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Sample records for bartonella henselae isolates

  1. Combined MLST and AFLP typing of Bartonella henselae isolated from cats reveals new sequence types and suggests clonal evolution.

    PubMed

    Mietze, A; Morick, D; Köhler, H; Harrus, S; Dehio, C; Nolte, I; Goethe, R

    2011-03-24

    Bartonella species are Gram-negative, fastidious bacteria. Bartonella henselae is found in cats and transmitted to humans via cat scratches or bites causing cat-scratch disease, characterized by clinical symptoms with varying severity. The prevalence of bartonellosis among humans in Germany appears to be high, and severe clinical cases have been described. However, epidemiological data of B. henselae in cats are rare. In this study we determined the detection rates of Bartonella ssp. in cats by culture and real-time PCR. Furthermore, B. henselae isolates were genetically characterized by highly discriminatory amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Bartonella spp. were isolated by culture from 11 (2.2%) of 507 blood samples. Out of 169 blood samples additionally analyzed by PCR, 28 (16.6%) were found positive for Bartonella spp., illustrating the advantage of PCR in Bartonella spp. detection. PCR-REA identified B. henselae in 27 cats and Bartonella clarridgeiae in one cat. B. henselae isolates from different geographical regions in Germany were genetically characterized by AFLP and MLST. Both methods confirmed genetic diversity of B. henselae on the strain level. MLST identified 11 new sequence types, all of them assigned to three clonal complexes as determined by eBURST. AFLP typing revealed genetic relation among the B. henselae isolates from the same geographical region. Combining AFLP typing and MLST/eBURST analyses revealed that B. henselae of the same AFLP subcluster belonged to the same clonal complex. Altogether these results indicate that B. henselae may evolve clonally. PMID:20863631

  2. Bartonella henselae in Porpoise Blood

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Harms, Craig A.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Pabst, D. Ann; McLellan, William A.; Walton, Wendy J.; Rotstein, David S.

    2005-01-01

    We report detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in blood samples from 2 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). By using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we directly amplified Bartonella species DNA from blood of a harbor porpoise stranded along the northern North Carolina coast and from a preenrichment blood culture from a second harbor porpoise. The second porpoise was captured out of habitat (in a low-salinity canal along the northern North Carolina coast) and relocated back into the ocean. Subsequently, DNA was amplified by conventional polymerase chain reaction for DNA sequencing. The 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer region obtained from each porpoise was 99.8% similar to that of B. henselae strain San Antonio 2 (SA2), whereas both heme-binding phage-associated pap31 gene sequences were 100% homologous to that of B. henselae SA2. Currently, the geographic distribution, mode of transmission, reservoir potential, and pathogenicity of bloodborne Bartonella species in porpoises have not been determined. PMID:16485476

  3. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae in cats in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pons, Immaculada; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Quesada, Mariela; Anton, Esperanza; Sampere, Maite; Font, Bernat; Pla, Júlia; Segura, Ferran

    2005-04-01

    Bartonella henselae, an emerging pathogen bacterium, is the main causative agent of the cat scratch disease. While the first clinical descriptions were associated with immunosupressed patients, it is now more frequently observed in patients with normal immune status (endocarditis and bacteremia). Cats were found to be the only known reservoir of B. henselae. In this paper, we report the results obtained in the first study made to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae bacteremia and antibodies in domestic cats in Catalonia, Spain. Serum samples from 115 cats were tested for antibodies to B. henselae by immunofluorescent antibody testing, and 29.6% had a titer >or= 1:64. Seven B. henselae strains were isolated using standard culture techniques and amplification by a polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing was performed on the intergenic spacer region between the 16 and 23S ribosomal RNA genes. Of all factors concerning the studied bacteremia rate (age, sex, habitat, presence of antibodies, contact with animals, parasites), only the presence of antibodies to B. henselae was statistically significant. PMID:15827285

  4. Genotypic Characteristics of Two Serotypes of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    La Scola, Bernard; Liang, Zhongxing; Zeaiter, Zaher; Houpikian, Pierre; Grimont, Patrick A. D.; Raoult, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The study of 16S rRNA gene sequences of all isolates of Bartonella henselae obtained in our laboratory and others from human patients or cats has revealed two genotypes according to the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Two isolates of these genotypes have previously been related to two different serotypes, and lack of cross-protection of the two serotypes has been demonstrated in cats. We investigated the grouping of eight strains of B. henselae on the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA, 35-kDa protein, Pap 31 protein, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequencing; sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles; and monoclonal antibody reactivity studies. Houston-1, 90-615, and SA2 strains showed the same patterns in SDS-PAGE, but they differed from the patterns of B. henselae isolates URBHLLY8, URBHLIE9, Cat6, Fizz, and CAL-1. Nine monoclonal antibodies derived from BALB/c mice immunized with B. henselae Houston-1 strain reacted only with strains Houston-1, 90-615, and SA2, and not with any other Bartonella strains. The two serogroups corresponded with two genotypes based on differences in the sequences of the genes encoding 16S rRNA, 35-kDa protein, and Pap 31 protein. Sequences of ITS genes were highly divergent among strains, as each had a unique sequence and the subdivision was not supported by DNA-DNA relatedness study. Study of 22 additional strains of B. henselae isolated from French bacteremic cats demonstrated that they all belong to one or the other of the proposed serotype or genotype. PMID:12037055

  5. Did Bartonella henselae contribute to the deaths of two veterinarians?

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a flea-transmitted bacterium, causes chronic, zoonotic, blood stream infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients throughout the world. As an intra-erythrocytic and endotheliotropic bacterium, B. henselae causes a spectrum of symptomatology ranging from asymptomatic bacteremia to fever, endocarditis and death. Veterinary workers are at occupational risk for acquiring bartonellosis. As an emerging, and incompletely understood, stealth bacterial pathogen, B. henselae may or may not have been responsible for the deaths of two veterinarians; however, recent evidence indicates that this genus is of much greater medical importance than is currently appreciated by the majority of the biomedical community. PMID:26062543

  6. Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and HLA-B27

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, F; Rothova, A

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the frequency of HLA-B27 in patients with presumed Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and to describe the clinical characteristics of HLA-B27 positive patients with uveitis and presumed ocular bartonellosis (POB).?METHODS—The diagnosis of POB was considered in 19 patients with unexplained uveitis (except for the HLA-B27 association) and high positive IgG (titre ?1:900) and/or IgM (titre ?1:250) antibodies against B henselae. In addition to B henselae serology and HLA-B27 typing, all patients underwent an extensive standard diagnostic screening procedure for uveitis and in all cases the results were within the normal limits. The control group consisted of 25 consecutive patients with panuveitis and negative B henselae serology.?RESULTS—HLA-B27 was positive in six of the 19 patients (32%) with POB in contrast to the 4% frequency of HLA-B27 in the control group (p=0.03) and 8% prevalence of HLA-B27 in the Dutch population (p=0.003). At the time of positive Bartonella serological testing five of six HLA-B27 positive patients with POB had severe posterior segment involvement with papillitis, macular oedema, and vitreitis. The duration of intraocular inflammatory activity was more than 6 months in five HLA-B27 positive patients. Although four of the six HLA-B27 positive patients had previous recurrent attacks of acute anterior uveitis, the clinical presentation at the time of positive Bartonella serology differed, as illustrated by the involvement of the posterior segment and chronic course of the ocular disease.?CONCLUSIONS—The frequency of HLA-B27 in patients with uveitis and serological characteristics of acute infection with B henselae is higher than in the general Dutch population. The findings of this study also suggest a relation between infection with Bartonella species and HLA-B27.?? PMID:11004097

  7. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish Family

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Bradley, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species constitute emerging, vector-borne, intravascular pathogens that produce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (natural host or passive carrier of a microorganism) and opportunistic hosts. With the advent of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, there is evolving microbiological evidence supporting concurrent infection with one or more Bartonella spp. in more than one family member; however, the mode(s) of transmission to or among family members remains unclear. In this study, we provide molecular microbiological evidence of Bartonella henselae genotype San Antonio 2 (SA2) infection in four of six Danish family members, including a child who died of unknown causes at 14 months of age. PMID:25740763

  8. Bilateral mandibular pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis and pulmonary nodules in a dog with Bartonella henselae bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Melissa D.; Sellon, Rance K.; Tucker, Russell L.; Wills, Tamara B.; Simonsen, Andrea; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a 2-year-old collie dog with pulmonary nodules, visualized by computed tomographic (CT) scan, with evidence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia and pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. Clinical signs resolved with antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25320386

  9. Characterization of the natural population of Bartonella henselae by multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Iredell, J; Blanckenberg, D; Arvand, M; Grauling, S; Feil, E J; Birtles, R J

    2003-11-01

    Investigations of the population genetics of Bartonella henselae have demonstrated a high level of diversity among strains, and the delineation of isolates into one of two subtypes, type I (Houston) and type II (Marseille), represented by specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, has long been considered the most significant genotypic division within the species. This belief is challenged by recent work suggesting a role for horizontal gene exchange in generating intraspecies diversity. We attempted to resolve this issue and extend exploration of the population structure of B. henselae by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to examine the distribution of polymorphisms within nine different genes in a sample of 37 human and feline isolates. MLST distinguished seven sequence types (STs) that resolved into three distinct lineages, suggesting a clonal population structure for the species, and support for these divisions was obtained by macrorestriction analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The distribution of STs among isolates recovered from human infections was not random, and such isolates were significantly more often associated with one particular ST, lending further support to the suggestion that specific genotypes contribute disproportionately to the disease burden in humans. All but one isolate lay on lineages that bore the representative strain of either the Houston or Marseille subtype. However, the distribution of the two 16S rDNA alleles among the isolates was not entirely congruent with their lineage allocations, indicating that this is not a sensitive marker of the clonal divisions within the species. The inheritances of several of the genes studied could not be reconciled with one another, providing further evidence of horizontal gene transfer among B. henselae strains and suggesting that recombination has a role in shaping the genetic character of bartonellae. PMID:14605141

  10. Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B. henselae represents an antecedent infection for GBS, CIDP, and non-specific neurocognitive abnormalities. PMID:23587343

  11. Human Coinfection with Bartonella henselae and Two Hemotropic Mycoplasma Variants Resembling Mycoplasma ovis?

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Jane E.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    Two variants of an organism resembling the ovine hemoplasma, Mycoplasma ovis, were detected by PCR in blood samples from a veterinarian in Texas. Coinfection with similar variants has been described in sheep. This represents the first report of human infection with this organism. The veterinarian was coinfected with Bartonella henselae. PMID:20702675

  12. Prostatitis, Steatitis, and Diarrhea in a Dog following Presumptive Flea-Borne Transmission of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

  13. Serological evidence of Bartonella henselae infection in healthy people in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pons, I; Sanfeliu, I; Cardeñosa, N; Nogueras, M M; Font, B; Segura, F

    2008-12-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), bacillary angiomatosis, hepatic peliosis and some cases of bacteraemia, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae in healthy people and to identify the epidemiological factors involved. Serum samples from 218 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Significance levels for univariate statistical analysis were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test, chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. Of 218 patients, 99 were female and 119 male, with a median age of 34.36 years (range 0-91 years). Nineteen (8.7%) reacted with B. henselae antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, contact with animals, residential area), only age was statistically significant. Our serological data seems to indicate that B. henselae is present in Catalonia and could be transmitted to humans. PMID:18294428

  14. Coexistence of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in populations of cats and their fleas in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Rizzo, Maria Fernanda; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Peruski, Leonard F; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cats and their fleas collected in Guatemala were investigated for the presence of Bartonella infections. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 8.2% (13/159) of cats, and all cultures were identified as B. henselae. Molecular analysis allowed detection of Bartonella DNA in 33.8% (48/142) of cats and in 22.4% (34/152) of cat fleas using gltA, nuoG, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer targets. Two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, were identified in cats and cat fleas by molecular analysis, with B. henselae being more common than B. clarridgeiae in the cats (68.1%; 32/47 vs 31.9%; 15/47). The nuoG was found to be less sensitive for detecting B. clarridgeiae compared with other molecular targets and could detect only two of the 15 B. clarridgeiae-infected cats. No significant differences were observed for prevalence between male and female cats and between different age groups. No evident association was observed between the presence of Bartonella species in cats and in their fleas. PMID:26611968

  15. Identification of the Feline Humoral Immune Response to Bartonella henselae Infection by Protein Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Adam; Ortega, Rocio; Jain, Aarti; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Tan, Xiaolin; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Koehler, Jane E.; Felgner, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is the zoonotic agent of cat scratch disease and causes potentially fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. Understanding the complex interactions between the host's immune system and bacterial pathogens is central to the field of infectious diseases and to the development of effective diagnostics and vaccines. Methodology We report the development of a microarray comprised of proteins expressed from 96% (1433/1493) of the predicted ORFs encoded by the genome of the zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae. The array was probed with a collection of 62 uninfected, 62 infected, and 8 “specific-pathogen free” naïve cat sera, to profile the antibody repertoire elicited during natural Bartonella henselae infection. Conclusions We found that 7.3% of the B. henselae proteins on the microarray were seroreactive and that seroreactivity was not evenly distributed between predicted protein function or subcellular localization. Membrane proteins were significantly most likely to be seroreactive, although only 23% of the membrane proteins were reactive. Conversely, we found that proteins involved in amino acid transport and metabolism were significantly underrepresented and did not contain any seroreactive antigens. Of all seroreactive antigens, 52 were differentially reactive with sera from infected cats, and 53 were equally reactive with sera from infected and uninfected cats. Thirteen of the seroreactive antigens were found to be differentially seroreactive between B. henselae type I and type II. Based on these results, we developed a classifier algorithm that was capable of accurately discerning 93% of the infected animals using the microarray platform. The seroreactivity and diagnostic potential of these antigens was then validated on an immunostrip platform, which correctly identified 98% of the infected cats. Our protein microarray platform provides a high-throughput, comprehensive analysis of the feline humoral immune response to natural infection with the alpha-proteobacterium B. henselae at an antigen-specific, sera-specific, and genome-wide level. Furthermore, these results provide novel insight and utility in diagnostics, vaccine development, and understanding of host-pathogen interaction. PMID:20625509

  16. Full-thickness macular hole in Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anisha; Raina, Usha K; Thirumalai, Sriram; Batta, Supriya; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2015-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is a febrile illness caused by Bartonella henselae and is associated with rash at the site of cat bite or scratch and regional lymphadenopathy. Various ocular manifestations of cat scratch disease have been described, mainly retinochoroiditis, optic disc swelling, neuroretinitis, vascular occlusive events, serous retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, intermediate uveitis, inflammatory lesions of the optic nerve head and rarely full thickness macular hole. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl who presented 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms, with B. Henselae neuroretinitis with full thickness macular hole at presentation. PMID:25709274

  17. Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. Prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in Grenada and Ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in South Africa. The woman reported contact with fleas, ticks, lice, biting flies, mosquitoes, spiders and mites and had also been scratched or bitten by dogs, cats, birds, horses, reptiles, rabbits and rodents. Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient’s symptoms. Methods PCR assays targeting Anaplasma spp. Bartonella spp. and hemotopic Mycoplasma spp. were used to test patient blood samples. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced directly and compared to GenBank sequences. In addition, Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture was used to facilitate bacterial growth and Bartonella spp. serology was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Results Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum DNA was amplified and sequenced from the woman’s blood, serum or blood culture samples. Her serum was variably seroreactive to several Bartonella sp. antigens. Despite symptomatic improvement, six months of doxycycline most likely failed to eliminate the B. henselae infection, whereas A. platys and Candidatus M. haematoparvum DNA was no longer amplified from post-treatment samples. Conclusions As is typical of many veterinary professionals, this individual had frequent exposure to arthropod vectors and near daily contact with persistently bacteremic reservoir hosts, including cats, the primary reservoir host for B. henselae, and dogs, the presumed primary reservoir host for A. platys and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Physicians caring for veterinarians should be aware of the occupational zoonotic risks associated with the daily activities of these animal health professionals. PMID:23587235

  18. Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Franz, Bettina; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (Vir)B/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail. PMID:21489243

  19. Impact of queen infection on kitten susceptibility to different strains of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Drew A; Chomel, Bruno B; Burgos, Katlin; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Durden, Monica R; Mirrashed, Hannah; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P

    2015-11-18

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease in humans. In kittens, maternal IgG antibodies are detectable within two weeks postpartum, weaning in six to ten weeks postpartum and kittens as young as six to eight weeks old can become bacteremic in a natural environment. The study's objective was to evaluate if maternal antibodies against a specific B. henselae strain protect kittens from infection with the same strain or a different strain from the same genotype. Three seronegative and Bartonella-free pregnant queens were infected with the same strain of B. henselae genotype II during pregnancy. Kittens from queens #1 and #2 were challenged with the same strain used to infect the queens while kittens from queen #3 were challenged with a different genotype II strain. All queens gave birth to non-bacteremic kittens. After challenge, all kittens from queens infected with the same strain seroconverted, with six out of the seven kittens presenting no to very low levels of transitory bacteremia. Conversely, all four kittens challenged with a different strain developed high bacteremia (average 47,900CFU/mL by blood culture and 146,893bacteria/mL by quantitative PCR). Overall, qPCR and bacterial culture were in good agreement for all kittens (Kappa Cohen's agreement of 0.78). This study demonstrated that young kittens can easily be infected with a different strain of B. henselae at a very young age, even in the presence of maternal antibodies, underlining the importance of flea control in pregnant queens and young kittens. PMID:26454564

  20. Small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets serve as new reservoirs of Bartonella henselae and potential sources of infection for humans.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Kabeya, H; Shigematsu, Y; Sentsui, H; Une, Y; Minami, M; Murata, K; Ogura, G; Maruyama, S

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella species were investigated in small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets in Japan. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD) was isolated from 15.9% (10/63) of the mongooses and 2.0% (1/50) of the masked palm civets, respectively. The bacteraemic level ranged from 3.0 × 10(1) to 8.9 × 10(3) CFU/mL in mongooses and was 7.0 × 10(3) CFU/mL in the masked palm civet. Multispacer typing (MST) analysis based on nine intergenic spacers resulted in the detection of five MST genotypes (MSTs 8, 14, 37, 58 and 59) for the isolates, which grouped in lineage 1 with MST genotypes of isolates from all CSD patients and most of the cats in Japan. It was also found that MST14 from the mongoose strains was the predominant genotype of cat and human strains. This is the first report on the isolation of B. henselae from small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets. The data obtained in the present study suggest that these animals serve as new reservoirs for B. henselae, and may play a role as potential sources of human infection. PMID:23433322

  1. Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).

    PubMed

    Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission. PMID:25325313

  2. Molecular detection of zoonotic bartonellae (B. henselae, B. elizabethae and B. rochalimae) in fleas collected from dogs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sofer, S; Gutiérrez, R; Morick, D; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-09-01

    Fleas represent an acknowledged burden on dogs worldwide. The characterization of flea species infesting kennel dogs from two localities in Israel (Rehovot and Jerusalem) and their molecular screening for Bartonella species (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) was investigated. A total of 355 fleas were collected from 107 dogs. The fleas were morphologically classified and molecularly screened targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Of the 107 dogs examined, 80 (74.8%) were infested with Ctenocephalides canis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 68 (63.6%) with Ctenocephalides felis, 15 (14.0%) with Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and one (0.9%) with Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Fleas were grouped into 166 pools (one to nine fleas per pool) according to species and host. Thirteen of the 166 flea pools (7.8%) were found to be positive for Bartonella DNA. Detected ITS sequences were 99-100% similar to those of four Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae (six pools); Bartonella elizabethae (five pools); Bartonella rochalimae (one pool), and Bartonella bovis (one pool). The present study indicates the occurrence of a variety of flea species in dogs in Israel; these flea species are, in turn, carriers of several zoonotic Bartonella species. Physicians, veterinarians and public health workers should be aware of the presence of these pathogens in dog fleas in Israel and preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:25865162

  3. Structure of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from Bartonella henselae bound to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Gardberg, Anna; Abendroth, Jan; Bhandari, Janhavi; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart

    2011-09-01

    Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) enzymes have been found in a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. FBPA catalyses the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The SSGCID has reported several FBPA structures from pathogenic sources, including the bacterium Brucella melitensis and the protozoan Babesia bovis. Bioinformatic analysis of the Bartonella henselae genome revealed an FBPA homolog. The B. henselae FBPA enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme crystallized in the apo form but failed to diffract; however, well diffracting crystals could be obtained by cocrystallization in the presence of the native substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A data set to 2.35 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=72.39, b=127.71, c=157.63 Å. The structure was refined to a final free R factor of 22.2%. The structure shares the typical barrel tertiary structure and tetrameric quaternary structure reported for previous FBPA structures and exhibits the same Schiff base in the active site. PMID:21904049

  4. IrSPI, a Tick Serine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Tick Feeding and Bartonella henselae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C.; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its potentialities as vaccine against the ticks and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:25057911

  5. Experimental infection of dogs with various Bartonella species or subspecies isolated from their natural reservoir.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Ermel, Richard W; Kasten, Rickie W; Henn, Jennifer B; Fleischman, Drew A; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2014-01-10

    Dogs can be infected by a wide variety of Bartonella species. However, limited data is available on experimental infection of dogs with Bartonella strains isolated from domestic animals or wildlife. We report the inoculation of six dogs with Bartonella henselae (feline strain 94022, 16S rRNA type II) in three sets of two dogs, each receiving a different inoculum dose), four dogs inoculated with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii type I (ATCC strain, one mongrel dog) or type II (coyote strain, two beagles and one mongrel) and B. rochalimae (coyote strain, two beagles). None of the dogs inoculated with B. henselae became bacteremic, as detected by classical blood culture. However, several dogs developed severe necrotic lesions at the inoculation site and all six dogs seroconverted within one to two weeks. All dogs inoculated with the B. v. berkhoffii and B. rochalimae strains became bacteremic at levels comparable to previous experimental infections with either a dog isolate or a human isolate. Our data support that dogs are likely accidental hosts for B. henselae, just like humans, and are efficient reservoirs for both B. v. berkhoffii and B. rochalimae. PMID:24315039

  6. Isolation of Bartonella capreoli from elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Cross, P.C.; Malania, L.; Kosoy, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella infections in elk populations. We report the isolation of four Bartonella strains from 55 elk blood samples. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all four strains belong to Bartonella capreoli, a bacterium that was originally described in the wild roe deer of Europe. Our finding first time demonstrated that B. capreoli has a wide geographic range, and that elk may be another host for this bacterium. Further investigations are needed to determine the impact of this bacterium on wildlife.

  7. Bartonella spp. Bacteremia in Blood Donors from Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  8. Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Bartonella Species Using a Single-Step PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Wayne A.; Fall, Majilinde Z.; Rooney, Jane; Kordick, Dorsey L.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2000-01-01

    Five species of Bartonella have been reported to infect humans and cause a variety of diseases that can be difficult to diagnose. Four species of Bartonella have been reported to infect cats and dogs, and two of these species are considered to be zoonotic pathogens. Diagnosis of Bartonella infections is hampered by the slow, fastidious growth characteristics of Bartonella species. We report on the development of a single-step PCR-based assay for the detection and differentiation of medically relevant Bartonella species. PCR-mediated amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region resulted in a product of a unique size for each Bartonella species, thereby allowing differentiation without the necessity of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or sequencing of the amplified product. The ability of the single-step PCR assay to differentiate between Bartonella species was determined with characterized isolates and blood samples from animals known to be infected with either Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae, or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The sensitivity of the single-step PCR assay relative to that of in vitro culture was determined with blood samples from B. henselae-infected cats. B. henselae target DNA was amplified from 100% of samples with greater than 50 CFU/ml and 80% of samples with 10 to 30 CFU/ml. The single-step assay described in the report expedites PCR-based detection and differentiation of medically relevant Bartonella species. PMID:10790087

  9. Exposure and Risk Factors to Coxiella burnetii, Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among Volunteer Blood Donors in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Noden, Bruce H.; Tshavuka, Filippus I.; van der Colf, Berta E.; Chipare, Israel; Wilkinson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia) are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG) in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8%) had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1?16), and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1?100) for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P<0.021). Donors with occupations involving animals (P>0.012), especially cattle (P>0.006), were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013) and typhus (P<0.011) group rickettsiae. Three (2.9%) samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms. PMID:25259959

  10. Bartonella spp.: throwing light on uncommon human infections.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Patrick O; Riess, Tanja; O'Rourke, Fiona; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    After 2 decades of Bartonella research, knowledge on transmission and pathology of these bacteria is still limited. Bartonella spp. have emerged to be important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. For humans, B. henselae is considered to represent the most relevant zoonotic Bartonella species and is responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and other disorders. Over the years, many Bartonella species have been isolated from humans, cats, dogs, and other mammals, and infections range from an asymptomatic state (e.g., animal-specific species) to even life-threatening diseases (e.g., Oroya fever). It is obvious that the analysis of pathogenicity mechanisms underlying Bartonella infections is needed to increase our understanding of how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts resulting in acute or chronic diseases. PMID:20833105

  11. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Bartonellae from Wild Rats (Rattus Species) in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Sun Tee; Mokhtar, Aida Syafinaz; Zain, Siti Nursheena Mohd; Low, Kiat Cheong

    2014-01-01

    This study describes our investigation on the prevalence and molecular identification of bartonellae from Rattus diardii and R. norvegicus in the urban areas of Malaysia. Of 95 rats investigated, Bartonella tribocorum, B. rattimassiliensis, B. coopersplainsensis, B. elizabethae, and B. queenslandensis were isolated from kidney and spleen homogenates of four rats. Bartonellae DNA was amplified from the rat organ tissues by using primers specific for the bartonellae RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene in nine other rats. Sequence analysis of the rpoB gene fragments shows the identification of B. queenslandensis in five rats, B. elizabethae in three rats, and B. tribocorum in one rat. Combining the results of isolation and molecular detection of bartonellae, we found that the prevalence of Bartonella infection in the Rattus spp. investigated in this study was 13.7%. Implementation of effective rat control program in the urban areas is necessary to prevent the spillover of bartonellosis from rats to humans. PMID:24732465

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Bartonella ancashensis Strain 20.00, Isolated from the Blood of a Patient with Verruga Peruana

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Jun; Clifford, Robert J.; Onmus-Leone, Fatma; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguiña, Ciro; Lesho, Emil P.; Jarman, Richard G.; Richards, Allen L.; Blazes, David

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the complete genome sequence of Bartonella ancashensis strain 20.00, isolated from the blood of a Peruvian patient with verruga peruana, known as Carrion’s disease. Bartonella ancashensis is a Gram-negative bacillus, phylogenetically most similar to Bartonella bacilliformis, the causative agent of Oroya fever and verruga peruana. PMID:26543106

  13. Life-threatening angioedema of the tongue: the detection of the RNA of B henselae in the saliva of a male patient and his dog as well as of the DNA of three Bartonella species in the blood of the patient.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Non-hereditary angioedema is a common disease with a prevalence between 5% and 19% and approximately half of the patients experience a swelling of the tongue. We report a case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man with a gross life-threatening angioedema of the tongue, whose attacks occurred every 4 weeks. The most frequent causes of angioedema were excluded. We detected DNA and RNA from Bartonella henselae in the blood and saliva of the patient and in the saliva of the patient's hunting dog. Treatment with azithromycin plus minocycline cleared the blood and saliva of RNA and DNA of Bartonella species, and the patient has been free from angioedema for 1 year. None of the therapy modalities used to treat the hereditary form or ACE or allergy-induced angioedema affect the detrimental course caused by Bartonella species. We therefore suggest that a molecular Bartonella test be included in the analysis of angioedema. PMID:24654245

  14. Inter- and intraspecies identification of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) species.

    PubMed

    Roux, V; Raoult, D

    1995-06-01

    Species of the genus Rochalimaea, recently renamed Bartonella, are of a growing medical interest. Bartonella quintana was reported as the cause of trench fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been implicated in symptoms and infections of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, such as fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis, and is involved in the etiology of cat scratch disease. Such a wide spectrum of infections makes it necessary to obtain an intraspecies identification tool in order to perform epidemiological studies. B. vinsonii, B. elizabethae, seven isolates of B. quintana, and four isolates of B. henselae were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after restriction with the infrequently cutting endonucleases NotI, EagI, and SmaI. Specific profiles were obtained for each of the four Bartonella species. Comparison of genomic fingerprints of isolates of the same species showed polymorphism in DNA restriction patterns, and a specific profile was obtained for each isolate. A phylogenetic analysis of the B. quintana isolates was obtained by using the Dice coefficient, UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages), and Package Philip programming. Amplification by PCR and subsequent sequencing using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer (Pharmacia) was performed on the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between the 16 and 23S rRNA genes. It was found that each B. henselae isolate had a specific sequence, while the B. quintana isolates fell into only two groups. When endonuclease restriction analysis of the ITS PCR product was done, three enzymes, TaqI, HindIII, and HaeIII, allowed species identification of Bartonella spp. Restriction fragment length polymorphism after PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS may be useful for rapid species identification, and PFGE could be an efficient method for isolate identification. PMID:7650189

  15. The Trw type IV secretion system of Bartonella mediates host-specific adhesion to erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Le Rhun, Danielle; Deng, Hong Kuan; Biville, Francis; Cescau, Sandra; Danchin, Antoine; Marignac, Geneviève; Lenaour, Evelyne; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Mavris, Maria; Arnaud, Lionel; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jing; Quebatte, Maxime; Engel, Philipp; Saenz, Henri; Dehio, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals. PMID:20548954

  16. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts. PMID:21557057

  17. Bartonella Infection among Cats Adopted from a San Francisco Shelter, Revisited.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Drew A; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Scarlet, Jennifer; Liu, Hongwei; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia; Pedersen, Niels C

    2015-09-01

    Bartonella infection among cats from shelters can pose a health risk to adopters. Bartonella henselae is the most common species, with B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae being less common. The lower rates of infection by the latter species may reflect their rarity or an inefficiency of culture techniques. To assess the incidence of infection, blood cultures, serology, and PCR testing were performed on 193 kittens (6 to 17 weeks old) and 158 young adult cats (5 to 12 months old) from a modern regional shelter. Classical B. henselae culture medium was compared to a medium supplemented with insect cell growth factors. Bartonella colonies were isolated from 115 (32.8%) animals, including 50 (25.9%) kittens and 65 (41.1%) young adults. Therefore, young adults were twice as likely to be culture positive as kittens. Enhanced culture methods did not improve either the isolation rate or species profile. B. henselae was isolated from 40 kittens and 55 young adults, while B. clarridgeiae was cultured from 10 animals in each group. B. koehlerae was detected in one young adult by PCR only. B. henselae genotype II was more commonly isolated from young adults, and genotype I was more frequently isolated from kittens. Kittens were 4.7 times more likely to have a very high bacterial load than young adults. A significantly higher incidence of bacteremia in the fall and winter than in the spring and summer was observed. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 10% (19/193) of kittens and 46.2% (73/158) of young adults, with culture-positive kittens being 9.4 times more likely to be seronegative than young adults. PMID:26162871

  18. Characterization of Bartonella strains isolated from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Martin, Andrew; Ray, Chris; Sheff, Kelly; Chalcraft, Linda; Collinge, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    Thirty bartonella strains were isolated from the blood of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from Boulder County, Colorado, USA. The bacteria appeared as small, fastidious, aerobic, Gram-negative rods. The partial sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) demonstrated five unique genetic variants. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of gltA, 16S rRNA, rpoB, ftsZ, and ribC showed that the black-tailed prairie dog-related Bartonella variants comprise a distinct monophyletic clade that is closely related to Bartonella washoensis, a species isolated from a human patient and subsequently from ground squirrels. These variants, however, are grouped together in 100% of the bootstrapped trees. These variants were not found in other small mammals trapped during the same study, showing some evidence of host specificity. We believe that the group being described here is typical of the black-tailed prairie dog. We propose to name the bacteria Candidatus Bartonella washoensis subsp. cynomysii. The type strain is CL8606co(T)(=ATCC BAA-1342(T) = CCUG 53213(T)), which is the representative isolate of the dominant variant of the characterized group. PMID:18237261

  19. The prevalence of Bartonella, hemoplasma, and Rickettsia felis infections in domestic cats and in cat fleas in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Kamrani, Ali; Parreira, Valeria R; Greenwood, Janice; Prescott, John F

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of persistent bacteremic Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma infections was determined in healthy pet cats in Ontario. Blood samples from healthy cats sent to a diagnostic laboratory for routine health assessment over the course of 1 y were tested for Bartonella spp. using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and blood culture, and for the presence of hemoplasma by PCR. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp. by PCR and by culture combined was 4.3% (28/646) [3.7% (24/646) Bartonella henselae, 0.6% (4/646) Bartonella clarridgeiae]. The novel B. henselae PCR developed for this study demonstrated nearly twice the sensitivity of bacterial isolation. The overall prevalence of hemoplasma was 4% (30/742) [3.3% (25/742) Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 0.7% (5/742) Mycoplasma haemofelis]. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of infection by season or by age (< or = 2 y, > 2 y). Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis was identified, for the first time in Canada, in 1 cat. The prevalence of Bartonella (58%) and hemoplasma (47% M. haemofelis, 13% M. haemominutum) in blood from a small sampling (n = 45) of stray cats was considerably higher than that found in healthy pet cats. The prevalence of Rickettsia felis in cat fleas was also assessed. A pool of fleas from each of 50 flea-infested cats was analyzed for the presence of R. felis by PCR. Rickettsia felis was confirmed, for the first time in Canada, in 9 of the 50 samples. Therefore, the prevalence of Bartonella and hemoplasma infection in healthy pet cats is relatively low. Further, the control of cat fleas is important because of the public health significance of Bartonella and R. felis infection. PMID:19086373

  20. Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (P<0.001). While Bartonella infection was also detected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California. PMID:24629902

  1. Characterization of the Genome Composition of Bartonella koehlerae by Microarray Comparative Genomic Hybridization Profiling†

    PubMed Central

    Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Mira, Alex; Repsilber, Dirk; Vinnere, Olga; Näslund, Kristina; Dehio, Michaela; Dehio, Christoph; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is present in a wide range of wild and domestic feline hosts and causes cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis in humans. We have estimated here the gene content of Bartonella koehlerae, a novel species isolated from cats that was recently identified as an agent of human endocarditis. The investigation was accomplished by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to a microarray constructed from the sequenced 1.93-Mb genome of B. henselae. Control hybridizations of labeled DNA from the human pathogen Bartonella quintana with a reduced genome of 1.58 Mb were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the array for genes with known levels of sequence divergence. Genome size estimates of B. koehlerae by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis matched that calculated by the CGH, indicating a genome of 1.7 to 1.8 Mb with few unique genes. As in B. quintana, sequences in the prophage and the genomic islands were reported absent in B. koehlerae. In addition, sequence variability was recorded in the chromosome II-like region, where B. koehlerae showed an intermediate retention pattern of both coding and noncoding sequences. Although most of the genes missing in B. koehlerae are also absent from B. quintana, its phylogenetic placement near B. henselae suggests independent deletion events, indicating that host specificity is not solely attributed to genes in the genomic islands. Rather, the results underscore the instability of the genomic islands even within bacterial populations adapted to the same host-vector system, as in the case of B. henselae and B. koehlerae. PMID:16109957

  2. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans. PMID:26363063

  3. Paleomicrobiology of Bartonella infections.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Studying ancient infectious diseases is a challenge, as written contemporary descriptions, when available, are often imprecise and do not allow for accurate discrimination among the pathogens endemic at that time. Paleomicrobiology offers a unique access to the history of these infections by identifying precisely the causative agents. Body louse-transmitted infections are amongst the most epidemic diseases in history, especially in war and famine periods. Of these, Bartonella quintana was detected by suicide PCR in 4000-year-old human remains, thus representing the oldest evidence to date of an arthropod-transmitted infection to human beings. This species has also been detected in human specimens from the 11th to 15th, 18th and 19th centuries. In addition, Bartonella henselae, a cat- and flea-associated pathogen, was detected in cat specimens from the 13th to 18th centuries, therefore demonstrating an association of the bacterium and its reservoir for over 800 years. Therefore, pathogenic Bartonella species have been involved in several outbreaks in the past millennia and should systematically be investigated in human remains from suspected epidemics. PMID:26369716

  4. Cat Scratch Disease Caused by Bartonella grahamii in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Oksi, Jarmo; Rantala, Sari; Kilpinen, Sanna; Silvennoinen, Raija; Vornanen, Martine; Veikkolainen, Ville; Eerola, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella grahamii colonizes rodents worldwide and has been detected in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Here, the first human B. grahamii infection confirmed by multilocus sequence typing is reported. The route of transmission and clinical picture of the patient are similar to those seen in patients with cat scratch disease, which is typically diagnosed as a Bartonella henselae infection. PMID:23740723

  5. Bartonella Adhesin A Mediates a Proangiogenic Host Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Tanja; Andersson, Siv G.E.; Lupas, Andrei; Schaller, Martin; Schäfer, Andrea; Kyme, Pierre; Martin, Jörg; Wälzlein, Joo-Hee; Ehehalt, Urs; Lindroos, Hillevi; Schirle, Markus; Nordheim, Alfred; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Kempf, Volkhard A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Bartonella henselae causes vasculoproliferative disorders in humans. We identified a nonfimbrial adhesin of B. henselae designated as Bartonella adhesin A (BadA). BadA is a 340-kD outer membrane protein encoded by the 9.3-kb badA gene. It has a modular structure and contains domains homologous to the Yersinia enterocolitica nonfimbrial adhesin (Yersinia adhesin A). Expression of BadA was restored in a BadA-deficient transposon mutant by complementation in trans. BadA mediates the binding of B. henselae to extracellular matrix proteins and to endothelial cells, possibly via ?1 integrins, but prevents phagocytosis. Expression of BadA is crucial for activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in host cells by B. henselae and secretion of proangiogenic cytokines (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor). BadA is immunodominant in B. henselae–infected patients and rodents, indicating that it is expressed during Bartonella infections. Our results suggest that BadA, the largest characterized bacterial protein thus far, is a major pathogenicity factor of B. henselae with a potential role in the induction of vasculoproliferative disorders. PMID:15534369

  6. Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55-31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

  7. Culture-negative endocarditis: contribution of bartonella infections.

    PubMed Central

    Breathnach, A. S.; Hoare, J. M.; Eykyn, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Two cases of bartonella endocarditis are described: one in a 55 year old homeless alcoholic man, caused by Bartonella quintana; the other in a 41 year old male with a history of exposure to cat fleas, caused by B henselae. Serological testing and polymerase chain reaction of the excised valves were used to identify the organisms. False positive serology for chlamydia was detected in one case. PMID:9196420

  8. Bartonella spp. Bacteremia and Rheumatic Symptoms in Patients from Lyme Disease–endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Mozayeni, B. Robert; Pultorak, Elizabeth L.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Bradley, Julie M.; Correa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. Among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae, B. koehlerae, or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and Bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. Conditions diagnosed before referral included Lyme disease (46.6%), arthralgia/arthritis (20.6%), chronic fatigue (19.6%), and fibromyalgia (6.1%). B. henselae bacteremia was significantly associated with prior referral to a neurologist, most often for blurred vision, subcortical neurologic deficits, or numbness in the extremities, whereas B. koehlerae bacteremia was associated with examination by an infectious disease physician. This cross-sectional study cannot establish a causal link between Bartonella spp. infection and the high frequency of neurologic symptoms, myalgia, joint pain, or progressive arthropathy in this population; however, the contribution of Bartonella spp. infection, if any, to these symptoms should be systematically investigated. PMID:22516098

  9. Prevalence of Bartonella species, hemoplasmas, and Rickettsia felis DNA in blood and fleas of cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Assarasakorn, S; Veir, J K; Hawley, J R; Brewer, M M; Morris, A K; Hill, A E; Lappin, M R

    2012-12-01

    Flea infestations are common in Thailand, but little is known about the flea-borne infections. Fifty flea pools and 153 blood samples were collected from client-owned cats between June and August 2009 from veterinary hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. Total DNA was extracted from all samples, and then assessed by conventional PCR assays. The prevalence rates of Bartonella spp. in blood and flea samples were 17% and 32%, respectively, with DNA of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae being amplified most commonly. Bartonella koehlerae DNA was amplified for the first time in Thailand. Hemoplasma DNA was amplified from 23% and 34% of blood samples and flea pools, respectively, with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Mycoplasma haemofelis being detected most frequently. All samples were negative for Rickettsia felis. Prevalence rate of B. henselae DNA was increased 6.9 times in cats with flea infestation. Cats administered flea control products were 4.2 times less likely to be Bartonella-infected. PMID:22521739

  10. Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

    2015-02-01

    SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America. PMID:24892580

  11. Bartonella species in fleas from Palestinian territories: prevalence and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, A; Risheq, A; Harrus, S; Azmi, K; Ereqat, S; Baneth, G; Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Abdeen, Z

    2014-12-01

    Bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. The prevalence and genetic characteristics of Bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from Palestinian territories are described. Flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern Palestinian territories (n=11). The prevalent flea species were: Ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), Ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and Xenopsylla sp. (n=7/289; 2.4%). Targeting the Intergenic Transcribed Spacer (ITS) locus, DNA of Bartonella was detected in 22% (64/289) of all fleas. Fifty percent of the C. felis and 57% of the Xenopsylla sp. contained Bartonella DNA. DNA sequencing showed the presence of Bartonella clarridgeiae (50%), Bartonella henselae (27%), and Bartonella koehlerae (3%) in C. felis. Xenopsylla sp. collected from Rattus rattus rats were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae. Phylogenetic sequence analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene obtained four genetic clusters, B. henselae and B. koehlerae as subcluster 1, B. clarridgeiae as cluster 2, while the rat Bartonella species (B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae) were an outgroup cluster. These findings showed the important role of cat and rat fleas as vectors of zoonotic Bartonella species in Palestinian territories. It is hoped that this publication will raise awareness among physicians, veterinarians, and other health workers of the high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas in Palestinian territories and the potential risk of these pathogens to humans and animals in this region. PMID:25424254

  12. The first reported case of Bartonella endocarditis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pachirat, Orathai; Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Prathani, Sompop; Puapairoj, Anucha; Zeidner, Nordin; Peruski, Leonard F; Baggett, Henry; Watt, George; Maloney, Susan A

    2011-03-01

    Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques. PMID:24470907

  13. Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii Associated with Community-Acquired, Culture-Negative Endocarditis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Mansur, Alfredo Jose; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana; Colombo, Silvia; do Nascimento, Elvira Mendes; Paddock, Christopher D.; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Grinberg, Max; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejao

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated culture-negative, community-acquired endocarditis by using indirect immunofluorescent assays and molecular analyses for Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii and found a prevalence of 19.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Our findings reinforce the need to study these organisms in patients with culture-negative, community-acquired endocarditis, especially B. henselae in cat owners. PMID:26197233

  14. Prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species in Spanish cats and their fleas.

    PubMed

    Gracia, María Jesús; Marcén, José Miguel; Pinal, Rocio; Calvete, Carlos; Rodes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis, and Rickettsia typhi in fleas and companion cats (serum and claws) and to assess their presence as a function of host, host habitat, and level of parasitism. Eighty-nine serum and claw samples and 90 flea pools were collected. Cat sera were assayed by IFA for Bartonella henselae and Rickettssia species IgG antibodies. Conventional PCRs were performed on DNA extracted from nails and fleas collected from cats. A large portion (55.8%) of the feline population sampled was exposed to at least one of the three tested vector-borne pathogens. Seroreactivity to B. henselae was found in 50% of the feline studied population, and to R. felis in 16.3%. R. typhi antibodies were not found in any cat. No Bartonella sp. DNA was amplified from the claws. Flea samples from 41 cats (46%) showed molecular evidence for at least one pathogen; our study demonstrated a prevalence rate of 43.3 % of Rickettsia sp and 4.4% of Bartonella sp. in the studied flea population. None of the risk factors studied (cat's features, host habitat, and level of parasitation) was associated with either the serology or the PCR results for Bartonella sp. and Rickettsia sp.. Flea-associated infectious agents are common in cats and fleas and support the recommendation that stringent flea control should be maintained on cats. PMID:26611956

  15. Molecular Detection of Bartonella Species in Fleas Collected from Dogs and Cats from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Norman; Troyo, Adriana; Castillo, Daniela; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial genus Bartonella includes several species with zoonotic potential, some of which are common in domestic dogs and cats, as well as in their fleas. Because there is no previous information about the presence of Bartonella species in fleas from Central America, this study aimed at evaluating the presence of Bartonella spp. in fleas collected from dogs and cats in Costa Rica. A total 72 pools of Ctenocephalides felis and 21 pools of Pulex simulans were screened by conventional PCR to detect Bartonella DNA fragments of the citrate synthase (gltA) and the ? subunit RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. Three (4.2%) pools of C. felis and five pools (22.7%) of P. simulans were found positive for Bartonella DNA. Sequences corresponding to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii strain Winnie, B. rochalimae, and an undescribed Bartonella sp. (clone BR10) were detected in flea pools from dogs, whereas Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae sequences were identified in flea pools from cats. The detection of zoonotic Bartonella spp. in this study should increase the awareness to these flea-borne diseases among physicians and public health workers and highlight the importance of flea control in the region. PMID:26393956

  16. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

  17. A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

  18. Identification of Bartonella-Specific Immunodominant Antigens Recognized by the Feline Humoral Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, R. L.; Scholl, D. T.; Rohde, K. R.; Shelton, L. J.; O’Reilly, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    The seroreactivities of both naturally and experimentally infected cats to Bartonella henselae was examined. Serum samples collected weekly from nine cats experimentally infected with B. henselae LSU16 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. The magnitude and isotype of the antibody response were investigated by ELISA. Western blot analysis allowed the identification of at least 24 Bartonella-specific antigens recognized by the cats during infection. Antibody titers to specific antigens, as determined by Western blot analysis, ranged from 10 to 640 and varied among the different antibody-antigen interactions. Absorption of sera from an experimentally infected cat, using whole cells and cell lysates of various Bartonella species and other bacteria that commonly colonize cats, supported the identification of those Bartonella-specific antigens recognized by the experimentally infected cats. Furthermore, a number of possible species- and type-specific antigens were identified. Finally, sera obtained from cats at local animal shelters were screened for the presence of antibodies directed against the Bartonella-specific bands identified in the experimentally infected cats. A number of Bartonella-specific antigens have been identified to which strong antibody responses are generated in both experimentally and naturally infected cats, some of which may be useful in diagnosing species- and/or type-specific infections. In addition, the results from these experiments will lead to the development of monoclonal antibodies targeted against those genus-, species-, and type-specific antigens. PMID:10391863

  19. Seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in HIV patients in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Immaculada; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Nogueras, María Mercedes; Sala, Montserrat; Cervantes, Manuel; Amengual, M José; Segura, Ferran

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the first clinical descriptions of Bartonella infection were associated with immunocompromised patient with bacillary angiomatosis, we currently know that this organism is directly involved in diseases affecting a large number of patients, regardless of their immune status. Cat scratch disease, hepatic peliosis, and some cases of bacteraemia and endocarditis, are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella. The purpose of this study was to determinate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana in HIV patients and to identify the epidemiological factors involved. Methods Serum samples were collected from HIV patients treated at Hospital de Sabadell. Antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana from 340 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Significance levels for univariate statistical test were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test and ?2 test. Results Of 340 patients, 82 were women and 258 men, with a median age of 42.21 ± 10.35 years (range 16–86 years). Seventy-six (22.3%) patients reacted with one or more Bartonella antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, intravenous drugs use, alcohol consumption, CD4 levels, AIDS, HCV, HBV, residential area), only age was statistically significant. Conclusion A high percentage of HIV patients presents antibodies to Bartonella and is increasing with age. PMID:18452613

  20. Molecular Typing of “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” a New Human Pathogen Causing Verruga Peruana

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Kristin E.; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguiña, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G.; Blazes, David L.

    2013-01-01

    A recently described clinical isolate, “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty. PMID:23985925

  1. Infective endocarditis due to Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii: experience at a cardiology hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Strabelli, Tânia Mara; Zeigler, Rogério; Rodrigues, Cristhieni; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Grinberg, Max; Colombo, Silvia; da Silva, Luiz Jacintho; Mendes do Nascimento, Elvira Maria; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana Cristina; Uip, David Everson

    2006-10-01

    Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii are recognized as causative agents of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) in humans and there are no studies of their occurrences in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to investigate Bartonella spp. and C. burnetii as a causative agent of culture-negative endocarditis patients at a cardiology hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. From January 2004 to December 2004 patients with a diagnosis of endocarditis at our Institute were identified and recorded prospectively. They were considered to have possible or definite endocarditis according to the modified Duke criteria. Those with blood culture-negative were tested serologically using the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) for Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and C. burnetii. IFA-IgG titers >800 for Bartonella spp. and C. burnetii were considered positive. A total of 61 patients with endocarditis diagnosis were evaluated, 17 (27%) were culture-negative. Two have had IgG titer greater than 800 (>/=3,200) against Bartonella spp. and one against C. burnetii (phase I and II>/=6,400). Those with Bartonella-induced endocarditis had a fatal disease. Necropsy showed calcifications and extensive destruction of the valve tissue, which is diffusely infiltrated with mononuclear inflammatory cells predominantly by foamy macrophages. The patient with C. burnetii endocarditis received specific antibiotic therapy. Reports of infective endocartitis due to Bartonella spp. and C. burnetii in Brazil reveal the importance of investigating the infectious agents in culture-negative endocarditis. PMID:17114712

  2. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  3. Detection of Bartonella Species in the Blood of Veterinarians and Veterinary Technicians: A Newly Recognized Occupational Hazard?

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Ferguson, Brandy; Varkey, Jay; Park, Lawrence P.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bartonella species are important emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. In the context of their daily activities, veterinary professionals have frequent animal contact and arthropod exposures. Detection of Bartonella spp. using traditional culture methods has been limited by poor sensitivity, making it difficult to determine the prevalence of infection in this population. We have developed a detection method combining enrichment culture and molecular amplification, which increases testing sensitivity. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of detectable Bartonella spp. in the blood of veterinary personnel and nonveterinary control subjects. Bartonella was detected by enrichment blood culture with conventional PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Results were correlated with epidemiological variables and symptoms. Results: We detected DNA from at least one Bartonella species in 32 (28%) of the 114 veterinary subjects. After DNA sequencing, the Bartonella species could be determined for 27 of the 32 infected subjects, including B. henselae in 15 (56%), B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in seven (26%), B. koehlerae in six (22%), and a B. volans–like sequence in one (4%). Seventy percent of Bartonella-positive subjects described headache compared with 40% of uninfected veterinarians (p=0.009). Irritability was also reported more commonly by infected subjects (68% vs. 43%, p=0.04). Conclusions: Our study supports an emerging body of evidence that cryptic Bartonella bloodstream infection may be more frequent in humans than previously recognized and may induce symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the natural course and clinical features of Bartonella infection. PMID:25072986

  4. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella species and haemoplasma infection in cats in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lobetti, Remo; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Vector-borne agents and Toxoplasma gondii are common in cats, with many being zoonotic. The current study investigated the prevalence of selected infectious agents in cats from Johannesburg, South Africa, for which no published data exists. Whole blood and sera were obtained from 102 cats with a variety of disease conditions. Total DNA was extracted from the blood and assayed using PCR techniques for Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus M haemominutum, Candidatus M turicensis, Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species and Anaplasma species. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies to T gondii and IgG serum antibodies to Bartonella species. Associations between test results, patient characteristics and haematological values were also evaluated. Overall, 56 cats (55%) were positive in one or more of the assays. Haemoplasma DNA was amplified from 26 cats [M haemofelis: four cats (3.9%); Candidatus M haemominutum from 22 cats (21.6%)] and Bartonella species DNA was amplified from eight cats [Bartonella henselae: five cats (4.9%); Bartonella clarridgeieae: three cats (2.9%)]; DNA of Ehrlichia species or Anaplasma species were not amplified. Of the cats, 24 (23.5%) were seropositive for Bartonella IgG and 18 (17.6%) were positive for T gondii IgM (12 cats), IgG (eight cats), or both (two cats). The study concluded that Bartonella species haemoplasmas and T gondii are common in client-owned cats in the region and the diagnosis of feline vector-borne agents and T gondii is difficult without the use of specific diagnostic tests, as there are minimal patient characteristics or haematological changes that indicate infection. PMID:22729571

  5. Molecular identification of Bartonella quintana infection using species-specific real-time PCR targeting transcriptional regulatory protein (bqtR) gene.

    PubMed

    Liberto, Maria Carla; Lamberti, Angelo G; Marascio, Nadia; Matera, Giovanni; Quirino, Angela; Barreca, Giorgio S; Baudi, Francesco; Focà, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    We describe a SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR targeting Bartonella quintana transcriptional regulatory protein (bqtR) gene, recently found as invariant gene among different B. quintana strains. Melting curve analysis allowed us to discriminate between B. quintana and Bartonella henselae amplified products. We also show its usefulness in the management of a blood culture-negative patient affected by enlarged cervical lymphonodes and long-lasting fever. B. quintana DNA detection in patient whole blood samples and blood culture bottles was confirmed by sequencing and analyzing amplified products. PMID:21816218

  6. [Prevalence of haemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats in Berlin/Brandenburg (Northeast Germany)].

    PubMed

    Morgenthal, Dinah; Hamel, Dietmar; Arndt, Gisela; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Kohn, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Mycoplasma (M.) haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) turicensis, C M. haemominutum, Bartonella spp. (B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana) and Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum in cats in Northeast Germany in relation to their living conditions (indoor/outdoor/ stray cat), and tick/flea exposure. 265 cats were included in the study (150 indoor, 99 outdoor access, 16 stray cats). A questionnaire provided the following data: derivation, housing environment, and previous flea/tick exposure. Serum antibody titers against A. phagocytophilum, B. henselae, and B. quintana were determined by an immunofluorescence test (IFT). PCR tests (EDTA blood) were used to test for A. phagocytophilum, M. haemofelis, C. M. turicensis, C. M. haemominutum, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. In 19 of 265 cats (7.2%) DNA of one or more Mycoplasma spp. was detected: C M. haemominutum (5.3%), M. haemofelis (1.5%) and C M. turicensis (1.1%); three of the cats were tested positive for the feline immunodeficiency virus. All cats were B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae PCR-negative in peripheral blood. However, 91 of 245 cats (37.1%) had antibody titers > 1:200 for B. henselae (Houston I, Marseille type) and 46 (18.8%) for B. quintana. Antibody titers > 1:64 against A. phagocytophilum were detected in 24 cats (9.1%); one cat (0.4%) was PCR-positive. Since infections with haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and also with arthropodborne organisms (Bartonella spp., A. phagocytophilum) occur in cats from the area Berlin/Brandenburg (Germany) an appropriate arthropod-control is recommended. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relevance of these infectious agents for the individual cat. PMID:23045805

  7. The Distribution and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Rodents and Their Ectoparasites across Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Klangthong, Kewalin; Promsthaporn, Sommai; Leepitakrat, Surachai; Schuster, Anthony L.; McCardle, Patrick W.; Kosoy, Michael; Takhampunya, Ratree

    2015-01-01

    Our study highlights the surveillance of Bartonella species among rodents and their associated ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, lice, and mites) in several regions across Thailand. A total of 619 rodents and 554 pooled ectoparasites (287 mite pools, 62 flea pools, 35 louse pools, and 170 tick pools) were collected from 8 provinces within 4 regions of Thailand. Bandicota indica (279), Rattus rattus (163), and R. exulans (96) were the most prevalent species of rats collected in this study. Real-time PCR assay targeting Bartonella-specific ssrA gene was used for screening and each positive sample was confirmed by PCR using nuoG gene. The prevalence of Bartonella DNA in rodent (around 17%) was recorded in all regions. The highest prevalence of Bartonella species was found in B. savilei and R. rattus with the rate of 35.7% (5/14) and 32.5% (53/163), respectively. High prevalence of Bartonella-positive rodent was also found in B. indica (15.1%, 42/279), and R. norvegicus (12.5%, 5/40). In contrast, the prevalence of Bartonella species in ectoparasites collected from the rats varied significantly according to types of ectoparasites. A high prevalence of Bartonella DNA was found in louse pools (Polyplax spp. and Hoplopleura spp., 57.1%) and flea pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, 25.8%), while a low prevalence was found in pools of mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and Ascoschoengastia spp., 1.7%) and ticks (Haemaphysalis spp., 3.5%). Prevalence of Bartonella DNA in ectoparasites collected from Bartonella-positive rodents (19.4%) was significantly higher comparing to ectoparasites from Bartonella-negative rodents (8.7%). The phylogenetic analysis of 41 gltA sequences of 16 Bartonella isolates from rodent blood and 25 Bartonella-positive ectoparasites revealed a wide range of diversity among Bartonella species with a majority of sequences (61.0%) belonging to Bartonella elizabethae complex (11 rodents, 1 mite pool, and 5 louse pools), while the remaining sequences were identical to B. phoceensis (17.1%, 1 mite pool, 5 louse pools, and 1 tick pool), B. coopersplainensis (19.5%, 5 rodents, 1 louse pool, and 2 tick pools), and one previously unidentified Bartonella species (2.4%, 1 louse pool). PMID:26484537

  8. Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Cully, J.F.; Bala, T.; Ray, C.; Collinge, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  9. Bartonella Species in Bats (Chiroptera) and Bat Flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0–45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25229701

  10. Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) as Natural Reservoir of Bartonella quintana

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yoshino, Aika; Sekine, Wataru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Tamate, Hidetoshi B.; Yamazaki, Shouki; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella quintana bacteremia was detected in 6 (13.3%) of 45 wild-caught Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed that Japanese macaques were infected with a new and specific B. quintana sequence type. Free-ranging Japanese macaques thus represent another natural reservoir of B. quintana. PMID:26584238

  11. Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) as Natural Reservoir of Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yoshino, Aika; Sekine, Wataru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Yamazaki, Shouki; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-12-01

    Bartonella quintana bacteremia was detected in 6 (13.3%) of 45 wild-caught Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed that Japanese macaques were infected with a new and specific B. quintana sequence type. Free-ranging Japanese macaques thus represent another natural reservoir of B. quintana. PMID:26584238

  12. High Prevalence and Genetic Heterogeneity of Rodent-Borne Bartonella Species on Heixiazi Island, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Mei; Hou, Yong; Song, Xiu-Ping; Fu, Ying-Qun; Li, Gui-Chang; Li, Ming; Eremeeva, Marina E; Wu, Hai-Xia; Pang, Bo; Yue, Yu-Juan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Liang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2015-12-01

    We performed genetic analysis of Bartonella isolates from rodent populations from Heixiazi Island in northeast China. Animals were captured at four sites representing grassland and brushwood habitats in 2011 and examined for the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species, their relationship to their hosts, and geographic distribution. A high prevalence (57.7%) and a high diversity (14 unique genotypes which belonged to 8 clades) of Bartonella spp. were detected from 71 rodents comprising 5 species and 4 genera from 3 rodent families. Forty-one Bartonella isolates were recovered and identified, including B. taylorii, B. japonica, B. coopersplainsensis, B. grahamii, B. washoensis subsp. cynomysii, B. doshiae, and two novel Bartonella species, by sequencing of four genes (gltA, the 16S rRNA gene, ftsZ, and rpoB). The isolates of B. taylorii and B. grahamii were the most prevalent and exhibited genetic difference from isolates identified elsewhere. Several isolates clustered with strains from Japan and far-eastern Russia; strains isolated from the same host typically were found within the same cluster. Species descriptions are provided for Bartonella heixiaziensis sp. nov. and B. fuyuanensis sp. nov. PMID:26362983

  13. New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

    2002-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites. PMID:12558350

  14. Molecular Detection of Candidatus Bartonella hemsundetiensis in Bats.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Thomas M; Veikkolainen, Ville; Pulliainen, Arto T

    2015-11-01

    Although bats have been implicated as reservoir hosts for a number of zoonotic and life-threatening viruses, the bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain elusive. However, members of the vector-borne bacterial genera Bartonella causing various human as well as animal diseases have recently been isolated or detected from bats and their ectoparasites. In this study, we sampled 124 insectivorous microbats (Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii) for peripheral blood in southwestern Finland in 2010. A Bartonella-specific PCR targeting rpoB (RNA polymerase ?-subunit) was positive with blood samples from 46 bats (prevalence 37%). Scaled mass indexes of the infected and noninfected bats did not differ (p?=?0.057). One rpoB sequence was identical with the rpoB sequence of B. naantaliensis strain 2574/1, previously isolated from bats in Finland. The rest of the sequences were highly similar to each other with nucleotide identity scores of 96% or higher. Nucleotide identity scores to the previously described type strain sequences of Bartonella or other database entries were no higher than 87%. Sequence analyses of another gene, gltA (citrate synthase), gave no higher than 90% nucleotide identity scores. On the basis of the conventional 95% sequence similarity cutoff in bacterial species delineation, a novel species of Bartonella was detected. We propose a species name Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis. Phylogenetic analyses based on rpoB and gltA sequences indicate that Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis clusters in a deep-branching position close to the ancestral species B. tamiae and B. bacilliformis. Our study reinforces the importance of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella. PMID:26501463

  15. Bartonella quintana in Ethiopian lice.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Sally; Abdissa, Alemseged; Adamu, Haileeysus; Tolosa, Tadele; Gashaw, Abebaw

    2012-01-01

    Head and clothing lice from Jimma, Ethiopia were investigated for pathogenic bacteria. Genomic DNA from pools of lice was subjected to PCR analysis for Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp. Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp. and Yersinia pestis. All 102 lice pools were negative for the afore mentioned pathogens, with the exception of Bartonella species found among 6 of 65 (9.2%) head lice pools and1 of 33 clothing lice pools. Identification was achieved by sequencing the ribosomal intragenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), revealing all to be Bartonella quintana. Although established as a clothing louse-borne infection, typically causing chronic bacteraemia, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis and endocarditis, this has only been rarely reported among head lice. The higher numbers of infected head lice pools compared with clothing lice suggests their competence for maintaining this infection within Ethiopia. PMID:22019400

  16. Prevalence and diversity of small mammal-associated Bartonella species in rural and urban Kenya.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Jo E B; Knobel, Darryn L; Agwanda, Bernard; Bai, Ying; Breiman, Robert F; Cleaveland, Sarah; Njenga, M Kariuki; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species are human pathogens but little is known about their epidemiology. We trapped rodents and shrews around human habitations at two sites in Kenya (rural Asembo and urban Kibera) to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection. Bartonella were detected by culture in five of seven host species. In Kibera, 60% of Rattus rattus were positive, as compared to 13% in Asembo. Bartonella were also detected in C. olivieri (7%), Lemniscomys striatus (50%), Mastomys natalensis (43%) and R. norvegicus (50%). Partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of isolates showed that Kibera strains were similar to reference isolates from Rattus trapped in Asia, America, and Europe, but that most strains from Asembo were less similar. Host species and trapping location were associated with differences in infection status but there was no evidence of associations between host age or sex and infection status. Acute febrile illness occurs at high incidence in both Asembo and Kibera but the etiology of many of these illnesses is unknown. Bartonella similar to known human pathogens were detected in small mammals at both sites and investigation of the ecological determinants of host infection status and of the public health significance of Bartonella infections at these locations is warranted. PMID:25781015

  17. Prevalence of Bartonella species, haemoplasma species, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Neorickettsia risticii DNA in the blood of cats and their fleas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Michael R; Griffin, Brenda; Brunt, Jane; Riley, Allen; Burney, Derek; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa M; Jensen, Wayne A

    2006-04-01

    Ctenocephalides felis were killed and collected from 92 cats in Alabama, Maryland, and Texas. The fleas and blood from the corresponding cat were digested and assessed in polymerase chain reaction assays that amplify DNA of Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neorickettsia risticii, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus M haemominutum' and Bartonella species. DNA consistent with B henselae, B clarridgeiae, M haemofelis, or 'Candidatus M haemominutum' was commonly amplified from cats (60.9%) and their fleas (65.2%). Results of this study support the recommendation to maintain flea control on cats in endemic areas. PMID:16290092

  18. Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi; André, Marcos Rogério; Seki, Meire Christina; Pinto, Aramis Augusto; Machado, Saulo de Tarso Zacarias; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2012-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5%) cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2%) for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3%) were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4%) were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2%) showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats. PMID:23070430

  19. Bartonella chomelii Is the Most Frequent Species Infecting Cattle Grazing in Communal Mountain Pastures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Antequera-Gómez, M. L.; Lozano-Almendral, L.; Barandika, J. F.; González-Martín-Niño, R. M.; Rodríguez-Moreno, I.; García-Pérez, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

  20. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals. PMID:26344603

  1. A translocated effector required for Bartonella dissemination from derma to blood safeguards migratory host cells from damage by co-translocated effectors.

    PubMed

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

  2. A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

  3. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. Bed Bugs Detects Burkholderia multivorans but Not Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, Virna L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L.; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S–23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector. PMID:24040015

  4. Bartonella quintana Characteristics and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Bartonella quintana, a pathogen that is restricted to human hosts and louse vectors, was first characterized as the agent of trench fever. The disease was described in 1915 on the basis of natural and experimental infections in soldiers. It is now recognized as a reemerging pathogen among homeless populations in cities in the United States and Europe and is responsible for a wide spectrum of conditions, including chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Diagnosis is based on serologic analysis, culture, and molecular biology. Recent characterization of its genome allowed the development of modern diagnosis and typing methods. Guidelines for the treatment of B. quintana infections are presented. PMID:16494745

  5. Bartonella quintana Variably Expressed Outer Membrane Proteins Mediate Vascular?Endothelial?Growth?Factor?Secretion?but?Not?Host?Cell?Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Berit; Linke, Dirk; Klumpp, Sandra; Schaller, Martin; Riess, Tanja; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Bartonella quintana causes trench fever, endocarditis, and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Little is known about the interaction of this pathogen with host cells. We attempted to elucidate the interaction of B. quintana with human macrophages (THP-1) and epithelial cells (HeLa 229). Remarkably, only B. quintana strain JK-31 induced secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from THP-1 and HeLa 229 cells upon infection similar to the secretion induced by B. henselae Marseille, whereas other strains (B. quintana 2-D70, B. quintana Toulouse, and B. quintana Munich) did not induce such secretion. Immunofluorescence testing and electron microscopy revealed that the B. quintana strains unable to induce VEGF secretion did not express the variable outer membrane proteins (Vomps) on their surfaces. Surprisingly, the increase in VEGF secretion mediated by B. quintana JK-31 was not paralleled by elevated host cell adherence rates compared with the rates for Vomp-negative B. quintana strains. Our results suggest that the Vomps play a leading role in the angiogenic reprogramming of host cells by B. quintana but not in the adherence to host cells. PMID:16926391

  6. Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease. PMID:22232371

  7. Effects of Bartonella spp. on Flea Feeding and Reproductive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Fielden, Laura J.; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathogens are transmitted from one host to another by hematophagous insect vectors. The interactions between a vector-borne organism and its vector vary in many ways, most of which are yet to be explored and identified. These interactions may play a role in the dynamics of the infection cycle. One way to evaluate these interactions is by studying the effects of the tested organism on the vector. In this study, we tested the effects of infection with Bartonella species on fitness-related variables of fleas by using Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and Meriones crassus jirds as a model system. Feeding parameters, including blood meal size and metabolic rate during digestion, as well as reproductive parameters, including fecundity, fertility, and life span, were compared between fleas experimentally infected with Bartonella and uninfected fleas. In addition, the developmental time, sex ratio, and body size of F1 offspring fleas were compared between the two groups. Most tested parameters did not differ between infected and uninfected fleas. However, F1 males produced by Bartonella-positive females were significantly smaller than F1 males produced by Bartonella-negative female fleas. The findings in this study suggest that bartonellae are well adapted to their flea vectors, and by minimally affecting their fitness they have evolved to better spread themselves in the natural environment. PMID:23542614

  8. Zoonotic Bartonella species in cardiac valves of healthy coyotes, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Spencer P; Chomel, Bruno B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kasten, Rickie W; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Sacks, Benjamin N; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-12-01

    We investigated whether Bartonella spp. could cause endocarditis in coyotes or localize to cardiac valves before lesions develop. Bartonella DNA was amplified more often from coyote cardiac valves than spleen. Bartonella infection apparently leads to cardiac valve tropism, which could cause endocarditis, an often lethal complication in mammals, including humans. PMID:25418213

  9. Transmission Dynamics of Bartonella sp. Strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's Jirds (Meriones crassus)

    PubMed Central

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors. PMID:23241972

  10. “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque” and Bartonella quintana Bacteremia in Cynomolgus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M.; Kelly, Catherine M.; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism. PMID:23408694

  11. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque" and Bartonella quintana bacteremia in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M; Kelly, Catherine M; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism. PMID:23408694

  12. Rickettsia and Bartonella species in fleas from Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

  13. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Infection in Domestic Dogs from Algeria, North Africa, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    PubMed Central

    Kernif, Tahar; Aissi, Meriem; Doumandji, Salah-Eddine; Chomel, Bruno B.; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir

    2010-01-01

    Bartonella species are being recognized as important bacterial human and canine pathogens, and are associated with multiple arthropod vectors. Bartonella DNA extracted from blood samples was obtained from domestic dogs in Algiers, Algeria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analyses of the ftsZ gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ITS) were performed. Three Bartonella species: Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonells elizabethae were detected infecting Algerian dogs. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of detection by PCR amplification of Bartonella in dogs in North Africa. PMID:20682871

  14. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul Virus, and Bartonella spp. Among Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Urban Slum Environment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health. PMID:24359425

  15. Temporal and spatial patterns of Bartonella infection in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, M Y; Ray, C; Brinkerhoff, R J; Collinge, S K

    2008-08-01

    We describe the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of Bartonella in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) based on a longitudinal study conducted in 20 black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD) colonies in Boulder County, CO from 2003 to 2005. Bartonella infection was widely distributed in all colonies with an overall prevalence of 23.1%, but varied by colony from 4.8% to 42.5% and by year from 9.1 to 39.0%, with a marked increase in Bartonella activity in 2005. Levels of bacteremia varied from 40 to 12,000 colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter of BTPD blood, but were highly skewed with a median of 240 CFU. Bartonella infection rates were unimodal with respect to BTPD body mass, first increasing among growing juveniles, then declining among adults. Infection rates exhibited a sigmoidal response to body mass, such that 700g may prove to be a useful threshold value to evaluate the likelihood of Bartonella infection in BTPDs. Bartonella prevalence increased throughout the testing season for each year, as newly emerged juveniles developed bacteremia. Data from recaptured animals suggest that Bartonella infections did not persist in individual BTPDs, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of Bartonella in BTPDs compared to other rodent species. No association was found between Bartonella prevalence and host population density. Prevalence did not differ between males and females. The spatio-temporal pattern of Bartonella infection among colonies suggests epizootic spread from northern to central and southern portions of the study area. The potential significance of the BTPD-associated Bartonella for public health needs to be further investigated. PMID:18176820

  16. Identification of Bartonella Trw host-specific receptor on erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hon Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Bonnet, Sarah; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Each Bartonella species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir hosts, in which it establishes long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia as the hallmark of infection. Recently, we identified Trw as the bacterial system involved in recognition of erythrocytes according to their animal origin. The T4SS Trw is characterized by a multiprotein complex that spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and possesses a hypothetical pilus structure. TrwJ, I, H and trwL are present in variable copy numbers in different species and the multiple copies of trwL and trwJ in the Bartonella trw locus are considered to encode variant forms of surface-exposed pilus components. We therefore aimed to identify which of the candidate Trw pilus components were located on the bacterial surface and involved in adhesion to erythrocytes, together with their erythrocytic receptor. Using different technologies (electron microscopy, phage display, invasion inhibition assay, far western blot), we found that only TrwJ1 and TrwJ2 were expressed and localized at the cell surface of B. birtlesii and had the ability to bind to mouse erythrocytes, and that their receptor was band3, one of the major outer-membrane glycoproteins of erythrocytes, (anion exchanger). According to these results, we propose that the interaction between TrwJ1, TrwJ2 and band 3 leads to the critical host-specific adherence of Bartonella to its host cells, erythrocytes. PMID:22848496

  17. Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Collinge, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

  18. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

  19. Multispacer typing technique for sequence-based typing of Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Foucault, C; La Scola, B; Lindroos, H; Andersson, S G E; Raoult, D

    2005-01-01

    Bartonella quintana is a worldwide fastidious bacterium of the Alphaproteobacteria responsible for bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever, chronic lymphadenopathy, and culture-negative endocarditis. The recent genome sequencing of a B. quintana isolate allowed us to propose a genome-wide sequence-based typing method. To ensure sequence discrimination based on highly polymorphic areas, we amplified and sequenced 34 spacers in a large collection of B. quintana isolates. Six of these exhibited polymorphisms and allowed the characterization of 4 genotypes. However, the strain variants suggested by the noncoding sequences did not correlate with the results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which suggested a higher degree of variability. Modification of the PFGE profile of one isolate after nine subcultures confirmed that rearrangement frequencies are high in this species, making PFGE unreliable for epidemiological purposes. The low extent of sequence heterogeneity in the species suggests a recent emergence of this bacterium as a human pathogen. Direct typing of natural samples allowed the identification of a fifth genotype in the DNA extracted from a human body louse collected in Burundi. We have named the typing technique herein described multispacer typing. PMID:15634949

  20. Do Bartonella Infections Cause Agitation, Panic Disorder, and Treatment-Resistant Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, James L.; Burkland, Glenn A.; Langhoff, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Bartonella is an emerging infection found in cities, suburbs, and rural locations. Routine national labs offer testing for only 2 species, but at least 9 have been discovered as human infections within the last 15 years. Some authors discuss Bartonella cases having atypical presentations, with serious morbidity considered uncharacteristic of more routine Bartonella infections. Some atypical findings include distortion of vision, abdominal pain, severe liver and spleen tissue abnormalities, thrombocytopenic purpura, bone infection, arthritis, abscesses, heart tissue and heart valve problems. While some articles discuss Bartonella as a cause of neurologic illnesses, psychiatric illnesses have received limited attention. Case reports usually do not focus on psychiatric symptoms and typically only as incidental comorbid findings. In this article, we discuss patients exhibiting new-onset agitation, panic attacks, and treatment-resistant depression, all of which may be attributed to Bartonella. Methods Three patients receiving care in an outpatient clinical setting developed acute onset personality changes and agitation, depression, and panic attacks. They were retrospectively examined for evidence of Bartonella infections. The medical and psychiatric treatment progress of each patient was tracked until both were significantly resolved and the Bartonella was cured. Results The patients generally seemed to require higher dosing of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics in order to function normally. Doses were reduced following antibiotic treatment and as the presumed signs of Bartonella infection remitted. All patients improved significantly following treatment and returned to their previously healthy or near-normal baseline mental health status. Discussion New Bartonella species are emerging as human infections. Most do not have antibody or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic testing at this time. Manual differential examinations are of unknown utility, due to many factors such as low numbers of infected red blood cells, the small size of the infecting bacteria, uncertainty of current techniques in viewing such small bacteria, and limited experience. As an emerging infection, it is unknown whether Bartonella occurrence in humans worldwide is rare or common, without further information from epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, and treatment outcomes research. Conclusion Three patients presented with acute psychiatric disorders associated with Bartonella-like signs and symptoms. Each had clear exposure to ticks or fleas and presented with physical symptoms consistent with Bartonella, eg, an enlarged lymph node near an Ixodes tick bite and bacillary angiomatosis found only in Bartonella infections. Laboratory findings and the overall general course of the illnesses seemed consistent with Bartonella infection. The authors are not reporting that these patients offer certain proof of Bartonella infection, but we hope to raise the possibility that patients infected with Bartonella can have a variety of mental health symptoms. Since Bartonella can clearly cause neurologic disorders, we feel the presence of psychiatric disorders is a reasonable expectation. PMID:18092060

  1. High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

  2. Bartonella species and trombiculid mites of rats from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012-March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7-19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini-Blankaartia and Schoengastiini-Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.-positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.-negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.-positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.-negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human-rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human cases of Bartonella infection that may arise. PMID:25629779

  3. Bartonella Species and Trombiculid Mites of Rats from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012–March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7–19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini–Blankaartia and Schoengastiini–Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.–positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.–negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68–43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.–positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.–negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human—rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human cases of Bartonella infection that may arise. PMID:25629779

  4. Bartonella spp. Exposure in Northern and Southern Sea Otters in Alaska and California

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62–269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

  5. Proteins of Bartonella bacilliformis: Candidates for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Ventosilla, Palmira; Minnick, Michael F.; Ruiz, Joaquim; Maguiña, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrión's disease or Oroya fever. B. bacilliformis infection represents an interesting model of human host specificity. The notable differences in clinical presentations of Carrión's disease suggest complex adaptations by the bacterium to the human host, with the overall objectives of persistence, maintenance of a reservoir state for vectorial transmission, and immune evasion. These events include a multitude of biochemical and genetic mechanisms involving both bacterial and host proteins. This review focuses on proteins involved in interactions between B. bacilliformis and the human host. Some of them (e.g., flagellin, Brps, IalB, FtsZ, Hbp/Pap31, and other outer membrane proteins) are potential protein antigen candidates for a synthetic vaccine. PMID:26413097

  6. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil. PMID:26344604

  7. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in neotropical primates from Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Letícia; Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in nonhuman primates (NHP). The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of and assess the phylogenetic position of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma species infecting neotropical NHP from Brazilian Amazon. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 98 blood samples from NHP belonging to the Family Cebidae were collected in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, of which 87 NHP were from Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) in the municipality of São Luís, and 11 (9 Sapajus sp. and 2 Saimiri sciureus) were from NHP caught in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve. DNA samples were screened by previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. based on nuoG, gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Purified amplicons were submitted to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Bacteremia with one or more Bartonella spp. was not detected in NHP. Conversely, 35 NHP were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The Blastn analysis of seven positive randomly selected sequencing products showed percentage of identity ranging from 95% to 99% with other primates hemoplasmas. The Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on a 1510bp of 16S rRNA gene showed the presence of two distinct clusters, positioned within Mycoplasma haemofelis and Mycoplasma suis groups. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the presence of a novel hemoplasma species in NHP from the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:26577193

  8. Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana DNA in the dental pulp of a homeless patient.

    PubMed

    Aboudharam, G; Fournier, P-E; Drancourt, M; Raoult, D; Foucault, C; Brouqui, P

    2004-12-01

    Dental pulp has been proposed as a suitable tissue sample for the identification of pathogenic organisms. Using PCR with two specific gene targets, Bartonella quintana DNA was detected in the dental pulp extracted from the tooth of a homeless patient. The patient had been bacteremic 6 months previously but was not when the tooth was sampled. PMID:15558347

  9. Update and Commentary on Four Emerging Tick-Borne Infections: Ehrlichia muris-like Agent, Borrelia miyamotoi, Deer Tick Virus, Heartland Virus, and Whether Ticks Play a Role in Transmission of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Wormser, Gary P; Pritt, Bobbi

    2015-06-01

    Emerging tick-borne infections continue to be observed in the United States and elsewhere. Current information on the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment of infections due to Ehrlichia muris-like agent, deer tick virus, Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato, and Heartland virus was provided and critically reviewed. More research is needed to define the incidence and to understand the clinical and the laboratory features of these infections. There is also a growing need for the development of sensitive and specific serologic and molecular assays for these infections that are easily accessible to clinicians. PMID:25999230

  10. Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Virna Lisa

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) has created an unprecedented demand for research on its biology. The main objectives of this dissertation research were to investigate several aspects of bed bug biology: infestation and dispersal dynamics at a large and small geographical scale using molecular markers, to determine the impact of aggregation on bed bug development and to screen bed bug populations for a re-emergent pathogen. First, we studied the infestation and dispersal dynamics of bed bugs at large geographical scale (e.g., across cities, states). Although bed bug infestations are on the rise, there is a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. We conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States. We genotyped samples comprised of 8 - 10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5 -- 17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3), we found low genetic diversity (1 -- 4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise FST between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of structuring. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. This work is described in Chapter 2 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Second, we investigated dispersal and infestation dynamics of bed bugs at a fine geographical scale within three multistory apartment buildings: one from Raleigh, NC and two from Jersey City, NJ. Here we describe the development of 24 high resolution microsatellite markers and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread throughout the building. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by extensive spread. Populations within single apartments in all buildings showed low levels of genetic diversity suggesting that few individuals are starting these infestations, possibly a singly mated female or her progeny. This work is described in Chapter 3 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Third, we studied the impact of aggregation in bed bug development. Although it is well known that bed bugs live in aggregations, the adaptive benefits of this behavior are not well understood. In this study, we reared first instars either in isolation or in groups of five from hatching to adult eclosion and recorded their development time. Additionally, we investigated the effects of group-housing on same age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition (nymphs vs. adults). Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation. This work is described in Chapter 4. Fourth, we investigated the prevalence of a re-emergent bacterial pathogen in United States bed bugs populations. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the United States, and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgence of these two medically important species are linked by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs colle

  11. Serological survey of Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Leptospira spp., Echinococcus, Hanta-, TBE- and XMR-virus infection in employees of two forestry enterprises in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Jurke, Annette; Bannert, N; Brehm, K; Fingerle, V; Kempf, V A J; Kömpf, D; Lunemann, M; Mayer-Scholl, A; Niedrig, M; Nöckler, K; Scholz, H; Splettstoesser, W; Tappe, D; Fischer, Silke F

    2015-10-01

    We initiated a survey to collect basic data on the frequency and regional distribution of various zoonoses in 722 employees of forestry enterprises in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) from 2011 to 2013. Exposures associated with seropositivity were identified to give insight into the possible risk factors for infection with each pathogen. 41.2% of participants were found to be seropositive for anti-Bartonella IgG, 30.6% for anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG, 14.2% for anti-Leptospira IgG, 6.5% for anti-Coxiella burnetii IgG, 6.0% for anti-Hantavirus IgG, 4.0% for anti-Francisella tularensis IgG, 3.4% for anti-TBE-virus IgG, 1.7% for anti-Echinococcus IgG, 0.0% for anti-Brucella IgG and anti-XMRV IgG. Participants seropositive for B. burgdorferi were 3.96 times more likely to be professional forestry workers (univariable analysis: OR 3.96; 95% CI 2.60-6.04; p<0.001); and participants seropositive for Hantavirus 3.72 times more likely (univariable analysis: OR 3.72; 95% CI 1.44-9.57; p=0.007). This study found a surprisingly high percentage of participants seropositive for anti-B. henselae IgG and for anti-F. tularensis IgG. The relatively high seroprevalence for anti-Leptospira IgG seen in this study could be related to living conditions rather than to exposure at work. No specific risk for exposure to C. burnetii and Echinococcus was identified, indicating that neither forestry workers nor office workers represent a risk population and that NRW is not a typical endemic area. Forestry workers appear to have higher risk for contact with B. burgdorferi-infected ticks and a regionally diverse risk for acquiring Hantavirus-infection. The regional epidemiology of zoonoses is without question of great importance for public health. Knowledge of the regional risk factors facilitates the development of efficient prevention strategies and the implementation of such prevention measures in a sustainable manner. PMID:26422407

  12. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Methodology/Principal findings Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Conclusion Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high. PMID:25299702

  13. Evidence of Transfer by Conjugation of Type IV Secretion System Genes between Bartonella Species and Rhizobium radiobacter in Amoeba

    PubMed Central

    Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Background Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4T) circular plasmid (pNH4) that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. Principal Findings The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae) and plants (Rhizobiales). We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. Conclusions Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms. PMID:20856925

  14. A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors

    E-print Network

    Okujava, Rusudan

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, ...

  15. Bacterial tick-borne diseases caused by Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. among patients with cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Tomasz; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Fiecek, Beata; Rorot, Urszula; S?drowicz, El?bieta; Werenowska, Ma?gorzata; Kopacz, Dorota; Hevelke, Agata; Michniewicz, Magdalena; K?cik, Dariusz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanis?awa

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical data have shown that tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. can affect the central nervous system, including the eye. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between the incidence of cataract and evidence of bacterial infections transmitted by ticks. Material/Methods Fluid with lenticular masses from inside of the eye and blood from 109 patients were tested by PCR and sequencing. Sera from patients and the control group were subjected to serological tests to search specific antibodies to the bacteria. Results Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of Bartonella sp. DNA in intraoperative specimens from the eye in 1.8% of patients. Serological studies have shown that infections caused by B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. were detected in 34.8% and 4.6% of patients with cataract surgery, respectively. Conclusions Presence of DNA of yet uncultured and undescribed species of Bartonella in eye liquid indicates past infection with this pathogen. Specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. are detected more frequently in patients with cataract compared to the control group. This could indicate a possible role of these organisms in the pathological processes within the eyeball, leading to changes in the lens. Further studies are needed to identify Bartonella species, as well as to recognize the infectious mechanisms involved in cataract development. PMID:24902636

  16. Run-Off Replication of Host-Adaptability Genes Is Associated with Gene Transfer Agents in the Genome of Mouse-Infecting Bartonella grahamii

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Eva C.; Frank, A. Carolin; Calteau, Alexandra; Vinnere Pettersson, Olga; Granberg, Fredrik; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Näslund, Kristina; Holmberg, Martin; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2009-01-01

    The genus Bartonella comprises facultative intracellular bacteria adapted to mammals, including previously recognized and emerging human pathogens. We report the 2,341,328 bp genome sequence of Bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent Bartonella species in wild rodents. Comparative genomics revealed that rodent-associated Bartonella species have higher copy numbers of genes for putative host-adaptability factors than the related human-specific pathogens. Many of these gene clusters are located in a highly dynamic region of 461 kb. Using hybridization to a microarray designed for the B. grahamii genome, we observed a massive, putatively phage-derived run-off replication of this region. We also identified a novel gene transfer agent, which packages the bacterial genome, with an over-representation of the amplified DNA, in 14 kb pieces. This is the first observation associating the products of run-off replication with a gene transfer agent. Because of the high concentration of gene clusters for host-adaptation proteins in the amplified region, and since the genes encoding the gene transfer agent and the phage origin are well conserved in Bartonella, we hypothesize that these systems are driven by selection. We propose that the coupling of run-off replication with gene transfer agents promotes diversification and rapid spread of host-adaptability factors, facilitating host shifts in Bartonella. PMID:19578403

  17. L'endocardite à Bartonella en Tunisie: particularités lésionnelles et évolutives

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Rania; Abid, Dorra; Abid, Leila; Znazen, Abir; Hentati, Mourad; Hammami, Adnene; Kammoun, Samir

    2013-01-01

    L'endocardite à Bartonalla est une infection ubiquitaire, son diagnostic est difficile vu qu'il s'agit souvent d'endocardite à hémoculture négative. Le but de cette étude est d'analyser les particularités lésionnelles et évolutives de cette entité dans un pays du nord d'Afrique, la Tunisie et de démontrer la gravité de cette infection. Nous avons étudié rétrospectivement les dossiers médicaux de 20 patients atteints d'endocardite à Bartonella, confirmée selon les critères de Dukes modifiés. L’âge moyen de nos patients était 37 ans avec une prédominance masculine (SR=3). Tous nos malades avaient un niveau socio-économique bas. Le motif essentiel de consultation était la dyspnée, 6 patients étaient admis dans un tableau d'insuffisance cardiaque congestive. Une prédilection des lésions au niveau de la valve aortique a été notée (14 cas). Quatorze patients avaient des végétations endocarditiques avec une taille qui dépasse 10 mm chez 8 malades. La majorité des patients (18 patients) présentaient une régurgitation valvulaire massive en rapport principalement avec des mutilations importantes (6 cas de ruptures de cordages mitraux, 2 cas de déchirures des sigmoïdes aortiques, un cas de perforation valvulaire aortique, un cas de désinsertion de prothèse mitrale). Quinze malades (3/4) avaient nécessité une chirurgie à la phase active de la maladie, l'indication majeure était l'insuffisance cardiaque. Une complication neurologique était notée chez 2 malades et une complication rénale chez 3 malades. Treize patients étaient guéris, 5 malades étaient décédés et 2 malades opérés ont présenté une réinfection à staphylococcus aureus et à candida albicans en postopératoire. L'endocardite à Bartonella est une infection grave. Cette Bactérie possède un potentiel destructif important. Le recours à la chirurgie est quasi constant. La morbi-mortalité est élevée. La recherche de cette bactérie devrait être alors systématique chez nos malades suspects d'endocardite d'autant plus que la bartonellose est endémique sur nos terres. PMID:24570785

  18. Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in the blood of cats with anemia.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Anthony M; Radecki, Steve; Lappin, Michael R

    2007-02-01

    Hemoplasmas are known causes of anemia in some cats and some Bartonella species have been associated with anemia in people and in dogs. In this retrospective study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to determine the prevalence rates of Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus M haemominutum', A phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia species, and Bartonella species DNA in the blood of cats with anemia and a control group of healthy cats. DNA of the organisms was amplified from 22 of 89 cats with anemia (24.7%) and 20 of 87 healthy cats (23.0%). DNA of a hemoplasma was amplified from 18 of 89 cats with anemia (20.2%) and 13 of 87 healthy cats (14.9%); DNA of a Bartonella species was amplified from five of 89 cats with anemia (5.6%) and seven of 87 healthy cats (8.0%). There were no statistically significant differences detected between groups. PMID:16846745

  19. Serological survey in persons occupationally exposed to tick-borne pathogens in cases of co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and Babesia microti.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Moniuszko, Anna; ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Zwoli?ski, Jacek; Pi?tek, Jacek; Pancewicz, S?awomir

    2012-01-01

    Sera of 39 farmers, 119 foresters and 32 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, B. microti and Bartonella spp. Semi-quantitative indirect immunofluorescence test was used to measure titers of anti-A. phagocytophilum, B. microti and Bartonella spp. IgG. ELISA test was used to measure titers of anti-B. burgdorferi IgM and IgG. B. burgdorferi was the most frequently observed among all the examined pathogens. 27.7% of farmers, 23.1% of forestry workers and 37.5% of control group were infected with Bartonella spp. Anti-A. phagocytophilum and anti-B. microti reactions were observed rarely. Sera of persons with single infection dominated in farmers and forestry workers. Co-infection with 2 pathogens was observed more frequently in forestry workers and farmers than in the control group. Co-infections with 3-4 pathogens were observed only in forestry workers. Among the observed co-infections, the most frequent were: B. burgdorferi with Bartonella spp. and B. burgdorferi with A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, in forestry workers, triple coinfections with B. burgdorferi, Bartonella spp. and A. phagocytophilum and one quadruple coinfection were observed. Persons with occupational risk of tick bites, especially forestry workers, more often have anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies and are more often co-infected with various tick-borne pathogens than the persons from the control group. It seems that more often coinfections in persons with occupational risk of tick bites are a consequence of the higher incidence of infection with B. burgdorferi, as anti-B. microti, A. phagocytophilum and Bartonella spp. antibodies are not more commonly prevalent in persons with occupational risk of tick bites than in healthy volunteers. PMID:22742800

  20. A Case of Multi-vector and Multi-host Epidemiological Model: Bartonella Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Brettschneider, H.; Bastos, A. D. S.

    2010-11-01

    We consider a compartmental model for the Bartonella infection on rodents. More precisely, on the co-occurring populations of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus where the vectors are two species of ectoparasites, namely ticks and fleas. As usual for such models a key stage is the modelling of the forces of infection. While the vital dynamics and the progression of the infection within each of the four species are sufficiently well known to determine the rest of the transfer rates, there is practically no data on the probability of infection. In order to determine appropriate values for the coefficients of the forces of infection we solve an optimal control problem where the objective function is the norm of the difference between the observed and the predicted by the model equilibrium infection prevalence rates in the four species. Within this setting the conjecture that the higher prevalence of the infection in Rattus norvegicus can be explained solely by their higher ectoparasite load is tested and disproved.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  3. Comparison of the 'Ca Liberibacter asiaticus' genome adapted for an intracellular lifestyle with other members of the rhizobiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 52 clust...

  4. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diagnosed with bartonella henselae (cat-scratch disease) and lost vision in her left eye within a two week period. Do you know which treatments ... Name, City, State or Subspecialty > Free Newsletter Get eye MD- ...

  5. Conservation of gene order and content in the circular chromosomes of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' asiaticus and other rhizbiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intracellular plant pathogen ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ is a member of the Rhizobiales, as are the nitrogen fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the intracellular mammalian pathogen Bartonella henselae. Whole genome compar...

  6. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  7. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Ballweber, Lora R; Allen, Kelly; Little, Susan E; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs. PMID:25686301

  8. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

  9. An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species. PMID:25629777

  10. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Berenger, Jean Michel; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean Marc; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B. quintana bacterium from day one (D1) to D5; subsequently they were fed with pathogen-free human blood until the end of the experiment. Bed bugs and feces were collected in time series, to evaluate their capacities to acquire, multiply and expel viable B. quintana using molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and cultures assays. B. quintana was detected molecularly in 100% of randomly selected experimentally infected bed bug specimens (D3). The monitoring of B. quintana in bed bug feces showed that the bacterium was detectable starting on the 3rd day post-infection (pi) and persisted until day 18±1 pi. Although immunohistochemistry assays localized the bacteria to the gastrointestinal bed bug gut, the detection of B. quintana in the first and second instar larva stages suggested a vertical non-transovarial transmission of the bacterium. Conclusion The present work demonstrated for the first time that bed bugs can acquire, maintain for more than 2 weeks and release viable B. quintana organisms following a stercorarial shedding. We also observed the vertical transmission of the bacterium to their progeny. Although the biological role of bed bugs in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions has yet to be confirmed, the present work highlights the need to reconsider monitoring of these arthropods for the transmission of human pathogens. PMID:26000974

  11. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión's Disease.

    PubMed

    Battisti, James M; Lawyer, Phillip G; Minnick, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión's disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected tropical disease. PMID:26436553

  12. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis-Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:26392158

  13. Hemoplasma infection in HIV-positive patient, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Andrea Pires; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pires; Biondo, Alexander W; Dora, José M; Goldani, Luciano Z; de Oliveira, Simone Tostes; de Sá Guimarães, Ana Marcia; Timenetsky, Jorge; de Morais, Helio Autran; González, Félix H D; Messick, Joanne B

    2008-12-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas infect a variety of mammals. Although infection in humans is rarely reported, an association with an immunocompromised state has been suggested. We report a case of a Mycoplasma haemofelis-like infection in an HIV-positive patient co-infected with Bartonella henselae. PMID:19046522

  14. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Experimentally Infected Sand Flies by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) of the Pap31 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Atkins, Erin H.; Johnson, Richard N.; Grieco, John P.; Ching, Wei Mei; Chao, Chien Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background Carrion' disease, caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, remains truly neglected due to its focal geographical nature. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including asymptomatic bacteremia, and lack of a sensitive diagnostic test can potentially lead to a spread of the disease into non-endemic regions where competent sand fly vectors may be present. A reliable test capable of detecting B. bacilliformis is urgently needed. Our objective is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the pap31 gene to detect B. bacilliformis. Methods and Findings The sensitivity of the LAMP was evaluated in comparison to qPCR using plasmid DNA containing the target gene and genomic DNA in the absence and presence of human or sand fly DNA. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 to 10 copies/µL, depending on the sample metrics. No cross-reaction was observed when testing against a panel of various closely related bacteria. The utility of the LAMP was further compared to qPCR by the examination of 74 Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies artificially fed on blood spiked with B. bacilliformis and harvested at days (D) 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post feeding. Only 86% of sand flies at D1 and 63% of flies at D3 were positive by qPCR. LAMP was able to detect B. bacilliformis in all those flies confirmed positive by qPCR. However, none of the flies after D3 were positive by either LAMP or qPCR. In addition to demonstrating the sensitivity of the LAMP assay, these results suggest that B. bacilliformis cannot propagate in artificially fed L. longipalpis. Conclusions The LAMP assay is as sensitive as qPCR for the detection of B. bacilliformis and could be useful to support diagnosis of patients in low-resource settings and also to identify B. bacilliformis in the sand fly vector. PMID:25522230

  15. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Battisti, James M.; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Minnick, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión’s disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected tropical disease. PMID:26436553

  16. Isolated Aortitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... among others. In some cases, biologics like anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs such as infliximab or rituximab have been used. Isolated aortitis occurring with retroperitoneal fibrosis has been treated with tamoxifen, an anti- ...

  17. Ocular bartonellosis in transplant recipients: two case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, R A; Ray, M; Kasuga, D T; Kumar, V; Witherspoon, C D; Baddley, J W

    2015-10-01

    Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and usually manifests as localized lymphadenopathy and fever in immunocompetent patients. Immunocompromised patients are at risk for developing disseminated disease affecting the liver, spleen, eyes, central nervous system, and other organs. Bartonellosis is infrequently reported in solid organ transplant recipients, and published case reports usually discuss disseminated infection. Localized ocular disease with B. henselae, while well documented in immunocompetent hosts, is uncommon in immunocompromised patients. Herein, we present 2 cases of ocular bartonellosis in renal transplant patients, 1 with disseminated infection, and 1 without. PMID:26146758

  18. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - Isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes in which the person is unable to move or speak. ...

  19. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Pawe?; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; S?u?ewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  20. Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.

    PubMed

    Azzag, Naouelle; Petit, Elisabeth; Gandoin, Christelle; Bouillin, Corinne; Ghalmi, Farida; Haddad, Nadia; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2015-02-01

    Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indicates that 17.8% of the 213 analyzed dogs were positive for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma with a prevalence of 4.2% for E. canis, 14.1% for Anaplama platys and 0% for A. phagocytophilum. Seven (7.1%) of the tested dogs were positive for Bartonella spp. with two characterized as Bartonella rochalimae, four as B. henselae and one as B.v. subsp. berkhoffii. PMID:25638478

  1. Psychopathology of social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

  2. Module isolation devices

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  3. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  4. Evaluation of the bacterial microbiome of two flea species using different DNA-isolation techniques provides insights into flea host ecology.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Chong, Rowena; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Fleas (Siphonaptera) are ubiquitous blood-sucking pests of animals worldwide and are vectors of zoonotic bacteria such as Rickettsia and Bartonella. We performed Ion Torrent PGM amplicon sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to compare the microbiome of the ubiquitous cat flea (Ctenocephalides f. felis) and the host-specific echidna stickfast flea (Echidnophaga a. ambulans) and evaluated potential bias produced during common genomic DNA-isolation methods. We demonstrated significant differences in the bacterial community diversity between the two flea species but not between protocols combining surface sterilisation with whole flea homogenisation or exoskeleton retention. Both flea species were dominated by obligate intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia, and the echidna stickfast fleas possessed the endosymbiont Cardinium. Cat fleas that were not surface sterilised showed presence of Candidatus 'Rickettsia senegalensis' DNA, the first report of its presence in Australia. In the case of Rickettsia, we show that sequencing depth of 50 000 was required for comparable sensitivity with Rickettsia qPCR. Low-abundance bacterial genera are suggested to reflect host ecology. The deep-sequencing approach demonstrates feasibility of pathogen detection with simultaneous quantitative analysis and evaluation of the inter-relationship of microbes within vectors. PMID:26542076

  5. Wrentit Genetic Isolation Map

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This map of the Thousand Oaks, Calif. area visualizes the degree of genetic isolation being experienced by the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a small songbird. USGS and National Park Service biologists discovered that as urban development fragmented the Santa Monica Mountains scrubland into isolated

  6. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  7. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  8. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1994-01-01

    In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

  9. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  10. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  11. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  12. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  13. [Myelopeptides: isolation and structure].

    PubMed

    Fonina, L A; Gur'ianov, S A; Efremov, M A; Smirnova, O V

    1998-06-01

    A new method was developed for the isolation of biologically active peptides present in small quantities in supernatants of bone marrow cell cultures. Four new peptides, which exhibited immunostimulating and differentiating activities, were isolated from the supernatant using solid phase extraction and reversed-phase HPLC. For these peptides, the following primary structures were elucidated: Leu-Val-Cys-Tyr-Pro-Gln, Phe-Arg-Pro-Arg-Ile-Met-Thr-Pro, Val-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asp, and Val-Asp-Pro-Pro. PMID:9702349

  14. Biological Isolation Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  15. Isolation of Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl

    2015-08-01

    The isolation of nuclei is often the first step in studying processes such as nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling, subcellular localization of proteins, and protein-chromatin or nuclear protein-protein interactions in response to diverse stimuli. Therefore, rapidly obtaining nuclei from cells with relatively high purity and minimal subcellular contamination, protein degradation, or postharvesting modification is highly desirable. Historically, the isolation of nuclei involved a homogenization step followed by centrifugation through high-density glycerol or sucrose. Although clean nuclei with little cytoplasmic contamination can be prepared using this method, it is typically time consuming and can allow protein degradation, protein modification, and leaching of components from the nuclei to occur. We have developed a rapid and simple fractionation method that is based on the selective dissolution of the cytoplasmic membrane (but not the nuclear membrane) using a low concentration of a nonionic detergent and rapid centrifugation steps. Here we describe important considerations when isolating nuclei from cells, introduce our rapid method, and compare this method to a more traditional protocol for isolating nuclei, noting the strengths and limitations of each approach. PMID:26240413

  16. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

  17. Cat-scratch disease presenting as a solitary splenic abscess in an elderly man.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Momoko; Kurimoto, Mio; Kato, Takehiro; Kunieda, Takeshige

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), which is caused by Bartonella henselae, typically present with local lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. Most cases are self-limiting and usually afflict children and young adults. Although rare, CSD can lead to serious complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. These rare complications often require intensive treatment. We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with general malaise and a high fever. The physical examination findings were unremarkable. Of note, the lymph nodes were not enlarged. An abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast revealed a solitary splenic abscess and no lymphadenopathy. The initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective and a splenectomy was indicated. A history of contact with cats raised the possibility of CSD, which was confirmed by a positive serology test result for B henselae. Antibiotic treatment with azithromycin successfully treated the splenic abscess and splenectomy was avoided. PMID:25804947

  18. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  19. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  20. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  1. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  2. Confronting Racial Isolation in Miami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of research and public hearings on the development of racial isolation in Miami, Florida. Maintaining that Miami's black community is isolated from the city as a whole, and that the sense of black isolation and frustration precipitated the civil disturbances in Miami in May of 1980, the report examines the causes…

  3. Hepatosplenic Cat-Scratch Disease in Children and the Positive Contribution of 18F-FDG Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Karianne E; Doedens, Rienus A; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2015-09-01

    Two patients were referred to our hospital because of suspected malignancy. In patient 1, a 4-year-old boy, a F-FDG PET scan showed an enlarged liver with multiple FDG-positive nodular lesions. In patient 2, a 16-year-old boy, a FDG PET-(low-dose) CT showed an enlarged liver and spleen with multiple nodular lesions and a solitary hypodense nodule adjacent to the pancreatic head. The lesions were thought to originate from infectious disease or lymphoma. Polymeric chain reaction (PCR) on a liver biopsy was positive for Bartonella henselae. Both patients were treated with antibiotics and recovered completely. PMID:26164171

  4. Mycobacteria isolated from exotic animals.

    PubMed

    Thoen, C O; Richards, W D; Jarnagin, J L

    1977-05-01

    Mycobacteria were isolated from 263 of 474 specimens submitted from captive exotic (nondomesticated) animals over a 5-year period. Mycobacterium avium was isolated from 128 animals originating in 13 states and the District of Columbia; serotype 1 accounted for 65 of the isolations. Mycobacterium bovi was isolated from 74 animals in 7 zoos, 7 game parks, and 4 primate colonies in 1, states: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 29 animals originating 9 stats; and Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium spp. The widespread occurrence of tuberculosis in exotic animals maintained in captivity emphasizes the public health importance of these infections. PMID:406254

  5. High performance rotational vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

  6. Vector-borne pathogens in arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, from Canada.

    PubMed

    Mascarelli, Patricia E; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J; Alisauskas, Ray T; Walsh, Mary; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relatively low biodiversity within arctic ecosystems, arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, could serve as sentinels for the study of changes in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of 5 different genera of vector borne pathogens (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp.) using blood collected from 28 live-trapped arctic foxes from the region of Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. Bartonella henselae (n?=?3), Mycoplasma haemocanis (n?=?1), Ehrlichia canis (n?=?1), and an Anaplasma sp. (n?=?1) DNA were PCR amplified and subsequently identified by sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidence that vector borne pathogens, not typically associated with the arctic ecosystem, exist at low levels in this arctic fox population, and that vector exposure, pathogen transmission dynamics, and changes in the geographic distribution of pathogens over time should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25596149

  7. Impact of isolation on hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems scores: is isolation isolating?

    PubMed

    Vinski, Joan; Bertin, Mary; Sun, Zhiyuan; Gordon, Steven M; Bokar, Daniel; Merlino, James; Fraser, Thomas G

    2012-05-01

    The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey was used to measure the effect of isolation on patient satisfaction. Isolated patients reported lower scores for questions regarding physician communication and staff responsiveness. Overall scores for these domains were lower in isolated than in nonisolated patients. PMID:22476279

  8. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  9. Statistical comparison of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, K.; Newell, P. T.; Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    We present results from a superposed epoch analysis of the morphology and energy deposition of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms. The study is based on auroral data acquired by the global ultraviolet imager (GUVI) on board the TIMED satellite and a total number of 13717 geomagnetic bay onsets identified with magnetometer data from SuperMAG and published previously by Newell and Gjerloev [2011]. Here the isolated substorms are those having separation of two consecutive onsets no less than 3 hours. While the three phases substorm are clearly shown in both isolated and non-isolated substorms, there are noticeable differences between the two types of substorms: (1) In the growth phase, the nighttime auroral power slightly increases for both types of substorms; isolated (non-isolated) substorms are associated with smaller (greater) nighttime auroral power; (2) In the expansion phase, substorm energy release is greater and more explosive for isolated than non-isolated substorms; (3) The recovery phase period is longer for isolated than for non-isolated substorms; (4) The winter-to-summer auroral power ratio is approximately constant throughout the three substorm phases and the ratio is larger for isolated (30%) than for non-isolated (20%) substorms. We also found that the polar cap area increases during the growth phase until ~10 min prior to the magnetic substorm onset and decreases rapidly after onset. The decrease is associated with the closure of the nightside auroral oval associated with substorm expansion. We found most of these differences can be related to the differences in their solar wind driving. We will present the results in detail and make a conclusion.

  10. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Moukarbel, George V

    2016-01-01

    Endocarditis of only the pulmonary valve is a very rare finding and is often missed during echocardiographic evaluation due to limited views of the pulmonary valve and a low index of suspicion. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis (PVE), highlighting the importance of echocardiography in the assessment of the infected pulmonary valve. In addition, we review the published case reports of isolated PVE from 1979 to 2013 in order to study the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary valve masses. PMID:26501696

  11. A microgravity isolation mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. I.; Owens, A. R.; Owen, R. G.; Roberts, G.; Wyn-Roberts, D. W.; Robinson, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    The design and preliminary testing of a system for isolating microgravity sensitive payloads from spacecraft vibrational and impulsive disturbances is discussed. The Microgravity Isolation Mount (MGIM) concept consists of a platform which floats almost freely within a limited volume inside the spacecraft, but which is constrained to follow the spacecraft in the long term by means of very weak springs. The springs are realized magnetically and form part of a six degree of freedom active magnetic suspension system. The latter operates without any physical contact between the spacecraft and the platform itself. Power and data transfer is also performed by contactless means. Specifications are given for the expected level of input disturbances and the tolerable level of platform acceleration. The structural configuration of the mount is discussed and the design of the principal elements, i.e., actuators, sensors, control loops and power/data transfer devices are described. Finally, the construction of a hardware model that is being used to verify the predicted performance of the MGIM is described.

  12. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  13. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in cats from Arizona.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Jason M; Neal, Karter; Shackelford, Tom; Lappin, Michael R

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Bartonella species from feral and relinquished cats in Phoenix and Nogales, Arizona. DNA from one or more of the organisms was amplified from 31 of 112 blood samples (27.7%). DNA consistent with Bartonella clarridgeiae 15 (13.4%), Bartonella henselae 14 (12.5%), 'Candidatus M haemominutum' 9 (8.0%), and M haemofelis 5 (4.5%) were detected. DNA of Ehrlichia species, Neorickettsia risticii, or A phagocytophilum was not amplified. Failure to amplify DNA of A phagocytophilum may relate to the absence of appropriate tick vectors. Failure to amplify Ehrlichia species DNA suggests that cats were not exposed, exposed but not infected, or infected but the DNA was not detected by the PCR assay used in this study. The Bartonella species and hemoplasma results suggest flea control should be maintained. PMID:16443383

  14. Molecular detection of feline arthropod-borne pathogens in cats in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, central-western region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natasha Gandolfi; Gavioli, Fernando Antonio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2013-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas, Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT). Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4%) were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2%) for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (0.5%) for 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One cat (0.5%), a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis', based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7%) for B. henselae and one (0.5%) for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showed Cytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas and Bartonella species. PMID:24142170

  15. Statistical comparison of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Kan; Newell, Patrick T.; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Paxton, Larry J.

    2013-05-01

    The present study compares isolated and non-isolated substorms in terms of their global morphology and energy deposition. The analysis is based on a list of geomagnetic substorm onsets identified with magnetometer data from SuperMAG and published previously by Newell and Gjerlove (2011a). Isolated substorms are defined as those with separation of two consecutive onsets no less than 3 h. The auroral data are obtained from the global ultraviolet imager (GUVI) on board the TIMED satellite and are rebinned into typical magnetic latitude-magnetic local time maps. The auroral maps are then averaged in 1 min intervals to show the dynamic change of the aurora. The three phases of the substorm are clearly demonstrated in both isolated and non-isolated substorms. However, there are noticeable differences between the two types of substorms: (1) While the nighttime auroral power for both types of substorms slightly increases in the growth phase, isolated (non-isolated) substorms are associated with smaller (greater) nighttime auroral power. (2) In the expansion phase, isolated substorms are associated with greater and more explosive energy release than non-isolated substorms. (3) The time for the recovery phase is ~2 times longer for isolated than for non-isolated substorms. (4) The winter-to-summer auroral power ratio is approximately constant throughout the three substorm phases and the ratio is larger for isolated (~30%) than that for non-isolated (~10%) substorms. It is also found that the polar cap area increases during the growth phase until ~10 min prior to the magnetic substorm onset and decreases rapidly thereafter. The decrease is found to result from the closure of the nightside polar cap associated with substorm expansion. It is found that the observed differences between the two types of substorms simply reflect the differences in the solar wind and EUV drivers. Thus, we conclude that there is no intrinsic difference between isolated and non-isolated substorms in terms of auroral energy release and subsequent auroral power decay.

  16. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, Calvin J. (Los Alamos, NM); Dahlby, Joel W. (Los Alamos, NM); Gallimore, Bradford F. (Los Alamos, NM); Comer, Bob E. (Versailles, MO); Stone, Water A. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlson, David O. (Tesugue, NM)

    1993-01-01

    An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  17. The isolated perfused lung.

    PubMed Central

    Niemeier, R W

    1984-01-01

    The unique nonrespiratory functions of the lungs have become more apparent in recent years. The isolated perfused lung model offers many advantages over other methods for the study of pulmonary metabolism, xenobiotic disposition and the influence of interactions among agents of different physical forms. Detailed descriptions of the experimental preparation are elements in evaluating and comparing data from various sources but these are frequently neglected. A discussion and critique of the following elements are provided in this review in order to elucidate the typical problems one might encounter in evaluating data: perfusate type, perfusion method, construction materials, ventilation method, temperature control, surgical procedure, microbiological contamination and evaluation criteria of the preparation. Examples are given where the IPL method has been applied and suggestions are made for future research efforts. PMID:6383800

  18. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

    1993-04-27

    An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  19. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  20. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  1. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  2. Legionella dumoffii DjlA, a Member of the DnaJ Family, Is Required for Intracellular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Hiroko; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Takade, Akemi; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Harada, Mine; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Legionella dumoffii is one of the common causes of Legionnaires' disease and is capable of replicating in macrophages. To understand the mechanism of survival within macrophages, transposon mutagenesis was employed to isolate the genes necessary for intracellular growth. We identified four defective mutants after screening 790 transposon insertion mutants. Two transposon insertions were in genes homologous to icmB or dotC, within dot/icm loci, required for intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. The third was in a gene whose product is homologous to the 17-kDa antigen forming part of the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of Bartonella henselae. The fourth was in the djlA (for “dnaj-like A”) gene. DjlA is a member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 family. Transcomplementation of the djlA mutant restored the parental phenotype in J774 macrophages, A549 human alveolar epithelial cells, and the amoeba Acanthamoeba culbertsoni. Using confocal laser-scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we revealed that in contrast to the wild-type strain, L. dumoffii djlA mutant-containing phagosomes were unable to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that in contrast to the virulent parental strain, the djlA mutant was not able to recruit host cell rough endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the stationary-phase L. dumoffii djlA mutants were more susceptible to H2O2, high osmolarity, high temperature, and low pH than was their parental strain. These results indicate that DjlA is required for intracellular growth and organelle trafficking, as well as bacterial resistance to environmental stress. This is the first report demonstrating that a single DjlA-deficient mutant exhibits a distinct phenotype. PMID:15155669

  3. Dynamic characterisation of vibration isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, John Dennis

    A vibration isolator is designed to reduce the vibration and structure borne noise transmitted from a vibratory source, such as machinery and equipment, to the supporting structure. The vibration and structure borne noise transmitted depends upon the dynamic properties of the foundation, the source mounting point and the vibration isolator. Therefore knowledge of the frequency dependent dynamic properties of vibration isolators is a necessary part of the acoustic prediction and control/reduction process. Vibration isolators may be characterised by measuring their four-pole parameters. A measurement procedure is proposed that employs the floating mass method, measures the direct forces and corrects for the errors introduced by the direct force measurement. Compared to the basic method, it extends the frequency limits of measurement in both directions. The development of a novel vibration isolator test facility that implements the proposed measurement procedure is described, and its satisfactory operation is experimentally demonstrated. The vibration isolator test facility is capable of characterising vibration isolators commonly used in industrial and maritime applications, under service conditions. A method is proposed for measuring the four-pole parameters of a uni-directional asymmetrical vibration isolator under static load. The method is called the two masses method, and is suitable for determining the four- pole parameters of active vibration isolators with feedback control. The method is also applicable to uni- directional symmetrical, bi-directional symmetrical and bi-directional asymmetrical vibration isolators. It may be regarded as a universal method for characterising vibration isolators. Experimental data is presented and the method is validated. Modelling of vibration isolators is complicated by the highly non-linear nature of their rubber elements. The notion of an effective rubber cylinder is proposed to account for the barrelling of rubber elements under static load. Consequently, a general static compression model is proposed that applies to vibration isolators having unfilled and filled rubber elements of regular prismatic shapes. The model predicts the dependence of the four-pole parameters on the compression ratio of the rubber element. The predictions derived from the effective rubber cylinder and general static compression model agree excellently with experimental work of this study and other researchers.

  4. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Isolated growth hormone deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed February 2012 What is isolated growth hormone deficiency? Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition ...

  6. The radiologically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C

    2015-10-01

    Even prior to the introduction of criteria defining the radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), longitudinal clinical data from individuals with incidentally identified T2 lesions suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) were described. Healthy individuals who do not exhibit signs of neurological dysfunction may have a brain MRI performed for a reason other than suspicion of MS that reveals unexpected anomalies highly suggestive of demyelinating plaques given their size, location, and morphology. These healthy subjects lack a history or symptomatology suggestive of MS and fulfill formal criteria for RIS, a recently described MS subtype that shares the phenotype of at-risk individuals for future demyelinating events. A formal description of RIS was first introduced in 2009 by Okuda et al., and defines a cohort of individuals who are at risk for future demyelinating events. European or North American observational studies have found that up to 30-45% of patients presenting with RIS will present with neurological symptoms, either acute or progressive. The median time to clinical conversion differs between studies. It was 2.3 years for a series of French patients and 5.4 years for an American cohort. Most patients who developed clinical symptoms had prior radiological progression. The presence of asymptomatic lesions in the cervical cord indicated an increased risk of progression, either to relapsing or to progressive MS. The consortium studying the epidemiology of RIS worldwide (RISC) presented their first retrospective cohort last year. Data were available for 451 RIS subjects (F: 354 [78.5%]). The mean age at RIS diagnosis was 37.2 years with a mean clinical follow-up time of 4.4 years. The observed 5-year conversion rate to the first clinical event was 34%. Of the converters within this time period, 9.6% fulfilled criteria for primary progressive MS. In the multivariate model, age, sex (male), and lesions within the cervical or thoracic spinal cord were identified as significant predictors for the development of a first clinical event. Cognitive impairment is observed in RIS patients, and two studies demonstrated a significant proportion of patients with cognitive decline compared with healthy controls. Despite progress into the characterization of RIS subjects and into our understanding of risk factors for initial symptom development, the natural course of such cases and risk-profiles for a seminal neurological event, from prospectively acquired data, remain unclear. A prospective study is mandatory to increase our knowledge about these asymptomatic patients and individual therapeutic initiatives cannot be undertaken until a prospective clinical study demonstrates the benefit of introducing a disease modifying treatment for this very early stage of a chronic demyelinating disease. PMID:26410363

  7. GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

  8. Study of base isolation systems

    E-print Network

    Manarbek, Saruar

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to outline the relevant issues concerning the conceptual design of base isolated structures. A 90 feet high, 6 stories tall, moment steel frame structure with tension cross ...

  9. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  10. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola; Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 ; Fujioka, Hisashi; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  11. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems

    E-print Network

    Hilbert, Stefan

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations ...

  12. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  13. Isolated foveal hypoplasia without nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Witmer, Matthew T; Radcliffe, Nathan M; D'Amico, Donald J

    2014-08-01

    We report the case of a 23-year-old healthy Caucasian male with isolated foveal hypoplasia without nystagmus. Clinical examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated the bilateral absence of a foveal depression and the patient was diagnosed with isolated foveal hypoplasia. This is a rare condition which is probably under-diagnosed since it can exist without nystagmus and low vision. PMID:24442758

  14. Catalogues of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argudo-Fernández, M.; Verley, S.; Bergond, G.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Ramos Carmona, E.; Sabater, J.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Espada, D.; Sulentic, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Leon, S.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The construction of catalogues of galaxies and the a posteriori study of galaxy properties in relation to their environment have been hampered by scarce redshift information. The new 3-dimensional (3D) surveys permit small, faint, physically bound satellites to be distinguished from a background-projected galaxy population, giving a more comprehensive 3D picture of the surroundings. Aims: We aim to provide representative samples of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets for testing galaxy evolution and secular processes in low density regions of the local Universe, as well as to characterise their local and large-scale environments. Methods: We used spectroscopic data from the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR10) to automatically and homogeneously compile catalogues of 3702 isolated galaxies, 1240 isolated pairs, and 315 isolated triplets in the local Universe (z ? 0.080). To quantify the effects of their local and large-scale environments, we computed the projected density and the tidal strength for the brightest galaxy in each sample. Results: We find evidence of isolated pairs and isolated triplets that are physically bound at projected separations up to d ? 450 kpc with radial velocity difference ?? ? 160 km s-1, where the effect of the companion typically accounts for more than 98% of the total tidal strength affecting the central galaxy. For galaxies in the catalogues, we provide their positions, redshifts, and degrees of relation with their physical and large-scale environments. The catalogues are publicly available to the scientific community. Conclusions: For isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets, there is no difference in their degree of interaction with the large-scale structure (up to 5 Mpc), which may suggest that they have a common origin in their formation and evolution. We find that most of them belong to the outer parts of filaments, walls, and clusters, and generally differ from the void population of galaxies. Full Tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A110

  15. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  16. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  17. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical. PMID:19880707

  18. Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

  19. Fusarochromanone production by Fusarium isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, W D; Nelson, P E; Cook, M E; Smalley, E B

    1990-01-01

    Sixty two Fusarium isolates representing nine species from many parts of the world were screened for fusarochromanone production. A simplified method for the detection of fusarochromanone in culture filtrates or grain cultures was used. Under UV irradiation (364 nm) the chloroform phase from fusarochromanone-positive culture extracts fluoresced a characteristic bright blue color. Results were confirmed by thin-layer-chromatography comparison with pure fusarochromanone standards. Detection was possible in cultures as young as 1 week old. Biosynthesis of fusarochromanone was rare in Fusarium spp. and was only detected in three isolates of Fusarium equiseti, namely R-4482 (barley [Federal Republic of Germany]), R-6137 (barley [Alaska]), and R-8508 (potato [Denmark]), among all the isolates tested from various geographic sources. Images PMID:2285312

  20. Active nematocyst isolation via nudibranchs.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Ami; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable tools for biomedical research and drug development. They are contained within nematocysts, the stinging organelles of cnidarians. Several methods exist for the isolation of nematocysts from cnidarian tissues; most are tedious and target nematocysts from specific tissues. We have discovered that the isolated active nematocyst complement (cnidome) of several sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) species is readily accessible. These nematocysts are isolated, concentrated, and released to the aqueous environment as a by-product of aeolid nudibranch Spurilla neapolitana cultures. S. neapolitana feed on venomous sea anemones laden with stinging nematocysts. The ingested stinging organelles of several sea anemone species are effectively excreted in the nudibranch feces. We succeeded in purifying the active organelles and inducing their discharge. Thus, our current study presents the attractive possibility of using nudibranchs to produce nematocysts for the investigation of novel marine compounds. PMID:19184220

  1. Isolation, purification, and characterization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first reported in the continental United States in November 2004, and is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean worldwide. P. pachyrhizi isolates have been obtained from 2006 and 2007 across the U. S. and are being purified and maintai...

  2. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  3. Isolated Ocular Motor Nerve Palsies.

    PubMed

    Kung, Nathan H; Van Stavern, Gregory P

    2015-10-01

    An isolated ocular motor nerve palsy is defined as dysfunction of a single ocular motor nerve (oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens) with no associated or localizing neurologic signs or symptoms. When occurring in patients aged 50 or older, the most common cause is microvascular ischemia, but serious etiologies such as aneurysm, malignancy, and giant cell arteritis should always be considered. In this article, the authors review the clinical approach, anatomy, and differential diagnosis of each isolated ocular motor nerve palsy and discuss the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatment of microvascular ischemia. PMID:26444399

  4. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (? 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for eight sites across the United States to show that the factor is equal to 1.0 for seismically isolated NPPs, if the risk is dominated by horizontal earthquake shaking. Response-history analyses using different models of seismically isolated NPPs are performed to understand the importance of the choice of friction model, model complexity and vertical ground motion for calculating horizontal displacement response across a wide range of sites and shaking intensities. A friction model for the single concave FP bearing should address heating. The pressure- and velocity-dependencies were not important for the models and sites studied. Isolation-system displacements can be computed using a macro model comprising a single FP bearing.

  5. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:23400696

  6. Double spaces with isolated singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Cheltsov, I A

    2008-02-28

    The non-rationality is proved for double covers of P{sup n} branched over a hypersurface F subset of P{sup n} of degree 2n>=8 with isolated singularities such that the multiplicity of each singular point of F does not exceed 2(n-2) and the projectivization of its tangent cone is smooth. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  7. IMPROVED ISOLATION & ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major historical use of zein, the predominant corn protein, has been in the fibers market. In order to evaluate new formulations of zein in the fibers market a simple means of isolating and generating fibers is necessary. We have evaluated the ability to electrospin zein from numerous solvents...

  8. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) is the worlds first licensed and operating geological repository for transuranic waste. The WIPP operation and related activities will be reviewed along with many science and development projects going on including an underground dark matter telescope and double beta decay detection experiments.

  9. Resisting an Isolated Learning Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to suggest that researchers on workplace learning avoid an isolated learning discourse. The point at issue is that being a learner is just one aspect of people's sometimes complicated lives in the workplace, and that people may sometimes--for good reasons--resist a learning discourse if it is linked…

  10. High-Voltage Isolation Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Arcing and field-included surface erosion reduced by electrostatic shields around windings and ferromagnetic core of 80-kilovolt isolation transformer. Fabricated from high-resistivity polyurethane-based material brushed on critical surfaces, shields maintained at approximately half potential difference of windings.

  11. Antenatal diagnosis of isolated omphalocele

    PubMed Central

    Lamquami, Safae; Mamouni, Nisrine; Errarhay, Sanae; Bouchikhi, Chahrazzad; Banani, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    The concern of obstetric and surgical teams is when diagnosis of omphalocele, the care of the newborn and the prognosis of the malformation, mainly linked to the existence of associated malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. In our case of isolated omphalocele, the overall prognosis was good. PMID:26523175

  12. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  13. Isolation and identification among cockle isolates of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdi Al-Dulaimi, Mohammed M.; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Ghani, Ma`aruf Abd.

    2014-09-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infections are worldwide public health problems associated with illnesses resulting from consumption of raw or partially cooked seafood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and identification of V. vulnificus in cockles from local wet (40) and supermarkets (38) from Selangor, Malaysia from July 2013 to February 2014. A total of 78(n=78) cockle were examined for the presence of V. vulnificus and at about 32% (25/78) cockle samples were positive to this bacterium. Colonies morphological observation and biochemical characterization for those isolates showed 60% (15/78) of isolates were classified as biotype 1 and 40% (10/78) belong to biotype 2.

  14. Properties of isolated disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, J.; Moles, M.; Márquez, I.; Galletta, G.; Masegosa, J.; Bettoni, D.

    2004-06-01

    We present a new sample of northern isolated galaxies, which are defined by the physical criterion that they were not affected by other galaxies in their evolution during the last few Gyr. To find them we used the logarithmic ratio, f, between inner and tidal forces acting upon the candidate galaxy by a possible perturber. The analysis of the distribution of the f-values for the galaxies in the Coma cluster lead us to adopt the criterion f ? -4.5 for isolated galaxies. The candidates were chosen from the CfA catalog of galaxies within the volume defined by cz ?5000 km s-1, galactic latitude higher than 40o and declination ?-2.5o. The selection of the sample, based on redshift values (when available), magnitudes and sizes of the candidate galaxies and possible perturbers present in the same field is discussed. The final list of selected isolated galaxies includes 203 objects from the initial 1706. The list contains only truly isolated galaxies in the sense defined, but it is by no means complete, since all the galaxies with possible companions under the f-criterion but with unknown redshift were discarded. We also selected a sample of perturbed galaxies comprised of all the disk galaxies from the initial list with companions (with known redshift) satisfying f ? -2 and \\Delta(cz) ?500 km s-1; a total of 130 objects. The statistical comparison of both samples shows significant differences in morphology, sizes, masses, luminosities and color indices. Confirming previous results, we found that late spiral, Sc-type galaxies are, in particular, more frequent among isolated galaxies, whereas Lenticular galaxies are more abundant among perturbed galaxies. Isolated systems appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluer than interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequent among perturbed galaxies compared to isolated galaxies, in particular for early Spirals and Lenticulars. The perturbed galaxies have higher LFIR/LB and Mmol/LB ratios, but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The analysis of the luminosity-size and mass-luminosity relations shows similar trends for both families, the main difference being the almost total absence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the family of isolated systems, together with the almost total absence of small, faint and low mass galaxies among the perturbed systems. All these aspects indicate that the evolution induced by interactions with neighbors would proceed from late, small, faint and low mass Spirals to earlier, bigger, more luminous and more massive spiral and lenticular galaxies, producing at the same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies but preserving the same relations between global parameters. The properties we found for our sample of isolated galaxies appear similar to those of high redshift galaxies, suggesting that the present-day isolated galaxies could be quietly evolved, unused building blocks surviving in low density environments. Tables \\ref{t1} and \\ref{t2} are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  15. Surface plasmon enhanced magneto-optic isolator

    E-print Network

    Ram, Rajeev J.

    Here we present an integrated isolator design based on nonreciprocal coupling into a magnetooptic surface-plasmon waveguide that achieves an isolation >30 dB with an insertion <3 dB in a device length <100 mum.

  16. The Victoria Isolation Scale, Form A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, A. J. W.; Feletti, Grahame I.

    1976-01-01

    The authors administered the Isolation Symptomatology Questionnaire to persons living in Antarctica who were either well or maladjusted to their environment. Eliminating those items not discriminating between the two groups, the authors constructed a new isolation scale. (SE)

  17. Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

    1983-07-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

  18. Prevalence of selected infectious agents in cats in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Juvet, Florence; Lappin, Michael R; Brennan, Sheila; Mooney, Carmel T

    2010-06-01

    Vector-borne bacterial and rickettsial agents and Toxoplasma gondii, are common organisms in cats. Some are potentially zoonotic or may be transmitted via blood transfusion. The current study investigated the prevalence of these agents in cats from Dublin, Ireland, for which no published data exists. Whole blood (n=116) and sera (n=83) samples were obtained from 121 cats. DNA was extracted from blood and assayed using polymerase chain reaction techniques for Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' and Rickettsia species. IgG and T gondii IgG and IgM serum antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DNA consistent with B henselae (3.4%), B clarridgeiae (0.8%), both Bartonella species (0.8%), C M haemominutum (12.9%), or M haemofelis (2.5%) was amplified from 24/116 blood samples (20.6%). Antibodies to T gondii and Bartonella species were detected in 28 (33.7%) and 22 (26.5%) of 83 sera, respectively. PMID:20472484

  19. Heterogeneity of koala retrovirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Shojima, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus which may induce immune suppression, leukemia and lymphoma in koalas. Currently three KoRV subgroups (A, B, and J) have been reported. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that KoRV-B and KoRV-J should be classified as the same subgroup. In long terminal repeat (LTR), a KoRV-B isolate has four 17 bp tandem repeats named direct repeat (DR)-1, while a KoRV-J isolate (strain OJ-4) has three 37 bp tandem repeats named DR-2. We also found that the promoter activity of the KoRV-J strain OJ-4 is stronger than that of original KoRV-A, suggesting that KoRV-J may replicate more efficiently than KoRV-A. PMID:24239536

  20. Stellar Populations in Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moultaka, J.; Amiga Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this work is to derive stellar population properties of a sample of isolated galaxies of different morphological types and activity levels. This will enable us to probe the star formation and chemical history induced by internal processes of galaxies independent of their environment. We use a subsample of 194 isolated galaxies from the sample AMIGA (Verley et al. 2009, and references therein) for which we possess SDSS spectra (one spectrum per galaxy, obtained with a 3” diameter fiber); this corresponds to the central regions of the galaxies. The sample contains different morphological types and activity levels. Here we present very preliminary stellar population analysis results of a number of galaxies from our subsample.

  1. Sleuthing the Isolated Compact Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, J. J.

    2004-08-01

    In the early 1990's, isolated thermally-emitting neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium were predicted to show up in their thousands in the ROSAT soft X-ray all-sky survey. The glut of sources would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the equation of state of ultra-dense matter. Only seven objects have been firmly identified to date. The reasons for this discrepency are discussed and recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations of these objects are described. Spectra of the brightest of the isolated neutron star candidates, RX J1856.5-3754, continue to present interpretational difficulties for current neutron star model atmospheres and alternative models are briefly discussed. RX J1856.5-3754 remains a valid quark star candidate.

  2. Isolation and laboratory maintenance of Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Lukehart, Sheila A; Marra, Christina M

    2007-11-01

    The spirochetal bacteria that cause syphilis, yaws, and bejel cannot be cultivated in vitro. This unit describes methods for the isolation of subspecies of Treponema pallidum and other pathogenic treponemes from clinical specimens, the propagation of these isolates in rabbits, isolation of clonal populations of T. pallidum, and techniques for maintenance of frozen stocks of these treponemes. PMID:18770607

  3. Noninvasive diagnosis of isolated right ventricular infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Antonelli, D.; Barzilay, J.

    1984-12-01

    A rare case of isolated right ventricular infarction (RVI) is described. The lack of clinical and electrocardiographic findings characteristic of isolated RVI makes this pathology a diagnostic challenge. The role of the radionuclide scintigraphic procedures as a single possible tool for the diagnosis of isolated RVI is emphasized.

  4. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. ); Mostaghel, N. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

  5. Total main rotor isolation system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halwes, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements for a preliminary design study and verification procedure for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are established. The system is developed and analyzed, and predesign drawings are created for an isolation system that achieves over 95 percent isolation of all six degrees of freedom.

  6. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators. [service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators tested occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  7. Isolated penile torsion in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Egemen; Gundogdu, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We reported on the incidence of isolated penile torsion among our healthy children and our approach to this anomaly. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, newborn babies with penile torsion were classified according to the angle of torsion. Surgical correction (penile degloving and reattachment for moderate cases and dorsal dartos flap technique in case of resistance) after 6 months was advised to the babies with rotations more than 45°. Results: Among 1000 newborn babies, 200 isolated penile torsions were found, and among these, 43 had torsions more than 45°, and 4 of these had angles greater than 90°. The mean angle of the rotations was found 30.45° (median: 20°). In total, 8 children with 60° torsions were previously circumcised. Surgery was performed on 19 patients, with a mean patient age of 12 ± 2 months. Of these 19, 13 babies were corrected with degloving and reattachment. This technique was not enough on the remaining 6 patients; therefore, derotational dorsal dartos flap was added to correct the torsion. After a mean of 15.6 ± 9.8 months, residual penile rotation, less than 15°, was found only in 2 children. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated penile torsion is 20% in newborns. However, rotation more than 45° angles are seen in 4.3% of male babies. Correction is not necessary in mild degrees, and penile degloving with reattachment is enough in most cases. If the initial correction is insufficient, dorsal dartos flap rotation is easy and effective. Prior circumcision neither disturbs the operative procedure nor affects the outcomes. PMID:26600889

  8. Isolation of Clostridium thermocellum auxotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, B.S.; Gomez, R.F.

    1982-02-01

    The conversion of biomass of fuels and chemical feedstocks by microbial fermentation offers the potential of solving two of today's important problems: waste accumulation and exhaustion of fossil fuels. Microorganisms with the capabilities of converting biomass components such as cellulos and hemicellulose to chemicals and fuels in a single step are of particular interest. One such microorganism is Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe which degrades cellulose to ethanol and organic acids. For efficient industrial use, the cellulolytic capacity of this strain must be improved by genetic means. Spontaneous and UV irradiation-induced auxotrophic mutants of Clostridium thermocellum, an anaerobic cellulolytic thermophile, were isolated after penicillin enrichment in a chemically defined medium.

  9. From rumors to genetic isolates

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Eduardo E.; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2014-01-01

    Here we propose a registration process for population genetic isolates, usually geographic clusters of genetic disorders, based on the systematic search of rumors, defined as any type of account regardless of its reliability. Systematically ascertained rumors are recorded, and validated through a progressive process of pre-established steps. This paper outlines the conceptual basis for this approach and presents the preliminary results from a rumor-based nationwide registry of genetically isolated populations, named CENISO (Censo Nacional de Isolados), operating in Brazil since 2009. During the first four years of its existence (2009–2013), a total of 191 Rumors were registered and validated, resulting in a prevalence rate of one per million inhabitants of Brazil. When the five statutory geographic regions of Brazil were considered, more Rumors were registered for the Northeast (2.11; 1.74–2.54 per 106) than for the remaining four regions, North, Center-West, Southeast, and South, which did not differ among themselves. About half (86/191) of the recorded rumors were proven to be geographic clusters; of these disorders, 58 were autosomal recessive, 17 autosomal dominant, 5 X-linked, 3 multifactorial, and one environmental (thalidomide embryopathy). PMID:24764753

  10. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  11. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, Oliver; Stone, Jirina; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities ?, and their time derivatives which show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. The exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of debate in detail, but the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR). The energy loss by a rotating pulsar is proportional to a model dependent power of ?. This relation leads to the power law ?? = -K ?n where n is called the braking index, equal to the ratio (???)/ ??2 . The simple MDR model predicts the value of n = 3, but observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1 < n < 2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In this work, we study the dynamical limits of the MDR model as a function of angular velocity. The effects of variation in the rest mass, the moment of inertia, and the dependence on a realistic Equation of State of the rotating star are considered. Furthermore, we introduce a simulated superfluid effect by which the angular momentum of the core is eliminated from the calculation.

  12. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Catinon M; Ayrault S; Boudouma O; Bordier L; Agnello G; Reynaud S; Tissut M

    2014-03-15

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron+Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs.

  13. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Catinon, Mickaël; Ayrault, Sophie; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2014-03-15

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron+Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. PMID:24419285

  14. Shock isolation systems using magnetorheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper addresses the feasibility and applicability of a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) damper shock isolation system to replace a passive friction damper-based shock isolation system for commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. To the end, a shock isolation system using an MR damper was theoretically configured and its mechanical model was developed. From the mechanical model, the governing equation of motion for the shock isolation system with the MR damper was derived and semi-active controls such as skyhook and sliding mode control were formulated based on the derived governing equation of the system. Simulated control responses of the semi-active MR damper shock isolation system with either skyhook, or sliding mode control, were evaluated and compared to those of the passive friction shock isolation system under two different representative shock loads for COTS equipment.

  15. Fault Detection and Isolation for Hydraulic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Pressure sensors and isolation valves act to shut down defective servochannel. Redundant hydraulic system indirectly senses failure in any of its electrical control channels and mechanically isolates hydraulic channel controlled by faulty electrical channel so flat it cannot participate in operating system. With failure-detection and isolation technique, system can sustains two failed channels and still functions at full performance levels. Scheme useful on aircraft or other systems with hydraulic servovalves where failure cannot be tolerated.

  16. [Isolated hypospadias in 5 brothers].

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Stelios; Czeizel, Endre

    2015-08-16

    The healthy couple had five sons with hypospadias (glandular 1, coronal 4) without other child. Similar familial cluster has not reported in the sons of European parents without consanguinity. Mild form androgen insensitivity syndrome was expected in these 5 boys because of the X-linked androgen receptor gene, however, sequencing of the entire coding region (exons 1-8) and all intron-exon boundaries of the androgen receptor gene did not reveal abnormality and the CAG repeat was found in the normal range (21 repeats). This extreme familial cluster may help us to elucidate gene polymorphisms in the polygenic background of the multifactorial origin of isolated hypospadias. Therefore, the authors collaborate with a genetic institute in Pittsburg, USA to perform whole genome sequencing in these probands and their parents. PMID:26256499

  17. Nuclear RNA Isolation and Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Navroop K; Mitchell, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Most transcriptome studies involve sequencing and quantification of steady-state mRNA by isolating and sequencing poly (A) RNA. Although this type of sequencing data is informative to determine steady-state mRNA levels it does not provide information on transcriptional output and thus may not always reflect changes in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, sequencing poly (A) RNA may miss transcribed regions of the genome not usually modified by polyadenylation which includes many long noncoding RNAs. Here, we describe nuclear-RNA sequencing (nucRNA-seq) which investigates the transcriptional landscape through sequencing and quantification of nuclear RNAs which are both unspliced and spliced transcripts for protein-coding genes and nuclear-retained long noncoding RNAs. PMID:26721484

  18. Spectroscopy of Isolated Prebiotic Nucleobases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svadlenak, Nathan; Callahan, Michael P.; Ligare, Marshall; Gulian, Lisa; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Nachtigallova, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; deVries, Mattanjah

    2011-01-01

    We use multiphoton ionization and double resonance spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics of biologically relevant molecules as well as prebiotic nucleobases, isolated in the gas phase. Molecules that are biologically relevant to life today tend to exhibit short excited state lifetimes compared to similar but non-biologically relevant analogs. The mechanism is internal conversion, which may help protect the biologically active molecules from UV damage. This process is governed by conical intersections that depend very strongly on molecular structure. Therefore we have studied purines and pyrimidines with systematic variations of structure, including substitutions, tautomeric forms, and cluster structures that represent different base pair binding motifs. These structural variations also include possible alternate base pairs that may shed light on prebiotic chemistry. With this in mind we have begun to probe the ultrafast dynamics of molecules that exhibit very short excited states and search for evidence of internal conversions.

  19. Proteasomes: Isolation and Activity Assays.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjie; Tomko, Robert J; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, damaged or unneeded proteins are typically degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this system, the protein substrate is often first covalently modified with a chain of ubiquitin polypeptides. This chain serves as a signal for delivery to the 26S proteasome, a 2.5-MDa, ATP-dependent multisubunit protease complex. The proteasome consists of a barrel-shaped 20S core particle (CP) that is capped on one or both of its ends by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP is responsible for recognizing the substrate, unfolding it, and translocating it into the CP for destruction. Here we describe simple, one-step purifications scheme for isolating the 26S proteasome and its 19S RP and 20S CP subcomplexes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as assays for measuring ubiquitin-dependent and ubiquitin-independent proteolytic activity in vitro. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26061243

  20. Recent advances in micro-vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunchuan; Jing, Xingjian; Daley, Steve; Li, Fengming

    2015-05-01

    Micro-vibration caused by disturbance sources onboard spacecraft can severely degrade the working environment of sensitive payloads. Some notable vibration control methods have been developed particularly for the suppression or isolation of micro-vibration over recent decades. Usually, passive isolation techniques are deployed in aerospace engineering. Active isolators, however, are often proposed to deal with the low frequency vibration that is common in spacecraft. Active/passive hybrid isolation has also been effectively used in some spacecraft structures for a number of years. In semi-active isolation systems, the inherent structural performance can be adjusted to deal with variation in the aerospace environment. This latter approach is potentially one of the most practical isolation techniques for micro-vibration isolation tasks. Some emerging advanced vibration isolation methods that exploit the benefits of nonlinearity have also been reported in the literature. This represents an interesting and highly promising approach for solving some challenging problems in the area. This paper serves as a state-of-the-art review of the vibration isolation theory and/or methods which were developed, mainly over the last decade, specifically for or potentially could be used for, micro-vibration control.

  1. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Isolated ectopia lentis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... isolated ectopia lentis? astigmatism ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; congenital ; cornea ; gene ; glaucoma ; inherited ; luxation ; microfibrils ; mutation ; myopia ; nearsightedness ; prevalence ; ...

  3. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

    PubMed

    de Toro, M; Torres, M J; Maite, Ruiz; Aznar, J

    2011-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species, named Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, respectively. We investigated the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex species in 122 isolates from blood and other sources in a southern Spain tertiary-care hospital, and we examined the relationship between species, site of isolation and biofilm positivity. We also evaluated the planktonic MICs and sessile MICs (SMICs) of voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. One hundred and eleven isolates (91%) were categorized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas ten isolates (8.2%) were categorized as C. orthopsilosis and one (0.8%) as C. metapsilosis. Biofilm positivity was observed in 58.5% (65 of 111) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates vs. 0% (0 of 11) of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p <0.01). There was no difference in biofilm production among C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates from blood and other sources. MIC values showed that all isolates were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B, whereas two isolates (1.8%) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto were non-susceptible to anidulafungin. However, the MIC?? value of voriconazole was higher (0.125 mg/L) for C. orthopsilosis than for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (0.03 mg/L). In contrast to planktonic cells, the SMICs show that amphotericin B and anidulafungin are moderately effective against the biofilm of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas voriconazole is ineffective. PMID:20636431

  4. MDCT angiography of isolated right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Paç, Ay?enur; Kiziltepe, U?ursay; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2010-01-01

    Isolation of a subclavian artery is an uncommon congenital anomaly of the aortic arch in which one subclavian artery loses its connection with the aorta and originates from the homolateral pulmonary artery by way of a ductus arteriosus. Isolation of the left subclavian artery in patients with a right aortic arch is well known. However, isolated right subclavian artery with a left-sided aortic arch is an extremely rare condition. In this report, we present multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography findings of an isolated right subclavian artery associated with a common carotid trunk and an anomalous origin and proximal interruption of the left pulmonary artery. PMID:21428206

  5. Cascaded metasurfaces for broadband antenna isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrekenhamer, David; Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Scott, Robert; Jablon, Allan; Friedman, Jerry; Harshbarger, Derek; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a computational and experimental design of a metasurface for broadband microwave antenna isolation. Our current emphasis is on the development of a high-impedance surface (HIS) that enables broadband isolation between transmit and receive antennas. For our specific HIS, we have formed a cascade of HIS unit cells and have thus expanded the isolation to provide 56 dB/meter over one octave (7.5 to 18 GHz) relative to the bare metal ground plane. Computational models are used to design the cascaded structure to assure maximum isolation amplitude and bandwidth.

  6. ``Smart'' Base Isolation Strategies Employing Magnetorheological Dampers

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., Billie F.

    ``Smart'' Base Isolation Strategies Employing Magnetorheological Dampers H. Yoshioka1 ; J. C magnetorheological MR dampers. The experimental structure, constructed and tested at the Structural Dynamics

  7. Hydrologic considerations in defining isolated wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands that are not connected by streams to other surface-water bodies are considered to be isolated. Although the definition is based on surface-water connections to other water bodies, isolated wetlands commonly are integral parts of extensive ground-water flow systems, and isolated wetlands can spill over their surface divides into adjacent surface-water bodies during periods of abundant precipitation and high water levels. Thus, characteristics of ground-water flow and atmospheric-water flow affect the isolation of wetlands. In general, the degree that isolated wetlands are connected through the ground-water system to other surface-water bodies depends to a large extent on the rate that ground water moves and the rate that hydrologic stresses can be transmitted through the ground-water system. Water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a gravel aquifer can travel many kilometers through the ground-water system in one year. In contrast, water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a clayey or silty substrate may travel less than one meter in one year. For wetlands that can spill over their surface watersheds during periods of wet climate conditions, their isolation is related to the height to a spill elevation above normal wetland water level and the recurrence interval of various magnitudes of precipitation. The concepts presented in this paper indicate that the entire hydrologic system needs to be considered in establishing a definition of hydrologic isolation.

  8. Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. The aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to assess associated risk factors in cats from southern Portugal. Methods Six hundred and forty-nine cats (320 domestic and 329 stray), from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal, were studied. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood samples. Results One hundred and ninety-four (29.9%) cats were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested genera or complex of FVBD agents. Sixty-four (9.9%) cats were positive to Leishmania spp., 56 (8.6%) to Hepatozoon spp., 43 (6.6%) to Babesia spp., 35 (5.4%) to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., 19 (2.9%) to Bartonella spp. and 14 (2.2%) to B. burgdorferi s.l. Thirty-three (5.1%) cats were positive to two (n?=?29) or three (n?=?4) genera/complex. Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were identified by DNA sequencing. Conclusions The occurrence of FVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic character, emphasizes the need to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities for the risk of infection. Control measures should be implemented to prevent the infection of cats, other vertebrate hosts and people. PMID:24655431

  9. Recent advances in nonlinear passive vibration isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, R. A.

    2008-07-01

    The theory of nonlinear vibration isolation has witnessed significant developments due to pressing demands for the protection of structural installations, nuclear reactors, mechanical components, and sensitive instruments from earthquake ground motion, shocks, and impact loads. In view of these demands, engineers and physicists have developed different types of nonlinear vibration isolators. This article presents a comprehensive assessment of recent developments of nonlinear isolators in the absence of active control means. It does not deal with other means of linear or nonlinear vibration absorbers. It begins with the basic concept and features of nonlinear isolators and inherent nonlinear phenomena. Specific types of nonlinear isolators are then discussed, including ultra-low-frequency isolators. For vertical vibration isolation, the treatment of the Euler spring isolator is based on the post-buckling dynamic characteristics of the column elastica and axial stiffness. Exact and approximate analyses of axial stiffness of the post-buckled Euler beam are outlined. Different techniques of reducing the resonant frequency of the isolator are described. Another group is based on the Gospodnetic-Frisch-Fay beam, which is free to slide on two supports. The restoring force of this beam resembles to a great extent the restoring roll moment of biased ships. The base isolation of buildings, bridges, and liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquake ground motion is then described. Base isolation utilizes friction elements, laminated-rubber bearings, and the friction pendulum. Nonlinear viscoelastic and composite material springs, and smart material elements are described in terms of material mechanical characteristics and the dependence of their transmissibility on temperature and excitation amplitude. The article is closed by conclusions, which highlight resolved and unresolved problems and recommendations for future research directions.

  10. SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43.

    Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

  11. Experimental Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Isolators

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Gaetano; Pauletta, Margherita; Cortesia, Andrea; Dal Bianco, Alberto

    2008-07-08

    This paper describes an investigation on the experimental behavior of innovative elastomeric isolators reinforced by carbon fiber fabrics. These fabrics are very much lighter than steel plates used in conventional isolators and able to transfer to the adjacent elastomer layers tangential stresses adequate to oppose the transversal deformation of rubber under vertical loads. The isolators are not bonded to the sub- and super-structure (elimination of the steel end-plates), hence their weight and cost are reduced. The experimental investigation is carried out on small-scale isolator prototypes reinforced by quadridirectional carbon fiber fabrics. The isolators are subjected to the following qualification tests prescribed by the Italian Code 'Ordinanza 3274' for steel reinforced isolators: 1) 'Static assessment of the compression stiffness'; 2) 'Static assessment of the shear modulus G'; 3) 'Dynamic assessment of the dynamic shear modulus G{sub din} and of the damping coefficient {xi}; 4) 'Assessment of the G{sub din}-{gamma} and {xi}-{gamma} diagrams by means of dynamic tests'; 5) 'Assessment of creep characteristics'; 6) 'Evaluation of the capacity of sustaining at least 10 cycles'. As a result of the tests, the isolators survived large shear strains, comparable to those expected for conventional isolators.

  12. Lexical Guessing in Isolation and Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittzes, Kata

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study designed to measure to what extent secondary school students' ability to guess the meanings of words in isolation is related to guessing words in context. Finds similarities between strategies used in isolated and contextual situations, but the students also made effective use of context. (MG)

  13. Isolation of Plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    PubMed

    Teather, R M

    1982-02-01

    A procedure based on successive precipitation of cell lysates with sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaCl and polyethylene glycol 6000 was developed which allows the isolation of plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. A survey of B. fibrisolvens strains isolated from the bovine rumen showed that plasmids are a common feature of this species. PMID:16345935

  14. Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals

    E-print Network

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals A. T. KWAN, M. YU. EFREMOV, E. A-film differential scanning calorimetry to investigate the melt- ing of isolated polyethylene single crystals with lamellar thicknesses of 12 1 nm. We observed the melting of as few as 25 crystals. Over a wide number

  15. Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

  16. Stability of isolated Barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourrière, Antoine; Charru, François

    2010-11-01

    When sand grains are entrained by an air flow over a non-erodible ground, or with limited sediment supply from the bed, they form isolated dunes showing a remarkable crescentic shape with horns pointing downstream. These dunes, known as Barchan dunes, are commonly observed in deserts, with height of a few meters and velocity of a few meters per year (Bagnold 1941). These dunes also exist under water, at a much smaller, centimetric size (Franklin & Charru 2010). Their striking stability properties are not well understood yet. Two phenomena are likely to be involved in this stability: (i) relaxation effects of the sand flux which increases from the dune foot up to the crest, related to grain inertia or deposition, and (ii) a small transverse sand flux due to slope effects and the divergence of the streamlines of the fluid flow. We reproduced aqueous Barchan dunes in a channel, and studied their geometrical and dynamic properties (in particular their shape, velocity, minimum size, and rate of erosion). Using coloured glass beads (see the figure), we were then able to measure the particle flux over the whole dune surface. We will discuss the stability of these dunes in the light of our measurements.

  17. Wireline hydraulic isolation packer system

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, R.K.; Read, N.W.; Ritchie, D.E.

    1989-08-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for installing a tubing patch in a tubing string to seal against a leak of fluids between the interior of the tubing string and the tubing annulus. It comprises: an assembly insertable as a unit into the tubing string unitary assembly defining a passage therethrough having an upper packer to form a seal against the interior of the tubing string above the leak and a lower packer to form a seal against the interior of the tubing string below the leak, a tailpipe connecting the upper and lower packers, and upper and lower packers being set sequentially, each packer being set without use of a drilling of workover rig to facilitate use in offshore environments. This paper describes a method for installing a tubing patch in a tubing string to seal against leakage of fluid between the interior of the tubing string and the tubing annulus. It comprises the steps of: positioning an integral assembly having an upper packer set by a wireline tool and a lower packer set by hydraulic pressure within the interior of the tubing string within the tubing proximate the leak; setting the upper packer with the wireline tool to form a seal against the interior of the tubing string above the leak; and subsequently setting the lower packer with hydraulic pressure within the interior of the tubing string independently of the setting of the upper packer to form a seal against the interior of the tubing string below the leak to thus isolate the leak.

  18. Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Pamela (Palo Alto, CA); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-02-23

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

  19. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  20. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  1. Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

  2. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

  3. Seismic Behaviour of Vertical Mass Isolated Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nekooei, M.; Ziyaeifar, M.

    2008-07-08

    In this paper, the seismic behaviour of vertical mass isolated structures against the earthquake is studied. These structures are assumed to be consisted of two subsystems. Mass subsystem possesses low lateral stiffness but carries the major part of mass of the system. Stiffness subsystem, however, controls the deformation of the mass subsystem and attributes with much higher stiffness. The isolator layer is, therefore, located in between the mass and the stiffness subsystems and assumed to be a viscous damper layer. The analytical model used for this investigation is a dual mass-spring model which is an extended form of the three element Maxwell model. In this study, the ability of mass isolation techniques in reducing earthquake effects on buildings with two approaches, parametric and numerical approaches, is shown. In the parametric approach, by definition an isolation factor for structure and determination the dynamic characteristics of system, the relative optimum value of the isolator damping coefficient is obtained. The results provide an insight on role of relative stiffness and mass ratio of the two subsystems. Finally, in the numerical approach, the spectral responses of these structures due to the earthquake are investigated. The results show a noticeable decrease in earthquake input force to vertical mass isolated structures in comparison with non-isolated structures.

  4. Isolation of Salmonellae by Selective Motility Systems

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Philip F.; Pivnick, Hilliard

    1965-01-01

    Salmonellae were isolated from naturally infected swine and human feces by means of selective migration through semisolid enrichment (SM) media in modified “U” tubes. Comparative studies showed that recovery of Salmonella by SM techniques was equal or superior to that of standard procedures employed in two routine diagnostic laboratories. Primary Salmonella isolations from SM enrichment were relatively free from normal fecal bacteria and often pure. The SM method required only 15% of the media and correspondingly less time and skill than the usual methods for isolating Salmonella. PMID:14325276

  5. Isolated elliptical galaxies in the local Universe

    E-print Network

    Lacerna, I; Avila-Reese, V; Abonza-Sane, J; del Olmo, A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied a sample of 89 very isolated elliptical galaxies at z age as a function of stellar mass and environment based on SDSS data. We analyze in more detail the blue star-forming isolated ellipticals through photometric characterization using GALFIT and infer their star formation history using STARLIGHT. Among the isolated ellipticals ~ 20% are blue, 8% are star-forming and ~ 10% are recently quenched, while among the Coma ellipticals ~ 8% are blue and just <= 1% are star-forming or recently qu...

  6. Rapid Isolation of DNA from Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    Krausz, Kelsey L; Bose, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Many methods exist to extract DNA from bacteria. Indeed, there is no shortage of kits available from manufacturers that allow for isolation of highly purified DNA. However, for many applications samples do not need to be extremely pure (i.e., free of contaminating proteins or RNA). Furthermore, for quick genetic screening, it is often useful to have a rapid and inexpensive option for DNA isolation from small samples. For these occasions, the method found in this chapter provides a cost-efficient, yet rapid, isolation of DNA. PMID:25682372

  7. Isolation and the stress of being bullied.

    PubMed

    Newman, Matthew L; Holden, George W; Delville, Yvon

    2005-06-01

    Approximately one-third of children report being victims of bullying, and this victimization has been linked to a number of negative psychological outcomes. In the present study, we examined the effects of perceived isolation on the link between victimization before and during high school and stress symptoms during college. Consistent with our predictions, victimization appears to do the most damage to those who felt isolated during high school. These results suggest that schools should reframe their approach to the bullying problem, and devote more resources to helping students feel less isolated. PMID:15925686

  8. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  9. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase–expressing dendritic cells form suppurative granulomas following Listeria monocytogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Alexey; Abdullah, Zeinab; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Saric, Tomo; Driesen, Julia; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Domann, Eugen; Raven, Emma Lloyd; Dehus, Oliver; Hermann, Corinna; Eggle, Daniela; Debey, Svenja; Chakraborty, Trinad; Krönke, Martin; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2006-01-01

    Control of pathogens by formation of abscesses and granulomas is a major strategy of the innate immune system, especially when effector mechanisms of adaptive immunity are insufficient. We show in human listeriosis that DCs expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), together with macrophages, are major cellular components of suppurative granulomas in vivo. Induction of IDO by DCs is a cell-autonomous response to Listeria monocytogenes infection and was also observed in other granulomatous infections with intracellular bacteria, such as Bartonella henselae. Reporting on our use of the clinically applied anti–TNF-? antibody infliximab, we further demonstrate in vitro that IDO induction is TNF-? dependent. Repression of IDO therefore might result in exacerbation of granulomatous diseases observed during anti–TNF-? therapy. These findings place IDO+ DCs not only at the intersection of innate and adaptive immunity but also at the forefront of bacterial containment in granulomatous infections. PMID:17111046

  10. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  11. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-? release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient. PMID:24334464

  12. Infectious causes of encephalitis and meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sonja J; Campbell, Angela P; Supawat, Krongkaew; Liamsuwan, Sahas; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Laptikulthum, Somsak; Viriyavejakul, Akravudh; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Vasiknanonte, Punnee; Janjindamai, Supachai; Boonluksiri, Pairoj; Rajborirug, Kiatsak; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Khetsuriani, Nino; Dowell, Scott F

    2015-02-01

    Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003-August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0-83) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown. PMID:25627940

  13. Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Angela P.; Supawat, Krongkaew; Liamsuwan, Sahas; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Laptikulthum, Somsak; Viriyavejakul, Akravudh; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Vasiknanonte, Punnee; Janjindamai, Supachai; Boonluksiri, Pairoj; Rajborirug, Kiatsak; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Khetsuriani, Nino; Dowell, Scott F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003–August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0–83) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown. PMID:25627940

  14. Atypical Presentation of Cat-Scratch Disease in an Immunocompetent Child with Serological and Pathological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    At?c?, Serkan; Kaday?fc?, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ay?e; Toper, Muhammed Hasan; Celikel, Cigdem Ataizi; Soysal, Ahmet; Bak?r, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Typical cat-scratch disease (CSD) is characterized by local lymphadenopathy following the scratch or bite from a cat or kitten. An atypical presentation which includes liver and/or spleen lesions is rarely reported in an immunocompetent child. Systemic CSD may mimic more serious disorders like malignancy or tuberculosis. Although a diagnosis is difficult to establish in systemic CSD, an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications. Bartonella henselae is difficult to culture, and culture is not routinely recommended. Clinical, serological, radiological, and pathological findings are used for the diagnosis of CSD. Herein we present a case of systemic CSD presenting with hepatic mass in an immunocompetent child. The differential diagnosis is made by serological and pathological evidence. He was successfully treated with gentamicin (7.5?mg/kg) and rifampin (15?mg/kg) for six weeks. PMID:25610689

  15. A case of familial isolated hemihyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Heilstedt, Heidi A; Bacino, Carlos A

    2004-01-01

    Background Hemihyperplasia (hemihypertrophy) is defined as asymmetric body overgrowth of one or more body parts. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or be part of well-defined syndromes such as in the case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Isolated hemihyperplasia is usually sporadic, but a number of familial occurrences have been described. Case presentation We describe a Tunisian family in which three maternal cousins and their maternal grandfather present with isolated hemihyperplasia. Conclusions The etiology of isolated hemihyperplasia is unknown although in BWS, genomic imprinting has been shown to play a role in the asymmetric overgrowth. Given the similarity between these two conditions, it is possible that both may share a common pathogenesis. We also discuss the possible genetic mechanisms leading to the production of hemihyperplasia in this family. PMID:15040809

  16. In-vacuum Faraday isolation remote tuning.

    PubMed

    Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Arun, K G; Astone, P; Ballardin, G; Barone, F; Barsuglia, M; Bauer, Th S; Beker, M G; Bigotta, S; Birindelli, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Blom, M; Boccara, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brillet, A; Brisson; Budzynski, R; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buskulic, D; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Campagna, E; Canuel, B; Carbognani, F; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cesarini, E; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chincarini, A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Corda, C; Corsi, A; Coulon, J-P; Cuoco, E; D'Antonio, S; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Davier, M; Day, R; De Rosa, R; del Prete, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Dietz, A; Drago, M; Fafone, V; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J-D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Gammaitoni, L; Garufi, F; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Gouaty, R; Granata, M; Greverie, C; Guidi, G M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hild, S; Huet, D; Jaranowski, P; Kowalska, I; Królak, A; La Penna, P; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Losurdo, G; Mackowski, J M; Majorana, E; Man, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Masserot, A; Michel, C; Milano, L; Minenkov, Y; Mohan, M; Moreau, J; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mosca, S; Moscatelli, V; Mours, B; Neri, I; Nocera, F; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Paoletti, F; Pardi, S; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Persichetti, G; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Poggiani, R; Prato, M; Prodi, G A; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabaste, O; Rabeling, D S; Rapagnani, P; Re, V; Regimbau, T; Ricci, F; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Romano, R; Rosi?ska, D; Ruggi, P; Sassolas, B; Sentenac, D; Sturani, R; Swinkels, B; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Trummer, J; Vajentei, G; van den Brand, J F J; van der Putten, S; Vavoulidis, M; Vedovato, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinet, J-Y; Vocca, H; Was, M; Yvert, M

    2010-09-01

    In-vacuum Faraday isolators (FIs) are used in gravitational wave interferometers to prevent the disturbance caused by light reflected back to the input port from the interferometer itself. The efficiency of the optical isolation is becoming more critical with the increase of laser input power. An in-vacuum FI, used in a gravitational wave experiment (Virgo), has a 20 mm clear aperture and is illuminated by an almost 20 W incoming beam, having a diameter of about 5 mm. When going in vacuum at 10(-6) mbar, a degradation of the isolation exceeding 10 dB was observed. A remotely controlled system using a motorized lambda=2 waveplate inserted between the first polarizer and the Faraday rotator has proven its capability to restore the optical isolation to a value close to the one set up in air. PMID:20842804

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Familial isolated pituitary adenoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1,000 people. FIPA, though, is quite rare, accounting for approximately 2 percent of pituitary adenomas. More ... Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of familial isolated pituitary adenoma? These resources address ...

  18. Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

    1992-01-01

    Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

  19. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  20. Microfabricated structures with electrical isolation and interconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is directed to a microfabricated device. The device includes a substrate that is etched to define mechanical structures at least some of which are anchored laterally to the remainder of the substrate. Electrical isolation at points where mechanical structures are attached to the substrate is provided by filled isolation trenches. Filled trenches may also be used to electrically isolate structure elements from each other at points where mechanical attachment of structure elements is desired. The performance of microelectromechanical devices is improved by 1) having a high-aspect-ratio between vertical and lateral dimensions of the mechanical elements, 2) integrating electronics on the same substrate as the mechanical elements, 3) good electrical isolation among mechanical elements and circuits except where electrical interconnection is desired.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Isolated Duane retraction syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Isolated Duane retraction syndrome is a disorder of eye movement. This condition prevents outward movement of the eye ( ... and in some cases may also limit inward eye movement (toward the nose). As the eye moves inward, ...

  2. Optical Observations of Isolated Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    R. Mignani

    1998-10-02

    Only 1% of the Isolated Neutron Star (INS) population has been identified in the optical, albeit with different degrees of confidence. Optical observations of INSs are reviewed and their emission properties discussed in an evolutionary framework.

  3. Isolated Curves for Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wenhan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of isolated genus two curves. As there is no known efficient algorithm to explicitly construct isogenies between two genus two curves with large conductor gap, the discrete log problem (DLP) cannot be efficiently carried over from an isolated curve to a large set of isogenous curves. Thus isolated genus two curves might be more secure for DLP based hyperelliptic curve cryptography. We establish results on explicit expressions for the index of an endomorphism ring in the maximal CM order, and give conditions under which the index is a prime number or an almost prime number for three different categories of quartic CM fields. We also derived heuristic asymptotic results on the densities and distributions of isolated genus two curves with CM by any fixed quartic CM field. Computational results, which are also shown for three explicit examples, agree with heuristic prediction with errors within a tolerable range.

  4. Spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon

    E-print Network

    Ge-Rui Chen; Yong-Chang Huang

    2015-02-12

    The spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon (WIH) has been investigated. We obtain an equally spaced entropy spectrum with its quantum equal to the one given by Bekenstein [5]. We demonstrate that the quantization of entropy and area is a generic property of horizon, and the results exit in a wide class of spacetimes admitting weakly isolated horizons. Our results also indicate that the entropy quantum of the black hole horizon is closely related to Hawking temperature.

  5. (Surveying isolated diesel power stations in Guatemala)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-02-26

    I travelled to Guatemala City, Guatemala, to lead a team of specialists to study the operating, administrative, and management efficiency of isolated diesel power plants, operated by Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE). The study is part of a global initiative managed jointly by the Agency for International Development and the World Bank. The power plants were audited, including INDE's largest isolated diesel station, and two, much smaller municipal and privately owned stations. I returned to Oak Ridge on February 22, 1990.

  6. Geographically isolated wetlands: rethinking a misnomer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  7. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J.

    2010-10-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

  8. Epidemic Model with Isolation in Multilayer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzek, L. G. Alvarez; Stanley, H. E.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model has successfully mimicked the propagation of such airborne diseases as influenza A (H1N1). Although the SIR model has recently been studied in a multilayer networks configuration, in almost all the research the isolation of infected individuals is disregarded. Hence we focus our study in an epidemic model in a two-layer network, and we use an isolation parameter w to measure the effect of quarantining infected individuals from both layers during an isolation period tw. We call this process the Susceptible-Infected-Isolated-Recovered (SIIR) model. Using the framework of link percolation we find that isolation increases the critical epidemic threshold of the disease because the time in which infection can spread is reduced. In this scenario we find that this threshold increases with w and tw. When the isolation period is maximum there is a critical threshold for w above which the disease never becomes an epidemic. We simulate the process and find an excellent agreement with the theoretical results.

  9. Apelin Levels In Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, ?brahim; Y?ld?z, Abdulkadir; Ak?l, Mehmet Ata; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; Polat, Nihat; Ayd?n, Mesut; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Erta?, Faruk; Kaya, Hasan; Alan, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is not known completely. In most of the cases, CAE is associated with atherosclerosis; however, isolated CAE has a nonatherosclerotic mechanism. The association between atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and apelin has been examined in previous studies. However, the role of plasma apelin in isolated coronary artery ectasia has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma apelin levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia. Subjects and Methods The study population included a total of 54 patients. Twenty-six patients had isolated CAE (53.6±8.1 years); 28 patients with normal coronary arteries (51.6±8.8 years) and with similar risk factors and demographic characteristics served as the control group. Apelin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Results Apelin level in the CAE group was significantly lower (apelin=0.181±0.159 ng/mL) than that in the control group (apelin=0.646±0.578 ng/mL) (p=0.033). Glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we showed that patients with isolated CAE have decreased plasma apelin levels compared with the control group. Based on the data, a relationship between plasma apelin and isolated CAE was determined. PMID:26413106

  10. A Multiwavelength View of Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2014-03-01

    In the last few years interest in isolated galaxies has been renewed within a context regarding secular evolution. This adds to their value as a control sample for environmental studies of galaxies. This presentation will review important results from recent studies of isolated galaxies. I will emphasize work involving statistically significant samples of isolated galaxies culminating with refinement of the CIG in the AMIGA program. The AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies, http://amiga.iaa.es) has identified a significant sample of the most isolated (Tcc(nearest-neighbor) ˜ 2-3Gyr) galaxies in the local Universe and revealed that they have different properties than galaxies in richer environments. Our analysis of a multiwavelength database includes quantification of degree of isolation, morphologies, as well as FIR and radio line/continuum properties. Properties usually regarded as susceptible to interaction enhancement show lower averages in AMIGA-lower than any galaxy sample yet identified. We find lower MIR/ FIR measures, low levels of radio continuum emission, no radio excess above the radio-FIR correlation, a small number of AGN, and lower molecular gas content. The late-type spiral majority in our sample show very small bulge/total ratios (largely < 0.1) and Sersic indices consistent with an absence of classical bulges. They have redder g-r colors and lower color dispersion for AMIGA subtypes and larger disks, and present the narrowest (Gaussian) distribution of HI profile asymmetries of any sample yet studied.

  11. Reproductive Isolation during Domestication[W

    PubMed Central

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Hodgins, Kathryn A.; Rummell, Sonja E.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that reproductive isolation should facilitate evolution under domestication. However, a systematic comparison of reproductive barrier strength between crops and their progenitors has not been conducted to test this hypothesis. Here, we present a systematic survey of reproductive barriers between 32 economically important crop species and their progenitors to better understand the role of reproductive isolation during the domestication process. We took a conservative approach, avoiding those types of reproductive isolation that are poorly known for these taxa (e.g., differences in flowering time). We show that the majority of crops surveyed are isolated from their progenitors by one or more reproductive barriers, despite the fact that the most important reproductive barrier in natural systems, geographical isolation, was absent, at least in the initial stages of domestication for most species. Thus, barriers to reproduction between crops and wild relatives are closely associated with domestication and may facilitate it, thereby raising the question whether reproductive isolation could be viewed as a long-overlooked “domestication trait.” Some of the reproductive barriers observed (e.g., polyploidy and uniparental reproduction), however, may have been favored for reasons other than, or in addition to, their effects on gene flow. PMID:22773750

  12. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates. PMID:25843529

  13. Genotyping of newly isolated infectious bronchitis virus isolates from northeastern Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Arun B; Resurreccion, Reynaldo S

    2010-12-01

    Sixteen infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) field isolates obtained from vaccinated commercial broiler chickens showing clinical respiratory disease were characterized by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the hypervariable region of the S1 spike glycoprotein gene. The genetic relationship among these variants and reference strains was determined by phylogenetic analysis and use of the basic local alignment search tool. All the isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic group with very short branched distances, suggesting that isolates had a similar origin. All the isolates showed 85% amino acid identity with recently described Australian isolates, particularly N1-62. Given that little was known about this new emergent IBV we have characterized five field isolates by sequencing the entire S1 gene. Multiple sequence alignment of deduced amino acid sequences with commonly used vaccine strains revealed that most substitutions occurred in the 53-148 amino acid region. A possible recombination site with N1-62 isolate was identified between amino acid residues 115-121. All the field isolates shared four or five out of seven amino acid residues with N1-62 in this region as opposed to Ark-DPI and Mass 41 reference strains, which shared only two residues. Results indicate that IBV isolates reported here can be considered as new IBV genotype. PMID:21313832

  14. Lung isolation, one-lung ventilation and hypoxaemia during lung isolation

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Atul; Bhargava, Suresh; Mangal, Vandana; Parashar, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Lung isolation is being used more frequently in both adult and paediatric age groups due to increasing incidence of thoracoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in these patients. Various indications for lung isolation and one-lung ventilation include surgical and non-surgical reasons. Isolation can be achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tubes or bronchial blocker. Different issues arise in prone and semi-prone position. The management of hypoxia with lung isolation is a stepwise drill of adding inhaled oxygen, adding positive end-expiratory pressure to ventilated lung and continuous positive airway pressure to non-ventilated side. PMID:26556920

  15. Genetic analysis of human clinical isolates of Lactococcus garvieae: Relatedness with isolates from foods.

    PubMed

    Reguera-Brito, Mercedes; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; Blanco, M Mar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Gibello, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium well-known as an important pathogen in aquaculture, and it is also a human pathogen of increasing clinical significance. Forty-three human L. garvieae isolates from clinical specimens were characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Twenty-six different sequence types (STs) were identified among the human isolates, of which 20 were novel STs. Most human isolates clustered into four clonal complexes, with a predominance of CC3. Within CC3, ST10 was the most common genotype, indicating the existence of a circulating genetic lineage among the human isolates analyzed. The four CCs also grouped L. garvieae strains isolated from meat, dairy and fish, indicating a genetic overlap between isolates from human and these foods. Genetic relatedness among human and food L. garvieae isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of the seven MLST genes. These results represent the first evidence of genetic relatedness between isolates of L. garvieae of human and those isolated meat, milk and dairy products and suggest that, in addition to fish and seafood, these foods might represent important sources of human L. garvieae infections. PMID:26607321

  16. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  17. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  18. Choroidal neovascularisation as an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of cat-scratch disease in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Latanza, L; Viscogliosi, F; Solimeo, A; Calabrò, F; De Angelis, V; De Rosa, P

    2015-10-01

    To report the first case of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) that appeared during the primary Bartonella henselae infection in an 8-year-old girl. An 8-year-old girl was referred to our clinic complaining of a central scotoma in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral disc oedema and in the right eye neuroretinitis with macular star and CNV, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. The optical coherence tomography revealed the presence of macular serous retinal detachment. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgM and IgG titres for B. henselae. Cat-scratch disease was diagnosed, and an 8-week treatment with azithromycin was initiated. In addition, an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed in the right eye to treat the CNV. A month later, we decided to administer a systemic antibiotic again for an additional 5 months, due to the persistence of papillitis. Cat-scratch disease should be considered among the different causes of inflammatory CNV secondary to infectious uveitis. Our case was the first described in the literature in which a CNV appeared during the primary infection and not as a later complication. The combination of systemic antibiotic treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy was a successful choice because it allowed us to obtain the complete resolution of neuroretinitis, associated with the scarring of the choroidal neovascular membrane, with a final visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes. PMID:26135983

  19. Agromyces atrinae sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Agromyces atrinae sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood Eun-Jin Park,1 Min-Soo Kim,1,2 Mi, designated P27T , was isolated from a traditional fermented seafood. The isolate grew optimally with 0 a traditional fermented seafood that is generally made with plenty of salt. Strain P27T was isolated using

  20. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample.

  1. Isolation and culture of chicken primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Leghari, Imdad Hussain; Zhao, Dan; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a primordial follicle culture system is important for the study of follicular development. Hence, the objective of this study was to isolate chicken primordial follicles and establish culture methods. Ovaries from 2-wk-old chickens were treated with trypsin-EDTA, collagenase II, or collagenase type IA, along with a mechanical isolation technique. Isolated follicles were cultured under different conditions. Results showed a significant difference in the follicular recovery and survival rates among different enzymes and methods used. The maximal follicular yield was obtained by trypsin+EDTA and collagenase II digestion, followed by collagenase type IA digestion. However, the highest follicular viability rate was observed in groups of collagenase type IA digestion and the mechanical isolation method. Enzymatic treatment resulted in higher misshapen oocytes or follicles, though the diameters of the follicles were not significantly changed. In addition, our follicle culture results for different conditions showed maximal survival rates of primordial follicles in alginate hydrogel beads after 12 d of culture. Thus, we successfully established methods for isolating and culturing chicken primordial follicles. The present method will greatly facilitate investigation of the regulation of follicular development. PMID:26286996

  2. Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.

    PubMed

    Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST19 Isolates and One Isolate Variant

    PubMed Central

    Platonov, Mikhail E.; Blouin, Yann; Evseeva, Vera V.; Afanas’ev, Maxim V.; Pourcel, Christine; Balakhonov, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first draft genome sequences of five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates of sequence type (ST) 19 and of a variant from one of the five isolates. The total length of assemblies ranged from 4,226,485 bp to 4,274,148 bp, including between 3,808 and 3,843 predicted coding sequences. PMID:23580708

  4. GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED WETLANDS IN EASTERN CAROLINA: SOUTHEAST ISOLATED WETLANDS ASSESSMENT, QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN (JULY 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southeastern Isolated Wetlands Assessment is the new Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) project in EPA Region 4. The project will produce data and synthesis on the ways that isolated wetlands can protect downstream water quality at a watershed s...

  5. Isolation of Chromanone and Isobenzofuran Derivatives from a Fungicolous Isolate of Epiccocum purpurascens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical studies of an organic extract of Epicoccum purpurascens NRRL 37031, isolated from a wood decay fungus in Florida, led to the isolation of two new metabolites, 7-methoxy-4-oxo-chroman-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1) and 1,3-dihydro-5-methoxy-7-methylisobenzofuran (2). Two known isobenzof...

  6. Wire rope isolators for vibration isolation of equipment and structures - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, P. S.; Rahman, M. E.; Moussa, Leblouba; Lau, H. H.

    2015-04-01

    Vibrations and shocks are studied using various techniques and analyzed to predict their detrimental effect on the equipment and structures. In cases, where the effects of vibration become unacceptable, it may cause structural damage and affect the operation of the equipment. Hence, adding a discrete system to isolate the vibration from source becomes necessary. The Wire Rope Isolator (WRI) can be used to effectively isolate the system from disturbing vibrations. The WRI is a type of passive isolator that exhibits nonlinear behavior. It consists of stranded wire rope held between two metal retainer bars and the metal wire rope is made up of individual wire strands that are in frictional contact with each other, hence, it is a kind of friction-type isolator. This paper compiles the research work on wire rope isolators. This paper presents the research work under two categories, namely monotonic and cyclic loading behaviors of WRI. The review also discusses the different terminologies associated with vibration isolation system and highlights the comparison between various isolation systems.

  7. Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

  8. Medullary sponge kidney and isolated hemihyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, P. S.; Parameswaran, S.; Sandeep, M.; Shankar, V.; Swaminathan, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The term hemihyperplasia refers to an enlargement of body parts beyond the normal asymmetry. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or associated with various well-described malformation syndromes. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) has been described with isolated and syndromic hemihyperplasia; the actual prevalence is not known The hemi hypertrophy can be so subtle that it may be easily overlooked. MSK need not be limited to the side of hemihyperplasia – most often it is bilateral. Around 33 cases has been reported from different parts of the world of which 15 cases are isolated hemi hyperplasia (IHH), the remaining occurring in the context of various malformation syndromes So far only one case has been reported from India. We report a case of IHH involving right side of the body, recurrent renal stones, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis hypercalciuria and imaging showing bilateral MSKs. PMID:25097338

  9. Medullary sponge kidney and isolated hemihyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, P S; Parameswaran, S; Sandeep, M; Shankar, V; Swaminathan, R P

    2014-07-01

    The term hemihyperplasia refers to an enlargement of body parts beyond the normal asymmetry. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or associated with various well-described malformation syndromes. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) has been described with isolated and syndromic hemihyperplasia; the actual prevalence is not known The hemi hypertrophy can be so subtle that it may be easily overlooked. MSK need not be limited to the side of hemihyperplasia - most often it is bilateral. Around 33 cases has been reported from different parts of the world of which 15 cases are isolated hemi hyperplasia (IHH), the remaining occurring in the context of various malformation syndromes So far only one case has been reported from India. We report a case of IHH involving right side of the body, recurrent renal stones, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis hypercalciuria and imaging showing bilateral MSKs. PMID:25097338

  10. Privacy Amplification in the Isolated Qubits Model

    E-print Network

    Yi-Kai Liu

    2015-02-11

    Isolated qubits are a special class of quantum devices, which can be used to implement tamper-resistant cryptographic hardware such as one-time memories (OTM's). Unfortunately, these OTM constructions leak some information, and standard methods for privacy amplification cannot be applied here, because the adversary has advance knowledge of the hash function that the honest parties will use. In this paper we show a stronger form of privacy amplification that solves this problem, using a fixed hash function that is secure against all possible adversaries in the isolated qubits model. This allows us to construct single-bit OTM's which only leak an exponentially small amount of information. We then study a natural generalization of the isolated qubits model, where the adversary is allowed to perform a polynomially-bounded number of entangling gates, in addition to unbounded local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We show that our technique for privacy amplification is also secure in this setting.

  11. TSAG-based cryogenic Faraday isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starobor, Aleksey; Yasyhara, Ryo; Snetkov, Ilya; Mironov, Evgeniy; Palashov, Oleg

    2015-09-01

    Thermooptical and magnetooptical properties of novel magnetoactive crystal terbium-scandium aluminum garnet were investigated at temperature range 80-300 K. It is shown that Verdet constant increases inversely proportional to temperature, and thermally induced depolarization, and the optical power of the thermal lens is reduced significantly with cooling from 290 K to 80 K. According to estimates, TSAG crystals in [1 1 1] orientation allow to create a cryogenic Faraday isolator provides a degree of isolation of 30 dB with the laser power exceeds ?6 kW, it is estimated that the transition to the [0 0 1] orientation allows to provide degree of isolation of 30 dB at a laser power higher than 400 kW.

  12. Isolation, propagation, and analysis of biological nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Linnes, Michael P; Shiekh, Farooq A; Hunter, Larry W; Miller, Virginia M; Lieske, John C

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying biologic nanoparticles (NPs) have been implicated as nucleation points for a number of -pathologic events that include vascular calcification and the formation of kidney stones. In order to study these potential relationships, reproducible isolation of well-characterized biologic NPs is a necessity. Our group has isolated and propagated calcifying NPs from several human tissues and renal stones. Specific proteins that could nucleate a calcium phosphate shell under physiologic conditions have been identified as part of their structure, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and fetuin-A. Visualization, using advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence microscopy, and nuclear and antibody staining in conjunction with flow cytometry, can further elucidate NPs composition and their role in pathology. In order to allow uniform investigation by others, the isolation, culture, and handling procedures for biologic NPs from human calcified vascular tissue and kidney stones are reported in detail. PMID:21948421

  13. Approaches to counter loneliness and social isolation.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2015-09-01

    Social isolation and loneliness are significant threats for older people and may be associated with mental and physical health problems. This article revisits what is meant by social isolation and loneliness and explores the way in which social change can trigger both problems. Social networks are discussed as the means by which older people can mediate the stresses of change around them. The article summarises some of the health consequences of loneliness, indicates some simple measures nurses can use to limit the risk of institutional loneliness and then examines how collaborative community ventures, mentoring and befriending schemes can help older people to access and rebuild social networks that may assist them to sustain wellbeing. Case study material is used to highlight contrasting profiles of older people who may be either more or less at risk of social isolation. PMID:26310232

  14. Arglabin: From isolation to antitumor evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lone, Shabir H; Bhat, Khursheed A; Khuroo, Mohd A

    2015-10-01

    Arglabin belongs to guaianolide class of sesquiterpene lactones, isolated from Artemisia species. The molecule bears a 5,7,5-tricyclic ring system having five contiguous stereo centers in which the two five membered rings are trans-annulated. Arglabin shows promising antitumor activity against different tumor cell lines. The antitumor activity of arglabin proceeds through its inhibition of farnesyl transferase which leads to the activation of RAS proto-oncogene, a process that is believed to play a pivotal role in 20-30% of all human tumors. It actually inhibits the incorporation of farnesyl pyrophosphate into human H-ras proteins by the enzyme farnesyl transferase (FTase). The present review is an attempt to summarize the chemistry and biology of this molecule since its isolation in 1982. It embodies the isolation, structure elucidation, stereo chemical description, structural classification, chemical synthesis, structural modifications and antitumor evaluation reported till date. PMID:26327249

  15. RNA isolation and fractionation with compaction agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. C.; Fox, G. E.; Willson, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to the isolation of RNA from bacterial lysates employs selective precipitation by compaction agents, such as hexammine cobalt and spermidine. Using 3.5 mM hexammine cobalt, total RNA can be selectively precipitated from a cell lysate. At a concentration of 2 mM hexammine cobalt, rRNA can be fractionated from low molecular weight RNA. The resulting RNA mixture is readily resolved to pure 5S and mixed 16S/23S rRNA by nondenaturing anion-exchange chromatography. Using a second stage of precipitation at 8 mM hexammine cobalt, the low molecular weight RNA fraction can be isolated by precipitation. Compaction precipitation was also applied to the purification of an artificial stable RNA derived from Escherichia coli 5S rRNA and to the isolation of an Escherichia coli-expressed ribozyme. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. THK: CLB Crossed Linear Bearing Seismic Isolators

    SciTech Connect

    Toniolo, Roberto

    2008-07-08

    This text highlights the new seismic isolation technology called CLB (Crossed Linear Bearing), which is made of linear guides with recirculating steel ball technology. It describes specifications and building characteristics, provides examples of seismic isolation and application functionalities and shows experimental data. Since 1994, the constant commitment by Japan to develop diversified anti-seismic systems based on the precise needs of the structures to protect and the areas where they were built has led to the creation of important synergy between the research institutions of leading Japanese companies and THK's Centre for Research and Development. Their goal has been to develop new technology and solutions to allow seismic isolation to be effective in the following cases:.

  17. Isolation and characterization of mammalian glycosylation mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, J.

    1986-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of Chinese Hamster Ovary mutants was done to better understand the pathway of Asn-linked glycosylation. B4-2-1 cells were previously isolated as being defective in the membrane glycoprotein, the mannose-6-phosphate receptor. These cells are shown to be defective in the synthesis of mannosylphosphoryldolichol (MPD) and also mannosylphosphorylretinol. The absence of MPD results in the synthesis of a single major oligosaccharide containing only five mannoses. This oligosaccharide is not a substrate for endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F, although when present on the protein the oligosaccharide is capable of being released by peptide-N-glycosidase F. B4-2-1 was the parent cell for three new mutant cell lines. These cell lines were isolated by a screening procedure which monitored the incorporation of (/sup 3/H) mannose into acid-precipitable material. Two classes of mutant were obtained as defined by in vivo incorporation of (/sup 3/H) mannose.

  18. Comparison of Environmental MRSA Levels on High-Touch Surfaces in Contact Isolation and Noncontact Isolation Patient Rooms.

    PubMed

    Villamaria, Frank C; Berlanga, Gemma; Liao, I-Chia; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Environmental samples were collected from 100 hospital rooms, 32 noncontact rooms, and 68 contact isolation rooms. We isolated 202 and 1,830 MRSA colonies in noncontact and contact isolation rooms, respectively. The study identified MRSA isolates in hospital rooms of patients without colonization or infection with MRSA. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1472-1475. PMID:26311001

  19. Kupffer Cell Isolation for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Bourgognon, Maxime; Klippstein, Rebecca; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2015-01-01

    The large majority of in vitro nanotoxicological studies have used immortalized cell lines for their practicality. However, results from nanoparticle toxicity testing in immortalized cell lines or primary cells have shown discrepancies, highlighting the need to extend the use of primary cells for in vitro assays. This protocol describes the isolation of mouse liver macrophages, named Kupffer cells, and their use to study nanoparticle toxicity. Kupffer cells are the most abundant macrophage population in the body and constitute part of the reticulo-endothelial system (RES), responsible for the capture of circulating nanoparticles. The Kupffer cell isolation method reported here is based on a 2-step perfusion method followed by purification on density gradient. The method, based on collagenase digestion and density centrifugation, is adapted from the original protocol developed by Smedsrød et al. designed for rat liver cell isolation and provides high yield (up to 14 x 10(6) cells per mouse) and high purity (>95%) of Kupffer cells. This isolation method does not require sophisticated or expensive equipment and therefore represents an ideal compromise between complexity and cell yield. The use of heavier mice (35-45 g) improves the yield of the isolation method but also facilitates remarkably the procedure of portal vein cannulation. The toxicity of functionalized carbon nanotubes f-CNTs was measured in this model by the modified LDH assay. This method assesses cell viability by measuring the lack of structural integrity of Kupffer cell membrane after incubation with f-CNTs. Toxicity induced by f-CNTs can be measured consistently using this assay, highlighting that isolated Kupffer cells are useful for nanoparticle toxicity testing. The overall understanding of nanotoxicology could benefit from such models, making the nanoparticle selection for clinical translation more efficient. PMID:26327223

  20. Basalt Waste Isolation Project Performance Assessment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1984-06-11

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Performance Assessment Plan defines the approach to analysis and use of BWIP Performance Assessment activities for all phases of the project. The report describes both preclosure and postclosure activities. Preclosure activities address system safety during construction, operation, retrival, and decommissioning. Post-closure activities address repository isolation capability to determine compliance with regulatory criteria. The plan and schedule of activities is consistent with the 1982 Nuclear Waste policy Act. The plan is a living document and will be revised periodically in response to management and technical needs. 5 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Optical isolation via unidirectional resonant photon tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Moccia, Massimo; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alù, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2014-01-28

    We show that tri-layer structures combining epsilon-negative and magneto-optical material layers can exhibit unidirectional resonant photon tunneling phenomena that can discriminate between circularly polarized (CP) waves of given handedness impinging from opposite directions, or between CP waves with different handedness impinging from the same direction. This physical principle, which can also be interpreted in terms of a Fabry-Perot-type resonance, may be utilized to design compact optical isolators for CP waves. Within this framework, we derive simple analytical conditions and design formulae, and quantitatively assess the isolation performance, also taking into account the unavoidable imperfections and nonidealities.

  2. Seismic isolation of an electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Godden, W.G.; Aslam, M.; Scalise, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A unique two-stage dynamic-isolation problem is presented by the conflicting design requirements for the foundations of an electron microscope in a seismic region. Under normal operational conditions the microscope must be isolated from ambient ground noise; this creates a system extremely vulnerable to seismic ground motions. Under earthquake loading the internal equipment forces must be limited to prevent damage or collapse. An analysis of the proposed design solution is presented. This study was motivated by the 1.5 MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) to be installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) located near the Hayward Fault in California.

  3. Optical isolation via unidirectional resonant photon tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moccia, Massimo; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alù, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2014-01-01

    We show that tri-layer structures combining epsilon-negative and magneto-optical material layers can exhibit unidirectional resonant photon tunneling phenomena that can discriminate between circularly polarized (CP) waves of given handedness impinging from opposite directions, or between CP waves with different handedness impinging from the same direction. This physical principle, which can also be interpreted in terms of a Fabry-Perot-type resonance, may be utilized to design compact optical isolators for CP waves. Within this framework, we derive simple analytical conditions and design formulae, and quantitatively assess the isolation performance, also taking into account the unavoidable imperfections and nonidealities.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a Thymic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Robey, G.; Campbell, B. J.; Luckey, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A protein was isolated from bovine thymus that was shown to accelerate the appearance of hemolysin to sheep erythrocytes in neonatal mice. The isolation procedure consisted of saline homogenization, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and methanol precipitation, followed by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and two chromatographies on Sephadex G-150. The protein was shown to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation. The molecular weight was determined to be 79,950. Additional physical and chemical characteristics were also determined. Images PMID:4637294

  5. A passive vibration-cancelling isolation mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Alan O.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of an idealized passive vibration-cancelling two-terminal mount with one degree of freedom at each mechanical terminal isolating a nonrigid machine from a nonrigid foundation is presented. To evaluate a vibration-cancelling (VC) mount, its effectiveness as a function of frequency is compared with the effectiveness of both conventional and compound mounts isolating a rigid machine from a nonrigid foundation. The comparisons indicate that a carefully designed and manufactured VC mount should provide substantially greater vibration reduction at its cancellation frequency than either a conventional or compound mount having the same low frequency stiffness, i.e., stiffness at the natural frequency of the machine mount system.

  6. Time Distance Study of Isolated Sunspots

    E-print Network

    S. Zharkov; C. Nicholas; M. J. Thompson

    2008-02-18

    We present a comparative seismic study of conditions around and beneath isolated sunspots. Using the European Grid of Solar Observations' Solar Feature Catalogue of sunspots derived from SOHO/MDI continuum and magnetogram data, 1996-2005, we identify a set of isolated sunspots by checking that within a Carrington Rotation there were no other spots detected in the vicinity. We then use level-2 tracked MDI Dopplergrams available from SOHO website to investigate wave-speed perturbations of such sunspots using time-distance helioseismology.

  7. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Iverson, David

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modern technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  8. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modem technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  9. Isolation of Usutu Virus in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jöst, Hanna; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Sambri, Vittorio; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin H.; Günther, Stephan; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged 2001 in Austria and caused deaths in wild birds. In Germany, 70,378 female mosquitoes were captured in 2009 and 2010 and assayed for USUV. Virus was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes trapped exclusively in August 2010 in Weinheim, Germany. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the isolated USUV strain from Germany and a USUV strain from Austria, which was detected in a dead blackbird in 2004. PMID:21896821

  10. Seismic isolation systems with distinct multiple frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ting-shu (Downers Grove, IL); Seidensticker, Ralph W. (Wheaton, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for isolating a building or other structure from smic vibratory motion which provides increased assurance that large horizontal motion of the structure will not occur than is provided by other isolation systems. Increased assurance that large horizontal motion will not occur is achieved by providing for change of the natural frequency of the support and structure system in response to displacement of the structure beyond a predetermined value. The natural frequency of the support and structure system may be achieved by providing for engaging and disengaging of the structure and some supporting members in response to motion of the supported structure.

  11. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  12. Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S.

    1996-05-17

    An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

  13. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. V. Quantification of the isolation

    E-print Network

    S. Verley; S. Leon; L. Verdes-Montenegro; F. Combes; J. Sabater; J. Sulentic; G. Bergond; D. Espada; E. Garcia; U. Lisenfeld; S. C. Odewahn

    2007-06-18

    The AMIGA project aims to build a well defined and statistically significant reference sample of isolated galaxies in order to estimate the environmental effects on the formation and evolution of galaxies. The goal of this paper is to provide a measure of the environment of the isolated galaxies in the AMIGA sample, quantifying the influence of the candidate neighbours identified in our previous work and their potential effects on the evolution of the primary galaxies. Here we provide a quantification of the isolation degree of the galaxies in this sample. Our starting sample is the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). We used two parameters to estimate the influence exerted by the neighbour galaxies on the CIG galaxy: the local number density of neighbour galaxies and the tidal strength affecting the CIG galaxy. We show that both parameters together provide a comprehensive picture of the environment. For comparison, those parameters have also been derived for galaxies in denser environments such as triplets, groups and clusters. The CIG galaxies show a continuous spectrum of isolation, as quantified by the two parameters, from very isolated to interacting. The fraction of CIG galaxies whose properties are expected to be influenced by the environment is however low (159 out of 950 galaxies). The isolated parameters derived for the comparsion samples gave higher values than for the CIG and we found clear differences for the average values of the 4 samples considered, proving the sensitivity of these parameters. The environment of the galaxies in the CIG has been characterised, using two complementary parameters quantifying the isolation degree, the local number density of the neighbour galaxies and the tidal forces affecting the isolated galaxies. (Abridged)

  14. The NASA Langley Isolator Dynamics Research Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Humphreys, William M.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2010-01-01

    The Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) is under construction at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A unique test apparatus is being fabricated to support both wall and in-stream measurements for investigating the internal flow of a dual-mode scramjet isolator model. The test section is 24 inches long with a 1-inch by 2-inch cross sectional area and is supplied with unheated, dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The test section is being fabricated with two sets (glass and metallic) of interchangeable sidewalls to support flow visualization and laser-based measurement techniques as well as static pressure, wall temperature, and high frequency pressure measurements. During 2010, a CFD code validation experiment will be conducted in the lab in support of NASA s Fundamental Aerodynamics Program. This paper describes the mechanical design of the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab test apparatus and presents a summary of the measurement techniques planned for investigating the internal flow field of a scramjet isolator model.

  15. Thiazole and Oxazole Alkaloids: Isolation and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Davyt, Danilo; Serra, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Thiazoles, oxazole and their corresponding reduced derivatives, thiazolines and oxazolines, are found in marine sources exhibiting significant biological activities. The isolation, synthetic, and biological studies of these natural products, covering literature from January 2007 to June 2010, are summarized. PMID:21139843

  16. Carbon utilization profiles of Fusarium virguliforme isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium virguliforme is the cause of sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean. Physiological variability among isolates of the fungus is unknown. One way to measure physiologic variability is to analyze their use of carbon sources for growth. The carbon source utilization profiles of 18 F. virgulifor...

  17. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Shim, Sangjo

    2014-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a) the principles of DEP; (b) the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c) why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d) instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies. PMID:24662940

  18. Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    -Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a newBrønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

  19. Isolated prompt photon production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, P.A. )

    1992-11-01

    This note describes measurements of isolated prompt photon production at [radical]s = 1.8 TeV using the CDF experiment. The measurements are compared to recent NLO QCD calculations, including recently obtained parton distribution functions. Qualitatively, the QCD calculation with the new parton distribution functions agrees better with the data than the previous parton distribution functions.

  20. Natural proteins: Sources, isolation, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Jitendra Y.; Bhambar, Rajendra S.; Narkhede, Minal R.; Gawali, Sonali R.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, plant protein contributes substantially as a food resource because it contains essential amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. However, many versatile plant proteins are used as medicinal agents as they are produced by using molecular tools of biotechnology. Proteins can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganism cells. The abundant economical proteins can be obtained from plant seeds. These natural proteins are obtained by isolation procedures depending on the physicochemical properties of proteins. Isolation and purification of single protein from cells containing mixtures of unrelated proteins is achievable due to the physical and chemical attributes of proteins. The following characteristics are unique to each protein: Amino acid composition, sequence, subunit structures, size, shape, net charge, isoelectric point, solubility, heat stability and hydrophobicity. Based on these properties, various methods of isolation exist, like salting out and isoionic precipitation. Purification of proteins is quiet challenging and, therefore, several approaches like sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and chromatography are available. Characterization of proteins can be performed by mass spectrometry/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The amino acid sequence of a protein can be detected by using tandem mass spectrometry. In this article, a review has been made on the sources, isolation, purification and characterization of natural proteins. PMID:24347918

  1. OPTIMAL LOCATION OF ISOLATION VALVES IN WATER

    E-print Network

    Mays, Larry W.

    . In other words, methods for evaluation of the nation's water supply services needs to consider not onlyCHAPTER 7 OPTIMAL LOCATION OF ISOLATION VALVES IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A RELIABILITY The cornerstone of any healthy population is access to safe drinking water. The goal of the United Nations

  2. SPATIAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ISOLATED WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA is conducting isolated wetland (IW) research at locations around the USA to better understand the ecological importance and ecosystem services provided by IW and to develop methods to monitor and assess their condition. The first research component explores the use of r...

  3. Telemedicine: Health Care for Isolated Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The lead article discusses the results of a series of experiments in rural Alaska in which telemedicine was used to improve the delivery of health care to isolated populations. The author, Dennis Foote, also discusses the implications of these experiments for planning telemedicine systems in other areas. Satellite communication and a centralized…

  4. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    PubMed Central

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  5. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  6. Culture and Community in Canada's Isolated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina

    This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…

  7. Diffractive production of isolated photons at HERA

    E-print Network

    Peter Bussey; for the ZEUS Collaboration

    2015-07-14

    The ZEUS detector at HERA has been used to measure the photoproduction of isolated photons in diffractive events. Cross sections are evaluated in the photon transverse-energy and pseudorapidity ranges 5 photon energy and of the colourless exchange ("Pomeron") energy that are imparted to a photon-jet final state. Comparison is made to predictions from the RAPGAP Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  9. RHEOLOGY OF EXTRUDED WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein isolate (WPI), a high-quality protein used to fortify a number of foods, may be texturized with a twin-screw extruder. Since extrusion of food is commonly performed above 70°C, which causes whey protein to denature, cold extrusion below 70°C was investigated to determine the effects on...

  10. Cancer Inhibitors Isolated from an African Plant

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Molecular Targets Development Program is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize cancer inhibitors isolated from the African plant Phyllanthus englerii. The technology is also available for exclusive or non-exclusive licensing.

  11. Isolated Jersey genetics are a treasure trove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jersey dairy cattle are found in at least 82 countries where they have made substantial contributions to animal agriculture. The progenitors or original source breeding stock of these cattle can still be found on Jersey Island. For over 219 years, these cattle have been kept in genetic isolation fro...

  12. Isolated laryngeal myasthenia gravis for 26 years.

    PubMed

    Renard, Dimitri; Hedayat, Amir; Gagnard, Corinne

    2015-02-01

    Laryngeal myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare variant of myasthenia gravis. A vast portion of patients with initial laryngeal myasthenia gravis develop involvement of ocular and/or extra-ocular muscles during the years after symptom onset although a minority of laryngeal myasthenia gravis patients continues to have isolated laryngeal muscle involvement for several years. We present a 58-year-old woman with recurrent episodic isolated dysphonia (associated with diffuse bilateral vocal cord paresis on laryngoscopy) since the age of 32. Dysphonia became permanent since 6 months. A diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia gravis was made based on abnormal single-fiber electromyography and spectacular response to pyridostigmine treatment. Repetitive nerve stimulation was normal and anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were absent. This case shows that laryngeal myasthenia gravis can be isolated during 26 years of follow-up. We propose that even when myasthenia gravis seems unlikely as underlying mechanism of isolated dysphonia (because of lack of antibodies, normal repetitive nerve stimulation, and absence of extra-laryngeal involvement after years of follow-up), single-fiber electromyography should be performed and myasthenia gravis treatment should be tried. PMID:25454167

  13. Virus isolation and propagation in embryonating eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The embryonating egg is one of the most versatile, easy to work with, and widely used host systems for the isolation and propagation of avian viruses. The embryonating chicken egg (ECE) is the most commonly available system that is both specific pathogen free and supports the replication of viruses...

  14. Primordial (pseudo)bulges in isolated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lorenzo, M.; Sulentic, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Blasco-Herrera, J.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Ramírez-Moreta, P.; Garrido, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Sánchez-Expósito, S.; Santander-Vela, J. D.

    2015-05-01

    Important clues about spiral galaxy formation lie in the nature of their central bulges. In this sense, properties of bulges in isolated galaxies best reflect their origin because of their minimized environmental evolutionary effects. We report here the structural parameters and (g-i) bulge/disk colors for a sample of 189 isolated galaxies selected from the AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies). A 2D bulge/disk/bar decomposition of SDSS i-band images was performed in order to identify the pseudobulges in our sample. We derived (g-i) bulge colors using aperture photometry. Pseudobulges in our sample show median colors (g-i)˜ 1.06, while their associated disks are much bluer, (g-i)˜ 0.77. Moreover, 64 % (113/177) of pseudobulges follow the red sequence of early-type galaxies. The bluer pseudobulges in our sample tend to be located in those galaxies more affected by the tidal interactions. The red bulge colors and low B/T values for AMIGA isolated galaxies are consistent with an early formation epoch. The results found here suggest that environment could be playing a role in rejuvenating the pseudobulges.

  15. Actively Controlled Magnetic Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Wbomski, Joseph F.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype magnetic suspension system with active control isolates object from vibrations in all six degrees of freedom at frequencies as low as 0.01 Hz. Designed specifically to protect instruments aboard spacecraft by suppressing vibrations to microgravity levels; basic control approach used for such terrestrial uses as suppression of shocks and other vibrations in trucks and railroad cars.

  16. INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

  17. GLUTAMINE CYCLING IN ISOLATED WORKING RAT HEART

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To what extent does glutamine turnover keep pace with oxidative metabolism in the rat heart? To address this question, the following substrates were presented to the isolated, working rat heart: (1) glucose (5 mM), insulin (40 mU/ml) and [2-13C]acetate (5mM) (high workload, n= 5); (2) pyruvate (2....

  18. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

  19. Full bridge converter Transformers and isolated converters

    E-print Network

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    Full bridge converter Transformers and isolated converters Most DC power supplies have parts of the B-H curve are used. Include: push-pull, half-bridge, full-bridge (explained below). An example - full-bridge converter Fig. 4: (a) Full-bridge converter. (b) voltage and current waveforms

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov., isolated

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    ORIGINAL PAPER Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) collected from Pohang in South Korea. Strain UB-M7T displayed-014-0318-x #12;Keywords Novel species Á Phaeobacter marinintestinus Á Polyphasic taxonomy Á Sea cucumber

  1. Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. Isolated From Seaweed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium WH0801T was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801T shared 96.1% identity with Agarivorans albus MKT 10...

  2. Isolation of a hemolytic Actinobacillus from waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Hacking, M A; Sileo, L

    1977-01-01

    A previously undescribed species of hemolytic Actinobacillus was isolated from six waterfowl, three with periocular serous exudation and two with airsacculitis and bronchopneumonia. Cultural and biochemical characteristics were compared with those of Actinobacillus and Pasteurella spp, using a numerical technique. PMID:839627

  3. Isolation and Laboratory Maintenance of Brachyspira Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachyspira species are anaerobic spirochetes inhabiting intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Several species cause transmissible intestinal diseases of swine and birds. This unit describes methods for the isolation of Brachyspira from fecal samples, cultivation on liquid and solid media, and lo...

  4. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  5. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  6. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie; Umhang, Gérald; Aspan, Anna; Juremalm, Mikael; Chirico, Jan; van der Wal, Fimme J.; Sprong, Hein; Boye Pihl, Thomas P.; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Bødker, Rene; Fach, Patrick; Moutailler, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia venatorum), unexpected (Borrelia miyamotoi), and rare (Bartonella henselae) pathogens in the three European countries. Moreover we detected Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia divergens, and Babesia venatorum for the first time in Danish ticks. This surveillance method represents a major improvement in epidemiological studies, able to facilitate comprehensive testing of TBPs, and which can also be customized to monitor emerging diseases. PMID:25120960

  7. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie; Umhang, Gérald; Aspan, Anna; Juremalm, Mikael; Chirico, Jan; van der Wal, Fimme J; Sprong, Hein; Boye Pihl, Thomas P; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Bødker, Rene; Fach, Patrick; Moutailler, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia venatorum), unexpected (Borrelia miyamotoi), and rare (Bartonella henselae) pathogens in the three European countries. Moreover we detected Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia divergens, and Babesia venatorum for the first time in Danish ticks. This surveillance method represents a major improvement in epidemiological studies, able to facilitate comprehensive testing of TBPs, and which can also be customized to monitor emerging diseases. PMID:25120960

  8. Cutaneous manifestations of opportunistic infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Tappero, J W; Perkins, B A; Wenger, J D; Berger, T G

    1995-01-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) presents most commonly as a cutaneous disease and is caused by two organisms. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae and Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana. Biopsy confirmation of cutaneous BA is essential because lesions can mimic nodular Kaposi's sarcoma in appearance. Although the vast majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with BA have CD4 lymphocyte counts of less than 100 cells per mm3, the disease responds well to antimicrobial therapy. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial skin pathogen affecting HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of skin disease due to S. aureus may be explained by high nasal carriage rates for the organism ( > or = 50%) and altered immune function in conjunction with an impaired cutaneous barrier. Herpes simplex virus causes mucocutaneous disease early in the course HIV infection and ulcerative lesions at any site in advanced HIV infection. Herpes zoster is common early in the course of HIV infection; recurrent and disseminated herpes zoster infections are characteristic of patients with advanced HIV disease. Acyclovir resistance is usually seen in patients with large, untreated, ulcerative lesions of herpes simplex virus and in patients with chronic, verrucous lesions of varicella-zoster virus. Cutaneous cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidiomycosis are markers of disseminated disease and require biopsy confirmation. Scabies is easily diagnosed but may be atypical in presentation and difficult to eradicate in advanced HIV disease. PMID:7553576

  9. Methanogenic Archaea Isolated from Taiwan's Chelungpu Fault? †

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sue-Yao; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial rocks, petroleum reservoirs, faults, coal seams, and subseafloor gas hydrates contain an abundance of diverse methanoarchaea. However, reports on the isolation, purification, and characterization of methanoarchaea in the subsurface environment are rare. Currently, no studies investigating methanoarchaea within fault environments exist. In this report, we succeeded in obtaining two new methanogen isolates, St545MbT of newly proposed species Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre FG694aF, from the Chelungpu fault, which is the fault that caused a devastating earthquake in central Taiwan in 1999. Strain FG694aF was isolated from a fault gouge sample obtained at 694 m below land surface (mbls) and is an autotrophic, mesophilic, nonmotile, thin, filamentous-rod-shaped organism capable of using H2-CO2 and formate as substrates for methanogenesis. The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to Methanobacterium palustre. The mesophilic strain St545MbT, isolated from a sandstone sample at 545 mbls, is a nonmotile, irregular, coccoid organism that uses methanol and trimethylamine as substrates for methanogenesis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain St545MbT was 99.0% similar to that of Methanolobus psychrophilus strain R15 and was 96 to 97.5% similar to the those of other Methanolobus species. However, the optimal growth temperature and total cell protein profile of strain St545MbT were different from those of M. psychrophilus strain R15, and whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization revealed less than 20% relatedness between these two strains. On the basis of these observations, we propose that strain St545MbT (DSM 19953T; BCRC AR10030; JCM 15159) be named Methanolobus chelungpuianus sp. nov. Moreover, the environmental DNA database survey indicates that both Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre are widespread in the subsurface environment. PMID:21148697

  10. Isolation and characterization of ornitho-kininogen.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Sueyoshi, T; Takada, K; Tanaka, K; Morita, T; Iwanaga, S

    1987-11-01

    Ornitho-kininogen was purified from chicken blood plasma by a two-stage method using chromatography on columns of S-alkylated papain-Cellulofine and DEAE-5PW. The yield was 1.7 mg from 44 ml plasma. The isolated preparation gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with or without 2-mercaptoethanol and on disc/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molecular mass, Mr, of ornitho-kininogen was estimated as 74,000 on SDS-PAGE using the Ferguson plot method. Ornitho-kininogen was found to have the similar properties to those of mammalian high-Mr kininogen, in terms of the amino acid composition, molecular mass, and susceptibility to plasma kallikrein. No kininogen corresponding to mammalian low-Mr kininogen and rat T-kininogen could be detected in chicken plasma. In fact, ornitho-kininogen was degraded rapidly by bovine plasma kallikrein, liberating a kinin. This kinin was isolated from the digest by reversed-phase HPLC. The primary structure of the isolated kinin was determined as Arg1-Pro2-Pro3-Gly4-Phe5-Thr6-Pro7-Leu8-Arg9. The sequence of this peptide, named ornitho-kinin, was similar to that of bradykinin except for the substitution of Thr6 and Leu8 for Ser6 and Phe8. The isolated ornitho-kinin induced a contraction of chicken smooth muscle and had a strong hypotensive effect in the chicken. However, it did not contract the isolated rat uterus. It is suggested that this specificity difference is due to the replacement of Phe8 by Leu8. The sequence of residues 1-30 of ornitho-kininogen exhibited 43% identity with that of bovine kininogen. PMID:3665932

  11. Biochemical studies of isolated hamster tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, D G

    1976-01-01

    The epithelial lining of respiratory air passageways is a primary target tissue for toxicity and carcinogenesis in man and in animal models of human disease. The importance of this target tissue was the basis for development of methods to study its biochemistry, and with this information to distinguish the unique properties of this tissue from properties common to all cell types. Biochemical methods employed labeling of macromolecules in isolated hamster treacheas during brief (less than 4 hr) incubation in vitro. Studies of RNA metabolism in isolated tracheas demonstrated a pattern of maturation of ribosomal RNA like that shown for other cell types. Alterations in RNA metabolism were observed in isolated tracheas obtained from vitamin A-deficient hamsters and hamsters previously treated by intratracheal administration of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) plus ferric oxide (Fe2O3) in vivo. Studies with toyocamycin, actinomycin D, and alpha-amanitin, all inhibitors of RNA metabolism, were performed to characterize the class of RNA molecules with a decreased proportion of labeling in tracheas from vitamin A deficient hamsters. In another series of experiments, BP was shown to bind to DNA in epithelial cells of isolated tracheas. The quantity of BP binding was increased by prior intratracheal treatment of hamsters with BP plus Fe2O3 in vivo, this induced binding was inhibited by addition of 7,8-benzoflavone to the incubation medium. Increased BP binding was also observed in isolated tracheas from hamsters believed to be in states of increased susceptibility to respiratory carcinogenesis in vivo. The results show that biochemical studies are feasible with this tissue. Furthermore, a number of questions of importance with regard to this target epithelium are best studied directly in its constituent cells. PMID:1017424

  12. Isolation, excystation and axenization of Giardia lamblia isolates: in vitro susceptibility to metronidazole and albendazole.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Agostinho; Sousa, M Isaura; Azeredo, Zaida; Leite, Emilia; Figueiredo de Sousa, J C; Cabral, Miguel

    2003-04-01

    From 53 samples of human faeces containing Giardia lamblia cysts, 18 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro, and cultivated axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium. The in vitro effects of metronidazole and albendazole on these isolates were evaluated by the trophozoite adherence inhibition method. The IC50 was between 2.4 and 11.5 micro M for metronidazole and 0.027 and 0.192 micro M for albendazole. These IC50 values were similar to those found for the ATCC 30888 and 30957 reference isolates. All isolates were susceptible to the antiparasitic drugs tested. These results suggest that resistance of G. lamblia to metronidazole and albendazole does not seem to be a significant problem in our population. PMID:12654760

  13. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. V. Quantification of the isolation

    E-print Network

    Verley, S; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Combes, F; Sabater, J; Sulentic, J; Bergond, G; Espada, D; García, E; Lisenfeld, U; Odewahn, S C

    2007-01-01

    The AMIGA project aims to build a well defined and statistically significant reference sample of isolated galaxies in order to estimate the environmental effects on the formation and evolution of galaxies. The goal of this paper is to provide a measure of the environment of the isolated galaxies in the AMIGA sample, quantifying the influence of the candidate neighbours identified in our previous work and their potential effects on the evolution of the primary galaxies. Here we provide a quantification of the isolation degree of the galaxies in this sample. Our starting sample is the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). We used two parameters to estimate the influence exerted by the neighbour galaxies on the CIG galaxy: the local number density of neighbour galaxies and the tidal strength affecting the CIG galaxy. We show that both parameters together provide a comprehensive picture of the environment. For comparison, those parameters have also been derived for galaxies in denser environments such as triplets...

  14. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. IV. A catalogue of neighbours around isolated galaxies

    E-print Network

    S. Verley; S. C. Odewahn; L. Verdes-Montenegro; S. Leon; F. Combes; J. Sulentic; G. Bergond; D. Espada; E. Garcia; U. Lisenfeld; J. Sabater

    2007-05-03

    Studies of the effects of environment on galaxy properties and evolution require well defined control samples. Such isolated galaxy samples have up to now been small or poorly defined. The AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) represents an attempt to define a statistically useful sample of the most isolated galaxies in the local (z AMIGA project already exists, the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies (CIG, Karachentseva 1973; 1050 galaxies), and we use this sample as a starting point to refine and perform a better quantification of its isolation properties. Digitised POSS-I E images were analysed out to a minimum projected radius R > 0.5 Mpc around 950 CIG galaxies (those within Vr = 1500 km s-1 were excluded). We identified all galaxy candidates in each field brighter than B = 17.5 with a high degree of confidence using the LMORPHO software. We generated a catalogue of approximately 54 000 potential neighbours (redshifts exist for 30% of this sample). Six hundred sixty-six galaxies pass and two hundred eighty-four fail the original CIG isolation criterion. The available redshift data confirm that our catalogue involves a largely background population rather than physically associated neighbours. We find that the exclusion of neighbours within a factor of four in size around each CIG galaxy, employed in the original isolation criterion, corresponds to Delta Vr ~ 18000 km s-1 indicating that it was a conservative limit. Galaxies in the CIG have been found to show different degrees of isolation. We conclude that a quantitative measure of this is mandatory. It will be the subject of future work based on the catalogue of neighbours obtained here.

  15. Isolation and characterization of probiotic properties of Lactobacilli isolated from rat fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jena, Prasant Kumar; Trivedi, Disha; Thakore, Kirati; Chaudhary, Harshita; Giri, Sib Sankar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize lactobacilli isolates from the feces of male Wistar rats. Various physiological features of the candidate probiotic isolates were preliminarily investigated, including tolerance to simulated gastric juice and bile salts, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and in vitro aggregation. Based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics, four potential probiotic isolates (CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS7) were screened. The isolates showed good tolerance to stimulated gastric juice and bile salts. CS4 and CS7 exhibited strong antibacterial activities against the pathogens tested as assessed in neutral pH culture supernatants. All lactobacilli isolates were susceptible to all the tested antibiotics, except vancomycin. Moreover, the isolate CS4 and CS7 were found to possess stronger cell surface traits such as hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation capacity. In addition, CS4 and CS7 had greater ?-galactosidase activities than the others. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that CS2, CS3, CS4 and CS7 are Lactobacillus intestinalis PJ2, L. sakei PJ3, L. helveticus PJ4, and L. plantarum PJ7, respectively. Based on the obtained results, L. helveticus PJ4 and L. plantarum PJ7 are ideal in vitro probiotic candidates and require further in vivo evaluation. PMID:23773019

  16. Isolation and molecular characterization of a new Neospora caninum isolate from cattle in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Campero, L M; Venturini, M C; Moore, D P; Massola, L; Lagomarsino, H; García, B; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Leunda, M R; Schares, G; Campero, C M

    2015-08-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of bovine abortion, but isolation of live parasites from infected tissue is difficult. The aims of the present study were to obtain new isolates of N. caninum from congenitally infected asymptomatic newborn cattle in Argentina and to perform characterization by multilocus-microsatellite analysis. Five clinically normal born calves, with demonstrable N. caninum antibodies in precolostrum serum by indirect fluorescent antibody test, were euthanized and their brain samples were processed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and for bioassay in ?-interferon knockout (GKO) mice. Although N. caninum DNA was detected in brain from all the calves by PCR, viable N. caninum was isolated in GKO mice from only one calf. Neospora caninum tachyzoites of this Argentinean isolate, designated NC-Argentina LP1, were propagated in VERO cell cultures seeded with tachyzoites from the infected GKO mice tissues. Multilocus-microsatellite typing on DNA derived from cell cultured tachyzoites revealed a unique genetic pattern, different from reported isolates. This is the first bovine isolation and genetic characterization of N. caninum in Argentina. PMID:25913666

  17. Diagnostic criteria and tumor screening for individuals with isolated hemihyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Carol L; Martin, Rick A

    2009-03-01

    Isolated hemihyperplasia, formerly termed isolated hemihypertrophy, is a congenital overgrowth disorder associated with an increased risk for embryonal tumors, mainly Wilms tumor and hepatoblastoma. This practice guideline will set forth the diagnostic criteria and tumor screening recommendations for children with isolated hemihyperplasia, based on the best information available. There is clinical overlap between isolated hemihyperplasia with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The majority of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome patients have a molecular abnormality involving the imprinted cluster of genes at 11p15.5. In contrast, the preponderance of isolated hemihyperplasia patients studied have no identified etiology. Tumors have developed in isolated hemihyperplasia patients with and without molecular abnormalities. For this reason, molecular diagnostics are not helpful in identifying the subset of isolated hemihyperplasia patients with tumor risk and all isolated hemihyperplasia patients should undergo tumor screening. PMID:19367194

  18. Diagnostic criteria and tumor screening for individuals with isolated hemihyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Clericuzio, Carol L.; Martin, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    Isolated hemihyperplasia, formerly termed isolated hemihypertrophy, is a congenital overgrowth disorder associated with an increased risk for embryonal tumors, mainly Wilms tumor and hepatoblastoma. This practice guideline will set forth the diagnostic criteria and tumor screening recommendations for children with isolated hemihyperplasia, based on the best information available. There is clinical overlap between isolated hemihyperplasia with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The majority of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome patients have a molecular abnormality involving the imprinted cluster of genes at 11p15.5. In contrast, the preponderance of isolated hemihyperplasia patients studied have no identified etiology. Tumors have developed in isolated hemihyperplasia patients with and without molecular abnormalities. For this reason, molecular diagnostics are not helpful in identifying the subset of isolated hemihyperplasia patients with tumor risk and all isolated hemihyperplasia patients should undergo tumor screening. PMID:19367194

  19. Acid soluble platelet aggregating material isolated from human umbilical cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-12-27

    An acid soluble, pepsin sensitive platelet aggregating material is isolated from human umbilical cord tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation is disclosed and its use to control bleeding is described. 2 figs.

  20. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Draper, B.L.; Flores, R.S.

    1998-02-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide.

  1. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  2. A Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. This paper provides a tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements as well as a comparison of the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation. This paper also surveys the flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation (STABLE); the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM); and the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS).

  3. Degradation of ochratoxin A and other mycotoxins by Rhizopus isolates.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Péteri, Zsanett; Tábori, Katalin; Téren, József; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2005-04-01

    Several filamentous fungi representing the genera Rhizopus and Mucor were examined for their ability to degrade ochratoxin A (OTA), aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and patulin in a liquid medium. While none of the isolates exhibited aflatoxin degrading activity, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and patulin were decomposed by several isolates. Ochratoxin A was successfully degraded by Rhizopus stolonifer, R. microsporus, R. homothallicus and two R. oryzae isolates, and by four unidentified Rhizopus isolates. Kinetics of ochratoxin A detoxification of selected Rhizopus isolates was also examined. Rhizopus isolates were able to degrade more than 95% of ochratoxin A within 16 days. A R. stolonifer isolate could also effectively decompose ochratoxin A on moistened wheat. Further studies are in progress to identify the enzymes and genes responsible for ochratoxin detoxification and to transfer these genes to other Rhizopus isolates or microbes which could be used safely for decontamination of cereal products. PMID:15808366

  4. Analog buffer isolates high impedance source from low impedance load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denny, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Analog buffer amplifier isolates a high impedance source from a low impedance load through an impedance ratio of approximately 200 million to one. Isolation is accomplished with little alteration to temperature stability, linearity, and gain parameters.

  5. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  6. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  7. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  8. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  9. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping ...Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must be thermally...

  10. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) with isolation posts

    E-print Network

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) with isolation posts Yongli Huang online 14 December 2007 Abstract In this paper, an improved design of a capacitive micromachined. Keywords: Ultrasound; Transducer; CMUT; Isolation posts; Charging; Hysteresis; Reliability 1. Introduction

  11. Mayaro virus isolated from a Trinidadian mosquito, Mansonia venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    AITKEN, T H; DOWNS, W G; ANDERSON, C R; SPENCE, L; CASALS, J

    1960-04-01

    A strain of Mayaro virus has been isolated in Trinidad from the mosquito Mansonia venezuelensis. This is the first record of isolation of this agent from naturally infected mosquitoes, caught in the wild. PMID:13792204

  12. Original article AFLP analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates

    E-print Network

    Lan, Ruiting

    Original article AFLP analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates of phage types fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to 35 and 34 isolates, respectively, of Salmonella enterica scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium; Classification

  13. Comparison of serological and molecular panels for diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) are caused by a diverse array of pathogens with varying biological behaviors that result in a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and laboratory abnormalities. For many reasons, the diagnosis of canine vector-borne infectious diseases can be challenging for clinicians. The aim of the present study was to compare CVBD serological and molecular testing as the two most common methodologies used for screening healthy dogs or diagnosing sick dogs in which a vector-borne disease is suspected. Methods We used serological (Anaplasma species, Babesia canis, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and SFG Rickettsia) and molecular assays to assess for exposure to, or infection with, 10 genera of organisms that cause CVBDs (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, Francisella, hemotropic Mycoplasma, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, and Dirofilaria). Paired serum and EDTA blood samples from 30 clinically healthy dogs (Group I) and from 69 sick dogs suspected of having one or more canine vector-borne diseases (Groups II-IV), were tested in parallel to establish exposure to or infection with the specific CVBDs targeted in this study. Results Among all dogs tested (Groups I-IV), the molecular prevalences for individual CVBD pathogens ranged between 23.3 and 39.1%. Similarly, pathogen-specific seroprevalences ranged from 43.3% to 59.4% among healthy and sick dogs (Groups I-IV). Among these representative sample groupings, a panel combining serological and molecular assays run in parallel resulted in a 4-58% increase in the recognition of exposure to or infection with CVBD. Conclusions We conclude that serological and PCR assays should be used in parallel to maximize CVBD diagnosis. PMID:24670154

  14. Dipole Experiment with Magnetically Isolated Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montag, P.; Egedal, J.; Vrublevskis, A.; Le, A.; Fox, W.

    2012-10-01

    Basics plasma physics experiments in the collisionless regimes require good plasma confinement to permit temperatures and densities in the range of Te˜30 eV, n ˜1.10^19 m-3. Our design for a new magnetic reconnection experiment is based on the confinement of the dipole geometry which has also been considered for fusion applications (e.i. the LDX experiment at MIT). Rather than magnetic levitation as applied in the LDX experiment, we use magnetically isolated supports. This magnetic isolation is achieved by applying currents in the support structures configuring the magnetic field such that the plasma cannot stream directly to the support along magnetic field lines. We here report on the first magnetic and electrostatic measurements in this dipole configuration.

  15. Isolation and biological activity of frankiamide.

    PubMed

    Haansuu, J P; Klika, K D; Söderholm, P P; Ovcharenko, V V; Pihlaja, K; Haahtela, K K; Vuorela, P M

    2001-07-01

    An antibiotic produced by the symbiotic actinomycete Frankia strain AiPs1 was isolated from culture broth using optimized thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The novel compound that was isolated, dubbed frankiamide, displayed antimicrobial activity against all 14 Gram-positive bacterial strains and six pathogenic fungal strains tested. The pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis and the oomycete Phytophthora were especially susceptible. In addition to displaying antimicrobial activity, frankiamide also strongly inhibited 45Ca(2+) fluxes in clonal rat pituitary GH4C1 tumor cells and was comparable to a frequently used calcium antagonist, verapamil hydrochloride. The results of HPLC analysis, supported by both nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy studies, showed that frankiamide has a high affinity for Na(+) ions. PMID:11598813

  16. Friendly protection of houses by affordable isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzolani, Federico M.; Mandara, Alberto; Froncillo, Salvatore

    2008-07-08

    The paper deals with a case of seismic isolation carried out in Campania (Italy), referring to the construction of a house building. The concerned case is a three-storey reinforced concrete frame building, in which the isolation system has been applied between the basement top and the first floor deck. The paper reports the main steps of this work, starting from the design, carried out according to the latest Italian seismic code, going throughout the construction stage, up to the extensive on-site testing program performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the building. Relevant technological solutions are illustrated and discussed. Both theoretical calculation and experimental measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution adopted, not only from the technical point of view, but also in an economic perspective.

  17. Isolated congenital left ventricular diverticulum in adults.

    PubMed

    Vaidiyanathan, D; Prabhakar, D; Selvam, K; Alagesan, R; Thirunavukarasu, N; Muthukumar, D

    2001-01-01

    Isolated congenital ventricular diverticulum or aneurysm is rare and usually arises from the left ventricle. The presentation of this condition is diverse. We report three cases of isolated congenital left ventricular diverticula. The age range was 17-30 years. Chest X-ray provided the earliest clinical suspicion in these three cases of a cardiac anomaly which was diagnosed by echocardiography and confirmed by angiocardiography. The location of the congenital left ventricular diverticulum was the left ventricular apex in two cases and basal in the other. We conclude that congenital left ventricular diverticulum is a disease of protean presentations. A high index of suspicion is necessary while interpreting chest X-rays and echocardiographs to diagnose congenital left ventricular diverticulum. A contractile accessory chamber of the left ventricle with a narrow neck with or without midline defects and an electrocardiogram without Q waves is consistent with the diagnosis of congenital left ventricular diverticulum. PMID:11428481

  18. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Peter; Rae, Philip John; Foley, Timothy J.; Novak, Alan M.; Armstrong, Christopher Lee; Baca, Eva V.; Gunderson, Jake Alfred

    2015-09-30

    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  19. Isolated tuberculous lymphadenitis presenting as bilateral buboes

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Arun Prasath; Samuel, Soumya; Vadivel, Sivasubramanian; Kothandapany, Srivenkateswaran

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal and femoral buboes are defined as localized enlargement of lymph nodes in the groin that are painful, and may or may not be fluctuant. We report a case of 42-year-old female who presented with bilateral inguinal swelling of 6 months duration. After a complete evaluation, she was found to be a case of isolated inguinal tuberculous lymphadenitis. There was complete resolution with standard antituberculous therapy. Isolated inguinal tuberculous lymphadenitis though a rare entity in developed countries is not uncommon in developing nations. In this era of syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases, which carries its own pros and cons, this case report emphasizes the need to look beyond the venereal causes and calls for thorough evaluation and management. PMID:26392662

  20. Stellar Populations Gradients in Isolated Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, S. L.; LCID Group

    2012-08-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) as a function of galactocentric radius for a sample of isolated dwarf galaxies from the Local Cosmology from the Isolated Dwarfs (LCID) project. The results show a decrease of the star formation with radius for stars with ages ? 9 Gyr. Star formation for ages ? 10 Gyr is present regardless of distance to the center. The maximum metallicity of Cetus and Tucana is reached earlier than in LGS-3 and Phoenix although this effect tends to disappear at larger distances from the center. The age-metallicity realtion of LGS-3 and Phoenix is more flat at old ages, increasing at younger ages. The results suggest that, regardless the morphological type, the properties of theses galaxies tend to be the same at larger distances from the center.

  1. Comparison of Virulence Markers of Peritoneal and Fallopian Tube Isolates with Endocervical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Women with Acute Salpingitis

    PubMed Central

    Draper, D. L.; James, J. F.; Brooks, G. F.; Sweet, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains which cause acute salpingitis are presumed to ascend the genital tract from the cervix. Previous studies utilized isolates obtained from endocervical canal cultures, although it was not known if the isolates truly represented the organisms present in the fallopian tubes. In this study, we compared N. gonorrhoeae isolates from endocervical canal cultures with fallopian tube or peritoneal cul-de-sac isolates or isolates from both sites obtained at laparoscopy. Potential virulence markers were studied, including colony phenotype, auxotype, antimicrobial agent susceptibility, protein patterns on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and susceptibility to normal human serum. Six of seven cervical isolates had the same antibiograms and molecular weight for major outer membrane proteins as those of the corresponding peritoneal isolates. Auxotypes also were the same and included prototrophic, proline-requiring, and proline-and-arginine-requiring isolates. The isolates as a group appeared to be very susceptible to the bactericidal action of pooled serum from normal women. Colony phenotypes varied between sites; the fallopian tubecul-de-sac isolates were predominantly of transparent phenotype and piliated. The cervical isolates were either mixtures of equal quantities of opaque and transparent phenotypes or predominantly opaque phenotype. By these markers, patients' N. gonorrhoeae cervical isolates appeared to be the same as their isolates from fallopian tubes except for a difference or shift in colony phenotype. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6769811

  2. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    PubMed

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

  3. Isolation of symbiotic dinoflagellates by centrifugal elutriation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.E.; Quinn, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation, a method combining centripetal liquid flow with centrifugal force, has been used to isolate symbiotic dinoflagellates from a cnidarian host. The elutriated cells were shown to be viable by photosynthetic incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and low release of photosynthetic products into the incubation medium. The level of contamination by clinging debris was low and by host solids was negligible.

  4. Absorption spectroscopy of isolated magnetic antivortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pues, Matthias; Martens, Michael; Meier, Guido

    2014-10-01

    We present an analysis of the dynamics of isolated magnetic antivortices preformed by high frequency absorption measurements from the linear via the non-linear to the switching regime. Static magnetic bias fields are used to deflect the antivortex out of the equilibrium position and the shift of the resonance frequency of the gyrotropic eigenmode is observed. The results from the absorption measurements for highly anisotropic annihilation fields of the antivortex are compared with magneto-resistance measurements and micromagnetic simulations.

  5. Isolation of Mycoplasma meleagridis from chickens.

    PubMed

    Béjaoui Khiari, A; Landoulsi, A; Aissa, H; Mlik, B; Amouna, F; Ejlassi, A; Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, B

    2011-03-01

    Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM) is a major cause of disease and economic loss in turkeys. Formerly it was thought that this species was very host specific and only restricted to turkey. In this study, we report on the recovery of MM from breeding flocks of chickens located near a turkey breeding unit. Ten MM field strains were isolated (by culture on Frey broth medium) from tracheal swabs of chickens displaying clinical signs of mycoplasmosis-essentially respiratory symptoms and poor performance. Assignment of the isolated field strains to MM was confirmed by a growth inhibition assay using MM-specific polyclonal antiserum and by PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA sequence as well as the Mm14 sequence, a MM-species-specific DNA fragment previously identified and characterized in our laboratory. The nucleotide sequence of Mm14 proved to be highly conserved among the 10 MM field strains, indicating a common source of infection. However, on the basis of slight differences in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whole-cell proteins and western blot profiles, two groups of the isolated MM field strains could be distinguished. Evidence of MM infection of chickens was further provided by serology, since 13.77% (35/254) of sera proved positive to MM by either rapid serum agglutination or recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, sera of all chickens from which MM was isolated were positive for antibodies to MM. Collectively, the data unambiguously show that MM could infect chickens; thus, MM warrants further exploration to determine its pathogenicity in this unusual host. PMID:21500629

  6. An isolated case of first metatarsal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Madi, Sandesh; Naik, Monappa; Vijayan, Sandeep; Rao, Sharath

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adolescent presented to us with multiple discharging sinuses from his right foot for the past 1 year. All serological parameters were within normal limits. X-ray picture revealed an expansile osteolytic lesion of first metatarsal. Tissue biopsy and PCR confirmed it be of tubercular etiology. The incidence of isolated occurrence of metatarsal tuberculosis is very rare and the diagnostic dilemma it brings about is briefly discussed in the following report.

  7. Solitary isolated neurofibroma of the soft palate

    PubMed Central

    Kodiya, Aliyu M.; Ngamdu, Yusuf B.; Sandabe, Mala B.; Isa, Abdullahi; Garandawa, Hamman I.

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibroma of the soft palate is an unusual tumor and probably only two cases have been reported in English literature previously. Solitary isolated neurofibroma of the soft palate not associated with von Recklinghausen's disease is even more infrequent. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the third reported in English literature. Complete surgical excision was achieved after tracheostomy due to envisaged difficulty in intubation. We present a 40-year-old man with an uncommon soft palatal neurogenic tumor. PMID:24963930

  8. Active Inertial Vibration Isolators And Dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Darren; Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Report describes development of active inertial vibration isolators and dampers in which actuators electromagnet coils moving linearly within permanent magnetic fields in housings, somewhat as though massive, low-frequency voice coils in loudspeakers. Discusses principle of operation, electrical and mechanical considerations in design of actuators, characteristics of accelerometers, and frequency responses of control systems. Describes design and performance of one- and three-degree-of-freedom vibration-suppressing system based on concept.

  9. Isolation Mounting for Charge-Coupled Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.; Salomon, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    CCD's suspended by wires under tension. Remote thermoelectric cooling of charge coupled device allows vibration isolating mounting of CCD assembly alone, without having to suspend entire mass and bulk of thermoelectric module. Mounting hardware simple and light. Developed for charge-coupled devices (CCD's) in infrared telescope support adaptable to sensors in variety of environments, e.g., sensors in nuclear reactors, engine exhausts and plasma chambers.

  10. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1994-06-01

    This paper deals with mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base-isolation systems. A numerical algorithm is described for system response analysis of isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings. The focus of this paper is on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive equation for the isolation bearing, and the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the mitigating effect of using base-isolation systems.

  11. International Workshop on Vibration Isolation Technology for Microgravity Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubomski, Joseph F. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The International Workshop on Vibration Isolation Technology for Microgravity Science Applications was held on April 23-25, 1991 at the Holiday Inn in Middleburg Heights, Ohio. The main objective of the conference was to explore vibration isolation requirements of space experiments and what level of vibration isolation could be provided both by present and planned systems on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom and by state of the art vibration isolation technology.

  12. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-Y.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems. A numerical algorithm for analyzing system response of base-isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings is briefly described. Seismic response analyses of both base- isolated and unisolated buildings under earthquakes {number_sign}42 and {number_sign}44 are performed and the results are compared to illustrate the mitigating effect of base-isolated systems.

  13. Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from oil palm trunk.

    PubMed

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nordin, Noor Afeefah

    2015-08-20

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis) using acid hydrolysis method. The morphology and size of the nanocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanocrystals isolated from raw oil palm trunk (OPT) fibers and hot water treated OPT fibers had an average diameter of 7.67 nm and 7.97 nm and length of 397.03 nm and 361.70 nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy indicated that lignin and hemicellulose contents decreased. It seems that lignin was completely removed from the samples during chemical treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that cellulose nanocrystals after acid hydrolysis had higher thermal stability compared to the raw and hot water treated OPT fibers. The X-ray diffraction analysis increased crystallinity of the samples due to chemical treatment. The crystalline nature of the isolated nanocrystals from raw and hot water treated OPT ranged from 68 to 70%. PMID:25965475

  14. The nature of the extremely isolated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Oded; Brosch, Noah

    2015-08-01

    We report results from a study of the most isolated galaxies (EIGs). The galaxies were selected to be about 4 Mpc away from any other object, based on optical and 21-cm redshifts. The meaning of “isolation” was tested with cosmological simulations of the nearby Universe; this showed that galaxies considered as isolated in other studies have companions with whom they could have interacted. The star formation properties of the sample galaxies were studied with optical, UV, nIR and HI data. We found that the EIGs have normal halos that evolved with no major events in the last 3 Gyr. The EIGs follow the “main sequence” of star-forming galaxies with those with stellar mass less than dex(10.6) solar masses being typical “blue cloud” objects. The most extreme EIGs tend to have less gas, and to be more “early-type” than the less extreme types. We speculate that the large-scale structure of the environment a galaxy finds itself in affects the HI mass and the morphology of a galaxy.

  15. Isolation of methanotrophic bacteria from termite gut.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Julia; Rachel, Reinhard; Kämpfer, Peter; Rabenstein, Andreas; Küver, Jan; Dröge, Stefan; König, Helmut

    2015-10-01

    The guts of termites feature suitable conditions for methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) with their permanent production of CH4 and constant supply of O2 via tracheae. In this study, we have isolated MOB from the gut contents of the termites Incisitermes marginipennis, Mastotermes darwiniensis, and Neotermes castaneus for the first time. The existence of MOB was indicated by detecting pmoA, the gene for the particulate methane monooxygenase, in the DNA of gut contents. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction supported those findings. The MOB cell titer was determined to be 10(2)-10(3) per gut. Analyses of the 16S rDNA from isolates indicated close similarity to the genus Methylocystis. After various physiological tests and fingerprinting methods, no exact match to a known species was obtained, indicating the isolation of new MOB species. However, MALDI-TOF MS analyses revealed a close relationship to Methylocystis bryophila and Methylocystis parvus. PMID:26411892

  16. Payload vibration isolation in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Many in-space research experiments require the microgravity environment attainable near the center of mass of the Space Station. Disturbances to the structure surrounding an experiment may lead to vibration levels that will degrade the microgravity environment and undermine the experiment's validity. In-flight disturbances will include vibration transmission from nearby equipment and excitation from crew activity. Isolation of these vibration-sensitive experiments is required. Analytical and experimental work accomplished to develop a payload (experiment) isolation system for use in space is described. The isolation scheme allows the payload to float freely within a prescribed boundary while being kept centered with forces generated by small jets of air. The vibration criterion was a maximum payload acceleration of 10 micro-g's (9.81x10(exp -5)m/s(exp 2), independent of frequency. An experimental setup, composed of a cart supported by air bearings on a flat granite slab, was designed and constructed to simulate the microgravity environment in the horizontal plane. Experimental results demonstrate that the air jet control system can effectively manage payload oscillatory response. An analytical model was developed and verified by comparing predicted and measured payload response. The mathematical model, which includes payload dynamics, control logic, and air jet forces, is used to investigate payload response to disturbances likely to be present in the Space Station.

  17. Isolation of the Arabidopsis GA4 locus.

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, H H; Hwang, I; Goodman, H M

    1995-01-01

    Progeny from a transgenic Arabidopsis plant generated by the Agrobacterium root transformation procedure were found to segregate for a gibberellin (GA)-responsive semidwarf phenotype. Complementation analysis with genetically characterized GA-responsive mutants revealed that the transgenic plant has an insertional mutation (ga4-2) that is an allele of the ga4 locus. The semidwarf phenotype of ga4-2 is inherited as a recessive mutation that cosegregates with both the T-DNA insert and the kanamycin resistance trait. DNA gel blot analysis indicated that the insertion site contains a complex T-DNA unit. A genomic library was constructed with DNA from the tagged ga4 mutant; a DNA clone was isolated from the library that flanks the T-DNA insert. The plant sequence isolated from this clone was used to isolate the corresponding full-length genomic and cDNA clones from wild-type libraries. DNA sequence comparison of the clones to the existing data bases suggests that they encode a hydroxylase. This conclusion is in agreement with a biochemical study that indicated that the ga4 mutant is deficient in 3 beta-hydroxylase in the GA biosynthetic pathway of Arabidopsis. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the message is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues of Arabidopsis but most abundantly in the silique. Unexpectedly, a higher level of transcription was detected in the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced ga4 mutant, and this overexpression was repressed by treatment with exogenous GA. PMID:7756830

  18. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins. PMID:21049524

  19. Isolated Chemical Burns to the Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Razek, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Perineal or genital burns are mostly part of large body surface injuries, and isolated burns to the genitalia are not common. Nevertheless, they are of major concern to the patient and clinician. Highly concentrated solutions of sulphuric acid are available to unclog drains. We have noted a substantial number of both accidental and intentional cutaneous burns caused by these agents and we therefore conducted a study on the incidence and treatment of isolated chemical burns in the genitalia. The study was performed in the Burns Unit, King Saud Hospital, Al-Qassim, Kingdom Saudi Arabia, from April 2001 to December 2004. During this period we received 12 patients with isolated chemical burns in the genitalia, representing 3.4% of all cases of burns treated between 2001 and 2004 (350 patients with different causes and variable percentages of burns). Of these 12 patients, 11 were males and one female. The patients' ages ranged from 9 to 75 yr. The mean burn size was 2% of the total body surface area. The cause of the burn injury was sulphuric acid, which is famous in this area for water closet cleaning. Eight patients (66.7%) required skin grafting, one healed with minimal scarring, and three (25%) healed with minimal contractures treated with multiple Z-plasty. We concluded that conservative management of perineal and genital chemical burns was recommended until the demarcation zone became clear. Split-thickness skin grafts were durable, safe, and technically easy, with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. PMID:21991041

  20. Available potential energy of an isolated feature

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, D.

    1988-01-15

    The true available potential energy (APE) of an isolated feature (e.g. a warm-core ring) in a basin is the difference in the potential plus internal energy between the observed and reference state. The reference state is that in which the same fluid is redistributed adiabatically to a stably stratified state and the isopycnals are on constant geopotential surfaces. For an isolated feature in an infinitely wide basin, it would seem reasonable to assume that the far-field density structure is a good approximation of the reference state. This approximation to the reference state will be examined in this paper. Four different methods of calculating the available potential of an isolated feature are compared. These are (1) the gravitational available potential energy using the reference state (APE/sub G/), (2) the gravitational available potential energy using the far-field density structure as an approximation for the reference state, (3) the Boussinesq available potential energy using the reference state (APE/sub B/), and (4) the Boussinesq available potential energy using the far-field density structure instead of the reference state. The gravitational available potential energy using the the reference state (APE/sub G/) is the true available potential energy for an incompressible fluid.

  1. Isolated rupture of the teres major tendon.

    PubMed

    Lester, Jonathan D; Boselli, Karen J; Kim, Paul D; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2010-11-01

    Acute isolated rupture of the teres major is an uncommon injury. This article presents the first report of midterm subjective and objective functional results following nonoperative management of an isolated teres major rupture. A 30-year-old right hand dominant man presented after a waterskiing traction injury to his left upper extremity. On physical examination, the patient had swelling and retraction of the teres major at the lower scapular border, which was accentuated with resisted adduction of the extremity. His teres major attachment at the humerus was not palpable. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated teres major tendon rupture. The patient was treated non-operatively with a rehabilitation protocol emphasizing rotator cuff, periscapular, and latissimus muscle strengthening. By 3 months postinjury, the patient had returned to all of his usual sporting activities, despite a persistent muscle retraction deformity over the teres major. At 3-year follow-up, the patient had no subjective complaints in the injured extremity and excellent functional outcome scores. A mean 37 kg loss of internal rotation strength (as measured by dynamometer) in the affected extremity with the arm abducted to 90° existed, although this difference was not subjectively appreciable. Although previously published reports have presented various options for the management of teres major injuries, the present case demonstrates that nonoperative treatment can produce excellent midterm subjective results in spite of objective internal rotation weakness. PMID:21053871

  2. Liver fluke isolates: a question of provenance.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, I

    2011-02-28

    A survey of literature on experimental infections with the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica published between 2005 and 2009 has revealed a general lack of information on where fluke material (i.e. metacercariae) was sourced from. Even less information was given on the drug status of the fluke isolate used, which is a particular concern for those studies that involved anthelmintics. In these two respects, information on the liver fluke lags far behind that for nematodes, where such information is given almost as a matter of course. Of additional concern is that, at times, information about the source and drug history of fluke isolates was incorrect. The overall aim of the review is to demonstrate why it is important to provide as much information as possible on what fluke material is being used. It also attempts to correct some of the errors in the literature and gather together what information is available about the provenance of those isolates that have been used in recent experimental studies. PMID:21227593

  3. Isolated Right Ventricular Myocarditis: Rarely Reported Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Munir, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Preventing the morbidity and mortality from isolated right ventricular myocarditis by its early recognition and treatment. Background. The clinical presentation of myocarditis ranges from nonspecific systemic symptoms (fever, myalgia, palpitations, or exertional dyspnea) to fulminant cardiac failure and sudden death. In our case, echocardiography raised the possibility of myocarditis at an early stage, although the signs and symptoms did not indicate right ventricular disease. Review of the literature showed only 4 previous reports, all diagnosed at autopsy, in which diagnosis was not suspected in vivo. Design/Methods. We are reporting case of a 23-year-old male with no past medical history who presented to emergency room with a nonexertional sharp left sided chest pain. Diagnostic tests were conducted, which revealed elevated troponins, decreased right ventricular ejection function but preserved left ventricular function, and no evidence of coronary artery disease. Results. A diagnosis of isolated right ventricular myocarditis was made on the basis of clinical, echocardiographic, and cardiac MRI findings. Conclusions. Isolated right ventricular myocarditis should be suspected in a patient with depressed right ventricular function without left ventricular involvement on echocardiography and cardiac MRI, elevated cardiac enzymes, and no evidence of coronary artery disease. PMID:26421195

  4. Antarctic isolation: immune and viral studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingate, T. R.; Lugg, D. J.; Muller, H. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions are a major determinant of immune reactivity. This effect is pronounced in Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition populations exposed to prolonged periods of isolation in the Antarctic. Alterations of T cell function, including depression of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and a peak 48.9% reduction of T cell proliferation to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin, were documented during a 9-month period of isolation. T cell dysfunction was mediated by changes within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell compartment, including a paradoxical atypical monocytosis associated with altered production of inflammatory cytokines. There was a striking reduction in the production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the predominant pro-inflammatory monokine TNF-alpha and changes were also detected in the production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1ra and IL-10. Prolonged Antarctic isolation is also associated with altered latent herpesvirus homeostasis, including increased herpesvirus shedding and expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cell population. These findings have important long-term health implications.

  5. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Adams, Donald Joe (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  6. SOX10 mutations mimic isolated hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pingault, V; Faubert, E; Baral, V; Gherbi, S; Loundon, N; Couloigner, V; Denoyelle, F; Noël-Pétroff, N; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Bondurand, N; Marlin, S

    2015-10-01

    Ninety genes have been identified to date that are involved in non-syndromic hearing loss, and more than 300 different forms of syndromic hearing impairment have been described. Mutations in SOX10, one of the genes contributing to syndromic hearing loss, induce a large range of phenotypes, including several subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome and Kallmann syndrome with deafness. In addition, rare mutations have been identified in patients with isolated signs of these diseases. We used the recent characterization of temporal bone imaging aspects in patients with SOX10 mutations to identify possible patients with isolated hearing loss due to SOX10 mutation. We selected 21 patients with isolated deafness and temporal bone morphological defects for mutational screening. We identified two SOX10 mutations and found that both resulted in a non-functional protein in vitro. Re-evaluation of the two affected patients showed that both had previously undiagnosed olfactory defects. Diagnosis of anosmia or hyposmia in young children is challenging, and particularly in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), SOX10 mutations can mimic non-syndromic hearing impairment. MRI should complete temporal bones computed tomographic scan in the management of congenital deafness as it can detect brain anomalies, cochlear nerve defects, and olfactory bulb malformation in addition to inner ear malformations. PMID:25256313

  7. A new rapid method for isolating nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou Fang; Lam, Yun Wah

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus was one of the first subcellular organelles to be isolated from the cell. The advent of modern proteomic techniques has resulted in the identification of thousands of proteins in this organelle, and live cell imaging technology has allowed the study of the dynamics of these proteins. However, the limitations of current nucleolar isolation methods hinder the further exploration of this structure. In particular, these methods require the use of a large number of cells and tedious procedures. In this chapter we describe a new and improved nucleolar isolation method for cultured adherent cells. In this method cells are snap-frozen before direct sonication and centrifugation onto a sucrose cushion. The nucleoli can be obtained within a time as short as 20 min, and the high yield allows the use of less starting material. As a result, this method can capture rapid biochemical changes in nucleoli by freezing the cells at a precise time, hence faithfully reflecting the protein composition of nucleoli at the specified time point. This protocol will be useful for proteomic studies of dynamic events in the nucleolus and for better understanding of the biology of mammalian cells. PMID:25311120

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in isolated sagittal synostosis.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael; Hoffmann, Juergen; Mühling, Joachim; Castrillón-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Seeberger, Robin; Freudlsperger, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Isolated fusion of the sagittal suture is the most prevalent form of craniosynostosis. Although the typical clinical appearance usually points the way to the right diagnosis, computed tomographic (CT) scans are still recommended as necessary tools for both the diagnosis of scaphocephaly and the preoperative planning. Because CT scans are accompanied by the biological effects of ionizing radiation, some authors have already postulated the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) especially because MRI seems to be valuable for detecting intracranial anomalies compared with CT scans. Hence, we investigated the preoperative MRIs of 42 children with isolated sagittal synostosis to evaluate the frequency of brain anomalies and their therapeutic consequences.In our study, 10 patients (23.8%) showed pathologic MRI findings such as ventricular dilatation and hypoplastic corpus callosum, whereas 32 patients (76.2%) had an unremarkable MRI except a pathognomonic secondary deformation of the brain caused by the abnormally shaped skull, which was present in all patients. Seven patients showed clinically significant symptoms including papilledema or psychomotoric developmental delay; however, the clinical appearance was not predictive for pathologic MRI findings and vice versa.As the detection of brain anomalies had no influence on the surgical procedure or led to any additive therapy in our patients, we conclude that evaluation of possible pathologic brain findings does not legitimate the general use of MRI in clinically normal children with isolated sagittal synostosis. PMID:22801186

  9. Novel Protocol for Persister Cells Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cañas-Duarte, Silvia J.; Restrepo, Silvia; Pedraza, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial persistence, where a fraction of a population presents a transient resistance to bactericidal substances, has great medical importance due to its relation with the appearance of antibiotic resistances and untreatable bacterial chronic infections. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown in spite of recent advances, in great part because of the difficulty in isolating the very small fraction of the population that is in this state at any given time. Current protocols for persister isolation have resulted in possible biases because of the induction of this state by the protocol itself. Here we present a novel protocol that allows rapid isolation of persister cells both from exponential and stationary phase. Moreover, it is capable of differentiating between type I and type II persister cells, which should allow the field to move beyond its current state of studying only one type. While this protocol prompts a revision of many of the current results, it should greatly facilitate further advances in the field. PMID:24586365

  10. Identification of Multiresistant Salmonella Isolates Capable of Subsisting on Antibiotics?

    PubMed Central

    Barnhill, Alison E.; Weeks, Katherine E.; Xiong, Nalee; Day, Tim A.; Carlson, Steve A.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of Salmonella (572 isolates) to subsist on 12 different antibiotics. The majority (11/12) of the antibiotics enabled subsistence for at least 1 of 140 isolates. Furthermore, 40 isolates were able to subsist on more than one antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic subsistence do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:20173063

  11. Clostridium difficile from healthy food animals: Optimized isolation and prevalence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two isolation methods were compared for isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animal feces. The single alcohol shock method (SS) used selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate (TCCFB) followed by alcohol shock and isolation on tryp...

  12. Geographically Isolated Wetlands: Why We Should Keep the Term

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of the term "isolated wetlands" in the U.S. Supreme Court’s SWANCC decision created confusion, since it could imply functional isolation. In response, the term "geographically isolated wetlands" (GIWs) - wetlands surrounded by uplands - was introduced in 2003. A recent arti...

  13. Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field

    E-print Network

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field Hamed Merdji,1,2, * Thierry); published October 22, 2007 Calculations are presented for the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse over many optical cycles and provides a coherent control for the formation of an isolated attosecond

  14. Virgibacillus alimentarius sp. nov., isolated from a traditional Korean food

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional salt- fermented seafood made by mixing fresh gizzard shad with rock-forming, halophilic bacterial strain, J18T , was isolated from a traditional salt-fermented seafood made of gizzard salt and leaving it to ferment (Suh & Yoon, 1987). Isolation was performed with the dilution

  15. Types of avian infectious bronchitis strains isolated in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Marsolais, G; Marois, P

    1982-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1980, 24 isolates of infectious bronchitis virus were obtained from Quebec flocks. The serological classification of these isolates was demonstrated by cross neutralization tests using antisera to 13 different reference virus strains. Of the 24 isolates, ten were identified as Connecticut, six Holland and one SE-17 types. Seven strains did not react with any of the specific antisera. PMID:6284325

  16. Control of elasticity in cast elastomeric shock/vibration isolators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L.; Bright, C.

    1974-01-01

    Elasticity is determined by isolators physical dimensions and by type of elastomer used. Once elastomer is selected and cast between two concentric tubes of device, isolator elasticity will remain fixed. Isolators having same dimensions can be built to different elasticity requirements using same elastomer.

  17. FACULTATIVE LAGOON EFFLUENT POLISHING USING PHASE ISOLATION PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation into the performance of 'Phase Isolation' as a means of upgrading facultative lagoons was conducted at Clinton, Mississippi, using 2 facultative lagoons arranged in series followed by 2 isolation ponds used alternately for final polishing. The isolation ponds wer...

  18. Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand Kyoung-Ho Kim,1 Seong Woon Roh,1 , was isolated from black sand collected from Soesoggak, Jeju Island, Korea. Cells grew at 4­37 6C, at pH 5 beach sand, a bacterium was isolated and subjected to taxonomic characterization. On the basis

  19. Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter Na-Ri Shin, Mi , was isolated from a Korean alcohol fermentation starter. Optimal growth occurred at 37 6C, at pH 8 and in 1 was isolated from nuruk, which is an alcohol fermentation starter used as an amylolytic substance

  20. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundar, N.; Cole, R.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Majumdar, D.; Dubey, J.P.; Su, C.

    2008-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been reported to become infected with Toxoplasma gondii and at times succumb to clinical disease. Here, we determined genotypes of 39 T. gondii isolates from 37 sea otters in two geographically distant locations (25 from California and 12 from Washington). Six genotypes were identified using 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico, and by DNA sequencing of loci SAG1 and GRA6 in 13 isolates. Of these 39 isolates, 13 (33%) were clonal Type II which can be further divided into two groups at the locus Apico. Two of the 39 isolates had Type II alleles at all loci except a Type I allele at locus L358. One isolate had Type II alleles at all loci except the Type I alleles at loci L358 and Apico. One isolate had Type III alleles at all loci except Type II alleles at SAG2 and Apico. Two sea otter isolates had a mixed infection. Twenty-one (54%) isolates had an unique allele at SAG1 locus. Further genotyping or DNA sequence analysis for 18 of these 21 isolates at loci SAG1 and GRA6 revealed that there were two different genotypes, including the previously identified Type X (four isolates) and a new genotype named Type A (14 isolates). The results from this study suggest that the sea otter isolates are genetically diverse.

  1. 21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172.340...Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a food...

  2. 21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172.340...Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a food...

  3. 21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172.340...Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a food...

  4. Real Root Isolation of Regular Chains Francois Boulier1

    E-print Network

    Moreno Maza, Marc

    Real Root Isolation of Regular Chains Franc¸ois Boulier1 , Changbo Chen2 , Franc¸ois Lemaire1}@csd.uwo.ca Abstract We present an algorithm RealRootIsolate for isolating the real roots of a system of multivariate in the sense that all real roots are obtained and are described by boxes of arbitrary precision. Real roots

  5. Real Root Isolation of Regular Chains Francois Boulier1

    E-print Network

    Moreno Maza, Marc

    Real Root Isolation of Regular Chains Fran¸cois Boulier1 , Changbo Chen2 , Fran¸cois Lemaire1}@csd.uwo.ca Abstract. We present an algorithm RealRootIsolate for isolating the real roots of a polynomial system given roots are obtained and are described by boxes of arbitrary preci- sion. Real roots are encoded

  6. FEDERAL FACILITY COMPLIANCE AGREEMENT (FFCA) STACK ISOLATION PROJECT FUNCTIONS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    TRANBARGER, R.K.

    2003-12-16

    This document delineates the functions and requirements for the FFCA Stack Isolation Project for the 244-A, 244-BX, 244-5, and 244-TX DCRTs. The isolation of each ventilation system and stack includes the electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical isolation of the ventilation system and the installation of primary and annulus breather filters to provide passive ventilation to meet the FFCA requirements.

  7. Multi-Tenant Isolation via Reconfigurable Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Caldwell, Blake A.; Hicks, Susan Elaine; Koch, Scott M.; Pelfrey, Daniel S.; Pogge, James R.; Scott, Stephen L.; Shipman, Galen M.; Sorrillo, Lawrence

    2014-12-01

    High performance computing environments are often used for a wide variety of workloads ranging from simulation, data transformation and analysis, and complex workflows to name just a few. These systems may process data at various security levels but in so doing are often enclaved at the highest security posture. This approach places significant restrictions on the users of the system even when processing data at a lower security level and exposes data at higher levels of confidentiality to a much broader population than otherwise necessary. The traditional approach of isolation, while effective in establishing security enclaves poses significant challenges for the use of shared infrastructure in HPC environments. This report details current state-of-the-art in reconfigurable network enclaving through Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and their applicability to secure enclaves in HPC environments. SDN and NFV methods are based on a solid foundation of system wide virtualization. The purpose of which is very straight forward, the system administrator can deploy networks that are more amenable to customer needs, and at the same time achieve increased scalability making it easier to increase overall capacity as needed without negatively affecting functionality. The network administration of both the server system and the virtual sub-systems is simplified allowing control of the infrastructure through well-defined APIs (Application Programming Interface). While SDN and NFV technologies offer significant promise in meeting these goals, they also provide the ability to address a significant component of the multi-tenant challenge in HPC environments, namely resource isolation. Traditional HPC systems are built upon scalable high-performance networking technologies designed to meet specific application requirements. Dynamic isolation of resources within these environments has remained difficult to achieve. SDN and NFV methodology provide us with relevant concepts and available open standards based APIs that isolate compute and storage resources within an otherwise common networking infrastructure. Additionally, the integration of the networking APIs within larger system frameworks such as OpenStack provide the tools necessary to establish isolated enclaves dynamically allowing the benefits of HPC while providing a controlled security structure surrounding these systems.

  8. Statistical study of isolated and non-isolated AGNs in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulatova, Nadiia; Vavilova, Irina; Berczik, Peter

    2013-02-01

    We present the main results of statistical study of general properties of isolated AGN hosts and AGN hosts in pairs at z<0.05 as concerns with the environmental influence on the nuclear galaxy activity. With this aim we compiled the sample of 61 isolated AGNs selected from 2MIG Catalog and Catalog Veron+2010, and the sample of 109 AGNs in pairs selected from NED database. We found a significant excess content of Sy 2 type galaxies in comparison with Sy 1 type galaxies in both samples (44% and 11% among isolated AGNs, 48% and 6% among AGNs in pairs, respectively). Isolated AGN hosts of all spectral types are located, in average, at the more far distances and have a more complicated structure than AGNs in pairs as well as they are mostly of late morphological types. Our statistical analysis shows that the observed nuclear activity of isolated 2MIG AGNs during last 3 billions years and more, first of all, is connected with the internal galaxy parameters (relative mass/size, dark/visible matter content, multi-wavelength properties of gas-dust medium in accretion disks, tor's structure, central black hole mass etc.).

  9. Isolation, identification, and complete genome sequence of an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus isolated from geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yao; Chen, Chiou-Lin; Wang, Chao-Cheng; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2009-05-12

    Naturally occurring lymphoreticular tumors in geese have been found from time to time in Taiwan, but their etiology has not been determined except through morphological descriptions. This study observed a reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection occurring in a white Roman goose (Anser anser) farm in Yunlin, Taiwan in 2006. These geese showed growth-retarded and nodular lymphoma-like tumors in the liver, lung, kidney, and pancreas. Thirty blood samples were taken for REV detection and 21 (70%) of them contained REV genetic sequences using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Virus isolation was attempted from 11 blood samples by inoculating the buffy coat onto DF1 cells. Nine (81%) REVs were isolated after three blind passages. The complete proviral sequence from one isolate was determined for phylogenetic analysis by direct sequencing using overlapping PCR products. The length of the provial genome is 8284 nucleotides. By comparing with other published REV complete sequences, the nucleotide percent identity ranged from 93.5% to 99.8% with most LTR varieties, ranging from 74.9% to 99.8%. The present isolated goose REV is most close to REV APC-566, a REV isolated from Attwater's Prairie chickens. PMID:19131189

  10. Characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xinhong; Gong, Jiansen; Han, Xiangan; Xu, Ming; Shen, Haiyu; Zhang, Di; Zhuang, Linlin; Liu, Jiasheng; Zou, Jianmin

    2016-01-15

    In order to investigate the biological characteristics of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated in eastern China, a total of 243 isolates were isolated from diseased poultry on different farms during the period from 2007 to 2014. These isolates were characterized for serogroups (polymerase chain reaction and agglutination), the presence of virulence-associated genes (fimC, iss, ompA, fyuA, stx2f, iroC, iucD, hlyE, tsh, cvaC, irp2, and papC) and class I integrons (polymerase chain reaction), drug susceptibilities (disk diffusion method) and the biofilm-forming abilities (semi-quantitative method). The results showed that the most predominant serogroups were O78 (87 isolates, 35.8%) and O2 (35 isolates, 14.4%). Gene profiling found that fimC and ompA were frequently distributed among the isolates and that 77.4% of the isolates were positive for class 1 integrons. Overall, isolates displayed resistance to tetracycline (97.5%), nalidixic acid (82.3%), ampicillin (81.1%), sulphafurazole (80.7%), streptomycin (79.0%), trimethoprim (78.2%) and cotrimoxazole (78.2%). Multiple-drug resistance was exhibited in 80.3% of the isolates, and the presence of class 1 integrons is associated with multidrug resistance. Finally, 151 isolates had the ability to form biofilms in vitro, and drug resistance seemed relative to biofilm-forming abilities. PMID:26475938

  11. Mycobacterium bovis in Swine: Spoligotyping of Isolates from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Barandiaran, Soledad; Martínez Vivot, Marcela; Moras, Eduardo Vicente; Cataldi, Angel Adrián; Zumárraga, Martín José

    2011-01-01

    A total of 143 Mycobacterium bovis isolates of pigs, from the most productive swine area in Argentina, were typed by spoligotyping. Twenty-two different spoligotypes were identified, and 133 (93%) isolates were grouped into 12 clusters. One of them, designed SB0140, was the most frequent because it held 83 (58%) isolates. This spoligotype also grouped 362 (43%) out of 841 isolates from previously typed cattle and, thus, constitutes the most frequent in our country. In addition, 135 (94%) isolates revealed spoligotypes identical to those of cattle, showing an epidemiological link. On the other hand, there were seven novel spoligotypes, six of which were also unique since they had only one isolate each. This study aimed to identify the spoligotypes of M. bovis isolated from pigs to contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in the main productive area of Argentina. PMID:21547236

  12. A "Kanes's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Beech, Geoffrey

    1999-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state-space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop an state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  13. Nanostructured substrates for isolation of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lixue; Asghar, Waseem; Demirci, Utkan; Wan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) originate from the primary tumor mass and enter into the peripheral bloodstream. CTCs hold the key to understanding the biology of metastasis and also play a vital role in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, disease monitoring, and personalized therapy. However, CTCs are rare in blood and hard to isolate. Additionally, the viability of CTCs can easily be compromised under high shear stress while releasing them from a surface. The heterogeneity of CTCs in biomarker expression makes their isolation quite challenging; the isolation efficiency and specificity of current approaches need to be improved. Nanostructured substrates have emerged as a promising biosensing platform since they provide better isolation sensitivity at the cost of specificity for CTC isolation. This review discusses major challenges faced by CTC isolation techniques and focuses on nanostructured substrates as a platform for CTC isolation. PMID:24944563

  14. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.; Rao, N. N. S.; Rupert, J. K.; Kim, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    Many microgravity space science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR)) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop a state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  15. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  16. Isolation and screening of carboxydotrophs isolated from composts and their potential for butanol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sean; Ala, Fatime; Cardwell, Cisley; Cai, Darlene; McKindles, Katelyn M; Lotvola, Aaron; Hodges, Steven; Deng, Yiwei; Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M

    2013-01-01

    Carboxydotrophs are known for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) to butanol through fermentation. Such a platform offers a promising alternative approach to biofuel production from synthesis gas feedstocks. In this study, carboxydotrophs were isolated from various manure compost. Out of 500 isolates, only 11 carboxydotrophs (7 mesophiles and 4 thermophiles) were found to utilize CO as the sole source of carbon and energy. To assess the biochemical basis for their ability to produce biofuel (butanol), the level of activities of CO dehydrogenase (CODH), hydrogenase and butanol dehydrogenase (BDH) enzymes for these isolates against the known carboxydotroph, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum was assessed. All isolates showed evidence of enzyme activities (0.16-2.20 micromol min(-1)), with the majority exhibiting higher activities compared with the known carboxydotroph, B. methylotrophicum (0.33-0.71 micromol min(-1)). The level of activities for CODH and BDH ranged from 0.163-3.59 micromolmin(-1) and 0.19-2.2 micromolmin(-1), respectively. Three isolates (M7-1, T2-22, and T3-14) demonstrated enzymatic activity three to seven times higher than B. methylotrophicum. Of these, T2-22 exhibited the highest BDH activity and shows great promise in the conversion of toxic CO into butanol more so than other carboxytotrophs known thus far. This study revealed some biochemical basis for butanol production from CO by carboxydotrophs. However, more research is needed to discover a direct biological route for butanol production from CO to strengthen their potential for synthesis gas bioprocessing. Follow-up work will focus on whole-genome sequencing of the promising isolate T2-22 to provide system-level insights into how carboxydotrophs utilize and regulate their molecular machineries for butanol production. PMID:24350453

  17. Modes and origins of mechanical and ethological isolation in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, V

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical and ethological isolation between species is widespread in angiosperms with specialized animal-pollinated flowers, being recorded in 29 species groups belonging to 27 genera and 16 families. Mechanical isolation occurs in two forms. (i) The common type, designated the Salvia type, operates when two or more species of flowers are adapted for different groups of pollinators with different body sizes and shapes. (ii) In the Pedicularis type two flower species have the same species of pollinator but pick up pollen from different parts of the pollinator's body. Four forms of ethological isolation are recognized. (i) In the Aquilegia type, which is widespread, ethological isolation is a side effect of mechanical isolation. (ii) The flower-constancy type, as the name suggests, is based on flower-constant foraging behavior. (iii) In the Ophrys type, floral scents attract male bees or wasps and play a role in their mating behavior; different species of flowers, often orchids, have different scents and attract different sets of hymenopteran species. (iv) The monotropy type occurs in plants pollinated by hymenopterans with species-specific or group-specific flower preferences for nutritive purposes (monotropic and oligotropic bees and fig wasps). Three modes of origin of floral isolation are confirmed by evidence: (i) mechanical and ethological isolation arising as a by-product of allopatric speciation, (ii) ethological isolation developing by selection for reproductive isolation per se, and (iii) mechanical isolation arising as a by-product of character displacement. Mode of origin i accounts for the Salvia and Aquilegia types of isolation in nine known species groups and for the Ophrys type in one group. Mode of origin ii accounts for the flower-constancy type of ethological isolation in two species groups. Mode of origin iii explains mechanical isolation in two groups. Sympatric origin of floral isolation by hybrid speciation and by flower constancy has been proposed, but these modes are undocumented and improbable. PMID:11607448

  18. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. IV. A catalogue of neighbours around isolated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verley, S.; Odewahn, S. C.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Leon, S.; Combes, F.; Sulentic, J.; Bergond, G.; Espada, D.; García, E.; Lisenfeld, U.; Sabater, J.

    2007-08-01

    Context: Studies of the effects of environment on galaxy properties and evolution require well defined control samples. Such isolated galaxy samples have up to now been small or poorly defined. The AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) represents an attempt to define a statistically useful sample of the most isolated galaxies in the local (z ? 0.05) Universe. Aims: A suitable large sample for the AMIGA project already exists, the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies (CIG, Karachentseva, 1973, Astrofizicheskie Issledovaniia Izvestiya Spetsial'noj Astrofizicheskoj Observatorii, 8, 3; 1050 galaxies), and we use this sample as a starting point to refine and perform a better quantification of its isolation properties. Methods: Digitised POSS-I E images were analysed out to a minimum projected radius R ? 0.5 Mpc around 950 CIG galaxies (those within Vr = 1500 km s-1 were excluded). We identified all galaxy candidates in each field brighter than B = 17.5 with a high degree of confidence using the LMORPHO software. We generated a catalogue of approximately 54 000 potential neighbours (redshifts exist for ?30% of this sample). Results: Six hundred sixty-six galaxies pass and two hundred eighty-four fail the original CIG isolation criterion. The available redshift data confirm that our catalogue involves a largely background population rather than physically associated neighbours. We find that the exclusion of neighbours within a factor of four in size around each CIG galaxy, employed in the original isolation criterion, corresponds to ? Vr ? 18 000 km s-1 indicating that it was a conservative limit. Conclusions: Galaxies in the CIG have been found to show different degrees of isolation. We conclude that a quantitative measure of this is mandatory. It will be the subject of future work based on the catalogue of neighbours obtained here. Full Table [see full text] is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/470/505 and from http://www.iaa.es/AMIGA.html. Figure 4 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Design of isolated renewable hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sreeraj, E.S.; Chatterjee, Kishore; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2010-07-15

    Isolated electrical power generating units can be used as an economically viable alternative to electrify remote villages where grid extension is not feasible. One of the options for building isolated power systems is by hybridizing renewable power sources like wind, solar, micro-hydro, etc. along with appropriate energy storage. A method to optimally size and to evaluate the cost of energy produced by a renewable hybrid system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method, which is based on the design space approach, can be used to determine the conditions for which hybridization of the system is cost effective. The simple and novel methodology, proposed in this paper, is based on the principles of process integration. It finds the minimum battery capacity when the availability and ratings of various renewable resources as well as load demand are known. The battery sizing methodology is used to determine the sizing curve and thereby the feasible design space for the entire system. Chance constrained programming approach is used to account for the stochastic nature of the renewable energy resources and to arrive at the design space. The optimal system configuration in the entire design space is selected based on the lowest cost of energy, subject to a specified reliability criterion. The effects of variation of the specified system reliability and the coefficient of correlation between renewable sources on the design space, as well as the optimum configuration are also studied in this paper. The proposed method is demonstrated by designing an isolated power system for an Indian village utilizing wind-solar photovoltaic-battery system. (author)

  20. Polyphasic identification of cyanobacterial isolates from Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una M; Monis, Paul; McGregor, Glenn B; Bath, Andrew; Gordon, Cameron; Paparini, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Reliable identification of cyanobacterial isolates has significant socio-economic implications as many bloom-forming species affect the aesthetics and safety of drinking water, through the production of taste and odour compounds or toxic metabolites. The limitations of morphological identification have promoted the application of molecular tools, and encouraged the adoption of combined (polyphasic) approaches that include both microscopy- and DNA-based analyses. In this context, the rapid expansion of available sequence data is expected to allow increasingly reliable identification of cyanobacteria, and ultimately resolve current discrepancies between the two approaches. In the present study morphological and molecular characterisations of cyanobacterial isolates (n = 39), collected from various freshwater sites in Australia, were compared. Sequences were obtained for the small ribosomal subunit RNA gene (16S rDNA) (n = 36), the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (rpoC1) (n = 22), and the phycocyanin operon, with its intergenic spacer region (cpcBA-IGS) (n = 19). Phylogenetic analyses identified three cyanobacterial orders: the Chroococcales (n = 8), Oscillatoriales (n = 6), and Nostocales (n = 25). Interestingly, multiple novel genotypes were identified, with 22% of the strains (17/77) having <95% similarity to available sequences in GenBank. Morphological and molecular data were in agreement at the species level for only 26% of the isolates obtained (10/39), while agreement at the genus level was obtained for 31% (12/39). Confident identification of the remaining 44% of the strains (17/39) beyond the order level was not possible. The present study demonstrates that, despite the taxonomic revisions, and advances in molecular-, and bioinformatics-tools, the lack of reliable morphological features, culture-induced pleomorphism, and proportion of misidentified or poorly described sequences in GenBank, still represent significant factors, impeding the confident identification of cyanobacteria species. PMID:24810741

  1. Polymicrobial biofilms by diabetic foot clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Carla; Mendes, João J; Cristino, José Melo; Cavaco-Silva, Patrícia; Tavares, Luís; Oliveira, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease that continues to increase significantly. One of the most important and costly complications of diabetes is foot ulceration that may be colonized by pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant bacteria, which may express several virulence factors that could impair treatment success. These bacterial communities can be organized in polymicrobial biofilms, which may be responsible for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) chronicity. We evaluated the influence of polymicrobial communities in the ability of DFU isolates to produce biofilm, using a microtiter plate assay and a multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization, at three time points (24, 48, 72 h), after evaluating biofilm formation by 95 DFU isolates belonging to several bacterial genera (Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter). All isolates were biofilm-positive at 24 h, and the amount of biofilm produced increased with incubation time. Pseudomonas presented the higher biofilm production, followed by Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus. Significant differences were found in biofilm formation between the three time points. Polymicrobial communities produced higher biofilm values than individual species. Pseudomonas?+?Enterococcus, Acinetobacter?+?Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium?+?Staphylococcus produced higher biofilm than the ones formed by E. faecalis?+?Staphylococcus and E. faecalis?+?Corynebacterium. Synergy between bacteria present in dual or multispecies biofilms has been described, and this work represents the first report on time course of biofilm formation by polymicrobial communities from DFUs including several species. The biological behavior of different bacterial species in polymicrobial biofilms has important clinical implications for the successful treatment of these infections. PMID:26104539

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of a Psychropiezophilic Alphaproteobacterium?†

    PubMed Central

    Eloe, Emiley A.; Malfatti, Francesca; Gutierrez, Jennifer; Hardy, Kevin; Schmidt, Wilford E.; Pogliano, Kit; Pogliano, Joe; Azam, Farooq; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivated psychropiezophilic (low-temperature- and high-pressure-adapted) bacteria are currently restricted to phylogenetically narrow groupings capable of growth under nutrient-replete conditions, limiting current knowledge of the extant functional attributes and evolutionary constraints of diverse microorganisms inhabiting the cold, deep ocean. This study documents the isolation of a deep-sea bacterium following dilution-to-extinction cultivation using a natural seawater medium at high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature. To our knowledge, this isolate, designated PRT1, is the slowest-growing (minimal doubling time, 36 h) and lowest cell density-producing (maximal densities of 5.0 × 106 cells ml?1) piezophile yet obtained. Optimal growth was at 80 MPa, correlating with the depth of capture (8,350 m), and 10°C, with average cell sizes of 1.46 ?m in length and 0.59 ?m in width. Through detailed growth studies, we provide further evidence for the temperature-pressure dependence of the growth rate for deep-ocean bacteria. PRT1 was phylogenetically placed within the Roseobacter clade, a bacterial lineage known for widespread geographic distribution and assorted lifestyle strategies in the marine environment. Additionally, the gene transfer agent (GTA) g5 capsid protein gene was amplified from PRT1, indicating a potential mechanism for increased genetic diversification through horizontal gene transfer within the hadopelagic environment. This study provides a phylogenetically novel isolate for future investigations of high-pressure adaptation, expands the known physiological traits of cultivated members of the Roseobacter lineage, and demonstrates the feasibility of cultivating novel microbial members from the deep ocean using natural seawater. PMID:21948832

  4. Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

  5. Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos

    E-print Network

    Ignacio García-Mata; Augusto J. Roncaglia; Diego A. Wisniacki

    2015-01-23

    In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is -- to say the least -- fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.

  6. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  7. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Shweihat, Yousef; Perry, James; Shah, Darshana

    2015-01-01

    Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  8. Isolated Tuberculous Peroneal Tenosynovitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ajoy, S M; Samorekar, Bheemsingh; Soman, Sharath; Jadhav, Mohan

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of osteoarticular sites constitutes less than 3% of total patients with tuberculosis. Involvement of the foot and ankle is less than 0.3% of total disease. Even in a country like India, where the incidence of TB is not uncommon, we do not encounter isolated tenosynovitis. We present a young man with bilateral tubercular peroneal tenosynovitis who was evaluated with relevant investigations and operated upon and started on antitubercular treatment (ATT) in consultation with the pulmonologist. After tenosynovectomy and commencement of ATT, the patient's symptoms improved. PMID:26393175

  9. Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) ATD Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubomski, Joseph F.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Rohn, Douglas A.; Ramachandran, N.

    1994-01-01

    A fundamental advantage for performing material processing and fluid physics experiments in an orbital environment is the reduction in gravity driven phenomena. However, experience with manned spacecraft such as the Space Transportation System (STS) has demonstrated a dynamic acceleration environment far from being characterized as a 'microgravity' platform. Vibrations and transient disturbances from crew motions, thruster firings, rotating machinery etc. can have detrimental effects on many proposed microgravity science experiments. These same disturbances are also to be expected on the future space station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA), NASA Headquarters recognized the need for addressing this fundamental issue. As a result an Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project was initiated in the area of Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) to develop methodologies for meeting future microgravity science needs. The objective of the Vibration Isolation Technology ATD project was to provide technology for the isolation of microgravity science experiments by developing methods to maintain a predictable, well defined, well characterized, and reproducible low-gravity environment, consistent with the needs of the microgravity science community. Included implicitly in this objective was the goal of advising the science community and hardware developers of the fundamental need to address the importance of maintaining, and how to maintain, a microgravity environment. This document will summarize the accomplishments of the VIT ATD which is now completed. There were three specific thrusts involved in the ATD effort. An analytical effort was performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to define the sensitivity of selected experiments to residual and dynamic accelerations. This effort was redirected about half way through the ATD focusing specifically on the sensitivity of protein crystals to a realistic orbital environment. The other two thrusts of the ATD were performed at the Lewis Research Center. The first was to develop technology in the area of reactionless mechanisms and robotics to support the eventual development of robotics for servicing microgravity science experiments. This activity was completed in 1990. The second was to develop vibration isolation and damping technology providing protection for sensitive science experiments. In conjunction with the this activity, two workshops were held. The results of these were summarized and are included in this report.

  10. Isolated hepatosplenic tuberculosis: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Roumina; Kumar, Sandeep; Mathew, Mary; Kadavigere, Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents a major health challenge in endemic countries and spares no organ in the human body. This infection is a mimicker of various disease processes such as metastasis, lymphoproliferative diseases, and other granulomatous conditions such as sarcoidosis and fungal infections. The most challenging and important differential is metastasis, especially in the disseminated form of tuberculosis. We present a histopathologically proven case of isolated hepatosplenic tuberculosis that was provisionally diagnosed as lymphoma due to its unusual, restricted involvement of the liver and spleen. PMID:26153294

  11. Halogenated metabolites isolated from Penicillium citreonigrum.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei-Hua; Wei, Zhi-Wen; Dai, Peng; Wu, Hui; Zhao, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Mei-Mei; Jiang, Nan; Zheng, Wei-Fa

    2014-07-01

    Three chromone analogs, 1-3, a chlorinated alkaloid sclerotioramine (4), together with two 11-noreremophilane-type sesquiterpenes with a conjugated enolic OH group and a brominated one, 5 and 6, respectively, were isolated from Penicillium citreonigrum (HQ738282). Compounds 1, 5, and 6 were new. Biological tests revealed that 4 exhibited a significant activity (IC50 7.32??g/ml), and 6 showed a moderate activity (IC50 16.31??g/ml) in vitro against HepG2 cell line, and 4 also displayed an activity comparable to that of acarbose against ?-glucosidase. PMID:25044593

  12. Oysters as hot spots for mimivirus isolation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Kétyllen R; Boratto, Paulo P V M; Rodrigues, Felipe P; Silva, Lorena C F; Dornas, Fábio P; Pilotto, Mariana R; La Scola, Bernard; Almeida, Gabriel M F; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2015-02-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous organisms, but their role in the ecosystem and their prevalence are still poorly understood. Mimiviruses are extremely complex and large DNA viruses. Although metagenomic studies have suggested that members of the family Mimiviridae are abundant in oceans, there is a lack of information about the association of mimiviruses with marine organisms. In this work, we demonstrate by molecular and virological methods that oysters are excellent sources for mimiviruses isolation. Our data not only provide new information about the biology of these viruses but also raise questions regarding the role of oyster consumption as a putative source of mimivirus infection in humans. PMID:25344898

  13. Neonatal resuscitation in the isolated setting.

    PubMed

    Provis-Vincent, N; Moynihan, M

    1999-05-01

    This review attempts a practical guide to unscheduled resuscitation of the newborn in the isolated setting, where high-risk cases have been screened for, identified and referred for delivery in the tertiary care. Regarding airway management in this emergency, there is for the most part consensus in Australia, but this is less so for cardiovascular aspects. Material from the 'Advanced Paediatric Life Support' course, which offers definitive instruction in necessary techniques, has been used as a framework, with added material based on the Australian experience. Internationally, specific aspects of resuscitation are under review. PMID:10646373

  14. Isolated renal zygomycosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay Kr; Goel, Madhu Mati; Gupta, Chani; Kumar, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Zygomycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompetent patients. Isolated renal involvement by zygomycosis is extremely rare and diagnosed mainly during postmortem study. We report a case of a 22-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain and fever. The CT of the abdomen revealed renal cell carcinoma and subsequent nephrectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis of nephrectomy established zygomycosis. After that patient was given 2?months antifungal therapy and is living well even after her 1?year follow-up. PMID:24903721

  15. Dynamics of the isolated Galaxy CIG 0314

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verley, S.; Rosado, M.; Repetto, P.; Gabbasov, R.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bergond, G.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.; Durbala, A.

    2010-10-01

    In the context of the AMIGA project, we used Fabry-Perot observations in order to study the dynamics of the ionised gas in the isolated galaxy CIG 0314. From the H? observations, we could obtain the velocity field and rotation curve of the galaxy. A detail analysis of the velocity field is done in order to understand the kinematics of the gas to gather clues on the mechanisms which favour or inhibit star formation, in particular along the bar. The visible and dark matter content can be determined, as well as an estimation of the mass of the galaxy.

  16. Isolated sphenoid sinus lesion: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Shahrizal, Tengku; Prepageran, Narayanan; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Isolated sphenoid sinus lesions are an uncommon entity and present with non-specific symptoms. In this case report, the patient presented with a history of headaches for a duration of one month without sinonasal symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed a soft tissue mass occupying the sphenoid sinus. An endoscopic biopsy revealed fungal infection. Endoscopic wide sphenoidotomy with excision of the sphenoid sinus lesion was then performed however, the microbiological examination post-surgery did not show any fungal elements. Instead, Citrobacter species was implicated to be the cause of infection. PMID:25320694

  17. Isolated neutron stars as seen by Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George

    2015-09-01

    The X-ray emission from the surfaces of isolated neutron stars and from the neutron star's immediate surroundings is not well understood. Partly, this is due to a lack of spectral resolution and sensitivity of current X-ray detectors. In our poster, we present simulations of neutron star X-ray emission as Athena may see it. We employ the latest Athena instrument response and up-to-date neutron star atmosphere models. This will allow us to evaluate the impact Athena can have on the investigations of neutron star properties, such as the composition of their surface layers, their magnetic fields, and the physics of their magnetospheres and ambient matter.

  18. Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.

  19. Isolated and Interacting Galaxies : Simulations with GRAPE

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula

    2001-12-04

    I present N-body simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies, made on GRAPE machines. In particular I discuss the formation and evolution of N-body bars and compare their properties to those of bars in early-type and late-type galactic discs. I argue that the halo can help the bar grow, contrary to previous beliefs, by taking positive angular momentum from it via its resonant stars. I then focus on the interaction and subsequent merging of a barred disc galaxy with a spheroidal satellite. The evolution depends strongly on the mass (density) of the satellite and may lead to its destruction or to the destruction of the bar.

  20. Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Wisniacki, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is—to say the least—fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many-body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.

  1. Digital control algorithms for microgravity isolation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A.; Wang, Y.-P.

    1993-01-01

    New digital control algorithms have been developed to achieve the desired transmissibility function for a microgravity isolation system. Two approaches have been presented for the controller design in the context of a single degree of freedom system for which an attractive electromagnet is used as the actuator. The relative displacement and the absolute acceleration of the mass have been used as feedback signals. The results from numerical studies are presented. It has been found that the resulting transmissibility is quite close to the desired function. Also, the maximum coil currents required by new algorithms are smaller than the maximum current demanded by the previously proposed lead/lag method.

  2. Isolated Tuberculous Peroneal Tenosynovitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ajoy, S.M; Soman, Sharath; Jadhav, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of osteoarticular sites constitutes less than 3% of total patients with tuberculosis. Involvement of the foot and ankle is less than 0.3% of total disease. Even in a country like India, where the incidence of TB is not uncommon, we do not encounter isolated tenosynovitis. We present a young man with bilateral tubercular peroneal tenosynovitis who was evaluated with relevant investigations and operated upon and started on antitubercular treatment (ATT) in consultation with the pulmonologist. After tenosynovectomy and commencement of ATT, the patient’s symptoms improved. PMID:26393175

  3. Isolated Lung Perfusion for Pulmonary Metastases.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alison; Prokrym, Kirill; Pass, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Isolated lung perfusion (ILP) is a surgical technique developed to treat pulmonary metastases. During ILP, high-dose chemotherapy is delivered into the pulmonary vasculature, minimizing systemic exposure and delivering the chemotherapeutic agent directly to the lung. ILP has been studied extensively in a variety of animal models and in humans in phase I trials. The most frequently studied chemotherapeutic agents used in ILP are doxorubicin, 5-flurodeoxyuridine, tumor necrosis factor-?, paclitaxel, melphalan, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. Phase I clinical trials with ILP have shown that ILP can be safely performed in humans but with mixed clinical results and poor long-term survival. PMID:26611511

  4. Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Ludlow, A M; Magurran, A E

    2006-10-01

    Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a 'native' male from the female's own population and a 'foreign' male from the other drainage. Artificial insemination ensured that mating order and mate choice did not affect the outcome. Paternities were assigned to the resulting broods using microsatellite markers. As predicted, sperm from native males had precedence over foreign sperm. Moreover, this effect was symmetrical for both drainages. In contrast, we detected no native sperm precedence in controls, in which females received sperm from the same and another population within the same drainage. Our results show that gametic isolation can arise between geographically proximate, though genetically divergent, populations of a single species and highlight the potential role of this process in speciation. PMID:16959638

  5. Isolation of Microbodies from Plant Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, A. H. C.; Beevers, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Specialized microbodies have previously been isolated and characterized from fatty seedling tissues (glyoxysomes) and leaves (leaf peroxisomes). We have now examined 11 other plant tissues, including tubers, fruits, roots, shoots, and petals, and find that all contain particulate catalase, a distinctive common enzyme component of microbodies. On linear sucrose gradients the catalase activity peaks sharply at a higher equilibrium density (1.20 to 1.25 gram per cm3 in the various tissues) than the mitochondria (1.17 to 1.20). Only small amounts of protein are recovered in the fractions containing catalase, although a definite band is visible in preparations from some tissues, e.g., potato. As in the preparations from castor bean endosperm and spinach leaves for which comparable data are provided, the distribution of glycolate oxidase and uricase follows closely that of catalase on the gradients. The preparations from potato lack glyoxylate reductase and the transaminases, typical enzymes of leaf peroxisomes, and the distinctive enzymes of glyoxysomes are missing. Nonspecialized microbodies with limited enzyme composition can thus be isolated from a variety of plant tissues. Images PMID:16657851

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  7. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that prefer Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import. PMID:26388889

  8. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation.

    PubMed

    Gross, Andre; Schoendube, Jonas; Zimmermann, Stefan; Steeb, Maximilian; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting) respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage), laser microdissection (17%), manual cell picking (17%), random seeding/dilution (15%), and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12%) are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field. PMID:26213926

  9. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    PubMed Central

    Ascacio-Valdés, Juan; Burboa, Edgardo; Aguilera-Carbo, Antonio F; Aparicio, Mario; Pérez-Schmidt, Ramón; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica (E. antisyphilitica) Zucc in the wax extraction process. Methods An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16, until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder. An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography (Q XL) and gel permeation chromatography (G 25). The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated (TGA and DTA) to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid (monomeric unit). Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and, also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion. Results The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined, the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol; and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated. Conclusions It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin (860.7 g/mol) isolated from E. antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxyzporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani. PMID:23570015

  10. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Andre; Schoendube, Jonas; Zimmermann, Stefan; Steeb, Maximilian; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting) respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage), laser microdissection (17%), manual cell picking (17%), random seeding/dilution (15%), and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12%) are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field. PMID:26213926

  11. Lysobacter dokdonensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Jung, Yong-Taek; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, DS-58(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Dokdo, an island of Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-58(T) fell within the family Xanthomonadaceae. The isolate showed 96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest phylogenetic neighbour, Lysobacter niastensis GH41-7(T), and 93.4-95.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other members of the genus Lysobacter. Strain DS-58(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 1)?9c as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 68.1 mol%. Strain DS-58(T) could be distinguished phenotypically from type strains of closely related species of the genus Lysobacter and phylogenetically from all members of the genus Lysobacter. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain DS-58(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter dokdonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-58(T) (?=?KCTC 12822(T) ?=?DSM 17958(T)). PMID:20525815

  12. Reference-free detection of isolated SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Uricaru, Raluca; Rizk, Guillaume; Lacroix, Vincent; Quillery, Elsa; Plantard, Olivier; Chikhi, Rayan; Lemaitre, Claire; Peterlongo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between genomes is becoming a routine task with next-generation sequencing. Generally, SNP detection methods use a reference genome. As non-model organisms are increasingly investigated, the need for reference-free methods has been amplified. Most of the existing reference-free methods have fundamental limitations: they can only call SNPs between exactly two datasets, and/or they require a prohibitive amount of computational resources. The method we propose, discoSnp, detects both heterozygous and homozygous isolated SNPs from any number of read datasets, without a reference genome, and with very low memory and time footprints (billions of reads can be analyzed with a standard desktop computer). To facilitate downstream genotyping analyses, discoSnp ranks predictions and outputs quality and coverage per allele. Compared to finding isolated SNPs using a state-of-the-art assembly and mapping approach, discoSnp requires significantly less computational resources, shows similar precision/recall values, and highly ranked predictions are less likely to be false positives. An experimental validation was conducted on an arthropod species (the tick Ixodes ricinus) on which de novo sequencing was performed. Among the predicted SNPs that were tested, 96% were successfully genotyped and truly exhibited polymorphism. PMID:25404127

  13. Stomatal responses to humidity in isolated epidermes.

    PubMed

    Shope, Joseph C; Peak, David; Mott, Keith A

    2008-09-01

    The ability of guard cells to hydrate and dehydrate from the surrounding air was investigated using isolated epidermes of Tradescantia pallida and Vicia faba. Stomata were found to respond to the water vapour pressure on the outside and inside of the epidermis, but the response was more sensitive to the inside vapour pressure, and occurred in the presence or absence of living, turgid epidermal cells. Experiments using helium-oxygen air showed that guard cells hydrated and dehydrated entirely from water vapour, suggesting that there was no significant transfer of water from the epidermal tissue to the guard cells. The stomatal aperture achieved at any given vapour pressure was shown to be consistent with water potential equilibrium between the guard cells and the air near the bottom of the stomatal pore, and water vapour exchange through the external cuticle appeared to be unimportant for the responses. Although stomatal responses to humidity in isolated epidermes are the result of water potential equilibrium between the guard cells and the air near the bottom of the stomatal pore, stomatal responses to humidity in leaves are unlikely to be the result of a similar equilibrium. PMID:18541007

  14. Phosphorus NMR of isolated perfused morris hepatomas

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.A.; Meyer, R.A.; Brown, T.R.; Sauer, L.A.

    1986-03-05

    The authors are developing techniques for the study of perfused solid tumors by NMR. Tissue-isolated solid hepatomas were grown to 1-2 cm diameter as described previously. The arterial supply was isolated and the tumors perfused (0.5 - 1.0 ml/min) in vitro at 25 C with a 15% suspension of red blood cells in Krebs-Henseliet solution. /sup 31/P-NMR spectra were acquired at 162 MHz in a specially-designed NMR probe using a solenoidal coil. Intracellular pH (monitored from the chemical shift of inorganic phosphate) and ATP levels were stable for up to 6 hrs during perfusion. During 30 min of global ischemia, ATP decreased by 75% and pH fell from 7.0 to 6.7. These changes were reversed by 1 hr reperfusion. In addition to ATP and phosphate, the spectra included a large resonance due to phosphomonoesters, as well as peaks consistent with glycerylphosphocholine, glyceryl-phosphoethanolamine, phosphocreatine, NAD, and UDPG. However, the most novel feature of the spectra was the presence of an unidentified peak in the phosphonate region (+ 16.9 ppm). The peak was not present in spectra of muscle, liver, brain, kidney, or fat tissues excised from the same animals. They are presently attempting to identify the compound that gives rise to this peak and to establish its metabolic origin.

  15. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Coleman; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  16. [Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-10-16

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or T. cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of 5,809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30minutes. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1,280). She was treated with paracetamol (40 mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25 mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia. PMID:25435169

  17. Testing of isolation barrier sealing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-12-15

    Isolation barrier doors are to be installed in the 105KE and 105KW basins as part of the 1994 unreviewed safety question (USQ) resolution plan to isolate the fuel storage basin from the fuel discharge chute. Included in this installation is the placement of new sealing surfaces for the barriers by affixing stainless steel plates to existing carbon steel angle bars with a specially formulated epoxy adhesive/sealant material. The sealant is a two-part component consisting of an epoxy resin (the condensation product of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin) and a curing agent (a proprietary cycloaliphatic polyamine). The sealant is solvent free (complying with air pollution regulations) and capable of withstanding the surrounding radiation fields over an estimated 15-year service life. The epoxy sealant experiences negligible water damage partly because of its hydrophobic (water-repelling) nature. With bond tensile strengths measured at greater than 862 kPa (125 lbf/in{sup 2}), the epoxy sealant is judged acceptable for its intended application. The four-hour pot life of the epoxy sealant provides sufficient time to apply the epoxy, examine the epoxy bead for continuity, and position the stainless steel sealing plates.

  18. Ethylmorphine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, B Q; Bjørneboe, A; Ripel, A; Aasmundstad, T A; Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J

    1993-07-01

    The metabolism of ethylmorphine has been studied in suspensions of isolated rat hepatocytes. Early during incubation, the two major metabolic intermediates detected were morphine and norethylmorphine following N- and O-dealkylation of ethylmorphine, respectively. During subsequent incubation the concentration of the second metabolic intermediate, normorphine increased, before the concentration peaked at approximately 20 microM (100 microM ethylmorphine). Both morphine and normorphine were glucuronidated to form morphine-3-glucuronide and normorphine-3-glucuronide, respectively, which appeared to be the major metabolic end products. The percentage of ethylmorphine metabolized to morphine-3-glucuronide was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of ethylmorphine. With increasing initial ethylmorphine concentration the relative formation of morphine-3-glucuronide was reduced (29 +/- 10% at 5 microM, 18 +/- 5% at 20 microM, and 15 +/- 4% at 100 microM mean +/- S.D., n = 10). The concentrations of ethylmorphine and its metabolites were found to be higher in liver cells than in medium. Thus the ratios between the intra-/extra-cellular concentrations of ethylmorphine increased somewhat from an initial value of 4 during the period for which ethylmorphine could be detected intracellularly. The drug metabolites all exhibited ratios above 10 for the initial 100 min. of incubation. With time these ratios showed a decline, but even for prolonged incubation the ratios were 5 or higher for the end products. Thus considerable drug concentration gradients existed across the cell membrane of isolated rat hepatocytes. PMID:8234190

  19. New Data on Vaccine Antigen Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bouchez, Valérie; Hegerle, Nicolas; Strati, Francesco; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of Bordetella pertussis is driven by natural and vaccine pressures. Isolates circulating in regions with high vaccination coverage present multiple allelic and antigenic variations as compared to isolates collected before introduction of vaccination. Furthermore, during the last epidemics reported in regions using pertussis acellular vaccines, isolates deficient for vaccine antigens, such as pertactin (PRN), were reported to reach high proportions of circulating isolates. More sporadic filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) or pertussis toxin (PT) deficient isolates were also collected. The whole genome of some recent French isolates, deficient or non-deficient in vaccine antigens, were analyzed. Transcription profiles of the expression of the main virulence factors were also compared. The invasive phenotype in an in vitro human tracheal epithelial (HTE) cell model of infection was evaluated. Our genomic analysis focused on SNPs related to virulence genes known to be more likely to present allelic polymorphism. Transcriptomic data indicated that isolates circulating since the introduction of pertussis vaccines present lower transcription levels of the main virulence genes than the isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Furthermore, isolates not producing FHA present significantly higher expression levels of the entire set of genes tested. Finally, we observed that recent isolates are more invasive in HTE cells when compared to the reference strain, but no multiplication occurs within cells. PMID:26389958

  20. Genetic Characterization of Shigella flexneri Isolates in Guizhou Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D.; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838