracer gas concentrations were then found in the anterooms outside the patient rooms and corridor outside the isolation room suites. Containment factors for the isolation rooms and dilution factors in the anterooms and corridor were calculated, based on the measured tracer concentrations. These results indicate the desirability of evidence-based design standards and guidelines for assessing performance of airborne infection isolation rooms. The study also demonstrates that the tracer testing procedure yields comparable results for equivalent isolation room suites, suggesting good reproducibility of the testing method. PMID:15236852

Rydock, J P; Eian, P K

2004-07-01

270

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

1993-04-27

271

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, Calvin J. (Los Alamos, NM); Dahlby, Joel W. (Los Alamos, NM); Gallimore, Bradford F. (Los Alamos, NM); Comer, Bob E. (Versailles, MO); Stone, Water A. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlson, David O. (Tesugue, NM)

1993-01-01

272

Magnetically coupled signal isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

273

Acute unilateral isolated ptosis.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of acute onset painless left ptosis. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He was systemically well with no headache, other focal neurological signs, or symptoms of fatigue. CT imaging showed swelling of the levator palpebrae superioris suggestive of myositis. After showing no improvement over 5?days the patient started oral prednisolone 30?mg reducing over 12?weeks. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free at 6?months follow-up. Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. Differential diagnoses include a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing a partial or complete third nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. A careful history and examination must be taken. Orbital myositis typically involves the extraocular muscles causing pain and diplopia. Isolated levator myositis is rare. PMID:25564592

Court, Jennifer Helen; Janicek, David

2015-01-01

274

The isolated perfused lung.  

PubMed Central

The unique nonrespiratory functions of the lungs have become more apparent in recent years. The isolated perfused lung model offers many advantages over other methods for the study of pulmonary metabolism, xenobiotic disposition and the influence of interactions among agents of different physical forms. Detailed descriptions of the experimental preparation are elements in evaluating and comparing data from various sources but these are frequently neglected. A discussion and critique of the following elements are provided in this review in order to elucidate the typical problems one might encounter in evaluating data: perfusate type, perfusion method, construction materials, ventilation method, temperature control, surgical procedure, microbiological contamination and evaluation criteria of the preparation. Examples are given where the IPL method has been applied and suggestions are made for future research efforts. PMID:6383800

Niemeier, R W

1984-01-01

275

Isolated Northern Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

276

Neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis: a case series  

PubMed Central

We report a case series of neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis and describe the serologic verification for Bartonella henselae. This is a retrospective interventional case series of four patients who presented in the ophthalmology clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from June 2012 to March 2013. All four patients had a history of contact with cats and had fever prior to ocular symptoms. Each patient presented with neuroretinitis characterized by optic disc swelling with macular star. Serology analysis showed strongly positive for B. henselae in all of the patients. All patients were treated with oral azithromycin (except case 4, who was treated with oral doxycycline), and two patients (case 1 and case 3) had poor vision at initial presentation that warranted the use of oral prednisolone. All patients showed a good visual outcome except case 3. Vision-threatening ocular manifestation of cat scratch disease can be improved with systemic antibiotics and steroids. PMID:25120352

Raihan, Abdul-Rahim; Zunaina, Embong; Wan-Hazabbah, Wan-Hitam; Adil, Hussein; Lakana-Kumar, Thavaratnam

2014-01-01

277

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

278

ISOLATION OF LYTIC SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research was based on the hypothesis that Salmonella bacteriophages (phages) occur naturally in manure and can be isolated for future characterization and potential use as typing reagents, indicators and biocontrol agents. The purpose of this research was to test a protocol for isolation of ly...

279

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

280

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

281

High performance rotational vibration isolator.  

PubMed

We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors. PMID:24182167

Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

2013-10-01

282

New Ventilated Isolation Cage  

PubMed Central

A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

Cook, Reginald O.

1968-01-01

283

Vibration isolation mounting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

284

Comparison of the ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ Genome Adapted for an Intracellular Lifestyle with Other Members of the Rhizobiales  

PubMed Central

An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, nitrogen fixing endosymbionts, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 50 clusters of conserved orthologous genes found on the chromosomes of all five metabolically diverse species. The intracellular pathogens ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ and Bartonella henselae have genomes drastically reduced in gene content and size as well as a relatively low content of guanine and cytosine. Codon and amino acid preferences that emphasize low guanosine and cytosine usage are globally employed in these genomes, including within regions of microsynteny and within signature sequences of orthologous proteins. The length of orthologous proteins is generally conserved, but not their isoelectric points, consistent with extensive amino acid substitutions to accommodate selection for low GC content. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome apparently has all of the genes required for DNA replication present in Sinorhizobium meliloti except it has only two, rather than three RNaseH genes. The gene set required for DNA repair has only one rather than ten DNA ligases found in Sinorhizobium meliloti, and the DNA PolI of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ lacks domains needed for excision repair. Thus the ability of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ to repair mutations in its genome may be impaired. Both ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus and Bartonella henselae lack enzymes needed for the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, which must therefore be obtained from the host. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome also has a greatly reduced set of sigma factors used to control transcription, and lacks sigma factors 24, 28 and 38. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome has all of the hallmarks of a reduced genome of a pathogen adapted to an intracellular lifestyle. PMID:21876745

Hartung, John S.; Shao, Jonathan; Kuykendall, L. David

2011-01-01

285

Dynamic characterisation of vibration isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vibration isolator is designed to reduce the vibration and structure borne noise transmitted from a vibratory source, such as machinery and equipment, to the supporting structure. The vibration and structure borne noise transmitted depends upon the dynamic properties of the foundation, the source mounting point and the vibration isolator. Therefore knowledge of the frequency dependent dynamic properties of vibration isolators is a necessary part of the acoustic prediction and control/reduction process. Vibration isolators may be characterised by measuring their four-pole parameters. A measurement procedure is proposed that employs the floating mass method, measures the direct forces and corrects for the errors introduced by the direct force measurement. Compared to the basic method, it extends the frequency limits of measurement in both directions. The development of a novel vibration isolator test facility that implements the proposed measurement procedure is described, and its satisfactory operation is experimentally demonstrated. The vibration isolator test facility is capable of characterising vibration isolators commonly used in industrial and maritime applications, under service conditions. A method is proposed for measuring the four-pole parameters of a uni-directional asymmetrical vibration isolator under static load. The method is called the two masses method, and is suitable for determining the four- pole parameters of active vibration isolators with feedback control. The method is also applicable to uni- directional symmetrical, bi-directional symmetrical and bi-directional asymmetrical vibration isolators. It may be regarded as a universal method for characterising vibration isolators. Experimental data is presented and the method is validated. Modelling of vibration isolators is complicated by the highly non-linear nature of their rubber elements. The notion of an effective rubber cylinder is proposed to account for the barrelling of rubber elements under static load. Consequently, a general static compression model is proposed that applies to vibration isolators having unfilled and filled rubber elements of regular prismatic shapes. The model predicts the dependence of the four-pole parameters on the compression ratio of the rubber element. The predictions derived from the effective rubber cylinder and general static compression model agree excellently with experimental work of this study and other researchers.

Dickens, John Dennis

286

Islet isolation for clinical transplantation.  

PubMed

Islet transplantation is emerging as a viable treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Following the initial report in 2000 from Edmonton of insulin independence in seven out of seven consecutive recipients, there has been a huge expansion in clinical islet transplantation. The challenge we now face is the apparent decline in graft function over time. Isolating high-quality human islets which survive and function for a longer period will no doubt contribute to further improvement in long-term clinical outcome. This chapter reviews the selection of appropriate donors for islet isolation and transplantation, describes each step during islet isolation, and discusses the scope for further improvements. PMID:20217520

Kin, Tatsuya

2010-01-01

287

RNA isolation from mammalian samples.  

PubMed

RNA can be extracted from cultured cells, peripheral blood, bone marrow, plasma, serum, body fluids, and fresh or frozen tissues. RNA can also be extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Methods for RNA extraction can be divided into three groups: phenol/chloroform extraction, silica spin-column absorption, and isopycnic gradient centrifugation. Two different RNA isolation procedures are described in this unit. The first basic protocol describes a one-step isolation involving monophasic lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate and phenol followed by chloroform extraction. The second basic protocol describes a silica-column separation method for RNA isolation. PMID:23821441

Liu, Ximeng; Harada, Shuko

2013-07-01

288

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

289

Eschar and neck lymphadenopathy caused by Francisella tularensis after a tick bite: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In 25 to 35% of cases, the aetiological agent of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after a tick bite remains undetermined.\\u000a To date, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii and more recently Bartonella henselae have been associated with this syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case presentation  A four-year-old Caucasian boy was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. On physical examination, an\\u000a inflammatory and suppurating

Sophie Edouard; Khira Gonin; Yves Turc; Emmanouil Angelakis; Cristina Socolovschi; Didier Raoult

2011-01-01

290

Flight representative positive isolation disconnect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

1977-01-01

291

Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation  

PubMed Central

Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

292

Isolation Procedures for Farrowing Operations  

E-print Network

L-2263 1-02 Isolation Procedures for Farrowing Operations Bruce Lawhorn Associate Professor and Extension Swine Veterinarian The Texas A&M University System A lmost every swine breeding herd will at some time receive breeding stock replace- ments...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2002-01-31

293

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperchlorhidrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... levels of sodium in fluids inside the body (hyponatremia). Most infants with isolated hyperchlorhidrosis experience one or ... still remains. These individuals may still experience dangerous hyponatremia when they sweat excessively, for example in warm ...

294

Study of base isolation systems  

E-print Network

The primary objective of this investigation is to outline the relevant issues concerning the conceptual design of base isolated structures. A 90 feet high, 6 stories tall, moment steel frame structure with tension cross ...

Manarbek, Saruar

2013-01-01

295

Satellites of Isolated Elliptical Galaxies  

E-print Network

Using well-defined selection criteria applied to the LEDA galaxy catalogue we have derived a sample of elliptical galaxies that can be classified as isolated. From this we have investigated the neighbourhood of these galaxies to determine the frequency and radial distribution of faint galaxies around them and hence derive an estimate of their surrounding satellite population. The results are compared and contrasted to the satellite population around isolated spiral galaxies.

Rodney M. Smith; Vicent J. Martinez

2003-09-30

296

Market study: Biological isolation garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

1975-01-01

297

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1995-01-01

298

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, R.L.

1995-05-30

299

Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

1977-01-01

300

Perceived Social Isolation and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e., loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, more negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism, and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact emotions, decisions, behaviors, and interpersonal interactions that may contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally. PMID:19726219

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.

2009-01-01

301

Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area. PMID:25210241

Khare, Pratima; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Renu; Chauhan, Nidhi

2014-01-01

302

Entropy of isolated horizons revisited  

SciTech Connect

The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states ''living'' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in the horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient -(3/2), with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

Basu, Rudranil; Kaul, Romesh K.; Majumdar, Parthasarathi [SN Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113 (India); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2010-07-15

303

Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

2011-01-01

304

Isolation, purification, and characterization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first reported in the continental United States in November 2004, and is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean worldwide. P. pachyrhizi isolates have been obtained from 2006 and 2007 across the U. S. and are being purified and maintai...

305

Refugial isolation versus ecological gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotheses for divergence and speciation in rainforests generally fall into two categories: those emphasizing the role of geographic isolation and those emphasizing the role of divergent selection along gradients. While a majority of studies have attempted to infer mechanisms based on the pattern of species richness and congruence of geographic boundaries, relatively few have tried to simultaneously test alternative hypotheses

Thomas B. Smith; Christopher J. Schneider; Karen Holder

2001-01-01

306

High-Voltage Isolation Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arcing and field-included surface erosion reduced by electrostatic shields around windings and ferromagnetic core of 80-kilovolt isolation transformer. Fabricated from high-resistivity polyurethane-based material brushed on critical surfaces, shields maintained at approximately half potential difference of windings.

Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P.

1985-01-01

307

Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

308

Isolated Menarche in Juvenile Hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated menarche is an unusual presentation of the advanced sexual development relative to bone age found in some patients with juvenile hypothyroidism. A case is presented, demonstrating that hypothyroidism should be considered in the eval uation of vaginal bleeding in childhood, particularly if skeletal maturation is delayed.

Veronica K. Piziak; Henry B. Hahn

1984-01-01

309

Social Isolation Syndrome in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of social isolation in early ontogeny are observed in humans and various animals, including primates, dogs, sheep, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, and some animals other than mammals [11]. These are usually described as behavioral, neurophysiological, and neurochemical consequences. As applied to humans, this concerns persons that have been brought up under the conditions of a scanty social

P. D. Shabanov; A. A. Lebedev; A. D. Nozdrachev

2004-01-01

310

IMPROVED ISOLATION & ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The major historical use of zein, the predominant corn protein, has been in the fibers market. In order to evaluate new formulations of zein in the fibers market a simple means of isolating and generating fibers is necessary. We have evaluated the ability to electrospin zein from numerous solvents...

311

Yugoslavs Test Man in Isolation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-year experiment to begin in July 1977 in which a Yugoslavian, Milutin Veljkovic, will stay underground to study the human physiological and psychological adjustment to the isolation of the cave. Only contact with outside world will be a computer terminal linked to researchers above ground. (CS)

Science News, 1977

1977-01-01

312

Are Small, Isolated Wetlands Expendable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is most evident in the recent debate concerning new wetland regulations drafted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is that small, isolated wetlands will likely continue to be lost. The critical biological question is whether small wetlands are expendable, and the fundamental issue is the lack of biologically rele- vant data on the value of wetlands, especially so-called

Raymond D. Semlitsch; J. Russell Bodie

1998-01-01

313

Isolation and identification among cockle isolates of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from Selangor, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrio vulnificus infections are worldwide public health problems associated with illnesses resulting from consumption of raw or partially cooked seafood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and identification of V. vulnificus in cockles from local wet (40) and supermarkets (38) from Selangor, Malaysia from July 2013 to February 2014. A total of 78(n=78) cockle were examined for the presence of V. vulnificus and at about 32% (25/78) cockle samples were positive to this bacterium. Colonies morphological observation and biochemical characterization for those isolates showed 60% (15/78) of isolates were classified as biotype 1 and 40% (10/78) belong to biotype 2.

Kurdi Al-Dulaimi, Mohammed M.; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Ghani, Ma`aruf Abd.

2014-09-01

314

SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43. Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

315

NASDA's activities on vibration isolation technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Space Development Agency's (NASDA) activities in providing various vibration isolation technologies for the Space Station Mission are covered in viewgraph form. Technologies covered include an active vibration isolation system for extra sensitive missions in the low frequency range, a passive damping system consisting of a damping rack for the reduction of resonance amplification, and an isolator for vibration isolation from low frequencies. Information is given in viewgraph form on the active vibration isolation concept, voice coil type electromagnetic suspension, a profile of an active vibration isolation system, a three degree of freedom ground experiment, and acceleration feedback.

1992-01-01

316

Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.  

PubMed

There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified. PMID:16253666

Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

2006-02-01

317

Isolated Malignant Melanoma Metastasis to the Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Summary: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field. PMID:25289269

Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P.

2013-01-01

318

Molecular typing of Neisseria perflava clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to type 22 commensal isolates of Neisseria perflava collected by swabbing from neutropenic patients. High genetic diversity was found among our N. perflava clinical isolates. PMID:23278501

Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Giorgini, Dario; Baaboura, Rekaya; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Hassen, Assia Ben

2013-09-01

319

The Victoria Isolation Scale, Form A  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors administered the Isolation Symptomatology Questionnaire to persons living in Antarctica who were either well or maladjusted to their environment. Eliminating those items not discriminating between the two groups, the authors constructed a new isolation scale. (SE)

Taylor, A. J. W.; Feletti, Grahame I.

1976-01-01

320

Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat  

PubMed Central

During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525

Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

1999-01-01

321

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated Pierre Robin sequence  

MedlinePLUS

... What genes are related to isolated Pierre Robin sequence? Changes in the DNA near the SOX9 gene are the most common ... glossary definitions help with understanding isolated Pierre Robin sequence? autosomal ; ... dysplasia ; embryonic ; failure to thrive ; gene ; inherited ; lower ...

322

Isolated intracranial Rosai Dorfman disease.  

PubMed

Rosai Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a benign histiocytic proliferative disorder mainly affecting the lymph nodes. Although several cases of extra-nodal involvement have been reported previously, central nervous system involvement, particularly in the absence of nodal disease is extremely rare. We report a case of isolated intracranial RDD occurring in a relatively elder patient, which was shown by histological examination to have a dura-based involvement. PMID:21743180

Krishnamoorthy, Venkidesh; Parmar, Chirag F; Panikar, Dilip

2011-01-01

323

Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1988-01-01

324

Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in urinary isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli accounted for about 80% of organisms in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), followed by Staphylococcus spp. especially Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Proteus mirabilis. Against E. coli isolates from patients with uncomplicated UTI, faropenem was the most effective. Up to 1999, fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were not observed in patients with uncomplicated UTI, but in 2001 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates emerged and

Tetsuro Muratani; Tetsuro Matsumoto

2004-01-01

325

Designs and fabrications of integrated optical isolators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated optical circuits are low cost, compact, and highly functional devices that are very attractive in fiber telecommunication systems and other applications. Integrated optical isolators have been designed and even fabricated for several years although fabrication processes have made it difficult to commercialize such devices. The most conventional type of an integrated optical isolator, called a hybrid integrated isolator, has

Junichiro Fujita

2000-01-01

326

Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation Signal machines : localization of isolated  

E-print Network

Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation Signal machines : localization of isolated'Orléans, Orléans, FRANCE 6 mars 2011 Journées Calculabilités Paris 1 / 39 #12;Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation 1 Signal machines and isolated accumulations 2 Necessary conditions

Durand-Lose, Jérôme

327

Frequency response characteristics and response spectra of base-isolated and un-isolated structures  

SciTech Connect

The transmissibility of seismic loads through a linear base-isolation system is analyzed using an impedance method. The results show that the system acts like a {open_quotes}low-pass{close_quotes} filter. It attenuates high-frequency loads but passes through low-frequency ones. The filtering effect depends on the vibration frequencies and damping of the isolated structure and the isolation system. This paper demonstrates the benefits and design principles of base isolation by comparing the transmissibilities and response spectra of isolated and un-isolated structures. Parameters of typical isolated buildings and ground motions of the 1994 Northridge earthquake are used for the demonstration.

Mok, G.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Namba, H. [Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-07-06

328

Strain Variation in Mycobacterium marinum Fish Isolates  

PubMed Central

A molecular characterization of two Mycobacterium marinum genes, 16S rRNA and hsp65, was carried out with a total of 21 isolates from various species of fish from both marine and freshwater environments of Israel, Europe, and the Far East. The nucleotide sequences of both genes revealed that all M. marinum isolates from fish in Israel belonged to two different strains, one infecting marine (cultured and wild) fish and the other infecting freshwater (cultured) fish. A restriction enzyme map based on the nucleotide sequences of both genes confirmed the divergence of the Israeli marine isolates from the freshwater isolates and differentiated the Israeli isolates from the foreign isolates, with the exception of one of three Greek isolates from marine fish which was identical to the Israeli marine isolates. The second isolate from Greece exhibited a single base alteration in the 16S rRNA sequence, whereas the third isolate was most likely a new Mycobacterium species. Isolates from Denmark and Thailand shared high sequence homology to complete identity with reference strain ATCC 927. Combined analysis of the two gene sequences increased the detection of intraspecific variations and was thus of importance in studying the taxonomy and epidemiology of this aquatic pathogen. Whether the Israeli M. marinum strain infecting marine fish is endemic to the Red Sea and found extremely susceptible hosts in the exotic species imported for aquaculture or rather was accidentally introduced with occasional imports of fingerlings from the Mediterranean Sea could not be determined. PMID:12406715

Ucko, M.; Colorni, A.; Kvitt, H.; Diamant, A.; Zlotkin, A.; Knibb, W. R.

2002-01-01

329

Isolation of Clostridium thermocellum auxotrophs  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of biomass of fuels and chemical feedstocks by microbial fermentation offers the potential of solving two of today's important problems: waste accumulation and exhaustion of fossil fuels. Microorganisms with the capabilities of converting biomass components such as cellulos and hemicellulose to chemicals and fuels in a single step are of particular interest. One such microorganism is Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe which degrades cellulose to ethanol and organic acids. For efficient industrial use, the cellulolytic capacity of this strain must be improved by genetic means. Spontaneous and UV irradiation-induced auxotrophic mutants of Clostridium thermocellum, an anaerobic cellulolytic thermophile, were isolated after penicillin enrichment in a chemically defined medium.

Mendez, B.S.; Gomez, R.F.

1982-02-01

330

Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

2014-12-01

331

Yersinae isolated from wapiti (Cervus canadensis roosevelti).  

PubMed

Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia enterocolitica-like bacteria were isolated from 22 of 90 fecal samples taken from five herds of wapiti studied in northwestern California. The serotypes included: (5), (6), (11), (16), (2,19), (4,16) and (6,15). In one herd, all of the organisms were isolated from within a one hectare area. A significantly higher (p < .02) prevalence of isolations was obtained during April and May. PMID:16498883

Martyny, J W; Botzler, R G

1976-07-01

332

Alternative cell line for virus isolation.  

PubMed Central

A human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) was compared with various other cell lines to determine susceptibility to viral growth. In the first phase of the study, A549 cells were compared with human embryonic kidney (HEK) and cynomolgus monkey kidney (CMK) cells for isolation of upper-respiratory disease viruses by using 1,248 throat swab specimens from basic-combat trainees. Of the 552 virus isolates, 507 were adenoviruses, 41 were polioviruses, and 4 were herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Of the isolates, 518 (93.8%) were isolated in A549 cells, 480 (87.0%) were isolated in HEK cells, and 262 (47.5%) were isolated in CMK cells (P less than 0.001). In the second phase of the study, A549 cells were compared with a human diploid fibroblast cell strain (MRC-5) and Vero monkey kidney (VMK) cells for the isolation of HSV from 1,157 specimens submitted for culture. Of the 227 HSV isolates, 210 (92.5%) were isolated in A549 cells, 202 (89.0%) were isolated in VMK cells (P greater than 0.1 for A549 versus VMK cells), and 167 (73.6%) were isolated in MRC-5 cells (P less than 0.001 for A549 versus MRC-5 cells). These results suggest that A549 cells are more susceptible to adenovirus infection and at least as susceptible to HSV infection compared with the other cell cultures evaluated. Detracting factors for the use of A549 cells were a slight loss of sensitivity to adenovirus at passage 120 and a concurrent change in the morphology of the cells. The A549 cell line proved to be an efficient, practical, and economical alternative cell system for the isolation of adenovirus and HSV in particular. Initial indications are that other clinically significant viruses may be grown in A549 cells; however, additional studies need to be performed. PMID:3018038

Smith, C D; Craft, D W; Shiromoto, R S; Yan, P O

1986-01-01

333

Professional isolation and occupational stress in teachers.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between professional isolation of teachers and their occupational stress. A systematic random sample of 1,110 teachers in Quebec were administered French Canadian versions of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and Teacher Stress Inventory. Analysis gave, as expected, a positive and significant correlation between isolation and occupational stress. This highlights the importance of looking for ways to reduce professional isolation of teachers. PMID:10408217

Dussault, M; Deaudelin, C; Royer, N; Loiselle, J

1999-06-01

334

Isolation and characterization of Methanococcus mazei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanococcus mazei strain S-6 was isolated from a laboratory digester; this is the first report of its isolation in pure culture. The present\\u000a isolate exhibited a life cycle, and the forms produced during its development fit the morphological description ofM. mazei exactly. In young cultures, cell clusters resembleMethanosarcina strain TM-1; in older cultures, these cell clusters become “cysts” which may

Robert A. Mah

1980-01-01

335

Fault Detection and Isolation for Hydraulic Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure sensors and isolation valves act to shut down defective servochannel. Redundant hydraulic system indirectly senses failure in any of its electrical control channels and mechanically isolates hydraulic channel controlled by faulty electrical channel so flat it cannot participate in operating system. With failure-detection and isolation technique, system can sustains two failed channels and still functions at full performance levels. Scheme useful on aircraft or other systems with hydraulic servovalves where failure cannot be tolerated.

1987-01-01

336

Isolated oligodontia in monozygotic twins  

PubMed Central

This case report defines a case of isolated oligodontia of 9 and 10 permanent teeth in 9-year-old monozygotic twin sisters and gives information about the possible genetic and environmental etiology, related dental anomalies and treatment options. The twins have a negative family history of hypodontia and oligodontia in their parents, as well as their paternal and maternal grandmothers and first cousins. No other dental anomalies could be detected in either of the twins. With the occurrence of similarly located tooth agenesis, except for one tooth, in monozygotic twins, one may consider the influence of genetic and/or environmental factors in their etiology. Hereditary relationships associated with oligodontia could help the clinicians to predict the possibility of its occurrence in other family members and in the next generations. However, clinicians should consider oligodontia when it is not hereditary. PMID:24966717

Halicioglu, Koray; Sahin, Hakan; Corekci, Bayram; Irgin, Celal; Toptas, Orcun

2013-01-01

337

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

338

Propellant isolation shutoff valve program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

Merritt, F. L.

1973-01-01

339

Isolated amyloidosis of the colon.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old man was seen with a 2-month history of crampy abdominal pain and recent onset of hematochezia. Colonoscopic examination revealed a semiannular mass lesion in the descending colon which was thought to represent a near-obstructing neoplasm. A partial colon resection was performed. Gross inspection revealed a segment of bowel with focally necrotic mucosa but no mass lesion. Microscopic examination revealed deposits of amyloid infiltrating the muscularis propria, submucosal vessel walls, and lamina propria, with focal ischemic necrosis of mucosa. Special stains were positive for light chains, indicating primary amyloidosis. Follow-up studies for multiple myeloma and inflammatory disorders gave negative results. A diagnosis of isolated amyloidosis of the colon was rendered. Two months after surgery, the patient had a recurrence of symptoms and colon biopsy specimens revealed amyloidosis. The patient was given colchicine, with subjective and objective improvement. The various types of amyloidosis are discussed. PMID:8932596

Threlkeld, C; Nguyen, T H

1996-03-01

340

Spectroscopy of Isolated Prebiotic Nucleobases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use multiphoton ionization and double resonance spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics of biologically relevant molecules as well as prebiotic nucleobases, isolated in the gas phase. Molecules that are biologically relevant to life today tend to exhibit short excited state lifetimes compared to similar but non-biologically relevant analogs. The mechanism is internal conversion, which may help protect the biologically active molecules from UV damage. This process is governed by conical intersections that depend very strongly on molecular structure. Therefore we have studied purines and pyrimidines with systematic variations of structure, including substitutions, tautomeric forms, and cluster structures that represent different base pair binding motifs. These structural variations also include possible alternate base pairs that may shed light on prebiotic chemistry. With this in mind we have begun to probe the ultrafast dynamics of molecules that exhibit very short excited states and search for evidence of internal conversions.

Svadlenak, Nathan; Callahan, Michael P.; Ligare, Marshall; Gulian, Lisa; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Nachtigallova, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; deVries, Mattanjah

2011-01-01

341

Properties of Isolated Disk Galaxies  

E-print Network

A sample of isolated galaxies (IsG), selected by the ratio, $f$, between inner and tidal forces acting upon a galaxy, is presented. The analysis of the Coma cluster lead us to adopt the criterion $f\\leq -4.5$ for IsG. The candidates are from the CfA catalog with cz $\\leq$5000 km/s, |b|> 40\\deg, DEC $\\ge -$2.5\\deg. The sample contains 203 objects from the initial 1706. We also selected a sample (N=130) of perturbed galaxies, i.e., with companions (with known z, $\\Delta(cz)\\le 500$ km/s), $f\\geq-$2. The comparison of both samples shows significant differences in morphology, size, mass, luminosity and colors. Sc spirals are more frequent among IsG, and S0s among perturbed galaxies. IsG appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluer than interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequent among perturbed galaxies in particular for early S and S0. The perturbed galaxies have higher L$_{FIR}$/L$_B$ and M$_{mol}$/L$_B$ ratios, but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The L-size and M-L relations shows similar trends, the main difference being the almost total absence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the IsG, and the almost total absence of small, faint and low mass galaxies among the perturbed systems. The evolution induced by interactions, would therefore proceed from late, small, faint and low mass S to earlier, bigger, more luminous and more massive S and S0 galaxies, producing at the same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies, but preserving the same relations between global parameters. The properties of local IsG are similar to those of high redshift galaxies, suggesting that the present day isolated galaxies could be quietly evolved, unused {\\sl building blocks} surviving in low density environments.

J. Varela; M. Moles; I. Márquez; G. Galletta; J. Masegosa; D. Bettoni

2004-03-05

342

DC isolation and protection system and circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A precision analog electronic circuit that is capable of sending accurate signals to an external device that has hostile electric characteristics, including the presence of very large common mode voltages. The circuit is also capable of surviving applications of normal mode overvoltages of up to 120 VAC/VDC for unlimited periods of time without damage or degradation. First, the circuit isolates the DC signal output from the computer. Means are then provided for amplifying the isolated DC signal. Further means are provided for stabilizing and protecting the isolating and amplifying means, and the isolated and amplified DC signal which is output to the external device, against overvoltages and overcurrents.

Wagner, Charles A. (Inventor); Kellogg, Gary V. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

343

``Smart'' Base Isolation Strategies Employing Magnetorheological Dampers  

E-print Network

``Smart'' Base Isolation Strategies Employing Magnetorheological Dampers H. Yoshioka1 ; J. C magnetorheological MR dampers. The experimental structure, constructed and tested at the Structural Dynamics

Spencer Jr., B.F.

344

Molecular characterization of Korean rabies virus isolates  

PubMed Central

The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts. PMID:21368564

Park, Young-Nam; Hong, Gyeong-Soo; Kang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Cho, Soo-Dong; Song, Jae-Young

2011-01-01

345

Leclercia Adecarboxylata Isolation: Case Reports and Review  

PubMed Central

Leclercia adecarboxylata is usually isolated as a part of polymicrobial cultures in immunocompetent patients, and as a pure culture in immunocompromised persons. Although generally sensitive to most antibiotics, there are reports of resistant strains. Two case reports of L. adecarboxylata isolation in the lab in pure culture in immunocompetent persons are presented here, L. adecarboxylata being isolated from a vaginal swab in the first case and from a gluteal abscess in the second case. Both the isolates were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested. PMID:25653951

2014-01-01

346

Recent advances in nonlinear passive vibration isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of nonlinear vibration isolation has witnessed significant developments due to pressing demands for the protection of structural installations, nuclear reactors, mechanical components, and sensitive instruments from earthquake ground motion, shocks, and impact loads. In view of these demands, engineers and physicists have developed different types of nonlinear vibration isolators. This article presents a comprehensive assessment of recent developments of nonlinear isolators in the absence of active control means. It does not deal with other means of linear or nonlinear vibration absorbers. It begins with the basic concept and features of nonlinear isolators and inherent nonlinear phenomena. Specific types of nonlinear isolators are then discussed, including ultra-low-frequency isolators. For vertical vibration isolation, the treatment of the Euler spring isolator is based on the post-buckling dynamic characteristics of the column elastica and axial stiffness. Exact and approximate analyses of axial stiffness of the post-buckled Euler beam are outlined. Different techniques of reducing the resonant frequency of the isolator are described. Another group is based on the Gospodnetic-Frisch-Fay beam, which is free to slide on two supports. The restoring force of this beam resembles to a great extent the restoring roll moment of biased ships. The base isolation of buildings, bridges, and liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquake ground motion is then described. Base isolation utilizes friction elements, laminated-rubber bearings, and the friction pendulum. Nonlinear viscoelastic and composite material springs, and smart material elements are described in terms of material mechanical characteristics and the dependence of their transmissibility on temperature and excitation amplitude. The article is closed by conclusions, which highlight resolved and unresolved problems and recommendations for future research directions.

Ibrahim, R. A.

2008-07-01

347

Bulk cryopreservation of isolated islets of Langerhans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods to isolate human islets of Langerhans are limited and multiple donors are required for successful reversal of longstanding Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cryopreservation of isolated islets is an effective method of storing and pooling islets. Current cryopreservation protocols are cumbersome due to current practices of placing small aliquots of islets per individual freezer tube. In the present study,

Jonathan R. T. Lakey; Garth L. Warnock; Ziliang Ao; Ray V. Rajotte

1996-01-01

348

Mycotoxin production from fungi isolated from grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

L. A BRUNHOSA, R.R.M. P ATERSON, Z. K OZAKIEWICZ, N. L IMA A ND A. V ENAN C I O. 2001. Aims: In order to assess the potential for producing mycotoxins, fungi were isolated from wine producing grapes. Methods and Results: The isolates were identified and Penicillium expansum, the most well recognized mycotoxin producer, was analysed for mycotoxin production by

L. Abrunhosa; R. R. M. Paterson; Z. Kozakiewicz; N. Lima; A. Venancio

2001-01-01

349

Spectral characteristics of isolated blowfly rhabdoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple method for the isolation of rhabdoms from the eye of the blowflyCalliphora erythrocephala Meig. is described. Essentially this involves i) the excision of the retina, then its disintegration using a hypoosmotic buffer and ii) separation of the rhabdoms from other cell fragments by isopycnic centrifugation on Percoll.1.The isolated rhabdoms consist almost exclusively of the microvillar membranes

R. Paulsen; Allgemeine Zoologie; Oberer Eselsberg; Accepted April

1984-01-01

350

PWM Resonant Single-Switch Isolated Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flyback converter is one of the most attractive isolated converters in small power applications because of its simple structure. However, it suffers from a high device stress and a large transformer size. To relieve these drawbacks, a high-efficient pulsewidth modulation resonant single-switch isolated converter is proposed. The proposed converter derives the power using the resonance between transformer leakage inductor

Ki-Bum Park; Chong-Eun Kim; Gun-Woo Moon; Myung-Joong Youn

2009-01-01

351

Social Isolation: A Case for Interdisciplinary Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological research on the effects of social isolation on human beings has been relatively sparse, and has been hampered by artificiality, cultural one-sidedness, and some unstated and untested assumptions. Cross-cultural and biographical sources indicate that while isolation may be initially stressful, adaptation does occur; that cultural norms, roles and expectancies are important in determining individual responses to solitude; and that

Peter Suedfeld

1974-01-01

352

Mobility analysis of active isolation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequency-domain formulation is used to analyze the stability and performance of an active vibration isolation system which uses feedback control. The active mount is modelled as a single-axis force actuator in parallel with a passive spring and damper. The feedback sensor measures either the absolute velocity of the equipment to be isolated at one end of the mount, or

S. J. Elliott; L. Benassi; M. J. Brennan; P. Gardonio; X. Huang

2004-01-01

353

Isolation and damping properties of magnetorheologic elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers two systems based on a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE): a MRE isolator under a frequency varying harmonic excitation and a MRE Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA) mounted on a frequency-varying structure under a random excitation. It is shown that the commandability of the elastomer improves the isolation performances in the first case, and decreases the stress level in the

C. Collette; G. Kroll; G. Saive; V. Guillemier; M. Avraam; A. Preumont

2009-01-01

354

Professional Isolation and Stress in Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between professional isolation and occupational stress in teachers. A systematic random sample of 1158 French Canadian teachers were administered French Canadian versions of the "UCLA Loneliness Scale and Teacher Stress Inventory." Professional isolation was measured by the subjects' responses…

Dussault, Marc; And Others

355

Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Swine  

PubMed Central

We examined the antimicrobial resistance of 1,257 isolates of 30 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolated from swine. Serovars Typhimurium and Typhimurium var. Copenhagen were widespread and were frequently multidrug resistant, with distinct resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline and to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline, respectively. PMID:11101609

Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Davies, Peter R.; Morrow, W. E. Morgan; Funk, Julie A.; Altier, Craig

2000-01-01

356

Thermalization of isolated quantum systems  

E-print Network

Understanding the evolution towards thermal equilibrium of an isolated quantum system is at the foundation of statistical mechanics and a subject of interest in such diverse areas as cold atom physics or the quantum mechanics of black holes. Since a pure state can never evolve into a thermal density matrix, the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH) has been put forward by Deutsch and Srednicki as a way to explain this apparent thermalization, similarly to what the ergodic theorem does in classical mechanics. In this paper this hypothesis is tested numerically. First, it is observed that thermalization happens in a subspace of states (the Krylov subspace) with dimension much smaller than that of the total Hilbert space. We check numerically the validity of ETH in such a subspace, for a system of hard core bosons on a two-dimensional lattice. We then discuss how well the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian projected on the Krylov subspace represent the true eigenstates. This discussion is aided by bringing the projected Hamiltonian to the tridiagonal form and interpreting it as an Anderson localization problem for a finite one-dimensional chain. We also consider thermalization of a subsystem and argue that generation of a large entanglement entropy can lead to a thermal density matrix for the subsystem well before the whole system thermalizes. Finally, we comment on possible implications of ETH in quantum gravity.

Sergei Khlebnikov; Martin Kruczenski

2014-03-12

357

Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity  

DOEpatents

Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

Foreman, Pamela (Palo Alto, CA); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-02-23

358

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

1999-01-01

359

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

Ernst, W.D.

1999-06-15

360

Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum torque orientation and other experimental activities will occur continually, both inside and outside the station. Since all vibration sources cannot be controlled, the task of attenuating the disturbances is the only realistic alternative. Several groups have independently developed technology to isolate payloads from the space environment. Since 1970, Honeywell's Satellite Systems Division has designed several payload isolation systems and vibration attenuators. From 1987 to 1992, NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) performed research on isolation technology and developed a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) isolator and tested the system during 70 low gravity aircraft flight trajectories. Beginning in early 1995, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) jointly developed the STABLE (Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation Evaluation) isolation system. This 5 month accelerated effort produced the first flight of an active microgravity vibration isolation system on STS-73/USML-02 in late October 1995. The Canadian Space Agency developed the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) for isolating microgravity payloads and this system began operating on the Russian Mir Space Station in May 1996. The Boeing Defense & Space Group, Missiles & Space Division developed the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for isolating payloads in a standard payload rack. ARIS was tested in September 1996 during the STS-79 mission to Mir. Although these isolation systems differ in their technological approach, the objective is to isolate payloads from disturbances. The following sections describe the technologies behind these systems and the different types of hardware used to perform isolation. The purpose of these descriptions is not to detail the inner workings of the hardware but to give the reader an idea of the technology and uses of the hardware components. Also included in the component descriptions is a paragraph detailing some of the advances in isolation technology for that particular component. The final s

Alhorn, Dean C.

1997-01-01

361

Biochemical characteristics of clinical and environmental isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical characteristics of 213 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei from patients with melioidosis and 140 isolates from the soil in central and northeastern Thailand were compared. Whereas the biochemical profiles of all the clinical isolates were similar, all soil isolates from the central area and 25% of isolates from northeastern Thailand comprised a different phenotype. This was characterised by the

VANAPORN WUTHIEKANUN; M. D. Smith; D. A. B. Dance; AMANDA L. WALSH; T. L. PITTT; N. J. White

1996-01-01

362

Versatile trench isolation technology for the fabrication of microactuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trench isolation technology employs trenches refilled with dielectric material to create, in a single layer, electrical isolation between mechanically joined components. This paper explores further use of this technology for MEMS fabrication, particularly the fabrication of electrostatic microactuators. Adding extra features to a two-mask trench isolation process new design opportunities, like isolation structures and isolation bumps, are created. The

E. Sarajlic; E. Berenschot; G. Krijnen; M. Elwenspoek

2003-01-01

363

Isolation and cultivation of Haemophilus ducreyi.  

PubMed

A useful method for isolating and recognizing Haemophilus ducreyi from chancres and buboes of male patients is presented. A total of 41 clinical isolates of H. ducreyi were recovered from 33 patients over an 8-year period, and the experience with the 15 most recent isolates is presented in detail. Chocolate agar supplemented with 1% Iso VitaleX and 5% sheep blood agar were prepared, using Trypticase soy and Mueller-Hinton Agar bases, and incubation conditions included ambient, capneic, and anaerobic environments. Mueller-Hinton agar was clearly superior over Trypticase soy agar for isolation of H. ducreyi, although there was little difference between 5% sheep blood and supplemented chocolate agar. Growth in ambient air and under anaerobiasis was poor or lacking, whereas growth in 5 to 7% CO2 was good to luxuriant. Heat-inactivated and fresh (unheated)human blood clot tubes also were used for selective isolation. Although the rates of isolation from the two types of clot tube were not significantly different, unheated clot tubes were superior to heated clot tubes because of reduced level of contaminants. Gram stain characteristics taken from blood clot tubes and solid media, cellular and colonial morphology of the bacilli, and lack of oxidase, catalase, and biochemical activity except nitrate reductase were determinant factors. The results of this study demonstrated that successful isolation of H. ducreyi can be achieved with a minimal amount of resources and expertise. PMID:6802870

Oberhofer, T R; Back, A E

1982-04-01

364

Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

2010-01-01

365

EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ISOLATION DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to review and refine key design concepts related to the control system presently under consideration for remotely operating the emplacement drift isolation doors at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will discuss the key design concepts of the control system that may be utilized for remotely monitoring, opening, and closing the emplacement drift isolation doors. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Discuss the purpose and function of the isolation doors (Presented in Section 7.1). (2) Review the construction of the isolation door and other physical characteristics of the doors that the control system will interface with (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Discuss monitoring and controlling the operation of the isolation doors with a digital control system (either a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system or a Distributed Control System (DCS)) (Presented in Section 7.3). (4) Discuss how all isolation doors can be monitored and controlled from a subsurface central control center (Presented in Section 7.4). This analysis will focus on the development of input/output (I/O) counts including the types of I/O, redundancy and fault tolerance considerations, and processor requirements for the isolation door control system. Attention will be placed on operability, maintainability, and reliability issues for the system operating in the subsurface environment with exposure to high temperatures and radiation.

N.T. Raczka

1998-09-17

366

Seismic Behaviour of Vertical Mass Isolated Structures  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the seismic behaviour of vertical mass isolated structures against the earthquake is studied. These structures are assumed to be consisted of two subsystems. Mass subsystem possesses low lateral stiffness but carries the major part of mass of the system. Stiffness subsystem, however, controls the deformation of the mass subsystem and attributes with much higher stiffness. The isolator layer is, therefore, located in between the mass and the stiffness subsystems and assumed to be a viscous damper layer. The analytical model used for this investigation is a dual mass-spring model which is an extended form of the three element Maxwell model. In this study, the ability of mass isolation techniques in reducing earthquake effects on buildings with two approaches, parametric and numerical approaches, is shown. In the parametric approach, by definition an isolation factor for structure and determination the dynamic characteristics of system, the relative optimum value of the isolator damping coefficient is obtained. The results provide an insight on role of relative stiffness and mass ratio of the two subsystems. Finally, in the numerical approach, the spectral responses of these structures due to the earthquake are investigated. The results show a noticeable decrease in earthquake input force to vertical mass isolated structures in comparison with non-isolated structures.

Nekooei, M.; Ziyaeifar, M. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), P.O. Box 19395-3913, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

367

Isolation, Pathogenicity and Safety of Curvularia eragrostidis Isolate QZ-2000 as a Bioherbicide Agent for Large Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pathogen isolated from lesions on blighted leaves of crabgrass in three different locations of China was identified as Curvularia eragrostidis. Isolate QZ-2000 was the most virulent of six isolates tested. Experiments on morphology, pathogenicity, effect of environmental factors, and host-range of isolate QZ-2000 were conducted in the laboratory, greenhouse and field to assess the potential of this isolate as

Yunzhi Zhu; Sheng Qiang

2004-01-01

368

Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep  

PubMed Central

The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of ten kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

Silva, Éverton F.; Brod, Claudiomar S.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S.; Ko, Albert I.; Dellagostin, Odir A.

2007-01-01

369

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1994-09-01

370

The isolation of human plasma prekallikrein  

PubMed Central

1. The isolation of human plasma prekallikrein was achieved by fractionating human plasma on diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE) in the presence of heparin. 2. Heparin was shown to inhibit the activation of prekallikrein during the isolation procedure. 3. The isolated prekallikrein fraction had some kallikrein activity which could be inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) without affecting the ability of prekallikrein to be activated. 4. The prekallikrein obtained was functionally pure in that it had no kallikrein inhibiting or activating activity. It was not physico-chemically pure, the major contaminant being the immunoglobulin IgG. PMID:5445687

McConnell, D. J.; Mason, Brenda

1970-01-01

371

[Tinctorial properties of microorganisms isolated from blood].  

PubMed

Cultures isolated from human and animal blood have been examined in tests with 3% KOH solution; their sensitivities to various concentrations of sulfanol have been tested in order to specify the tinctorial characteristics of these cultures; antibiotic sensitivity of this group of microorganisms has been studied with the use of discs. The findings evidence that gram-variable nonspore-carrying aerobic bacilli isolated from human and animal blood should be referred to gram-positive microorganisms; their antibiotic sensitivity has been detected. The tests employed in the study may be rationally used for the identification of polychromic bacteria isolated from the blood. PMID:2470973

Andreeva, Z M; Ershova, E B; Khramova, N I; Barkhudarian, B A

1989-01-01

372

Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

2013-04-23

373

21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a...

2014-04-01

374

21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a...

2013-04-01

375

21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a...

2012-04-01

376

21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a...

2011-04-01

377

Isolated spinal neurobehçet disease. MR imaging findings.  

PubMed

MR imaging findings of a patient with isolated cervical spinal cord involvement of neurobehçet disease is presented. To our knowledge this will be the sixth case reported in the literature. PMID:14510765

Cakirer, S

2003-09-01

378

Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

James, Daniel E.

1984-01-01

379

Characterization of microorganisms isolated from counterfeit toothpaste.  

PubMed

The appearance of potentially counterfeit "Colgate" toothpaste on the American market prompted a criminal investigation by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including the collection of c. 60,000 tubes of toothpaste from retail outlets and product distributors. Microbiological testing was performed based on the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, which determined the presence and number of bacteria present in the products. Bacteria were isolated from each "Colgate" variety; up to 2 × 10(6) cfu/g were isolated from some of the product units. Using conventional microscopic and biochemical bacterial identification methods, most of the bacteria isolated from these samples were Gram-negative rods of several genera, including Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Klebsiella. Most of the organisms isolated represent opportunistic pathogens, and therefore, counterfeit "Colgate" toothpaste containing high levels of bacteria pose a human health hazard. PMID:22509777

Brzezinski, Jennifer L; Craft, David L

2012-09-01

380

Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation System  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is to develop a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system which is capable to diagnosis multiple sensor faults in nonlinear cases. In order to lead this study closer to real world applications in oil industries...

Yang, Cheng-Ken

2014-08-01

381

Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Clinical Desulfovibrio Isolates  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 16 clinical isolates of Desulfovibrio spp. were determined. All or most isolates were susceptible to imipenem (MIC90 [MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited], 0.5 ?g/ml), metronidazole (MIC90, 0.25 ?g/ml), clindamycin (MIC90, 4 ?g/ml), and chloramphenicol (MIC90, 16 ?g/ml) but were resistant or intermediate to penicillin G (MIC90, 64 ?g/ml), piperacillin (MIC90, 256 ?g/ml), piperacillin-tazobactam (MIC90, 256 ?g/ml), cefoxitin (MIC90, >256 ?g/ml), and cefotetan (MIC90, 64 ?g/ml). Among isolates with decreased susceptibility to ?-lactams (n = 15), only six were ?-lactamase positive and susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate and ticarcillin-clavulanate. PMID:11557495

Lozniewski, A.; Labia, R.; Haristoy, X.; Mory, F.

2001-01-01

382

Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

1992-01-01

383

Isolated Curves for Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography  

E-print Network

We introduce the notion of isolated genus two curves. As there is no known efficient algorithm to explicitly construct isogenies between two genus two curves with large conductor gap, the discrete log problem (DLP) cannot be efficiently carried over from an isolated curve to a large set of isogenous curves. Thus isolated genus two curves might be more secure for DLP based hyperelliptic curve cryptography. We establish results on explicit expressions for the index of an endomorphism ring in the maximal CM order, and give conditions under which the index is a prime number or an almost prime number for three different categories of quartic CM fields. We also derived heuristic asymptotic results on the densities and distributions of isolated genus two curves with CM by any fixed quartic CM field. Computational results, which are also shown for three explicit examples, agree with heuristic prediction with errors within a tolerable range.

Wang, Wenhan

2012-01-01

384

Microfabricated structures with electrical isolation and interconnections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is directed to a microfabricated device. The device includes a substrate that is etched to define mechanical structures at least some of which are anchored laterally to the remainder of the substrate. Electrical isolation at points where mechanical structures are attached to the substrate is provided by filled isolation trenches. Filled trenches may also be used to electrically isolate structure elements from each other at points where mechanical attachment of structure elements is desired. The performance of microelectromechanical devices is improved by 1) having a high-aspect-ratio between vertical and lateral dimensions of the mechanical elements, 2) integrating electronics on the same substrate as the mechanical elements, 3) good electrical isolation among mechanical elements and circuits except where electrical interconnection is desired.

Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

385

Isolation, cultivation and transfection of human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Human keratinocytes could be used in the repair of damaged skin, in tissue engineering applications, gene therapy and recently, the generation of iPS cells. We isolated human keratinocytes from foreskin and subsequently cultured them on fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin-coated dishes that contained three different types of serum-free medium (epilife, KSM or CnT). We developed improved conditions for efficient transfection of these human keratinocytes by testing three common transfection methods and a GFP plasmid vector. The isolated cells showed typical keratinocyte morphology and expressed the epithelial cell specific antigen, cytokeratin 14. Collagen type 1, epilife medium and lipofectamin 2000 gave the best results for isolation and transfection of human keratinocytes. Our protocol can be used as a reproducible, simple and efficient method for isolation, cultivation and genetic manipulation of human keratinocytes, which may be useful in cell and gene therapy applications. PMID:24323435

Zare, Sona; Zarei, Mohammad Ali; Ghadimi, Tayyeb; Fathi, Fardin; Jalili, Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed

2014-04-01

386

Optical Observations of Isolated Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Only 1% of the Isolated Neutron Star (INS) population has been identified in the optical, albeit with different degrees of confidence. Optical observations of INSs are reviewed and their emission properties discussed in an evolutionary framework.

R. Mignani

1998-10-02

387

Triterpene Alcohol Isolation from Oil Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoarborinol, an intact pentacyclic unsaturated alcohol, was isolated from the Messel oil shale (about 50 × 106 years old). Complex organic substances, even those very sensitive to oxidation, reduction, or acidic conditions, can thus survive without alteration for long periods.

P. Albrecht; G. Ourisson

1969-01-01

388

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated Duane retraction syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... people with isolated Duane retraction syndrome develop amblyopia ("lazy eye"), a condition that causes vision loss in the ... congenital ; extraocular muscles ; familial ; gene ; inheritance ; inheritance pattern ; lazy eye ; nervous system ; pattern of inheritance ; protein ; recessive ; strabismus ; ...

389

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperCKemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding isolated hyperCKemia? apoptosis ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

390

WNT10A and isolated hypodontia.  

PubMed

WNT10A has been associated with various syndromes with ectodermal dysplasia from severe autosomal recessive SchO?pf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome to odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia and autosomal dominant hypodontia. We report WNT10A mutations in an American family of which four members are affected with isolated hypodontia or microdontia. Here we demonstrate that in addition to MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, and EDA, mutations in WNT10A can cause isolated hypodontia. PMID:21484994

Kantaputra, Piranit; Sripathomsawat, Warissara

2011-05-01

391

Isolated renal and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients (3 male, 1 female) with isolated renal and 1 female patient with isolated retroperitoneal cysts were reviewed.\\u000a The mean age of the patients was 46 (25–64). The most common presenting symptom was pain. Two cases were discovered incidentally\\u000a by the observance of renal calcification onabdominal x-ray. Indirect hemagglutination test was positive in all cases but eosinophilia\\u000a was present

M. Özgür Tan; Levent Emir; Cankon Germiyano?lu; Cemil Uygur; U?ur Altu?; Demokan Erol

2000-01-01

392

Linezolid Dependence in Staphylococcus epidermidis Bloodstream Isolates  

PubMed Central

We document linezolid dependence among 5 highly linezolid-resistant (LRSE) Staphylococcus epidermidis bloodstream isolates that grew substantially faster at 32 µg/mL linezolid presence. These isolates carried the mutations T2504A and C2534T in multiple 23S rRNA copies and 2 mutations leading to relevant amino acid substitutions in L3 protein. Linezolid dependence could account for increasing LRSE emergence. PMID:23260390

Ntokou, Eleni; Zarkotou, Olympia; Ranellou, Kyriaki; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Tsakris, Athanassios

2013-01-01

393

Linezolid dependence in Staphylococcus epidermidis bloodstream isolates.  

PubMed

We document linezolid dependence among 5 highly linezolid-resistant (LRSE) Staphylococcus epidermidis bloodstream isolates that grew substantially faster at 32 µg/mL linezolid presence. These isolates carried the mutations T2504A and C2534T in multiple 23S rRNA copies and 2 mutations leading to relevant amino acid substitutions in L3 protein. Linezolid dependence could account for increasing LRSE emergence. PMID:23260390

Pournaras, Spyros; Ntokou, Eleni; Zarkotou, Olympia; Ranellou, Kyriaki; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Tsakris, Athanassios

2013-01-01

394

Isolation and damping properties of magnetorheologic elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers two systems based on a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE): a MRE isolator under a frequency varying harmonic excitation and a MRE Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA) mounted on a frequency-varying structure under a random excitation. It is shown that the commandability of the elastomer improves the isolation performances in the first case, and decreases the stress level in the structure in the second case.

Collette, C.; Kroll, G.; Saive, G.; Guillemier, V.; Avraam, M.; Preumont, A.

2009-02-01

395

Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

2011-10-01

396

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either (a) less than or equal to or (b) slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1992-01-01

397

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1994-05-01

398

Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

Sulentic, J.

2010-10-01

399

Isolation and identification of mucinolytic actinomycetes.  

PubMed

Biochemical and physiological tests, and 16S rRNA gene sequences, were used to classify nine Actinomycete strains isolated from soil and sand samples in Thailand. These strains were isolated based on their ability to readily degrade mucin glycoproteins. A turbidometric based mucinolytic assay was developed to confirm this. In addition all strains showed significant production of proteases. Phylogenetic analysis of the strains revealed that from the nine isolated Actinomycete strains eight were closely related to Streptomyces species and one was identified as belonging to the genus Kitasatospora. The biochemical and physiological tests performed identified two strain pairs that were similar (with only 3.9% difference observed) and this was in accordance with the phylogenetic results obtained. The remaining strains were distinct from each other, with the soil-isolated strains forming a separate clade to the sand-isolated strains in the inferred phylogenetic trees. The isolated mucinolytic Actinomycete strains will be the subject of further investigations into their proteolytic and glycosidic activity. Mucin degrading enzymes such as these are studied for their potential to be used for the development of a drug delivery system. PMID:19997863

Gaskell, Elsie E; Sihanonth, Prakitsin; Rostron, Christopher; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Hobbs, Glyn

2010-03-01

400

Microgravity isolation system design: A case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

1994-01-01

401

Reproductive Isolation during Domestication[W  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that reproductive isolation should facilitate evolution under domestication. However, a systematic comparison of reproductive barrier strength between crops and their progenitors has not been conducted to test this hypothesis. Here, we present a systematic survey of reproductive barriers between 32 economically important crop species and their progenitors to better understand the role of reproductive isolation during the domestication process. We took a conservative approach, avoiding those types of reproductive isolation that are poorly known for these taxa (e.g., differences in flowering time). We show that the majority of crops surveyed are isolated from their progenitors by one or more reproductive barriers, despite the fact that the most important reproductive barrier in natural systems, geographical isolation, was absent, at least in the initial stages of domestication for most species. Thus, barriers to reproduction between crops and wild relatives are closely associated with domestication and may facilitate it, thereby raising the question whether reproductive isolation could be viewed as a long-overlooked “domestication trait.” Some of the reproductive barriers observed (e.g., polyploidy and uniparental reproduction), however, may have been favored for reasons other than, or in addition to, their effects on gene flow. PMID:22773750

Dempewolf, Hannes; Hodgins, Kathryn A.; Rummell, Sonja E.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

2012-01-01

402

Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates generally to a system for isolating ground interference from a transmission line, e.g., a ground isolation circuit for isolating a wideband transmission signal (such as a video signal) from ground by modulating the base signal on a carrier signal to permit the transmission signal to be isolated. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a pair of matched mixer circuits, each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input, after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In a preferred embodiment the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which can comprise an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer connects to an isolation transformer to ensure isolation from ground interference. The circuit is considered to be of commercial value in that it can provide isolation between transmitting and receiving circuits, e.g., ground isolation for television circuits or high frequency transmitters, without the need for video transformers or optical isolators, thereby reducing the complexity, power consumption, and weight of the system.

Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

403

Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan  

SciTech Connect

The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

Wing, N.R.

1994-01-01

404

Isolation of murine valve endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Normal valve structures consist of stratified layers of specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with valve interstitial cells (VICs) and surrounded by a monolayer of valve endothelial cells (VECs). VECs play essential roles in establishing the valve structures during embryonic development, and are important for maintaining life-long valve integrity and function. In contrast to a continuous endothelium over the surface of healthy valve leaflets, VEC disruption is commonly observed in malfunctioning valves and is associated with pathological processes that promote valve disease and dysfunction. Despite the clinical relevance, focused studies determining the contribution of VECs to development and disease processes are limited. The isolation of VECs from animal models would allow for cell-specific experimentation. VECs have been isolated from large animal adult models but due to their small population size, fragileness, and lack of specific markers, no reports of VEC isolations in embryos or adult small animal models have been reported. Here we describe a novel method that allows for the direct isolation of VECs from mice at embryonic and adult stages. Utilizing the Tie2-GFP reporter model that labels all endothelial cells with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we have been successful in isolating GFP-positive (and negative) cells from the semilunar and atrioventricular valve regions using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Isolated GFP-positive VECs are enriched for endothelial markers, including CD31 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and retain endothelial cell expression when cultured; while, GFP-negative cells exhibit molecular profiles and cell shapes consistent with VIC phenotypes. The ability to isolate embryonic and adult murine VECs allows for previously unattainable molecular and functional studies to be carried out on a specific valve cell population, which will greatly improve our understanding of valve development and disease mechanisms. PMID:25177896

Miller, Lindsey J; Lincoln, Joy

2014-01-01

405

Carbon utilization profiles of Fusarium virguliforme isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium virguliforme is the cause of sudden death syndrome in soybean. Physiological variability among isolates of the fungus is unknown. One way to measure physiologic variability is to analyze growth on different carbon sources. The carbon source utilization profiles of 18 F. virguliforme isolates were examined using the Biolog FF 96-well microplate, which contains 95 different carbon sources. The utilization of dextrin,D-mannitol, maltotriose,D-lactic acid methyl ester, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, salicin, D-trehalose, and L-alanine differed significantly among isolates (P = 0.05). Carbon sources were grouped into 3 clusters based on their ability to promote growth of F. virguliforme, after calculating Euclidean distances among them. About 12% of the carbon sources promoted a high amount of mycelial growth, 39% promoted a medium amount of growth, and 49% promoted a low amount of mycelial growth; the latter was not significantly different from the water blank control. A hierarchical tree diagram was produced for the 18 isolates based on their carbon source utilization profiles using Ward's hierarchical analysis method. Two main clusters of isolates were formed. One cluster represented greater average mycelial growth on all of the carbon sources than the other cluster. In this study, variability in carbon source utilization among F. virguliforme isolates was evident, but the results were not associated with geographic origin of the isolates, year collected, or published data on aggressiveness. Additional research is needed to determine if these carbon utilization profiles are associated with other biological characteristics, like spore germination, propagule formation, and saprophytic competitiveness. PMID:21164567

Tang, E; Hill, C B; Hartman, G L

2010-12-01

406

Potential of enterococci isolated from horses.  

PubMed

Faecal samples of 122 horses (from farms in Slovakia) were examined to select enterococci to study their probiotic potential for their further use as additives. Each gram of faeces contained 1.0-5.0 cfu (log 10) of enterococci. Of the 43 isolates, 25 (58.1%) were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 3 strains were (6.9%) Enterococcus mundtii and one strain was identified as E. faecalis. Fourteen isolates were not characterized further. A significant proportion of the isolates were resistant to kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. Low urease activity of enterococci dominated. The values of lactic acid ranged from 0.98 to 1.91 mmol/L. Porcine fibronectectin and bovine lactoferrin were bound weakly by tested enterococci, while bovine fibrinogen was bound more strongly. Enterococci from horses did not bind bovine apotransferrin. The isolates adhered with the same ability to human as well as to canine mucus. At least one enterocin gene was detected among 16 analyzed isolates. Ent B gene was detected in all strains tested (16, 100%), followed by the genes ent A, ent P and ent L50B. Three suitable candidates-the strains of E. faecium EF 412, EF 462 and EF 491 were selected for further detail studies and possibilities to be used as additives. PMID:18508395

Lauková, Andrea; Simonová, Monika; Strompfová, Viola; Styriak, Igor; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Várady, Marián

2008-10-01

407

Two-Stage Passive Vibration Isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and testing of a structural system were implemented to hold the optics of the planned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) at positions and orientations characterized by vibrational translation and rotation errors of no more than a few nanometers or a few milliarcseconds, respectively. Much of the effort was devoted to a test bed for verifying the predicted behavior of a vibration- isolation structural subsystem working together with an active control system for positioning and orienting the SIM optics. There was considerable emphasis on the vibration-isolation subsystem, which was passive and comprised two stages. The main sources of vibration were six reaction wheels in an assembly denoted the "backpack." The first vibration-isolation stage consisted of hexapod isolator mounts - one for each reaction wheel - characterized by a natural vibration frequency of 10 Hz. The second stage was a set of three beams, disposed between the backpack and the structure that held the SIM optics, that were flexured such that they transmitted only bending loads, with a natural vibrational frequency and damping of about 5 Hz and 4 percent, respectively. Preliminary test results were presented and characterized as demonstrating the effectiveness of the two-stage vibration-isolation design.

Goullioud, Renaud; Gursel, Yekta; Neville, Timothy; Bronowicki, Allen J.; Platus, David; MacDonald, Rhonda

2008-01-01

408

Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea  

PubMed Central

Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi

2014-01-01

409

Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea.  

PubMed

Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi; Lee, Jungkwan

2014-12-01

410

Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

2011-10-01

411

An active viscoelastic metamaterial for isolation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamaterials are of interest due to their ability to produce novel acoustic behaviour beyond that seen in naturally occurring media. Of particular interest is the appearance of band gaps which lead to very high levels of attenuation within narrow frequency ranges. Resonant elements within metamaterials allow band gaps to form within the long wavelength limit at low frequencies where traditional passive isolation solutions suffer poor performance. Hence metamaterials may provide a path to high performance, low frequency isolation. Two metamaterials are presented here. An acoustic material consisting of an array of split hollow spheres is developed, and its performance is validated experimentally. The application of an acoustic/mechanical analogy allows the development of an elastodynamic metamaterial that could be employed as a high performance vibration isolator at low frequencies. A prototype isolator is manufactured, and its performance is measured. The passively occurring band gap is enhanced using an active control architecture. The use of the active control system in conjunction with the natural passive behaviour of the metamaterial enables high levels of isolation across a broad frequency range. An eventual goal of the work is to produce such materials on a small scale, and as such the metamaterials developed are designed for, and produced using, additive layer manufacturing techniques.

Reynolds, M.; Daley, S.

2014-04-01

412

In Vitro Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities of 21 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates were determined using a broth microdilution technique. One isolate showed acquired resistance to lincomycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin, while five isolates were resistant to flumequine and enrofloxacin. Acquired resistance against these antimicrobials in M. hyopneumoniae field isolates was not reported previously. PMID:15504886

Vicca, J.; Stakenborg, T.; Maes, D.; Butaye, P.; Peeters, J.; de Kruif, A.; Haesebrouck, F.

2004-01-01

413

Isolation of Chromanone and Isobenzofuran Derivatives from a Fungicolous Isolate of Epiccocum purpurascens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemical studies of an organic extract of Epicoccum purpurascens NRRL 37031, isolated from a wood decay fungus in Florida, led to the isolation of two new metabolites, 7-methoxy-4-oxo-chroman-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1) and 1,3-dihydro-5-methoxy-7-methylisobenzofuran (2). Two known isobenzof...

414

GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED WETLANDS IN EASTERN CAROLINA: SOUTHEAST ISOLATED WETLANDS ASSESSMENT, QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN (JULY 2008)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Southeastern Isolated Wetlands Assessment is the new Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) project in EPA Region 4. The project will produce data and synthesis on the ways that isolated wetlands can protect downstream water quality at a watershed s...

415

Normal postnatal androgen production and action in isolated micropenis and isolated hypospadias.  

PubMed Central

To try and find out if a defect in androgen biosynthesis or action could be responsible for the incomplete virilisation seen in boys with isolated hypospadias and isolated micropenis, androgen receptor binding was studied in genital skin fibroblasts established from 18 boys with isolated micropenis and 19 boys with isolated hypospadias. The production of gonadotrophins and testosterone was also measured in the boys with micropenis. There was no evidence of gonadotrophin deficiency, or of a defect in testosterone biosynthesis in the boys with micropenis, and there was no evidence of a quantitative or qualitative defect of androgen binding in either group. These isolated abnormalities may be the result of transient defects in androgen synthesis or action, or both, during a critical phase of embryogenesis. PMID:1929508

Evans, B A; Williams, D M; Hughes, I A

1991-01-01

416

Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isolation circuit is disclosed for isolating ground interference from a wideband transmission signal. The ground isolation circuit of the present invention is constructed using a pair of matched mixer circuits. each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In the preferred embodiment, the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which preferably comprises an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer circuits connects to an isolation transformer to insure isolation from ground interference.

Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

417

Isolating lipid droplets from multiple species.  

PubMed

The lipid droplet (LD) is a cell organelle that has been linked to human metabolic syndromes and that can be exploited for the development of biofuels. The isolation of LDs is crucial for carrying out morphological and biochemical studies of this organelle. In the past two decades, LDs have been isolated from several organisms and investigated by microscopy, proteomics and lipidomics. However, these studies need to be extended to more model organisms, as well as to more animal tissues. Thus, a standard method that can be easily applied to these new samples with the need for minimal optimization is essential. Here we provide an LD isolation protocol that is relatively simple and suitable for a wide range of tissues and organisms. On the basis of previous studies, this 7-h protocol can yield 15-100 ?g of protein-equivalent high-quality LDs that satisfy the requirements for current LD research in most organisms. PMID:23222457

Ding, Yunfeng; Zhang, Shuyan; Yang, Li; Na, Huimin; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Huina; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yong; Yu, Jinhai; Huo, Chaoxing; Xu, Shimeng; Garaiova, Martina; Cong, Yusheng; Liu, Pingsheng

2013-01-01

418

Isolated repeated anastomotic recurrence after sigmoidectomy.  

PubMed

Repeated anastomotic recurrence (AR) of colonic cancer is uncommon. We report a case of a double-isolated AR after sigmoidectomy. In 2003, a 60-year-old woman underwent stapled sigmoid resection for a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further rectal bleeding occurred after six months, and colonoscopy detected an AR. Thus, an additional stapled colorectal anastomosis was performed. Ten months later, a colonoscopy detected a circumferential AR that prompted the completion of a second colorectal resection, with a double-stapled colorectal anastomosis. Twenty-four hours after surgery, a massive pulmonary embolism occurred, and the patient died within a few hours. At present, only six cases of repeated isolated AR have been described. Repeated segmental colorectal resections are generally associated with a favourable prognosis, with a median survival rate of 45 mo (range, 13-132 mo). Repeated isolated ARs are rare, and segmental colorectal resections are generally associated with long-term disease-free survival. PMID:25473193

Conzo, Giovanni; Mauriello, Claudio; Gambardella, Claudio; Cavallo, Fabio; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Napolitano, Salvatore; Santini, Luigi

2014-11-21

419

RNA isolation and fractionation with compaction agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach to the isolation of RNA from bacterial lysates employs selective precipitation by compaction agents, such as hexammine cobalt and spermidine. Using 3.5 mM hexammine cobalt, total RNA can be selectively precipitated from a cell lysate. At a concentration of 2 mM hexammine cobalt, rRNA can be fractionated from low molecular weight RNA. The resulting RNA mixture is readily resolved to pure 5S and mixed 16S/23S rRNA by nondenaturing anion-exchange chromatography. Using a second stage of precipitation at 8 mM hexammine cobalt, the low molecular weight RNA fraction can be isolated by precipitation. Compaction precipitation was also applied to the purification of an artificial stable RNA derived from Escherichia coli 5S rRNA and to the isolation of an Escherichia coli-expressed ribozyme. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

Murphy, J. C.; Fox, G. E.; Willson, R. C.

2001-01-01

420

Isolated repeated anastomotic recurrence after sigmoidectomy  

PubMed Central

Repeated anastomotic recurrence (AR) of colonic cancer is uncommon. We report a case of a double-isolated AR after sigmoidectomy. In 2003, a 60-year-old woman underwent stapled sigmoid resection for a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further rectal bleeding occurred after six months, and colonoscopy detected an AR. Thus, an additional stapled colorectal anastomosis was performed. Ten months later, a colonoscopy detected a circumferential AR that prompted the completion of a second colorectal resection, with a double-stapled colorectal anastomosis. Twenty-four hours after surgery, a massive pulmonary embolism occurred, and the patient died within a few hours. At present, only six cases of repeated isolated AR have been described. Repeated segmental colorectal resections are generally associated with a favourable prognosis, with a median survival rate of 45 mo (range, 13-132 mo). Repeated isolated ARs are rare, and segmental colorectal resections are generally associated with long-term disease-free survival. PMID:25473193

Conzo, Giovanni; Mauriello, Claudio; Gambardella, Claudio; Cavallo, Fabio; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Napolitano, Salvatore; Santini, Luigi

2014-01-01