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1

Antimicrobial susceptibility by Etest of Bartonella henselae isolated from cats and human in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae, a small fastidious Gram-negative bacillus, is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD). Because of difficulty in\\u000a isolating the organism, there has been no report on its antibiotic susceptibility in Japan. We determined the minimal inhibitory\\u000a concentrations (MICs) of eight antimicrobial agents against 32 isolates of B. henselae (31 from cats and one from a human in Japan)

Hidehiro Tsuneoka; Masashi Yanagihara; Junzo Nojima; Kiyoshi Ichihara

2010-01-01

2

Bartonella henselae in Porpoise Blood  

PubMed Central

We report detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in blood samples from 2 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). By using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we directly amplified Bartonella species DNA from blood of a harbor porpoise stranded along the northern North Carolina coast and from a preenrichment blood culture from a second harbor porpoise. The second porpoise was captured out of habitat (in a low-salinity canal along the northern North Carolina coast) and relocated back into the ocean. Subsequently, DNA was amplified by conventional polymerase chain reaction for DNA sequencing. The 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer region obtained from each porpoise was 99.8% similar to that of B. henselae strain San Antonio 2 (SA2), whereas both heme-binding phage-associated pap31 gene sequences were 100% homologous to that of B. henselae SA2. Currently, the geographic distribution, mode of transmission, reservoir potential, and pathogenicity of bloodborne Bartonella species in porpoises have not been determined.

Maggi, Ricardo G.; Harms, Craig A.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Pabst, D. Ann; McLellan, William A.; Walton, Wendy J.; Rotstein, David S.

2005-01-01

3

Genome Rearrangements, Deletions, and Amplifications in the Natural Population of Bartonella henselae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cats are the natural host for Bartonella henselae, an opportunistic human pathogen and the agent of cat scratch disease. Here, we have analyzed the natural variation in gene content and genome structure of 38 Bartonella henselae strains isolated from cats and humans by comparative genome hybridizations to microar- rays and probe hybridizations to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) blots. The variation

Hillevi Lindroos; Olga Vinnere; Alex Mira; Dirk Repsilber; Kristina Naslund; Siv G. E. Andersson

2006-01-01

4

Molecular Evidence of Perinatal Transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae to a Child?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, or DNA of both organisms was amplified and sequenced from blood, enrichment blood cultures, or autopsy tissues from four family members. Historical and microbiological results support perinatal transmission of Bartonella species in this family. It is of clinical relevance that Bartonella spp. may adversely influence human reproductive performance.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Farmer, Peter; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

5

Molecular detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella koehlerae from aortic valves of Boxer dogs with infective endocarditis.  

PubMed

Cardiac aortic valves from five dogs that died from acquired infective endocarditis were retrospectively molecularly screened for Bartonella infection. Identification was carried out using PCR targeting four gene fragments (rpoB, ribC, 16S rRNA and gltA), and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS). Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in aortic valve tissue from one Boxer dog with moderate subaortic stenosis (SAS). Bartonella koehlerae DNA was detected from the aortic valve of another Boxer dog with severe SAS. The latter dog was both a littermate and a housemate of the dog with the B. henselae infection. Other animals residing at the same household were also screened for Bartonella infection. B. henselae was molecularly detected in a spleen aspirate from the dogs' mother, and isolated and molecularly characterized from another housemate cat. This is the first molecular identification of B. henselae and B. koehlerae, two zoonotic Bartonella species, from valves of dogs with canine infective endocarditis, suggesting their role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Moreover, this is the first report describing the detection of B. koehlerae from dogs. PMID:19716241

Ohad, Dan G; Morick, Danny; Avidor, Boaz; Harrus, Shimon

2009-08-08

6

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats and dogs in Korea.  

PubMed

Blood, saliva, and nail samples were collected from 54 dogs and 151 cats and analyzed for the presence of Bartonella henselae with a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Bartonella (B.) henselae was detected in feral cat blood (41.8%), saliva (44.1%), and nail (42.7%) samples. B. henselae was also detected in pet cat blood (33.3%), saliva (43.5%), and nail (29.5%) samples and in pet dog blood (16.6%), saliva (18.5%), and nail (29.6%) samples. Nine samples were infected with B. clarridgeiae and 2 were co-infected with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae of blood samples of dogs. This report is the first to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in dogs and cats in Korea, and suggests that dogs and cats may serve as potential Bartonella reservoirs. PMID:19255530

Kim, You-seok; Seo, Kyoung-won; Lee, Jong-hwa; Choi, Eun-wha; Lee, Hee-woo; Hwang, Cheol-yong; Shin, Nam-shik; Youn, Hee-jeong; Youn, Hwa Young

2009-03-01

7

Multispacer Typing To Study the Genotypic Distribution of Bartonella henselae Populations  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae, a worldwide fastidious bacterium, has a feline reservoir and is pathogenic for humans. However, the relationship between human and cat isolates of B. henselae, as well as its population dynamics and geographic heterogeneity, is not fully understood, in part because of the absence of appropriate typing methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most discriminatory genotyping method for B. henselae, identified seven genotypes and suggested that human isolates arose from a limited number of cat isolates. Herein, we estimated the discriminatory power of multispacer typing (MST) by studying 126 B. henselae cat isolates from various areas of Europe, Asia, and the United States. We identified the nine most variable intergenic spacers conserved by both B. henselae and Bartonella quintana genomes. By comparing the sequences obtained from these nine spacers for each studied isolate, we identified 39 MST genotypes. The distribution of isolates into MST genotypes matched their phylogenetic organization into four clusters. MST showed that European and Asian isolates were different, in contrast with American isolates, but failed to identify pandemic strains. Our study demonstrated that MST is a powerful method for genotyping B. henselae at the strain level and may serve in studying the population dynamics of this bacterium and understanding the relationships between cat and human isolates. Finally, we provide a free-access MST-Rick online software program (http://ifr48.timone.univ-mrs.fr/MST_BHenselae/mst) that investigators may use to compare their own MST sequences to our database.

Li, Wenjun; Chomel, Bruno B.; Maruyama, Soichi; Guptil, Lynn; Sander, Anna; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

2006-01-01

8

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura as a complication of Bartonella henselae infection.  

PubMed

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is an infrequent yet well-recognized complication of viral infections, such as mumps, rubella, varicella, cytomegalovirus, parvovirus and infectious monunucleosis by Epstein-Barr virus. Some recent studies have described a possible association between Henoch-Schonlein purpura, a non-thrombocytopenic purpura, and seropositivity for Bartonella henselae, but in the literature only sporadic case reports have described a severe immune thrombocytopenic purpura as a complication of Bartonella henselae infection. We report a case of an immunocompetent child with clinical and serological evidence of Bartonella henselae infection presenting with purpura and cervical lymphoadenopathy and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. The patient obtained a rapid and persistent increase in platelet count and a complete regression of purpura. PMID:18622151

Palumbo, Emilio; Sodini, Federica; Boscarelli, Giuseppe; Nasca, Giuseppina; Branchi, Maurizio; Pellegrini, Guido

2008-06-01

9

Bartonella henselae infection associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome.  

PubMed

This is the first report of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) related to Bartonella henselae infection. A 10-year-old girl had difficulty walking and marked myalgia. The search for all causes known to trigger GBS was negative. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and recovered. Because she lived in a rural area and had a history of kitten contact, a specific serology for B. henselae infection was performed and confirmed an ongoing infection. She did not show any clinical typical feature of cat-scratch disease. B. henselae infection should be considered in the wide etiologic spectrum of GBS. PMID:16395116

Massei, Francesco; Gori, Laura; Taddeucci, Grazia; Macchia, Pierantonio; Maggiore, Giuseppe

2006-01-01

10

Bartonella henselae Invasion of Feline Erythrocytes In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, establishes long-term bacteremia in cats, in which it attaches to and invades feline erythrocytes (RBC). Feline RBC invasion was assessed in vitro, based on gentamicin selection for intracellular bacteria or by laser confocal microscopy and digital sectioning. Invasion rates ranged from 2 to 20% of the inoculum, corresponding to infection of

JANE R. MEHOCK; CRAIG E. GREENE; FRANK C. GHERARDINI; TAE-WOOK HAHN

1998-01-01

11

Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and HLA-B27  

PubMed Central

AIM—To investigate the frequency of HLA-B27 in patients with presumed Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and to describe the clinical characteristics of HLA-B27 positive patients with uveitis and presumed ocular bartonellosis (POB).?METHODS—The diagnosis of POB was considered in 19 patients with unexplained uveitis (except for the HLA-B27 association) and high positive IgG (titre ?1:900) and/or IgM (titre ?1:250) antibodies against B henselae. In addition to B henselae serology and HLA-B27 typing, all patients underwent an extensive standard diagnostic screening procedure for uveitis and in all cases the results were within the normal limits. The control group consisted of 25 consecutive patients with panuveitis and negative B henselae serology.?RESULTS—HLA-B27 was positive in six of the 19 patients (32%) with POB in contrast to the 4% frequency of HLA-B27 in the control group (p=0.03) and 8% prevalence of HLA-B27 in the Dutch population (p=0.003). At the time of positive Bartonella serological testing five of six HLA-B27 positive patients with POB had severe posterior segment involvement with papillitis, macular oedema, and vitreitis. The duration of intraocular inflammatory activity was more than 6 months in five HLA-B27 positive patients. Although four of the six HLA-B27 positive patients had previous recurrent attacks of acute anterior uveitis, the clinical presentation at the time of positive Bartonella serology differed, as illustrated by the involvement of the posterior segment and chronic course of the ocular disease.?CONCLUSIONS—The frequency of HLA-B27 in patients with uveitis and serological characteristics of acute infection with B henselae is higher than in the general Dutch population. The findings of this study also suggest a relation between infection with Bartonella species and HLA-B27.??

Kerkhoff, F; Rothova, A

2000-01-01

12

Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats' saliva  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran. Materials and Methods Blood, saliva and nail samples were collected from 140 domestic cats (stray and pet) from Tehran and Shahrekord and analyzed for the presence of B. henselae with cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing. Results In this study B. henselae was detected in 10.9% of saliva samples (12/110) from pet cats. B. henselae was not detected in nail samples of pet cats (n=110), and in any feral cats’ saliva and nail samples (n=30). Conclusion Our data suggest that pet cats are more likely than stray cats to infect human with B. henselae after a bite and also stray cats can play a role as a reservoir for this bacteria. This is the first report that investigates the presence of B. henselae in cats oral cavity in Iran.

Oskouizadeh, K; Zahraei-Salehi, T; Aledavood, SJ

2010-01-01

13

The louse-borne human pathogen Bartonella quintana is a genomic derivative of the zoonotic agent Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

We present the complete genomes of two human pathogens, Bartonella quintana (1,581,384 bp) and Bartonella henselae (1,931,047 bp). The two pathogens maintain several similarities in being transmitted by insect vectors, using mammalian reservoirs, infecting similar cell types (endothelial cells and erythrocytes) and causing vasculoproliferative changes in immunocompromised hosts. A primary difference between the two pathogens is their reservoir ecology. Whereas B. quintana is a specialist, using only the human as a reservoir, B. henselae is more promiscuous and is frequently isolated from both cats and humans. Genome comparison elucidated a high degree of overall similarity with major differences being B. henselae specific genomic islands coding for filamentous hemagglutinin, and evidence of extensive genome reduction in B. quintana, reminiscent of that found in Rickettsia prowazekii. Both genomes are reduced versions of chromosome I from the highly related pathogen Brucella melitensis. Flanked by two rRNA operons is a segment with similarity to genes located on chromosome II of B. melitensis, suggesting that it was acquired by integration of megareplicon DNA in a common ancestor of the two Bartonella species. Comparisons of the vector-host ecology of these organisms suggest that the utilization of host-restricted vectors is associated with accelerated rates of genome degradation and may explain why human pathogens transmitted by specialist vectors are outnumbered by zoonotic agents, which use vectors of broad host ranges.

Alsmark, Cecilia M.; Frank, A. Carolin; Karlberg, E. Olof; Legault, Boris-Antoine; Ardell, David H.; Canback, Bjorn; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Naslund, A. Kristina; Handley, Scott A.; Huvet, Maxime; La Scola, Bernard; Holmberg, Martin; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2004-01-01

14

Bartonella henselae Infection of Prosthetic Aortic Valve Associated with Colitis  

PubMed Central

Abstract The diagnosis of infective endocarditis can be difficult, particularly with atypical presentation and negative blood cultures. A 61-year-old man with a porcine aortic valve presented with fever, intermittent confusion, diarrhea, and fatigue. In the community clinic setting, a colonoscopy performed for anemia demonstrated colitis. Symptoms progressed for months; elicitation of a history of significant kitten exposure and the finding of an axillary lymph node prompted testing for Bartonella henselae antibodies. High titer antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated chronic B. henselae infection. Surgical valve replacement followed by prolonged doxycycline and rifampin led to cure. This case illustrates the complexities of infective endocarditis and is the first description B. henselae endocarditis associated with colitis in an immunocompetent adult.

Karris, Maile Young; Litwin, Christine M.; Dong, Hong S.

2011-01-01

15

Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae Infection)  

MedlinePLUS

... CSD. Although B. henselae has been found in fleas, so far there is no evidence that a bite from an infected flea can give you CSD. How can I reduce ... lick open wounds that you may have. Control fleas. If you develop an infection (with pus and ...

16

Genome Rearrangements, Deletions, and Amplifications in the Natural Population of Bartonella henselae?  

PubMed Central

Cats are the natural host for Bartonella henselae, an opportunistic human pathogen and the agent of cat scratch disease. Here, we have analyzed the natural variation in gene content and genome structure of 38 Bartonella henselae strains isolated from cats and humans by comparative genome hybridizations to microarrays and probe hybridizations to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) blots. The variation in gene content was modest and confined to the prophage and the genomic islands, whereas the PFGE analyses indicated extensive rearrangements across the terminus of replication with breakpoints in areas of the genomic islands. We observed no difference in gene content or structure between feline and human strains. Rather, the results suggest multiple sources of human infection from feline B. henselae strains of diverse genotypes. Additionally, the microarray hybridizations revealed DNA amplification in some strains in the so-called chromosome II-like region. The amplified segments were centered at a position corresponding to a putative phage replication initiation site and increased in size with the duration of cultivation. We hypothesize that the variable gene pool in the B. henselae population plays an important role in the establishment of long-term persistent infection in the natural host by promoting antigenic variation and escape from the host immune response.

Lindroos, Hillevi; Vinnere, Olga; Mira, Alex; Repsilber, Dirk; Naslund, Kristina; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2006-01-01

17

Molecular detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella koehlerae from aortic valves of Boxer dogs with infective endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac aortic valves from five dogs that died from acquired infective endocarditis were retrospectively molecularly screened for Bartonella infection. Identification was carried out using PCR targeting four gene fragments (rpoB, ribC, 16S rRNA and gltA), and the 16S–23S intergenic spacer (ITS). Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in aortic valve tissue from one Boxer dog with moderate subaortic stenosis (SAS). Bartonella

Dan G. Ohad; Danny Morick; Boaz Avidor; Shimon Harrus

2010-01-01

18

Characterization of Human Immunoglobulin (Ig) Isotype and IgG Subclass Response to Bartonella henselae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serologic parameters of cat scratch disease (CSD) were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Sera from patients with serologically confirmed CSD antigen were screened for immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype-specific as well as IgG subclass-specific reactivity against Bartonella henselae whole-cell antigen. Bartonella-negative con- trol sera were used to determine baseline antibody activity. Heterogeneous B. henselae-specific IgG reactivity with numerous protein bands, ranging from

SVENA L. MCGILL; RUSSELL L. REGNERY; KEVIN L. KAREM

19

From cat scratch disease to endocarditis, the possible natural history of Bartonella henselae infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most patients with infectious endocarditis (IE) due to Bartonella henselae have a history of exposure to cats and pre-existing heart valve lesions. To date, none of the reported patients have had a history of typical cat scratch disease (CSD) which is also a manifestation of infection with B. henselae. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a patient

Frédérique Gouriet; Hubert Lepidi; Gilbert Habib; Frédéric Collart; Didier Raoult

2007-01-01

20

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae Infection and Correlation with Disease Status in Cats in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of infection with Bartonella henselae was investigated in cats from different areas of Switzer- land. Serum samples of 728 cats were examined for antibodies to B. henselae by immunofluorescent antibody testing, and the results were analyzed with a view to a possible correlation between a positive titer and signalment, clinical signs, infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline

T. GLAUS; R. HOFMANN-LEHMANN; C. GREENE; B. GLAUS; C. WOLFENSBERGER

1997-01-01

21

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae in Italian Stray Cats: Evaluation of Serology To Assess the Risk of Transmission of Bartonella to Humans  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is the major etiological agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats act as the natural reservoir of B. henselae and can transmit the infection to humans by a bite or scratch. The prevalence of B. henselae in cat populations was evaluated by serological and bacteriological tests. A total of 769 stray cats from three urban and three rural areas in northern Italy were sampled between January 1999 and December 2000. The positive and the negative predictive values of serological tests with respect to bacteremic status were evaluated. Tests of a total of 140 cats (18%) resulted in detection of bacteremia. A total of 540 cats were tested by serology; 207 (38%) were seropositive. Of the 531 cats tested by both methods, the results for 65 (12.2%) showed both bacteremia detection and seropositivity. The molecular typing of the isolates showed that 20.6% of bacteremic cats were infected with B. henselae type I strain, 61.1% were infected with B. henselae type II, and 18.3% were coinfected with both. A statistically significant difference in antibody and bacteremia prevalences among geographical areas was detected. Statistical analysis showed no association between characteristics such as seroprevalence-bacteremic status, sex, general health status, and the presence of ectoparasites. The negative predictive value of serological test was 84.7%, and the positive predictive value was 31.8%. Receiving operator characteristic analysis of the data showed that serological tests had a low predictive value in relation to the bacteremic status of a cat; in surveys aimed at assessing the real risk of B. henselae infection in a human population, therefore, we suggest the use of blood culture as the reference test. Nevertheless, both blood culture assays and serological tests for Bartonella infection should be performed for a complete evaluation of the health status of cats.

Fabbi, Massimo; De Giuli, Luciana; Tranquillo, Massimo; Bragoni, Roldano; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Genchi, Claudio

2004-01-01

22

Managing iron supply during the infection cycle of a flea borne pathogen, Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe3+ transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe2+ transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3–5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle.

Liu, MaFeng; Biville, Francis

2013-01-01

23

Bartonella henselae induces NF-kappaB-dependent upregulation of adhesion molecules in cultured human endothelial cells: possible role of outer membrane proteins as pathogenic factors.  

PubMed

The endothelium is a specific target for Bartonella henselae, and endothelial cell infection represents an important step in the pathogenesis of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Mechanisms of Bartonella-endothelial cell interaction as well as signaling pathways involved in target cell activation were analyzed. B. henselae strain Berlin-1, isolated from bacillary angiomatosis lesions of a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient, potently stimulated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as determined by NF-kappaB activation and enhanced adhesion molecule expression. These effects were accompanied by increased PMN rolling on and adhesion to infected endothelial cell monolayers, as measured in a parallel-plate flow chamber assay. Monoclonal antibodies against E-selectin significantly reduced PMN rolling and adhesion. In our hands, B. henselae Berlin-1 was substantially more active than the typing strain B. henselae ATCC 49882. E-selectin and ICAM-1 upregulation occurred for up to 9 days, as verified by Northern blotting and cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Induction of adhesion molecules was mediated via NF-kappaB activation and could be blocked by a specific NF-kappaB inhibitor. Additional studies indicated that B. henselae-induced effects did not require living bacteria or Bartonella lipopolysaccharides. Exposure of HUVEC to purified B. henselae outer membrane proteins (OMPs), however, reproduced all aspects of endothelial cell activation. In conclusion, B. henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis, infects and activates endothelial cells. B. henselae OMPs are sufficient to induce NF-kappaB activation and adhesion molecule expression followed by enhanced rolling and adhesion of leukocytes. These observations identify important new properties of B. henselae, demonstrating its capacity to initiate a cascade of events culminating in a proinflammatory phenotype of infected endothelial cells. PMID:11447190

Fuhrmann, O; Arvand, M; Göhler, A; Schmid, M; Krüll, M; Hippenstiel, S; Seybold, J; Dehio, C; Suttorp, N

2001-08-01

24

Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B. henselae represents an antecedent infection for GBS, CIDP, and non-specific neurocognitive abnormalities.

2013-01-01

25

Does a Feline Leukemia Virus Infection Pave the Way for Bartonella henselae Infection in Cats? ?  

PubMed Central

Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats—Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)—on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence.

Buchmann, Alexandra U.; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.; Gruber, Achim D.

2010-01-01

26

Does a feline leukemia virus infection pave the way for Bartonella henselae infection in cats?  

PubMed

Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats-Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence. PMID:20610682

Buchmann, Alexandra U; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gruber, Achim D

2010-07-07

27

Neuroretinitis Caused by Bartonella henselae (Cat-Scratch Disease) in a 13-Year-Old Girl  

PubMed Central

Cat-scratch disease-related neuroretinitis is a relatively unusual pathology, with suspicious clinical epidemiological and serological diagnosis. We present a case of an adolescent suffering from unilateral neuroretinitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection characterized by abrupt loss of vision, optic disc swelling, and macular star exudates with optimal response to antibiotic treatment.

Dura-Trave, Teodoro; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Lavilla-Oiz, Ana; Bove-Guri, Marta

2010-01-01

28

Identification of Bartonella henselae in 2 cats with pyogranulomatous myocarditis and diaphragmatic myositis.  

PubMed

Most cats infected with Bartonella henselae remain outwardly healthy carriers for years; however, self-limiting fever, transient anemia, neurologic dysfunction, lymphadenopathy, reproductive disorders, aortic valvular endocarditis, and neutrophilic myocarditis have been described in experimentally or naturally infected cats. Two cats in a North Carolina shelter died with pyogranulomatous myocarditis and diaphragmatic myositis. Bacteria were visualized in the lesions by Warthin-Starry silver impregnation and by B. henselae immunohistochemistry. B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from the heart of 1 cat and from multiple tissue samples, including heart and diaphragm, from the second cat. This study supports a potential association between B. henselae and what has been historically described as "transmissible myocarditis and diaphragmitis" of undetermined cause in cats. PMID:21490304

Varanat, M; Broadhurst, J; Linder, K E; Maggi, R G; Breitschwerdt, E B

2011-04-13

29

A genome-wide study of recombination rate variation in Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of recombination vary by three orders of magnitude in bacteria but the reasons for this variation is unclear. We performed a genome-wide study of recombination rate variation among genes in the intracellular bacterium Bartonella henselae, which has among the lowest estimated ratio of recombination relative to mutation in prokaryotes. Results The 1.9?Mb genomes of B. henselae strains IC11, UGA10 and Houston-1 genomes showed only minor gene content variation. Nucleotide sequence divergence levels were less than 1% and the relative rate of recombination to mutation was estimated to 1.1 for the genome overall. Four to eight segments per genome presented significantly enhanced divergences, the most pronounced of which were the virB and trw gene clusters for type IV secretion systems that play essential roles in the infection process. Consistently, multiple recombination events were identified inside these gene clusters. High recombination frequencies were also observed for a gene putatively involved in iron metabolism. A phylogenetic study of this gene in 80 strains of Bartonella quintana, B. henselae and B. grahamii indicated different population structures for each species and revealed horizontal gene transfers across Bartonella species with different host preferences. Conclusions Our analysis has shown little novel gene acquisition in B. henselae, indicative of a closed pan-genome, but higher recombination frequencies within the population than previously estimated. We propose that the dramatically increased fixation rate for recombination events at gene clusters for type IV secretion systems is driven by selection for sequence variability.

2012-01-01

30

Interaction of Bartonella henselae with the Murine Macrophage Cell Line J774: Infection and Proinflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), a self-limiting condition characterized by a subacute regional lymphadenopathy that may develop into disseminated bartonellosis in immunocompromised subjects. Mice experimentally infected with B. henselae display typical liver and spleen granulomas rich in T cells and macrophages. So far there are no data on the interaction between bartonellae and macrophages. In order to clarify this topic, we investigated the interaction of B. henselae with J774, a mouse macrophage cell line. Analysis of bacterial uptake by functional assays and transmission electron microscopy indicates that bartonellae can enter and survive inside J774. Entry occurred within 30 min postinfection and reached a plateau at 160 min. Infection of J774 was followed by a dose-dependent release of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1? (IL-1?), and IL-6. Bartonellae persisted intracellularly without loss of viability for at least 8 h, and their number slightly decreased 24 h postinfection. Gamma interferon (IFN-?) treatment of J774 significantly decreased the number of recoverable bacteria at 8 and 24 h. This enhancement of macrophage bactericidal activity was associated with nitric oxide (NO) release and was prevented by the addition of the competitive inhibitor of NO synthesis NG-monomethyl l-arginine. These findings suggest that IFN-?-mediated activation of macrophages may be important for the clearing of B. henselae infection and that anti-B. henselae microbicidal activity of IFN-?-activated macrophages is mediated to a large extent by NO production.

Musso, Tiziana; Badolato, Raffaele; Ravarino, Daniela; Stornello, Sarah; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Merlino, Chiara; Savoia, Dianella; Cavallo, Rossana; Ponzi, Alessandro Negro; Zucca, Mario

2001-01-01

31

Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian  

PubMed Central

Background During a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. Prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in Grenada and Ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in South Africa. The woman reported contact with fleas, ticks, lice, biting flies, mosquitoes, spiders and mites and had also been scratched or bitten by dogs, cats, birds, horses, reptiles, rabbits and rodents. Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient’s symptoms. Methods PCR assays targeting Anaplasma spp. Bartonella spp. and hemotopic Mycoplasma spp. were used to test patient blood samples. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced directly and compared to GenBank sequences. In addition, Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture was used to facilitate bacterial growth and Bartonella spp. serology was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Results Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum DNA was amplified and sequenced from the woman’s blood, serum or blood culture samples. Her serum was variably seroreactive to several Bartonella sp. antigens. Despite symptomatic improvement, six months of doxycycline most likely failed to eliminate the B. henselae infection, whereas A. platys and Candidatus M. haematoparvum DNA was no longer amplified from post-treatment samples. Conclusions As is typical of many veterinary professionals, this individual had frequent exposure to arthropod vectors and near daily contact with persistently bacteremic reservoir hosts, including cats, the primary reservoir host for B. henselae, and dogs, the presumed primary reservoir host for A. platys and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Physicians caring for veterinarians should be aware of the occupational zoonotic risks associated with the daily activities of these animal health professionals.

2013-01-01

32

Hemin Binding Protein C Is Found in Outer Membrane Vesicles and Protects Bartonella henselae against Toxic Concentrations of Hemin  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are Gram-negative, emerging bacterial pathogens found in two distinct environments. In the gut of the obligately hematophagous arthropod vector, bartonellae are exposed to concentrations of heme that are toxic to other bacteria. In the bloodstream of the mammalian host, access to heme and iron is severely restricted. Bartonellae have unusually high requirements for heme, which is their only utilizable source of iron. Although heme is essential for Bartonella survival, little is known about genes involved in heme acquisition and detoxification. We developed a strategy for high-efficiency transposon mutagenesis to screen for genes in B. henselae heme binding and uptake pathways. We identified a B. henselae transposon mutant that constitutively expresses the hemin binding protein C (hbpC) gene. In the wild-type strain, transcription of B. henselae hbpC was upregulated at arthropod temperature (28°C), compared to mammalian temperature (37°C). In the mutant strain, temperature-dependent regulation was absent. We demonstrated that HbpC binds hemin and localizes to the B. henselae outer membrane and outer membrane vesicles. Overexpression of hbpC in B. henselae increased resistance to heme toxicity, implicating HbpC in protection of B. henselae from the toxic levels of heme present in the gut of the arthropod vector. Experimental inoculation of cats with B. henselae strains demonstrated that both constitutive expression and deletion of hbpC affect the ability of B. henselae to infect the cat host. Modulation of hbpC expression appears to be a strategy employed by B. henselae to survive in the arthropod vector and the mammalian host.

Roden, Julie A.; Wells, Derek H.; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kasten, Rickie W.

2012-01-01

33

Induction of a Potential Paracrine Angiogenic Loop between Human THP1 Macrophages and Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells during Bartonella henselae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is responsible for various disease syndromes that loosely correlate with the immune sta- tus of the host. In the immunocompromised individual, B. henselae-induced angiogenesis, or bacillary angio- matosis, is characterized by vascular proliferative lesions similar to those in Kaposi's sarcoma. We hypothesize that B. henselae-mediated interaction with immune cells, namely, macrophages, induces potential angiogenic growth factors and cytokines

Sandra I. Resto-Ruiz; Michael Schmiederer; Debra Sweger; Catherine Newton; Thomas W. Klein; Herman Friedman; Burt E. Anderson

2002-01-01

34

Optic disk edema associated with peripapillary serous retinal detachment: an early sign of systemic Bartonella henselae infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe optic disk edema associated with peripapillary serous retinal detachment as an early sign of systemic Bartonella henselae infection.METHODS: Multicentered, retrospective case series.RESULTS: Five women and two men presented with optic disk edema producing peripapillary serous retinal detachment. Each patient had a markedly elevated serum anti–B. henselae antibody titer. Patient age ranged from 11 to 44 years, with

N. Kevin Wade; Leah Levi; Matthew R Jones; Robert Bhisitkul; Laura Fine; Emmett T Cunningham

2000-01-01

35

PCR detection of Bartonella bovis and Bartonella henselae in the blood of beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although an organism primarily associated with non-clinical bacteremia in domestic cattle and wild ruminants, Bartonella bovis was recently defined as a cause of bovine endocarditis. The purpose of this study was to develop a B. bovis species-specific PCR assay that could be used to confirm the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection. Blood samples from 142 cattle were tested by

Natalie A. Cherry; Ricardo G. Maggi; Allen L. Cannedy; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

2009-01-01

36

Co-existence of acute transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Bartonella henselae infection.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a benign, self-limiting condition associated with Bartonella henselae. Neurological manifestations are uncommon. Acute transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome have been reported rarely with CSD. This report describes a 12-year-old boy with acute transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with CSD. PMID:23930734

Carman, Kursat Bora; Yimenicioglu, Sevgi; Ekici, Arzu; Yakut, Ayten; Dinleyici, Ener Cagr?

2013-08-01

37

Intracellular location of Bartonella henselae cocultivated with Vero cells and used for an indirect fluorescent-antibody test.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae, the major causative agent of cat scratch disease, was cocultivated with Vero cells on chamber slides and visualized by indirect immunofluorescence by using a patient serum containing specific antibodies. Confocal microscopy localized the granular B. henselae-specific fluorescence mainly around the nuclei of Vero cells. By transmission electron microscopy, these granules were identified as clusters of multiple intracellular organisms. Fixed slides with the monolayers of Vero cells with intracellular B. henselae were used for an indirect fluorescent-antibody test to investigate the seroprevalence of specific immunoglobulin G in 100 serum samples from blood donors. Seventy-four serum samples were negative; 19, 3, and 4 were positive at dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, and 1:256, respectively. In our population, a serum titer of 1:256 or greater should stimulate further investigations. Moreover, elucidation of the mechanism by which B. henselae enters the cells may help to understand the pathogenesis of cat scratch disease.

Zbinden, R; Hochli, M; Nadal, D

1995-01-01

38

Bartonella henselae-Specific Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Display a Predominantly Th1 Phenotype in Experimentally Infected C57BL\\/6 Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune responses of the immunocompetent host to Bartonella henselae infection were investigated in the murine infection model using C57BL\\/6 mice. Following intraperitoneal infection with human-derived B. henselae strain Berlin-1, viable bacteria could be recovered from livers and spleens during the first week postinfection, while Bartonella DNA remained detectable by PCR in the liver for up to 12 weeks after infection.

MARDJAN ARVAND; RALF IGNATIUS; THOMAS REGNATH; HELMUT HAHN; MARTIN E. A. MIELKE

2001-01-01

39

Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by l-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dil-Ac-LDL/lectin double immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of EPCs revealed EPC bioactivity after infection with B. henselae. Nitric oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine (l-arg) exert a plethora of beneficial effects on vascular function and modulation of immune response. Therefore, we tested also the hypothesis that l-arg (1–30 mM) would affect the infection of B. henselae or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in EPCs. Our data provide evidence that l-arg counteracts detrimental effects induced by TNF or Bartonella infections via NO (confirmed by DETA-NO and L-NMMA experiments) and by modulation of p38 kinase phosphorylation. Microarray analysis indicated several genes involved in immune response were differentially expressed in Bartonella-infected EPCs, whereas these genes returned in steady state when cells were exposed to sustained doses of l-arg. This mechanism may have broad therapeutic applications in tissue ischemia, angiogenesis, immune response, and sepsis.

Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro; Lamberti, Florentia; Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Farzati, Bartolomeo; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ignarro, Louis Joseph; Napoli, Claudio

2008-01-01

40

Pitfalls and Fallacies of Cat Scratch Disease Serology: Evaluation of Bartonella henselae-Based Indirect Fluorescence Assay and Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic value of the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM by Bartonella henselae-based indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) for the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD) was evaluated. The IFA was performed either with B. henselae that was cocultivated for a few hours with Vero cells or with noncocultivated B. henselae as the antigen. Additionally,

A. M. C. BERGMANS; M. F. PEETERS; J. F. P. SCHELLEKENS; M. C. VOS; L. J. M. SABBE; J. M. OSSEWAARDE; H. VERBAKEL; H. J. HOOFT; L. M. SCHOULS

41

Bartonella henselae antibody prevalence in free-ranging and captive wild felids from California.  

PubMed

In order to determine the importance of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella spp. infection, 136 Nobuto strips or serum samples from free-ranging mountain lions (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Felis rufus) captured in California (USA) between 1985 and 1996 were tested for B. henselae antibodies (titer > or = 1:64) using an immunofluorescence test. Similarly, 124 serum samples from 114 captive wild cats representing 26 species or subspecies collected between 1991 and 1995 were retrieved from the serum banks of four California zoological parks. Fifty-three percent (33/62) of the bobcats, 35% (26/74) of the mountain lions, and 30% (34/114) of the captive wild felids (genera Acinonyx, Panthera and Felis) had B. henselae antibodies. In captive wild felids, prevalence varied widely among the species, but seropositivity was more likely to occur in the genus Felis than in the genus Acinonyx or Panthera. Prevalence was evenly distributed between sexes, except for free-ranging mountain lions. Antibody prevalence ranged from 25% in 0- to 2-yr-old captive felids to 35% in cats > or = 9-yr-old, but the highest antibody titers were observed in cats < 5-yr-old. PMID:9476226

Yamamoto, K; Chomel, B B; Lowenstine, L J; Kikuchi, Y; Phillips, L G; Barr, B C; Swift, P K; Jones, K R; Riley, S P; Kasten, R W; Foley, J E; Pedersen, N C

1998-01-01

42

Structure of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from Bartonella henselae bound to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.  

PubMed

Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) enzymes have been found in a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. FBPA catalyses the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The SSGCID has reported several FBPA structures from pathogenic sources, including the bacterium Brucella melitensis and the protozoan Babesia bovis. Bioinformatic analysis of the Bartonella henselae genome revealed an FBPA homolog. The B. henselae FBPA enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme crystallized in the apo form but failed to diffract; however, well diffracting crystals could be obtained by cocrystallization in the presence of the native substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A data set to 2.35 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=72.39, b=127.71, c=157.63 Å. The structure was refined to a final free R factor of 22.2%. The structure shares the typical barrel tertiary structure and tetrameric quaternary structure reported for previous FBPA structures and exhibits the same Schiff base in the active site. PMID:21904049

Gardberg, Anna; Abendroth, Jan; Bhandari, Janhavi; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart

2011-08-13

43

Structure of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from Bartonella henselae bound to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate  

PubMed Central

Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) enzymes have been found in a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. FBPA catalyses the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxy­acetone phosphate. The SSGCID has reported several FBPA structures from pathogenic sources, including the bacterium Brucella melitensis and the protozoan Babesia bovis. Bioinformatic analysis of the Bartonella henselae genome revealed an FBPA homolog. The B. henselae FBPA enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme crystallized in the apo form but failed to diffract; however, well diffracting crystals could be obtained by cocrystallization in the presence of the native substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A data set to 2.35?Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100?K. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.39, b = 127.71, c = 157.63?Å. The structure was refined to a final free R factor of 22.2%. The structure shares the typical barrel tertiary structure and tetrameric quaternary structure reported for previous FBPA structures and exhibits the same Schiff base in the active site.

Gardberg, Anna; Abendroth, Jan; Bhandari, Janhavi; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart

2011-01-01

44

Evaluation of Human Seroreactivity to Bartonella Species in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the species that compose the expanding genus Bartonella, thus far only B. henselae and B. quintana have reportedly been isolated from humans in Europe. To evaluate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in Sweden, we conducted a retrospective serological examination of 126 human serum samples. These samples were analyzed for antibodies to B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae. Serum

M. HOLMBERG; S. M CGILL; C. EHRENBORG; L. WESSLEN; E. HJELM; J. DARELID; L. BLAD; L. ENGSTRAND; R. REGNERY; G. FRIMAN

1999-01-01

45

Isolation and Characterization of Bartonella bacilliformis from an Expatriate Ecuadorian?  

PubMed Central

Carrion's disease is typically biphasic with acute febrile illness characterized by bacteremia and severe hemolytic anemia (Oroya fever), followed by benign, chronic cutaneous lesions (verruga peruana). The causative agent, Bartonella bacilliformis, is endemic in specific regions of Peru and Ecuador. We describe atypical infection in an expatriate patient who presented with acute splenomegaly and anemia 3 years after visiting Ecuador. Initial serology and PCR of the patient's blood and serum were negative for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and B. bacilliformis. Histology of splenic biopsy was suggestive of bacillary angiomatosis, but immunohistochemistry ruled out B. henselae and B. quintana. Bacilli (isolate EC-01) were subsequently cultured from the patient's blood and analyzed using multilocus sequence typing, protein gel electrophoresis with Western blotting, and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against a panel of sera from patients with Oroya fever in Peru. The EC-01 nucleotide sequences (gltA and internal transcribed spacer) and protein band banding pattern were most similar to a subset of B. bacilliformis isolates from the region of Caraz, Ancash, in Peru, where B. bacilliformis is endemic. By IFA, the patient's serum reacted strongly to two out of the three Peruvian B. bacilliformis isolates tested, and EC-01 antigen reacted with 13/20 Oroya fever sera. Bacilliary angiomatosis-like lesions were also detected in the spleen of the patient, who was inapparently infected with B. bacilliformis and who presumably acquired infection in a region of Ecuador where B. bacilliformis was not thought to be endemic. This study suggests that the range of B. bacilliformis may be expanding from areas of endemicity in Ecuador and that infection may present as atypical clinical disease.

Lydy, Shari L.; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Asnis, Deborah; Paddock, Christopher D.; Nicholson, William L.; Silverman, David J.; Dasch, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

46

Isolation & characterization of Bartonella sp. from optic neuritis patients  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Optic neuritis (ON) is characterized by sudden and rapid impairment of vision. Bartonella henselae is a known aetiological agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), which is a common cause of neuroretinitis, the least common type of optic neuritis. The present study was carried out to determine the microbiological aetiology of optic neuritis in patients attending a tertiary care eye hospital in north India, which was later confirmed with molecular characterization. Methods: Of the 50 patients suffering from optic neuritis reported to the Ophthalmology OPD of a tertiary care eye hospital in New Delhi, India, 29 were included in the study. Blood culture from these patients were processed for aerobic and anerobic cultures to rule out infective aetiology. Subsequently, PCR was done on archive, glycerol-stocked cultures. Results: Gram-negative pleomorphic coccobacilli grew in four of 29 patients tested. Characterization of these revealed Bartonella like organism as tested by the API 20E, API Staph, API Strept and RapID ANA systems. Electron microscopy revealed presence of polar flagella and bleb like projection all over the bacterial surface. PCR performed on preserved culture confirmed these as Bartonella sp. Interpretation & conclusions: Infections with Bartonella like organisms have not been demonstrated from India in cases of optic neuritis or in any of the other clinical syndromes in the past. The present study shows the isolation and characterization of Bartonella like organisms from optic neuritis patients. From clinical point of view it will be important to look for these organisms as aetiological agents in ON cases in order to treat with appropriate antibiotics.

Chaudhry, Rama; Mukherjee, Anjan; Menon, Vimala

2012-01-01

47

A flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin prevents flea transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. Methods Specific pathogen free cats (n = 19) were housed in three adjoining enclosures that were separated by mesh to allow C. felis to pass among groups but prevent cats in different enclosures from contacting one another. One group of 4 cats was inoculated intravenously with B. henselae and after infection was confirmed in all cats based on positive PCR assay results, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. The B. henselae infected cat group was flanked by a group of 8 cats that had the collar placed and maintained for the duration of the study and a group of 7 cats that were not treated. Ctenocephalides felis (50 males and 50 females) raised in an insectary were placed on each of the 4 cats in the B. henselae infected group monthly for 7 applications and then every 2 weeks for 4 applications starting the day the collar was applied. Blood was collected from all cats weekly for Bartonella spp. PCR, serology and culture. Results While side-effects associated with the collars were not noted, persistent fever necessitating enrofloxacin therapy occurred in two of the untreated cats. While B. henselae infection was ultimately confirmed in 4 of 7 of the untreated cats, none of the cats with collars became infected (P = 0.026). Conclusions In this study design, use of a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was well tolerated and prevented C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months.

2013-01-01

48

Transcriptional Activation of the htrA (High-Temperature Requirement A) Gene from Bartonella henselae  

Microsoft Academic Search

downstream of P1. This second promoter region, termed P2, had no sequence identity to sE-type heat-inducible promoters. Promoter regions were cloned individually and in tandem into pANT3 upstream of a promoterless version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (gfpmut3) and transformed into B. henselae by electropo- ration. The contiguous promoter region containing both P1 and P2 were necessary for

SANDRA I. RESTO-RUIZ; DEBRA SWEGER; RAYMOND H. WIDEN; NIKOLA VALKOV; BURT E. ANDERSON

2000-01-01

49

Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov., isolated from wild Rodentia.  

PubMed

Four novel strains of members of the genus Bartonella, OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T), were isolated from the blood of wild-captured greater Egyptian jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) and golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). All the animals were imported to Japan as pets from Egypt, Thailand and the Netherlands. The phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (37.4 mol% for strain OY2-1(T), 35.5 mol% for strain BR11-1(T), 35.7 mol% for strain FN15-2(T) and 37.2 mol% for strain KS2-1(T)), and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that those strains belong to the genus Bartonella. Sequence comparisons of gltA and rpoB genes suggested that all of the strains should be classified as novel species of the genus Bartonella. In phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences of five loci, including the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes and the ITS region, and on the concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of three housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gltA and rpoB), all strains formed distinct clades and had unique mammalian hosts that could be discriminated from other known species of the genus Bartonella. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strains OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T) should be classified as representing novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. Type strains of Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are OY2-1(T) (?=?JCM 17712(T)?=?KCTC 23655(T)), BR11-1(T) (?=?JCM 17709(T)?=?KCTC 23909(T)), FN15-2(T) (?=?JCM 17714(T)?=?KCTC 23657(T)) and KS2-1(T) (?=?JCM 17706(T)?=?KCTC 23907(T)), respectively. PMID:22941296

Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujinaga, Yuta; Inoue, Kai; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi

2012-08-31

50

Structure of a Nudix hydrolase (MutT) in the Mg2+--bound state from Bartonella henselae, the bacterium responsible for cat scratch fever  

PubMed Central

Cat scratch fever (also known as cat scratch disease and bartonellosis) is an infectious disease caused by the proteobacterium Bartonella henselae following a cat scratch. Although the infection usually resolves spontaneously without treatment in healthy adults, bartonellosis may lead to severe complications in young children and immunocompromised patients, and there is new evidence suggesting that B. henselae may be associated with a broader range of clinical symptoms then previously believed. The genome of B. henselae contains genes for two putative Nudix hydrolases, BH02020 and BH01640 (KEGG). Nudix proteins play an important role in regulating the intracellular concentration of nucleotide cofactors and signaling molecules. The amino-acid sequence of BH02020 is similar to that of the prototypical member of the Nudix superfamily, Escherichia coli MutT, a protein that is best known for its ability to neutralize the promutagenic compound 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine triphos­phate. Here, the crystal structure of BH02020 (Bh-MutT) in the Mg2+-bound state was determined at 2.1?Å resolution (PDB entry 3hhj). As observed in all Nudix hydrolase structures, the ?-helix of the highly conserved ‘Nudix box’ in Bh-­MutT is one of two helices that sandwich a four-stranded mixed ?-sheet with the central two ?-strands parallel to each other. The catalytically essential divalent cation observed in the Bh-MutT structure, Mg2+, is coordinated to the side chains of Glu57 and Glu61. The structure is not especially robust; a temperature melt obtained using circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that Bh-­MutT irreversibly unfolds and precipitates out of solution upon heating, with a T m of 333?K.

Buchko, Garry W.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Abendroth, Jan; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Law, Laura; Napuli, Alberto J.; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Stewart, Lance J.; Staker, Bart L.; Myler, Peter J.

2011-01-01

51

Bartonella henselae engages inside-out and outside-in signaling by integrin ?1 and talin1 during invasome-mediated bacterial uptake.  

PubMed

The VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven effector proteins (BepA-BepG) into human cells that subvert host cellular functions. Two redundant pathways dependent on BepG or the combination of BepC and BepF trigger the formation of a bacterial uptake structure termed the invasome. Invasome formation is a multi-step process consisting of bacterial adherence, effector translocation, aggregation of bacteria on the cell surface and engulfment, and eventually, complete internalization of the bacterial aggregate occurs in an F-actin-dependent manner. In the present study, we show that Bhe-triggered invasome formation depends on integrin-?1-mediated signaling cascades that enable assembly of the F-actin invasome structure. We demonstrate that Bhe interacts with integrin ?1 in a fibronectin- and VirB/D4 T4SS-independent manner and that activated integrin ?1 is essential for both effector translocation and the actin rearrangements leading to invasome formation. Furthermore, we show that talin1, but not talin2, is required for inside-out activation of integrin ?1 during invasome formation. Finally, integrin-?1-mediated outside-in signaling by FAK, Src, paxillin and vinculin is necessary for invasome formation. This is the first example of a bacterial entry process that fully exploits the bi-directional signaling capacity of integrin receptors in a talin1-specific manner. PMID:22045736

Truttmann, Matthias C; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Huser, Sonja; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Critchley, David R; Dehio, Christoph

2011-11-01

52

In Vitro Susceptibilities ofBartonella henselae,B. quintana, B. elizabethae,Rickettsia rickettsii,R. conorii,R. akari, andR. prowazekii to Macrolide Antibiotics as Determined by Immunofluorescent Antibody Analysis of Infected Vero Cell Monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro susceptibilities ofBartonella(Rochalimaea)henselae,B. quintana,B. elizabethae,Rickettsia akari, R. conorii,R. prowazekii, andR. rickettsiito different concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithro- mycin,erythromycin,androxithromycininVerocellcultureswereevaluated.BartonellaandRickettsiaspp.were allowed to initiate infection of the antibiotic-free Vero cell monolayers, which were maintained in 16-chamber microscope slides in the absence of antibiotics at 32& Ci n aC O 2-enriched atmosphere. The monolayers were then incubated fo r3ht oallow for initial

TIMOTHY J. IVES; PABLO MANZEWITSCH; RUSSELL L. REGNERY; JOHN D. BUTTS; ANDMIZANU KEBEDE

1997-01-01

53

Persistent infection of pets within a household with three Bartonella species.  

PubMed Central

We monitored by blood culture and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) bartonella infection in one dog and eight cats in a household to determine the prevalence and persistence of the infection as well as its transmissibility to humans. Ectoparasite control was rigorously exercised. During a 3-year period, Bartonella clarridgeiae was recovered from one cat on two occasions, and B. henselae was isolated from another cat on four occasions. During a 16-month period, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was isolated from the dog on 8 of 10 culture attempts. Despite extensive household contact, the pet owner was seronegative to all three species by IFA for Bartonella-specific immunoglobulin G.

Kordick, D. L.; Breitschwerdt, E. B.

1998-01-01

54

Bartonella endocarditis: a pathology shared by animal reservoirsand patients.  

PubMed

Bartonellae were first recognized to cause endocarditis in humans in 1993 when cases caused by Bartonella quintana, B. elizabethae, and B. henselae were reported. Since the first isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii from a dog with endocarditis, this organism has emerged as an important pathogen in dogs and an emerging pathogen in people. Subsequently, four types of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii have been described, all of which have been associated with endocarditis in dogs. A limited number of dog endocarditis cases have also been associated with B. clarridgeiae, B. washoensis, B. quintana, and B. rochalimae. The second canine B. clarridgeiae endocarditis case is presented. The clinical and pathological characteristics of Bartonella endocarditis in dogs are similar to disease observed in humans, more often affecting the aortic valve, presenting with highly vegetative lesions with accompanying calcification, and in most instances high antibody titers. Pathological features in dogs include a combination of fibrosis, mineralization, endothelial proliferation, and neovascularization with variable inflammation. Endocarditis has also been described in animal species, which are the natural reservoir of specific Bartonella species, once thought to be solely healthy carriers of these pathogens. A few Bartonella endocarditis cases, including B. henselae, have been reported in cats in the USA and Australia. The second case of B. henselae type Houston I identified in the USA is presented. Furthermore, two cases of B. bovis endocarditis were recently described in adult cows from France. Finally, on-going investigation of valvular endocarditis in free-ranging Alaskan sea otters suggests the involvement of Bartonella species. PMID:19538271

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, R W; Williams, C; Wey, A C; Henn, J B; Maggi, R; Carrasco, S; Mazet, J; Boulouis, H J; Maillard, R; Breitschwerdt, E B

2009-05-01

55

Recommendations for Treatment of Human Infections Caused by Bartonella Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Bartonella are facultative intracellular bacteria belonging to the alpha 2 subgroup of the class Pro- teobacteria and are phylogenetically closely related to Brucella species (15, 73). Until 1993, only three diseases were known to be caused by Bartonella species: Carrion's disease (Bar- tonella bacilliformis), trench fever (Bartonella quintana), and cat scratch disease (CSD; Bartonella henselae). The

J. M. Rolain; P. Brouqui; J. E. Koehler; C. Maguina; M. J. Dolan; D. Raoult

2004-01-01

56

Bartonella tamiae sp. nov., a Newly Recognized Pathogen Isolated from Three Human Patients from Thailand?  

PubMed Central

Three strains of a novel Bartonella species (Bartonella tamiae) were isolated from human patients from Thailand. Sequence analysis of six chromosomal regions (16S rRNA, gltA, groEL, ftsZ, rpoB, and the intergenic spacer region) and phenotypical analysis supported the similarity of the three strains and placed them within the genus Bartonella separately from previously described species.

Kosoy, Michael; Morway, Christina; Sheff, Kelly W.; Bai, Ying; Colborn, James; Chalcraft, Linda; Dowell, Scott F.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Maloney, Susan A.; Baggett, Henry; Sutthirattana, Saithip; Sidhirat, Anussorn; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kasten, Rickie; Popov, Vsevolod; Robinson, Jennilee; Kruglov, Alexander; Petersen, Lyle R.

2008-01-01

57

Bartonella DNA in Dog Saliva  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species, transmitted by arthropods or animal bites and scratches, are emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to test oral swabs collected from dogs. Results indicated the presence of 4 Bartonella species: B. bovis, B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii.

Duncan, Ashlee W.; Maggi, Ricardo G.

2007-01-01

58

Bartonella DNA in dog saliva.  

PubMed

Bartonella species, transmitted by arthropods or animal bites and scratches, are emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to test oral swabs collected from dogs. Results indicated the presence of 4 Bartonella species: B. bovis, B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii. PMID:18258056

Duncan, Ashlee W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2007-12-01

59

Genetic Classification and Differentiation of Bartonella Species Based on Comparison of Partial ftsZ Gene Sequences  

PubMed Central

Currently, 19 species are recognized in the genus Bartonella, 7 of which are involved in an increasing variety of human diseases. Development of molecular tools for detection, identification, and subtyping of strains and isolates has promoted research on Bartonella spp. We amplified and sequenced the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the N-terminal region of the cell division protein for 13 Bartonella species: Bartonella alsatica, B. birtlesii, B. doshiae, B. elizabethae, B. grahami, B. koehlerae, B. schoenbuchensis, B. taylorii, B. tribocorum, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, and B. bovis Bermond et al.(“B. weissii”). Phylogenetically derived trees revealed four statistically supported groups, indicating that sequencing of the ftsZ gene is a useful tool for identifying evolutionary relationships among Bartonella species. Furthermore, we amplified and sequenced the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the C-terminal region of the protein for 4 B. bacilliformis isolates, 14 B. clarridgeiae isolates, 14 B. quintana isolates, and 30 B. henselae isolates that were obtained from different geographic regions, hosts, and clinical specimens. B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana sequences were highly conserved, while those of the four B. bacilliformis isolates differed from the type strain at 5 positions. Among B. henselae strains isolated from cats and patients, only two genotypes were detected: Houston and Marseille. Among 80 clinical samples we detected Bartonella spp. in 35 (43.75%) and found the assay to be comparable to that of a combined intergenic-spacer-region- and pap31-based PCR assay. Our results show the usefulness of the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the C-terminal region for diagnosis of Bartonella infections. More samples should be tested to study its usefulness for epidemiological investigations.

Zeaiter, Zaher; Liang, Zhongxing; Raoult, Didier

2002-01-01

60

Complete Genome Sequence of Bartonella quintana, a Bacterium Isolated from Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Bartonella quintana is a re-emerging pathogen and the causative agent of a broad spectrum of disease manifestations in humans. The present study reports the complete genome of B. quintana strain RM_11, which was isolated from rhesus macaques.

Li, Hao; Tong, Yigang; Huang, Yong; Bai, Jieying; Yang, Hong

2012-01-01

61

Bartonella spp. isolated from wild and domestic ruminants in North America.  

PubMed

Bartonella species were isolated from 49% of 128 cattle from California and Oklahoma, 90% of 42 mule deer from California, and 15% of 100 elk from California and Oregon. Isolates from all 63 cattle, 14 deer, and 1 elk had the same polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. Our findings indicate potential for inter- and intraspecies transmission among ruminants, as well as risk that these Bartonella spp. could act as zoonotic agents. PMID:10827123

Chang, C C; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Heller, R M; Ueno, H; Yamamoto, K; Bleich, V C; Pierce, B M; Gonzales, B J; Swift, P K; Boyce, W M; Jang, S S; Boulouis, H J; Piémont, Y; Rossolini, G M; Riccio, M L; Cornaglia, G; Pagani, L; Lagatolla, C; Selan, L; Fontana, R

62

Bartonella spp. isolated from wild and domestic ruminants in North America.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species were isolated from 49% of 128 cattle from California and Oklahoma, 90% of 42 mule deer from California, and 15% of 100 elk from California and Oregon. Isolates from all 63 cattle, 14 deer, and 1 elk had the same polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. Our findings indicate potential for inter- and intraspecies transmission among ruminants, as well as risk that these Bartonella spp. could act as zoonotic agents.

Chang, C. C.; Chomel, B. B.; Kasten, R. W.; Heller, R. M.; Ueno, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Bleich, V. C.; Pierce, B. M.; Gonzales, B. J.; Swift, P. K.; Boyce, W. M.; Jang, S. S.; Boulouis, H. J.; Piemont, Y.; Rossolini, G. M.; Riccio, M. L.; Cornaglia, G.; Pagani, L.; Lagatolla, C.; Selan, L.; Fontana, R.

2000-01-01

63

[Bartonellosis. II. Other Bartonella responsible for human diseases].  

PubMed

In addition to Bartonella henselae, five other Bartonella species were involved in human pathology. As for B. henselae, ectoparasites seem to be responsible for the transmission of most or all these bacterial species. B. bacilliformis is responsible for Carrion's disease that occurs in some valleys of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. This disease is transmitted by biting of infected sandflies. The bacterial reservoir is constituted by humans only. That disease occurs either as an acute form with severe infectious hemolytic anemia (or Oroya fever), or as benign cutaneous tumors, also called verruga peruana. Healthy blood carriers of the bacterium exist. Trench fever was described during the First World War. This non-lethal disease is constituted of recurrent febrile attacks associated particularly with osseous pains. The causative agent of the disease is B. quintana, transmitted by the body louse. Humans seem to be the reservoir of that bacterium. In some patients, B. quintana can be responsible for endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis and chronic or recurrent bacteremia. Other human infections due to Bartonella sp. have been described: B. vinsonii, isolated from blood of small rodents, and B. elizabethae, the reservoir of which is currently unknown, can be responsible for endocardites. B. clarridgeiae (isolated from blood of 5% of pet cats and 17% of stray cats) may be responsible for human cat scratch disease. All these bartonelloses are diagnosed by non-standard blood culture or by in vitro DNA amplification or by serological testing. Their treatment requires tetracyclines or chloramphenicol or macrolides. PMID:9920964

Piémont, Y; Heller, R

64

Ctenocephalides felis an in vitro potential vector for five Bartonella species.  

PubMed

The blood-sucking arthropod Ctenocephalides felis has been confirmed as a vector for Bartonella henselae and is a suspected vector for Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella quintana and Bartonella koehlerae in Bartonella transmission to mammals. To understand the absence of other Bartonella species in the cat flea, we have developed an artificial flea-feeding method with blood infected successively with five different Bartonella species. The results demonstrated the ability of these five Bartonella species to persist in C. felis suggesting an ability of fleas to be a potential vector for several Bartonella species. In addition, we demonstrated a regurgitation of Bartonella DNA in uninfected blood used to feed C. felis thus suggesting a potential horizontal transmission of Bartonella through C. felis saliva. On the contrary, no vertical transmission was detected in these artificial conditions. PMID:23200028

Bouhsira, Emilie; Ferrandez, Yann; Liu, MaFeng; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

2012-11-28

65

Bartonella Spp. in Pets and Effect on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Among the many mammals infected with Bartonella spp., pets represent a large reservoir for human infection because most Bartonella spp. infecting them are zoonotic. Cats are the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. koehlerae. Dogs can be infected with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. washoensis, B. elizabethae, and B. quintana. The role of dogs as an important reservoir of Bartonella spp. is less clear than for cats because domestic dogs are more likely to be accidental hosts, at least in nontropical regions. Nevertheless, dogs are excellent sentinels for human infections because a similar disease spectrum develops in dogs. Transmission of B. henselae by cat fleas is better understood, although new potential vectors (ticks and biting flies) have been identified. We review current knowledge on the etiologic agents, clinical features, and epidemiologic characteristics of these emerging zoonoses.

Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Maruyama, Soichi; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2006-01-01

66

Characterization of the Genome Composition of Bartonella koehlerae by Microarray Comparative Genomic Hybridization Profiling†  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is present in a wide range of wild and domestic feline hosts and causes cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis in humans. We have estimated here the gene content of Bartonella koehlerae, a novel species isolated from cats that was recently identified as an agent of human endocarditis. The investigation was accomplished by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to a microarray constructed from the sequenced 1.93-Mb genome of B. henselae. Control hybridizations of labeled DNA from the human pathogen Bartonella quintana with a reduced genome of 1.58 Mb were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the array for genes with known levels of sequence divergence. Genome size estimates of B. koehlerae by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis matched that calculated by the CGH, indicating a genome of 1.7 to 1.8 Mb with few unique genes. As in B. quintana, sequences in the prophage and the genomic islands were reported absent in B. koehlerae. In addition, sequence variability was recorded in the chromosome II-like region, where B. koehlerae showed an intermediate retention pattern of both coding and noncoding sequences. Although most of the genes missing in B. koehlerae are also absent from B. quintana, its phylogenetic placement near B. henselae suggests independent deletion events, indicating that host specificity is not solely attributed to genes in the genomic islands. Rather, the results underscore the instability of the genomic islands even within bacterial populations adapted to the same host-vector system, as in the case of B. henselae and B. koehlerae.

Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Mira, Alex; Repsilber, Dirk; Vinnere, Olga; Naslund, Kristina; Dehio, Michaela; Dehio, Christoph; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2005-01-01

67

Experimental Infection of Domestic Cats with Bartonella koehlerae and Comparison of Protein and DNA Profiles with Those of Other Bartonella Species Infecting Felines  

PubMed Central

Bartonella koehlerae, a recently described feline Bartonella species, was isolated from two naturally infected cats in northern California. We experimentally infected domestic cats with B. koehlerae to establish the microbiological and immunological characteristics of this infection in cats and to compare it to infections with those caused by B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. Four cats were inoculated intradermally with B. koehlerae (8.6 × 107 to 3.84 × 108 CFU/ml). None of the cats presented any obvious clinical signs, but all cats developed bacteremia, which peaked at 3.36 × 104 to 1.44 × 106 CFU/ml of blood between day 14 and day 36 postinoculation. B. koehlerae-inoculated cats had a bacteremia duration (mean, 74 days) shorter than did cats inoculated with B. clarridgeiae (mean, 324 days) (P = 0.03). None of the four cats inoculated with B. koehlerae had bacteremia relapse. As shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using B. koehlerae outer membrane protein (OMP) antigens, the four cats developed a species-specific antibody response, and ELISA testing using other feline Bartonella OMP antigens showed statistically lower optical density values. All four cats developed similar antibody reactivity patterns to B. koehlerae OMP antigens as seen by Western blotting, each with at least 20 seroreactive protein bands. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein profile differences were observed for both whole-cell lysate and OMPs from B. koehlerae, compared with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. B. koehlerae was more closely related to B. henselae than to B. clarridgeiae by protein profile, and this relatedness was also confirmed by analysis of the genomic DNA profiles by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Hew, Carrie M.; Weber, David K.; Lee, Wilson I.; Droz, Sara; Koehler, Jane E.

2002-01-01

68

Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease).  

PubMed Central

Shortly after adopting a 6-week-old cat, a veterinarian was bitten on the left index finger. Within 3 weeks, he developed headache, fever, and left axillary lymphadenopathy. Initial blood cultures from the cat and veterinarian were sterile. Repeat cultures from the cat grew Bartonella-like organisms with lophotrichous flagella. Sera from the veterinarian were not reactive against Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, or B. elizabethae antigens but were seroreactive (reciprocal titer, 1,024) against the feline isolate. Sequential serum samples from the cat were reactive against antigens of B. henselae (titer, 1,024), B. quintana (titer, 128), and the feline isolate (titer, 2,048). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of this and six additional feline isolates, including microscopic evaluation, biochemical analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and citrate synthase gene identified the isolates as B. clarridgeiae. This is the first report of cat scratch disease associated with B. clarridgeiae.

Kordick, D L; Hilyard, E J; Hadfield, T L; Wilson, K H; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Breitschwerdt, E B

1997-01-01

69

Dogs are more permissive than cats or guinea pigs to experimental infection with a human isolate of Bartonella rochalimae  

PubMed Central

Bartonella rochalimae was first isolated from the blood of a human who traveled to Peru and was exposed to multiple insect bites. Foxes and dogs are likely natural reservoirs for this bacterium. We report the results of experimental inoculation of two dogs, five cats and six guinea pigs with the only human isolate of this new Bartonella species. Both dogs became bacteremic for 5–7 weeks, with a peak of 103–104 colony forming units (CFU)/mL blood. Three cats had low bacteremia levels (< 200 CFU/mL) of 6–8 weeks’ duration. One cat that remained seronegative had two bacterial colonies isolated at a single culture time point. A fifth cat never became bacteremic, but seroconverted. None of the guinea pigs became bacteremic, but five seroconverted. These results suggest that dogs could be a reservoir of this strain of B. rochalimae, in contrast to cats and guinea pigs.

Chomel, Bruno B.; Henn, Jennifer B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Nieto, Nathan C.; Foley, Janet; Papageorgiou, Sophia; Allen, Claire; Koehler, Jane E.

2009-01-01

70

Bartonella spp. DNA Associated with Biting Flies from California  

PubMed Central

Bartonella DNA was investigated in 104 horn flies (Haematobia spp.), 60 stable flies (Stomoxys spp.), 11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly.

Chung, Crystal Y.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Paff, Sandra M.; Van Horn, Brian A.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

2004-01-01

71

Bartonella spp. DNA associated with biting flies from California.  

PubMed

Bartonella DNA was investigated in 104 horn flies (Haematobia spp.), 60 stable flies (Stomoxys spp.), 11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly. PMID:15324557

Chung, Crystal Y; Kasten, Rickie W; Paff, Sandra M; Van Horn, Brian A; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Chomel, Bruno B

2004-07-01

72

Bartonella spp. Bacteremia and Rheumatic Symptoms in Patients from Lyme Disease-endemic Region  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. Among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae, B. koehlerae, or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and Bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. Conditions diagnosed before referral included Lyme disease (46.6%), arthralgia/arthritis (20.6%), chronic fatigue (19.6%), and fibromyalgia (6.1%). B. henselae bacteremia was significantly associated with prior referral to a neurologist, most often for blurred vision, subcortical neurologic deficits, or numbness in the extremities, whereas B. koehlerae bacteremia was associated with examination by an infectious disease physician. This cross-sectional study cannot establish a causal link between Bartonella spp. infection and the high frequency of neurologic symptoms, myalgia, joint pain, or progressive arthropathy in this population; however, the contribution of Bartonella spp. infection, if any, to these symptoms should be systematically investigated.

Maggi, Ricardo G.; Mozayeni, B. Robert; Pultorak, Elizabeth L.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Bradley, Julie M.; Correa, Maria

2012-01-01

73

Detection of Bartonella spp. DNA in clinical specimens using an internally controlled real-time PCR assay.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD), usually presenting itself as a -self-limiting lymphadenopathy. In this chapter an internally controlled Taqman probe-based real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene of Bartonella spp. is described. This assay allows for the rapid, sensitive, and simple detection of Bartonella spp. in samples from CSD or endocarditis suspects, and it is suitable for implementation in the diagnostic microbiology laboratory. PMID:23104292

Bergmans, Anneke M C; Rossen, John W A

2013-01-01

74

Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis Reveals Profound Genetic Diversity among Isolates of the Human Pathogen Bartonella bacilliformis  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis is the aetiological agent of human bartonellosis, a potentially life threatening infection of significant public health concern in the Andean region of South America. Human bartonellosis has long been recognised in the region but a recent upsurge in the number of cases of the disease and an apparent expansion of its geographical distribution have re-emphasized its contemporary medical importance. Here, we describe the development of a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for B. bacilliformis and its application to an archive of 43 isolates collected from patients across Peru. MLST identified eight sequence types among these isolates and the delineation of these was generally congruent with those of the previously described typing scheme. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequence data derived from MLST loci revealed that seven of the eight sequence types were closely related to one another; however, one sequence type, ST8, exhibited profound evolutionary divergence from the others. The extent of this divergence was akin to that observed between other members of the Bartonella genus, suggesting that ST8 strains may be better considered as members of a novel Bartonella genospecies.

Chaloner, Gemma L.; Palmira Ventosilla; Birtles, Richard J.

2011-01-01

75

Bartonella Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts: Immunology of Vascular Infection and Vasoproliferation  

PubMed Central

Most infections by genus Bartonella in immunocompromised patients are caused by B. henselae and B. quintana. Unlike immunocompetent hosts who usually develop milder diseases such as cat scratch disease and trench fever, immunocompromised patients, including those living with HIV/AIDS and posttransplant patients, are more likely to develop different and severe life-threatening disease. This paper will discuss Bartonella's manifestations in immunosuppressed patients and will examine Bartonella's interaction with the immune system including its mechanisms of establishing infection and immune escape. Gaps in current understanding of the immunology of Bartonella infection in immunocompromised hosts will be highlighted.

Mosepele, Mosepele; Mazo, Dana; Cohn, Jennifer

2012-01-01

76

Bartonella Genotypes in Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) Collected from Rodents in the Negev Desert, Israel?  

PubMed Central

Fleas collected from rodents in the Negev Desert in southern Israel were molecularly screened for Bartonella species. A total of 1,148 fleas, collected from 122 rodents belonging to six species, were pooled in 245 pools based on flea species, sex, and rodent host species. Two Bartonella gene fragments, corresponding to RNA polymerase B (rpoB) and citrate synthase (gltA), were targeted, and 94 and 74 flea pools were found positive by PCR, respectively. The Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was also targeted, and 66 flea pools were found to be positive by PCR. Sixteen different Bartonella gltA genotypes were detected in 94 positive flea pools collected from 5 different rodent species, indicating that fleas collected from each rodent species can harbor several Bartonella genotypes. Based on gltA analysis, identified Bartonella genotypes were highly similar or identical to strains previously detected in rodent species from different parts of the world. A gltA fragment 100% similar to Bartonella henselae was detected in one flea pool. Another 2 flea pools contained gltA fragments that were closely related to B. henselae (98% similarity). The high sequence similarities to the zoonotic pathogen B. henselae warrant further investigation.

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Shenbrot, Georgy I.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Harrus, Shimon

2010-01-01

77

Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

2011-01-01

78

A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes.

Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Bjorn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Naslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2013-01-01

79

Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats in Peru  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.–bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity.

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Gomez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

80

Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause characteristic host-restricted hemotropic infections in mammals and are typically transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In the mammalian reservoir, these bacteria initially infect a yet unrecognized primary niche, which seeds organisms into the blood stream leading to the establishment of a long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia as the hall-mark of infection. Bacterial type IV secretion systems, which are supra-molecular transporters ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems, represent crucial pathogenicity factors that have contributed to a radial expansion of the Bartonella lineage in nature by facilitating adaptation to unique mammalian hosts. On the molecular level, the type IV secretion system VirB/VirD4 is known to translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins into host cells, which subvert multiple cellular functions to the benefit of the infecting pathogen. Furthermore, bacterial adhesins mediate a critical, early step in the pathogenesis of the bartonellae by binding to extracellular matrix components of host cells, which leads to firm bacterial adhesion to the cell surface as a prerequisite for the efficient translocation of type IV secretion effector proteins. The best-studied adhesins in bartonellae are the orthologous trimeric autotransporter adhesins, BadA in Bartonella henselae and the Vomp family in Bartonella quintana. Genetic diversity and strain variability also appear to enhance the ability of bartonellae to invade not only specific reservoir hosts, but also accidental hosts, as shown for B. henselae. Bartonellae have been identified in many different blood-sucking arthropods, in which they are typically found to cause extracellular infections of the mid-gut epithelium. Adaptation to specific vectors and reservoirs seems to be a common strategy of bartonellae for transmission and host diversity. However, knowledge regarding arthropod specificity/restriction, the mode of transmission, and the bacterial factors involved in arthropod infection and transmission is still limited.

Chomel, Bruno B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Birtles, Richard J.; Koehler, Jane E.; Dehio, Christoph

2009-01-01

81

Bartonella and intraocular inflammation: a series of cases and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To present various forms of uveitis and/or retinal vasculitis attributed to Bartonella infection and review the impact of this microorganism in patients with uveitis. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana intraocular inflammation from 2001 to 2010 in the Ocular Inflammation Department of the University Eye Clinic, Ioannina, Greece. Presentation of epidemiological and clinical data concerning Bartonella infection was provided by the international literature. Results: Eight patients with the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae and two patients with B. quintana intraocular inflammation were identified. Since four patients experienced bilateral involvement, the affected eyes totaled 14. The mean age was 36.6 years (range 12–62). Uveitic clinical entities that we found included intermediate uveitis in seven eyes (50%), vitritis in two eyes (14.2%), neuroretinitis in one eye (7.1%), focal retinochoroiditis in one eye (7.1%), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) due to vasculitis in one eye (7.1%), disc edema with peripapillary serous retinal detachment in one eye (7.1%), and iridocyclitis in one eye (7.1%). Most of the patients (70%) did not experience systemic symptoms preceding the intraocular inflammation. Antimicrobial treatment was efficient in all cases with the exception of the case with neuroretinitis complicated by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Conclusion: Intraocular involvement caused not only by B. henselae but also by B. quintana is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. A high index of suspicion is needed because the spectrum of Bartonella intraocular inflammation is very large. In our study the most common clinical entity was intermediate uveitis.

Kalogeropoulos, Chris; Koumpoulis, Ioannis; Mentis, Andreas; Pappa, Chrisavgi; Zafeiropoulos, Paraskevas; Aspiotis, Miltiadis

2011-01-01

82

Seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in HIV patients in Catalonia, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Although the first clinical descriptions of Bartonella infection were associated with immunocompromised patient with bacillary angiomatosis, we currently know that this organism is directly involved in diseases affecting a large number of patients, regardless of their immune status. Cat scratch disease, hepatic peliosis, and some cases of bacteraemia and endocarditis, are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella. The purpose of this study was to determinate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana in HIV patients and to identify the epidemiological factors involved. Methods Serum samples were collected from HIV patients treated at Hospital de Sabadell. Antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana from 340 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Significance levels for univariate statistical test were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test and ?2 test. Results Of 340 patients, 82 were women and 258 men, with a median age of 42.21 ± 10.35 years (range 16–86 years). Seventy-six (22.3%) patients reacted with one or more Bartonella antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, intravenous drugs use, alcohol consumption, CD4 levels, AIDS, HCV, HBV, residential area), only age was statistically significant. Conclusion A high percentage of HIV patients presents antibodies to Bartonella and is increasing with age.

Pons, Immaculada; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Nogueras, Maria Mercedes; Sala, Montserrat; Cervantes, Manuel; Amengual, M Jose; Segura, Ferran

2008-01-01

83

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Small Mammals from Southeastern Asia  

PubMed Central

Among 1,341 blood samples from rodents that were trapped in Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2010, we found a prevalence of Bartonella infection ranging from 9.6 to 11.9%. Bartonella species identified (143 isolates) included B. elizabethae, B. coopersplainsensis, B. phoceensis, B. queenslandensis, B. rattimassiliensis, B. tribocorum, and three new putative Bartonella species.

Jiyipong, Tawisa; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Morand, Serge; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

84

Diversity of Bartonella genotypes in Richardson's ground squirrel populations.  

PubMed

The diversity and dynamics of Bartonella genotypes found in wild Richardson's ground squirrels (RGS), Spermophilus richardsonii were monitored at multiple sites in Saskatchewan, Canada from 2002 to 2004. Based on sequence analysis of a portion of the Bartonella citrate synthase (gltA) gene, four different genotypes were detected in 233 isolates from 176 animals. The majority (87%) of sequences were identified as genotype H, with genotypes I, J, and K accounting for 8%, 4%, and 1% of sequences, respectively. Only one animal was concurrently infected with multiple Bartonella genotypes. Of 23 animals sampled four times or more, 26% were never infected with Bartonella. Of 32 RGS infected with Bartonella at first capture and then sampled again the following month, 50% were infected with the same Bartonella genotype, 41% were no longer infected, and 9% were infected with a different Bartonella genotype in the subsequent sample. The diversity of Bartonella genotypes varied among sites. At one site almost all RGS were infected with genotype H in September, and up to 60% of the same population was infected with genotype I the following spring. We compare our results with previous studies of Bartonella infections in rodents and discuss possible explanations for the observed differences. PMID:17187575

Jardine, Claire; McColl, Dorothy; Wobeser, Gary; Leighton, Frederick A

2006-01-01

85

Bartonella Species as a Potential Cause of Epistaxis in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Infection with a Bartonella species was implicated in three cases of epistaxis in dogs, based upon isolation, serology, or PCR amplification. These cases, in conjunction with previously published reports, support a potential role for Bartonella spp. as a cause of epistaxis in dogs and potentially in other animals, including humans.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Maggi, Ricardo; Hawkins, Eleanor; Dyer, Page

2005-01-01

86

Candidatus Bartonella antechini: a novel Bartonella species detected in fleas and ticks from the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), an Australian marsupial.  

PubMed

Bartonella are fastidious, Gram-negative, aerobic bacilli belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria group. In the last ten years, the discovery of new Bartonella species from a variety of mammalian hosts, arthropod vectors and geographical areas has increased. More than 20 species of Bartonella have been identified, of which approximately thirteen are associated with disease in humans and animals. Recently, four novel species of Bartonella were isolated from mammalian hosts in Australia: Bartonella australis from eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and Bartonella rattaustraliani, Bartonella queenslandensis and Bartonella coopersplainsensis from rodents. Bartonella-like organisms have also been detected from Ixodes tasmani ticks collected from koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). However, very little is known about Bartonella spp. in other marsupials in Australia. We report the identification of a novel Bartonella species detected from fleas (Acanthopsylla jordani) and ticks (Ixodes antechini) collected from a small carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes (Mardos or Yellow-footed antechinus) in the southwest of Western Australia. New nested-PCRs targeting the gltA gene and the ribosomal ITS region were developed as part of the present study. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, gltA, ftsZ and rpoB genes and the ribosomal ITS region revealed that this detection is a distinct Bartonella species and is related to B. australis isolated from kangaroos. This is the first report of two different possible arthropod vectors in Australia (ticks and fleas) being infected with the same species of Bartonella. We propose the name Candidatus Bartonella antechini n. sp. for the recently characterized organism. PMID:21215534

Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Owen, Helen; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

2010-12-08

87

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand  

PubMed Central

We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA.

Kosoy, Michael Y.; Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas; Baggett, Henry; Maloney, Susan A.; Boonmar, Sumalee; Bhengsri, Saithip; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Peruski, Leonard F.

2012-01-01

88

Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.  

PubMed

Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature. PMID:23875817

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

2013-07-23

89

Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M. Y.; Cully, J. F.; Bala, T.; Ray, C.; Collinge, S. K.

2007-01-01

90

Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.  

PubMed

Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372

Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J

2009-10-20

91

Molecular Characterization of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Genotype III?  

PubMed Central

The molecular characterization of a Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III strain (NCSU strain 06-CO1) isolated from the blood of a military working dog diagnosed with endocarditis is reported in this study. Several genes were amplified and sequenced for comparative sequence similarity with other strains.

Cadenas, Maria B.; Bradley, Julie; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Takara, Matt; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2008-01-01

92

New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites. PMID:12558350

Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

2002-12-01

93

Microarray for serotyping of Bartonella species  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are responsible for a large variety of human and animal diseases. Serological typing of Bartonella is a method that can be used for differentiation and identification of Bartonella subspecies. Results We have developed a novel multiple antigenic microarray to serotype Bartonella strains and to select poly and monoclonal antibodies. It was validated using mouse polyclonal antibodies against 29 Bartonella strains. We then tested the microarray for serotyping of Bartonella strains and defining the profile of monoclonal antibodies. Bartonella strains gave a strong positive signal and all were correctly identified. Screening of monoclonal antibodies towards the Gro EL protein of B. clarridgeiae identified 3 groups of antibodies, which were observed with variable affinities against Bartonella strains. Conclusion We demonstrated that microarray of spotted bacteria can be a practical tool for serotyping of unidentified strains or species (and also for affinity determination) by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. This could be used in research and for identification of bacterial strains.

2007-01-01

94

Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Bartonella quintana  

PubMed Central

We describe the first case of Bartonella quintana endocarditis affecting a prosthetic valve in a person with no known risk factors for this infection. Bartonella should be considered as a cause of endocarditis in any clinical setting.

Klein, John L.; Nair, Sukumaran K.; Harrison, Tim G.; Hunt, Ian; Fry, Norman K.

2002-01-01

95

Recombination within and between species of the alpha proteobacterium Bartonella infecting rodents.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections from wild mice and voles (Apodemus flavicollis, Mi. oeconomus, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus) were sampled from a forest and old-field habitats of eastern Poland; a complex network of Bartonella isolates, referrable to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. birtlesii and B. doshiae, was identified by the sequencing of a gltA fragment, comparable to previous studies of Bartonella diversity in rodents. Nested clade analysis showed that isolates could be assigned to zero- and one-step clades which correlated with host identity and were probably the result of clonal expansion; however, sequencing of other housekeeping genes (rpoB, ribC, ftsZ, groEl) and the 16S RNA gene revealed a more complex situation with clear evidence of numerous recombinant events in which one or both Bartonella parents could be identified. Recombination within gltA was found to have generated two distinct variant clades, one a hybrid between B. taylorii and B. doshiae, the other between B. taylorii and B. grahamii. These recombinant events characterised the differences between the two-step and higher clades within the total nested cladogram, involved all four species of Bartonella identified in this work and appear to have played a dominant role in the evolution of Bartonella diversity. It is clear, therefore, that housekeeping gene phylogenies are not robust indicators of Bartonella diversity, especially when only a single gene (gltA or 16S RNA) is used. Bartonella clades infecting Microtus were most frequently involved in recombination and were most frequently tip clades within the cladogram. The role of Microtus in influencing the frequency of Bartonella recombination remains unknown. PMID:20740281

Paziewska, Anna; Harris, Philip D; Zwoli?ska, Lucyna; Bajer, Anna; Si?ski, Edward

2010-08-26

96

Recombination Within and Between Species of the Alpha Proteobacterium Bartonella Infecting Rodents  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections from wild mice and voles (Apodemus flavicollis, Mi. oeconomus, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus) were sampled from a forest and old-field habitats of eastern Poland; a complex network of Bartonella isolates, referrable to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. birtlesii and B. doshiae, was identified by the sequencing of a gltA fragment, comparable to previous studies of Bartonella diversity in rodents. Nested clade analysis showed that isolates could be assigned to zero- and one-step clades which correlated with host identity and were probably the result of clonal expansion; however, sequencing of other housekeeping genes (rpoB, ribC, ftsZ, groEl) and the 16S RNA gene revealed a more complex situation with clear evidence of numerous recombinant events in which one or both Bartonella parents could be identified. Recombination within gltA was found to have generated two distinct variant clades, one a hybrid between B. taylorii and B. doshiae, the other between B. taylorii and B. grahamii. These recombinant events characterised the differences between the two-step and higher clades within the total nested cladogram, involved all four species of Bartonella identified in this work and appear to have played a dominant role in the evolution of Bartonella diversity. It is clear, therefore, that housekeeping gene phylogenies are not robust indicators of Bartonella diversity, especially when only a single gene (gltA or 16S RNA) is used. Bartonella clades infecting Microtus were most frequently involved in recombination and were most frequently tip clades within the cladogram. The role of Microtus in influencing the frequency of Bartonella recombination remains unknown.

Harris, Philip D.; Zwolinska, Lucyna; Bajer, Anna; Sinski, Edward

2010-01-01

97

Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice.

Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

98

A combined approach for the enhanced detection and isolation of Bartonella species in dog blood samples: Pre-enrichment liquid culture followed by PCR and subculture onto agar plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, direct plating, lysis centrifugation, or freeze–thaw approaches have proven to be highly insensitive methods for confirming Bartonella species infection in dogs. A prospective study was designed to compare diagnostic methods for the detection of Bartonella using samples submitted to the Vector-Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at North Carolina State University. Methods included indirect immunofluorescence assay, PCR, direct inoculation of a

Ashlee W. Duncan; Ricardo G. Maggi; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

2007-01-01

99

Differentiation of Pathogenic Bartonella Species by Infrequent Restriction Site PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrequent restriction site PCR (IRS-PCR) is a recently described DNA fingerprinting technique based on selective amplification of restriction endonuclease-cleaved fragments. Bartonella isolates associated with hu- man disease and related nonhuman isolates were analyzed by IRS-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Preparation of DNA templates began with double digestion using three different restriction endonuclease combinations. Combinations included the frequently cutting endonuclease HhaI in conjunction

SCOTT A. HANDLEY; RUSSELL L. REGNERY

2000-01-01

100

Bartonella quintana in Ethiopian lice.  

PubMed

Head and clothing lice from Jimma, Ethiopia were investigated for pathogenic bacteria. Genomic DNA from pools of lice was subjected to PCR analysis for Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp. Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp. and Yersinia pestis. All 102 lice pools were negative for the afore mentioned pathogens, with the exception of Bartonella species found among 6 of 65 (9.2%) head lice pools and1 of 33 clothing lice pools. Identification was achieved by sequencing the ribosomal intragenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), revealing all to be Bartonella quintana. Although established as a clothing louse-borne infection, typically causing chronic bacteraemia, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis and endocarditis, this has only been rarely reported among head lice. The higher numbers of infected head lice pools compared with clothing lice suggests their competence for maintaining this infection within Ethiopia. PMID:22019400

Cutler, Sally; Abdissa, Alemseged; Adamu, Haileeysus; Tolosa, Tadele; Gashaw, Abebaw

2011-10-21

101

Effects of Cow Age and Pregnancy on Bartonella Infection in a Herd of Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnancy status. The putative impact of Bartonella infection on production performance (individual milk cell count, milk yield) and reproductive status (success of artificial insemination [AI], placental retention, embryonic death, and abortion) was also assessed. The overall mean prevalence of B. bovis bacteremia was 59%, with the highest prevalence in heifers (92.5%). No B. chomelii was isolated, and 95% (114/120) of the B. bovis strains isolated and tested by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism belonged to type I. The level of bacteremia was higher in pregnant cows than in nonpregnant cows (P = 0.05), and the level of bacteremia rose during the last two-thirds of gestation (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between bacteremia and milk yield, individual milk cell count, success of first AI, interval between two calvings, or incidence of abortion and embryonic death. The interval from calving to first AI was shorter and the incidence of placental retention was lower in bacteremic animals than in nonbacteremic ones (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively).

Maillard, R.; Grimard, B.; Chastant-Maillard, S.; Chomel, B.; Delcroix, T.; Gandoin, C.; Bouillin, C.; Halos, L.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Boulouis, H.-J.

2006-01-01

102

PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures  

PubMed Central

Background Cats appear to be the primary reservoir host for Bartonella koehlerae, an alpha Proteobacteria that is most likely transmitted among cat populations by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Bartonella koehlerae has caused endocarditis in a dog and in one human patient from Israel, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. Despite publication of numerous, worldwide epidemiological studies designed to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats, B. koehlerae has never been isolated using conventional blood agar plates. To date, successful isolation of B. koehlerae from cats and from the one human endocarditis patient has consistently required the use of chocolate agar plates. Results In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers < 1:16) in 30 healthy human control sera, whereas five of eight patient samples had B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater. Conclusions Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or cofactor in the development of arthritis, peripheral neuropathies or tachyarrhythmias in patients.

2010-01-01

103

Bartonella spp. infection in rodents from different habitats in the Mazury Lake District, Northeast Poland.  

PubMed

Four rodent species (Clethrionomys glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus arvalis, M. oeconomus) were captured in the period 2004-2006 in the Mazury Lake District, Northeast Poland, to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species. The presence of bartonellae was assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers CS140f and BhCS1137n, amplifying a fragment of the gltA gene. Bartonella DNA was detected in 313 (30.6%) of 1024 rodents sampled: in 181 C. glareolus, 68 A. flavicollis, 50 M. arvalis, and 14 M. oeconomus, representing prevalence of 31.0%, 42.2%, 32.9%, and 11.1%, respectively. Comparison of the Bartonella gltA gene sequences from 38 isolates revealed six phylogenetic subgroups, out of 15 unique gltA sequences, and therein from one to five genotypic variants with homology of 88.6-99.1%. Six of 13 (46.2%) isolates from C. glareolus were identical to B. grahamii, species associated with human illness. These results have important public health implication, notably in relation to the risk of infection in humans following exposure to rodent bartonellae. PMID:18399782

Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Paziewska, Anna; Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy M; Si?ski, Edward

2008-08-01

104

Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.  

PubMed

We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity. PMID:22832020

Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

2012-07-24

105

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bartonella senegalensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Bartonella senegalensis sp. nov. strain OS02(T) is the type strain of B. senegalensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bartonella. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated in Senegal from the soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai, the vector of relapsing fever. B. senegalensis is an aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. The 1,966,996 bp-long genome contains 1,710 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes, including 6 rRNA genes. PMID:23991259

Mediannikov, Oleg; El Karkouri, Khalid; Diatta, Georges; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

2013-06-06

106

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bartonella senegalensis sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella senegalensis sp. nov. strain OS02T is the type strain of B. senegalensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bartonella. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated in Senegal from the soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai, the vector of relapsing fever. B. senegalensis is an aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. The 1,966,996 bp-long genome contains 1,710 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes, including 6 rRNA genes.

Mediannikov, Oleg; El Karkouri, Khalid; Diatta, Georges; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

107

Bartonella and Babesia infections in cattle and their ticks in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Bartonella and Babesia infections and the association with cattle breed and age as well as tick species infesting selected cattle herds in Taiwan were investigated. Blood samples were collected from 518 dairy cows and 59 beef cattle on 14 farms and 415 ticks were collected from these animals or in a field. Bartonella and Babesia species were isolated and/or detected in the cattle blood samples and from a selected subset (n=254) of the ticks either by culture or DNA extraction, PCR testing and DNA sequence analysis. Bartonella bovis was isolated from a dairy cow and was detected in 25 (42.4%) beef cattle and 40 (15.7%) tick DNA samples. This is the first isolation of B. bovis from cattle in Asia and detection of a wide variety of Bartonella species in Rhipicephalus microplus. Babesia spp. were detected only on one farm from dairy cows either infected by Babesia bovis (n=10, 1.9%) or B. bigemina (n=3, 0.6%). PMID:21194750

Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chomel, Bruno B; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kass, Philip H; Conrad, Patricia A; Chuang, Shih-Te

2010-12-30

108

Recombination, diversity and allele sharing of infectivity proteins between Bartonella species from rodents.  

PubMed

The alpha-Proteobacterium Bartonella is a common parasite of voles and mice, giving rise to short-lived (4 weeks to 2 months) infections. Here, we report high sequence diversity in genes of the VirB/VirD type IV secretion system (T4SS), amongst Bartonella from natural rodent populations in NE Poland. The VirB5 protein is predicted to consist of three conserved alpha helices separated by loops of variable length which include numerous indels. The C-terminal domain includes repeat stretches of KEK residues, reflecting underlying homopolymeric stretches of adenine residues. A total of 16 variants of VirB5, associated with host identity, but not bacterial taxon, were identified from 22 Bartonella isolates. One was clearly a recombinant from two others, another included an insertion of two KEK repeats. The virB5 gene appears to evolve via both mutation and recombination, as well as slippage mediated insertion/deletion events. The recombinational units are thought to be relatively short, as there was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between virB5 and the bepA locus only 5.5 kb distant. The diversity of virB5 is assumed to be related to immunological role of this protein in Bartonella infections; diversity of virB5 may assist persistence of Bartonella in the rodent population, despite the relatively short (3-4 weeks) duration of individual infections. It is clear from the distribution of virB5 and bepA alleles that recombination within and between clades is widespread, and frequently crosses the boundaries of conventionally recognised Bartonella species. PMID:22419104

Paziewska, Anna; Si?ski, Edward; Harris, Philip D

2012-03-15

109

Whole Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Bartonella bacilliformis Strain INS, the Causative Agent of Carrion's Disease.  

PubMed

Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of human bartonellosis, which is highly endemic to Peru. Here, we report the first genome that was sequenced and analyzed from an isolate of B. bacilliformis strain INS, which originally was isolated from the blood of an infected patient with an acute phase of Carrion's disease from Jaén-Cajamarca, Peru. PMID:23409255

Tarazona, D; Padilla, C; Cáceres, O; Montenegro, J D; Bailón, H; Ventura, G; Mendoza, G; Anaya, E; Guio, H

2013-02-14

110

Whole Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Bartonella bacilliformis Strain INS, the Causative Agent of Carrion's Disease  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of human bartonellosis, which is highly endemic to Peru. Here, we report the first genome that was sequenced and analyzed from an isolate of B. bacilliformis strain INS, which originally was isolated from the blood of an infected patient with an acute phase of Carrion’s disease from Jaén-Cajamarca, Peru.

Tarazona, D.; Padilla, C.; Caceres, O.; Montenegro, J. D.; Bailon, H.; Ventura, G.; Mendoza, G.; Anaya, E.

2013-01-01

111

Ectoparasites of gray squirrels in two different habitats and screening of selected ectoparasites for bartonellae.  

PubMed

Gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, were livetrapped in 2 different habitat types, woodland (67 squirrels) and parkland (53 squirrels), in southeastern Georgia. Ectoparasites were recovered from anesthetized squirrels and compared between hosts from the 2 habitats. Because of the absence of low vegetation in parkland habitats, it was hypothesized that the ectoparasite fauna, especially ticks and chiggers, would be more diverse on woodland squirrels. The results were generally in agreement with this hypothesis. Seventeen species of ectoparasites were recovered from woodland squirrels, compared with 6 species from parkland squirrels. Five species of ticks and 3 species of chiggers parasitized the woodland squirrels compared with no ticks or chiggers on the parkland squirrels. Significantly higher infestation prevalences were recorded on woodland compared with parkland squirrels for the flea Orchopeas howardi, the tick Amblyomma americanum, and the mesostigmatid mite Androlaelaps fahrenholzi. The mean intensity for O. howardi also was significantly higher on woodland than on parkland squirrels. Because a new strain of Bartonella sp. was isolated recently from S. carolinensis in Georgia, selected ectoparasites from this study were screened for bartonellae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some of the fleas and lice, but none of the mites tested, were PCR positive, suggesting that fleas, or lice, or both, might be vectors of bartonellae between squirrels. Six distinct strains of Bartonella sp. were detected, 2 in fleas and 4 in lice. PMID:15270090

Durden, Lance A; Ellis, Barbara A; Banks, Craig W; Crowe, John D; Oliver, James H

2004-06-01

112

No evidence of Bartonella quintana but detection of Acinetobacter baumannii in head lice from elementary schoolchildren in Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human body louse is the only known vector of Bartonella quintana. However, the presence of this bacterium has recently been detected in the head lice of homeless individuals and Nepalese slum children. Previous studies have reported the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from the body lice of homeless individuals. An epidemiological survey including 74 schools was conducted between 2008 and

Sophie Bouvresse; Cristina Socolovshi; Zohra Berdjane; Rémy Durand; Arezki Izri; Didier Raoult; Olivier Chosidow; Philippe Brouqui

113

Bartonella quintana in head lice from Sénégal.  

PubMed

Head and body lice are strict, obligate human ectoparasites with three mitochondrial clades (A, B, and C). Body lice have been implicated as vectors of human diseases, and as the principal vectors of epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and Bartonella quintata-associated diseases (trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, chronic bacteremia, and chronic lymphadenopathy). Using molecular methods (real-time and traditional PCR), we assessed the presence of Bartonella quintana DNA in black head lice collected from three locations in Sénégal. DNA from B. quintana was identified in 19 lice (6.93%) collected from 7 patients (7%) in Dakar. B. quintana-positive lice collected from three subjects were identified as clades C and A. PMID:22607067

Boutellis, Amina; Veracx, Aurélie; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

2012-05-18

114

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mode of transmission of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, especially to identify potential vectors, and to determine how humans become infected. PMID:11060089

Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Simpson, D C; Hew, C M; Kordick, D L; Heller, R; Piemont, Y; Breitschwerdt, E B

2000-11-01

115

Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella  

PubMed Central

It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains understudied compared with most other bacterial pathogens. Numerous questions regarding Bartonella's molecular pathogenesis and epidemiology remain unanswered. Virtually every mammal harbors one or more Bartonella species and their transmission typically involves a hematophagous arthropod vector. However, many details regarding epidemiology and the public health threat imposed by these animal reservoirs is unclear. A handful of studies have shown that bartonellae are highly-adapted pathogens whose parasitic strategy has evolved to cause persistent infections of the host. To this end, virulence attributes of Bartonella include the subversion of host cells with effector molecules delivered via a type IV secretion system, induction of pathological angiogenesis through various means, including inhibition of apoptosis and activation of hypoxia-inducing factor 1, use of afimbrial adhesins that are orthologs of Yersinia adhesin A, incorporation of lipopolysaccharides with low endotoxic potency in the outer membrane, and several other virulence factors that help Bartonella infect and persist in erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the host circulatory system.

Minnick, Michael F; Battisti, James M

2009-01-01

116

Culture and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bartonella quintana in Human Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever, has recently been implicated in various diseases, in particular, bacteremia and endocarditis in homeless people. The host cell of Bartonella spp. is believed to be the eryth- rocyte, and in the present study we demonstrate that B. quintana can be cultured in vitro in human erythro- cytes. The bacteria were found to be

Jean-Marc Rolain; Max Maurin; Marie-Noelle Mallet; Daniel Parzy; Didier Raoult

2003-01-01

117

Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. Bed Bugs Detects Burkholderia multivorans but Not Bartonella.  

PubMed

Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector. PMID:24040015

Saenz, Virna L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

2013-09-09

118

[Diversity of blood parasites of genus Bartonella in wild rodents in Mazury Lakes District].  

PubMed

This long-term study of genetic diversity and epidemiology of the alpha-proteobacterium Bartonella in wild rodents from forest (Myodes glareolus and Apodemus flavicollis) and abandoned farmland (Microtus arvalis and Mi. oeconomus) was carried out in the years 2007-2009 in the Mazury Lakes District. In total, 1193 rodents were marked and recaptured, and 2226 blood samples were collected. The highest Bartonella prevalence was found in A. flavicollis (43.5%), the lowest in Mi. oeconomus (9.4%), while prevalence in My. glareolus and Mi. arvalis was, respectively, 13.2% and 11.8% (PCR of citrate synthase gltA gene fragment). Prevalence varied according to year and season, as well as sex of rodents. For woodland animals, a rapid decrease of prevalence was observed in late 2008, due to the dilution effect. Multiple (different species/genotypes of Bartonella in successive months) and mixed infections (more than one bacteria genotype in the same blood sample) were also diagnosed. Between 2835 and 4800000 colony forming units (CFU) per ml blood were recorded, with, for B. taylorii, significant differences between isolates from hosts belonging to different host families. Sequence analysis of 147 isolates revealed 37 gltA variants. In all four rodents, B. taylorii was the most prevalent, and could be divided into three main clades. One clade of B. grahamii was present in My. glareolus, A. flavicollis and Mi. arvalis, and both Microtus species were infected with a single clade of B. doshiae. A single isolate of B. birtlesii from A. flavicollis was collected, while two isolates could not be assigned to any known species. Nested clade analysis showed host specificity of 1st step clades (connected with rodent species) and 2nd step clades (connected with rodent family). Analysis was then extended to other housekeeping genes (cell division proteinftsZ, heat shock protein groEl, riboflavin synthase ribC, beta subunit RNA polymerase rpoB) and gene encoding 16S rRNA. Comparison of alleles of these genes in 27 isolates revealed numerous recombinant events, primarily involving groEl and 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, genetic recombination within housekeeping genes was also identified, and one of the unidentified Bartonella isolates was found to involve recombination within gltA between B. grahamii and B. taylorii. Examination of two T4SS pathogenicity genes (virB5 and bepA), revealed a similar pattern of extensive recombination. BepA from 17 isolates showed little diversity, concomitant with its role as an intra-cellular messenger. The virB5 gene (encoding a putative extra-cellular adhesin) from 22 isolates from voles (Arvicolidae) and A. flavicollis was distinctively different in sequence and putative structure, and showed a clear signature of horizontal gene transfer. Moreover, these recombinant events were often identified in the same isolates in which recombination of groEl or 16S rRNA was observed, suggesting that selection for this pathogenicity gene is important in the microevolution of Bartonella within rodents. In particular, Microtus spp. was central in the appearance of novel Bartonella isolates. PMID:21638804

Paziewska, Anna

2011-01-01

119

Bartonella quintana Characteristics and Clinical Management  

PubMed Central

Bartonella quintana, a pathogen that is restricted to human hosts and louse vectors, was first characterized as the agent of trench fever. The disease was described in 1915 on the basis of natural and experimental infections in soldiers. It is now recognized as a reemerging pathogen among homeless populations in cities in the United States and Europe and is responsible for a wide spectrum of conditions, including chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Diagnosis is based on serologic analysis, culture, and molecular biology. Recent characterization of its genome allowed the development of modern diagnosis and typing methods. Guidelines for the treatment of B. quintana infections are presented.

Foucault, Cedric; Brouqui, Philippe

2006-01-01

120

Fatal myocarditis-associated Bartonella quintana endocarditis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bartonella spp. infection is not rare and must be considered with great care in patients with suspected infective endocarditis, particularly if regular blood cultures remain sterile. Management of these infections requires knowledge of the identification and treatment of these bacteria. Case presentation A 50-year-old Senegalese man was admitted to our Department of Cardiac Surgery with a culture-negative endocarditis. Despite valvular surgery and adequate antibiotic treatment, recurrence of the endocarditis was observed on the prosthetic mitral valve. Heart failure required circulatory support. Weaning off the circulatory support could not be attempted owing to the absence of heart recovery. Bacteriological diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis was performed by molecular methods retrospectively after the death of the patient. Conclusions This case report underlines the severity and difficulty of the diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis. The clinical picture suggested possible Bartonella quintana associated myocarditis, a feature that should be considered in new cases.

2009-01-01

121

Studies on the Pathogenicity and Related Characteristics of Bartonella Bacilliformis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genus bartonella was re-evaluated in terms of characterization and identification. Effort included investigation of serological procedures (fluorescent antibody, immuno-diffusion, and hemagglutination techniques) and morphological, biochemical, and cu...

J. M. Slack P. D. Mitchell B. Baumann

1966-01-01

122

Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease.

Harms, Alexander

2012-01-01

123

Gray Foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) as a Potential Reservoir of a Bartonella clarridgeiae-Like Bacterium and Domestic Dogs as Part of a Sentinel System for Surveillance of Zoonotic Arthropod-Borne Pathogens in Northern California?  

PubMed Central

Two species of Bartonella, a novel Bartonella clarridgeiae-like bacterium and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, were isolated from rural dogs and gray foxes in northern California. A novel B. clarridgeiae-like species was isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 182 dogs and 22 (42%) of 53 gray foxes, while B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was isolated from 1 dog (0.5%) and 5 gray foxes (9.4%). PCR and DNA sequence analyses of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region suggested that strains infecting dogs and gray foxes were identical. Fifty-four dogs (29%) and 48 gray foxes (89%) had reciprocal titers of antibodies against Bartonella spp. of ?64. The high prevalence of bacteremia and seroreactivity to Bartonella spp. in gray foxes suggests that they may act as a reservoir species for the B. clarridgeiae-like species in this region. Domestic dogs were also tested for other arthropod-borne infectious agents. Fifty-one dogs (28%) were positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigen, seventy-four (40%) were seroreactive to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and five (2.7%) were seropositive for Yersinia pestis. Fourteen dogs (7.6%) were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the association of Bartonella antibody titer categories with potential risk factors and the presence of other vector-borne agents in domestic dogs. Older dogs were more likely to be seroreactive to Bartonella spp. There was no association between the exposure of dogs to Bartonella and the exposure of dogs to A. phagocytophilum in this study.

Henn, Jennifer B.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Brown, Richard N.; Theis, Jerold H.; Foley, Janet E.; Chomel, Bruno B.

2007-01-01

124

Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Commensal Rodents and Ectoparasites from Nigeria, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. In recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. To date, no studies investigating the presence of Bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria were carried out. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp. in commensal rodents and their ectoparasites in Nigeria. We report, for the first time, the molecular detection of Bartonella in 26% (46/177) of commensal rodents (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and Cricetomys gambianus) and 28% (9/32) of ectoparasite pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, Haemolaelaps spp., Ctenophthalmus spp., Hemimerus talpoides, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) from Nigeria. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) revealed diversity of Bartonella spp. and genotypes in Nigerian rodents and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum and Bartonella grahamii were detected. Conclusions/Significance High prevalence of infection with Bartonella spp. was detected in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria. The Bartonella spp. identified were previously associated with human diseases highlighting their importance to public health. Further studies need to be conducted to determine whether the identified Bartonella species could be responsible for human cases of febrile illness in Nigeria.

Kamani, Joshua; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

2013-01-01

125

Aortic Valve Endocarditis in a Dog Due to Bartonella clarridgeiae  

PubMed Central

We report the first documented case of endocarditis associated with Bartonella clarridgeiae in any species. B. clarridgeiae was identified as a possible etiological agent of human cat scratch disease. Infective vegetative valvular aortic endocarditis was diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old male neutered boxer. Historically, the dog had been diagnosed with a systolic murmur at 16 months of age and underwent balloon valvuloplasty for severe valvular aortic stenosis. Six months later, the dog was brought to a veterinary hospital with an acute third-degree atrioventricular block and was diagnosed with infective endocarditis. The dog died of cardiopulmonary arrest prior to pacemaker implantation. Necropsy confirmed severe aortic vegetative endocarditis. Blood culture grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 8 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) and 16S rRNA genes indicated that this organism was B. clarridgeiae. DNA extraction from the deformed aortic valve and the healthy pulmonic valve revealed the presence of B. clarridgeiae DNA only from the diseased valve. No Borrelia burgdorferi or Ehrlichia sp. DNA could be identified. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, the dog was seropositive for B. clarridgeiae and had antibodies against Ehrlichia phagocytophila but not against Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, B. burgdorferi, or Coxiella burnetii.

Chomel, Bruno B.; Mac Donald, Kristin A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chang, Chao-Chin; Wey, Aaron C.; Foley, Janet E.; Thomas, William P.; Kittleson, Mark D.

2001-01-01

126

Aortic valve endocarditis in a dog due to Bartonella clarridgeiae.  

PubMed

We report the first documented case of endocarditis associated with Bartonella clarridgeiae in any species. B. clarridgeiae was identified as a possible etiological agent of human cat scratch disease. Infective vegetative valvular aortic endocarditis was diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old male neutered boxer. Historically, the dog had been diagnosed with a systolic murmur at 16 months of age and underwent balloon valvuloplasty for severe valvular aortic stenosis. Six months later, the dog was brought to a veterinary hospital with an acute third-degree atrioventricular block and was diagnosed with infective endocarditis. The dog died of cardiopulmonary arrest prior to pacemaker implantation. Necropsy confirmed severe aortic vegetative endocarditis. Blood culture grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 8 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) and 16S rRNA genes indicated that this organism was B. clarridgeiae. DNA extraction from the deformed aortic valve and the healthy pulmonic valve revealed the presence of B. clarridgeiae DNA only from the diseased valve. No Borrelia burgdorferi or Ehrlichia sp. DNA could be identified. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, the dog was seropositive for B. clarridgeiae and had antibodies against Ehrlichia phagocytophila but not against Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, B. burgdorferi, or Coxiella burnetii. PMID:11574571

Chomel, B B; Mac Donald, K A; Kasten, R W; Chang, C C; Wey, A C; Foley, J E; Thomas, W P; Kittleson, M D

2001-10-01

127

Bartonella quintana in head louse nits.  

PubMed

The body louse is the principal vector of Bartonella quintana, the causative organism of trench fever, but B. quintana DNA has also been detected in adult head lice. Because there are no characteristics that distinguish the body louse from the head louse, we decided to test head louse nits collected from a homeless man for the presence of B. quintana DNA. All of the sampled nits tested positive by real-time PCR, and intergenic spacer region (ITS) gene sequences shared 100% similarity to the corresponding ITS fragment of the genome of B. quintana. The role of the head louse in the maintenance and transmission of B. quintana remains to be determined. PMID:21477003

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe

2011-05-05

128

Seroepidemiology of Bartonella Infection in Gray Foxes from Texas  

PubMed Central

Abstract Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were shown to be naturally infected with Bartonella rochalimae, a Bartonella species similar to Bartonella clarridgeiae (B.c.), and Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii (B.v.berkhoffii) in northern California. A serological survey was performed to investigate the presence of Bartonella infection in 132 gray foxes from West/Central Texas. Using an immunofluorescence antibody test directed against B.v.berkhoffii and B.c., the antibody prevalence was 50% (66/132), with 22 (33.3%) individuals seropositive for B.c. only, 8 (12.2%) for B.v.berkhoffii, and 36 (54.5%) seroreactive for both B.c. and B.v.berkhoffii. The foxes had 3.63 more odds (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.38, 10.25) to be seropositive for B.c. than for B.v.berkhoffii. Female foxes were more likely to be seropositive for B.c. (odds ratio [OR]=2.90, 95% CI=1.33, 6.36) and also for both antigens (OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.06, 5.90) than males.

Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Moore, Guy M.; Namekata, Michael S.; Kasten, Rick W.

2012-01-01

129

I. BARTONELLA INCIDENCE IN SPLENECTOMIZED BILE FISTULA DOGS  

PubMed Central

Splenectomized bile fistula dogs in this laboratory have regularly exhibited spontaneous periods of anemia, which are associated with excessive bile pigment production. In three out of four dogs, such periods have been shown to be associated with the presence in the blood of bodies morphologically indistinguishable from descriptions of Bartonella canis. Simple splenectomized dogs have not shown such periods of anemia arising spontaneously. Inoculations of blood containing Bartonella bodies into two splenectomized dogs have resulted in intervals of blood destruction associated with the presence in their blood of bodies similar to those in the inoculated blood. Injection of such blood into a splenectomized biliary-renal fistula dog has resulted in a similar picture. Efforts to cultivate Bartonella bodies in artificial culture media have so far been unsuccessful. Neosalvarsan appears to have a specific sterilizing effect on the condition. Spleen extract feeding appears to have an inhibiting effect upon the periods of anemia and bile pigment overproduction.

Knutti, R. E.; Hawkins, W. B.

1935-01-01

130

Do Bartonella Infections Cause Agitation, Panic Disorder, and Treatment-Resistant Depression?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bartonella is an emerging infection found in cities, suburbs, and rural locations. Routine national labs offer testing for only 2 species, but at least 9 have been discovered as human infections within the last 15 years. Some authors discuss Bartonella cases having atypical presentations, with serious morbidity considered uncharacteristic of more routine Bartonella infections. Some atypical findings include distortion of vision, abdominal pain, severe liver and spleen tissue abnormalities, thrombocytopenic purpura, bone infection, arthritis, abscesses, heart tissue and heart valve problems. While some articles discuss Bartonella as a cause of neurologic illnesses, psychiatric illnesses have received limited attention. Case reports usually do not focus on psychiatric symptoms and typically only as incidental comorbid findings. In this article, we discuss patients exhibiting new-onset agitation, panic attacks, and treatment-resistant depression, all of which may be attributed to Bartonella. Methods Three patients receiving care in an outpatient clinical setting developed acute onset personality changes and agitation, depression, and panic attacks. They were retrospectively examined for evidence of Bartonella infections. The medical and psychiatric treatment progress of each patient was tracked until both were significantly resolved and the Bartonella was cured. Results The patients generally seemed to require higher dosing of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics in order to function normally. Doses were reduced following antibiotic treatment and as the presumed signs of Bartonella infection remitted. All patients improved significantly following treatment and returned to their previously healthy or near-normal baseline mental health status. Discussion New Bartonella species are emerging as human infections. Most do not have antibody or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic testing at this time. Manual differential examinations are of unknown utility, due to many factors such as low numbers of infected red blood cells, the small size of the infecting bacteria, uncertainty of current techniques in viewing such small bacteria, and limited experience. As an emerging infection, it is unknown whether Bartonella occurrence in humans worldwide is rare or common, without further information from epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, and treatment outcomes research. Conclusion Three patients presented with acute psychiatric disorders associated with Bartonella-like signs and symptoms. Each had clear exposure to ticks or fleas and presented with physical symptoms consistent with Bartonella, eg, an enlarged lymph node near an Ixodes tick bite and bacillary angiomatosis found only in Bartonella infections. Laboratory findings and the overall general course of the illnesses seemed consistent with Bartonella infection. The authors are not reporting that these patients offer certain proof of Bartonella infection, but we hope to raise the possibility that patients infected with Bartonella can have a variety of mental health symptoms. Since Bartonella can clearly cause neurologic disorders, we feel the presence of psychiatric disorders is a reasonable expectation.

Schaller, James L.; Burkland, Glenn A.; Langhoff, P.J.

2007-01-01

131

Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.  

PubMed

Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880

Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

2012-03-30

132

Seroprevalence of Bartonella in Eastern China and analysis of risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella infections are emerging in the Zhejiang Province of China. However, there has been no effort to date to explore the epidemiology of these infections in this region, nor to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Bartonella in both patients bitten by dogs and blood donors (for control) in Eastern China, and to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. As no previous data for this region have been published, this study will provide baseline data useful for Bartonella infection surveillance, control, and prevention. Methods Blood samples were collected from industrial rabies clinic attendees and blood donors living in eight areas of the Zhejiang Province of China, between December 2005 and November 2006. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to determine the presence of Bartonella in these samples. Risk factors associated with Bartonella exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis of epidemiological data relating to the study's participants. Results Bartonella antibodies were detected in 19.60% (109/556) of blood samples. Seroprevalence varied among the eight areas surveys, ranging from over 32% in Hangzhou to only 2% in Jiangshan (X2 = 28.22, P < 0.001). We detected a significantly higher prevalence of Bartonella antibodies in people who had been bitten by dogs than in blood donors (X2 = 13.86, P < 0.001). Seroprevalence of Bartonella was similar among males (18.61%, n = 317) and females (20.92%, n = 239). Conclusions Bartonella antibodies were encountered in people living across Zhejiang Province and the seropositivity rate among those exposed to dog bites was significantly higher than that among blood donors, indicating that dog bites may be a risk factor for Bartonella infection.

2010-01-01

133

The Trw Type IV Secretion System of Bartonella Mediates Host-Specific Adhesion to Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have

Muriel Vayssier-Taussat; Danielle Le Rhun; Hong Kuan Deng; Francis Biville; Sandra Cescau; Antoine Danchin; Geneviève Marignac; Evelyne Lenaour; Henri Jean Boulouis; Maria Mavris; Lionel Arnaud; Huanming Yang; Jing Wang; Maxime Quebatte; Philipp Engel; Henri Saenz; Christoph Dehio

2010-01-01

134

Experimental infection of three laboratory mouse stocks with a shrew origin Bartonella elizabethae strain: an evaluation of bacterial host switching potential  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella elizabethae has been reported as a causative agent of human illnesses and strains of this bacterium are commonly isolated from commensal small mammals in Asia. Methods Since the zoonotic potential of a pathogen is often related to its host switching ability, we explored the capacity of a B. elizabethae strain to host switch by subcutaneously inoculating groups of Swiss Webster, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice with the bacteria at a range of doses. Results A low number of mice in each of the three groups showed susceptibility to infection at high doses (105 and 106 bacteria), and developed bacteremias of 6–8 weeks duration. Conclusion The capacity of this B. elizabethae strain to switch hosts can have important public health consequences for humans in areas of Asia where many small mammal populations have high bartonellae infection prevalences and live as commensals with humans.

Colton, Leah; Kabeya, Hidenori; Kosoy, Michael

2012-01-01

135

Hemin-Binding Surface Protein from Bartonella quintana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever and a cause of endocarditis and bacillary angiomatosis in humans, has the highest reported in vitro hemin requirement for any bacterium. We determined that eight membrane-associated proteins from B. quintana bind hemin and that a ;25-kDa protein (HbpA) was the dominant hemin-binding protein. Like many outer membrane proteins, HbpA partitions to the detergent

JAMES A. CARROLL; SHERRY A. COLEMAN; LAURA S. SMITHERMAN; M. F. Minnick

2000-01-01

136

Role of Hippoboscidae Flies as Potential Vectors of Bartonella spp. Infecting Wild and Domestic Ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The putative role of biting flies in Bartonella transmission among ruminants was investigated. Amplification of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 Hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult Lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult Hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult Melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 M. ovinus pupae. Our findings suggest that Hippoboscidae play

L. Halos; T. Jamal; R. Maillard; B. Girard; J. Guillot; B. Chomel; M. Vayssier-Taussat; H.-J. Boulouis

2004-01-01

137

Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella  

USGS Publications Warehouse

By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M. Y.; Calisher, C. H.; Cully, Jr. , J. F.; Collinge, S. K.

2009-01-01

138

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Species Detected in Different Tissues of Small Mammals in Nepal ? †  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae were detected in a total of 152 (23.7%) of 642 tissues from 108 (48.4%) of 223 small mammals trapped in several urban areas of Nepal. Based on rpoB and gltA sequence analyses, genotypes belonging to seven known Bartonella species and five genotypes not belonging to previously known species were identified in these animals.

Gundi, Vijay A. K. B.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Myint, Khin S. A.; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Shrestha, Mrigendra P.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Gibbons, Robert V.

2010-01-01

139

Identification of Bartonella Trw Host-Specific Receptor on Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Each Bartonella species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir hosts, in which it establishes long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia as the hallmark of infection. Recently, we identified Trw as the bacterial system involved in recognition of erythrocytes according to their animal origin. The T4SS Trw is characterized by a multiprotein complex that spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and possesses a hypothetical pilus structure. TrwJ, I, H and trwL are present in variable copy numbers in different species and the multiple copies of trwL and trwJ in the Bartonella trw locus are considered to encode variant forms of surface-exposed pilus components. We therefore aimed to identify which of the candidate Trw pilus components were located on the bacterial surface and involved in adhesion to erythrocytes, together with their erythrocytic receptor. Using different technologies (electron microscopy, phage display, invasion inhibition assay, far western blot), we found that only TrwJ1 and TrwJ2 were expressed and localized at the cell surface of B. birtlesii and had the ability to bind to mouse erythrocytes, and that their receptor was band3, one of the major outer-membrane glycoproteins of erythrocytes, (anion exchanger). According to these results, we propose that the interaction between TrwJ1, TrwJ2 and band 3 leads to the critical host-specific adherence of Bartonella to its host cells, erythrocytes.

Deng, Hon Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Bonnet, Sarah; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2012-01-01

140

First molecular evidence of new Bartonella spp. in fleas and a tick from Peru.  

PubMed

Fleas, lice, and ticks collected in Peru in a suburban area of Cusco in November 1998 were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Bartonella DNA using primers amplifying a fragment of the intergenic spacer region (ITS) gene. Three new Bartonella genotypes were detected in Pulex fleas self-collected from the beds and clothes of schoolchildren and adults. A fourth new genotype was also detected from a tick found on a sheep in the same area. One of the genotypes is closely related to B. vinsoni subsp. berkhoffii, and the others seem to originate from unknown Bartonella species, whose medical importance has yet to be clarified. PMID:12389935

Parola, Philippe; Shpynov, Stanislav; Montoya, Manuel; Lopez, Martha; Houpikian, Pierre; Zeaiter, Zaher; Guerra, Humberto; Raoult, Didier

2002-08-01

141

Association of Bartonella species, feline calicivirus, and feline herpesvirus 1 infection with gingivostomatitis in cats.  

PubMed

Feline gingivostomatitis (FGS) is a common syndrome in cats; feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species are common differential diagnoses. In this study, blood from 70 cats with FGS and 61 healthy control cats was tested for Bartonella species antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay and DNA in blood using a conventional polymerase chain reaction assay. Additionally, fresh oral biopsies from cats with FGS (n=42) and 19 healthy controls were tested for FCV RNA, FHV-1 DNA and Bartonella species DNA. The prevalence rates for Bartonella species antibodies and DNA in the blood and the tissues did not differ between the two groups. FHV-1 DNA was also not significantly different between groups. Only FCV RNA was present in significantly more cats with FGS (40.5%) than control cats (0%). The results suggest that FCV was associated with FGS in some of the cats. PMID:19959386

Dowers, Kristy L; Hawley, Jennifer R; Brewer, Melissa M; Morris, Arianne K; Radecki, Steven V; Lappin, Michael R

2009-12-02

142

Bartonella and Rickettsia in arthropods from the Lao PDR and from Borneo, Malaysia?  

PubMed Central

Rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. Yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in South-east Asia. We conducted entomological field surveys in the Lao PDR (Laos) and Borneo, Malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domestic cows and pigs in Laos. Rickettsia felis was detected by real-time PCR with similar overall flea infection rate in Laos (76.6%, 69/90) and Borneo (74.4%, 268/360). Both of the encountered flea vectors Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were infected with R. felis. The degrees of similarity of partial gltA and ompA genes with recognized species indicate the rickettsia detected in two Boophilus spp. ticks collected from a cow in Laos may be a new species. Isolation and further characterization will be necessary to specify it as a new species. Bartonella clarridgeiae was detected in 3/90 (3.3%) and 2/360 (0.6%) of examined fleas from Laos and Borneo, respectively. Two fleas collected in Laos and one flea collected in Borneo were co-infected with both R. felis and B. clarridgeiae. Further investigations are needed in order to isolate these agents and to determine their epidemiology and aetiological role in unknown fever in patients from these areas.

Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Wells, Konstans; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Inthalad, Saythong; Slesak, Gunther; Boudebouch, Najma; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Newton, Paul N.; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2012-01-01

143

Bartonella Infection in Animals: Carriership, Reservoir Potential, Pathogenicity, and Zoonotic Potential for Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have begun to support a role for Bartonella spp. as animal as well as human pathogens. Bartonella spp. are vector-transmitted, blood-borne, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that can induce prolonged infection in the host. Persistent infections in domestic and wild animals result in a substantial reservoir of Bartonella organisms in nature that can serve as a source for inadvertent human infection. The prevalence of bacteremia can range from 50 to 95% in selected rodent, cat, deer, and cattle populations. Dogs infected with Bartonella spp. can develop lameness, endocarditis, granulomatous lymphadenitis, and peliosis hepatis, lesions that have also been reported in association with human infection. Understanding the role of Bartonella spp. as pathogens in cats and other wild or domestic animals awaits the results of additional studies. Considering the extensive animal reservoirs and the large number of insects that have been implicated in the transmission of Bartonella spp., both animal and human exposure to these organisms may be more substantial than is currently believed.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kordick, Dorsey L.

2000-01-01

144

No evidence of Bartonella quintana but detection of Acinetobacter baumannii in head lice from elementary schoolchildren in Paris.  

PubMed

The human body louse is the only known vector of Bartonella quintana. However, the presence of this bacterium has recently been detected in the head lice of homeless individuals and Nepalese slum children. Previous studies have reported the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from the body lice of homeless individuals. An epidemiological survey including 74 schools was conducted between 2008 and 2009 in Paris. After a first visual examination, the hair of children with suspected pediculosis was combed with a fine-tooth comb to collect live adult head lice. Molecular studies were performed on randomly selected DNA samples to detect B. quintana and A. baumannii by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Among a collection of 288 DNA samples, B. quintana was not detected, but A. baumannii was detected in 95 DNA samples (33%). Further study is needed to determine the significance of the finding of A. baumannii in head lice. PMID:21974965

Bouvresse, Sophie; Socolovshi, Cristina; Berdjane, Zohra; Durand, Rémy; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Chosidow, Olivier; Brouqui, Philippe

2011-10-05

145

Development of a novel genus-specific real-time PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Bartonella species and genotypes.  

PubMed

The genus Bartonella includes numerous species with varied host associations, including several that infect humans. Development of a molecular diagnostic method capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of Bartonella species while maintaining genus specificity has been a challenge. We developed a novel real-time PCR assay targeting a 301-bp region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella and demonstrated specific amplification in over 30 Bartonella species, subspecies, and strains. Subsequent analysis of ssrA sequences was sufficient to discriminate Bartonella species and provided phylogenetic data consistent with that of gltA, a commonly used gene for differentiating Bartonella genotypes. Using this assay, we identified Bartonella DNA in 29% and 47% of blood specimens from elk in Wyoming and cattle in the Republic of Georgia, respectively. Sequence analysis of a subset of genotypes from elk specimens revealed a cluster most closely related to Bartonella capreoli, and genotypes from cattle were identified as Bartonella bovis, both Bartonella species commonly found in wild and domestic ruminants. Considering the widespread geographic distribution and infectivity potential to a variety of hosts, this assay may be an effective diagnostic method for identification of Bartonella infections in humans and have utility in Bartonella surveillance studies. PMID:22378904

Diaz, Maureen H; Bai, Ying; Malania, Lile; Winchell, Jonas M; Kosoy, Michael Y

2012-02-29

146

Genetic diversity of Bartonella quintana in macaques suggests zoonotic origin of trench fever.  

PubMed

Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes a broad spectrum of diseases in humans including trench fever. Humans were previously considered to be the primary, if not the only, reservoir hosts for B. quintana. To identify the animal reservoir and extend our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary history of B. quintana, we examined blood samples from macaques and performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. We demonstrated the prevalence of B. quintana infection was common in macaques from main primate centres in mainland China. Overall, 18.0% (59/328) of rhesus macaques and 12.7% (39/308) of cynomolgus macaques were found to be infected with B. quintana by blood culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. The infection was more frequently identified in juvenile and young monkeys compared with adult animals. In contrast with the relatively low level of sequence divergence of B. quintana reported in humans, our investigation revealed much higher genetic diversity in nonhuman primates. We identified 44 new nucleotide variable sites and 14 novel sequence types (STs) among the B. quintana isolates by MLST analysis. Some STs were found only in cynomolgus macaques, while some others were detected only in rhesus macaques, suggesting evidence of host-cospeciation, which were further confirmed by phylogenetic analysis and Splits decomposition analysis. Our findings suggest that trench fever may primarily be a zoonotic disease with macaques as the natural hosts. PMID:23517327

Li, Hao; Bai, Jie-Ying; Wang, Li-Yuan; Zeng, Lin; Shi, Yan-Sheng; Qiu, Zheng-Liang; Ye, Hua-Hu; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Lu, Qing-Bin; Kosoy, Michael; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

2013-03-20

147

Molecular detection and identification of bartonella species in rat fleas from northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

Abstract. The presence of Bartonella species in Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Rattus spp. (R. exulans, R. norvegicus, and R. rattus) in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand was investigated. One hundred ninety-three fleas obtained from 62 rats, were screened by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and the presence of Bartonella DNA was confirmed by using the citrate synthase gene. Bartonella DNA was detected in 59.1% (114 of 193) of fleas examined. Sequencing demonstrated the presence of Bartonella spp. similar to B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, B. rochalimae, and B. tribocorum in the samples tested with a cutoff for sequence similarity ? 96% and 4 clustered together with the closest match with B. grahamii (95.5% identity). If X. cheopis proves to be a competent vector of these species, our results suggest that humans and animals residing in this area may be at risk for infection by several zoonotic Bartonella species. PMID:23836577

Billeter, Sarah A; Colton, Leah; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Suksawat, Fanan; Evans, Brian P; Kosoy, Michael Y

2013-07-08

148

Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China  

PubMed Central

We detected Bartonella quintana in 48.6% of captive rhesus macaques from an animal facility in Beijing, China. Prevalence of infection increased over the period of observation. Our findings suggest that macaques may serve as reservoir hosts for B. quintana and that Pedicinus obtusus lice might act as efficient vectors.

Li, Hao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Guang-Zhou; Sun, Zhao-Zeng; Bai, Jie-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Hong; Tian, Guang; Li, Yu-Chuan; Zeng, Lin; Kosoy, Michael

2013-01-01

149

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana genotype C in head lice, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014). PMID:22172306

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Abdissa, Alemseged; Trape, Jean-François; Mediannikov, Oleg; Richet, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

2011-12-01

150

Proteomic and Immunoblot Analyses of Bartonella quintana Total Membrane Proteins Identify Antigens Recognized by Sera from Infected Patients?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella quintana is a fastidious, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that causes prolonged bacteremia in immunocompetent humans and severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. We sought to define the outer membrane subproteome of B. quintana in order to obtain insight into the biology and pathogenesis of this emerging pathogen and to identify the predominant B. quintana antigens targeted by the human immune system during infection. We isolated the total membrane proteins of B. quintana and identified 60 proteins by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Using the newly constructed proteome map, we then utilized two-dimensional immunoblotting with sera from 21 B. quintana-infected patients to identify 24 consistently recognized, immunoreactive B. quintana antigens that have potential relevance for pathogenesis and diagnosis. Among the outer membrane proteins, the variably expressed outer membrane protein adhesins (VompA and VompB), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase (PpI), and hemin-binding protein E (HbpE) were recognized most frequently by sera from patients, which is consistent with surface expression of these virulence factors during human infection.

Boonjakuakul, Jenni K.; Gerns, Helen L.; Chen, Yu-Ting; Hicks, Linda D.; Minnick, Michael F.; Dixon, Scott E.; Hall, Steven C.; Koehler, Jane E.

2007-01-01

151

Bartonella quintana in Body Lice and Head Lice from Homeless Persons, San Francisco, California, USA  

PubMed Central

Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes trench fever in humans. Past reports have shown Bartonella spp. infections in homeless populations in San Francisco, California, USA. The California Department of Public Health in collaboration with San Francisco Project Homeless Connect initiated a program in 2007 to collect lice from the homeless to test for B. quintana and to educate the homeless and their caregivers on prevention and control of louse-borne disease. During 2007–2008, 33.3% of body lice–infested persons and 25% of head lice–infested persons had lice pools infected with B. quintana strain Fuller. Further work is needed to examine how homeless persons acquire lice and determine the risk for illness to persons infested with B. quintana–infected lice.

Kabeya, Hidenori; Henn, Jennifer; Kramer, Vicki L.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2009-01-01

152

Kinetics of Bartonella birtlesii Infection in Experimentally Infected Mice and Pathogenic Effect on Reproductive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of infection and the pathogenic effects on the reproductive function of laboratory mice infected with Bartonella birtlesii recovered from an Apodemus species are described. B. birtlesii infection, as determined by bacteremia, occurred in BALB\\/c mice inoculated intravenously. Inoculation with a low-dose inoculum (1.5 3 103 CFU) induced bacteremia in only 75% of the mice compared to all of

HENRI J. BOULOUIS; FRANCINE BARRAT; DELPHINE BERMOND; FLORENCE BERNEX; DANIELE THIBAULT; REMY HELLER; JEAN-JACQUES FONTAINE; YVES PIEMONT; BRUNO B. CHOMEL

2001-01-01

153

A SacB Mutagenesis Strategy Reveals that the Bartonella quintana Variably Expressed Outer Membrane Proteins Are Required for Bloodstream Infection of the Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella bacteria adhere to erythrocytes and persistently infect the mammalian bloodstream. We previ- ously identified four highly conserved Bartonella quintana adhesin genes that undergo phase variation during prolonged bloodstream infection. The variably expressed outer membrane proteins (Vomp) encoded by these genes are members of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin family. Each B. quintana Vomp appears to contribute a different adhesion phenotype,

Joanna K. MacKichan; Helen L. Gerns; Yu-Ting Chen; Peng Zhang; Jane E. Koehler

2008-01-01

154

Environmental factors associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seropositivity in free-ranging coyotes from northern California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is a newly recognized pathogen of domestic dogs and humans. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are considered an important reservoir of this bacterium in the western United States, but its vectors are still unknown. Our objective was to identify environmental factors associated with Bartonella antibody prevalence in 239 coyotes from northern California, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, associations were evaluated between B. v. berkhoffii and two pathogens with known vectors and habitat requirements, Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Overall, B. v. berkhoffii seroprevalence was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.3%, 33.7%) and Bartonella seropositive coyotes were more likely than seronegative coyotes to be positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.9) and Dirofilaria immitis (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8). The most likely geographic clusters of Bartonella and Dirofilaria overlapped. Bartonella seropositivity was associated with higher precipitation (p = 0.003) and proximity to the coast (p = 0.007) in univariate analysis. The association with precipitation varied with season, based on a logistic regression model. PMID:16011426

Beldomenico, P M; Chomel, B B; Foley, J E; Sacks, B N; Baldi, C J; Kasten, R W; Gardner, I A

2005-01-01

155

Serial testing from a 3-day collection period by use of the Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria growth medium platform may enhance the sensitivity of Bartonella species detection in bacteremic human patients.  

PubMed

Patients with infection from bacteremic Bartonella spp., tested using Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM), were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups that included those whose blood was collected once (group 1; n = 55) or three times (group 2; n = 36) within a 1-week period. Overall, 19 patients (20.8%) were PCR positive for one or more Bartonella spp. using the BAPGM platform. Seven patients (12.7%) in group 1 tested positive, and 12 patients (33.3%) in group 2 tested positive. Detection was improved when the patients were tested three times within a 1-week period (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 9.8]; P = 0.02). Obtaining three sequential blood samples during a 1-week period should be considered a diagnostic approach when bartonellosis is suspected. PMID:23486720

Pultorak, Elizabeth L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-03-13

156

Infection of domestic dogs in peru by zoonotic bartonella species: a cross-sectional prevalence study of 219 asymptomatic dogs.  

PubMed

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Morton, Bridget A; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H; Angulo, Noelia P; Brenner, Elliott C; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B

2013-09-05

157

Presence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of cats in the United States.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of feral cats without evidence of skin disease that were housed in Alabama (n = 24), Florida (n = 27) and Colorado (n = 32). Samples were assessed by use of polymerase chain reaction assays. The Bartonella species IgG prevalence was also determined. While Bartonella species DNA was not amplified from any sample from Colorado cats, it was commonly amplified from blood (56.9%), skin (31.4%), claws (17.6%) and gingiva (17.6%) of the 51 cats housed in Alabama and Florida. All 10 flea groups assessed in this study were infected with a Bartonella species or R. felis. Bartonella species IgG titres did not accurately predict bacteraemia (positive predictive value = 57.1%; negative predictive value = 82.1%). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from blood of cats with and without C. felis. Rickettsia felis DNA was only detected in or on the skin of one cat and the gingiva of an additional cat. It was concluded that cats can be an occupational health risk for veterinarians, particularly in areas with high prevalence of Ctenocephalides felis. Further study is required to determine whether Bartonella species or Rickettsia species infections of cats are associated with dermatological disease. The combination of Bartonella species serological test results with Bartonella species PCR or culture is likely to give the most accurate information concerning the current infection status of individual cats. PMID:20178489

Lappin, Michael R; Hawley, Jennifer

2009-10-01

158

Diagnosis of Bartonella Endocarditis by a Real-Time Nested PCR Assay Using Serum  

PubMed Central

Bartonella endocarditis is a severe disease for which blood cultures frequently remain negative. We tested three PCR assays by using specimens of serum sampled early during the disease from 43 patients diagnosed in our laboratory as having Bartonella endocarditis on the basis of serological, culture, and/or valvular molecular detection. We tested a two-step nested PCR (TSN-PCR), a one-step nested PCR (OSN-PCR) with a regular thermal cycler, and a one-step nested PCR with the LightCycler (LCN-PCR). These assays were performed with primers derived from the riboflavin synthase-encoding gene ribC, never before amplified in our laboratory. Due to contamination of negative controls, the results of the TSN-PCR were not interpretable, and this technique was no longer considered. The LCN-PCR had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 58.1%, higher than those of the OSN-PCR (18.6%; P < 0.01) and prolonged blood culturing (7.1%; P < 0.01). The LCN-PCR results correlated strictly with those of other direct diagnostic tests, when available, and identified the causative species for six patients previously diagnosed on the basis of serological analysis only. The efficacy of the LCN-PCR was not influenced by antibiotics (P = 0.96) but was altered by prolonged storage of serum specimens at ?20°C (P = 0.04). Overall, the LCN-PCR is specific and more sensitive than traditional methods (i.e., culturing and/or PCR with EDTA-treated blood). It can easily be applied to the diagnosis of patients with suspected Bartonella endocarditis, especially when only serum is available.

Zeaiter, Zaher; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

2003-01-01

159

Hemin-Binding Proteins as Potent Markers for Serological Diagnosis of Infections with Bartonella quintana  

PubMed Central

It is difficult to distinguish infections with different Bartonella species using commercially available immunofluorescence (indirect immunofluorescent antibody [IFA]) assay kits. To identify appropriate proteins for serodiagnosis of Bartonella quintana infections, we investigated the antigenicity of B. quintana proteins using sera from homeless people with high B. quintana IgG titers in IFA assay. These sera reacted strongly to an outer membrane protein, hemin-binding protein D (HbpD). Further, serum from an endocarditis patient infected with B. quintana reacted to HbpB and HbpD. To locate the antigenic sites within the proteins, we generated deletion mutants of HbpB and HbpD. Amino acid residues 89 to 220 of HbpB and 151 to 200 of HbpD were identified as the minimum regions required for recognition by these sera. Several oligopeptides comprising parts of the minimum regions of HbpB and HbpD were synthesized, and their immunoreactivity with the above-mentioned sera was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum from the endocarditis patient reacted similarly to synthetic peptides HbpB2 (amino acid residues 144 to 173 of HbpB) and HbpD3 (151 to 200 residues of HbpD), while sera from the other subjects reacted to HbpD3. These results indicate that synthetic peptides HbpB2 and HbpD3 might be suitable for developing serological tools for differential diagnosis of B. quintana infections from other Bartonella infections.

Sasaki, Toshinori; Seki, Naomi; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Sasaki, Yuko; Shibayama, Keigo; Sasaki, Tsuguo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

2013-01-01

160

The World's Top Stealth Bug Ends Marriages, Friendships and Jobs Bartonella Promotes Addiction, Aggression and Character Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

I hate medical drama. If I want drama I will watch a movie, a sporting event or a TV show. Bartonella has almost 2,000 articles on PubMed, but almost no one realizes it is a major source of depression and suicide, panic attacks and social anxiety, seizures, heart attacks, personality change, pushy be- havior, divorce, profound narcissism, eccentric obsessions, irritability,

James Schaller

161

Prevalence of selected vector-borne organisms and identification of Bartonella species DNA in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis).  

PubMed

Trapper-killed North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA, were screened for multiple vector-borne bacteria known to be pathogenic to mammals. Blood was collected from 30 carcasses in 2006, from 35 in 2007, and from one live otter in 2008. Samples were screened using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for DNA from Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. All samples were negative for Rickettsia spp. Twelve of 30 samples from 2006 produced amplicons using the assay designed to detect Ehrlichia spp., but sequencing revealed that the amplified DNA fragment was from a novel Wolbachia sp., thought to be an endosymbiote of a Dirofilaria sp. Between 2006 and 2007, DNA from a novel Bartonella sp. was detected in 19 of 65 animals (29%). Blood from one live otter captured in 2008 was found positive for this Bartonella sp. by both PCR and culture. The pathogenicity of this Bartonella species in river otters or other mammals is unknown. PMID:20688703

Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Blanton, Hunter L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Belfiore, Natalia; Marr, Henry S; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stoskopf, Michael K

2010-07-01

162

Proteomic and Immunoblot Analyses of Bartonella quintana Total Membrane Proteins Identify Antigens Recognized by Sera from Infected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella quintana is a fastidious, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that causes prolonged bacteremia in immunocompetent humans and severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. We sought to define the outer membrane subproteome of B. quintana in order to obtain insight into the biology and pathogenesis of this emerging pathogen and to identify the predominant B. quintana antigens targeted by the human immune system

Jenni K. Boonjakuakul; Helen L. Gerns; Yu-Ting Chen; Linda D. Hicks; Michael F. Minnick; Scott E. Dixon; Steven C. Hall; Jane E. Koehler

2007-01-01

163

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected in Northern New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

(33.6%), Babesia microti (8.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophila (1.9%), and Bartonella spp. (34.5%). The I. scapularis tick is a potential pathogen vector that can cause coinfection and contribute to the variety of clinical responses noted in some tick-borne disease patients.

Martin E. Adelson; Raja-Venkitesh S. Rao; Richard C. Tilton; Kimberly Cabets; Eugene Eskow; Lesley Fein; James L. Occi; Eli Mordechai

2004-01-01

164

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens. PMID:12507856

Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

2003-01-15

165

Isolation of Bartonella schoenbuchensis from Lipoptena cervi ,a BloodSucking Arthropod Causing Deer Ked Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a common hematophagous louse fly of red deer, roe deer, elk, and sika deer in Europe, Siberia, and northern China and of white-tailed deer, elk, horses, and cattle in North America. The incidental infestation of humans with deer keds is well documented (1, 11, 12). In humans, these ectoparasites engorge on blood in 15

Christoph Dehio; Ursula Sauder; Rosemarie Hiestand

2004-01-01

166

Brief communication: evidence of Bartonella quintana infections in skeletons of a historical mass grave in Kassel, Germany.  

PubMed

In 2008, a mass grave was found on the grounds of the University of Kassel, Germany. Historians hypothesized that the individuals died in a typhoid fever epidemic in winter 1813/14. To test this hypothesis, the bones were investigated on the presence of specific DNA of pathogens linked to the historical diagnosis oftyphoid fever. It was possible to prove the specific DNA of Bartonella quintana in three individuals, suggesting that their cause of death is linked to an epidemic background. PMID:21710687

Grumbkow, Philipp V; Zipp, Anna; Seidenberg, Verena; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gross, Uwe; Hummel, Susanne

2011-09-01

167

Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas\\u000a strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species

Sabine Schorn; Kurt Pfister; Holger Reulen; Monia Mahling; Cornelia Silaghi

2011-01-01

168

The ecology of Bartonella spp. infections in two rodent communities in the Mazury Lake District region of Poland.  

PubMed

Prevalence and abundance of Bartonella spp. infections were studied over a 3-year period in woodland and grassland rodents in North-Eastern Poland. Prevalence of bacterial infections was similar in the two rodent communities, with one leading host species in each habitat (46.3% in Apodemus flavicollis versus 29.1% in Myodes glareolus in forest, or 36.9% in Microtus arvalis versus 13.7% in Mi. oeconomus in grassland). Prevalence/abundance of infections varied markedly across the 3 years with 2006 being the year of highest prevalence and abundance. Infections were more common during autumn months in My. glareolus and A. flavicollis, and in juvenile and young adult (age classes 1 and 2) My. glareolus and Mi. oeconomus than in adults (age class 3). Higher prevalence and abundance of Bartonella infections were found in male A. flavicollis in comparison to females. These data are discussed in relation to the parasite genotypes identified in this region and with respect to the role of various ecological factors influencing Bartonella spp. infections in naturally infected host populations. PMID:20388232

Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy M; Si?ski, Edward

2010-04-14

169

Characterization and expression analysis of the groESL operon of Bartonella bacilliformis.  

PubMed

The groESL operon of Bartonella bacilliformis, a facultative intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium and etiologic agent of Oroya Fever, was characterized. Sequence analysis revealed an operon containing two genes of 294 (groES) and 1632 nucleotides (groEL) separated by a 55-nt intergenic spacer. The operon is preceded by a 72-nt ORF (ORF1) that encodes a hypothetical protein with homology to a portion of the HrcA repressor for groESL. A divergent fumarate hydratase C (fumC) gene lies further upstream. Deduced amino acid sequences for B. bacilliformis GroEL and GroES revealed a high degree of identity with homologues from other Bartonella and alpha-Protebacteria. A single transcriptional start site (TSS) was mapped 79 nucleotides upstream of the groES start codon, regardless of incubation temperature. The TSS was located immediately 5' to a potential controlling inverted repeat of chaperonin expression (CIRCE) element and is preceded by a sigma70-like promoter. The operon is followed by a predicted rho-independent transcriptional terminator. Northern blot analysis indicated that groES and groEL are co-transcribed as a single mRNA of approximately 2.4 kb. A 6-h time course analysis by qRT-PCR showed that groEL expression increases 1.3-fold within 30 min of a temperature upshift from 30 to 37 degrees C, with maximum transcription reached after 60 min (approximately 4.3-fold), followed by a steady decrease to background (30 degrees C) transcription levels by 6 h. Western blot analysis revealed a 1.4- and 1.5-fold increase in GroEL synthesis following a temperature upshift or by inhibiting DNA supercoiling with coumermycin A1, respectively. Functional expression and complementation of temperature-sensitive Escherichia coli groES or groEL mutants with the cloned operon allowed them to grow at otherwise restrictive temperatures. PMID:16126349

Callison, Julie A; Battisti, James M; Sappington, Kate N; Smitherman, Laura S; Minnick, Michael F

2005-10-10

170

Serological survey in persons occupationally exposed to tick-borne pathogens in cases of co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and Babesia microti.  

PubMed

Sera of 39 farmers, 119 foresters and 32 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, B. microti and Bartonella spp. Semi-quantitative indirect immunofluorescence test was used to measure titers of anti-A. phagocytophilum, B. microti and Bartonella spp. IgG. ELISA test was used to measure titers of anti-B. burgdorferi IgM and IgG. B. burgdorferi was the most frequently observed among all the examined pathogens. 27.7% of farmers, 23.1% of forestry workers and 37.5% of control group were infected with Bartonella spp. Anti-A. phagocytophilum and anti-B. microti reactions were observed rarely. Sera of persons with single infection dominated in farmers and forestry workers. Co-infection with 2 pathogens was observed more frequently in forestry workers and farmers than in the control group. Co-infections with 3-4 pathogens were observed only in forestry workers. Among the observed co-infections, the most frequent were: B. burgdorferi with Bartonella spp. and B. burgdorferi with A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, in forestry workers, triple coinfections with B. burgdorferi, Bartonella spp. and A. phagocytophilum and one quadruple coinfection were observed. Persons with occupational risk of tick bites, especially forestry workers, more often have anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies and are more often co-infected with various tick-borne pathogens than the persons from the control group. It seems that more often coinfections in persons with occupational risk of tick bites are a consequence of the higher incidence of infection with B. burgdorferi, as anti-B. microti, A. phagocytophilum and Bartonella spp. antibodies are not more commonly prevalent in persons with occupational risk of tick bites than in healthy volunteers. PMID:22742800

Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Moniuszko, Anna; ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Zwoli?ski, Jacek; Pi?tek, Jacek; Pancewicz, S?awomir

2012-01-01

171

Molecular characterization and proposal of a neotype strain for Bartonella bacilliformis.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis, the etiologic agent of bartonellosis, was characterized biochemically and by DNA hybridization, guanine-plus-cytosine content, genome size, and 16S rRNA sequencing. DNAs from the two strains in our collection exhibited 97% relatedness in hydroxyapatite reactions done at 55 degrees C (optimal reassociation criterion) and 100% relatedness in reactions done at 70 degrees C (stringent reassociation criterion). There was no evidence of divergence within the related sequences. B. bacilliformis DNA showed no relatedness to the cat scratch disease bacillus or to a strain of a second species in the same genus as the cat scratch disease bacillus in hybridization reactions done at 65 degrees C. The guanine-plus-cytosine contents of DNAs from the two B. bacilliformis strains were 39 and 40 mol%. Time course reassociation, done by determining spectrophotometrically the time required for one-half of the denatured DNA to form duplexes, indicated that B. bacilliformis has a genome size of approximately 4 x 10(8). The 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that B. bacilliformis is in the alpha-2 subgroup of the purple bacteria, class Proteobacteria, and that its closest relatives are Rochalimaea quintana and Brucella abortus. Strain KC583 (= Herrer 020/F12,63 = ATCC 35685) is proposed as the type strain of B. bacilliformis.

Brenner, D J; O'Connor, S P; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Steigerwalt, A G

1991-01-01

172

Comparison of the 'Ca Liberibacter asiaticus' genome adapted for an intracellular lifestyle with other members of the rhizobiales  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 52 clust...

173

Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment.

Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurelie; Medigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

2011-01-01

174

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Related Members of the Alpha Subdivision of the Proteobacteria in Dogs with Cardiac Arrhythmias, Endocarditis, or Myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis was identified in 12 dogs, of which 11 were seroreactive to Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii antigens. Historical abnormalities were highly variable but frequently included substantial weight loss, syncope, collapse, or sudden death. Fever was an infrequently detected abnormality. Cardiac disease was diagnosed following an illness of short duration in most dogs, but a protracted illness of at least 6 months' duration was reported for four dogs. Valvular endocarditis was diagnosed echocardiographically or histologically in eight dogs, two of which also had moderate to severe multifocal myocarditis. Four dogs lacking definitive evidence of endocarditis were included because of seroreactivity to B. vinsonii antigens and uncharacterized heart murmurs and/or arrhythmias. Alpha proteobacteria were not isolated from the blood by either conventional or lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques. Using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene, B. vinsonii was identified in the blood or heart valves of three dogs. DNA sequence alignment of PCR amplicons derived from blood or tissue samples from seven dogs clustered among members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria and suggested the possibility of involvement of one or more alpha proteobacteria; however, because of the limited quantity of sequence, the genus could not be identified. Serologic or molecular evidence of coinfection with tick-transmitted pathogens, including Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Babesia gibsonii, or spotted fever group rickettsiae, was obtained for seven dogs. We conclude that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and closely related species of alpha proteobacteria are an important, previously unrecognized cause of arrhythmias, endocarditis, myocarditis, syncope, and sudden death in dogs.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Atkins, Clarke E.; Brown, Talmage T.; Kordick, Dorsey L.; Snyder, Patti S.

1999-01-01

175

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and related members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria in dogs with cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis.  

PubMed

Cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis was identified in 12 dogs, of which 11 were seroreactive to Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii antigens. Historical abnormalities were highly variable but frequently included substantial weight loss, syncope, collapse, or sudden death. Fever was an infrequently detected abnormality. Cardiac disease was diagnosed following an illness of short duration in most dogs, but a protracted illness of at least 6 months' duration was reported for four dogs. Valvular endocarditis was diagnosed echocardiographically or histologically in eight dogs, two of which also had moderate to severe multifocal myocarditis. Four dogs lacking definitive evidence of endocarditis were included because of seroreactivity to B. vinsonii antigens and uncharacterized heart murmurs and/or arrhythmias. Alpha proteobacteria were not isolated from the blood by either conventional or lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques. Using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene, B. vinsonii was identified in the blood or heart valves of three dogs. DNA sequence alignment of PCR amplicons derived from blood or tissue samples from seven dogs clustered among members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria and suggested the possibility of involvement of one or more alpha proteobacteria; however, because of the limited quantity of sequence, the genus could not be identified. Serologic or molecular evidence of coinfection with tick-transmitted pathogens, including Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Babesia gibsonii, or spotted fever group rickettsiae, was obtained for seven dogs. We conclude that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and closely related species of alpha proteobacteria are an important, previously unrecognized cause of arrhythmias, endocarditis, myocarditis, syncope, and sudden death in dogs. PMID:10523564

Breitschwerdt, E B; Atkins, C E; Brown, T T; Kordick, D L; Snyder, P S

1999-11-01

176

An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia. PMID:22857007

Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

2012-08-02

177

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

178

Analysis of multi-strain Bartonella pathogens in natural host population--do they behave as species or minor genetic variants?  

PubMed

Modern advances in genetic analysis have made it feasible to ascertain the variant type of a pathogen infecting a host. Classification of pathogen variants is commonly performed by clustering analysis of the observed genetic divergence among the variants. A natural question arises whether the genetically distinct variants are epidemiologically distinct. A broader question is whether the different variants constitute separate microbial species or represent minor variations of the same species. These important issues were addressed in the context of analyzing dynamics of genetically distinct variants of Bartonella bacteria in cotton rat hosts. Frequencies of acquiring a new variant were measured in relation to the genetic differences between variants successively infecting an individual rodent host. Two statistical techniques were introduced for performing such analysis, and the methodologies were illustrated with a set of data collected from a particular multi-strain Bartonella system. We carried out a frequency analysis of co-infection patterns, and a Markov chain analysis of panels of successive mixed infection time series for testing some particular gene-based grouping of the Bartonella variants with a panel of observed disease data from a rodent population. Our analysis suggests that the three genogroups A, B and C of Bartonella function as independent species but the variants within each genogroup enjoy some cross-immunity against each other. The newly developed methodologies are broadly applicable for analyzing other multi-strain pathogen data which are increasingly collected for diverse infectious diseases. PMID:21352787

Chan, Kung-Sik; Kosoy, Michael

2010-09-09

179

Formation of stress fibres in human endothelial cells infected with Bartonella bacilliformis is associated with altered morphology, impaired migration and defects in cell morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bartonella bacilliformis, a Gram-negative, flagellated bacterium, infects human erythrocytes (haematic phase) and endothelial cells (tissue phase), resulting in a biphasic disease. In the tissue phase of disease (verruga peruana), infection leads to infection of endothelial cells and a pronounced proliferation of these cells, resulting in characteristic skin eruptions of papules and nodules. We have studied the proper- ties of

Anita Verma; George E. Davis; Garret M. Ihler

2001-01-01

180

Bartonella bacilliformis stimulates endothelial cells in vitro and is angiogenic in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Bartonellosis, a biphasic disease caused by motile intracellular bacteria, produces in its tissue phase a characteristic dermal eruption (Verruga peruana) resulting from a pronounced endothelial cell proliferation. Bacteria are found in the interstitium and within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells (Rocha-Lima inclusion). The aim of this study was to determine if Bartonella bacilliformis produce a substance(s) that might be responsible for the vascular proliferation seen in the Verruga. This was assessed in an in vitro system using human endothelial cells and measuring proliferation as well as production of tissue type plasminogen activator after exposure to the endothelial cultures to B. bacilliformis extracts. Our results indicate that B. bacilliformis possess an activity that stimulates endothelial cell proliferation up to three times that of control. The factor(s) is specific for endothelial cells, heat sensitive, larger than 12 to 14 kd, not enhanced by heparin, has no affinity for heparin, and is precipitated by 45% ammonium sulfate. In addition, the B. bacilliformis extracts stimulate production of t-PA antigen in a concentration-dependent fashion. This activity is also heat sensitive and not lost after dialysis (12 to 14 kd). B. bacilliformis extracts, however, do not increase the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor. It was also determined that B. bacilliformis extracts stimulate the formation of new blood vessels in an in vivo model for angiogenesis. These results describe a bacterial factor(s) that stimulates two important steps in the development of new blood vessels in vitro, as well as the formation of new blood vessels in vivo. Determining the mechanism of action, combined with a complete characterization of this factor(s), may help in understanding the pathogenesis not only of the Verruga and angiogenesis in general but also the recently described Cat-Scratch-associated epithelioid hemangiomas in patients with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma. Images Figure 7

Garcia, F. U.; Wojta, J.; Broadley, K. N.; Davidson, J. M.; Hoover, R. L.

1990-01-01

181

Evaluation of the association of Bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis.  

PubMed

Gingivostomatitis (GS) is a significant condition in cats because of oral discomfort and associated periodontal disease. Several infectious agents have been associated with the presence of GS, but a causal relationship is unclear. The cats in this study were housed together, had a history of flea exposure, and were vaccinated with a modified live FVRCP product. There were nine cats with active GS and 36 unaffected cats at the time of sample collection. Serum was tested for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus, feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay). PCR assays for Bartonella species and FHV-1 and a reverse transcriptase PCR assay for FCV were performed on blood and throat swabs. All cats were negative for FeLV. Assay results failed to correlate to the presence of GS in the group of cats studied. PMID:17766156

Quimby, Jessica M; Elston, Thomas; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Miller, Arianne; Lappin, Michael R

2007-09-04

182

In vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. to fluoroquinolone antibiotics as determined by immunofluorescent antibody analysis of infected Vero cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. to different concentrations of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin and sparfloxacin in Vero cell cultures, were determined by enumeration of immunofluorescent-stained bacilli. After incubation in a CO2-enriched atmosphere, inocula were replaced and tested with media containing 12 different concentrations of each antibiotic in replicate for each species and the monolayers were re-incubated. Growth

Timothy J Ives; Eric L Marston; Russell L Regnery; John D Butts

2001-01-01

183

Unusual retinal manifestations of cat scratch disease.  

PubMed

We report on 2 patients with unusual retinal manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae. Case 1. A 42-year-old farmer presented with a 5-day history of blurred vision in his right eye. Right visual acuity was 20/25. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed mild vitreous hemorrhage and diffuse retinal hemorrhages in the mid-peripheral retina. Fluorescein angiography showed multiple vasculitic occlusions in the same area. A blood sample taken on the day of examination revealed the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG to B. henselae. Oral azithromycin was given for 8 days. One month later, right visual acuity was 20/20, the vitreous and retinal hemorrhages resolved, and arteriolar attenuation and sclerosis was observed in the peripheral temporal retina. Case 2. A 66-year-old craftsman with systemic hypertension and hypercholesterolemia complained of sudden visual loss (light perception) in his left eye. Fundus evaluation and fluorescein angiography revealed central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in the affected eye. About 2 weeks earlier, he had been bitten and scratched on his right hand by a stray cat. Serologic testing detected the presence of IgM to B. henselae. Oral azithromycin was given for 6 days. One month later, left visual acuity was hand motion. Ophthalmologists should be aware that unusual ocular complications associated with CSD include vitreous hemorrhage with retinal vasculitis and isolated CRAO. Vitreous hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis may be the only clinical manifestation of CSD. PMID:21267628

Pinna, Antonio; Puglia, Ester; Dore, Stefano

2011-01-26

184

Prevalence of in granulomatous lymphadenitis: A useful tool for the diagnosis of cat?scratch disease by polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella Henselae is the causative agent of human cat?scratch disease (CSD. CSD can be diagnosed by histopathological examination and by the enzyme immunoadsorbant assay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction(PCRmethodswhich detect B.Henselae DNA.Histopathological findings of CSD include granulomatous lymphadenitis with or without abscess formation. We examined 36 speci? mens of granulomatous lymphadenitis including 15 abscess?forming granulomatous lymphadenitis 9 non?abscess?forming granulomatous lymphadenitis

Junji Suzumiya; Koichi Ohshima; Tohru Takada; Motonobu Kanda; Kazuo Tamura; Masahiro Kikuchi

185

Brief communication: co-detection of Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis in an 11th-15th burial site in Bondy, France.  

PubMed

Historical and anthropological data suggest that skeletons excavated from an 11th to 15th century mass grave in Bondy, France, may be those of victims of the Great Plague. Using high-throughput real-time PCR investigation of the dental pulp collected from 14 teeth from five such skeletons, we detected Bartonella quintana DNA in three individuals and Yersinia pestis DNA in two individuals. DNA from five other deadly pathogens was not found. Suicide PCR genotyping confirmed Y. pestis DNA belonging to the Orientalis biotype. One individual had co-infection. These data suggest a plague epidemic in a population already infected by the body louse-transmitted B. quintana or a body louse-driven transmission of the plague that drove a medieval epidemic in inland Europe. PMID:21541920

Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Forestier, Cyrille Le; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier; Aboudharam, Gérard

2011-05-03

186

Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.  

PubMed

To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223

Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

2007-11-17

187

Molecular detection of Anaplasma, Bartonella, and Borrelia species in ticks collected from migratory birds from Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

Bird migration is a recurring annual and seasonal event undertaken by more than 100 species of birds in the southeast Asian and northeast Palearctic regions that pass through or remain for short periods from April to May and September to November at Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 212 ticks (40 Haemaphysalis flava, 12 H. longicornis, 146 Ixodes turdus, 13 I. nipponensis, and 1 I. ornithophila) were collected from 65/2,161 (3.0%) migratory birds consisting of 21 species that were captured from January, 2008, through December, 2009, as part of the Migratory Birds Center, Hong-do bird banding program for studying bird migration patterns. Adult ticks were assayed individually while larvae and nymphs were pooled (1-22 and 1-6 ticks per pool, respectively) into 31 and 65 pools, respectively. Ticks were assayed for zoonotic pathogens by PCR using 16S rRNA, heat shock protein (groEL), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primers to amplify genera specific for Anapalsma, Bartonella, and Borrelia PCR amplicons. Using the 16S rRNA-based nested PCR, A. phagocytophilum (n=1) was detected in I. nipponensis collected from Zoothera sibirica and A. bovis (n=1) was detected in I. turdus collected from Emberiza chrysophrys. Borrelia turdi 16S rRNA genes (n=3) were detected in I. turdus and I. nipponensis collected from Turdus pallidus and Zoothera aurea. Borrelia spp. 16S rRNA genes (n=4) were detected in Ixodes ticks collected from Emberiza tristrami, T. pallidus, and Z. aurea. The Bartonella grahamii ITS gene (n=1) was detected by nested PCR assay in I. turdus collected from Z. aurea. These results provide insight into the potential role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens throughout their ranges in Asia. PMID:23428091

Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Choi, Chang-Yong; Nam, Hyun-Young; Chae, Hee-Young; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok

2013-02-21

188

Comparison of the ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ Genome Adapted for an Intracellular Lifestyle with Other Members of the Rhizobiales  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, nitrogen fixing endosymbionts, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 50 clusters of conserved orthologous genes found on the chromosomes of all five metabolically diverse species. The intracellular pathogens ‘Ca.

John S. Hartung; Jonathan Shao; L. David Kuykendall

2011-01-01

189

PREVALENCE OF POTENTIALLY ZOONOTIC PATHOGENS IN FERAL AND PET DOMESTIC CATS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: To compare the prevalences of Bartonella henselae, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Toxocara cati in populations of feral and pet domestic cats. Design: Prospective cross-sectional serologic and coprologic survey Animals: 100 feral cats and 76 pet domestic cats from R...

190

CSD skin test  

MedlinePLUS

Cat scratch disease skin test ... An antigen related to the bacteria that cause cat scratch disease is injected just under the skin. ... This test was once used to diagnose cat scratch disease, before Bartonella henselae, the bacteria that causes CSD, was identified.

191

Are isolated wetlands isolated?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H., Jr.; Haukos, David A.

2011-01-01

192

Social isolation  

PubMed Central

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults.

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

2011-01-01

193

[Bacillary angiomatosis].  

PubMed

Bacillary angiomatosis is an unusual infectious disease, with angioproliferative lesions, typical of immunocompromised patients. It is caused by Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae, two infectious agents of the genus Bartonella, which trigger variable clinical manifestations, including cutaneous vascular and purpuric lesions, and regional lymphadenopathy, and even a systemic disease with visceral involvement. We report a 38-year-old HIV positive male presenting with a history of six months of cutaneous growing purple angiomatous lesions, located also in nasal fossae, rhi-nopharynx and larynx. The skin biopsy was compatible with bacillary angiomatosis. Polymerase chain reaction of a tissue sample showed homology with B. quintana strain Toulouse. The patient was treated with azithromycin and ciprofloxacin with a favorable evolution. PMID:23282705

Uribe, Pablo; Balcells, M Elvira; Giesen, Laura; Cárdenas, Consuelo; García, Patricia; González, Sergio

2012-07-01

194

Functional Identification of Two Novel Genes from Pseudomonas sp. Strain HZN6 Involved in the Catabolism of Nicotine  

PubMed Central

Nicotine is a natural alkaloid produced by tobacco plants, and the mechanisms of its catabolism by microorganisms are diverse. In the present study, we reported the mutation, cloning, and identification of two novel genes involved in nicotine degradation from the newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain HZN6. Transposon mutagenesis identified a HZN6 mutant in which the nicotine-degrading pathway was blocked at pseudooxynicotine. A 3,874-bp DNA fragment flanking the transposon insertion site was obtained through self-formed adaptor PCR. Two open reading frames (designated pao and sap) were analyzed, and the deduced amino acid sequences shared 29% identity with 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and 49% identity with an aldehyde dehydrogenase from Bartonella henselae. Both pao and sap were cloned and functionally expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21. The pao gene encoded a novel pseudooxynicotine amine oxidase with noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and exhibited substrate specificity removing the methylamine from pseudooxynicotine with the formation of 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine and hydrogen dioxide. The sap gene encoded a NADP+-dependent 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine dehydrogenase that catalyzed the dehydrogenation of 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine to 3-succinoyl-pyridine. Genetic analyses indicated that the pao gene played an essential role in nicotine or pseudooxynicotine mineralization in strain HZN6, whereas the sap gene did not. This study provides novel insight into the nicotine-degrading mechanism at the genetic level in Pseudomonas spp.

Qiu, Jiguo; Ma, Yun; Wen, Yuezhong; Chen, Liansheng; Wu, Lifei

2012-01-01

195

Parotid mass due to cat scratch disease.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease (CSD), due to Bartonella henselae, is a self-limited chronic lymphadenopathy. A previously healthy 22-year-old woman presented with a palpable painful swelling in the right submandibular region accompanied by enlarged cervical lymph nodes. A diagnosis of B. henselae infection was made according to her personal history that divulged frequent contacts with cats and to a high titre of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies for this agent. The patient improved within 1 month without the requirement of antibiotic treatment or surgery. The CSD should always be included in the differential diagnosis of all equivocal masses in the neck, especially in young individuals. In addition, it is important that a meticulous personal history is obtained. PMID:16669837

Petrogiannopoulos, C; Valla, K; Mikelis, A; Kalogeropoulos, S G; Karachalios, G; Karachaliou, I; Skandami, I

2006-03-27

196

First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) specific antibodies and antigen, respectively, by Western blot for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and by indirect ELISA for antibodies to puma lentivirus (PLV). Antibodies to FHV 1, FCV, FCoV, FPV, FeLV, FIV, PLV or related viruses, and to B. henselae were detected. Furthermore, high-titered antibodies to E. canis or a closely related agent were detected in a puma for the first time. PMID:16870878

Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Bay, Gert; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2006-04-01

197

Comparison of the 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' Genome Adapted for an Intracellular Lifestyle with Other Members of the Rhizobiales  

PubMed Central

An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, nitrogen fixing endosymbionts, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 50 clusters of conserved orthologous genes found on the chromosomes of all five metabolically diverse species. The intracellular pathogens ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ and Bartonella henselae have genomes drastically reduced in gene content and size as well as a relatively low content of guanine and cytosine. Codon and amino acid preferences that emphasize low guanosine and cytosine usage are globally employed in these genomes, including within regions of microsynteny and within signature sequences of orthologous proteins. The length of orthologous proteins is generally conserved, but not their isoelectric points, consistent with extensive amino acid substitutions to accommodate selection for low GC content. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome apparently has all of the genes required for DNA replication present in Sinorhizobium meliloti except it has only two, rather than three RNaseH genes. The gene set required for DNA repair has only one rather than ten DNA ligases found in Sinorhizobium meliloti, and the DNA PolI of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ lacks domains needed for excision repair. Thus the ability of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ to repair mutations in its genome may be impaired. Both ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus and Bartonella henselae lack enzymes needed for the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, which must therefore be obtained from the host. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome also has a greatly reduced set of sigma factors used to control transcription, and lacks sigma factors 24, 28 and 38. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome has all of the hallmarks of a reduced genome of a pathogen adapted to an intracellular lifestyle.

Hartung, John S.; Shao, Jonathan; Kuykendall, L. David

2011-01-01

198

Cryogenic Faraday isolator  

SciTech Connect

A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-05-26

199

Compact optical isolator.  

PubMed

This paper describes a compact Faraday rotation isolator using terbium aluminum garnet (TAG) as the Faraday rotation material and small high field permanent magnets made of copper-rare earth alloys. The nominal isolation is 26 dB with a 0.4-dB forward loss. The present isolator can be adjusted to provide effective isolation from 4880 A to 5145 A. Details of the design, fabrication, and performance of the isolator are presented. PMID:20111324

Sansalone, F J

1971-10-01

200

Analog signal isolation techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

Beadle, E.R.

1992-12-31

201

Analog signal isolation techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

Beadle, E.R.

1992-01-01

202

Flexure Elastomer Antenna Isolation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vibration isolation system for a payload. The vibration isolation system provides a level of vibration isolation for all vibration translational and rotational components, while minimizing the moment of the payload mass relative to the isolation system....

A. J. Vajanyi D. Calhoun M. Hoffman R. I. Harless R. T. Fandrich

2004-01-01

203

Active isolation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes microgravity experiments for space platforms and presents test results of a three-axes active isolation demonstration system that has been built and tested. This mount has demonstrated isolation capability down to 0.05 Hz nd a transmissibility curve which provides isolation levels necessary for microgravity and precision pointing aboard space platforms. The system has high-bandwidth inertial servo loops using

Lawrence M. Germann; Avanindra A. Gupta

1993-01-01

204

Active isolation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes microgravity experiments for space platforms and presents test results of a three-axes active isolation demonstration system that has been built and tested. This mount has demonstrated isolation capability down to 0.05 Hz nd a transmissibility curve which provides isolation levels necessary for microgravity and precision pointing aboard space platforms. The system has high-bandwidth inertial servo loops using accelerometers for active disturbance rejection to isolate the payload from external torque disturbances by the utility transfer devices and moving mechanisms.

Germann, Lawrence M.; Gupta, Avanindra A.

1993-09-01

205

Wrentit Genetic Isolation Map  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This map of the Thousand Oaks, Calif. area visualizes the degree of genetic isolation being experienced by the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a small songbird. USGS and National Park Service biologists discovered that as urban development fragmented the Santa Monica Mountains scrubland into isolated "h...

2010-09-20

206

Interpersonal Exchange in Isolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study explored interpersonal exchange in isolated and non-isolated groups. Nine dyads formed at different levels on need achievement, need dominance, need affiliation and dogmatism worked out lived in a small room for ten days, with no outside contact...

I. Altman W. W. Haythorn

1965-01-01

207

Making snapshot isolation serializable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snapshot Isolation (SI) is a multiversion concurrency control algorithm, first described in Berenson et al. [1995]. SI is attractive because it provides an isolation level that avoids many of the common concurrency anomalies, and has been implemented by Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server (with certain minor variations). SI does not guarantee serializability in all cases, but the TPC-C benchmark application

Alan Fekete; Dimitrios Liarokapis; Elizabeth J. O'Neil; Patrick E. O'Neil; Dennis Shasha

2005-01-01

208

Base isolation: Fresh insight  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

Shustov, V.

1993-07-15

209

Acute isolated capsular stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to assess differential features between capsular stroke of ischemic and hemorrhagic origin, and to compare capsular strokes with all other (non-capsular) strokes. Data of 148 patients with isolated capsular stroke were collected from a prospective hospital-based stroke registry in which 2000 consecutive acute stroke patients were included. Isolated capsular stroke accounted for 8.4% of

Adrià Arboix; Mar??a Mart??nez-Rebollar; Montserrat Oliveres; Luis Garc??a-Eroles; Joan Massons; Cecilia Targa

2005-01-01

210

Isolated sleep paralysis  

PubMed Central

Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

Sawant, Neena S.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Tambe, Ravindra

2005-01-01

211

A Translocation Motif in Relaxase TrwC Specifically Affects Recruitment by Its Conjugative Type IV Secretion System.  

PubMed

Type IV secretion system (T4SS) substrates are recruited through a translocation signal that is poorly defined for conjugative relaxases. The relaxase TrwC of plasmid R388 is translocated by its cognate conjugative T4SS, and it can also be translocated by the VirB/D4 T4SS of Bartonella henselae, causing DNA transfer to human cells. In this work, we constructed a series of TrwC variants and assayed them for DNA transfer to bacteria and human cells to compare recruitment requirements by both T4SSs. Comparison with other reported relaxase translocation signals allowed us to determine two putative translocation sequence (TS) motifs, TS1 and TS2. Mutations affecting TS1 drastically affected conjugation frequencies, while mutations affecting either motif had only a mild effect on DNA transfer rates through the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. henselae. These results indicate that a single substrate can be recruited by two different T4SSs through different signals. The C terminus affected DNA transfer rates through both T4SSs tested, but no specific sequence requirement was detected. The addition of a Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain, the translocation signal for the Bartonella VirB/D4 T4SS, increased DNA transfer up to 4% of infected human cells, providing an excellent tool for DNA delivery to specific cell types. We show that the R388 coupling protein TrwB is also required for this high-efficiency TrwC-BID translocation. Other elements apart from the coupling protein may also be involved in substrate recognition by T4SSs. PMID:23995644

Alperi, Anabel; Larrea, Delfina; Fernández-González, Esther; Dehio, Christoph; Zechner, Ellen L; Llosa, Matxalen

2013-08-30

212

Bacterial effector binds host cell adenylyl cyclase to potentiate G?s-dependent cAMP production  

PubMed Central

Subversion of host organism cAMP signaling is an efficient and widespread mechanism of microbial pathogenesis. Bartonella effector protein A (BepA) of vasculotumorigenic Bartonella henselae protects the infected human endothelial cells against apoptotic stimuli by elevation of cellular cAMP levels by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, adenylyl cyclase (AC) and the ?-subunit of the AC-stimulating G protein (G?s) were identified as potential cellular target proteins for BepA by gel-free proteomics. Results of the proteomics screen were evaluated for physical and functional interaction by: (i) a heterologous in vivo coexpression system, where human AC activity was reconstituted under the regulation of G?s and BepA in Escherichia coli; (ii) in vitro AC assays with membrane-anchored full-length human AC and recombinant BepA and G?s; (iii) surface plasmon resonance experiments; and (iv) an in vivo fluorescence bimolecular complementation-analysis. The data demonstrate that BepA directly binds host cell AC to potentiate the G?s-dependent cAMP production. As opposed to the known microbial mechanisms, such as ADP ribosylation of G protein ?-subunits by cholera and pertussis toxins, the fundamentally different BepA-mediated elevation of host cell cAMP concentration appears subtle and is dependent on the stimulus of a G protein-coupled receptor-released G?s. We propose that this mechanism contributes to the persistence of Bartonella henselae in the chronically infected vascular endothelium.

Pulliainen, Arto T.; Pieles, Kathrin; Brand, Cameron S.; Hauert, Barbara; Bohm, Alex; Quebatte, Maxime; Wepf, Alexander; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dessauer, Carmen W.; Dehio, Christoph

2012-01-01

213

Bacterial effector binds host cell adenylyl cyclase to potentiate G?s-dependent cAMP production.  

PubMed

Subversion of host organism cAMP signaling is an efficient and widespread mechanism of microbial pathogenesis. Bartonella effector protein A (BepA) of vasculotumorigenic Bartonella henselae protects the infected human endothelial cells against apoptotic stimuli by elevation of cellular cAMP levels by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, adenylyl cyclase (AC) and the ?-subunit of the AC-stimulating G protein (G?s) were identified as potential cellular target proteins for BepA by gel-free proteomics. Results of the proteomics screen were evaluated for physical and functional interaction by: (i) a heterologous in vivo coexpression system, where human AC activity was reconstituted under the regulation of G?s and BepA in Escherichia coli; (ii) in vitro AC assays with membrane-anchored full-length human AC and recombinant BepA and G?s; (iii) surface plasmon resonance experiments; and (iv) an in vivo fluorescence bimolecular complementation-analysis. The data demonstrate that BepA directly binds host cell AC to potentiate the G?s-dependent cAMP production. As opposed to the known microbial mechanisms, such as ADP ribosylation of G protein ?-subunits by cholera and pertussis toxins, the fundamentally different BepA-mediated elevation of host cell cAMP concentration appears subtle and is dependent on the stimulus of a G protein-coupled receptor-released G?s. We propose that this mechanism contributes to the persistence of Bartonella henselae in the chronically infected vascular endothelium. PMID:22635269

Pulliainen, Arto T; Pieles, Kathrin; Brand, Cameron S; Hauert, Barbara; Böhm, Alex; Quebatte, Maxime; Wepf, Alexander; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dessauer, Carmen W; Dehio, Christoph

2012-05-25

214

The isolated circuit diathermy.  

PubMed Central

When using the conventional diathermy generator in surgery failure to apply the plate electrode can always present a serious risk of a thermoelectrical burn at any point where the patient makes contact with an earthed object on the operating table. The recent introduction of the earth-free (isolated circuit) diathermy should, under most conditions, provide complete protection against such risks. However, there are still certain circumstances under which even the isolated circuit may give rise to a thermoelectrical burn. Two such hypothetical examples are described; the sequences of events for these are fairly frequent occurrence.

Mitchell, J. P.

1979-01-01

215

Renewal of Tohoku ISOL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the new AVF cyrclotron has been constructed at cyclotron and radioisotope center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University, the ISOL facility at CYRIC has also been renewed. The pumping system, beam focusing devices, the tape transportation and their control system have been modified. In addition, a large volume HPGe detector system which consist of six clover type HPGe detectors with BGO anti-compton suppressor has also been constructed. Details of the renewal of the ISOL facility and the result of the performance test of the new detector system will be reported in addition to the plans for some experiments.

Fujita, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi; Sonoda, Tetsu; Oshima, Tatsuaki; Mizunuma, Katsuhito; Tamura, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Eiji; Shinozuka, Tsutomu

2001-10-01

216

An optically isolated amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design presented was used for biomedical signal detection and monitoring. The amplifier was successfully applied for EMG and ECG research studies. The patient is safely isolated from the processing equipment when using the amplifier. This opto-isolated amplifier was also applied industrially for monitoring mercury arc rectifier control signals. The device has proved itself in an industrial environment as an interface for a microprocessor. This unit can be used whenever large offset voltages are found, and can therefore be put to good use in many power electrical engineering applications.

Smith, C. J.

1982-11-01

217

Isolated amoebic appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoebiasis, a disease of worldwide distribution, is endemic in tropical countries with suboptimal sanitation facilities. Isolated amoebic appendicitis (IAA) is regarded as a rare manifestation of the disease globally. Because there are no defined clinical features that distinguish IAA from bacterial appendicitis, diagnosis is usually dependent on histopathological examination. A 9-year retrospective study was undertaken to investigate the clinicopathological aspects

P. Ramdial; T. Madiba; S. Kharwa; B. Clarke; B. Zulu

2002-01-01

218

Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

Blauch, David N.

219

Aircraft EMP Isolation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a preliminary study into methods for electrically isolating the E-4B, the EC-135, and the EC-130 aircraft during EMP tests where the aircraft under test is directly driven by a high-voltage pulser.

A. Finci H. Price P. Chao S. Mercer T. Naff

1980-01-01

220

Aircraft EMP isolation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a preliminary study into methods for electrically isolating the E-4B, the EC-135, and the EC-130 aircraft during EMP tests where the aircraft under test is directly driven by a high-voltage pulser.

A. Finci; H. Price; P. Chao; S. Mercer; T. Naff

1980-01-01

221

Isolated ACTH Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated ACTH is a rare cause of secondary adrenocortical insufficiency. The diagnosis is made by the demonstration of low cortisol production with low plasma ACTH, absent adrenal responses to stimulation for pituitary or hypothalamus with intact adrenal response to exogenous ACTH, and normal secretory indices of other pituitary hormones. We conclude that the diagnosis of this condition may be difficult

D. A. de Luis; R. Aller; E. Romero

1998-01-01

222

Algal Virus: Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater blue-green algae of the genera Lyngbya, Plectonema, and Phormidium are susceptible to a virus recently isolated from a waste-stabilization pond. Electron micrographs of a partially purified preparation show that the viral particle has an icosahedral structure about 66 mmu in diameter.

Robert S. Safferman; Mary-Ellen Morris

1963-01-01

223

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

SciTech Connect

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

2007-09-12

224

Cycle isolation monitoring  

SciTech Connect

There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C. [Santee Copper, Moncks Corner, SC (United States)

2009-07-15

225

Isolation of Carbon Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Carbon nanostructures such a single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and fullerene peapods (e.g. C70 at SWCNT) usually occur in the form of bundles. Here, we present application of a novel simple and versatile method for deposition of small isolated nanoribbons of carbon nanotubes on annealed gold surface. The nanoribbons were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and exhibit characteristic features of individual carbon nanostructures. The resonance condition allowed the observation of a distinct spectrum of one inner tube in the nanoribbon from DWCNT. The signal of inner tubes of isolated DWCNT nanoribbons was found to be up to 50 times stronger than the sum of signals of the corresponding tubes in buckypaper sample. This dramatic enhancement is assigned to SERS (surface enhanced resonant Raman scattering) effect.

Kalbac, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, D - 01069 Dresden (Germany); Pelouchova, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Zukalova, Marketa [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Dunsch, Lothar [Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, D - 01069 Dresden (Germany)

2005-09-27

226

Pump isolation valve  

DOEpatents

The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1983-08-02

227

Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness  

PubMed Central

Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures.

MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

2012-01-01

228

DNA Isolation from Onion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students find studying DNA difficult because it is so small that the concepts are quite abstract. This lab enables students to work with DNA concretely by easily isolating chromosomal DNA using the same basic tools and methods that scientists use. The lab is a good introduction to using pipets and to using the metric system. If the chemistry of the solutions is taught it is also a great practical application.

Kate Dollard (Cambridge Rindge and Latin REV)

1994-07-30

229

Mechanical beam isolator  

SciTech Connect

Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam.

Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

1996-10-01

230

Isolated persistent hypermethioninemia.  

PubMed Central

New information has been obtained on 30 patients with isolated persistent hypermethioninemia, most of them previously unreported. Biopsies to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of partially deficient activity of ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT; E.C.2.5.1.6) in liver were not performed on most of these patients. However, none showed the clinical findings or the extreme elevations of serum folate previously described in other patients with isolated hypermethioninemia considered not to have hepatic MAT deficiency. Patients ascertained on biochemical grounds had no neurological abnormalities, and 27/30 had IQs or Bayley development-index scores within normal limits or were judged to have normal mental development. Methionine transamination metabolites accumulated abnormally only when plasma methionine concentrations exceeded 300-350 microM and did so more markedly after 0.9 years of age. Data were obtained on urinary organic acids as well as plasma creatinine concentrations. Patterns of inheritance of isolated hypermethioninemia were variable. Considerations as to the optimal management of this group of patients are discussed.

Mudd, S H; Levy, H L; Tangerman, A; Boujet, C; Buist, N; Davidson-Mundt, A; Hudgins, L; Oyanagi, K; Nagao, M; Wilson, W G

1995-01-01

231

Ultrastructural changes in isolated plastids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Etio-chloroplasts were isolated from greening maize leaves and their ultrastructure was investigated immediately after isolation, as well as at intervals of several hours after their exposure to light or darkness. The following ultrastructural changes have been observed:

Mercedes Wrischer; Rudjer Bo

1973-01-01

232

Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some

N OSullivan; J Benjamin; M B Skirrow

1990-01-01

233

Isolated Low HDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary hypoalphalipoproteinemia is characterized by isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) below\\u000a the tenth percentile compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Low levels of HDL-C are associated with an increased\\u000a risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in epidemiologic studies, and in randomized clinical trials of statin therapy low levels\\u000a of HDL-C identified patients at increased risk of cardiovascular

Robert S. Rosenson

234

The Role of Social Isolation in Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature which relates to the role of social isolation in suicide. Major areas reviewed include theories on suicide and social isolation, measures of social isolation, and empirical studies which concern the relationship of social isolation to suicide. (Author)

Trout, Deborah L.

1980-01-01

235

Coinfection with Multiple Tick-Borne Pathogens in a Walker Hound Kennel in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Both dogs and humans can be coinfected with various Ehrlichia, Bartonella, Rickettsia, and Babesia species. We investigated a kennel of sick Walker Hounds and their owners in southeastern North Carolina for evidence of tick-borne infections and associated risk factors. A high degree of coinfection was documented in the dog population. Of the 27 dogs, 26 were seroreactive to an Ehrlichia sp., 16 to Babesia canis, and 25 to Bartonella vinsonii, and 22 seroconverted to Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. According to PCR results, 15 dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis, 9 with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 8 with Ehrlichia ewingii, 3 with Ehrlichia equi, 9 with Ehrlichia platys, 20 with a Rickettsia species, 16 with a Bartonella species, and 7 with B. canis. The detection of DNA from any Ehrlichia species was associated with clinical illness and with concurrent B. canis infection (by PCR). Both E. canis and an uncharacterized Rickettsia species appeared to result in chronic or recurrent infection. Death in the dog population was associated with living in a dirt lot rather than the concrete kennel. Of 23 people on whom serologic testing was conducted, eight were seroreactive to Bartonella henselae, one to E. chaffeensis, and one to R. rickettsii antigen; however, none had clinical or hematologic abnormalities consistent with illness caused by these organisms. We conclude that kennel dogs with heavy tick exposure can be infected at a high rate with multiple, potentially zoonotic, tick-borne pathogens. In addition, our findings further illustrate the utility of PCR for documenting coinfection with tick-transmitted pathogens.

Kordick, S. K.; Breitschwerdt, E. B.; Hegarty, B. C.; Southwick, K. L.; Colitz, C. M.; Hancock, S. I.; Bradley, J. M.; Rumbough, R.; Mcpherson, J. T.; MacCormack, J. N.

1999-01-01

236

The isolated perfused lung.  

PubMed Central

The unique nonrespiratory functions of the lungs have become more apparent in recent years. The isolated perfused lung model offers many advantages over other methods for the study of pulmonary metabolism, xenobiotic disposition and the influence of interactions among agents of different physical forms. Detailed descriptions of the experimental preparation are elements in evaluating and comparing data from various sources but these are frequently neglected. A discussion and critique of the following elements are provided in this review in order to elucidate the typical problems one might encounter in evaluating data: perfusate type, perfusion method, construction materials, ventilation method, temperature control, surgical procedure, microbiological contamination and evaluation criteria of the preparation. Examples are given where the IPL method has been applied and suggestions are made for future research efforts.

Niemeier, R W

1984-01-01

237

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

1993-04-27

238

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, Calvin J. (Los Alamos, NM); Dahlby, Joel W. (Los Alamos, NM); Gallimore, Bradford F. (Los Alamos, NM); Comer, Bob E. (Versailles, MO); Stone, Water A. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlson, David O. (Tesugue, NM)

1993-01-01

239

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of an enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

1991-03-12

240

Development of a System for Genetic Manipulation of Bartonella bacilliformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of pUB508 into JB584 by electroporation generated eight Kanr clones of B. bacilliformis. Char- acterization of one of these strains, termed JB585, indicated that allelic exchange between pUB508 and fla had occurred. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and electron microscopy showed that synthesis of flagellin encoded by fla and secretion\\/assembly of flagella were abolished. Complementation of

JAMES M. BATTISTI; MICHAEL F. MINNICK

1999-01-01

241

Cotton roll isolation versus Vac-Ejector isolation.  

PubMed

A visible-light-cured, white pit-and-fissure sealant was applied to 523 teeth in school children using either cotton rolls or a VacEjector for isolation. After a minimum of six months, the patients were recalled and the retention of the sealants was evaluated. No significant difference in sealant retention was found between the two isolation methods. PMID:2530257

Wood, A J; Saravia, M E; Farrington, F H

242

Reproductive isolation among geographically and temporally isolated marine Brachionus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a polyclonal antibody against the mate recognition pheromone (MRP) of Brachionus rotundiformis Koshiki strain, we investigated the behavioral reproductive isolation and the similarity of MRP among geographically and temporally isolated B. rotundiformis strains. Males of the Koshiki strain did not discriminate in mating attempts among females of the Koshiki strain and those of conspecific allopatric strains from Hamana, Fiji,

T. Kotani; M. Ozaki; K. Matsuoka; T. W. Snell; A. Hagiwara

2001-01-01

243

Bacterial RNA isolation.  

PubMed

In this bacterial RNA isolation protocol, an "RNA-protective" treatment is followed by lysozyme digestion of the peptidoglycan component of the cell wall. EDTA promotes the loss of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and allows the lysozyme better access to the peptidoglycan. Cells begin to lyse during digestion in hypotonic lysozyme buffer and lysis is completed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and hot phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (PCA) extraction. SDS and hot phenol disrupt membranes, denature protein (including RNase), and strip proteins from RNA. The separation of the organic phase from the aqueous phase is achieved using Phase Lock Gel, an inert material with a density intermediate between the organic and aqueous samples. The sample is split into three phases: from bottom to top, these are phenol and chloroform (organic phase), the inert gel with the interface material, and the aqueous phase with the RNA. The gel acts as a physical barrier between the sample and the organic phase plus interface. Following organic extraction, the RNA is concentrated by ethanol precipitation. PMID:22949721

Ares, Manuel

2012-09-01

244

New Ventilated Isolation Cage  

PubMed Central

A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9

Cook, Reginald O.

1968-01-01

245

manipulation in isolated turtle cerebellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and relaxation times of water were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the isolated turtle cerebellum during osmotic cell volume manipulation. The aim was to study effects of cell volume changes, a factor in ischaemia and spreading depression, in isolation from considerations of blood flow and metabolism. Cerebella were superfused at 12-14°C with solutions

Jacqueline M. O'Shea; Stephen R. Williams; Nick van Bruggen; Anthony R. Gardner-Medwin

246

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

247

Comparative analysis of glutaredoxin domains from bacterial opportunistic pathogens  

PubMed Central

Glutaredoxin proteins (GLXRs) are essential components of the glutathione system that reductively detoxify substances such as arsenic and peroxides and are important in the synthesis of DNA via ribonucleotide reductases. NMR solution structures of glutaredoxin domains from two Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, Brucella melitensis and Bartonella henselae, are presented. These domains lack the N-terminal helix that is frequently present in eukaryotic GLXRs. The conserved active-site cysteines adopt canonical proline/tyrosine-stabilized geometries. A difference in the angle of ?-helix 2 relative to the ?-­sheet surface and the presence of an extended loop in the human sequence suggests potential regulatory regions and/or protein–protein interaction motifs. This observation is consistent with mutations in this region that suppress defects in GLXR–ribonucleotide reductase interactions. These differences between the human and bacterial forms are adjacent to the dithiol active site and may permit species-selective drug design.

Leeper, Thomas; Zhang, Suxin; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.; Varani, Gabriele

2011-01-01

248

An isolation technology for joined tungsten MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolation technology utilizing a selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten to fabricate released, joined and isolated microelectromechanical structures (MEMS) is presented. The isolation scheme features released tungsten structures that are both mechanically joined and electrically isolated by silicon nitride and offers extra design freedom for micromachining. The technology is used to fabricate an isolated-tungsten, serial-parallel (SP), linear electrostatic,

Liang-Yuh Chen; Edval J. P. Santos; Noel C. MacDonald

1993-01-01

249

Conservation of gene order and content in the circular chromosomes of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and other Rhizobiales.  

PubMed

'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,' an insect-vectored, obligate intracellular bacterium associated with citrus-greening disease, also called "HLB," is a member of the Rhizobiales along with nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and facultative intracellular mammalian pathogen Bartonella henselae. Comparative analyses of their circular chromosomes identified 514 orthologous genes shared among all five species. Shared among all five species are 50 identical blocks of microsyntenous orthologous genes (MOGs), containing a total of 283 genes. While retaining highly conserved genomic blocks of microsynteny, divergent evolution, horizontal gene transfer and niche specialization have disrupted macrosynteny among the five circular chromosomes compared. Highly conserved microsyntenous gene clusters help define the Rhizobiales, an order previously defined by 16S RNA gene similarity and herein represented by the three families: Bartonellaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhizobiaceae. Genes without orthologs in the other four species help define individual species. The circular chromosomes of each of the five Rhizobiales species examined had genes lacking orthologs in the other four species. For example, 63 proteins are encoded by genes of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' not shared with other members of the Rhizobiales. Of these 63 proteins, 17 have predicted functions related to DNA replication or RNA transcription, and some of these may have roles related to low genomic GC content. An additional 17 proteins have predicted functions relevant to cellular processes, particularly modifications of the cell surface. Seventeen unshared proteins have specific metabolic functions including a pathway to synthesize cholesterol encoded by a seven-gene operon. The remaining 12 proteins encoded by 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' genes not shared with other Rhizobiales are of bacteriophage origin. 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' shares 11 genes with only Sinorhizobium meliloti and 12 genes are shared with only Bartonella henselae. PMID:22496839

Kuykendall, L David; Shao, Jonathan Y; Hartung, John S

2012-04-04

250

Conservation of Gene Order and Content in the Circular Chromosomes of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and Other Rhizobiales  

PubMed Central

‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ an insect-vectored, obligate intracellular bacterium associated with citrus-greening disease, also called “HLB," is a member of the Rhizobiales along with nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and facultative intracellular mammalian pathogen Bartonella henselae. Comparative analyses of their circular chromosomes identified 514 orthologous genes shared among all five species. Shared among all five species are 50 identical blocks of microsyntenous orthologous genes (MOGs), containing a total of 283 genes. While retaining highly conserved genomic blocks of microsynteny, divergent evolution, horizontal gene transfer and niche specialization have disrupted macrosynteny among the five circular chromosomes compared. Highly conserved microsyntenous gene clusters help define the Rhizobiales, an order previously defined by 16S RNA gene similarity and herein represented by the three families: Bartonellaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhizobiaceae. Genes without orthologs in the other four species help define individual species. The circular chromosomes of each of the five Rhizobiales species examined had genes lacking orthologs in the other four species. For example, 63 proteins are encoded by genes of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ not shared with other members of the Rhizobiales. Of these 63 proteins, 17 have predicted functions related to DNA replication or RNA transcription, and some of these may have roles related to low genomic GC content. An additional 17 proteins have predicted functions relevant to cellular processes, particularly modifications of the cell surface. Seventeen unshared proteins have specific metabolic functions including a pathway to synthesize cholesterol encoded by a seven-gene operon. The remaining 12 proteins encoded by ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genes not shared with other Rhizobiales are of bacteriophage origin. ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ shares 11 genes with only Sinorhizobium meliloti and 12 genes are shared with only Bartonella henselae.

Kuykendall, L. David; Shao, Jonathan Y.; Hartung, John S.

2012-01-01

251

Effect of high-dose methyl-prednisolone on brainstem encephalopathy and basal ganglia impairment complicating cat scratch disease.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonotic illness caused by the Gram negative bacillus Bartonella henselae characterized by a small skin lesion at the site of a bite, lick or scratch by a cat, commonly followed by regional lymphadenopathy 1 or 2 weeks later. We report herein on severe neurological complications of CSD combining brainstem encephalopathy and basal ganglia impairment. This 12-year-old female acutely presented to a local hospital with profound coma and a prolonged tonic posturing of extremities. On the neurological examination she was deeply comatose with pin-point pupils and lack of vestibulo-ocular responses, suggestive of brainstem encephalopathy, along with marked rigid hypertonicity suggestive also of basal ganglia impairment. Initially suspecting Herpes simplex encephalitis or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis she was promptly started with high-dose methyl-prednisolone and acyclovir. Her parents apparently reported that she was scratched by a kitten some 4 weeks prior to her present admission and as such, suspecting CSD, she was begun with doxycycline and rifampicin. Her serology had proven positive for IgM antibodies to Bartonella henselae establishing the diagnosis. She regained consciousness after 4 days and the signs of brainstem and extra-pyramidal impairment also gradually abated and disappeared after 10 days. A follow-up exam after a month disclosed mild extra-pyramidal abnormalities which disappeared after 3 months. Although extremely rare, CSD should be also considered in a patient presenting with a severe encephalopathy and associated basal ganglia impairment. The prompt administration of high-dose methyl-prednisolone upon admission may have contributed to the favorable outcome in our patient and therefore should be advocated in any patient presenting with profound encephalopathy regardless the underlying etiology recovered later. PMID:17174500

Genizi, Jacob; Kasis, Imad; Schif, Aharon; Shahar, Eli

2006-12-15

252

GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

253

Isolation of Lignocellulose Transforming Microbes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research demonstrated that a Basidiomycete fungus, Irpex lacteus, isolated from active galleries of the beetle Xyloterinus politus in Quercus (oak) trees, degraded approximately five times as much lignin from the standard hardwood substrate, No. 002 wood,...

D. M. Norris

1980-01-01

254

Isolating the Components of Intelligence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a recent volume ('Intelligence, Information Processing, and Analogical Reasoning: The Componential Analysis of Human Abilities,' 1977), the writer proposed a method called 'componential analysis' that provides a means to isolate the components of intel...

R. J. Sternberg

1978-01-01

255

Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates.  

PubMed Central

Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some lectin types were found exclusively or predominantly in a species, but others were shared between species. Forty two per cent of C jejuni and 35% of C coli isolates belonged to lectin type 4. There was no apparent correlation between lectin type and serotype; different lectin types were found among strains of single Penner and Lior serotypes. Lectin typing is a simple and economical procedure suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories, either as an adjunct to serogrouping or, after further development, as a sole typing scheme.

O'Sullivan, N; Benjamin, J; Skirrow, M B

1990-01-01

256

Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Maple or Mathmatica, learner should be able to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities.

Smith, David

2002-01-12

257

Isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent parturient host is a rare event. Little is known about this condition, its prognosis, and its treatment in the immunocompetent pregnant woman.Case: A 28-year-old woman, para 3, was diagnosed with isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis postpartum. She had delivered a healthy neonate at term who revealed no clinical features compatible with maternal-fetal transmission. The woman

M. A. LaGatta; C. Jordan; W. Khan; J. Toomey

1998-01-01

258

Vibration isolation of superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vibration isolation system for a superconducting magnet having a first magnet and a thermal shield. It comprises: a cryocooler means having first and second stages and located substantially adjacent to the thermal shield; a cyrostat means located substantially adjacent the cryocooler means; and resilient vibration isolator means connected between the first magnet and the cryocooler means and also, between the cryocooler means and cyrostat means.

Minas, C.; Herd, K.G.; Laskaris, E.T.

1992-07-14

259

Seismic Isolation Design for JSFR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the seismic design of Japan Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), which includes the seismic condition, the seismic isolation system, and the seismic evaluation of the primary components. Since the design seismic loading is set out severely than ever since The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, an advanced seismic isolation system is aimed to reduce the seismic force loaded

Shigeki OKAMURA; Yoshio KAMISHIMA; Kazuo NEGISHI; Yoshihiko SAKAMOTO; Seiji KITAMURA; Shoji KOTAKE

2011-01-01

260

Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis from a cat.  

PubMed

Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from a cat with dermatitis. The isolate was sensitive to oxytetracyclin, streptomycin and penicillin but resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and cefoperazone. PMID:10763386

Kaya, O; Kirkan, S; Unal, B

2000-03-01

261

Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents.

Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

2012-01-01

262

Transfer of R388 derivatives by a pathogenesis-associated type IV secretion system into both bacteria and human cells.  

PubMed

Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are involved in processes such as bacterial conjugation and protein translocation to animal cells. In this work, we have switched the substrates of T4SSs involved in pathogenicity for DNA transfer. Plasmids containing part of the conjugative machinery of plasmid R388 were transferred by the T4SS of human facultative intracellular pathogen Bartonella henselae to both recipient bacteria and human vascular endothelial cells. About 2% of the human cells expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from the plasmid. Plasmids of different sizes were transferred with similar efficiencies. B. henselae codes for two T4SSs: VirB/VirD4 and Trw. A ?virB mutant strain was transfer deficient, while a ?trwE mutant was only slightly impaired in DNA transfer. DNA transfer was in all cases dependent on protein TrwC of R388, the conjugative relaxase, implying that it occurs by a conjugation-like mechanism. A DNA helicase-deficient mutant of TrwC could not promote DNA transfer. In the absence of TrwB, the coupling protein of R388, DNA transfer efficiency dropped 1 log. The same low efficiency was obtained with a TrwB point mutation in the region involved in interaction with the T4SS. TrwB interacted with VirB10 in a bacterial two-hybrid assay, suggesting that it may act as the recruiter of the R388 substrate for the VirB/VirD4 T4SS. A TrwB ATPase mutant behaved as dominant negative, dropping DNA transfer efficiency to almost null levels. B. henselae bacteria recovered from infected human cells could transfer the mobilizable plasmid into recipient Escherichia coli under certain conditions, underscoring the versatility of T4SSs. PMID:21908662

Fernández-González, Esther; de Paz, Héctor D; Alperi, Anabel; Agúndez, Leticia; Faustmann, Marco; Sangari, Félix J; Dehio, Christoph; Llosa, Matxalen

2011-09-09

263

Arabidopsis organelle isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

The subcellular energy organelles (chloroplast, mitochondria, and peroxisome) in plants are responsible for major metabolic processes including photosynthesis, photorespiration, oxidative phosphorylation, ?-oxidation, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Arabidopsis thaliana provides a considerable challenge to organellar researchers that have traditionally focused their methods on the use of larger plants and storage organs from which organelles are relatively easy to isolate. In contrast, the small size and lack of abundant heterotrophic organs in Arabidopsis thaliana means that many traditional techniques have required significant modification to yield enough isolated organelles for experimentation. However, these challenges are balanced by the advantages of working in an organism that has such a wide array of publically available genetic resources. Here we present methods for the isolation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes from Arabidopsis thaliana plants and heterotrophic cell cultures as well as a number of commonly used assays to assess their functional integrity and purity. PMID:24057386

Taylor, Nicolas L; Ströher, Elke; Millar, A Harvey

2014-01-01

264

Responding to Isolation and Educational Disadvantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Australian rural communities often suffer from psychological isolation in addition to geographic isolation. Human and social capital are powerful antidotes to psychological isolation and are closely dependent on learning. Rural schools can reverse the negative effects of isolation on educational outcomes if they first work on building human and…

Squires, Don

2003-01-01

265

Passive vibration isolation using a Roberts linkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article present an ultralow frequency passive vibration isolation device as part of the preisolation stage for the Australian International Gravitational Observatory (AIGO). This isolator is based on the Roberts linkage and simulates a very long radius conical pendulum to provide two-dimensional isolation. It is designed as the second horizontal isolation component of the preisolator and it will support the

F. Garoi; J. Winterflood; L. Ju; J. Jacob; D. G. Blair

2003-01-01

266

Isolation, purification, and characterization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first reported in the continental United States in November 2004, and is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean worldwide. P. pachyrhizi isolates have been obtained from 2006 and 2007 across the U. S. and are being purified and maintai...

267

Time Dependent Isolation Capability of High Voltage Deep Trench Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term isolation properties of deep trenches in thick SOI have been investigated by current-voltage- characteristics. A strong change of the measured trench leakage current was observed depending on the applied voltage. Further on a marked decrease of the leakage current was observed depending on the duration and polarity of the applied stress. The improvement of the formatted trench

Ralf Lerner; Uwe Eckoldt; Klaus Schottmann; S. Heinz; K. Erler; A. Lange; G. Ebest

2008-01-01

268

Isolation of Yersinia ruckeri Bacteriophages  

PubMed Central

Eight bacteriophages effective against Yersinia ruckeri, the enteric redmouth disease bacterium, were isolated. Phage YerA41, a tailed icosahedral virus isolated from sewage enrichments, lysed 34 of 35 strains of Y. ruckeri serovar I, but was inactive against 15 strains belonging to three other serological groups. Six other phages lysed strains of serovars II, V, and I?, a subgroup of serovar I. YerL62, a phage obtained by mitomycin C induction, was specific for one of three serovar V strains. These bacteriophages, particularly YerA41, have potential value for fish disease diagnostic work. Images

Stevenson, R. M. W.; Airdrie, D. W.

1984-01-01

269

Mechanics of rotating isolated horizons  

SciTech Connect

Black hole mechanics was recently extended by replacing the more commonly used event horizons in stationary space-times with isolated horizons in more general space-times (which may admit radiation arbitrarily close to black holes). However, so far the detailed analysis has been restricted to nonrotating black holes (although it incorporated arbitrary distortion, as well as electromagnetic, Yang-Mills, and dilatonic charges). We now fill this gap by first introducing the notion of isolated horizon angular momentum and then extending the first law to the rotating case.

Ashtekar, Abhay; Beetle, Christopher; Lewandowski, Jerzy

2001-08-15

270

Resisting an Isolated Learning Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary objective of this paper is to suggest that researchers on workplace learning avoid an isolated learning discourse. The point at issue is that being a learner is just one aspect of people's sometimes complicated lives in the workplace, and that people may sometimes--for good reasons--resist a learning discourse if it is linked…

Tanggaard, Lene

2009-01-01

271

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) is the worlds first licensed and operating geological repository for transuranic waste. The WIPP operation and related activities will be reviewed along with many science and development projects going on including an underground dark matter telescope and double beta decay detection experiments.

Hayes, Robert

2012-10-01

272

Plastic molded analog isolation amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plastic-packaged analog isolation amplifier that utilizes a capacitive coupled path for encoded signals and is capable of operating at high voltage levels is described. The assembly uses standard techniques for building plastic packages, allowing high-volume assembly at low cost without sacrificing performance. There is a small interconnect circuit which is used to capacitively couple the signal from the input

W. Meinel

1990-01-01

273

Isolated congenital left ventricular diverticulum.  

PubMed

Isolated congenital left ventricular diverticulum is a rare malformation and fewer than 50 cases have been reported to date. We report here on a patient with the symptoms of atypical chest pain and distress, who had a successful surgical intervention for this malformation. PMID:20824598

Feng, Q; He, J-X; Ni, C-Y; Ni, Y-M

2010-09-07

274

Isolation of Neurospora crassa bradytrophs.  

PubMed Central

A method was developed for the isolation of Neurospora bradytrophs. The bradytrophs (representing lesions in a number of pathways) were resistant to DL-p-fluorophenylalanine when growing in a leaky fashion but were sensitive when grown in the presence of their stimulating supplement. Images

Kinsey, J A

1979-01-01

275

Are Small, Isolated Wetlands Expendable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is most evident in the recent debate concerning new wetland regulations drafted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is that small, isolated wetlands will likely continue to be lost. The critical biological question is whether small wetlands are expendable, and the fundamental issue is the lack of biologically rele- vant data on the value of wetlands, especially so-called

Raymond D. Semlitsch; J. Russell Bodie

1998-01-01

276

Isolating Intrusions by Automatic Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

When dealing with malware infections, one of the first tasksis to findtheprocesses thatwere involvedintheattack. We introduce Malfor, a system that isolates those processes automatically. In contrast to other methods that help ana- lyze attacks, Malfor works by experiments: first, we record the interaction of the system under attack; after the intru- sion has been detected, we replay the recorded events

Stephan Neuhaus; Andreas Zeller

2006-01-01

277

Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is presented. A review of the literature revealed only one report of temporalis hypertrophy, probably caused by psychogenic muscle hyperactivity. The temporalis muscle hypertrophy in the patient described was idiopathic and its management was surgical.

A. Serrat; J. M. García-Cantera; L. M. Redondo

1998-01-01

278

Stem cell isolation: Differential stickiness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technologies to isolate colonies of human pluripotent stem cells from other cell types in a high-throughput manner are lacking. A microfluidic-based approach that exploits differences in the adhesion strength between these cells and a substrate may soon fill the gap.

Abilez, Oscar J.; Wu, Joseph C.

2013-06-01

279

Cryoelectron tomography of isolated desmosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desmosomes are a complex assembly of protein molecules that form at the cell surface and mediate cell-cell adhesion. Much is known about the composition of desmosomes and there is an established consensus for the location of and interactions between constituent proteins within the assembly. Furthermore, X-ray crystallography has determined atomic structures of isolated domains from several constituent proteins. Nevertheless, there

Devrim Acehan; K. D. Derr

2008-01-01

280

Congenital isolated folic acid malabsorption.  

PubMed Central

We report a case of congenital isolated malabsorption of folic acid, the first in a boy. Only seven previous cases have been reported, and we discuss two aspects--namely, the tendency to infection, with evidence of impairment of both cellular and humoral immunity, and the absence of neurological disturbances.

Urbach, J; Abrahamov, A; Grossowicz, N

1987-01-01

281

Content-Based Isolation: Rethinking Isolation Policy in Modern Client Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern client platforms, such as iOS, Android, Windows Phone 7, and Windows 8, have progressed from a per-user isolation policy, where users are isolated, but a user's applications run in the same isolation container, to an application isolation policy, where different applications are isolated from one another. However, this is not enough because mutually distrusting content can interfere with one

Alexander Moshchuk; Helen J. Wang; Yunxin Liu

2012-01-01

282

Bacillary angiomatosis associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Bacillary angiomatosis is an opportunistic bacterial infection caused by either Bartonella henselae or B. quintana. The classic histologic presentation of bacillary angiomatosis involves three components: a lobular proliferation of capillaries with enlarged endothelial cells, neutrophilic debris, and clumps of finely granular material identified as bacteria with staining techniques. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a histologic reaction pattern characterized by epithelial proliferation in response to a variety of stimuli, including mycobacterial, fungal, and bacterial infections. We describe a case of bacillary angiomatosis associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in an immunocompromised patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Histologic examination of a finger lesion demonstrated a capillary proliferation with neutrophilic debris and characteristic amorphous granular deposits. Warthin-Starry and Giemsa staining revealed clumps of coccobacilli. Cervical lymph node tissue also revealed organisms identified as Bartonella with PCR techniques. Stains and cultures for acid fast bacilli, fungus, and bacteria were negative. To our knowledge, there has been only one other report of bacillary angiomatosis presenting with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. We conclude that the differential diagnosis of entities associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia should be expanded to include bacillary angiomatosis. PMID:16456322

Amsbaugh, Sean; Huiras, Erin; Wang, Nadia S; Wever, Aaron; Warren, Simon

2006-02-01

283

Surveillance using serological and molecular methods for the detection of infectious agents in captive Brazilian neotropic and exotic felids.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate the exposure of captive wild felids to various infectious pathogens using serological and molecular methods. One hundred and fifty-nine neotropic felids and 51 exotic felids from 28 captive settings in Brazil were tested. While antibodies against Feline parvovirus and Feline coronavirus (FCoV), Feline calicivirus and Bartonella spp. were frequently detected by serologic tests, antibodies against Felid herpesvirus 1 or infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas were less prevalent. Serologic evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia spp., Feline immunodeficiency virus, and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was detected rarely, and infections with FeLV, Ehrlichia spp., and Cytauxzoon spp. were found infrequently. The detected Bartonella sequence was molecularly similar to B. koehlerae and B. henselae; for Cytauxzoon, the sequence resembled those from domestic cats. No Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. infections were detected. The positive test results varied significantly among different facilities and species. Additionally, FCoV seropositivity was more prevalent in captivity than in free-ranging populations. Results suggest that testing is appropriate prior to relocation of felids. PMID:21908268

Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Cattori, Valentino; Willi, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Corrêa, Sandra Helena Ramiro; Marques, Mara Cristina; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda Vianna; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Durigon, Edison Luiz; de Carvalho, Vania Maria; Coutinho, Selene Dall'Acqua; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2011-07-21

284

Q fever endocarditis in Romania: the first cases confirmed by direct sequencing.  

PubMed

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious, life-threatening disease with highly variable clinical signs, making its diagnostic a real challenge. A diagnosis is readily made if blood cultures are positive, but in 2.5 to 31% of all infective endocarditis cases, routine blood cultures are negative. In such situations, alternative diagnostic approaches are necessary. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. are the etiological agents of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) most frequently identified by serology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of molecular assays, as complementary methods to the conventional serologic methods for the rapid confirmatory diagnostic of Q fever endocarditis in patients with BCNE. Currently, detection of C. burnetii by culture or an antiphase I IgG antibody titers >800 represents a major Duke criterion for defining IE, while a titers of >800 for IgG antibodies to either B. henselae or B. quintana is used for the diagnosis of endocarditis due to Bartonella spp. We used indirect immunofluorescence assays for the detection of IgG titers for C. burnetii, B. henselae and B. quintana in 57 serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of IE. Thirty three samples originated from BCNE patients, whereas 24 were tested before obtaining the blood cultures results, which finally were positive. The results of serologic testing showed that nine out of 33 BCNE cases exhibited antiphase I C. burnetii IgG antibody titer >800, whereas none has IgG for B. henselae or B. quintana. Subsequently, we used nested-PCR assay for the amplification of C. burnetii DNA in the nine positive serum samples, and we obtained positive PCR results for all analyzed cases. Afterwards we used the DNA sequencing of amplicons for the repetitive element associated to htpAB gene to confirm the results of nested-PCR. The results of sequencing allowed us to confirm that C. burnetii is the causative microorganism responsible for BCNE. In conclusion, the nested PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing is a reliable and accurate method when applied to serum samples, and it may be used as an additional test to the serological methods for the confirmatory diagnosis of BCNE cases determined by C. burnetii. PMID:22272146

Cotar, Ani Ioana; Badescu, Daniela; Oprea, Mihaela; Dinu, Sorin; Banu, Otilia; Dobreanu, Dan; Dobreanu, Minodora; Ionac, Adina; Flonta, Mirela; Straut, Monica

2011-12-20

285

Sleuthing the Isolated Compact Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early 1990's, isolated thermally-emitting neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium were predicted to show up in their thousands in the ROSAT soft X-ray all-sky survey. The glut of sources would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the equation of state of ultra-dense matter. Only seven objects have been firmly identified to date. The reasons for this discrepency are discussed and recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations of these objects are described. Spectra of the brightest of the isolated neutron star candidates, RX J1856.5-3754, continue to present interpretational difficulties for current neutron star model atmospheres and alternative models are briefly discussed. RX J1856.5-3754 remains a valid quark star candidate.

Drake, J. J.

2004-08-01

286

Reovirus, isolated from SARS patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beijing has been severely affected by SARS, and SARS-associated coronavirus has been confirmed as its cause. However, clinical\\u000a and experimental evidence implicates the possibility of co-infection. In this report, reovirus was isolated from throat swabs\\u000a of SARS patients, including the first case in Beijing and her mother. Identification with the electron microscopy revealed\\u000a the characteristic features of reovirus. 24 of

Qing Duan; Hong Zhu; Yi Yang; Weihua Li; Yusen Zhou; Jun He; Kun He; Haojie Zhang; Tao Zhou; Lihua Song; Yonghua Gan; Hua Tan; Baofeng Jin; Huiyan Li; Tingting Zuo; Dehui Chen; Xuemin Zhang

2003-01-01

287

Isolation of mitochondria from CNS  

PubMed Central

This unit contains a protocol describing the isolation of brain mitochondria by using discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation. The Percoll density gradient centrifugation separates synaptosomes, myelin, and free non-synaptic mitochondria released from cells during tissue homogenization into individual fractions. Mitochondria entrapped in synaptosomes (synaptic mitochondria) can be liberated using nitrogen cavitation and then further purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation. These methods yield mitochondria that exhibit good respiratory coupling and high respiratory rates.

Kristian, Tibor

2010-01-01

288

Isolated tubal torsion in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adnexal torsion is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen in pregnancy and isolated fallopian tube twisting accounts for a very small number of these cases. These conditions, either in pregnancy or in non-gestational circumstances, are known to be due to both genital and non-genital causes and, in most cases, predisposing factors can be identified.We reviewed the literature and retrieved only

Massimo Origoni; Paolo Cavoretto; Enrico Conti; Augusto Ferrari

2009-01-01

289

Isolated tubal torsion in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Adnexal torsion is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen in pregnancy and isolated fallopian tube twisting accounts for a very small number of these cases. These conditions, either in pregnancy or in non-gestational circumstances, are known to be due to both genital and non-genital causes and, in most cases, predisposing factors can be identified. We reviewed the literature and retrieved only 19 cases of isolated fallopian tube torsion in pregnancy treated surgically from 1936 to today, including one recently published case from our experience. The clinical presentation was lower quadrant abdominal pain in all cases. The right side was involved in 90% of the cases. Tenderness was usually present but peritoneal irritation with guarding or rebound was exceptional. Symptoms were nausea and vomiting, scanty vaginal bleeding and dysuria. Signs suggestive of necrosis such as leucocytosis, increased CRP and mild hyperpyrexia were uncommon. Preoperative ultrasound evaluation was performed in eight patients and in all cases an adnexal cyst was detected on the ipsilateral side of the abdominal pain. The case we recently published was carefully investigated preoperatively by Doppler flow ultrasound techniques which allowed for a precise differential diagnosis with total adnexal torsion. This aspect has never been previously considered. The surgical approach showed acute isolated fallopian tube torsion in all the cases and a predisposing factor was identified in 75% of the patients. Foetal and maternal outcome were always excellent. In cases of acute abdomen in pregnancy, with detailed Doppler flow ultrasound evidence of normal ovaries and of a pelvic cyst, an isolated tubal-paratubal cyst torsion should be considered and appropriate ovary-sparing surgical treatment foreseen. PMID:19493607

Origoni, Massimo; Cavoretto, Paolo; Conti, Enrico; Ferrari, Augusto

2009-06-02

290

Isolation of intraflagellar transport trains.  

PubMed

The intraflagellar transport (IFT) system was first identified in situ by electron microscopy in thin sections of plastic-embedded flagella as linear arrays of electrondense particles, located between the B tubules of the outer doublets and the flagellar membrane. These arrays of particles are referred to as IFT trains. Upon membrane rupture, IFT trains are thought to easily dissociate to yield soluble IFT particles, which are commonly purified through sucrose gradients as ?16-17S complexes. The latters easily dissociate into two subcomplexes, named A and B. We report here the isolation, visualization, and identification by immunolabeling of flexible strings of IFT particles, which are structurally similar to in situ IFT trains and appear to be formed by both complex A and complex B polypeptides. Moreover, the particles forming isolated IFT trains are structurally similar to the individual particles found in the ?17S gradient peak. Our results provide the first direct evidence that ?17S particles do indeed compose the IFT trains. The paper also represents the first isolation of the IFT trains, and opens new possibilities for higher resolution studies on their structure and how particles are attached to each other to form the particle trains. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23804580

Mencarelli, Caterina; Mitchell, Aaron; Leoncini, Roberto; Rosenbaum, Joel; Lupetti, Pietro

2013-08-07

291

The Victoria Isolation Scale, Form A  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors administered the Isolation Symptomatology Questionnaire to persons living in Antarctica who were either well or maladjusted to their environment. Eliminating those items not discriminating between the two groups, the authors constructed a new isolation scale. (SE)|

Taylor, A. J. W.; Feletti, Grahame I.

1976-01-01

292

Control Issues of Microgravity Vibration Isolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Active vibration isolation systems contemplated for microgravity space experiments may be designed to reach given performance requirements in a variety of ways. An analogy to passive isolation systems proves to be illustrative but lacks the flexibility as...

C. R. Knospe R. D. Hampton

1991-01-01

293

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... short stature. This condition is usually apparent by early childhood. There are four types of isolated growth hormone ... people with type IB is usually apparent in early to mid-childhood. Individuals with isolated growth hormone deficiency type II ...

294

Isolated and Restricted Environments, Part I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The resource-reinforcement approach to satisfaction; Methods used to study satisfaction in small towns and isolated places; Factors contributing to a day's happiness; Satisfaction in isolated settings; Frequency characteristics of pleasant and u...

M. W. Shelly T. Z. Adelberg J. Donnoe M. Gillo B. Hansen

1970-01-01

295

Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.  

PubMed

There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified. PMID:16253666

Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

2005-04-02

296

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Identification and Isolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to methods of identifying, collecting and isolating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compositions of purified HSCs. Specifically, the present invention provides methods of isolating and purifying CD150.sup.+ HSCs, CD48.sup...

M. J. Kiel O. H. Yilmaz S. Morrison T. Iwashita

2004-01-01

297

Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

1983-07-01

298

Guideline for Isolation Precautions in Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assist hospitals in maintaining up-to-date isolation practices, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) have revised the 'CDC Guideline for Isolation Precautions in H...

J. S. Garner

1996-01-01

299

Infrared Isolator Using Yttrium Iron Garnet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infrared isolators using the Faraday rotation in a single crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) and calcite dichroic polarizers have been built. By using the YIG crystal with thorium fluoride antireflection coating the authors obtained isolation better than 3...

H. Gamo S. S. Chuang

1970-01-01

300

Optical waveguide isolator based on nonreciprocal radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new waveguide isolator which has a simple structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The isolator operates on the basis of nonreciprocal guided-radiation mode conversion in a channel magneto-optic waveguide. The isolator was realized using a single-mode rib channel waveguide in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet which has a very large Faraday rotation. 13.3 dB isolation was obtained at a wavelength near 1.55 micrometers.

Shintaku, Toshihiro; Uno, Takehiko

1994-12-01

301

Characterisation of African isolates of rinderpest virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of rinderpest virus (RPV) recovered from outbreaks of the disease in Kenya and Southern Sudan between 1986 and 1993 were compared to each other and to earlier isolates from East and West Africa. The recent isolates were mildly pathogenic for susceptible cattle and thus resembled other mild strains of RPV recovered from cattle and wildlife in East Africa more

H. M. Wamwayi; M. Fleming; T. Barrett

1995-01-01

302

Semiconductor optical isolators for integrated optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor optical isolators for integrated optics are presented. The requirements and demands for semiconductor optical isolators which can be monolithically integrated with semiconductor lasers and waveguide are discussed. Fundamental theories of magneto-optic effect in optical waveguides including magnetic materials are shown and transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect is reported on ferromagnetic metal Fe, Co, and Fe50Co50 thin films. Based on the fundamental properties, design, fabrication, and characterization of semiconductor optical isolators based on nonreciprocal loss are shown. Transverse electric (TE-) and transverse magnetic (TM-) mode semiconductor optical isolators are reported in telecommunication wavelengths of 1.3 - 1.55 ?m with (1) an optical isolation of 14.7 dB/mm in a TE mode semiconductor optical isolator, (2) amplifying characteristics in a TM mode semiconductor optical isolator, and (3) an optical isolation of 18.3 dB by using of nonreciprocal polarization rotation. Furthermore, monolithic integration of a semiconductor optical isolator with distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) is reported. Optical isolator performances are compared with those of previously reported waveguide optical isolators. Finally, future prospect and applications of semiconductor optical isolators are discussed.

Shimizu, Hiromasa

2013-09-01

303

Development of a launch vibration isolation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory has sponsored several programs to isolate payloads from mechanical vibrations during launch. This paper details a program called LVIS (for launch vibration isolation system). LVIS's goals are to reduce the rms accelerations felt by an isolated payload by a factor of 5 compared to an unisolated payload while using minimal launch vehicle services, fitting

Donald L. Edberg; Conor D. Johnson; L. Porter Davis; Eugene R. Fosness

1997-01-01

304

Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Diverse Bacillus anthracis Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test of 25 genetically diverse isolates of Bacillus anthracis was conducted to determine their susceptibility to seven clinically relevant antimicrobial agents. Etest strips (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) were used to measure the MICs for the isolates. Using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards MIC breakpoints for staphylococci, three isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin and five

Pamala R. Coker; Kimothy L. Smith; Martin E. Hugh-Jones

2002-01-01

305

Low-technology techniques for seismic isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project sought to improve the seismic performance of low-rise buildings by the introduction of a simple, low cost seismic isolation system at the time of construction, or re-construction. The main advantage of the friction sliding isolation layer is that the seismic base shear force transmitted from the ground to the isolated structure can be controlled at the level of

Huantian Xiao; J. W. Butterworth; Tam Larkin

2004-01-01

306

Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The

M. Pringle; A. Landén; A. Franklin

2006-01-01

307

Noninvasive diagnosis of isolated right ventricular infarction  

SciTech Connect

A rare case of isolated right ventricular infarction (RVI) is described. The lack of clinical and electrocardiographic findings characteristic of isolated RVI makes this pathology a diagnostic challenge. The role of the radionuclide scintigraphic procedures as a single possible tool for the diagnosis of isolated RVI is emphasized.

Garty, I.; Antonelli, D.; Barzilay, J.

1984-12-01

308

Isolation of the Unmarried in Later Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports longitudinal research which examined isolation among the unmarried aged and assessed personal characteristics associated with isolation from family and friends. Men and women were more isolated from neighbors and friends than from family, although the never-married maintained more ties with friends. (Author/BL)|

Keith, Pat M.

1986-01-01

309

Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1988-01-01

310

Isolation of bacteriophage infectious for Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine phage isolates infectious for Vibrio vulnificus and falling into four morphological groups were isolated from estuarine waters collected in Louisiana. Of the 60 V. vulnificus strains tested, 87% were susceptible to one or more of the isolates. With the exception of V. fluvialis, Vibrio species other than vulnificus were resistant to infection. A spectrum of enteric bacterial strains were

William Pelon; Ronald J. Siebeling; Janet Simonson; Ronald B. Luftig

1995-01-01

311

Double variable frequency pendulum isolator for seismic isolation of liquid storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the behaviour of liquid storage slender and broad tanks isolated by the double variable frequency pendulum isolator (DVFPI). The DVFPI is a double sliding isolation system having elliptical sliding surfaces. The geometry and coefficient of friction of top and bottom sliding surfaces can be unequal. The governing equations of motion and energy balance equation of the tank-isolation

D. P. Soni; B. B. Mistry; V. R. Panchal

2011-01-01

312

Response of Seismically Isolated Bridges Considering Variation in the Mechanical Properties of Individual Isolators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper summarizes an analytical study investigating how changes in the mechanical properties of individual seismic isolators affect the response of isolated bridge structures subjected to earthquake excitation. Nonlinear response-history analyses are conducted utilizing a simple seismically isolated bridge model, twenty sets of bilinear isolator properties and bins of recorded earthquake ground motion pairs. Variations in the mechanical properties

Gordon Warn

313

Serotyping of Chlamydia: isolates of bovine origin.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydial isolates of bovine origin were serotyped by a plaque reduction method. Of the two major serotypes observed, type 1 included isolates from bovine abortion and enteric infections, whereas type 2 isolates were associated with polyarthritis or encephalomyelitis. These two serotypes were identical to those with a similar disease distribution previously observed in isolates of ovine origin. The two groups did not cross-react and they were serologically unrelated to chlamydiae of avian origin. Thus, it appears that many chlamydial isolates causing intestinal infections or abortion in sheep or cattle are closely related antigenically, as are those producing polyarthritis, encephalomyelitis, and conjunctivitis, and that the two groups are distinct.

Schachter, J; Banks, J; Sugg, N; Sung, M; Storz, J; Meyer, K F

1975-01-01

314

A bovine herpesvirus isolated from sheep.  

PubMed Central

A viral agent was isolated from the trachea of a lamb that was suffering from a respiratory disorder. The physical and chemical properties of the isolates are characteristic of the herpesvirus group. It contains DNA in its virion, is ether sensitive, acid labile at pH 3.0 and heat labile at 56 degrees C after five minutes. The cytopathology observed provided further evidence of a herpesvirus isolate. The neutralization of the infectivity of the isolate with antiserum to bovine herpesvirus 1 is evidence that it should be considered an isolate of bovine herpesvirus 1. It is concluded that this is a report of a bovine herpesvirus infection in sheep.

Trueblood, M S; Swift, B L; McHolland-Raymond, L

1978-01-01

315

Strain Variation in Mycobacteriummarinum Fish Isolates  

PubMed Central

A molecular characterization of two Mycobacterium marinum genes, 16S rRNA and hsp65, was carried out with a total of 21 isolates from various species of fish from both marine and freshwater environments of Israel, Europe, and the Far East. The nucleotide sequences of both genes revealed that all M. marinum isolates from fish in Israel belonged to two different strains, one infecting marine (cultured and wild) fish and the other infecting freshwater (cultured) fish. A restriction enzyme map based on the nucleotide sequences of both genes confirmed the divergence of the Israeli marine isolates from the freshwater isolates and differentiated the Israeli isolates from the foreign isolates, with the exception of one of three Greek isolates from marine fish which was identical to the Israeli marine isolates. The second isolate from Greece exhibited a single base alteration in the 16S rRNA sequence, whereas the third isolate was most likely a new Mycobacterium species. Isolates from Denmark and Thailand shared high sequence homology to complete identity with reference strain ATCC 927. Combined analysis of the two gene sequences increased the detection of intraspecific variations and was thus of importance in studying the taxonomy and epidemiology of this aquatic pathogen. Whether the Israeli M. marinum strain infecting marine fish is endemic to the Red Sea and found extremely susceptible hosts in the exotic species imported for aquaculture or rather was accidentally introduced with occasional imports of fingerlings from the Mediterranean Sea could not be determined.

Ucko, M.; Colorni, A.; Kvitt, H.; Diamant, A.; Zlotkin, A.; Knibb, W. R.

2002-01-01

316

Ribosomal Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

Eleven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated in Finland during 1996 to 2000, had an unusual macrolide resistance phenotype. They were resistant to macrolides and streptogramin B but susceptible, intermediate, or low-level resistant to lincosamides. No acquired macrolide resistance genes were detected from the strains. The isolates were found to have mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA or ribosomal protein L4. Seven isolates had an A2059C mutation in two to four out of the four alleles encoding the 23S rRNA, two isolates had an A2059G mutation in two alleles, one isolate had a C2611G mutation in all four alleles, and one isolate had a 69GTG71-to-69TPS71 substitution in ribosomal protein L4.

Pihlajamaki, Marja; Kataja, Janne; Seppala, Helena; Elliot, John; Leinonen, Maija; Huovinen, Pentti; Jalava, Jari

2002-01-01

317

Cryoelectron tomography of isolated desmosomes.  

PubMed

Desmosomes are a complex assembly of protein molecules that form at the cell surface and mediate cell-cell adhesion. Much is known about the composition of desmosomes and there is an established consensus for the location of and interactions between constituent proteins within the assembly. Furthermore, X-ray crystallography has determined atomic structures of isolated domains from several constituent proteins. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding about the architecture of the intact assembly and the physical principles behind the adhesive strength of desmosomes therefore remain vague. We have used electron tomography to address this problem. In previous work, we investigated the in situ structure of desmosomes from newborn mouse skin preserved by freeze-substitution and imaged in resin-embedded thin sections. In our present work, we have isolated desmosomes from cow snout and imaged them in the frozen unstained state. Although not definitive, the resulting images provide support for the irregular groupings of cadherin molecules seen previously in mouse skin. PMID:18363558

Owen, Gethin Rh; Acehan, Devrim; Derr, K D; Rice, William J; Stokes, David L

2008-04-01

318

Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Five hundred Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated between January 1977 and February 1978 from male patients in Addis Ababa were tested by the agar dilution technique for their susceptibility to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of penicillin and ampicillin for the isolates varied from ?0.005 to 1.28 mg/litre and from ?0.025 to 0.8 mg/litre respectively. The tetracycline values ranged from ?0.2 to 3.2 mg/litre and those of chloramphenicol from ?0.125 to 8.0 mg/litre. Streptomycin concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, and 200 mg/litre each inhibited growth of a number of strains. 107 strains (21.4%) were not inhibited, even by a concentration of 200 mg/litre, the highest employed. Forty-one percent of strains were resistant to penicillin, requiring 0.08 mg/litre or a higher concentration for inhibition, and 58.4% were resistant to ampicillin, inhibition occurring only at concentrations ?0.2 mg/litre. The percentage of strains resistant to penicillin was significantly lower than that reported 7 years ago (50%). Resistance to tetracycline was shown in 8.2% of strains. None of the 500 strains showed resistance to chloramphenicol. Streptomycin resistance was detected in 43.8% of the strains.

Gedebou, Messele; Tassew, Alebachew

1980-01-01

319

An isolated nasolacrimal duct osteoma.  

PubMed

Osteomas of the nose and paranasal sinus are common benign tumors that can extend to surrounding structures and result in orbital or intracranial involvement. Presenting symptoms include facial pain, headache, cerebral symptoms, ocular symptoms, and so on, depending on the location and size of the tumor. They commonly occur within the frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses; however, there are rare cases of reported osteomas in the nasal cavity, turbinate, or orbit. Our case report describes a patient with nasolacrimal duct osteoma who presented with ipsilateral ocular pain, epiphora, and medial canthal swelling. We performed intranasal dacryocystorhinostomy using a nasal endoscope and removed the lacrimal duct osteoma. This report describes symptoms and management of an isolated nasolacrimal duct stone with a review of the literature. PMID:23851853

Kim, Joo Yeon; Kwon, Jae Hwan

2013-07-01

320

Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase  

SciTech Connect

We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA)); Anderson, J.B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

1990-09-01

321

Sag compensated vibration isolation mount  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sag-compensated vibration isolation mount includes a cylindrical rubber body element and a circular band extending around the body element. The band is formed from a shape-memory alloy metal which has a predetermined transition temperature. The band is operative for restricting outward bulging and sagging of the body element when the body element is subjected to an axial load at a temperature above the transition temperature. The band has a first length at a temperature above the transition temperature and it is stretchable to a second length at a temperature below the transition temperature. At temperatures below the transition temperature, the body element normally stretches the band to its second length. However, when the band is heated above its transition temperature, the band rapidly decreases in length to its first length to forcibly compress the body element and restrict outward bulging of the body element.

Dickinson, Stuart C.

1994-07-01

322

SAG compensated vibration isolation mount  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sag-compensated vibration isolation mount includes a cylindrical rubber body element and a circular band extending around the body element. The band is formed from a shape-memory alloy metal which has a predetermined transition temperature. The band is operative for restricting, outward bulging and sagging of the body element when the body element is subjected to an axial load at a temperature above the transition temperature. The band has a first length at a temperature above the transition temperature and it is stretchable to a second length at a temperature below the transition temperature. At temperatures below the transition temperature, the body element normally stretches the band to its second length. However, when the band is heated above its transition temperature, the band rapidly decreases in length to its first length to forcibly compress the body element and restrict outward bulging of the body element.

Dickinson, Stuart

1993-08-01

323

Torsional vibration isolator and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a multicylinder internal combustion engine having a rotatable crankshaft and a rotatable flywheel which together define an inertial system rotating about a predetermined axis of rotation. An improvement is described here which facilitates avoiding destructive effects on the crankshaft of stress induced by torsional vibration. The method comprises an elastomeric annulus coupling means operatively interposed between the crankshaft and flywheel for coupling the crankshaft and flywheel together for rotation of the flywheel with the crankshaft. The coupling means has a torsional spring rate of less than 20,000 in lb/radian effective to permit substantial angular displacement between the flywheel and the crankshaft for isolating the rotating inertia of the flywheel from the rotating inertia of the crankshaft after engine startup. The coupling means avoids dampening while preventing torsional vibration from being transferred between the flywheel and the crankshaft.

Allen, C.A.; Durrett, V.D.

1986-10-21

324

Mechanical characterization of isolated nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the availability of the novel isolated nanosprings or nanorods grown by the oblique angle vapor deposition technique, we employ the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) as the indentation tool to make the measurement of the mechanical properties of a single nanorod or a single nanospring possible. The procedure of AFM indentation technique is briefly described, and various factors that would affect either the data acquisition or the data analysis have been learned from our experience and are reviewed in detail. We determined spring constants, Young's modulus of nanosprings and slanted nanorods using classical mechanical equations. Surprisingly, this matches well with our experimental results provided that the geometrical parameters and loading conditions (such as on axis or off axis) are properly accounted for. In addition, we also show that a nanoscale structure such as a Co-coated Si nanospring can be electromechanically actuated when a do current up to 20 mA passes through it using a conductive (AFM) tip. The finite element modeling is used to estimate the magnetic force and actuated displacements as well as the spring constant. The obtained spring constant is independently checked using a mechanical loading. The electromechanical behavior appears to be similar to that of equivalent macroscopic coils. Furthermore, the vibration of the AFM cantilever at its resonant frequency is utilized to trigger the cyclic load on a single slanted Si nanorod. The maximum load vs. the number of cycles to failure was measured and has an exponential decay behavior. All these results presented here in the thesis are essential to the development of the nanodevices, nanomechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and demonstrate the usefulness and challenges of AFM indentation technique for the mechanical, electromechanical and fatigue characterization of the isolated nanostructures. Most important of all, these findings show that within the sizes used in our work, we can apply macroscopic mechanical equations to the nanostructures. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Liu, Deli

325

Ultraquiet platform for active vibration isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an active\\/passive system designed to provide a stable, isolated platform for vibration-sensitive equipment. The UltraQuiet Platform includes three subsystems: a six- strut, six-axis passive-active vibration isolation mount, a damped support bench, and specialized vibration isolation mounts which reduce transmission of narrowband vibration from individual noisy components on the quiet platform. This paper emphasizes the six-axis Stewart platform

Eric H. Anderson; Donald J. Leo; Mark D. Holcomb

1996-01-01

326

ACTIVE VIBRATION ISOLATION USING A POSTBUCKLED SPRING  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study precision positioning and vibration isolation of a platform supported on a post-buckled beam in series with a piezoelectric actuator or in parallel with a voice-coil actuator. The post-buckled beam supports a large weight with small static deformation, maintains a very low resonant frequency for passive vibration isolation, and provides for coarse positioning over a relatively large displacement. Isolation

Lei Zuo; Samir A. Nayfeh

327

Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Clinical Desulfovibrio Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 16 clinical isolates of Desulfovibrio spp. were determined. All or most isolates were susceptible to imipenem (MIC90 (MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited), 0.5 g\\/ml), metronidazole (MIC90, 0.25 g\\/ml), clindamycin (MIC90 ,4 g\\/ml), and chloramphenicol (MIC90 ,1 6 g\\/ml) but were resistant or intermediate to penicillin G (MIC90 ,6 4g\\/ml), piperacillin (MIC90,

A. Lozniewski; R. Labia; X. Haristoy; F. Mory

2001-01-01

328

Geographically isolated wetlands of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many wetlands form along floodplains of rivers, streams, lakes, and estuaries, others have developed in depressions\\u000a far removed from such waters. Depressional wetlands completely surrounded by upland have traditionally been called “isolated\\u000a wetlands.” Isolated wetlands are not confined to basins, as some occur on broad flats and others form on slopes. The term\\u000a “geographically isolated wetlands” better describes these

Ralph W. Tiner

2003-01-01

329

Characterization of Salmonella isolates from captive lizards.  

PubMed

Reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans is an increasing public health issue. This study aimed at characterizing Salmonella isolates from captive lizards and to compare them to human isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 25 of 33 cloacal and 47 of 79 faecal samples from captive lizards (75.8 and 59.5%, respectively). The strains belonged to 44 serotypes of subspecies I (27 serotypes), II (9), IIIb (3) and IV (5). Two strains, one of serotype Enteritidis and one of serotype Amsterdam, were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Invasion assays in Caco-2 cells were performed with 40 saurian isolates of subspecies I, 15 isolates of subspecies II, 4 strains of subspecies IIIb, 6 subspecies IV isolates and 17 human isolates of corresponding serotypes of subspecies I. Saurian isolates belonging to subspecies I invaded the Caco-2 cells to a higher extent than those from the other subspecies. The human isolates invaded the Caco-2 cells to a lesser degree compared to their saurian counterparts. In the same strains, the presence of virulence genes agfA, shdA, spvR, pefA and sopE was determined using PCR. Whereas agfA was detected in all strains, pefA was only detected in one saurian and in the human serotype Enteritidis strains. The spvR gene was detected in the same serotype Enteritidis strains and in 33% of the subspecies IV strains. The shdA gene was present in all the human isolates and in 86% of subspecies I saurian isolates. SopE was found in 17% of the human isolates, in 24% of the saurian subspecies I strains and in all of the subspecies IV strains. PMID:16153787

Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An; Boyen, Filip; Vandekerchove, Dominique; Wybo, Ingrid; Immerseel, Filip Van; Heyndrickx, Marc; Collard, Jean Marc; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

2005-10-31

330

Characterization of Salmonella isolates from captive lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans is an increasing public health issue. This study aimed at characterizing Salmonella isolates from captive lizards and to compare them to human isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 25 of 33 cloacal and 47 of 79 faecal samples from captive lizards (75.8 and 59.5%, respectively). The strains belonged to 44 serotypes of subspecies I (27 serotypes), II

Frank Pasmans; An Martel; Filip Boyen; Dominique Vandekerchove; Ingrid Wybo; Filip Van Immerseel; Marc Heyndrickx; Jean Marc Collard; Richard Ducatelle; Freddy Haesebrouck

2005-01-01

331

Models of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation  

PubMed Central

Mathematical models are presented for the evolution of postmating and premating reproductive isolation. In the case of postmating isolation it is assumed that hybrid sterility or inviability is caused by incompatibility of alleles at one or two loci, and evolution of reproductive isolation occurs by random fixation of different incompatibility alleles in different populations. Mutations are assumed to occur following either the stepwise mutation model or the infinite-allele model. Computer simulations by using Itô's stochastic differential equations have shown that in the model used the reproductive isolation mechanism evolves faster in small populations than in large populations when the mutation rate remains the same. In populations of a given size it evolves faster when the number of loci involved is large than when this is small. In general, however, evolution of isolation mechanisms is a very slow process, and it would take thousands to millions of generations if the mutation rate is of the order of 10-5 per generation. Since gene substitution occurs as a stochastic process, the time required for the establishment of reproductive isolation has a large variance. Although the average time of evolution of isolation mechanisms is very long, substitution of incompatibility genes in a population occurs rather quickly once it starts. The intrapopulational fertility or viability is always very high. In the model of premating isolation it is assumed that mating preference or compatibility is determined by male- and female-limited characters, each of which is controlled by a single locus with multiple alleles, and mating occurs only when the male and female characters are compatible with each other. Computer simulations have shown that the dynamics of evolution of premating isolation mechanism is very similar to that of postmating isolation mechanism, and the mean and variance of the time required for establishment of premating isolation are very large. Theoretical predictions obtained from the present study about the speed of evolution of reproductive isolation are consistent with empirical data available from vertebrate organisms.

Nei, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Takeo; Wu, Chung-I

1983-01-01

332

Vibration isolation for broadband gravitational wave antennas  

SciTech Connect

We discuss an active vibration isolation system which is a prototype of an isolation system for an interferometric gravitational wave antenna. Particular attention is paid to factors which limit the isolation which can be achieved. We were able to reduce the effective resonant frequency of the test mass to 0.04 Hz. Between 3 and 8 Hz, this was sufficient to bring the motion of the test mass within a factor of 2 of its Brownian motion amplitude.

Saulson, P.R.

1984-08-01

333

Reproductive isolation in temperate reef fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunity and recognition isolation can lead directly to reproductive isolation, the former via divergence in the location\\u000a and timing of breeding, and the latter via differential mate preferences. We describe the potential significance of these\\u000a factors in the maintenance of reproductive isolation in a clade of triplefin fishes that occur sympatrically around coastal\\u000a New Zealand. Specifically, we investigate the roles

Maren Wellenreuther; Kendall D. Clements

2007-01-01

334

[Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria during colonoscopy].  

PubMed

We conducted a survey on nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated in association with colonscopy at two hospitals. NTM was isolated from the fluid-phase of colonic contents in 17.6% of the specimens obtained at hospital A and in 46.3% at hospital B. The rate of isolation from the preexamination suction fluid was 9.5% and 43.3% at hospital A and B, respectively. Tap water samples from both hospitals were examined and proved to be free from contamination with NTM. The mycobacterial species isolated at hospital A were M. chelonae subsp. abscessus, M. chelonae subsp. chelonae, M. fortuitum, and M. gordonae. M. chelonae subsp. abscessus was the only mycobacterial species isolated at hospital B. M. avium complex was not isolated at either hospital. By an additional procedure to cleans and decontaminate the endoscopes by suction with Maskin ethanol solution, the incidence of isolation of NTM from the fluid-phase of colonic contents was significantly reduced. None of the patients from whom NTM was isolated exhibited positive signs of colonic NTM infection by the endoscopic examination and non had any underlying diseases which might induce immune suppression. We suspect that most of the NTM isolates have originated from the contaminated endoscope. In conclusion, when a colonscopic examination is carried out in suspicion of NTM disease in intestine, it is essential to reassess the possibility of mycobacterial contamination of the colonscopes and implement appropriate steps for cleansing and sterilization of them. PMID:8656587

Kobayashi, Y; Takano, T; Hirayama, N; Sato, N; Shimoide, H

1995-11-01

335

Isolation of mycoplasmas from fantail pigeons.  

PubMed

Isolation of mycoplasmas from the oropharynxes of 60 fantails reared under natural conditions at different zoological parks in Miyazaki prefecture was carried out. Mycoplasma columbinum, M. columborale and M. columbinasale were isolated from 28 (46.7%), 22 (36.7%), and 1 (1.7%) of 60 oropharynxes, respectively, but no Mycoplasma was isolated from 5 cloacas tested. Ureaplasma was not isolated from any of the 28 oropharynxes or 5 cloacas examined. We report that 41 (68.3%) of 60 fantails had one or two species of mycoplasmas in their oropharynxes, and make the first confirmation of M. columbinasale inhabiting a Japanese pigeon. PMID:9234221

Nagatomo, H; Kato, H; Shimizu, T; Katayama, B

1997-06-01

336

Electrical isolation method improves cathodic protection  

SciTech Connect

Cathodically protected structures often require seemingly incompatible requirements. Ideally, a cathodically protected system should be isolated; yet if the system contains electrical equipment, it must also be grounded. Isolation and grounding are conflicting demands inherent in any system that contains electrical equipment and uses cathodic protection (CP) to mitigate corrosion. Cathodic protection of many structures can be greatly simplified by the proper use of direct current (DC) isolating/alternate current (AC) coupling devices. An example is DC isolation of cathodically protected structures from electrical grounding systems while retaining AC continuity with those systems as required by electrical codes.

Tachick, H.N. [Dairyland Electrical Industries, Stoughton, WI (United States)

1997-08-01

337

Isolated chylopericardium due to mediastinal lymphangiomatous hamartoma;.  

PubMed Central

Isolated chylopericardium is a rare cause of pericardial effusion. Intrapericardial chyle was first noticed by Hasebroek (1888) at necropsy. Twenty years ago Groves and Effler (1954) first reported a clinical case of isolated chylopericardium. The present case is similar to theirs in several respects, and is the nineteenth case to be reported. To our knowledge this is the first British report of an isolated chylopericardium and is the fourth case of isolated chylopericardium due to a mediastinal lymphangiomatous hamartoma to be successfully treated. Images

Jenner, R E; Oo, H

1975-01-01

338

Isolated chylopericardium due to mediastinal lymphangiomatous hamartoma;.  

PubMed

Isolated chylopericardium is a rare cause of pericardial effusion. Intrapericardial chyle was first noticed by Hasebroek (1888) at necropsy. Twenty years ago Groves and Effler (1954) first reported a clinical case of isolated chylopericardium. The present case is similar to theirs in several respects, and is the nineteenth case to be reported. To our knowledge this is the first British report of an isolated chylopericardium and is the fourth case of isolated chylopericardium due to a mediastinal lymphangiomatous hamartoma to be successfully treated. PMID:1124525

Jenner, R E; Oo, H

1975-02-01

339

Hemagglutination by Pasteurellaceae isolated from rodents.  

PubMed

Pasteurellaceae notably P. pneumotropica, have been associated with severe outbreaks of respiratory disease in several species of rodents. Host-specific parasitism of Pasteurellaceae in rodents has hardly been studied. Since host tropism in many bacteria involves adhesive mechanisms, we examined the hemagglutinating (HA) properties of 44 isolates from different rodent species (mouse (15) rat (8), hamster (9), gerbil (10) and Mastomys (2)). Only 13 mouse isolates and the 2 Mastomys isolates hemagglutinated human (type O Rh+) and canine red blood cells (RBCs). No HA was found using RBCs from 10 other animal species. HA was not inhibited by simple sugars and glycoconjugates, but was completely inhibited by heating of bacterial cells for 10 min at 80 or 100 degrees C, partially inhibited by glutaraldehyde and inhibited in a dose-dependent mode by NaIO4, suggesting the involvement of bacterial polysaccharide structures in the HA process. Enrichment procedures did not reveal the presence of HA- subpopulations in HA+ isolates or the presence of HA+ subpopulations in HA- isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of fimbriae both in HA+ and HA- isolates. A regularly structured (RS) layer was detected on cells of part of the HA+ isolates only. Our results suggest that Pasteurellaceae of mice and Mastomys may be related and differ from isolates isolated from other rodent species. PMID:8219497

Boot, R; Thuis, H; Teppema, J S

1993-06-01

340

Follow-up of natural products isolation.  

PubMed

Follow-up of natural products isolation refers to re-isolation of compound(s) of interest in larger amounts for further pharmacological testing, conclusive structure elucidation, structure modifications to synthesize analogs for structure-activity relationships (SAR) studies, preformulation and formulation studies or clinical trials. In addition to conventional synthetic chemistry approaches, several other methodologies can be applied for following-up natural products isolation. This chapter outlines, with specific examples, various strategies and methods involved in follow-up of natural products isolation. PMID:22367909

Cannell, Richard J P; Sarker, Satyajit D; Nahar, Lutfun

2012-01-01

341

Isolation and Contraction of the Stress Fiber  

PubMed Central

Stress fibers were isolated from cultured human foreskin fibroblasts and bovine endothelial cells, and their contraction was demonstrated in vitro. Cells in culture dishes were first treated with a low-ionic-strength extraction solution and then further extracted using detergents. With gentle washes by pipetting, the nucleus and the apical part of cells were removed. The material on the culture dish was scraped, and the freed material was forced through a hypodermic needle and fractionated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Isolated, free-floating stress fibers stained brightly with fluorescently labeled phalloidin. When stained with anti-?-actinin or anti-myosin, isolated stress fibers showed banded staining patterns. By electron microscopy, they consisted of bundles of microfilaments, and electron-dense areas were associated with them in a semiperiodic manner. By negative staining, isolated stress fibers often exhibited gentle twisting of microfilament bundles. Focal adhesion–associated proteins were also detected in the isolated stress fiber by both immunocytochemical and biochemical means. In the presence of Mg-ATP, isolated stress fibers shortened, on the average, to 23% of the initial length. The maximum velocity of shortening was several micrometers per second. Polystyrene beads on shortening isolated stress fibers rotated, indicating spiral contraction of stress fibers. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation was detected in contracting stress fibers, and a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, KT5926, inhibited isolated stress fiber contraction. Our study demonstrates that stress fibers can be isolated with no apparent loss of morphological features and that they are truly contractile organelle.

Katoh, Kazuo; Kano, Yumiko; Masuda, Michitaka; Onishi, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Keigi

1998-01-01

342

Conventional pulmonary vein isolation compared with the “box isolation” method: a randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Esophageal injury is a potential complication with radiofrequency ablation in the posterior wall of the left atrium (LA).\\u000a The “box isolation” method isolates the posterior LA wall including the pulmonary veins without ablation on the posterior\\u000a LA wall. This study compares the acute and long-term efficacy of the box isolation method with conventional circumferential\\u000a pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for catheter

Karuna Chilukuri; Daniel Scherr; Darshan Dalal; Alan Cheng; David Spragg; Saman Nazarian; Bernadette D. Barcelon; Joseph E. Marine; Hugh Calkins; Charles A. Henrikson

343

Radical anion of isolable dialkylsilylene.  

PubMed

By the reduction of an isolable dialkylsilylene, 2,2,5,5-[tetrakis(trimethylsilyl)]-1-silacyclopentane-1,1-diyl (1), with cesium, rubidium, potassium, sodium, and lithium 4,4'-di(tert-butyl)biphenylide in DME at low temperatures, the corresponding silylene radical anion 2 was generated as the first persistent silylene radical anion in solution and characterized by ESR spectroscopy. Radical anion 2 is rather stable at -70 degrees C in DME but decomposes rapidly at room temperature with a half-life time of ca. 20 min. The g-factor and 29Si hyperfine splitting constants (hfs's) of 2 are almost independent of the countercations, indicating that 2 exists as a free ion or a solvent-separated ion pair in a polar DME solution. A very small hfs due to the 29Si nucleus of the divalent silicon (3.0 mT) as well as a very large g-factor (2.0077) indicates that an unpaired electron is accommodated in the vacant 3ppi orbital of silylene 1. PMID:12630866

Ishida, S; Iwamoto, T; Kira, M

2003-03-19

344

Stability of isolated Barchan dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When sand grains are entrained by an air flow over a non-erodible ground, or with limited sediment supply from the bed, they form isolated dunes showing a remarkable crescentic shape with horns pointing downstream. These dunes, known as Barchan dunes, are commonly observed in deserts, with height of a few meters and velocity of a few meters per year (Bagnold 1941). These dunes also exist under water, at a much smaller, centimetric size (Franklin & Charru 2010). Their striking stability properties are not well understood yet. Two phenomena are likely to be involved in this stability: (i) relaxation effects of the sand flux which increases from the dune foot up to the crest, related to grain inertia or deposition, and (ii) a small transverse sand flux due to slope effects and the divergence of the streamlines of the fluid flow. We reproduced aqueous Barchan dunes in a channel, and studied their geometrical and dynamic properties (in particular their shape, velocity, minimum size, and rate of erosion). Using coloured glass beads (see the figure), we were then able to measure the particle flux over the whole dune surface. We will discuss the stability of these dunes in the light of our measurements.

Fourrière, Antoine; Charru, François

2010-11-01

345

Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity  

DOEpatents

Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

Foreman, Pamela (Palo Alto, CA); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-02-23

346

Octo-strut vibration isolation platform and its application to whole spacecraft vibration isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stewart platform is widely used for vibration isolation and precise pointing. As it is a statically determinate structure, if any strut has fault, a disaster could be unavoidable. In the present paper, an octo-strut passive vibration isolation platform with redundancy is introduced and applied to whole-spacecraft vibration isolation. This platform is modeled with the Newton Euler method. To avoid such

L. K. Liu; G. T. Zheng; W. H. Huang

2006-01-01

347

Isolation of Toxoplasma During Unsuccessful Attempts to Isolate Rickettsiae from Swine and Rodents in Taiwan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During unsuccessful attempts to isolate Rickettsiae from Taiwan mammals and birds, ten isolates of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii were recovered from the spleens as well as from other organs of 999 pigs. Isolation appeared to be greater during the cool w...

W. D. Kundin W. F. Chen J. H. Cross G. S. Irving

1972-01-01

348

Magnetism in Isolated and Binary White Dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the first isolated magnetic white dwarf (MWD) Grw +70°8047 nearly 60 years ago, the number of stars belonging to this class has grown steadily. There are now some 65 isolated white dwarfs classified as magnetic, and a roughly equal number of MWDs are found in the close interacting binaries known as the magnetic cataclysmic variables (MCVs).

D. T. Wickramasinghe; Lilia Ferrario

2000-01-01

349

Experimental Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an investigation on the experimental behavior of innovative elastomeric isolators reinforced by carbon fiber fabrics. These fabrics are very much lighter than steel plates used in conventional isolators and able to transfer to the adjacent elastomer layers tangential stresses adequate to oppose the transversal deformation of rubber under vertical loads. The isolators are not bonded to the sub- and super-structure (elimination of the steel end-plates), hence their weight and cost are reduced. The experimental investigation is carried out on small-scale isolator prototypes reinforced by quadridirectional carbon fiber fabrics. The isolators are subjected to the following qualification tests prescribed by the Italian Code ``Ordinanza 3274'' for steel reinforced isolators: 1) ``Static assessment of the compression stiffness'' 2) ``Static assessment of the shear modulus G'' 3) ``Dynamic assessment of the dynamic shear modulus Gdin and of the damping coefficient ? 4) ``Assessment of the Gdin-? and ?-? diagrams by means of dynamic tests'' 5) ``Assessment of creep characteristics'' 6) ``Evaluation of the capacity of sustaining at least 10 cycles''. As a result of the tests, the isolators survived large shear strains, comparable to those expected for conventional isolators.

Russo, Gaetano; Pauletta, Margherita; Cortesia, Andrea; Dal Bianco, Alberto

2008-07-01

350

Resource management for isolation enhanced cloud services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloud infrastructure provider (CIP) in a cloud computing platform must provide security and isolation guarantees to a service provider (SP), who builds the service(s) for such a platform. We identify last level cache (LLC) sharing as one of the impediments to finer grain isolation required by a service, and advocate two resource management approaches to provide performance and security

Himanshu Raj; Ripal Nathuji; Abhishek Singh; Paul England

2009-01-01

351

Isolation of human rotavirus in cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three cytopathic rotavirus strains were isolated in MA104 cells from faecal specimens of pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. Pre-treatment of virus with trypsin and incorporation of a small amount of trypsin in maintenance medium were important for establishment of the strains in these cells. The isolates were antigenically closely related with strain Wa of human rotavirus and had some

K. Sato; Y. Inaba; T. Shinozaki; R. Fujii; M. Matumoto

1981-01-01

352

Abyssal seafloor waste isolation: the concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), with industry and university participation, conducted an assessment of the concept of isolating certain wastes (i.e., sewage sludge, fly ash from municipal incinerators, and contaminated dredged material) on the oceans' abyssal seafloor. In this assessment the advantages, disadvantages, and economic and environmental viability of potential engineering methods for achieving abyssal waste isolation were identified and

Philip J Valent; David K Young; William B Sawyer; Thomas D Wright

1998-01-01

353

Recent advances in nonlinear passive vibration isolators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of nonlinear vibration isolation has witnessed significant developments due to pressing demands for the protection of structural installations, nuclear reactors, mechanical components, and sensitive instruments from earthquake ground motion, shocks, and impact loads. In view of these demands, engineers and physicists have developed different types of nonlinear vibration isolators. This article presents a comprehensive assessment of recent developments

R. A. Ibrahim

2008-01-01

354

Active vibration isolation for controlled flexible structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general problem of active vibration isolation for flexible structures is investigated in order to determine the impact of structural flexibility on the performance of passive and active mounts. A mechanical and control design approach is proposed in which compensators are first designed for an active isolator mounted to a rigid base, and then re-implemented with little or no changes

Gary H. Blackwood

1994-01-01

355

Passive vibration isolator with sharp cutoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the addition of a small auxiliary mass to a vibration isolator using partial damping can reduce its transmissibility at low frequencies by one or two orders of magnitude. It is also shown that parasitic damping, such as air damping on the mass isolated from ground vibrations, has quite a large effect on the transmissibility curve and

Paul Lorrain

1975-01-01

356

Isolation Enhancement Between Two Closely Packed Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a coupling element to enhance the isolation between two closely packed antennas operating at the same frequency band. The proposed structure consists of two antenna elements and a coupling element which is located in between the two antenna elements. The idea is to use field cancellation to enhance isolation by putting a coupling element which artificially creates

Angus C. K. Mak; Corbett R. Rowell; Ross D. Murch

2008-01-01

357

Isolation, Pure Culture, and Characterization of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Arsenophonus comprise a large group of bacterial endosymbionts that are widely distributed in arthropods of medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. At present, little is known about the role of these bacteria in arthropods, because few representatives have been isolated and cultured in the laboratory. In the current study, we describe the isolation and pure culture of

Colin Dale; Michael Beeton; Christopher Harbison; Tait Jones; Mauricio Pontes

2006-01-01

358

Numerical modelling of rubber vibration isolators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important cause for interior noise in vehicles is structure-borne sound from the engine. The vibrations of the source (engine) are transmitted to the receiver structure (the vehicle) causing interior noise in the vehicle. For this reason the engine is supported by rubber isolators for passive isolation in especially the high-frequency region. To make a good judgment of the characteristics

Clemens A. J. Beijers; Boer de André; A. Nilsson; H. Boden

2003-01-01

359

Spectral characteristics of isolated blowfly rhabdoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple method for the isolation of rhabdoms from the eye of the blowflyCalliphora erythrocephala Meig. is described. Essentially this involves i) the excision of the retina, then its disintegration using a hypoosmotic buffer and ii) separation of the rhabdoms from other cell fragments by isopycnic centrifugation on Percoll.1.The isolated rhabdoms consist almost exclusively of the microvillar membranes

R. Paulsen; Allgemeine Zoologie; Oberer Eselsberg; Accepted April

1984-01-01

360

Antenatal Ultrasonographic Appearance of Isolated Fetal Ascites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Isolated fetal ascites can be caused by many heterogeneous disorders and is associated with a variety of conditions. Cloacal anomalies are rare abnormalities with a highly variable array of sonographic symptoms, which make them difficult to diagnose antenatally. We present a case with isolated fetal ascites without hydronephrosis caused by a cloacal malformation. Case: A 28-year-old woman, gravida 2,

I. Staboulidou; J. Schauer; G. A. Rau; R. Hass; B. Hollwitz; A. Scharf

2006-01-01

361

Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Swine  

PubMed Central

We examined the antimicrobial resistance of 1,257 isolates of 30 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolated from swine. Serovars Typhimurium and Typhimurium var. Copenhagen were widespread and were frequently multidrug resistant, with distinct resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline and to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline, respectively.

Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Davies, Peter R.; Morrow, W. E. Morgan; Funk, Julie A.; Altier, Craig

2000-01-01

362

Isolation of Simonsiella sp. from a neonate.  

PubMed Central

A member of the genus Simonsiella, presumptively identified as S. muelleri, was isolated from a gastric aspirate taken from a neonate 15 min postpartum. The neonate showed a dental cyst and early eruption of teeth, confirmed by mandibular X ray. The morphological features, cultural characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolate are presented. Images

Whitehouse, R L; Jackson, H; Jackson, M C; Ramji, M M

1987-01-01

363

Satellite ultraquiet isolation technology experiment (SUITE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental active vibration isolation called Satellite Ultraquiet Isolation Technology Experiment (SUITE) is described in detail. SUITE is a piezoelectric-based technology demonstration scheduled to fly in 2000 or 2001 on board the PICOSat spacecraft. SUITE is designed to show that the effect of small vibrations on spacecraft instrument effectiveness can be reduced significantly. Control from the ground station is planned

E. H. Anderson; J. P. Fumo; R. S. Erwin

2000-01-01

364

Subchronic toxicity evaluation of potato protein isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein content of potatoes has a high nutritional value on par with eggs and soybeans. As a result, processed potato protein isolates may have commercial value for addition to other food products to increase protein content A manufacturing process to produce total potato (TP), as well as low (LMW) and high molecular (HMW) weight, protein isolates as food ingredients.

B. Lynch; R. R. Simon; F. M. van Otterdijk; H. H. Emmen; M. L. F. Giuseppin; C. Kemme-Kroonsberg

365

Fast byte-granularity software fault isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bugs in kernel extensions remain one of the main causes of poor operating system reliability despite proposed tech- niques that isolate extensions in separate protection domains to contain faults. We believe that previous fault isolation techniques are not widely used because they cannot iso- late existing kernel extensions with low overhead on stan- dard hardware. This is a hard problem

Miguel Castro; Manuel Costa; Jean-philippe Martin; Marcus Peinado; Periklis Akritidis; Austin Donnelly; Paul Barham; Richard Black

2009-01-01

366

Application of active base isolation control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural control can provide the potential protection through passive and active control techniques. Structures with base isolations have been successfully implemented and proven effective in the vibration mitigation. To enhance the functionality of base isolations, a hybrid control system can be considered using a combination with active control devices. This research applies the hybrid control technique to a three-story

Chia-Ming Chang; Zhihao Wang; Billie F. Spencer

2009-01-01

367

Generation control in small isolated power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, interest in isolated small power systems is rapidly increasing. This interest is due to the fact that larger power plants are economically unfeasible in many regions due to increasing system and fuel costs. When the system operates in isolation then load tracking problem arises which can cause voltage and frequency problems. One possible solution to keep power balance in

M. Milosevic; G. Andersson

2005-01-01

368

Surgical Management of Isolated Congenital Tricuspid Regurgitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Isolated congenital tricuspid regurgita- tion without downward displacement of the leaflet is a rare clinical entity. Degenerative cusps and lack of chor- dae may preclude valvuloplasty and require valve re- placement. Methods. Three consecutive patients with isolated con- genital tricuspid regurgitation underwent surgical repair between May 1995 and April 1997. Their ages were 23, 15, and 8 years old.

Toshiyuki Katogi; Ryo Aeba; Tsutomu Ito; Tetsuya Goto; Yasunori Cho; Toshihiko Ueda; Shiaki Kawada

2010-01-01

369

Surgical management of isolated congenital tricuspid regurgitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Isolated congenital tricuspid regurgitation without downward displacement of the leaflet is a rare clinical entity. Degenerative cusps and lack of chordae may preclude valvuloplasty and require valve replacement.Methods. Three consecutive patients with isolated congenital tricuspid regurgitation underwent surgical repair between May 1995 and April 1997. Their ages were 23, 15, and 8 years old. Tricuspid valvuloplasty was feasible in

Toshiyuki Katogi; Ryo Aeba; Tsutomu Ito; Tetsuya Goto; Yasunori Cho; Toshihiko Ueda; Shiaki Kawada

1998-01-01

370

Bacteriophages of freshwater Brevundimonas vesicularis isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine strains of Brevundimonas vesicularis were isolated from surface water of three ponds in Bielefeld, Germany. With those strains as indicators seven bacteriophages with different host ranges were isolated. Molecular characterization showed that all phages contained linear double-stranded DNA with a similar genome size of about 37 kb. Restriction analysis and hybridization of phage DNAs revealed that three of these

Frauke Beilstein; Brigitte Dreiseikelmann

2006-01-01

371

Conceptual design methodology for vibration isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance dynamic structures have strict requirements on structural motion that are emphasized by the flexibility inherent in lightweight space systems. Vibration isolation is used to prevent disturbances from affecting critical payload components where motion is to be minimized. Isolation, however, is often an engineering solution that is not properly considered in the early conceptual design of the spacecraft. It

T. Tupper Hyde

1997-01-01

372

Diagnosis and outcome of isolated rectal tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Segmental colonic tuberculosis commonly involves the ascending, transverse, or sigmoid colon. Rectal involvement in tuberculosis is uncommon and poorly characterized. This study describes the clinical presentation, endoscopic features, and outcome of isolated rectal tuberculosis. METHODS: Isolated rectal tuberculosis was defined as focal lesions of the rectum in the absence of radiologically demonstrable lesions in the small and large bowel

A. S. Puri; J. C. Vij; A. Chaudhary; Nirmal Kumar; A. Sachdev; V. Malhotra; V. K. Malik; S. L. Broor

1996-01-01

373

Nonorthogonally magnetised permanent-magnet Faraday isolators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel configuration of permanent-magnet magnetic systems for high-power Faraday isolators that are used in high-power lasers. An increase in magnetic field is ensured by magnets with a magnetisation vector inclined to the isolator axis. Numerical simulation results agree well with experimentally determined magnetic field distributions. (quantum electronic devices)

Mironov, E A; Voitovich, A V; Palashov, O V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2011-01-31

374

agr function in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates.  

PubMed

The accessory gene regulator (agr) of Staphylococcus aureus is a global regulator of the staphylococcal virulon, which includes secreted virulence factors and surface proteins. The agr locus is important for virulence in a variety of animal models of infection, and has been assumed by inference to have a major role in human infection. Although most human clinical S. aureus isolates are agr(+), there have been several reports of agr-defective mutants isolated from infected patients. Since it is well known that the agr locus is genetically labile in vitro, we have addressed the question of whether the reported agr-defective mutants were involved in the infection or could have arisen during post-isolation handling. We obtained a series of new staphylococcal isolates from local clinical infections and handled these with special care to avoid post-isolation mutations. Among these isolates, we found a number of strains with non-haemolytic phenotypes owing to mutations in the agr locus, and others with mutations elsewhere. We have also obtained isolates in which the population was continuously heterogeneous with respect to agr functionality, with agr(+) and agr(-) variants having otherwise indistinguishable chromosomal backgrounds. This finding suggested that the agr(-) variants arose by mutation during the course of the infection. Our results indicate that while most clinical isolates are haemolytic and agr(+), non-haemolytic and agr(-) strains are found in S. aureus infections, and that agr(+) and agr(-) variants may have a cooperative interaction in certain types of infections. PMID:18667559

Traber, Katrina E; Lee, Elsie; Benson, Sarah; Corrigan, Rebecca; Cantera, Mariela; Shopsin, Bo; Novick, Richard P

2008-08-01

375

A practical vibration isolation workstation for electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Vibration control is a major concern in electrophysiological research, particularly during intracellular recording where movements of only a few micrometers may disrupt the cell membrane. The workstation described here is based on the concept of a table nested within a second table. The inner table supports a vibration-isolated surface while the outer table provides protection and a bench-top for equipment. The work surface is supported on squash balls in order to avoid the substantial cost of passive commercial isolators. The properties of the squash ball isolators were found to be similar to a set commercial isolators when compared with respect to impulse response, compliance and transmissibility. The table has been successfully used for both intra- and extracellular recording over a 3-year period. Work efficiency was enhanced by the close proximity of the bench-top and isolated work surface, while perimeter protection helped maintain stable recordings. PMID:8544477

O'Reilly, C N; Richardson, T L

1995-08-01

376

Molecular epidemiology of Brazilian pseudorabies viral isolates.  

PubMed

Pseudorabies is a disease caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) and is responsible for considerable economic losses in the swine industry. The objective of this work was to use molecular epidemiology as a tool to facilitate the study of PRV outbreaks in Brazil. The standard PRV strain Shope, the vaccine strain Bartha and isolates from the south and the southeast regions of Brazil, were amplified for gE and gC partial genes by PCR. Results indicated that Brazilian PRV isolates are grouped in two clusters, A and B, except for one isolate that grouped with Bartha and Shope. Most Brazilian PRV isolates belonged to cluster B and diverged from virus isolated from other countries. PMID:19828266

Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Anapolino Macedo; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R; Patrício, Maria Aparecida C; Braga, Alexandre C; Cunha, Eliane S; D'Ambros, Régia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; dos Reis, Jenner K Pimenta

2009-09-25

377

Resistance of Salmonella isolates in Germany.  

PubMed

During 2000-2002 the National Veterinary Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (NRL-Salm) in Germany typed 11,911 isolates from animals, food, feed and the environment. All of them were tested for their susceptibility to 17 anti-microbial agents. Sixty-three per cent of all isolates were resistant and 40% were multiresistant (resistant against more than one anti-microbial). This general resistance level was strongly influenced by those specific serotypes which dominate the Salmonella epidemiology in Germany. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 isolates from pig and cattle, and their resulting food products, were multiresistant in 98 and 94% of the cases respectively. During the period 2000-2003 an increasing quinolone resistance especially in Salmonella isolates from poultry and poultry meat (to 26%) and in S. Paratyphi B D-tartrate positive isolates (to 64%) could be observed. This increase was accompanied by a shift towards higher minimal inhibitory concentrations for ciprofloxacin. PMID:15525371

Schroeter, A; Hoog, B; Helmuth, R

378

Isolation and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Retail Foods in Shaanxi Province, China.  

PubMed

Abstract Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen of public health concern. A total of 902 retail food samples, including 342 ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, 366 infant foods, and 194 raw chickens were collected randomly in supermarkets and farmers' markets in 12 geographic areas in Shaanxi Province, China and screened for L. monocytogenes. All L. monocytogenes isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, serotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twenty-seven (3.0%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes, and 39 L. monocytogenes isolates were recovered from positive samples. Of these L. monocytogenes isolates, 21 isolates (53.8%) showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial. The isolates displayed resistance most frequently to oxacillin (18 isolates, 46.2%), followed by tetracycline (five isolates, 12.8%), erythromycin (four isolates, 10.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (three isolates, 7.7%), chloramphenicol (two isolates, 5.1%), and vancomycin (one isolate, 2.6%). All isolates were sensitive or displayed intermediate resistance to gentamicin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. Four serotypes including serotype 1/2b, 4b, 4e, and 1/2a were identified in those foodborne isolates. PFGE analysis demonstrated that some isolates with the same PFGE patterns came from different food sources, and isolates from the same food source tend to cluster closely. Presence of L. monocytogenes of clinically important serotypes in retail foods and their antimicrobial resistance constitute a potential risk for the public. Appropriate measures should be taken by government, industry, and consumers to reduce the risk posed by this ubiquitous pathogen. PMID:23841657

Zhang, Weisong; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong; Yang, Baowei; Xi, Meili; Meng, Jianghong

2013-07-10

379

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

1999-01-01

380

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

Ernst, W.D.

1999-06-15

381

EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ISOLATION DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to review and refine key design concepts related to the control system presently under consideration for remotely operating the emplacement drift isolation doors at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will discuss the key design concepts of the control system that may be utilized for remotely monitoring, opening, and closing the emplacement drift isolation doors. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Discuss the purpose and function of the isolation doors (Presented in Section 7.1). (2) Review the construction of the isolation door and other physical characteristics of the doors that the control system will interface with (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Discuss monitoring and controlling the operation of the isolation doors with a digital control system (either a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system or a Distributed Control System (DCS)) (Presented in Section 7.3). (4) Discuss how all isolation doors can be monitored and controlled from a subsurface central control center (Presented in Section 7.4). This analysis will focus on the development of input/output (I/O) counts including the types of I/O, redundancy and fault tolerance considerations, and processor requirements for the isolation door control system. Attention will be placed on operability, maintainability, and reliability issues for the system operating in the subsurface environment with exposure to high temperatures and radiation.

N.T. Raczka

1998-09-17

382

Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities  

SciTech Connect

Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

Jessop, J.J.

1986-01-01

383

Different Babesia canis isolates, different diseases.  

PubMed

Using surface immunofluorescence isolate-specific antigens were detected on the membrane of erythrocytes infected with Babesia parasites. In addition, the strains reacted differently with Plasmagel in that the European isolate (B.c. canis) could be purified on Plasmagel effectively, whereas infected erythrocytes of the South-African isolate (B.c. rossi) could not. Experimental infection of dogs with Babesia canis isolates from geographically different areas revealed different pathology. The European isolate obtained from France exhibited transient parasitaemia, usually below 1%, associated with low PCV values and congestion of internal organs. Clinical disease was correlated with an effect on the coagulation system, and not with peripheral parasitaemia. Infection of dogs with South-African-derived isolate induced high parasitaemia usually much higher than 1%, which required chemotherapeutic treatment. In these animals clinical disease was correlated with peripheral parasitaemia and not with parameters of the coagulation system. The results show that the etiology of disease caused by these isolates of B.c. canis and B.c. rossi is different. This might have implications for the development of vaccines against these infections. PMID:9368899

Schetters, T P; Moubri, K; Précigout, E; Kleuskens, J; Scholtes, N C; Gorenflot, A

1997-11-01

384

Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

2009-11-10

385

Biochemical characteristics of clinical and environmental isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical characteristics of 213 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei from patients with melioidosis and 140 isolates from the soil in central and northeastern Thailand were compared. Whereas the biochemical profiles of all the clinical isolates were similar, all soil isolates from the central area and 25% of isolates from northeastern Thailand comprised a different phenotype. This was characterised by the

VANAPORN WUTHIEKANUN; M. D. Smith; D. A. B. Dance; AMANDA L. WALSH; T. L. PITTT; N. J. White

1996-01-01

386

Nonlinear vibration isolator with adjustable restoring force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a vertical quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator with a mechanism for adjusting restoring force. QZS vibration isolators have high initial stiffness and QZS around the static equilibrium position. This way, excessive deformation due to self-weight can be avoided while having enough vibration reduction capability to dynamic excitations. One of the main issues left for QZS vibration isolators is the difficulty in keeping the vibration reduction capability when the vibration isolated object is replaced. In such a case, adjustment of its restoring force becomes necessary in accordance with the self-weight of the newly placed vibration isolated object. This paper attempts to address this issue by proposing a mechanism that enables quick and easy adjustment of the restoring force of a QZS vibration isolator. The proposed mechanism consists of cranks and a screw jack. With the present mechanism, the restoring force provided by horizontally placed springs can be converted into the vertical restoring force of the vibration isolator. In the conversion, the vertical resisting force can be adjusted simply by applying and removing torque to the screw jack to change and hold the angle of inclined bars placed in the cranks. In this study, a prototype of a class of QZS vibration isolator having the proposed mechanism is produced. Shaking table tests are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the present mechanism, where the produced prototype is subjected to various sinusoidal and earthquake ground motions. It is demonstrated through the shaking table tests that the produced prototype can reduce the response acceleration within the same tolerance even when the mass of the vibration isolated object is changed.

Araki, Yoshikazu; Asai, Takehiko; Kimura, Kosuke; Maezawa, Kosei; Masui, Takeshi

2013-11-01

387

Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus hyicus.  

PubMed

A selective medium for the isolation of Staphylococcus hyicus, with potassium thiocyanate as selective substance and the polysorbate 80 reaction as elective marker, was developed. The organism could be identified during the routine examination of samples derived from pigs, using 2 relatively simple tests: the slide coagulase (clumping factor) and the deoxyribonuclease plate reaction. The S hyicus was isolated from 54% of 684 samples collected from nares, external ears, and skin covering the nose of pigs not affected by exudative epidermatitis. Isolates from these animals did not appear to differ in pathogenic potentials from those obtained from lesions. PMID:879576

Devriese, L A

1977-06-01

388

Isolation and Identification of 'Corynebacterium diphtheriae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this monograph, the laboratory isolation and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae are described. Also described are the organisms' cellular and colony morphology, procedures for confirming toxigenic C. diphtheriae with in vitro and in vivo tes...

F. O. Sottnek J. M. Miller

1980-01-01

389

Isolation and Structure of Cribrostatin 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cribrostatin 6, a dark blue cancer cell growth inhibiting constituent of the Republic of Maldives marine sponge Cribrochalina sp. has been isolated, and its structure elucidated, based on a combination of RMS, high field (500 MHz, HMBC, and GOESY experime...

G. R. Pettit J. C. Knight

2004-01-01

390

Triterpene Alcohol Isolation from Oil Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoarborinol, an intact pentacyclic unsaturated alcohol, was isolated from the Messel oil shale (about 50 × 106 years old). Complex organic substances, even those very sensitive to oxidation, reduction, or acidic conditions, can thus survive without alteration for long periods.

P. Albrecht; G. Ourisson

1969-01-01

391

Isolated and Restricted Environments. Part Ii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes research on factors contributing to the satisfaction of men stationed in isolated or restricted settings. It also presents supplementary material directly related to these studies. Data was collected in four military installations as...

M. W. Shelly B. A. Smith

1970-01-01

392

Controlling the exotic diseases: 1. Isolation facilities.  

PubMed Central

The exotic diseases are highly virulent transmissible conditions that include Lassa fever, some viral hemorrhagic fevers, smallpox and plague. Any of these diseases could be brought into or diagnosed in Canada as the result of natural or laboratory acquired infection. The patients must be isolated until the presumptive diagnosis is proved. High-security isolation is necessary and needs to be backed up by high-security laboratory services. In Canada facilities for high-security isolation are generally not available; therefore, hospitals must preplan and be ready to effect the best possible isolation under the existing conditions. The plan should address construction, ventilation, filtration, temperature and humidity, together with protective measures for staff and careful handling of laboratory specimens. Materials the patient has contacted and areas or vehicles he or she has been in will have to be decontaminated, and appropriate, safe disposal of corpses must be considered.

Clayton, A J; Best, H R

1980-01-01

393

Therapeutic compounds isolated from Calomeria amaranthoides  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to extracts and compounds which are isolated from Calomeria amaranthoides, and to derivatives and analogues of such compounds, which demonstrate cytotoxic activity against a variety of cell types exhibiting hyperproliferative cell division.

2011-05-31

394

Isolated nail fold vasculitis in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To establish the clinical significance of isolated nail fold vasculitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--Patients attending hospital with established RA were assessed by a single observer using unaided vision. Isolated nail fold vasculitis (NFV) was diagnosed as small nail edge or nail fold lesions without any evidence of other extra-articular or systemic vasculitis. Patients were followed prospectively. RESULTS--Thirty patients with isolated NFV were identified and followed for a median interval of 22 months. Three patients died within three months of diagnosis and six developed complications possibly indicative of extra-articular disease: xerostomia (three), pericarditis (one), pleural effusion and empyaema (one), pulmonary fibrosis (one). No patient developed systemic vasculitis. CONCLUSION--Isolated NFV has a favourable prognosis compared with systemic vasculitis. There is a low risk of developing systemic or extra-articular disease.

Watts, R A; Carruthers, D M; Scott, D G

1995-01-01

395

Genetic Characterization of Pathogenic Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Isolates  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from human patients have been genetically analyzed. Some of the characteristics of these isolates are very different from laboratory and industrial strains of S. cerevisiae and, for this reason, stringent genetic tests have been used to confirm their identity as S. cerevisiae. Most of these clinical isolates are able to grow at 42°, a temperature that completely inhibits the growth of most other S. cerevisiae strains. This property can be considered a virulence trait and may help explain the presence of these isolates in human hosts. The ability to grow at 42° is shown to be polygenic with primarily additive effects between loci. S. cerevisiae will be a useful model for the evolution and genetic analysis of fungal virulence and the study of polygenic traits.

McCusker, J. H.; Clemons, K. V.; Stevens, D. A.; Davis, R. W.

1994-01-01

396

Methods for identifying and isolating stem cells  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods and systems for a) identifying and isolating stem cells, b) assessing mitochondrial distribution and structure in living cells and c) performing fluorescence microscopy on living cells while the cells remain within a condition-controlled cell culture chamber.

2010-07-06

397

Occurrence of killer Candida glabrata clinical isolates  

PubMed Central

In this work we characterized the occurrence of killer activity in 64 Candida glabrata clinical isolates under different conditions. We found that only 6.25 % of the clinical isolates tested were positive for killer activity against a Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 sensitive strain. Sensitivity of killer activity to different values of pH and temperatures was analyzed. We found that the killer activity presented by all isolates was resistant to every pH and temperature tested, although optimal activity was found at a range of pH values from 4 to 7 and at 37°C. We did not observe extrachromosomal genetic elements associated with killer activity in any of the positive C. glabrata isolates. The killer effect was due to a decrease in viability and DNA fragmentation in sensitive yeast.

Arroyo-Helguera, O; Penas Alejandro, De Las; Irene, Castano

2012-01-01

398

Hereditary characteristic of isolated congenital vomer aplasia.  

PubMed

Malformation of the inner nose is often found in conjunction with different types of cleft palate or may be seen with severe and complex craniofacial anomalies. Among such malformations, however, isolated vomer aplasia is rarely reported in the literature. This study sets forth our findings that congenital vomeral defect of the nasal septum is an isolated disorder with hereditary characteristics. Between 2001 and 2009, nine cases of isolated congenital vomeral bone defect were detected on endoscopic examination of patients referred to our clinic with nasal and otologic complaints. The files of these patients were reviewed and vomer aplasia was identified as an isolated hereditary condition with concomitant sinonasal symptoms. The defect of the posteroinferior part of the nasal septum was defined as a genetic disease presenting with no significant medical problems. Chromosomal analysis of these patients may help to reveal the relationship of this anomaly with different malformations of the maxillofacial complex. PMID:22484230

Verim, Ay?egül; Faruk Çal?m, Ömer; Yenigün, Alper; Kocagöz, Gamze Didem; Kökten, Numan; Özkul, Haluk

2012-04-05

399

Genetic Heterogeneity among Isolates of Coxiella burnetti.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chromosomal and plasmid DNA have been extracted from six isolates of Coxiella burnetii, the aetiological agent of Q fever. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms detected after HaeIII digestion of chromosomal DNA revealed four different patterns that d...

M. H. Vodkin J. C. Williams E. H. Stephenson

1986-01-01

400

Controlling the exotic diseases: 1. Isolation facilities.  

PubMed

The exotic diseases are highly virulent transmissible conditions that include Lassa fever, some viral hemorrhagic fevers, smallpox and plague. Any of these diseases could be brought into or diagnosed in Canada as the result of natural or laboratory acquired infection. The patients must be isolated until the presumptive diagnosis is proved. High-security isolation is necessary and needs to be backed up by high-security laboratory services. In Canada facilities for high-security isolation are generally not available; therefore, hospitals must preplan and be ready to effect the best possible isolation under the existing conditions. The plan should address construction, ventilation, filtration, temperature and humidity, together with protective measures for staff and careful handling of laboratory specimens. Materials the patient has contacted and areas or vehicles he or she has been in will have to be decontaminated, and appropriate, safe disposal of corpses must be considered. PMID:7437989

Clayton, A J; Best, H R

1980-11-01

401

Thermally effective, electrically isolating heat intercept connections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrical and electronic equipment often require thermally effective beat intercept connections that provide electrical isolation. Such connections can be developed by clamping, with a thermal-interference fit, an electrically insulating cylindrical tube...

R. C. Niemann J. D. Gonczy T. H. Nicol

1995-01-01

402

Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess.

Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

1992-01-01

403

Optically Isolated ECG Amplifier with Baseline Stabilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrocardiographic (ECG) amplifier that is optically isolated and suitable for use in all environments has been developed and tested in 100 experiments involving immersed humans during exercise and rest. The amplifier has less than a 10 micro A curre...

W. H. Mints W. E. Long

1981-01-01

404

Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)|

James, Daniel E.

1984-01-01

405

Isolating the Climatogenic Effects of Volcanoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attempts to isolate and quantify the climatogenic effect of volcanic eruptions have been based on at least two independent estimates of atmospheric transparency, four independent chronologies of volcanic eruptions and eight estimates of the relative magni...

H. W. Ellsaesser

1983-01-01

406

Isolation of the yeast nuclear pore complex  

PubMed Central

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) have been isolated from the yeast Saccharomyces. Negative stain electron microscopy of the isolated NPCs and subsequent image reconstruction revealed the octagonal symmetry and many of the ultrastructural features characteristic of vertebrate NPCs. The overall dimensions of the yeast NPC, both in its isolated form as well as in situ, are smaller than its vertebrate counterpart. However, the diameter of the central structures are similar. The isolated yeast NPC has a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 310 S and an M(r) of approximately 66 MD. It retains all but one of the eight known NPC proteins. In addition it contains as many as 80 uncharacterized proteins that are candidate NPC proteins.

1993-01-01

407

21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880...880.5450 Patient care reverse isolation chamber. (a) Identification. A patient care reverse isolation chamber is a device...

2013-04-01

408

42 CFR 71.33 - Persons: Isolation and surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Persons: Isolation and surveillance. 71.33 Section...Communicable Diseases § 71.33 Persons: Isolation and surveillance. (a) Persons held in isolation under this subpart may be held in...

2009-10-01

409

21 CFR 870.2620 - Line isolation monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Line isolation monitor. 870.2620 Section 870...Monitoring Devices § 870.2620 Line isolation monitor. (a) Identification. A line isolation monitor is a device used to...

2013-04-01

410

49 CFR 192.467 - External corrosion control: Electrical isolation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...External corrosion control: Electrical isolation. 192.467 Section 192.467 Transportation...External corrosion control: Electrical isolation. (a) Each buried or submerged...devices must be installed where electrical isolation of a portion of a pipeline is...

2010-10-01

411

21 CFR 870.2600 - Signal isolation system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Signal isolation system. 870.2600 Section 870...Monitoring Devices § 870.2600 Signal isolation system. (a) Identification. A signal isolation system is a device that...

2013-04-01

412

Characteristics of 17 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the physiological and morphological features of 17 isolates ofParacoccidioides brasiliensis in order to define their phenotypes. The isolates were cultured at room temperature on potato dextrose agar (PDA, Difco)\\u000a slants for mycelial growth and in 1% dextrose brain heart infusion agar (BHIA, Difco) at 37°C for the study of yeast forms.\\u000a Most mycelial and yeast forms grew

Ayako Sano; Reiko Tanaka; Kazuko Nishimura; Cilmery S. Kurokawa; Kunie labuki R. Coelho; Marcello Franco; Mario Rubens Montenegro; Makoto Miyaji

1997-01-01

413

(Surveying isolated diesel power stations in Guatemala)  

SciTech Connect

I travelled to Guatemala City, Guatemala, to lead a team of specialists to study the operating, administrative, and management efficiency of isolated diesel power plants, operated by Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE). The study is part of a global initiative managed jointly by the Agency for International Development and the World Bank. The power plants were audited, including INDE's largest isolated diesel station, and two, much smaller municipal and privately owned stations. I returned to Oak Ridge on February 22, 1990.

Waddle, D.B.

1990-02-26

414

Optimization of passive vibration isolators mechanical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of optimization has been essential to the more recent developments in design of new mechanical structures\\u000a and materials. The objective of this work is to apply the models of material and structural optimization to the design of\\u000a passive vibration isolators. A computational tool to identify the optimal viscoelastic characteristics of a nonlinear one-dimensional\\u000a isolator was developed. The cost

Zuzana Dimitrovová; Hélder C. Rodrigues

2010-01-01

415

Novel Actinomycete Isolated from Bulking Industrial Sludge  

PubMed Central

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images

White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.

1986-01-01

416

The isolated leader: extraverted and introverted styles.  

PubMed

When an executive moves up the hierarchal ladder in the organization, the promotion is often accompanied by an increasing sense of isolation and loneliness. Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee coined the phrase "CEO disease" to describe the isolation of top executives in their book Primal Leadership. It refers to an information vacuum around leaders, created when people withhold important and sometimes unpleasant information. PMID:12886654

Arond-Thomas, Manya

417

The isolated air perfused rat heart.  

PubMed

A simple method has been developed for continuous monitoring of metabolic activity of an isolated, perfused rat heart by O2/CO2 respirometer. Since respirometer provides vital data on oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a preserved organ on a continuous basis over a long period of time, it will be possible to use this method to monitor viability of not only isolated heart but also any given donor organ under preservation. PMID:8550127

Venkataraman, B V; Dutt, S; Czekajewski, J; Nennerfelt, L; Williams, C

1995-07-01

418

Isolation and the high\\/low hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Say that a d.c.e. degree d is isolated by a c.e. degree b, if bd and any c.e. degree c below d is also below b, namely, b is the largest c.e. degree below d. Wu proved that there is a high d.c.e. degree d isolated by a low2 c.e. degree b. In this paper, we improve this result by

Shamil Ishmukhametov; Guohua Wu

2002-01-01

419

Extracellular enzymatic activity of Malassezia spp. isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular enzymatic activity of different species of Malassezia spp was evaluated. Thirty-three isolates of animal origin (dogs and cats) and stock culture samples were studied. Twenty\\u000a isolates of M. pachydermatis, 8 of M. furfur, 2 of M. sympodialis and M. globosa and one of M. restricta, M. obtusa and M. slooffiae were examined. The enzymatic activity was investigatedusing Api Zym

Francesca Mancianti; Antonello Rum; Simona Nardoni; Michele Corazza

2001-01-01

420

Development of optical isolator materials, applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact, low-priced, highly reliable optical isolators to be used to cut off the light rays reflected back to the light sources of optical communication or optical measurement systems are in demand today. Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. has developed magnetic garnet thick films as materials for Faraday rotors, which are the main components of optical isolators, using the liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. The development and applications of the materials are described.

Machida, Katsumi; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Haruo

1988-04-01

421

Corynebacterium species isolated from patients with mastitis.  

PubMed

Corynebacteria were isolated from breast tissue, pus, or deep wound swabs of 24 women; the most common species isolated was the newly described Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, followed by Corynebacterium amycolatum and Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum. Gram-positive bacilli were seen in samples sent for culture or in histological specimens for 12 women, and 9 of the 12 women from whom adequate histological specimens were obtained had conditions that met the criteria for granulomatous lobular mastitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. PMID:12439810

Paviour, Sue; Musaad, Sahar; Roberts, Sally; Taylor, Graeme; Taylor, Susan; Shore, Keith; Lang, Selwyn; Holland, David

2002-11-14

422

Brain Tryptophan in Isolated Aggressive Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian variations in whole brain tryptophan level and food intake were investigated in both normally grouped and isolated male Albino-Swiss mice, maintained on a 12:12 light-dark regimen (lights on 08.00–20.00). A significant diumal rhythm in brain tryptophan level was evidenced only by grouped animals, in contrast to the relatively sustained and significantly lower tryptophan level found to exist in isolated

Bruce L. Miller; Joel S. Pachter; Luigi Valzelli

1979-01-01

423

Polarization proximity effect in isolator crystal pairs.  

PubMed

We experimentally study the polarization dynamics (orientation and ellipticity) of near-infrared light transmitted through magneto-optical yttrium iron garnet isolator crystal pairs using a modified balanced detection scheme. When the pair separation is in the submillimeter range, we observed a proximity effect in which the saturation field is reduced by up to 20%. One-dimensional calculations suggest that the proximity effect originates from magnetostatic interactions between the dipole moments of the isolator crystals. PMID:19037456

Linzon, Y; Ferrera, M; Razzari, L; Pignolet, A; Morandotti, R

2008-12-01

424

Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

Sulentic, J.

2010-10-01

425

Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

2011-10-01

426

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1994-05-01

427

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either (a) less than or equal to or (b) slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1992-01-01

428

Social isolation alters neuroinflammatory response to stroke.  

PubMed

Social isolation has dramatic long-term physiological and psychological consequences; however, the mechanisms by which social isolation influences disease outcome are largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social isolation on neuronal damage, neuroinflammation, and functional outcome after focal cerebral ischemia. Male mice were socially isolated (housed individually) or pair housed with an ovariectomized female before induction of stroke, via transient intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), or SHAM surgery. In these experiments, peri-ischemic social isolation decreases poststroke survival rate and exacerbates infarct size and edema development. The social influence on ischemic damage is accompanied by an altered neuroinflammatory response; specifically, central interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling is down-regulated, whereas peripheral IL-6 is up-regulated, in isolated relative to socially housed mice. In addition, intracerebroventricular injection of an IL-6 neutralizing antibody (10 ng) eliminates social housing differences in measures of ischemic outcome. Taken together, these data suggest that central IL-6 is an important mediator of social influences on stroke outcome. PMID:19307557

Karelina, Kate; Norman, Greg J; Zhang, Ning; Morris, John S; Peng, Haiyan; DeVries, A Courtney

2009-03-23

429

[Isolation ward: initial experiences after 4 years].  

PubMed

Since October 1988 there has been an isolation ward at Basle Cantonal Hospital. Its purpose is to treat patients with high dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation under protective isolation and by standardized criteria. The isolation ward has two sub-units, viz. the reverse isolation for neutropenic patients (8 single room units) and the LAF unit (5 laminar airflow units) for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Up to July 1992, 287 patients (152 males and 133 females) required 527 hospitalizations. The median age was 41 (5-82) years in the reverse isolation unit and 28 (4-61) years in the LAF unit. Bed occupation was 90% and 82% throughout the period. 71% of patients were from the Basle area and the rest from elsewhere in Switzerland or from other countries. Diagnosis: acute leukemias (112); myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative syndromes (52); severe aplastic anemia or agranulocytosis (46); lymphoproliferative syndromes (50); solid tumors (28). Indications for hospitalisation: BMT (107); complications after BMT (infections, GvHD) (63); chemotherapy on protocols of SAKK (105); other chemotherapies (64); antilymphocyte globulin or growth factor treatment (27); splenectomies (18); neutropenic fever (62); patient work-up (59); terminal care (20). Patients in reverse isolation were hospitalized for a median 17 (1-142) days; in the LAF unit for 52 (1-121) days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8296194

Passweg, J; Gratwohl, A; Stauffer, G; Wuhrmann, J; Buser, U; Tichelli, A; Speck, B; Herrmann, R; Stauffacher, W

1994-01-11

430

New isolation system for collecting living cells from tissue.  

PubMed

A new semi-automatic living-cell isolation system was developed. The new system improves the quality of isolated cells, reduces cell isolation time, and isolates more cells with a higher cell viability compared to conventional manual methods. We successfully applied this system to isolate beating cardiomyocytes and fabricate electrical communicative cardiac tissue. In this study using the isolated cardiac cells we also fabricated a cardiac cell sheet that beat spontaneously and synchronously. PMID:23063341

Shioyama, Takahiro; Haraguchi, Yuji; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

2012-10-10

431

Octo-strut vibration isolation platform and its application to whole spacecraft vibration isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stewart platform is widely used for vibration isolation and precise pointing. As it is a statically determinate structure, if any strut has fault, a disaster could be unavoidable. In the present paper, an octo-strut passive vibration isolation platform with redundancy is introduced and applied to whole-spacecraft vibration isolation. This platform is modeled with the Newton–Euler method. To avoid such possibility

L. K. Liu; G. T. Zheng; W. H. Huang

2006-01-01

432

Isolation, identification, and keratinolytic activity of several feather-degrading bacterial isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several feather-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from Egyptian soil. These isolates were able to degrade chicken\\u000a feather, when grown on basal medium containing 1% native feather as a source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. Feather waste,\\u000a generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is nearly pure keratin, which is not easily\\u000a degradable by common proteolytic enzymes.

Taha I. Zaghloul; M. Al-Bahra; H. Al-Azmeh

1998-01-01

433

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 swine influenza virus isolated in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A swine influenza H1N1 virus was isolated from a pig during a severe outbreak of respiratory disease in Korea. All genes of the H1N1 isolate, including hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), nucleoprotein (NP), non-structural (NS), PA, PB1 and PB2, were of swine origin. Also, all these genes showed a close phylogenic relationship with those of H1N1 viruses previously isolated

D. S. Song; C. S. Lee; K. Jung; B. K. Kang; J. S. Oh; Y. D. Yoon; J. H. Lee; B. K. Park

2007-01-01

434

Isolation and identification of locally isolated bacterial strains effective against whitefly Bemisia tabaci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potent bacterial strains effective against the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, nymphs (second instar), were isolated from tomato cultivated fields at Fayoum governorate, Giza, Egypt. Of 72 isolates, 12 with the most morphologically distinct-looking bacterial colonies were selected and named A1, A2, A3, A6, A7, A9, A12, A13, A107, B37, B45 and B100. All isolates were preliminarily identified as members of the

Salah El-Din El-Assal; Narmen A. Youssef; Gamil A. Amin

2012-01-01

435

Carbon utilization profiles of Fusarium virguliforme isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium virguliforme is the cause of sudden death syndrome in soybean. Physiological variability among isolates of the fungus is unknown. One way to measure physiologic variability is to analyze growth on different carbon sources. The carbon source utilization profiles of 18 F. virguliforme isolates were examined using the Biolog FF 96-well microplate, which contains 95 different carbon sources. The utilization of dextrin,D-mannitol, maltotriose,D-lactic acid methyl ester, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, salicin, D-trehalose, and L-alanine differed significantly among isolates (P = 0.05). Carbon sources were grouped into 3 clusters based on their ability to promote growth of F. virguliforme, after calculating Euclidean distances among them. About 12% of the carbon sources promoted a high amount of mycelial growth, 39% promoted a medium amount of growth, and 49% promoted a low amount of mycelial growth; the latter was not significantly different from the water blank control. A hierarchical tree diagram was produced for the 18 isolates based on their carbon source utilization profiles using Ward's hierarchical analysis method. Two main clusters of isolates were formed. One cluster represented greater average mycelial growth on all of the carbon sources than the other cluster. In this study, variability in carbon source utilization among F. virguliforme isolates was evident, but the results were not associated with geographic origin of the isolates, year collected, or published data on aggressiveness. Additional research is needed to determine if these carbon utilization profiles are associated with other biological characteristics, like spore germination, propagule formation, and saprophytic competitiveness. PMID:21164567

Tang, E; Hill, C B; Hartman, G L

2010-12-01

436

Phenotypic variability among strains of Pasteurella multocida isolated from avian, bovine, caprine, leporine and ovine origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic diversity among 69 field isolates plus 3 vaccine strains previously identified as Pasteurella multocida were investigated by extended phenotypic characterization. The field isolates were obtained in Nigeria from chickens (15 isolates), quail (5 isolates), cattle (31 isolates), goats (7 isolates), sheep (8 isolates), rabbits (3 isolates) and the vaccine strains (3 isolates), which are used as prophylaxis against fowl

Sarah O. Ekundayo; Moses O. Odugbo; Atanda O. Olabode; Philip A. Okewole

2008-01-01

437

[Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].  

PubMed

The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (p<0,05) with oral feeding. Thus, significantly cationic whey protein isolate has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems, and so can be considered as a factor that can regulate the intensity of lipid oxidation. PMID:23530434

titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A

2012-01-01

438

Reinforcement of Gametic Isolation in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Reinforcement, a process by which natural selection increases reproductive isolation between populations, has been suggested to be an important force in the formation of new species. However, all existing cases of reinforcement involve an increase in mate discrimination between species. Here, I report the first case of reinforcement of postmating prezygotic isolation (i.e., barriers that act after mating but before fertilization) in animals. On the slopes of the African island of São Tomé, Drosophila yakuba and its endemic sister species D. santomea hybridize within a well-demarcated hybrid zone. I find that D. yakuba females from within this zone, but not from outside it, show an increase in gametic isolation from males of D. santomea, an apparent result of natural selection acting to reduce maladaptive hybridization between species. To determine whether such a barrier could evolve under laboratory conditions, I exposed D. yakuba lines derived from allopatric populations to experimental sympatry with D. santomea, and found that both behavioral and gametic isolation become stronger after only four generations. Reinforcement thus appears to be the best explanation for the heightened gametic isolation seen in sympatry. This appears to be the first example in animals in which natural selection has promoted the evolution of stronger interspecific genetic barriers that act after mating but before fertilization. This suggests that many other genetic barriers between species have been increased by natural selection but have been overlooked because they are difficult to study.

Matute, Daniel R.

2010-01-01

439

[Isolation and identification of Tupaia orthoreovirus].  

PubMed

Pathogenic viruses can harm acutely the life and health of laboratory tree shrews acutely; however, few papers exist regarding natural pathogenic virus infection in this species. Six fecal samples obtained from dead tree shrews were collected. The fecal supernatant infected Vero cell line resulted in cytopathic effects (CPE) after 72 h. The CPE included granulating, shrinking, rounding, seining and falling off. Electron microscopy showed the isolation was spherical, double-layered capsid, and about 75 nm in diameter. The purified isolation genome was 10 segments in a typical 3:3:4 arrangements, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The isolation was confirmed by RT-PCR assays targeting the conserved region of the L1 gene, sequence analysis and reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree. The isolation was a Tupaia Orthoreovirus (TRV), belonging to Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV). The obtained strain had the closest phylogenetic relationship to the MRV strain T3/Bat/Germany/342/08. As a zoonotic virus, the novel TRV strain was first isolated from wild tree shrews, which is significant for promoting tree shrew standardization and providing scientific data for preventing zoonotic tree shrew-to-human transmission. PMID:23572361

Xu, Juan; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Wen-Guang; Yin, An-Guo; Xia, Xue-Shan; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Dai, Xie-Jie

2013-04-01

440

[Corynebacteria isolated in colpitis and puerperal complications].  

PubMed

The role of microorganisms belonging to the genus Corynebacterium in normalization of vaginal biocenosis by creating acid medium is discussed. A total of 300 samples of lochia and vaginal and cervical secretion were examined, 140 of these taken from women without gynecological diseases and women with a normal course of the postpartum period (controls) and 160 from patients with colpitis of various origins and a complicated course of the puerperium. An appreciable increase of the level of diphtheroids was observed in the lochia of control subjects and in all samples of patients (p < 0.01). Eight species of Corynebacterium were isolated. Urease-negative C. minutissimum, C. equi, C. aquaticum, and C. xerosis predominated in both controls and patients (p < 0.01). Opportunistic C. bovis, C. enzymicum, C. kutshevi, and C. sp. possessing urease activity were seldom isolated. No differences between the 2 groups in the species composition of the isolated bacteria were detected (p > 0.05). Two species of Corynebacterium were sometimes isolated from the same sample, this being more frequently with vaginal and cervical secretion samples than with lochia both in controls and patients (p < 0.01). The most incident association was C. aquaticum and C. equi. 59.6 +/- 2.7 isolated strains proved to be sensitive to antibiotics manufactured in this country. PMID:7670823

Martika?nen, Z M

441

Isolation, identification, and antibiogram of enterococci isolated from patients with urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

Background/objectives: Enterococci, though commensals in adult feces are important nosocomial pathogens. The most common nosocomial infection caused by these organisms is urinary tract infection. Objectives: (1) To isolate and speciate enterococci from cases of urinary tract infection. (2) To know antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. (3) To determine high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) among the isolates. Methods: Identification and speciation of the isolates were done by the standard conventional methods. Antibacterial susceptibility pattern was determined by standard disc diffusion method and HLAR by using gentamicin (120 ?g) and streptomycin (300 ?g) discs. Results: A total of 150 strains of enterococci were isolated from a total of 2520 urine samples. Out of 150 strains, 95 (63.3%) were Enterococcus faecalis, 55 (36.7%) were E. faecium. A total of 102 (68%) isolates showed high level resistance to gentamicin and/or streptomycin by high content disc diffusion. Conclusion: Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed presence of multidrug resistance in E. faecium as well as E. faecalis and resistance among E. faecium isolates was higher than E. faecalis. HLAR among enterococcal isolates was high in our institute. PMID:24005591

Parameswarappa, Jyothi; Basavaraj, V Peerapur; Basavaraj, C Metri