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1

Isolation of Bartonella henselae from a serologically negative cat in Bloemfontein, South Africa.  

PubMed

Sera collected from apparently healthy 6-12-month-old cats (n = 31) presented to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Veterinary Clinic in Bloemfontein for neutering were tested for antibodies reactive to Bartonella henselae (Houston-1 strain) by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Whole blood collected from the cats was used in isolation experiments and subsequent identification of Bartonella species was based on comparison of the nucleotide base sequence of polymerase chain reaction-amplified citrate synthase gene fragments. While none of the cats had antibodies reactive with B. henselae at titres > or =1/64, an organism with a partial citrate synthase gene sequence identical to that of B. henselae (Houston-1) was isolated from 1 cat. PMID:10855838

Pretorius, A M; Kelly, P J; Birtles, R J; Raoult, D

1999-12-01

2

Comparison of Different DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for Molecular Typing of Bartonella henselae Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen isolates of Bartonella henselae from the region of Freiburg, Germany, obtained from blood cultures of domestic cats, were examined for their genetic heterogeneity. On the basis of different DNA fingerprinting methods, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR, repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR, and arbitrarily primed (AP)-PCR, three different variants were identified among the isolates (variants

ANNA SANDER; MICHAEL RUESS; STEFAN BERESWILL; MARKUS SCHUPPLER; BERNHARD STEINBRUECKNER

1998-01-01

3

Comparison of Different DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for Molecular Typing of Bartonella henselae Isolates  

PubMed Central

Seventeen isolates of Bartonella henselae from the region of Freiburg, Germany, obtained from blood cultures of domestic cats, were examined for their genetic heterogeneity. On the basis of different DNA fingerprinting methods, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR, repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR, and arbitrarily primed (AP)-PCR, three different variants were identified among the isolates (variants I to III). Variant I included 6 strains, variant II included 10 strains, and variant III included only one strain. By all methods used, the isolates could be clearly distinguished from the type strain, Houston-1, which was designated variant IV. A previously published type-specific amplification of 16S rDNA differentiated two types of the B. henselae isolates (16S rRNA types 1 and 2). The majority of the isolates (16 of 17), including all variants I and II, were 16S rRNA type 2. Only one isolate (variant III) and the Houston-1 strain (variant IV) comprised the 16S rRNA type 1. Comparison of the 16S rDNA sequences from one representative strain from each of the three variants (I to III) confirmed the results obtained by 16S rRNA type-specific PCR. The sequences from variant I and variant II were identical, whereas the sequence of variant III differed in three positions. All methods applied in this study allowed subtyping of the isolates. PFGE and ERIC-PCR provided the highest discriminatory potential for subtyping B. henselae strains, whereas AP-PCR with the M13 primer showed a very clear differentiation between the four variants. Our results suggest that the genetic heterogeneity of B. henselae strains is high. The methods applied were found useful for typing B. henselae isolates, providing tools for epidemiological and clinical follow-up studies. PMID:9738053

Sander, Anna; Ruess, Michael; Bereswill, Stefan; Schuppler, Markus; Steinbrueckner, Bernhard

1998-01-01

4

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in stray cats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to determine by blood culture the prevalence of blood infection with Bartonella species in a well-defined, European, urban stray cat population. Therefore, 94 stray cats were trapped from 10 cat colonies. Blood samples of these cats were cultured on both blood agar and liquid medium in order to raise the likelihood of bacterial detection. Fifty blood samples (53%) gave a positive culture result for Bartonella species. Isolate identification was performed by sequencing the first 430 bases of the 16S ribosomal DNA. Three types of sequences were thus obtained. The first type (17 isolates; 34%) was identical to that of B. henselae Houston-1 and the corresponding strains were referred as B. henselae type I. The second sequence type (18 isolates; 36%) was identical to that initially described as "BA-TF," and the corresponding strains were referred to as B. henselae type II. The third sequence type (15 isolates; 30%) was identical to that of the Bartonella clarridgeiae type strain (ATCC 51734). Our study points out the major role of stray cats as a reservoir of Bartonella spp. which can be transmitted to pet cats and, consequently, to humans. The study also highlights the high prevalence of B. clarridgeiae (16%) in the blood of stray cats. PMID:9163438

Heller, R; Artois, M; Xemar, V; De Briel, D; Gehin, H; Jaulhac, B; Monteil, H; Piemont, Y

1997-06-01

5

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in stray cats.  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present work was to determine by blood culture the prevalence of blood infection with Bartonella species in a well-defined, European, urban stray cat population. Therefore, 94 stray cats were trapped from 10 cat colonies. Blood samples of these cats were cultured on both blood agar and liquid medium in order to raise the likelihood of bacterial detection. Fifty blood samples (53%) gave a positive culture result for Bartonella species. Isolate identification was performed by sequencing the first 430 bases of the 16S ribosomal DNA. Three types of sequences were thus obtained. The first type (17 isolates; 34%) was identical to that of B. henselae Houston-1 and the corresponding strains were referred as B. henselae type I. The second sequence type (18 isolates; 36%) was identical to that initially described as "BA-TF," and the corresponding strains were referred to as B. henselae type II. The third sequence type (15 isolates; 30%) was identical to that of the Bartonella clarridgeiae type strain (ATCC 51734). Our study points out the major role of stray cats as a reservoir of Bartonella spp. which can be transmitted to pet cats and, consequently, to humans. The study also highlights the high prevalence of B. clarridgeiae (16%) in the blood of stray cats. PMID:9163438

Heller, R; Artois, M; Xemar, V; De Briel, D; Gehin, H; Jaulhac, B; Monteil, H; Piemont, Y

1997-01-01

6

Multi-Locus Sequence Typing of Bartonella henselae Isolates from Three Continents Reveals Hypervirulent and Feline-Associated Clones  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of cat scratch disease and a variety of other disease manifestations in humans. Previous investigations have suggested that a limited subset of B. henselae isolates may be associated with human disease. In the present study, 182 human and feline B. henselae isolates from Europe, North America and Australia were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to detect any associations between sequence type (ST), host species and geographical distribution of the isolates. A total of 14 sequence types were detected, but over 66% (16/24) of the isolates recovered from human disease corresponded to a single genotype, ST1, and this type was detected in all three continents. In contrast, 27.2% (43/158) of the feline isolates corresponded to ST7, but this ST was not recovered from humans and was restricted to Europe. The difference in host association of STs 1 (human) and 7 (feline) was statistically significant (P?0.001). eBURST analysis assigned the 14 STs to three clonal lineages, which contained two or more STs, and a singleton comprising ST7. These groups were broadly consistent with a neighbour-joining tree, although splits decomposition analysis was indicative of a history of recombination. These data indicate that B. henselae lineages differ in their virulence properties for humans and contribute to a better understanding of the population structure of B. henselae. PMID:18094753

Arvand, Mardjan; Feil, Edward J.; Giladi, Michael; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Viezens, Juliane

2007-01-01

7

First Case of Bartonella henselae Bacteremia in Korea  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae causes cat-scratch disease, bacteremia, and various focal infections. Despite the worldwide occurrence of B. henselae infections, reports in humans are rare in Korea. The clinical manifestation of all 5 previously reported cases was lymphadenopathy. Herein, we report a case of bacteremia in a woman who presented with prolonged fever. B. henselae was isolated from a blood specimen by cell culture. Conventional polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space region confirmed the isolate to be B. henselae. The patient had no underlying immunocompromising conditions and no recent exposure to animals. She was successfully managed with a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. PMID:24475360

Im, Jae-Hyoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Mijeong; Lee, Sun Myoung; Kang, Jae-Seung

2013-01-01

8

Detection of Bartonella henselae in defibrinated sheep blood used for culture media supplementation  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae was detected in defibrinated sheep blood employed in supplementing a selective bacteria culture medium by nested PCR. We recommended that highly sensitive technical tests be run to ensure a sterile culture medium for Bartonella spp. isolation, since infected blood samples used in preparation could lead to false-positive results. PMID:24031650

Drummond, Marina Rovani; Pitassi, Luiza H. U.; Lania, Bruno G.; dos Santos, Silvio R. C.; Gilioli, Rovilson; Velho, Paulo E.N.F.

2011-01-01

9

Molecular Evidence of Perinatal Transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae to a Child?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, or DNA of both organisms was amplified and sequenced from blood, enrichment blood cultures, or autopsy tissues from four family members. Historical and microbiological results support perinatal transmission of Bartonella species in this family. It is of clinical relevance that Bartonella spp. may adversely influence human reproductive performance. PMID:20392912

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Farmer, Peter; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

10

[Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana infections in Poland in 1998-2001].  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana infections result in illnesses with symptoms of severity ranging from mild lymphadenopathy (CSD) to systemic disease. The aim of the study was to estimate a prevalence of B. henselae and B. quintana infections in human in Poland. Serum samples collected from 265 patients in 1998-2001 were tested for the presence of antibodies specific to B. henselae and B. quintana. Levels of serum IgM and IgG antibodies to Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana were measured with indirect microimmunofluorescence test (MRL Diagnostic, USA). Cats' sera were assessed with indirect microimmunofluorescence test (MRL Diagnostic, USA) and goat immune serum anti-cat IgG FITC conjugate (Sigma, USA). Bartonella henselae specific antibodies were detected in 146 (57.0%) patients with lymphadenopathy. From that number 11.3% have shown specific Bartonella henselae IgM serum antibodies. Bartonella quintana infection was detected with serological methods in 4 patients. It has been found that CSD is a seasonal infection, with most cases occurring in autumn. Most cases of the disease have been recognized in children 8-16 years old. Most of CSD cases (30.1%) were detected in Mazowieckie voivodeship. There were no cases of CSD in Pomorskie, Podkarpackie, Lubuskie and Opolskie voivodeship. The seroprevalence of Bartonella sp. infections in cats was estimated on 86% (31/36). The highest titer of specific Bartonella henselae antibodies detected in cats was 1024. The number of detected Bartonella henselae infections in Poland is very low. It is very probable that the number of cases is underestimated in our country. Cat scratch disease is the most frequently clinically and serologically identified bartonellosis. PMID:12608089

Podsiad?y, Edyta; Soko?owska, Edyta; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanis?awa

2002-01-01

11

Multispacer Typing To Study the Genotypic Distribution of Bartonella henselae Populations  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae, a worldwide fastidious bacterium, has a feline reservoir and is pathogenic for humans. However, the relationship between human and cat isolates of B. henselae, as well as its population dynamics and geographic heterogeneity, is not fully understood, in part because of the absence of appropriate typing methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most discriminatory genotyping method for B. henselae, identified seven genotypes and suggested that human isolates arose from a limited number of cat isolates. Herein, we estimated the discriminatory power of multispacer typing (MST) by studying 126 B. henselae cat isolates from various areas of Europe, Asia, and the United States. We identified the nine most variable intergenic spacers conserved by both B. henselae and Bartonella quintana genomes. By comparing the sequences obtained from these nine spacers for each studied isolate, we identified 39 MST genotypes. The distribution of isolates into MST genotypes matched their phylogenetic organization into four clusters. MST showed that European and Asian isolates were different, in contrast with American isolates, but failed to identify pandemic strains. Our study demonstrated that MST is a powerful method for genotyping B. henselae at the strain level and may serve in studying the population dynamics of this bacterium and understanding the relationships between cat and human isolates. Finally, we provide a free-access MST-Rick online software program (http://ifr48.timone.univ-mrs.fr/MST_BHenselae/mst) that investigators may use to compare their own MST sequences to our database. PMID:16825371

Li, Wenjun; Chomel, Bruno B.; Maruyama, Soichi; Guptil, Lynn; Sander, Anna; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

2006-01-01

12

Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family from the Netherlands contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960), designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae (son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy. Methods Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform. Results The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification. Conclusions Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely source of transmission and the mother, a physician, reported that clinical symptoms developed following tick exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a B. henselae organism has been visualized in and amplified from a striae lesion. As the tick bites occurred three years prior to documentation of B. henselae bacteremia, the mode of transmission could not be determined. PMID:23587194

2013-01-01

13

Bartonella henselae Invasion of Feline Erythrocytes In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, establishes long-term bacteremia in cats, in which it attaches to and invades feline erythrocytes (RBC). Feline RBC invasion was assessed in vitro, based on gentamicin selection for intracellular bacteria or by laser confocal microscopy and digital sectioning. Invasion rates ranged from 2 to 20% of the inoculum, corresponding to infection of

JANE R. MEHOCK; CRAIG E. GREENE; FRANK C. GHERARDINI; TAE-WOOK HAHN

1998-01-01

14

Experimental and natural infection with Bartonella henselae in domestic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic cats were experimentally infected with culture propagated Bartonella henselae by intradermal (ID) and intravenous (IV) routes. Cats were more efficiently infected by the ID (88 cats) than by the IV (216) route. Bacteremia was detected 1–3 weeks following inoculation and lasted for most cats for 1–8 months. However, one naturally infected cat was observed for 24 months and was

Rachel C. Abbott; Bruno B. Chomel; Rickie W. Kasten; Kim A. Floyd-Hawkins; Yoko Kikuchi; Jane E. Koehler; Niels C. Pedersen

1997-01-01

15

Live Bartonella henselae enhances endothelial cell proliferation without direct contact.  

PubMed

The proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cocultivated with live B. henselae was enhanced in a bacterial dose-dependent manner, and the stimulatory effect was specific to vascular endothelial cells. The inactivation of B. henselae by UV or heat treatment abolished its stimulatory activity, suggesting that live bacteria is necessary for the growth stimulation effect. To investigate the role of direct contact, live B. henselae were separated from HUVECs by a filter membrane (Millicell-CM insert). Even under this condition, an enhanced proliferation of HUVECs was observed. However, no morphological changes in the HUVECs were apparent compared to the B. henselae -infected cells. Furthermore, we isolated a nonpiliated strain of B. henselae that is unable to attach to and enter into endothelial cells. The nonpiliated strain possessed the ability to stimulate the proliferation of cocultivated HUVECs the same as the piliated strain. Moreover, the culture supernatants of B. henselae were also able to induce HUVEC proliferation. Our results indicate that the stimulation of HUVEC proliferation by B. henselae is mediated by soluble factor(s) secreted from the bacteria. PMID:10588914

Maeno, N; Oda, H; Yoshiie, K; Wahid, M R; Fujimura, T; Matayoshi, S

1999-12-01

16

Characterization of the Natural Population of Bartonella henselae by Multilocus Sequence Typing  

PubMed Central

Investigations of the population genetics of Bartonella henselae have demonstrated a high level of diversity among strains, and the delineation of isolates into one of two subtypes, type I (Houston) and type II (Marseille), represented by specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, has long been considered the most significant genotypic division within the species. This belief is challenged by recent work suggesting a role for horizontal gene exchange in generating intraspecies diversity. We attempted to resolve this issue and extend exploration of the population structure of B. henselae by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to examine the distribution of polymorphisms within nine different genes in a sample of 37 human and feline isolates. MLST distinguished seven sequence types (STs) that resolved into three distinct lineages, suggesting a clonal population structure for the species, and support for these divisions was obtained by macrorestriction analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The distribution of STs among isolates recovered from human infections was not random, and such isolates were significantly more often associated with one particular ST, lending further support to the suggestion that specific genotypes contribute disproportionately to the disease burden in humans. All but one isolate lay on lineages that bore the representative strain of either the Houston or Marseille subtype. However, the distribution of the two 16S rDNA alleles among the isolates was not entirely congruent with their lineage allocations, indicating that this is not a sensitive marker of the clonal divisions within the species. The inheritances of several of the genes studied could not be reconciled with one another, providing further evidence of horizontal gene transfer among B. henselae strains and suggesting that recombination has a role in shaping the genetic character of bartonellae. PMID:14605141

Iredell, J.; Blanckenberg, D.; Arvand, M.; Grauling, S.; Feil, E. J.; Birtles, R. J.

2003-01-01

17

Managing iron supply during the infection cycle of a flea borne pathogen, Bartonella henselae  

PubMed Central

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe3+ transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe2+ transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3–5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle. PMID:24151576

Liu, MaFeng; Biville, Francis

2013-01-01

18

Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B. henselae represents an antecedent infection for GBS, CIDP, and non-specific neurocognitive abnormalities. PMID:23587343

2013-01-01

19

Human Coinfection with Bartonella henselae and Two Hemotropic Mycoplasma Variants Resembling Mycoplasma ovis?  

PubMed Central

Two variants of an organism resembling the ovine hemoplasma, Mycoplasma ovis, were detected by PCR in blood samples from a veterinarian in Texas. Coinfection with similar variants has been described in sheep. This represents the first report of human infection with this organism. The veterinarian was coinfected with Bartonella henselae. PMID:20702675

Sykes, Jane E.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2010-01-01

20

BARTONELLA HENSELAE ANTIBODY PREVALENCE IN FREE-RANGING AND CAPTIVE WILD FELIDS FROM CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the importance of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella spp. infection, 136 Nobuto strips or serum samples from free-ranging mountain lions (Felis con- color) and bobcats (Felis rufus) captured in California (USA) between 1985 and 1996 were tested for B. henselae antibodies (titer ? 1:64) using an immunofluorescence test. Similarly, 124 serum samples from 114

Kazuhiro Yamamoto; Bruno B. Chomel; Linda J. Lowenstine; Yoko Kikuchi; Lindsay G. Phillips; Bradd C. Barr; Pamela K. Swift; Karen R. Jones; Seth P. D. Riley; Rickie W. Kasten; Janet E. Foley; Niels C. Pedersen

21

Identification of Bartonella henselae in 2 cats with pyogranulomatous myocarditis and diaphragmatic myositis.  

PubMed

Most cats infected with Bartonella henselae remain outwardly healthy carriers for years; however, self-limiting fever, transient anemia, neurologic dysfunction, lymphadenopathy, reproductive disorders, aortic valvular endocarditis, and neutrophilic myocarditis have been described in experimentally or naturally infected cats. Two cats in a North Carolina shelter died with pyogranulomatous myocarditis and diaphragmatic myositis. Bacteria were visualized in the lesions by Warthin-Starry silver impregnation and by B. henselae immunohistochemistry. B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from the heart of 1 cat and from multiple tissue samples, including heart and diaphragm, from the second cat. This study supports a potential association between B. henselae and what has been historically described as "transmissible myocarditis and diaphragmitis" of undetermined cause in cats. PMID:21490304

Varanat, M; Broadhurst, J; Linder, K E; Maggi, R G; Breitschwerdt, E B

2012-07-01

22

Evidence of Bacteroides fragilis Protection from Bartonella henselae-Induced Damage  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is able to internalize endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are resistant to the infection of other common pathogens. Bacteroides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe belonging to the gut microflora. It protects from experimental colitis induced by Helicobacter hepaticus through the polysaccharide A (PSA). The aim of our study was to establish: 1) whether B. fragilis colonization could protect from B. henselae infection; if this event may have beneficial effects on EPCs, vascular system and tissues. Our in vitro results establish for the first time that B. fragilis can internalize EPCs and competes with B. henselae during coinfection. We observed a marked activation of the inflammatory response by Real-time PCR and ELISA in coinfected cells compared to B. henselae-infected cells (63 vs 23 up-regulated genes), and after EPCs infection with mutant B. fragilis ?PSA (?90% up-regulated genes) compared to B. fragilis. Interestingly, in a mouse model of coinfection, morphological and ultrastructural analyses by hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron microscopy on murine tissues revealed that damages induced by B. henselae can be prevented in the coinfection with B. fragilis but not with its mutant B. fragilis ?PSA. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis with anti-Bartonella showed that the number of positive cells per field decreased of at least 50% in the liver (20±4 vs 50±8), aorta (5±1 vs 10±2) and spleen (25±3 vs 40±6) sections of mice coinfected compared to mice infected only with B. henselae. This decrease was less evident in the coinfection with ?PSA strain (35±6 in the liver, 5±1 in the aorta and 30±5 in the spleen). Finally, B. fragilis colonization was also able to restore the EPC decrease observed in mice infected with B. henselae (0.65 vs 0.06 media). Thus, our data establish that B. fragilis colonization is able to prevent B. henselae damages through PSA. PMID:23166739

Ippolito, Rossana; Casamassimi, Amelia; Costa, Valerio; Colicchio, Roberta; Cerciello, Raimondo; D'Armiento, Maria; Scarpato, Margherita; Giovane, Alfonso; Pastore, Gabiria; Infante, Teresa; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Fiorito, Carmela; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Salvatore, Paola; Napoli, Claudio

2012-01-01

23

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Bartonella henselae IN A SERONEGATIVE CAT SCRATCH DISEASE PATIENT WITH AIDS IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including cat scratch disease, endocarditis and meningoencephalitis, in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We report the first molecularly confirmed case of B. henselae infection in an AIDS patient in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although DNA sequence of B. henselae has been detected by polymerase chain reaction in a lymph node biopsy, acute and convalescent sera were nonreactive. PMID:25076441

Favacho, Alexsandra R.m.; Roger, Isabelle; Akemi, Amanda K.; Pessoa, Adonai A.; Varon, Andrea G.; Gomes, Raphael; Godoy, Daniela T.; Pereira, Sandro; Lemos, Elba R.s.

2014-01-01

24

Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian  

PubMed Central

Background During a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. Prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in Grenada and Ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in South Africa. The woman reported contact with fleas, ticks, lice, biting flies, mosquitoes, spiders and mites and had also been scratched or bitten by dogs, cats, birds, horses, reptiles, rabbits and rodents. Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient’s symptoms. Methods PCR assays targeting Anaplasma spp. Bartonella spp. and hemotopic Mycoplasma spp. were used to test patient blood samples. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced directly and compared to GenBank sequences. In addition, Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture was used to facilitate bacterial growth and Bartonella spp. serology was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Results Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum DNA was amplified and sequenced from the woman’s blood, serum or blood culture samples. Her serum was variably seroreactive to several Bartonella sp. antigens. Despite symptomatic improvement, six months of doxycycline most likely failed to eliminate the B. henselae infection, whereas A. platys and Candidatus M. haematoparvum DNA was no longer amplified from post-treatment samples. Conclusions As is typical of many veterinary professionals, this individual had frequent exposure to arthropod vectors and near daily contact with persistently bacteremic reservoir hosts, including cats, the primary reservoir host for B. henselae, and dogs, the presumed primary reservoir host for A. platys and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Physicians caring for veterinarians should be aware of the occupational zoonotic risks associated with the daily activities of these animal health professionals. PMID:23587235

2013-01-01

25

A serological investigation of Bartonella henselae infection in cats in Turkey.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD) in humans. Cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium and may infect humans through scratches and bites. The purpose of this study was to determine the B. henselae seroprevalence in cats in Turkey. A total of 298 cats blood samples were collected from six different provinces of Turkey. Sera were tested for the presence of anti-B. henselae IgG antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA). The seroprevalence of B. henselae was 27.9% (83/298) for the cats examined in this study. The seroprevalence of cats by province was significantly higher in Bursa (41.3%), Adana (33.9%), Aydin (27.5%) and Burdur (32.3%) than in Kayseri (17.9%) and Istanbul (12.5%). Statistically significant differences were not observed between cat sexes and living conditions of cats. The results revealed that B. henselae is an important zoonotic pathogen in Turkey. PMID:21737965

Guzel, Murat; Celebi, Bekir; Yalcin, Ebru; Koenhemsi, Lora; Mamak, Nuri; Pasa, Serdar; Aslan, Oznur

2011-11-01

26

Role of dendritic cell-derived CXCL13 in the pathogenesis of Bartonella henselae B-rich granuloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate adaptive im- munity and regulate the inflammatory re- sponse by producing inflammatory che- mokines. This study was aimed to elucidate their role in the pathogenesis of the suppurative granuloma induced by Bartonella henselaeinfection, which char- acterizes cat scratch disease (CSD). In vitro DC infection by B. henselae results in internalization of bacteria, phenotypic maturation with increased

William Vermi; Fabio Facchetti; Elena Riboldi; Holger Heine; Sara Scutera; Sarah Stornello; Daniela Ravarino; Paola Cappello; Mirella Giovarelli; Raffaele Badolato; Mario Zucca; Francesca Gentili; Marco Chilosi; Claudio Doglioni; Alessandro Negro Ponzi; Silvano Sozzani; Tiziana Musso; S. Giovanni; Mario Negri

2006-01-01

27

Bartonella henselae Infections In An Owner and Two Papillon Dogs Exposed to Tropical Rat Mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).  

PubMed

Abstract After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission. PMID:25325313

Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-10-01

28

Interaction of Bartonella henselae with endothelial cells results in rapid bacterial rRNA synthesis and replication.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is a slow-growing microorganism and the causative pathogen of bacillary angiomatosis in man. Here, we analysed how interaction of B. henselae with endothelial cells might affect bacterial growth. For this purpose, bacterial rRNA production and ribosome content was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using rRNA-targeted fluorescence-labelled oligonucleotide probes. B. henselae grown on agar plates showed no detectable rRNA content by means of FISH, whereas B. henselae co-cultured with endothelial cells showed a rapid increase of rRNA production within the first 18 h after inoculation. The increased rRNA synthesis was paralleled by a approximately 1000-fold intracellular bacterial replication, whereas bacteria grown on agar base showed only a approximately 10-fold replication within the first 48 h of culture. Pretreatment of host cells with paraformaldehyde prevented adhesion, invasion, intracellular replication and bacterial rRNA synthesis of B. henselae. In contrast, inhibition of host cell protein synthesis by cycloheximide did not affect bacterial adhesion and invasion, but prevented intracellular replication although bacterial rRNA content was increased. Inhibition of actin polymerization by cytochalasin D did not affect adhesion, invasion, increased rRNA content or intracellular replication of B. henselae. These results demonstrate that rRNA synthesis and replication of B. henselae is promoted by viable host cells with intact de novo protein synthesis. PMID:11207598

Kempf, V A; Schaller, M; Behrendt, S; Volkmann, B; Aepfelbacher, M; Cakman, I; Autenrieth, I B

2000-10-01

29

BID-F1 and BID-F2 Domains of Bartonella henselae Effector Protein BepF Trigger Together with BepC the Formation of Invasome Structures  

E-print Network

The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with ...

Truttmann, Matthias C.

30

Genomic fingerprinting of Bartonella species by repetitive element PCR for distinguishing species and isolates.  

PubMed

Repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) with primers based on repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) repeated DNA sequences was used for genomic finger-printing of Bartonella species. This technique was applied by using either extracted genomic DNA or preparations of whole bacterial cells directly. PCR fingerprints with either the REP-based primers (REP-PCR) or primers based on the ERIC repeat (ERIC-PCR) revealed species-specific band patterns for the various Bartonella isolates. DNA fingerprints obtained from rep-PCR of extracted genomic DNA or from preparations of whole cells yielded comparable patterns. ERIC-PCR banding patterns were less complex than those obtained by REP-PCR but allowed better discrimination between strains within species. By combining results of REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR, five different fingerprint profiles were identified among 17 isolates of Bartonella henselae, but only one profile was identified among the five isolates of Bartonella quintana. Other Bartonella species yielded distinct rep-PCR fingerprints. rep-PCR is a useful technique for identification of Bartonella organisms to the species level and offers the advantage of ease of performance, with only small quantities of cells needed for the whole-cell procedure. This technique also appears to be useful for subtyping B. henselae isolates. PMID:7615711

Rodriguez-Barradas, M C; Hamill, R J; Houston, E D; Georghiou, P R; Clarridge, J E; Regnery, R L; Koehler, J E

1995-05-01

31

Evaluation of Human Seroreactivity to Bartonella Species in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the species that compose the expanding genus Bartonella, thus far only B. henselae and B. quintana have reportedly been isolated from humans in Europe. To evaluate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in Sweden, we conducted a retrospective serological examination of 126 human serum samples. These samples were analyzed for antibodies to B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae. Serum

M. HOLMBERG; S. M CGILL; C. EHRENBORG; L. WESSLEN; E. HJELM; J. DARELID; L. BLAD; L. ENGSTRAND; R. REGNERY; G. FRIMAN

1999-01-01

32

Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B.?henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B.?henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of Bartonella. PMID:23163798

Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

2013-05-01

33

Bartonella henselae infections in solid organ transplant recipients: report of 5 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis. The spectrum of disease, diagnosis, and management of B. henselae infection in solid organ transplant recipients has not been well characterized. We identified 29 cases of solid organ transplant recipients who had Bartonella infection, 24 by a review of the English-language literature and 5 from our institution. Localized cat scratch disease was found in 8 patients (28%), and disseminated infection was found in 21 patients (72%). The mean time after transplantation to development of Bartonella infection among those with cat scratch disease was 5.6 ± 5.3 years, and among those with disseminated infection was 2.7 ± 2.4 years. Prominent clinical features included cat exposure in 26 patients (90%), fever in 27 patients (93%), lymphadenopathy in 12 patients (41%), and skin lesions in 7 patients (24%). Methods used in establishing the diagnosis of Bartonella infection included culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, serologic assays, and histopathologic examination. Culture was positive in 2 of only 4 patients in whom this was performed, and PCR was positive in 12 of 14 patients (86%) in whom this test was performed. Serologic assays were positive in all 23 patients who were tested. Histopathologic examination of tissues in all 8 patients who had cat scratch disease revealed granulomatous inflammation in 4 (50%) and bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis in 2 (25%). Among the 15 patients who had disseminated infection and who had tissue examined, 8 (53%) had only granulomatous inflammation, 4 had only bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis (27%), and 2 had both granulomas and bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis (13%). A positive Warthin-Starry or Steiner stain was noted in 12 of 19 patients (63%) who had 1 of these stains performed. All 8 patients with cat scratch disease and 19 of 21 patients with disseminated bartonellosis were cured with antimicrobial therapy. Two patients, both of whom had endocarditis, died. Among solid organ transplant recipients, infection with B. henselae is uncommon and has diverse disease manifestations including disseminated disease. Persistent fevers or lymphadenopathy in a transplant recipient who has been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for B. henselae infection. Identifying B. henselae as the causative organism often requires multiple diagnostic studies. Once the diagnosis is established, most solid organ transplant recipients respond appropriately to antimicrobial treatment. PMID:22391473

Psarros, Georgios; Riddell, James; Gandhi, Tejal; Kauffman, Carol A; Cinti, Sandro K

2012-03-01

34

Isolation & characterization of Bartonella sp. from optic neuritis patients  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Optic neuritis (ON) is characterized by sudden and rapid impairment of vision. Bartonella henselae is a known aetiological agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), which is a common cause of neuroretinitis, the least common type of optic neuritis. The present study was carried out to determine the microbiological aetiology of optic neuritis in patients attending a tertiary care eye hospital in north India, which was later confirmed with molecular characterization. Methods: Of the 50 patients suffering from optic neuritis reported to the Ophthalmology OPD of a tertiary care eye hospital in New Delhi, India, 29 were included in the study. Blood culture from these patients were processed for aerobic and anerobic cultures to rule out infective aetiology. Subsequently, PCR was done on archive, glycerol-stocked cultures. Results: Gram-negative pleomorphic coccobacilli grew in four of 29 patients tested. Characterization of these revealed Bartonella like organism as tested by the API 20E, API Staph, API Strept and RapID ANA systems. Electron microscopy revealed presence of polar flagella and bleb like projection all over the bacterial surface. PCR performed on preserved culture confirmed these as Bartonella sp. Interpretation & conclusions: Infections with Bartonella like organisms have not been demonstrated from India in cases of optic neuritis or in any of the other clinical syndromes in the past. The present study shows the isolation and characterization of Bartonella like organisms from optic neuritis patients. From clinical point of view it will be important to look for these organisms as aetiological agents in ON cases in order to treat with appropriate antibiotics. PMID:23391794

Chaudhry, Rama; Mukherjee, Anjan; Menon, Vimala

2012-01-01

35

Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. PMID:25355744

van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

2014-01-01

36

[Investigation of Bartonella henselae seroprevalence and related risk factors in blood donors admitted to Pamukkale University Blood Center].  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is an emerging infectious agent that mainly causes cat scratch disease, basillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatitis. Although many basillary angiomatosis cases have been reported especially from the Mediterranean region of Turkey, adequate data about the seroprevalence of B. henselae in Turkey does not exist. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of B. henselae in volunteer blood donors and the related risk factors. In this study, sera samples were randomly collected from 800 (771 man, 29 women; age range: 18-60 years) voluntary healthy blood donors admitted to Pamukkale University Research and Training Hospital. B. henselae (Houston-1 strain) total antibodies were investigated by an in-house indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Seropositivity was detected in 6% (48/800) of the donors. B. henselae (Houston-1) antibody titer was 1/64 in 40 of the donors, 1/128 in 4, 1/256 in 2, 1/512 in 1 and 1/1024 in 1 of the donors. Statistical analysis of epidemiological and demographical data revealed that high seroprevalence rates have been found in rabbit stockfarmers (p = 0.004), students staying at hostels (p = 0.04) and people with history of tick-bite (p = 0.03). No significant statistical differences were found in each related groups in terms of age, sex, chronic disorders, sport activities, outside behaviors, being injured by any wild or domestic animals, working outdoors, geographical properties of the area of inhabitance, hunting and travelling (p > 0.05). One of the high titer (1/512) antibody positive subjects was a cat owner and had a history of phlebotomus bite, pediculosis and sporting in open area while 1/1024 titer positive case was a farmer and a dog owner. Our healthy blood donors' seroprevalence results are similar to those of other Mediterranean countries. The analysis of epidemiological data revealed that tick bite history and rabbit stockfarming were the risk factors for B. henselae infection. Variability and regional intensity of vectors may provide important clues to spreading disease. Consequently, these data showed that bartonellosis is an emerging disease in our country and detailed questionnaire for blood donors may be helpful to prevent transmission. Further larger scale research is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of B. henselae and analyse the related risk factors in Mediterranean-type climate regions. PMID:19795614

Yilmaz, Cansev; Ergin, Ca?ri; Kaleli, Ilknur

2009-07-01

37

Bartonella henselae-Specific Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Display a Predominantly Th1 Phenotype in Experimentally Infected C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Immune responses of the immunocompetent host to Bartonella henselae infection were investigated in the murine infection model using C57BL/6 mice. Following intraperitoneal infection with human-derived B. henselae strain Berlin-1, viable bacteria could be recovered from livers and spleens during the first week postinfection, while Bartonella DNA remained detectable by PCR in the liver for up to 12 weeks after infection. Granulomatous lesions developed in livers of infected mice, reached maximal density at 12 weeks after infection, and persisted for up to 20 weeks, indicating that B. henselae induced a chronic granulomatous hepatitis in the immunocompetent murine host. T-cell-mediated immune responses were analyzed in vitro by means of spleen cell proliferation and cytokine release assays as well as analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes. Spleen cells from infected mice proliferated specifically upon stimulation with heat-killed Bartonella antigen. Proliferative responses were mainly mediated by CD4+ T cells, increased during the course of infection, peaked at 8 weeks postinfection, and decreased thereafter. Gamma interferon, but not interleukin-4, was produced in vitro by spleen cells from infected animals upon stimulation with Bartonella antigens. Bartonella-specific IgG was detectable in serum of infected mice by 2 weeks, and the antibody concentration peaked at 12 weeks postinfection. IgG2b was the prominent isotype among the Bartonella-specific serum IgG antibodies. These data indicate that B. henselae induces cell-mediated immune responses with a Th1 phenotype in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. PMID:11553587

Arvand, Mardjan; Ignatius, Ralf; Regnath, Thomas; Hahn, Helmut; Mielke, Martin E. A.

2001-01-01

38

Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the last 15 years, several bacteria of the genus Bartonella were recognized as zoonotic agents in humans and isolated from various mammalian reservoirs. Based on either isolation of the bacterium or PCR testing, eight Bartonella species or subspecies have been recognized as zoonotic agents, including B. henselae, B. elizabethae, B. grahamii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii,

Henri-Jean Boulouis; Chang Chao-chin; Jennifer B. Henn; Rickie W. Kasten; Bruno B. Chomel

2005-01-01

39

A flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin prevents flea transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. Methods Specific pathogen free cats (n = 19) were housed in three adjoining enclosures that were separated by mesh to allow C. felis to pass among groups but prevent cats in different enclosures from contacting one another. One group of 4 cats was inoculated intravenously with B. henselae and after infection was confirmed in all cats based on positive PCR assay results, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. The B. henselae infected cat group was flanked by a group of 8 cats that had the collar placed and maintained for the duration of the study and a group of 7 cats that were not treated. Ctenocephalides felis (50 males and 50 females) raised in an insectary were placed on each of the 4 cats in the B. henselae infected group monthly for 7 applications and then every 2 weeks for 4 applications starting the day the collar was applied. Blood was collected from all cats weekly for Bartonella spp. PCR, serology and culture. Results While side-effects associated with the collars were not noted, persistent fever necessitating enrofloxacin therapy occurred in two of the untreated cats. While B. henselae infection was ultimately confirmed in 4 of 7 of the untreated cats, none of the cats with collars became infected (P = 0.026). Conclusions In this study design, use of a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was well tolerated and prevented C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. PMID:23351927

2013-01-01

40

Bartonella Strains from Ground Squirrels Are Identical to Bartonella washoensis Isolated from a Human Patient  

PubMed Central

The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in question and of Bartonella isolates obtained from the following Nevada rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus (17 isolates), Tamias minimus (11 isolates), Spermophilus lateralis (3 isolates), and Spermophilus beecheyi (7 isolates). Sequence analyses of gltA amplicons obtained from Bartonella from the rodents demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and resulted in the identification of 16 genetic variants that were clustered within three groups in phylogenetic analysis. Each of the three groups was associated with a rodent genus, Peromyscus, Tamias, or Spermophilus. The gltA, 16S rRNA gene, and groEL sequences of a Bartonella isolate obtained from a California ground squirrel (S. beecheyi) were completely identical to homologous sequences of B. washoensis, strongly suggesting that these animals were the source of infection in the human case. PMID:12574261

Kosoy, Michael; Murray, Mike; Gilmore, Jr., Robert D.; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L.

2003-01-01

41

Bartonella strains from ground squirrels are identical to Bartonella washoensis isolated from a human patient.  

PubMed

The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in question and of Bartonella isolates obtained from the following Nevada rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus (17 isolates), Tamias minimus (11 isolates), Spermophilus lateralis (3 isolates), and Spermophilus beecheyi (7 isolates). Sequence analyses of gltA amplicons obtained from Bartonella from the rodents demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and resulted in the identification of 16 genetic variants that were clustered within three groups in phylogenetic analysis. Each of the three groups was associated with a rodent genus, Peromyscus, Tamias, or Spermophilus: The gltA, 16S rRNA gene, and groEL sequences of a Bartonella isolate obtained from a California ground squirrel (S. beecheyi) were completely identical to homologous sequences of B. washoensis, strongly suggesting that these animals were the source of infection in the human case. PMID:12574261

Kosoy, Michael; Murray, Mike; Gilmore, Robert D; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L

2003-02-01

42

Exposure and Risk Factors to Coxiella burnetii, Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among Volunteer Blood Donors in Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia) are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG) in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8%) had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1?16), and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1?100) for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P<0.021). Donors with occupations involving animals (P>0.012), especially cattle (P>0.006), were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013) and typhus (P<0.011) group rickettsiae. Three (2.9%) samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms. PMID:25259959

Noden, Bruce H.; Tshavuka, Filippus I.; van der Colf, Berta E.; Chipare, Israel; Wilkinson, Rob

2014-01-01

43

Bartonella bovis isolated from a cow with endocarditis.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old pregnant Angus cow was found dead in the field. At necropsy, the aortic valve was expanded by moderate fibrous connective tissue and acidophilic coagulum containing multifocal marked bacteria, mineral, neutrophils, and red blood cells. Numerous tiny grayish, opaque bacterial colonies were detected on blood agar plates at 7 days after inoculation with a swab of the heart valve of the cow. The bacterium was a Gram-negative, very small coccobacillus that was catalase, oxidase, and urease negative, and did not change litmus milk, triple sugar iron agar, and sulfide-indole-motility medium. The bacterium was negative for esculin hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, nitrate reduction, and gelatin hydrolysis. The isolate did not produce acid from glycerol, inulin, lactose, maltose, mannose, raffinose, salicin, sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, glycogen, ribose, or starch. Polymerase chain reaction tests for the gltA, ssrA, ftsZ, ribC, rpoB, and 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Bartonella species were positive for the isolate. Amplicons were sequenced, and the gltA, ribC, ssrA, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were found to have 100% homology to the type strain of Bartonella bovis, whereas the fts and rpoB sequences showed 99.9% and 99.6% homology, respectively, to the type strain of Bartonella bovis. Diagnosticians should be aware of slow-growing microorganisms, and culture media should be incubated beyond the standard period to enhance the recovery of Bartonella species. PMID:23512923

Erol, Erdal; Jackson, Carney; Bai, Ying; Sells, Stephen; Locke, Steve; Kosoy, Michael

2013-03-01

44

Prevalence of Bartonella infection in wild African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).  

PubMed

Bartonella species are emerging pathogens that have been isolated worldwide from humans and other mammals. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Blood and/or serum samples were collected from a convenience sample of 113 lions and 74 cheetahs captured in Africa between 1982 and 2002. Whole blood samples available from 58 of the lions and 17 of the cheetahs were cultured for evidence of Bartonella spp., and whole blood from 54 of the 58 lions and 73 of the 74 cheetahs tested for the presence of Bartonella DNA by TaqMan PCR. Serum samples from the 113 lions and 74 cheetahs were tested for the presence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae using an immunofluorescence assay. Three (5.2%) of the 58 lions and one (5.9%) of the 17 cheetahs were bacteremic. Two lions were infected with B. henselae, based on PCR/RFLP of the citrate synthase gene. The third lion and the cheetah were infected with previously unidentified Bartonella strains. Twenty-three percent of the 73 cheetahs and 3.7% of the 54 lions tested by TaqMan PCR were positive for Bartonella spp. B. henselae antibody prevalence was 17% (19/113) for the lions and 31% (23/74) for the cheetahs. The prevalence of seropositivity, bacteremia, and positive TaqMan PCR was not significantly different between sexes and age categories (juvenile versus adult) for both lions and cheetahs. Domestic cats are thus no longer the only known carriers of Bartonella spp. in Africa. Translocation of B. henselae seronegative and TaqMan PCR negative wild felids might be effective in limiting the spread of Bartonella infection. PMID:15135511

Molia, S; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Leutenegger, C M; Steele, B R; Marker, L; Martenson, J S; Keet, D F; Bengis, R G; Peterson, R P; Munson, L; O'Brien, S J

2004-05-20

45

Isolation and molecular identification of Bartonellae from wild rats (Rattus species) in Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study describes our investigation on the prevalence and molecular identification of bartonellae from Rattus diardii and R. norvegicus in the urban areas of Malaysia. Of 95 rats investigated, Bartonella tribocorum, B. rattimassiliensis, B. coopersplainsensis, B. elizabethae, and B. queenslandensis were isolated from kidney and spleen homogenates of four rats. Bartonellae DNA was amplified from the rat organ tissues by using primers specific for the bartonellae RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene in nine other rats. Sequence analysis of the rpoB gene fragments shows the identification of B. queenslandensis in five rats, B. elizabethae in three rats, and B. tribocorum in one rat. Combining the results of isolation and molecular detection of bartonellae, we found that the prevalence of Bartonella infection in the Rattus spp. investigated in this study was 13.7%. Implementation of effective rat control program in the urban areas is necessary to prevent the spillover of bartonellosis from rats to humans. PMID:24732465

Tay, Sun Tee; Mokhtar, Aida Syafinaz; Zain, Siti Nursheena Mohd; Low, Kiat Cheong

2014-06-01

46

Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; Garcia-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

2012-01-01

47

Bartonella spp. isolated from wild and domestic ruminants in North America.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species were isolated from 49% of 128 cattle from California and Oklahoma, 90% of 42 mule deer from California, and 15% of 100 elk from California and Oregon. Isolates from all 63 cattle, 14 deer, and 1 elk had the same polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. Our findings indicate potential for inter- and intraspecies transmission among ruminants, as well as risk that these Bartonella spp. could act as zoonotic agents. PMID:10827123

Chang, C. C.; Chomel, B. B.; Kasten, R. W.; Heller, R. M.; Ueno, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Bleich, V. C.; Pierce, B. M.; Gonzales, B. J.; Swift, P. K.; Boyce, W. M.; Jang, S. S.; Boulouis, H. J.; Piemont, Y.; Rossolini, G. M.; Riccio, M. L.; Cornaglia, G.; Pagani, L.; Lagatolla, C.; Selan, L.; Fontana, R.

2000-01-01

48

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

2012-12-28

49

Bartonella Strains from Ground Squirrels Are Identical to Bartonella washoensis Isolated from a Human Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 22 April 2002\\/Returned for modification 2 September 2002\\/Accepted 13 October 2002 The most likely animal source of a human case of cardiac disease in Washoe County, Nev., was identified by comparison of DNA sequences of three genes (citrate synthase gltA, 60-kDa heat shock protein gene groEL, and 16S rRNA gene) of Bartonella washoensis cultured from the human patient in

Michael Kosoy; Mike Murray; Robert D. Gilmore; Ying Bai; Kenneth L. Gage

2003-01-01

50

Bartonella infection in domestic cats and wild felids.  

PubMed

Bartonella are vector-borne, fastidious Gram-negative bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in their reservoir hosts. Felids represent a major reservoir for several Bartonella species. Domestic cats are the main reservoir of B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease. Prevalence of infection is highest in warm and humid climates that are optimal for the survival of cat fleas, as fleas are essential for the transmission of the infection. Flea feces are the likely infectious substrate. Prevalence of B. henselae genotypes among cat populations varies worldwide. Genotype Houston I is more prevalent in the Far East and genotype Marseille is dominant in western Europe, Australia, and the western United States. Cats are usually asymptomatic, but uveitis, endocarditis, neurological signs, fever, necrotic lesions at the inoculation site, lymphadenopathy, and reproductive disorders have been reported in naturally or experimentally infected cats. Domestic cats are also the reservoir of B. clarridgeiae and co-infection has been demonstrated. B. koehlerae has been isolated from domestic cats, and was identified in cat fleas and associated with a human endocarditis case. B. bovis was isolated from a few cats in the United States and B. quintana DNA was recently identified in a cat tooth. Bartonella spp. have also been isolated from free-ranging and captive wild felids from North America and Africa. Whereas, B. henselae was identified in African lions and a cheetah, some strains specific to these wild cats have also been identified, leading to the concept of a B. henselae group including various subspecies, as previously described for B. vinsonii. PMID:17114749

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Henn, Jennifer B; Molia, Sophie

2006-10-01

51

Isolation and Characterization of Bartonella bacilliformis from an Expatriate Ecuadorian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrion's disease is typically biphasic with acute febrile illness characterized by bacteremia and severe hemolytic anemia (Oroya fever), followed by benign, chronic cutaneous lesions (verruga peruana). The caus- ative agent, Bartonella bacilliformis, is endemic in specific regions of Peru and Ecuador. We describe atypical infection in an expatriate patient who presented with acute splenomegaly and anemia 3 years after visiting

Shari L. Lydy; Marina E. Eremeeva; Deborah Asnis; Christopher D. Paddock; William L. Nicholson; David J. Silverman; Gregory A. Dasch

52

The prevalence of Bartonella, hemoplasma, and Rickettsia felis infections in domestic cats and in cat fleas in Ontario  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of persistent bacteremic Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma infections was determined in healthy pet cats in Ontario. Blood samples from healthy cats sent to a diagnostic laboratory for routine health assessment over the course of 1 y were tested for Bartonella spp. using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and blood culture, and for the presence of hemoplasma by PCR. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp. by PCR and by culture combined was 4.3% (28/646) [3.7% (24/646) Bartonella henselae, 0.6% (4/646) Bartonella clarridgeiae]. The novel B. henselae PCR developed for this study demonstrated nearly twice the sensitivity of bacterial isolation. The overall prevalence of hemoplasma was 4% (30/742) [3.3% (25/742) Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 0.7% (5/742) Mycoplasma haemofelis]. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of infection by season or by age (? 2 y, > 2 y). Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis was identified, for the first time in Canada, in 1 cat. The prevalence of Bartonella (58%) and hemoplasma (47% M. haemofelis, 13% M. haemominutum) in blood from a small sampling (n = 45) of stray cats was considerably higher than that found in healthy pet cats. The prevalence of Rickettsia felis in cat fleas was also assessed. A pool of fleas from each of 50 flea-infested cats was analyzed for the presence of R. felis by PCR. Rickettsia felis was confirmed, for the first time in Canada, in 9 of the 50 samples. Therefore, the prevalence of Bartonella and hemoplasma infection in healthy pet cats is relatively low. Further, the control of cat fleas is important because of the public health significance of Bartonella and R. felis infection. PMID:19086373

Kamrani, Ali; Parreira, Valeria R.; Greenwood, Janice; Prescott, John F.

2008-01-01

53

Bartonella seropositivity in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An association between Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and seropositivity for Bartonella henselae (BH) has been described. The objective of this study was to see if such an association exists in northern Alberta. METHODS: Immunofluorescent antibody testing utilizing an antigen prepared from B. henselae was undertaken on sera from six children with current HSP, 22 children with remote HSP, and 28

Joan L Robinson; Donald W Spady; Errol Prasad; Dorothy McColl; Harvey Artsob

2005-01-01

54

Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans.  

PubMed

We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 Risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. Whole blood (n = 95 live animals) and tissues (n = 15 freshly dead animals) were screened by PCR (n = 106 animals), PCR of enrichment cultures (n = 50 animals), and subcultures (n = 50 animals). Bartonella spp. were detected from 17 cetaceans, including 12 by direct extraction PCR of blood or tissues, 6 by PCR of enrichment cultures, and 4 by subculture isolation. Bartonella spp. were more commonly detected from the captive (6/14, 43%) than from free-ranging (2/71, 2.8%) bottlenose dolphins, and were commonly detected from the stranded animals (9/21, 43%; 3/11 striped dolphins, 3/4 harbor porpoises, 2/3 Risso's dolphins, 1/1 pygmy sperm whale, 0/1 dwarf sperm whale, 0/1 bottlenose dolphin). Sequencing identified a Bartonella spp. most similar to B. henselae San Antonio 2 in eight cases (4 bottlenose dolphins, 2 striped dolphins, 2 harbor porpoises), B. henselae Houston 1 in three cases (2 Risso's dolphins, 1 harbor porpoise), and untyped in six cases (4 bottlenose dolphins, 1 striped dolphin, 1 pygmy sperm whale). Although disease causation has not been established, Bartonella species were detected more commonly from cetaceans that were overtly debilitated or were cohabiting in captivity with a debilitated animal than from free-ranging animals. The detection of Bartonella spp. from cetaceans may be of pathophysiological concern. PMID:18721502

Harms, Craig A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L; Solangi, Mobashir; Rotstein, David S; Fair, Patricia A; Hansen, Larry J; Hohn, Aleta A; Lovewell, Gretchen N; McLellan, William A; Pabst, D Ann; Rowles, Teri K; Schwacke, Lori H; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S

2008-01-01

55

Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).  

PubMed

Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (P<0.001). While Bartonella infection was also detected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California. PMID:24629902

Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-06-01

56

Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these\\u000a ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these

Ellen Tijsse-Klasen; Manoj Fonville; Fedor Gassner; Ard M Nijhof; Emil KE Hovius; Frans Jongejan; Willem Takken; Johan R Reimerink; Paul AM Overgaauw; Hein Sprong

2011-01-01

57

Beyond Cat Scratch Disease: A Case Report of Bartonella Infection Mimicking Vasculitic Disorder  

PubMed Central

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae and it is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site of a cat scratch or bite. We report a patient with history of fever, swelling lymph nodes, vasculitic-like skin lesions, and positivity of Bartonella serology initially considered as expression of a disimmune disease. PMID:22924138

Spinella, Amelia; Lumetti, Federica; Sandri, Gilda; Cestelli, Valentina; Mascia, Maria Teresa

2012-01-01

58

Cat Scratch Disease Caused by Bartonella grahamii in an Immunocompromised Patient  

PubMed Central

Bartonella grahamii colonizes rodents worldwide and has been detected in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Here, the first human B. grahamii infection confirmed by multilocus sequence typing is reported. The route of transmission and clinical picture of the patient are similar to those seen in patients with cat scratch disease, which is typically diagnosed as a Bartonella henselae infection. PMID:23740723

Oksi, Jarmo; Rantala, Sari; Kilpinen, Sanna; Silvennoinen, Raija; Vornanen, Martine; Veikkolainen, Ville; Eerola, Erkki

2013-01-01

59

Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae Infection)  

MedlinePLUS

... Page last updated: April 30, 2014 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Home A-Z Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road ...

60

Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease).  

PubMed Central

Shortly after adopting a 6-week-old cat, a veterinarian was bitten on the left index finger. Within 3 weeks, he developed headache, fever, and left axillary lymphadenopathy. Initial blood cultures from the cat and veterinarian were sterile. Repeat cultures from the cat grew Bartonella-like organisms with lophotrichous flagella. Sera from the veterinarian were not reactive against Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, or B. elizabethae antigens but were seroreactive (reciprocal titer, 1,024) against the feline isolate. Sequential serum samples from the cat were reactive against antigens of B. henselae (titer, 1,024), B. quintana (titer, 128), and the feline isolate (titer, 2,048). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of this and six additional feline isolates, including microscopic evaluation, biochemical analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and citrate synthase gene identified the isolates as B. clarridgeiae. This is the first report of cat scratch disease associated with B. clarridgeiae. PMID:9196200

Kordick, D L; Hilyard, E J; Hadfield, T L; Wilson, K H; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Breitschwerdt, E B

1997-01-01

61

Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a Woman and a Cat following Putative Bite Transmission?  

PubMed Central

We report here the detection of Bartonella quintana, after putative bite transmission, in pre-enrichment blood cultures from a woman and from two feral barn cats. Prospective molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to characterize the risk of human Bartonella quintana infection following cat bites. PMID:17093037

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Sigmon, Betsy; Nicholson, William L.

2007-01-01

62

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas ( Felis concolor ) and bobcats ( Lynx rufus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas

Bruno B. Chomel; Yoko Kikuchi; Janice S. Martenson; Melodie E. Roelke-Parker; Chao-Chin Chang; Rickie W. Kasten; Janet E. Foley; John Laudre; Kerry Murphy; Pamela K. Swift; Vicki L. Kramer

2004-01-01

63

Bartonella spp. in Feral Pigs, Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

In conjunction with efforts to assess pathogen exposure in feral pigs from the southeastern United States, we amplified Bartonella henselae, B. koehlerae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii from blood samples. Feral pigs may represent a zoonotic risk for hunters or butchers and pose a potential threat to domesticated livestock. PMID:21529405

Beard, Adam W.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Cherry, Natalie A.; Sandfoss, Mark R.; DePerno, Christopher S.

2011-01-01

64

Identification of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in ffrom the Thai-Myanmar border.  

PubMed

During a survey for possible rickettsial vectors in villages of the central part of the Thai-Myanmar border from September 2001 to February 2002, four species of fleas were collected from common peridomestic animals. All fleas were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the genera Rickettsia (gltA and ompB genes) and Bartonella (ITS and ftsZ genes). Sequencing of PCR-amplified products was done using gltA fragments for Rickettsia and ftsZ fragments for BARTONELLA: Two genotypes related to Rickettsia felis were identified in three Ctenocephalides canis and one C. felis specimen. Further, the following Bartonella spp. were detected: Bartonella henselae in two C. felis specimens; Bartonella clarridgeiae in three C. felis specimens; and a new Bartonella genotype in one Nosopsylla fasciatus specimen. Rickettsia and Bartonella may be frequently detected in fleas infesting peridomestic animals from the western border of Thailand. PMID:12860622

Parola, P; Sanogo, O Y; Lerdthusnee, K; Zeaiter, Z; Chauvancy, G; Gonzalez, J P; Miller, R S; Telford, S R; Wongsrichanalai, C; Raoult, D

2003-06-01

65

Bartonella Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts: Immunology of Vascular Infection and Vasoproliferation  

PubMed Central

Most infections by genus Bartonella in immunocompromised patients are caused by B. henselae and B. quintana. Unlike immunocompetent hosts who usually develop milder diseases such as cat scratch disease and trench fever, immunocompromised patients, including those living with HIV/AIDS and posttransplant patients, are more likely to develop different and severe life-threatening disease. This paper will discuss Bartonella's manifestations in immunosuppressed patients and will examine Bartonella's interaction with the immune system including its mechanisms of establishing infection and immune escape. Gaps in current understanding of the immunology of Bartonella infection in immunocompromised hosts will be highlighted. PMID:22162717

Mosepele, Mosepele; Mazo, Dana; Cohn, Jennifer

2012-01-01

66

Genomic Fingerprinting ofBartonellaSpecies by Repetitive Element PCR for Distinguishing Species and Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) with primers based on repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) repeated DNA sequences was used for genomicfinger- printing of Bartonella species. This technique was applied by using either extracted genomic DNA or prepa- rations of whole bacterial cells directly. PCR fingerprints with either the REP-based primers (REP-PCR) or primers based on the ERIC

MARIA C. RODRIGUEZ-BARRADAS; RICHARD J. HAMILL; ERIC D. HOUSTON; PAUL R. GEORGHIOU; JILL E. CLARRIDGE; RUSSELL L. REGNERY; ANDJANE E. KOEHLER; Georgia Atlanta

1995-01-01

67

Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans. PMID:21501464

2011-01-01

68

Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya  

PubMed Central

We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region. PMID:21122216

Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2010-01-01

69

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in North America, Central America and South America were screened for B. henselae antibodies. The overall prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was respectively 19.4% in pumas and 23.1% in bobcats, with regional variations. In the USA, pumas from the southwestern states were more likely to be seropositive for B. henselae (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55, 5.11) than pumas from the Northwest and Mountain states. Similarly, adults were more likely to be B. henselae seropositive than juveniles and kittens (PR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.93). Adult pumas were more likely to have higher B. henselae antibody titers than juveniles and kittens (p = 0.026). B. henselae antibody prevalence was 22.4% (19/85) in bobcats from the USA and 33.3% (2/6) in the Mexican bobcats. In the USA, antibody prevalence varied depending on the geographical origin of the bobcats. In California, the highest prevalence was in bobcats from the coastal range (37.5%). These results suggest a potential role of wild felids in the epidemiological cycle of Bartonella henselae or closely related Bartonella species. PMID:15099499

Chomel, Bruno B; Kikuchi, Yoko; Martenson, Janice S; Roelke-Parker, Melodie E; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Janet E; Laudre, John; Murphy, Kerry; Swift, Pamela K; Kramer, Vicki L; O'brien, Stephen J

2004-01-01

70

An unmatched case controlled study of clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with Bartonella infection.  

PubMed

We compared clinicopathologic findings in dogs with Bartonella infection to Bartonella spp. negative dogs suspected of a vector-borne disease. Cases (n=47) and controls (n=93) were selected on the basis of positive or negative enrichment culture PCR results, respectively. Signalment, clinicopathologic findings and treatments were extracted from medical records. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella henselae (n=28, 59.6%), Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (n=20, 42.6%), Bartonella koehlerae (n=3, 6.4%), Bartonella volans-like (n=3, 6.4%) and Bartonella bovis (n=1, 2.1%). There were no significant differences in age, breed, size, sex or neuter status between cases and controls. Dogs infected with Bartonella sp. often had a history of weight loss [OR=2.82; 95% CI: 1.08-7.56] and were hypoglobulinemic [OR=4.26; 95% CI: 1.31-14.41]. With the exception of weight loss and hypoglobulinemia, clinicopathologic abnormalities in Bartonella-infected dogs in this study were similar to dogs suspected of other vector-borne infections. PMID:23683861

Pérez Vera, Cristina; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Pultorak, Elizabeth L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-09-01

71

Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

2012-09-01

72

A gene transfer agent and a dynamic repertoire of secretion systems hold the keys to the explosive radiation of the emerging pathogen Bartonella.  

PubMed

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G E

2013-03-01

73

A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Bjorn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Naslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

2013-01-01

74

Epidemiology of Bartonella infection in rodents and shrews in Taiwan.  

PubMed

During the period of August 2002 and November 2004, an epidemiological investigation for Bartonella infection was conducted in small mammals in Taiwan. Using whole blood culture on chocolate agar plates, Bartonella species were successfully isolated from 41.3% of the 310 animals tested. The isolation rate of Bartonella species varied among different animal species, including 52.7% of the 169 Rattus norvegicus, 28.6% of the 126 Sucus murinus, 10% of the 10 Rattus rattus and 66.7% of the three Rattus losea. Bacteremia prevalence also varied with the origin of the animals, as 56.2% of the animals captured on farms, 38.6% of the ones captured at harbour sites and 11.8% of the animals captured from urban areas were bacteremic. Through molecular analysis of the gltA gene and 16S/23S intergenic spacer region, genetic diversity of Bartonella organisms was identified, including strains closely related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella phoceensis and Bartonella rattimassiliensis. Moreover, this is the first report of zoonotic B. elizabethae and B. grahamii identified in R. losea, the lesser rice-field rat. Various Bartonella species were identified in R. norvegicus, compared to 97.2% of Suncus murinus with unique Bartonella species. By indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, using various rodent Bartonella species as antigens, consistently low percentage of seropositivity implied that small mammals may play a role as competent reservoirs of Bartonella species in Taiwan. Future studies need to be conducted to determine whether these Bartonella species would be responsible for human cases of unknown fever or febrile illness in Taiwan, especially zoonotic B. elizabethae and B. grahamii. PMID:19538457

Hsieh, J-W; Tung, K-C; Chen, W-C; Lin, J-W; Chien, L-J; Hsu, Y-M; Wang, H-C; Chomel, B B; Chang, C-C

2010-09-01

75

Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause characteristic host-restricted hemotropic infections in mammals and are typically transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In the mammalian reservoir, these bacteria initially infect a yet unrecognized primary niche, which seeds organisms into the blood stream leading to the establishment of a long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia as the hall-mark of infection. Bacterial type IV secretion systems, which are supra-molecular transporters ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems, represent crucial pathogenicity factors that have contributed to a radial expansion of the Bartonella lineage in nature by facilitating adaptation to unique mammalian hosts. On the molecular level, the type IV secretion system VirB/VirD4 is known to translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins into host cells, which subvert multiple cellular functions to the benefit of the infecting pathogen. Furthermore, bacterial adhesins mediate a critical, early step in the pathogenesis of the bartonellae by binding to extracellular matrix components of host cells, which leads to firm bacterial adhesion to the cell surface as a prerequisite for the efficient translocation of type IV secretion effector proteins. The best-studied adhesins in bartonellae are the orthologous trimeric autotransporter adhesins, BadA in Bartonella henselae and the Vomp family in Bartonella quintana. Genetic diversity and strain variability also appear to enhance the ability of bartonellae to invade not only specific reservoir hosts, but also accidental hosts, as shown for B. henselae. Bartonellae have been identified in many different blood-sucking arthropods, in which they are typically found to cause extracellular infections of the mid-gut epithelium. Adaptation to specific vectors and reservoirs seems to be a common strategy of bartonellae for transmission and host diversity. However, knowledge regarding arthropod specificity/restriction, the mode of transmission, and the bacterial factors involved in arthropod infection and transmission is still limited. PMID:19284965

Chomel, Bruno B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Birtles, Richard J.; Koehler, Jane E.; Dehio, Christoph

2009-01-01

76

Bartonella and Rickettsia in fleas and lice from mammals in South Carolina, U.S.A.  

PubMed

Species in the genera Bartonella and Rickettsia are vector-borne pathogens of humans and domestic animals. The natural reservoirs and enzootic transmission cycles of these bacteria are poorly known in South Carolina. Thirteen species of lice and fleas were collected from urban animals and screened for the presence of Bartonella and Rickettsia by PCR amplification using genus-specific primers. Bartonella henselae was present in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and a novel genotype of Bartonella was detected in Orchopeas howardi from an eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). We detected R. typhi and three novel genotypes Rickettsia in other species of fleas and lice. Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of murine typhus, was detected in two pools of lice (Enderleinellus marmotae) from the woodchuck (Marmota monax). Cat fleas harbored one of two novel genotypes of Rickettsia. A third novel Rickettsia was detected in Orchopeas howardi from an eastern gray squirrel. PMID:16599169

Reeves, Will K; Nelder, Mark P; Korecki, James A

2005-12-01

77

Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.  

PubMed

Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa. PMID:22309510

Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

2012-03-01

78

Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cause human endocarditis and neuroretinitis and 6 novel Bartonella spp. at a high prevalence (26.0%, 142/546). We conclude that exotic small mammals potentially serve as reservoirs of several zoonotic Bartonella spp. PMID:19331727

Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Hagiya, Keiko; Izumi, Yasuhito; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2009-01-01

79

Bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from Uganda.  

PubMed

The presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (Rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in Uganda, Arua and Zombo, was examined by PCR detection and culture. Blood from a total of 228 R. rattus, 31 A. niloticus, and 5 C. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as Bartonella species using citrate synthase gene- (gltA) specific primers. One hundred and four fleas recovered from R. rattus were also tested for the presence of Bartonella species using the same gltA primer set. An overall prevalence of 1.3% (three of 228) was obtained in R. rattus, whereas 61.3% of 31 A. niloticus and 60% of five C. gambianus were positive for the presence of Bartonella species. Genotypes related to Bartonella elizabethae, a known zoonotic pathogen, were detected in three R. rattus and one C. gambianus. Bartonella strains, similar to bacteria detected in indigenous rodents from other African countries, were isolated from the blood of A. niloticus. Bartonellae, similar to bacteria initially cultured from Ornithodorus sonrai (soft tick) from Senegal, were found in two C. gambianus. Interestingly, bartonellae detected in fleas from invasive rats were similar to bacteria identified in indigenous rodents and not their rat hosts, with an overall prevalence of 6.7%. These results suggest that if fleas are competent vectors of these bartonellae, humans residing in these two districts of Uganda are potentially at greater risk for exposure to Bartonella species from native rodents than from invasive rats. The low prevalence of bartonellae in R. rattus was quite surprising, in contrast, to the detection of these organisms in a large percentage of Rattus species from other geographical areas. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed. PMID:24575846

Billeter, Sarah A; Borchert, Jeff N; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Gage, Kenneth L; Kosoy, Michael Y

2014-03-01

80

Molecular Typing of "Candidatus Bartonella ancashi," a New Human Pathogen Causing Verruga Peruana  

PubMed Central

A recently described clinical isolate, “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty. PMID:23985925

Mullins, Kristin E.; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguina, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G.; Blazes, David L.

2013-01-01

81

Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.  

PubMed

To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

2011-07-01

82

Infection with Bartonella weissii and Detection of Nanobacterium Antigens in a North Carolina Beef Herd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very recently, Bartonella organisms have been isolated from large ruminants (deer, elk, and dairy and beef cattle) located in the United States and in France. In this study, we report the serologic, microbiologic, and molecular findings related to the isolation of a Bartonella species in North Carolina beef cattle and the detec- tion of nanobacterial antigen using a commercially available

EDWARD B. BREITSCHWERDT; SUSHAMA SONTAKKE; ALLEN CANNEDY; SUSAN I. HANCOCK; JULIE M. BRADLEY

83

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the Reservoir for a Human Pathogenic Bartonella sp.: Molecular Epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Infection in Coyotes from Central Coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals

CHAO-CHIN CHANG; RICKIE W. KASTEN; BRUNO B. CHOMEL; DARREN C. SIMPSON; CARRIE M. HEW; DORSEY L. KORDICK; REMY HELLER; YVES PIEMONT

2000-01-01

84

Prevalence of Bartonella infection in wild African lions ( Panthera leo) and cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella species are emerging pathogens that have been isolated worldwide from humans and other mammals. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Blood and\\/or serum samples were collected from a convenience sample of 113 lions and 74 cheetahs captured in Africa between 1982 and 2002. Whole blood

S Molia; B. B Chomel; R. W Kasten; C. M Leutenegger; B. R Steele; L Marker; J. S Martenson; D. F Keet; R. G Bengis; R. P Peterson; L Munson; S. J O’Brien

2004-01-01

85

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand  

PubMed Central

We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA. PMID:22607728

Kosoy, Michael Y.; Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas; Baggett, Henry; Maloney, Susan A.; Boonmar, Sumalee; Bhengsri, Saithip; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Peruski, Leonard F.

2012-01-01

86

Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia  

PubMed Central

Abtract Background In the Pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. To our knowledge, human infections due to Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. have never been reported in French Polynesia; and infections due to C. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. To evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among French Polynesian blood donors. Methods The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against R. felis, R. typhi, R. conorii, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 472 French Polynesian blood donors collected from 2011 to 2013. In addition, 178 ticks and 36 cat fleas collected in French Polynesia were also collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect Rickettsia spp., B. henselae and Ehrlichia spp. Results None of the blood donors had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. All tested ticks and cat fleas were PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp., B. henselae, and Ehrlichia spp. Conclusion We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in French Polynesia but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. C. burnetii has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. It may also be absent from French Polynesia. PMID:24885466

2014-01-01

87

Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster).  

PubMed

Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. PMID:17672850

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Cully, Jack F; Bala, Thiagarajan; Ray, Chris; Collinge, Sharon K

2007-09-01

88

Meningitis Due to a "Bartonella washoensis"-Like Human Pathogen?  

PubMed Central

We report the second human case of infection caused by an organism identified as the proposed Bartonella species, “B. washoensis.” The organism was isolated from a blood sample from a patient presenting with meningitis and early sepsis. Oropsylla montana fleas were implicated as the vector for disease transmission in this case. PMID:19439538

Probert, Will; Louie, Janice K.; Tucker, James R.; Longoria, Rose; Hogue, Robin; Moler, Silvia; Graves, Margot; Palmer, Heather J.; Cassady, Joseph; Fritz, Curtis L.

2009-01-01

89

New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites. PMID:12558350

Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

2002-12-01

90

Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

91

Persistent infection or successive reinfection of deer mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H; Kosoy, Michael Y; Root, J Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B

2011-03-01

92

Prevalence of zoonotic Bartonella species among rodents and shrews in Thailand.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella species in 10 rodent and one shrew species in Thailand. From February 2008 to May 2010, a total of 375 small animals were captured in 9 provinces in Thailand. Bartonella strains were isolated from 57 rodents (54 from Rattus species and 3 from Bandicota indica) and one shrew (Suncus murinus) in 7 of the 9 provinces, and identified to the species level. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase and RNA polymerase ? subunit genes identified the 58 isolates from each Bartonella-positive animal as B. tribocorum in 27 (46.6%) animals, B. rattimassiliensis in 17 (29.3%) animals, B. elizabethae in 10 (17.2%) animals and B. queenslandensis in 4 (6.9%) animals. R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and Suncus murinus carried B. elizabethae, which causes endocarditis in humans. The prevalence of Bartonella bacteremic animals by province was 42.9% of the animals collected in Phang Nga, 26.8% in Chiang Rai, 20.4% in Sa Kaeo, 16.7% in Nakhon Si Thammarat, 12.0% in Surat Thani, 9.1% in Mae Hong Son and Loei Provinces. These results indicate that Bartonella organisms are widely distributed in small mammals in Thailand and some animal species may serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella species in the country. PMID:24393304

Pangjai, Decha; Maruyama, Soichi; Boonmar, Sumalee; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Nimsuphan, Burin; Petkanchanapong, Wimol; Wootta, Wattanapong; Wangroongsarb, Piyada; Boonyareth, Maskiet; Preedakoon, Poom; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

2014-03-01

93

Detection of novel Bartonella strains and Yersinia pestis in prairie dogs and their fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae and Pulicidae) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that simultaneously detects three types of flea-associated microorganisms. Targets for the assay were sequences encoding portions of the gltA, a 17-kDa antigen, and pla genes of Bartonella spp. Strong et al., Rickettsia spp. da Rocha-Lima, and Yersinia pestis Yersin, respectively. A total of 260 flea samples containing bloodmeal remnants were analyzed from fleas collected from abandoned prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows at the site of an active plague epizootic in Jefferson County, CO. Results indicated that 34 (13.1%) fleas were positive for Bartonella spp., 0 (0%) were positive for Rickettsia spp., and 120 (46.2%) were positive for Y. pestis. Twenty-three (8.8%) of these fleas were coinfected with Bartonella spp. and Y. pestis. A second group of 295 bloodmeal-containing fleas was collected and analyzed from abandoned burrows in Logan County, CO, where a prairie dog die-off had occurred 2-4 mo before the time of sampling. Of these 295 fleas, 7 (2.4%) were positive for Bartonella spp., 0 (0%) were positive for Rickettsia spp., and 46 (15.6%) were positive for Y. pestis. Coinfections were not observed in fleas from the Logan County epizootic site. The multiplex PCR also was used to identify Y. pestis and Bartonella in prairie dog blood and tissues. This report represents the first identification of Bartonella from prairie dogs and their fleas. Prairie dog fleas were tested with PCR, and the Bartonella PCR amplicons produced were sequenced and found to be closely related to similar sequences amplified from Bartonella that had been isolated from prairie dog blood samples. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the sequences of bartonellae from prairie dogs and prairie dog fleas cluster tightly within a clade that is distinct from those containing other known Bartonella genotypes. PMID:12943112

Stevenson, Heather L; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Montenieri, John A; Lowell, Jennifer L; Chu, May C; Gage, Kenneth L

2003-05-01

94

Detection and Culture of Bartonella quintana, Serratia marcescens, and Acinetobacter spp. from Decontaminated Human Body Lice  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a survey for trench fever among homeless people in Marseilles, France, we attempted isolation of Bartonella quintana from body lice. A decontamination protocol of immersion in 70% ethanol with 0.2% iodine was devised and was tested with a laboratory colony of body lice. Lice which had been experimentally contaminated with either Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis ,o rAcinetobacter

BERNARD LA SCOLA; PIERRE-EDOUARD FOURNIER; PHILIPPE BROUQUI; DIDIER RAOULT

95

Infection with Bartonella weissii and Detection of Nanobacterium Antigens in a North Carolina Beef Herd  

PubMed Central

Very recently, Bartonella organisms have been isolated from large ruminants (deer, elk, and dairy and beef cattle) located in the United States and in France. In this study, we report the serologic, microbiologic, and molecular findings related to the isolation of a Bartonella species in North Carolina beef cattle and the detection of nanobacterial antigen using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Between August 1998 and September 1999, blood was collected from 38 cattle ranging in age from 1 month to 6.5 years. After a 1-month incubation period, a Bartonella sp. was isolated on a 5% rabbit blood agar plate from three of six EDTA blood samples. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from all three isolates resulted in a DNA sequence that was 100% identical to that of B. weissii 16S rRNA (GenBank no. AF199502). By IFA testing, 36 of 38 cattle had antibodies (?1:64) to Bartonella weissii (bovine origin) antigens. Nanobacterial antigen was detected in 22 of 22 serum samples. We conclude that infection with an organism similar or closely related to B. weissii can occur in North Carolina cattle and that although their actual existence is still controversial Nanobacterium antigens were detected with a commercially available test kit. The epidemiology, vector biology, and potential pathogenicity of these organisms in cattle deserve future consideration. PMID:11230398

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Sontakke, Sushama; Cannedy, Allen; Hancock, Susan I.; Bradley, Julie M.

2001-01-01

96

Ectoparasites of gray squirrels in two different habitats and screening of selected ectoparasites for bartonellae.  

PubMed

Gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, were livetrapped in 2 different habitat types, woodland (67 squirrels) and parkland (53 squirrels), in southeastern Georgia. Ectoparasites were recovered from anesthetized squirrels and compared between hosts from the 2 habitats. Because of the absence of low vegetation in parkland habitats, it was hypothesized that the ectoparasite fauna, especially ticks and chiggers, would be more diverse on woodland squirrels. The results were generally in agreement with this hypothesis. Seventeen species of ectoparasites were recovered from woodland squirrels, compared with 6 species from parkland squirrels. Five species of ticks and 3 species of chiggers parasitized the woodland squirrels compared with no ticks or chiggers on the parkland squirrels. Significantly higher infestation prevalences were recorded on woodland compared with parkland squirrels for the flea Orchopeas howardi, the tick Amblyomma americanum, and the mesostigmatid mite Androlaelaps fahrenholzi. The mean intensity for O. howardi also was significantly higher on woodland than on parkland squirrels. Because a new strain of Bartonella sp. was isolated recently from S. carolinensis in Georgia, selected ectoparasites from this study were screened for bartonellae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some of the fleas and lice, but none of the mites tested, were PCR positive, suggesting that fleas, or lice, or both, might be vectors of bartonellae between squirrels. Six distinct strains of Bartonella sp. were detected, 2 in fleas and 4 in lice. PMID:15270090

Durden, Lance A; Ellis, Barbara A; Banks, Craig W; Crowe, John D; Oliver, James H

2004-06-01

97

Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally  

PubMed Central

Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world. PMID:24223261

Hayman, David T S; McDonald, Katherine D; Kosoy, Michael Y

2013-01-01

98

PCR Characterization Suggests that an Unusual Range of Bartonella Species Infect the Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D.

2013-01-01

99

PCR characterization suggests that an unusual range of Bartonella species infect the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe.  

PubMed

Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:23747696

Hildebrand, Joanna; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zalesny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D

2013-08-01

100

Transient paresis associated with cat-scratch disease: case report and literature review of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

Cat-scratch disease (CSD) rarely presents as vertebral osteomyelitis. We describe a case with paresis of the arm with total recovery after antibiotic and neurosurgical therapy. We reviewed 20 other cases of CSD vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered in patients with systemic symptoms, back pain, and cat contact. The prognosis is generally good. PMID:17133166

Vermeulen, Marijn J; Rutten, Geert J; Verhagen, Ivo; Peeters, Marcel F; van Dijken, Pieter J

2006-12-01

101

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mode of transmission of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, especially to identify potential vectors, and to determine how humans become infected. PMID:11060089

Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Simpson, D C; Hew, C M; Kordick, D L; Heller, R; Piemont, Y; Breitschwerdt, E B

2000-11-01

102

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

103

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

PubMed Central

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

2014-01-01

104

Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella  

PubMed Central

It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains understudied compared with most other bacterial pathogens. Numerous questions regarding Bartonella's molecular pathogenesis and epidemiology remain unanswered. Virtually every mammal harbors one or more Bartonella species and their transmission typically involves a hematophagous arthropod vector. However, many details regarding epidemiology and the public health threat imposed by these animal reservoirs is unclear. A handful of studies have shown that bartonellae are highly-adapted pathogens whose parasitic strategy has evolved to cause persistent infections of the host. To this end, virulence attributes of Bartonella include the subversion of host cells with effector molecules delivered via a type IV secretion system, induction of pathological angiogenesis through various means, including inhibition of apoptosis and activation of hypoxia-inducing factor 1, use of afimbrial adhesins that are orthologs of Yersinia adhesin A, incorporation of lipopolysaccharides with low endotoxic potency in the outer membrane, and several other virulence factors that help Bartonella infect and persist in erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the host circulatory system. PMID:19659429

Minnick, Michael F; Battisti, James M

2009-01-01

105

Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. Bed Bugs Detects Burkholderia multivorans but Not Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S–23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector. PMID:24040015

Saenz, Virna L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L.; Schal, Coby

2013-01-01

106

Effects of Bartonella spp. on Flea Feeding and Reproductive Performance  

PubMed Central

Numerous pathogens are transmitted from one host to another by hematophagous insect vectors. The interactions between a vector-borne organism and its vector vary in many ways, most of which are yet to be explored and identified. These interactions may play a role in the dynamics of the infection cycle. One way to evaluate these interactions is by studying the effects of the tested organism on the vector. In this study, we tested the effects of infection with Bartonella species on fitness-related variables of fleas by using Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and Meriones crassus jirds as a model system. Feeding parameters, including blood meal size and metabolic rate during digestion, as well as reproductive parameters, including fecundity, fertility, and life span, were compared between fleas experimentally infected with Bartonella and uninfected fleas. In addition, the developmental time, sex ratio, and body size of F1 offspring fleas were compared between the two groups. Most tested parameters did not differ between infected and uninfected fleas. However, F1 males produced by Bartonella-positive females were significantly smaller than F1 males produced by Bartonella-negative female fleas. The findings in this study suggest that bartonellae are well adapted to their flea vectors, and by minimally affecting their fitness they have evolved to better spread themselves in the natural environment. PMID:23542614

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Fielden, Laura J.; Gottlieb, Yuval

2013-01-01

107

Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.  

PubMed Central

Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease. PMID:22232371

Harms, Alexander

2012-01-01

108

Bartonella-like bacteria carried by domestic mite species.  

PubMed

Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed. PMID:24711066

Kopecký, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Hubert, Jan

2014-09-01

109

Aortic Valve Endocarditis in a Dog Due to Bartonella clarridgeiae  

PubMed Central

We report the first documented case of endocarditis associated with Bartonella clarridgeiae in any species. B. clarridgeiae was identified as a possible etiological agent of human cat scratch disease. Infective vegetative valvular aortic endocarditis was diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old male neutered boxer. Historically, the dog had been diagnosed with a systolic murmur at 16 months of age and underwent balloon valvuloplasty for severe valvular aortic stenosis. Six months later, the dog was brought to a veterinary hospital with an acute third-degree atrioventricular block and was diagnosed with infective endocarditis. The dog died of cardiopulmonary arrest prior to pacemaker implantation. Necropsy confirmed severe aortic vegetative endocarditis. Blood culture grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 8 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) and 16S rRNA genes indicated that this organism was B. clarridgeiae. DNA extraction from the deformed aortic valve and the healthy pulmonic valve revealed the presence of B. clarridgeiae DNA only from the diseased valve. No Borrelia burgdorferi or Ehrlichia sp. DNA could be identified. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, the dog was seropositive for B. clarridgeiae and had antibodies against Ehrlichia phagocytophila but not against Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, B. burgdorferi, or Coxiella burnetii. PMID:11574571

Chomel, Bruno B.; Mac Donald, Kristin A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chang, Chao-Chin; Wey, Aaron C.; Foley, Janet E.; Thomas, William P.; Kittleson, Mark D.

2001-01-01

110

Transmission Dynamics of Bartonella sp. Strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's Jirds (Meriones crassus)  

PubMed Central

A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors. PMID:23241972

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gottlieb, Yuval

2013-01-01

111

Molecular Characterization of the sucB Gene Encoding the Immunogenic Dihydrolipoamide Succinyltransferase Protein of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella quintana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Bartonella have historically been connected with human disease, such as cat scratch disease, trench fever, and Carrion's disease, and recently have been recognized as emerging pathogens causing other clinical manifestations in humans. However, because little is known about the antigens that elicit antibody production in response to Bartonella infections, this project was undertaken to identify and

Robert D. Gilmore; A. M. Carpio; M. Y. Kosoy; K. L. Gage

2003-01-01

112

Isolated hepatic involvement of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent adults: Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, pathological findings, and molecular analysis--two cases.  

PubMed

Visceral involvement in absence of lymphadenopathy is a rare manifestation in cat scratch disease; hepatic granulomas are rare, representing 0.3% of systemic manifestations of cat scratch disease, and gallbladder extension is a singular case. The present article refers to 2 rare cases of visceral cat scratch disease in immunocompetent adults with hepatic granulomatous inflammation, caused by Bartonella henselae infection, with gallbladder involvement in 1 case and no lymphadenopathy. Histological features demonstrated the presence of inflammatory necrotizing granulomatous nonneoplastic process. Molecular studies (polymerase chain reaction) were performed to confirm the infectious etiology. PMID:17041206

Marsilia, Giuseppina Marino; La Mura, Anna; Galdiero, Roberta; Galdiero, Emilia; Aloj, Giovanni; Ragozzino, Alfonso

2006-10-01

113

Global distribution and genetic diversity of Bartonella in bat flies (Hippoboscoidea, Streblidae, Nycteribiidae).  

PubMed

Recently, a growing number Bartonella spp. have been identified as causative agents for a broadening spectrum of zoonotic diseases, emphasizing their medical importance. Many mammalian reservoirs and vectors however are still unknown, hindering our understanding of pathogen ecology and obscuring epidemiological connections. New Bartonella genotypes were detected in a global sampling of 19 species of blood-feeding bat flies (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea, Nycteribiidae, Streblidae) from 20 host bat species, suggesting an important role of bat flies in harboring bartonellae. Evolutionary relationships were explored in the context of currently known Bartonella species and genotypes. Phylogenetic and gene network analyses point to an early evolutionary association and subsequent radiation of bartonellae with bat flies and their hosts. The recovery of unique clades, uniting Bartonella genotypes from bat flies and bats, supports previous ideas of these flies potentially being vectors for Bartonella. Presence of bartonellae in some female bat flies and their pupae suggests vertical transmission across developmental stages. The specific function of bartonellae in bats and bat flies remains a subject of debate, but in addition to pathogenic interactions, parasitic, mutualistic, or reservoir functions need to be considered. PMID:22771358

Morse, Solon F; Olival, Kevin J; Kosoy, Michael; Billeter, Sarah; Patterson, Bruce D; Dick, Carl W; Dittmar, Katharina

2012-12-01

114

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella

B. R Hoar; B. B Chomel; D. L Rolfe; C. C Chang; C. L Fritz; B. N Sacks; T. E Carpenter

2003-01-01

115

Molecular Detection and Identification of Bartonella Species in Rat Fleas from Northeastern Thailand  

PubMed Central

The presence of Bartonella species in Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Rattus spp. (R. exulans, R. norvegicus, and R. rattus) in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand was investigated. One hundred ninety-three fleas obtained from 62 rats, were screened by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the 16S–23S intergenic spacer region, and the presence of Bartonella DNA was confirmed by using the citrate synthase gene. Bartonella DNA was detected in 59.1% (114 of 193) of fleas examined. Sequencing demonstrated the presence of Bartonella spp. similar to B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, B. rochalimae, and B. tribocorum in the samples tested with a cutoff for sequence similarity ? 96% and 4 clustered together with the closest match with B. grahamii (95.5% identity). If X. cheopis proves to be a competent vector of these species, our results suggest that humans and animals residing in this area may be at risk for infection by several zoonotic Bartonella species. PMID:23836577

Billeter, Sarah A.; Colton, Leah; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Suksawat, Fanan; Evans, Brian P.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2013-01-01

116

Detection of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents in Israel using HRM real-time PCR.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents was studied in 19 geographical locations in Israel. One hundred and twelve rodents belonging to five species (Mus musculus, Rattus rattus, Microtus socialis, Acomys cahirinus and Apodemus sylvaticus) were included in the survey. In addition, 156 ectoparasites were collected from the rodents. Spleen sample from each rodent and the ectoparasites were examined for the presence of Bartonella DNA using high resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR. The method was designed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight Bartonella spp. according to the nucleotide variation in each of two gene fragments (rpoB and gltA) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) locus, using the same PCR protocol which allowed the simultaneous amplification of the three different loci. Bartonella DNA was detected in spleen samples of 19 out of 79 (24%) black rats (R. rattus) and in 1 of 4 (25%) Cairo spiny mice (A. cahirinus). In addition, 15 of 34 (44%) flea pools harbored Bartonella DNA. Only rat flea (Xenopsyla cheopis) pools collected from black rats (R. rattus) were positive for Bartonella DNA. The Bartonella sp. detected in spleen samples from black rats (R. rattus) was closely related to both B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae. The species detected in the Cairo spiny mouse (A. cahirinus) spleen sample was closely related to the zoonotic pathogen, B. elizabethae. These results indicate that Bartonella species are highly prevalent in suburban rodent populations and their ectoparasites in Israel. Further investigation of the prevalence and zoonotic potential of the Bartonella species detected in the black rats and the Cairo spiny mouse is warranted. PMID:19595521

Morick, Danny; Baneth, Gad; Avidor, Boaz; Kosoy, Michael Y; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Mintz, Dvir; Eyal, Osnat; Goethe, Ralph; Mietze, Andreas; Shpigel, Nahum; Harrus, Shimon

2009-11-18

117

High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo.  

PubMed

The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-03-01

118

Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract – We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility

Craig A. Harms; Ricardo G. Maggi; Edward B. Breitschwerdt; Connie L. Clemons-Chevis; Mobashir Solangi; David S. Rotstein; Patricia A. Fair; Larry J. Hansen; Aleta A. Hohn; Gretchen N. Lovewell; William A. McLellan; D. Ann Pabst; Teri K. Rowles; Lori H. Schwacke; Forrest I. Townsend; Randall S. Wells

2008-01-01

119

Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Bartonella Infection in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of Bartonella in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) based on a longitudinal study conducted in 20 black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD) colonies in Boulder County, CO from 2003 to\\u000a 2005. Bartonella infection was widely distributed in all colonies with an overall prevalence of 23.1%, but varied by colony from 4.8% to 42.5%\\u000a and

Ying Bai; M. Y. Kosoy; C. Ray; R. J. Brinkerhoff; S. K. Collinge

2008-01-01

120

Diversity of Bartonella species detected in arthropod vectors from animals in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of Bartonella species were detected in two species of ticks and three species of fleas collected from marsupial hosts; brush-tailed bettong or woylie (Bettongia penicillata) and western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville) and from a rodent host; Rattus fuscipes in Western Australia. Bartonella species were detected using nested-PCR of the gltA gene and the 16S–23S ribosomal internal transcribed spacer

Gunn Kaewmongkol; Sarawan Kaewmongkol; Halina Burmej; Mark D. Bennett; Patricia A. Fleming; Peter J. Adams; Adrian F. Wayne; Una Ryan; Peter J. Irwin; Stanley G. Fenwick

2011-01-01

121

Bartonella Infection in Animals: Carriership, Reservoir Potential, Pathogenicity, and Zoonotic Potential for Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have begun to support a role for Bartonella spp. as animal as well as human pathogens. Bartonella spp. are vector-transmitted, blood-borne, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that can induce prolonged infection in the host. Persistent infections in domestic and wild animals result in a substantial reservoir of Bartonella organisms in nature that can serve as a source for inadvertent human infection. The prevalence of bacteremia can range from 50 to 95% in selected rodent, cat, deer, and cattle populations. Dogs infected with Bartonella spp. can develop lameness, endocarditis, granulomatous lymphadenitis, and peliosis hepatis, lesions that have also been reported in association with human infection. Understanding the role of Bartonella spp. as pathogens in cats and other wild or domestic animals awaits the results of additional studies. Considering the extensive animal reservoirs and the large number of insects that have been implicated in the transmission of Bartonella spp., both animal and human exposure to these organisms may be more substantial than is currently believed. PMID:10885985

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kordick, Dorsey L.

2000-01-01

122

Partial Disruption of Translational and Posttranslational Machinery Reshapes Growth Rates of Bartonella birtlesii  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Specialization of bacteria in a new niche is associated with genome repertoire changes, and speciation in bacterial specialists is associated with genome reduction. Here, we tested a signature-tagged mutant library of 3,456 Bartonella birtlesii clones to detect mutants that could grow rapidly in vitro. Overall, we found 124 mutants that grew faster than the parental wild-type strain in vitro. We sequenced the genomes of the four mutants with the most rapid growth (formed visible colonies in only 1 to 2 days compared with 5 days for the wild type) and compared them to the parental isolate genome. We found that the number of disrupted genes associated with translation in the 124 rapid-growth clones was significantly higher than the number of genes involved in translation in the full genome (P < 10?6). Analysis of transposon integration in the genome of the four most rapidly growing clones revealed that one clone lacked one of the two wild-type RNA ribosomal operons. Finally, one of the four clones did not induce bacteremia in our mouse model, whereas infection with the other three resulted in a significantly lower bacterial count in blood than that with the wild-type strain. PMID:23611908

Rolain, Jean Marc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Merhej, Vicky; Gimenez, Gregory; Robert, Catherine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Dehio, Christoph; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

123

Development of a Novel Genus-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Bartonella Species and Genotypes  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella includes numerous species with varied host associations, including several that infect humans. Development of a molecular diagnostic method capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of Bartonella species while maintaining genus specificity has been a challenge. We developed a novel real-time PCR assay targeting a 301-bp region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella and demonstrated specific amplification in over 30 Bartonella species, subspecies, and strains. Subsequent analysis of ssrA sequences was sufficient to discriminate Bartonella species and provided phylogenetic data consistent with that of gltA, a commonly used gene for differentiating Bartonella genotypes. Using this assay, we identified Bartonella DNA in 29% and 47% of blood specimens from elk in Wyoming and cattle in the Republic of Georgia, respectively. Sequence analysis of a subset of genotypes from elk specimens revealed a cluster most closely related to Bartonella capreoli, and genotypes from cattle were identified as Bartonella bovis, both Bartonella species commonly found in wild and domestic ruminants. Considering the widespread geographic distribution and infectivity potential to a variety of hosts, this assay may be an effective diagnostic method for identification of Bartonella infections in humans and have utility in Bartonella surveillance studies. PMID:22378904

Bai, Ying; Malania, Lile; Winchell, Jonas M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

124

Seroepidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in California coyotes, 1994-1998.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coyotes (Canis latrans) in California ranged from 51% in central to 34% in southern and 7% in northern California. Seropositive coyotes were more likely to be from coastal than inland counties (p clustered distribution of Bartonella seropositivity in coyotes suggests that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection is vectorborne. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate which arthropods are vectors and what the mode of transmission is from wildlife to domestic dogs and possibly humans. PMID:10511529

Chang, C; Yamamoto, K; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Simpson, D C; Smith, C R; Kramer, V L

1999-01-01

125

Detection of Bartonella quintana in African body and head lice.  

PubMed

Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of Bartonella quintana, an organism that causes trench fever. In this work, we investigated the prevalence of this bacterium in human lice in different African countries. We tested 616 head lice and 424 body lice from nine African countries using real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting intergenic spacer region 2 and specific B. quintana genes. Overall, B. quintana DNA was found in 54% and 2% of body and head lice, respectively. Our results also show that there are more body lice positive for B. quintana in poor countries, which was determined by the gross domestic product, than in wealthy areas (228/403 versus 0/21, P < 0.001). A similar finding was obtained for head lice (8/226 versus 2/390, P = 0.007). Our findings suggest that head lice in Africa may be infected by B. quintana when patients live in poor economic conditions and are also exposed to body lice. PMID:24935950

Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Socolovschi, Cristina; Barker, Stephen C; Diatta, Georges; Rogier, Christophe; Olive, Marie-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier

2014-08-01

126

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014). PMID:22172306

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Abdissa, Alemseged; Trape, Jean-Francois; Mediannikov, Oleg; Richet, Herve

2011-01-01

127

Bacterial Communities of Bartonella-Positive Fleas: Diversity and Community Assembly Patterns?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the bacterial communities of nine Bartonella-positive fleas (n = 6 Oropsylla hirsuta fleas and n = 3 Oropsylla montana fleas), using universal primers, clone libraries, and DNA sequencing. DNA sequences were used to classify bacteria detected in a phylogenetic context, to explore community assembly patterns within individual fleas, and to survey diversity patterns in dominant lineages. PMID:18203862

Jones, Ryan T.; McCormick, Katherine F.; Martin, Andrew P.

2008-01-01

128

Deciphering Bartonella Diversity, Recombination, and Host Specificity in a Rodent Community  

PubMed Central

Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle. PMID:23894381

Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Pisanu, Benoit; Brisse, Sylvain; Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Halos, Lenaig; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

2013-01-01

129

Contrasting Patterns in Mammal-Bacteria Coevolution: Bartonella and Leptospira in Bats and Rodents  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging bacterial zoonoses in bats and rodents remain relatively understudied. We conduct the first comparative host–pathogen coevolutionary analyses of bacterial pathogens in these hosts, using Bartonella spp. and Leptospira spp. as a model. Methodology/Principal Findings We used published genetic data for 51 Bartonella genotypes from 24 bat species, 129 Bartonella from 38 rodents, and 26 Leptospira from 20 bats. We generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for hosts and bacteria, and tested for coevoutionary congruence using programs ParaFit, PACO, and Jane. Bartonella spp. and their bat hosts had a significant coevolutionary fit (ParaFitGlobal?=?1.9703, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?7.3320, P?0.0001). Bartonella spp. and rodent hosts also indicated strong overall patterns of cospeciation (ParaFitGlobal?=?102.4409, P?0.001; m2 global value?=?86.532, P?0.0001). In contrast, we were unable to reject independence of speciation events in Leptospira and bats (ParaFitGlobal?=?0.0042, P?=?0.84; m2 global value?=?4.6310, P?=?0.5629). Separate analyses of New World and Old World data subsets yielded results congruent with analysis from entire datasets. We also conducted event-based cophylogeny analyses to reconstruct likely evolutionary histories for each group of pathogens and hosts. Leptospira and bats had the greatest number of host switches per parasite (0.731), while Bartonella and rodents had the fewest (0.264). Conclusions/Significance In both bat and rodent hosts, Bartonella exhibits significant coevolution with minimal host switching, while Leptospira in bats lacks evolutionary congruence with its host and has high number of host switches. Reasons underlying these variable coevolutionary patterns in host range are likely due to differences in disease-specific transmission and host ecology. Understanding the coevolutionary patterns and frequency of host-switching events between bacterial pathogens and their hosts will allow better prediction of spillover between mammal reservoirs, and ultimately to humans. PMID:24651646

Lei, Bonnie R.; Olival, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

130

Genome dynamics of Bartonella grahamii in micro-populations of woodland rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rodents represent a high-risk reservoir for the emergence of new human pathogens. The recent completion of the 2.3 Mb genome of Bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent blood-borne bacteria in wild rodents, revealed a higher abundance of genes for host-cell interaction systems than in the genomes of closely related human pathogens. The sequence variability within the global B.

Eva C Berglund; Christian Ehrenborg; Olga Vinnere Pettersson; Fredrik Granberg; Kristina Näslund; Martin Holmberg; Siv GE Andersson

2010-01-01

131

Gene-sequence-based criteria for species definition in bacteriology: the Bartonella paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of new species is currently based on polyphasic classification that includes both determination of phenotypic characteristics and DNA–DNA homology. However, none of these techniques is convenient for the rapid characterization of fastidious or non-culturable bacteria. Using sequences available in the GenBank database, we compared the similarities of gene fragments among the currently recognized Bartonella species. This comparison led

Bernard La Scola; Zaher Zeaiter; Atieh Khamis; Didier Raoult

2003-01-01

132

Characterization of Bartonella bacilliformis flagella and effect of antiflagellin antibodies on invasion of human erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Oroya fever in humans. Flagellum-mediated motility has been postulated as a major virulence factor for invasion of host cells. To address this hypothesis, we purified and characterized flagella from strain KC584 and then assessed their role in human erythrocyte association and invasion. Electron microscopy of the flagellar preparation showed a high concentration of filaments with a mean wavelength of 800 nm. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblot analysis, and KBr density gradient centrifugation indicated that the flagellar filament is composed of a polypeptide of 42 kDa. The flagellin is partially (ca. 50%) resistant to treatment with trypsin. The first 17 amino acid residues of the N terminus of the mature flagellin protein are GAAILTNDNAMDALQDL and show approximately 46% sequence identity to the residues of the N termini of two Caulobacter crescentus flagellin proteins. A monospecific polyclonal antibodies to the flagellin protein was generated, and its specificity was verified by both immunoblot and immunogold analyses. Human erythrocyte invasion assays performed with bartonellae exposed to the antiflagellin antiserum showed a significant decrease in bacterial association with and invasion of human erythrocytes in comparison with that in bartonellae exposed to preimmune rabbit serum or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) controls. These results suggest that flagella are an important component in the invasiveness of B. bacilliformis. Images PMID:8225570

Scherer, D C; DeBuron-Connors, I; Minnick, M F

1993-01-01

133

Environmental factors associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seropositivity in free-ranging coyotes from northern California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is a newly recognized pathogen of domestic dogs and humans. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are considered an important reservoir of this bacterium in the western United States, but its vectors are still unknown. Our objective was to identify environmental factors associated with Bartonella antibody prevalence in 239 coyotes from northern California, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, associations were evaluated between B. v. berkhoffii and two pathogens with known vectors and habitat requirements, Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Overall, B. v. berkhoffii seroprevalence was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.3%, 33.7%) and Bartonella seropositive coyotes were more likely than seronegative coyotes to be positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.9) and Dirofilaria immitis (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8). The most likely geographic clusters of Bartonella and Dirofilaria overlapped. Bartonella seropositivity was associated with higher precipitation (p = 0.003) and proximity to the coast (p = 0.007) in univariate analysis. The association with precipitation varied with season, based on a logistic regression model. PMID:16011426

Beldomenico, P M; Chomel, B B; Foley, J E; Sacks, B N; Baldi, C J; Kasten, R W; Gardner, I A

2005-01-01

134

Serial Testing from a 3-Day Collection Period by Use of the Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria Growth Medium Platform May Enhance the Sensitivity of Bartonella Species Detection in Bacteremic Human Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients with infection from bacteremic Bartonella spp., tested using Bartonella Alphaproteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM), were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups that included those whose blood was collected once (group 1; n = 55) or three times (group 2; n = 36) within a 1-week period. Overall, 19 patients (20.8%) were PCR positive for one or more Bartonella spp. using the BAPGM platform. Seven patients (12.7%) in group 1 tested positive, and 12 patients (33.3%) in group 2 tested positive. Detection was improved when the patients were tested three times within a 1-week period (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 9.8]; P = 0.02). Obtaining three sequential blood samples during a 1-week period should be considered a diagnostic approach when bartonellosis is suspected. PMID:23486720

Pultorak, Elizabeth L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2013-01-01

135

Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barron, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

136

Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Methodology/Principal findings Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Conclusion Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high. PMID:25299702

Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2014-01-01

137

Seroprevalence of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in urban and rural dogs in Turkey.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was investigated in stray urban dogs and shepherd and farm guard dogs from rural areas sampled from 10 provinces of Turkey. Sera from 855 dogs were examined for the presence of anti-B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Overall, 56 (6.6%) of the 855 dogs examined, including 16 (3%) of the 522 stray dogs and 40 (12%) of the 333 rural dogs, were seropositive. This is the first report on prevalence of antibodies to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in dogs in Turkey. PMID:20574140

Celebi, Bekir; Taylan Ozkan, Aysegul; Kilic, Selcuk; Akca, Atilla; Koenhemsi, Lora; Pasa, Serdar; Yildiz, Kader; Mamak, Nuri; Guzel, Murat

2010-11-01

138

Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacteremia due to Bartonella quintana in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

We present a 63-year-old man treated with alemtuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia who developed multiple angiomatous papules and fever. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from a skin lesion and blood sample revealed Bartonella quintana as causative agent confirming the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis with bacteremia. Treatment with doxycycline, initially in combination with gentamicin, led to complete resolution of the lesions. This case shows the importance of considering bacillary angiomatosis as a rare differential diagnosis of angiomatous lesions in the immunocompromised patient, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and following lymphocyte depleting treatments as alemtuzumab. PMID:23710386

Bloemberg, Guido; Boggian, Katia

2013-01-01

139

Deformation factor: an extracellular protein synthesized by Bartonella bacilliformis that deforms erythrocyte membranes.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella bacilliformis, a hemotropic bacterium and the causative agent of the human disease bartonellosis, when incubated in a tryptone-based medium produces an extracellular factor, termed deformation factor (DF), which induces extensive indentations and trenches in trypsinized erythrocyte membranes. The factor is stable during storage at 4 degrees C. It can be inactivated by proteases or brief heating to 70 to 80 degrees C, can be precipitated by ammonium sulfate, is nondialyzable, and is retained by membranes with a 30,000-molecular-weight cutoff. These properties suggest that DF is probably a protein. Incubation of erythrocytes with phospholipase D renders them resistant to deformation by DF. Images PMID:1541567

Mernaugh, G; Ihler, G M

1992-01-01

140

Prevalence of Bartonella quintana in patients with fever and head lice from rural areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal.  

PubMed

Trench fever is poorly known by the staff of health facilities that manage febrile patients in Senegal. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in 5 of 274 (2%) febrile patients from two rural dispensaries and 2 of 71 (3%) head lice specimens collected from the same villages. PMID:24799368

Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Bassene, Hubert; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ratmanov, Pavel; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

2014-08-01

141

Prevalence of selected vector-borne organisms and identification of Bartonella species DNA in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis).  

PubMed

Trapper-killed North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA, were screened for multiple vector-borne bacteria known to be pathogenic to mammals. Blood was collected from 30 carcasses in 2006, from 35 in 2007, and from one live otter in 2008. Samples were screened using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for DNA from Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. All samples were negative for Rickettsia spp. Twelve of 30 samples from 2006 produced amplicons using the assay designed to detect Ehrlichia spp., but sequencing revealed that the amplified DNA fragment was from a novel Wolbachia sp., thought to be an endosymbiote of a Dirofilaria sp. Between 2006 and 2007, DNA from a novel Bartonella sp. was detected in 19 of 65 animals (29%). Blood from one live otter captured in 2008 was found positive for this Bartonella sp. by both PCR and culture. The pathogenicity of this Bartonella species in river otters or other mammals is unknown. PMID:20688703

Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Blanton, Hunter L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Belfiore, Natalia; Marr, Henry S; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stoskopf, Michael K

2010-07-01

142

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens. PMID:12507856

Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

2003-01-15

143

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

E-print Network

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, ...

Okujava, Rusudan

144

A mathematical epidemiological model of gram-negative Bartonella bacteria: does differential ectoparasite load fully explain the differences in infection prevalence of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus?  

PubMed

We postulate that the large difference in infection prevalence, 24% versus 5%, in R. norvegicus and R. rattus, respectively, between these two co-occurring host species may be due to differences in ectoparasite and potential vector infestation rates. A compartmental model, representative of an infectious system containing these two Rattus species and two ectoparasite vectors, was constructed and the coefficients of the forces of infection determined mathematically. The maximum difference obtained by the model in the prevalence of Bartonella in the two Rattus species amounts to 4.6%, compared to the observed mean difference of 19%. Results suggest the observed higher Bartonella infection prevalence in Rattus norvegicus compared to Rattus rattus, cannot be explained solely by higher ectoparasite load. The model also highlights the need for more detailed biological research on Bartonella infections in Rattus and the importance of the flea vector in the spread of this disease. PMID:22873616

Brettschneider, H; Anguelov, R; Chimimba, C T; Bastos, A D S

2012-01-01

145

A Case of Multi-vector and Multi-host Epidemiological Model: Bartonella Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a compartmental model for the Bartonella infection on rodents. More precisely, on the co-occurring populations of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus where the vectors are two species of ectoparasites, namely ticks and fleas. As usual for such models a key stage is the modelling of the forces of infection. While the vital dynamics and the progression of the infection within each of the four species are sufficiently well known to determine the rest of the transfer rates, there is practically no data on the probability of infection. In order to determine appropriate values for the coefficients of the forces of infection we solve an optimal control problem where the objective function is the norm of the difference between the observed and the predicted by the model equilibrium infection prevalence rates in the four species. Within this setting the conjecture that the higher prevalence of the infection in Rattus norvegicus can be explained solely by their higher ectoparasite load is tested and disproved.

Anguelov, R.; Brettschneider, H.; Bastos, A. D. S.

2010-11-01

146

Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella  

PubMed Central

Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the ?-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment. PMID:21347280

Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurelie; Medigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

2011-01-01

147

http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~bioinfo/PA/GOGOSUBSUB/ Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-print Network

radiodurans ·Mycobacterium tuberculosis ·Mycoplasma genitalium ·Mycoplasma pneumoniae Plant (1) ·Arabidopsis-negative (10) ·Agrobacterium tumefacians ·Bartonella henselae ·Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus ·Chlamydia

Alberta, University of

148

Analysis of multi-strain Bartonella pathogens in natural host population--do they behave as species or minor genetic variants?  

PubMed

Modern advances in genetic analysis have made it feasible to ascertain the variant type of a pathogen infecting a host. Classification of pathogen variants is commonly performed by clustering analysis of the observed genetic divergence among the variants. A natural question arises whether the genetically distinct variants are epidemiologically distinct. A broader question is whether the different variants constitute separate microbial species or represent minor variations of the same species. These important issues were addressed in the context of analyzing dynamics of genetically distinct variants of Bartonella bacteria in cotton rat hosts. Frequencies of acquiring a new variant were measured in relation to the genetic differences between variants successively infecting an individual rodent host. Two statistical techniques were introduced for performing such analysis, and the methodologies were illustrated with a set of data collected from a particular multi-strain Bartonella system. We carried out a frequency analysis of co-infection patterns, and a Markov chain analysis of panels of successive mixed infection time series for testing some particular gene-based grouping of the Bartonella variants with a panel of observed disease data from a rodent population. Our analysis suggests that the three genogroups A, B and C of Bartonella function as independent species but the variants within each genogroup enjoy some cross-immunity against each other. The newly developed methodologies are broadly applicable for analyzing other multi-strain pathogen data which are increasingly collected for diverse infectious diseases. PMID:21352787

Chan, Kung-Sik; Kosoy, Michael

2010-12-01

149

Acquisition and excretion of Bartonella quintana by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis.  

PubMed

Bartonella quintana is transmitted by the infected faeces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium was detected in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and in two humans with chronic adenopathy whose only risk factor was contact with cat fleas. In this study, a total of 960 C. felis were divided into 12 groups (2 control groups and 10 infected groups) each containing 80 fleas. The fleas were fed B. quintana-inoculated human blood at different dilutions (?3.6 × 10(4) - 8.4 × 10(9) bacteria) for 4 days via an artificial membrane. Subsequently, all flea groups were fed uninfected blood until day 13 postinfection (dpi). On day 3 pi, B. quintana was detected with two specific genes by quantitative PCR in 60-100% of randomly chosen fleas per dilution: 52% (26/50) in the infected fleas in Trial 1 and 90% (45/50) of the fleas in Trial 2. B. quintana was also identified by molecular and culture assays in flea faeces. The average number of B. quintana as determined by qPCR decreased until the 11th dpi and was absent in both trials at the 13th dpi. Bacteria were localized only in the flea gastrointestinal gut by specific immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that cat fleas can acquire B. quintana by feeding and release viable organisms into their faeces. Therefore, fleas may play a role as vectors of trench fever or other clinical manifestations that are caused by B. quintana. However, the biological role of C. felis in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions is yet to be defined. PMID:24400877

Kernif, Tahar; Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Lepidi, Hubert; Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2014-03-01

150

Bartonella bacilliformis: A Systematic Review of the Literature to Guide the Research Agenda for Elimination  

PubMed Central

Background Carrion's disease affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador and is characterized by two distinct disease manifestations: an abrupt acute bacteraemic illness (Oroya fever) and an indolent cutaneous eruptive condition (verruga Peruana). Case fatality rates of untreated acute disease can exceed 80% during outbreaks. Despite being an ancient disease that has affected populations since pre-Inca times, research in this area has been limited and diagnostic and treatment guidelines are based on very low evidence reports. The apparently limited geographical distribution and ecology of Bartonella bacilliformis may present an opportunity for disease elimination if a clear understanding of the epidemiology and optimal case and outbreak management can be gained. Methods All available databases were searched for English and Spanish language articles on Carrion's disease. In addition, experts in the field were consulted for recent un-published work and conference papers. The highest level evidence studies in the fields of diagnostics, treatment, vector control and epidemiology were critically reviewed and allocated a level of evidence, using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies were considered to be of sufficient quality to be included in the analysis. The majority of these were level 4 or 5 (low quality) evidence and based on small sample sizes. Few studies had been carried out in endemic areas. Conclusions Current approaches to the diagnosis and management of Carrion's disease are based on small retrospective or observational studies and expert opinion. Few studies take a public health perspective or examine vector control and prevention. High quality studies performed in endemic areas are required to define optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:23145188

Sanchez Clemente, Nuria; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar A.; Solorzano, Nelson; Maguina, Ciro; Pachas, Paul; Blazes, David; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David; Moore, David

2012-01-01

151

Surveillance of Egyptian fleas for agents of public health significance: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

Serologic surveys in Egypt have documented human and animal exposure to vector-borne bacterial pathogens, but the presence and distribution of these agents in arthropods has not been determined. Between July 2002 and July 2003, fleas were collected from 221 mammals trapped in 17 cities throughout Egypt. A total of 987 fleas were collected, representing four species (Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Leptopsylla segnis, and Xenopsylla cheopis); 899 of these fleas were X. cheopis from rats (Rattus spp.). Fleas were tested for DNA from Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Yersinia pestis. Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from rats from nine cities. A spotted-fever group Rickettsia sp. similar to "RF2125" was detected in E. gallinacea, and two unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in two X. cheopis. Novel Bartonella genotypes were detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from three cities. Coxiella burnetii was detected in two fleas. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Y. pestis were not detected. PMID:16837707

Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Moriarity, John R; Dasch, Gregory A

2006-07-01

152

Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium.  

PubMed

Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days post-infection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days post-infection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

Previte, D; Olds, B P; Yoon, K; Sun, W; Muir, W; Paige, K N; Lee, S H; Clark, J; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R

2014-04-01

153

An approach for modeling cross-immunity of two strains, with application to variants of Bartonella in terms of genetic similarity.  

PubMed

We developed a two-strain susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model that provides a framework for inferring the cross-immunity between two strains of a bacterial species in the host population with discretely sampled co-infection time-series data. Moreover, the model accounts for seasonality in host reproduction. We illustrate an approach using a dataset describing co-infections by several strains of bacteria circulating within a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Bartonella strains were clustered into three genetically close groups, between which the divergence is correspondent to the accepted level of separate bacterial species. The proposed approach revealed no cross-immunity between genetic clusters while limited cross-immunity might exist between subgroups within the clusters. PMID:24928664

Ahn, Kwang Woo; Kosoy, Michael; Chan, Kung-Sik

2014-06-01

154

Are isolated wetlands isolated?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

2011-01-01

155

233Vet. Res. 35 (2004) 233241 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2004  

E-print Network

) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) Bruno B. CHOMELa*, Yoko KIKUCHIa, Janice S. MARTENSONb, Melodie E. ROELKE. Bartonella henselae / bobcat / Felis concolor / Lynx rufus / puma * Corresponding author: bbchomel (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx

Boyer, Edmond

156

The Bartonella quintana extracytoplasmic function sigma factor RpoE has a role in bacterial adaptation to the arthropod vector environment.  

PubMed

Bartonella quintana is a vector-borne bacterial pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans. During the infectious cycle, B. quintana transitions from the hemin-restricted human bloodstream to the hemin-rich body louse vector. Because extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors often regulate adaptation to environmental changes, we hypothesized that a previously unstudied B. quintana ECF sigma factor, RpoE, is involved in the transition from the human host to the body louse vector. The genomic context of B. quintana rpoE identified it as a member of the ECF15 family of sigma factors found only in alphaproteobacteria. ECF15 sigma factors are believed to be the master regulators of the general stress response in alphaproteobacteria. In this study, we examined the B. quintana RpoE response to two stressors that are encountered in the body louse vector environment, a decreased temperature and an increased hemin concentration. We determined that the expression of rpoE is significantly upregulated at the body louse (28°C) versus the human host (37°C) temperature. rpoE expression also was upregulated when B. quintana was exposed to high hemin concentrations. In vitro and in vivo analyses demonstrated that RpoE function is regulated by a mechanism involving the anti-sigma factor NepR and the response regulator PhyR. The ?rpoE ?nepR mutant strain of B. quintana established that RpoE-mediated transcription is important in mediating the tolerance of B. quintana to high hemin concentrations. We present the first analysis of an ECF15 sigma factor in a vector-borne human pathogen and conclude that RpoE has a role in the adaptation of B. quintana to the hemin-rich arthropod vector environment. PMID:23564167

Abromaitis, Stephanie; Koehler, Jane E

2013-06-01

157

Social isolation.  

PubMed

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation; and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Norman, Greg J; Berntson, Gary G

2011-08-01

158

Social isolation  

PubMed Central

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

2011-01-01

159

Neuroretinitis with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Female  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis with significant disc and peripapillary edema, branch retinal artery occlusion without macula involvement and well preserved central vision. A 15-year-old female presented with loss of vision over 4 weeks in the left eye. She had a history of cat exposure, but a cat scratch, insect bite or conjunctivitis was not reported. An inferotemporal arcuate scotoma developed during the acute phase and persisted over the course of the follow-up. PMID:24348414

Ahmadi, Sina; Azizi, Behrooz; Tsang, Adrian C.; Coupland, Stuart; Gottlieb, Chloe; Zackon, David

2013-01-01

160

Pradofloxacin: a novel veterinary fluoroquinolone for treatment of bacterial infections in cats.  

PubMed

Pradofloxacin is a novel third-generation oral veterinary fluoroquinolone with activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria and anaerobes (lower minimum inhibitory concentrations in vitro). It also has activity against other bacterial species, including Bartonella henselae, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, extra-intestinal Escherichia coli, and some mycobacterial species. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanism of action, adverse effects, clinical applications, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of pradofloxacin in cats. PMID:24997792

Sykes, Jane E; Blondeau, Joseph M

2014-08-01

161

Cervical cat scratch disease lymphadenitis in a patient with immunoglobulin M antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

We report on a young patient with chronic cervical lymphadenopathy and serological and histological evidence for infection with Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii. Serological follow-up studies, including testing for avidity of Toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies, assisted in the determination of the cause of the acute lymphadenitis. Our results suggest that the clinical symptoms were most likely due to cat scratch disease rather than to acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:11874902

Arvand, Mardjan; Kazak, Ilkay; Jovanovic, Sergije; Foss, Hans-Dieter; Liesenfeld, Oliver

2002-03-01

162

Isolated sleep paralysis  

MedlinePLUS

Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - Isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes in which the person is unable to move or speak. ...

163

Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.  

PubMed

Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (? 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms. PMID:22925024

Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

2012-11-01

164

Original article Dogs are more permissive than cats or guinea pigs  

E-print Network

with a human isolate of Bartonella rochalimae Bruno B. CHOMEL 1*, Jennifer B. HENN 1,2 , Rickie W. KASTEN 1 with the only human isolate of this new Bartonella species. Both dogs became bacteremic for 5­7 weeks/mL) of 6­8 weeks' duration. One cat that remained seronegative had two bacterial colonies isolated

Boyer, Edmond

165

Base isolation case study  

E-print Network

The primary objective of this thesis is the introduction of the current code, ASCE 7-05 into the base isolation design and the analysis of base isolation response due to seismic forces. An eight story irregular structure ...

Ching, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Apostol)

2008-01-01

166

Integrated optical isolators  

E-print Network

Introduction: Optical isolators are important components in lasers. Their main function is to eliminate noise caused by back-reflections into these lasers. The need for integrated isolators comes from the continuing growth ...

Zaman, Tauhid R

2005-01-01

167

Analog signal isolation techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

Beadle, E.R.

1992-01-01

168

Analog signal isolation techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

Beadle, E.R.

1992-12-31

169

Emerging incidence of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), and Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species (spp.) are recognized tick-borne pathogens in humans worldwide. Using serology and molecular testing, the incidence of these pathogens was investigated in symptomatic patients from Australia. Methods Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) followed by immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM Western blot (WB) assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Simultaneously, patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Most patients reported symptom onset in Australia without recent overseas travel. 28 of 51 (55%) tested positive for LD. Of 41 patients tested for tick-borne coinfections, 13 (32%) were positive for Babesia spp. and nine (22%) were positive for Bartonella spp. Twenty-five patients were tested for Ehrlichia spp. and (16%) were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum while none were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Among the 51 patients tested for LD, 21 (41%) had evidence of more than one tick-borne infection. Positive tests for LD, Babesia duncani, Babesia microti, and Bartonella henselae were demonstrated in an individual who had never left the state of Queensland. Positive testing for these pathogens was found in three others whose movements were restricted to the east coast of Australia. Conclusion The study identified a much larger tick-borne disease (TBD) burden within the Australian community than hitherto reported. In particular, the first cases of endemic human Babesia and Bartonella disease in Australia with coexisting Borrelia infection are described, thus defining current hidden and unrecognized components of TBD and demonstrating local acquisition in patients who have never been abroad. PMID:22267937

Mayne, Peter J

2011-01-01

170

Cell isolation and culture.  

PubMed

Cell isolation and culture are essential tools for the study of cell function. Isolated cells grown under controlled conditions can be manipulated and imaged at a level of resolution that is not possible in whole animals or even tissue explants. Recent advances have allowed for large-scale isolation and culture of primary C. elegans cells from both embryos and all four larval stages. Isolated cells can be used for single-cell profiling, electrophysiology, and high-resolution microscopy to assay cell autonomous development and behavior. This chapter describes protocols for the isolation and culture of C. elegans embryonic and larval stage cells. Our protocols describe isolation of embryonic and L1 stage cells from nematodes grown on high-density NA22 bacterial plates and isolation of L2 through L4 stage cells from nematodes grown in axenic liquid culture. Both embryonic and larval cells can be isolated from nematode populations within 3 hours and can be cultured for several days. A primer on sterile cell culture techniques is given in the appendices. PMID:23430760

Zhang, Sihui; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

2013-01-01

171

Interpersonal Exchange in Isolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study explored interpersonal exchange in isolated and non-isolated groups. Nine dyads formed at different levels on need achievement, need dominance, need affiliation and dogmatism worked out lived in a small room for ten days, with no outside contact...

I. Altman, W. W. Haythorn

1965-01-01

172

MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

2005-08-01

173

Comparison of the 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' Genome Adapted for an Intracellular Lifestyle with Other Members of the Rhizobiales  

PubMed Central

An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, nitrogen fixing endosymbionts, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 50 clusters of conserved orthologous genes found on the chromosomes of all five metabolically diverse species. The intracellular pathogens ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ and Bartonella henselae have genomes drastically reduced in gene content and size as well as a relatively low content of guanine and cytosine. Codon and amino acid preferences that emphasize low guanosine and cytosine usage are globally employed in these genomes, including within regions of microsynteny and within signature sequences of orthologous proteins. The length of orthologous proteins is generally conserved, but not their isoelectric points, consistent with extensive amino acid substitutions to accommodate selection for low GC content. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome apparently has all of the genes required for DNA replication present in Sinorhizobium meliloti except it has only two, rather than three RNaseH genes. The gene set required for DNA repair has only one rather than ten DNA ligases found in Sinorhizobium meliloti, and the DNA PolI of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ lacks domains needed for excision repair. Thus the ability of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ to repair mutations in its genome may be impaired. Both ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus and Bartonella henselae lack enzymes needed for the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, which must therefore be obtained from the host. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome also has a greatly reduced set of sigma factors used to control transcription, and lacks sigma factors 24, 28 and 38. The ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genome has all of the hallmarks of a reduced genome of a pathogen adapted to an intracellular lifestyle. PMID:21876745

Hartung, John S.; Shao, Jonathan; Kuykendall, L. David

2011-01-01

174

Isolated vascular vertigo.  

PubMed

Strokes in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present with vertigo, imbalance, and nystagmus. Although the vertigo due to a posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem can develop vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 11% of the patients with an isolated cerebellar infarction present with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness mimicking acute peripheral vestibular disorders. The head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar strokes (particularly within the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Appropriate bedside evaluation is superior to MRIs for detecting central vascular vertigo syndromes. This article reviews the keys to diagnosis of acute isolated vertigo syndrome due to posterior circulation strokes involving the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25328871

Lee, Hyung

2014-09-01

175

Isolated Vascular Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Strokes in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present with vertigo, imbalance, and nystagmus. Although the vertigo due to a posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem can develop vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 11% of the patients with an isolated cerebellar infarction present with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness mimicking acute peripheral vestibular disorders. The head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar strokes (particularly within the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Appropriate bedside evaluation is superior to MRIs for detecting central vascular vertigo syndromes. This article reviews the keys to diagnosis of acute isolated vertigo syndrome due to posterior circulation strokes involving the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25328871

2014-01-01

176

Isolation of Human Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Highly purified eosinophils can be isolated from peripheral blood by negative selection using an antibody-based magnetic negative selection protocol. The basic protocol describes a sequential fractionation of peripheral blood in which CD16+ granulocytes are enriched first from whole blood, followed by isolation of eosinophils. This technique is easy to use, fast, and highly reproducible. Support protocols describe a staining methods that can be used to evaluate the purity of eosinophils and differentiation from other leukocyte populations. PMID:22855360

Akuthota, Praveen; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F.

2013-01-01

177

Isolated sleep paralysis  

PubMed Central

Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months. PMID:20711316

Sawant, Neena S.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Tambe, Ravindra

2005-01-01

178

[A case of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease].  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man was admitted with idiopathic fever. Abdominal ultrasonogram demonstrated multiple hypoechoic lesions in the spleen. Abdominal CT scan showed multiple hypodense lesions in the liver and spleen. The patient had a cat in his house, and the presence of a very high serous antibody titer for Bartonella henselae led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. It is important to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic fever when multiple lesions are detected in the liver and spleen. PMID:16953102

Ishikawa, Takuya; Suzuki, Takashi; Shinoda, Masataka; Takashi, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Suzuki, Takahisa; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Kamiya, Tohru

2006-09-01

179

Influenza virus isolation.  

PubMed

The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type. PMID:22528151

Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

2012-01-01

180

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

181

Nucleic acid isolation  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

1988-01-21

182

High voltage gas isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isolator is provided which has an inlet at ground electrical potential which receives gas, and which has an outlet at a high electrical potential through which gas is discharged, the isolator being compactly and simply constructed while providing a long narrow path that minimizes the possibility of electrical breakdown through the gas. The isolator includes a first element forming a cylindrical core and a cup-shaped second element forming a sleeve portion that closely receives the core. The core has a helical groove on its outside to form a passage between the groove and the inner walls of the sleeve. The core also has a vertical hole extending to the bottom of the core and a radial groove in the bottom of the core that extends between the hole and the bottom of the helical groove.

Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

183

Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion  

PubMed Central

Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary. PMID:23984132

Kardakis, S.; Barranca, A.; Vitelli, A.; Amore, I.; Trento, F.; Caccia, G.

2013-01-01

184

Breaking Down Racial Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Across the Lines" project involving an interchange between students and teachers of two racially isolated schools in the Hartford (Connecticut) area. A racial mix of 50/50 was achieved through planned science museum visits, randomly paired pen pals, and an MCI electronic mail connection between schools. (MLH)

Foster, Lloyd A.

1989-01-01

185

Reproductive Isolation in Angiosperms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a suitable exercise for use in plant reproductive biology laboratory courses. Its purpose is to illustrate mechanisms of isolation in angiosperms by the species Silene by observing the success or failure of inter-specific pollination. This lab exercise is also suitable for courses in plant biology, concepts of the biological species or botany, and evolution.

Alexander F. Motten (Duke University;)

1996-01-01

186

Scalable statistical bug isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a statistical debugging algorithm that isolates bugs in programs containing multiple undiagnosed bugs. Earlier statistical algorithms that focus solely on identifying predictors that correlate with program failure perform poorly when there are multiple bugs. Our new technique separates the effects of different bugs and identifies predictors that are associated with individual bugs. These predictors reveal both the circumstances

Ben Liblit; Mayur Naik; Alice X. Zheng; Alexander Aiken; Michael I. Jordan

2005-01-01

187

Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

Blauch, David N.

188

Biological Isolation Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

1976-01-01

189

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

SciTech Connect

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

2007-09-12

190

DNA Isolation from Onion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students find studying DNA difficult because it is so small that the concepts are quite abstract. This lab enables students to work with DNA concretely by easily isolating chromosomal DNA using the same basic tools and methods that scientists use. The lab is a good introduction to using pipets and to using the metric system. If the chemistry of the solutions is taught it is also a great practical application.

Kate Dollard (Cambridge Rindge and Latin REV)

1994-07-30

191

Supersymmetric isolated horizons  

E-print Network

We construct a covariant phase space for rotating weakly isolated horizons in Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in all (odd) $D\\geq5$ dimensions. In particular, we show that horizons on the corresponding phase space satisfy the zeroth and first laws of black-hole mechanics. We show that the existence of a Killing spinor on an isolated horizon in four dimensions (when the Chern-Simons term is dropped) and in five dimensions requires that the induced (normal) connection on the horizon has to vanish, and this in turn implies that the surface gravity and rotation one-form are zero. This means that the gravitational component of the horizon angular momentum is zero, while the electromagnetic component (which is attributed to the bulk radiation field) is unconstrained. It follows that an isolated horizon is supersymmetric only if it is extremal and nonrotating. A remarkable property of these horizons is that the Killing spinor only has to exist on the horizon itself. It does not have to exist off the horizon. In addition, we find that the limit when the surface gravity of the horizon goes to zero provides a topological constraint. Specifically, the integral of the scalar curvature of the cross sections of the horizon has to be positive when the dominant energy condition is satisfied and the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is zero or positive, and in particular rules out the torus topology for supersymmetric isolated horizons (unless $\\Lambda<0$) if and only if the stress-energy tensor $T_{ab}$ is of the form such that $T_{ab}\\ell^{a}n^{b}=0$ for any two null vectors $\\ell$ and $n$ with normalization $\\ell_{a}n^{a}=-1$ on the horizon.

Tomas Liko; Ivan Booth

2007-12-19

192

Mechanical beam isolator  

SciTech Connect

Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam.

Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

1996-10-01

193

Assessment of Waveguide Vibration Isolator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is proposed for comparing the dynamic performance of different types of vibration isolators, and relies on having equal compression ratios of the rubber elements. The method is used to compare a waveguide vibration isolator with a blank vibration...

J. D. Dickens

1999-01-01

194

Mycobacteria isolated from exotic animals.  

PubMed

Mycobacteria were isolated from 263 of 474 specimens submitted from captive exotic (nondomesticated) animals over a 5-year period. Mycobacterium avium was isolated from 128 animals originating in 13 states and the District of Columbia; serotype 1 accounted for 65 of the isolations. Mycobacterium bovi was isolated from 74 animals in 7 zoos, 7 game parks, and 4 primate colonies in 1, states: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 29 animals originating 9 stats; and Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium spp. The widespread occurrence of tuberculosis in exotic animals maintained in captivity emphasizes the public health importance of these infections. PMID:406254

Thoen, C O; Richards, W D; Jarnagin, J L

1977-05-01

195

Isolated Coccygeal Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Isolated tuberculosis of the coccyx is extremely rare. A 35-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of coccygeal and gluteal pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osseous destruction and a large enhancing mass involving the coccyx with anterior and posterior extension. Pathologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed necrosis, chronic granulomatous inflammation, and multinucleated giant cells consistent with tuberculosis. This case highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis even though unusual sites are involved. PMID:23323174

Kim, Do Un; Ju, Chang IL

2012-01-01

196

Investigation of mercury thruster isolators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

Mantenieks, M. A.

1973-01-01

197

Statistical comparison of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a superposed epoch analysis of the morphology and energy deposition of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms. The study is based on auroral data acquired by the global ultraviolet imager (GUVI) on board the TIMED satellite and a total number of 13717 geomagnetic bay onsets identified with magnetometer data from SuperMAG and published previously by Newell and Gjerloev [2011]. Here the isolated substorms are those having separation of two consecutive onsets no less than 3 hours. While the three phases substorm are clearly shown in both isolated and non-isolated substorms, there are noticeable differences between the two types of substorms: (1) In the growth phase, the nighttime auroral power slightly increases for both types of substorms; isolated (non-isolated) substorms are associated with smaller (greater) nighttime auroral power; (2) In the expansion phase, substorm energy release is greater and more explosive for isolated than non-isolated substorms; (3) The recovery phase period is longer for isolated than for non-isolated substorms; (4) The winter-to-summer auroral power ratio is approximately constant throughout the three substorm phases and the ratio is larger for isolated (30%) than for non-isolated (20%) substorms. We also found that the polar cap area increases during the growth phase until ~10 min prior to the magnetic substorm onset and decreases rapidly after onset. The decrease is associated with the closure of the nightside auroral oval associated with substorm expansion. We found most of these differences can be related to the differences in their solar wind driving. We will present the results in detail and make a conclusion.

Liou, K.; Newell, P. T.; Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L. J.

2012-12-01

198

The Role of Social Isolation in Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature which relates to the role of social isolation in suicide. Major areas reviewed include theories on suicide and social isolation, measures of social isolation, and empirical studies which concern the relationship of social isolation to suicide. (Author)

Trout, Deborah L.

1980-01-01

199

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... definitions Reviewed February 2012 What is isolated growth hormone deficiency? Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition ... against infection (agammaglobulinemia). How common is isolated growth hormone deficiency? The incidence of isolated growth hormone deficiency ...

200

Stiffness controllable isolation system for near-fault seismic isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic structure isolated by a conventional passive isolation system is usually a long-period structural system with a fixed fundamental vibration frequency. Even though conventional isolation systems may effectively mitigate the dynamic responses of structures in a regular earthquake, they may also encounter a low-frequency resonance problem when subjected to a near-fault earthquake that usually has a long-period pulse-like waveform.

Lyan-Ywan Lu; Ging-Long Lin; Tzu-Ching Kuo

2008-01-01

201

Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

202

Isolated optical vortex knots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and artificially created light fields in three-dimensional space contain lines of zero intensity, known as optical vortices. Here, we describe a scheme to create optical beams with isolated optical vortex loops in the forms of knots and links using algebraic topology. The required complex fields with fibred knots and links are constructed from abstract functions with braided zeros and the knot function is then embedded in a propagating light beam. We apply a numerical optimization algorithm to increase the contrast in light intensity, enabling us to observe several optical vortex knots. These knotted nodal lines, as singularities of the wave's phase, determine the topology of the wave field in space, and should have analogues in other three-dimensional wave systems such as superfluids and Bose-Einstein condensates.

Dennis, Mark R.; King, Robert P.; Jack, Barry; O'Holleran, Kevin; Padgett, Miles J.

2010-02-01

203

Material isolation enclosure  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of an enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

1991-03-12

204

Isolated Northern Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

205

Isolation Procedures for Farrowing Operations  

E-print Network

to be the acclimatization period of isolation. These ?natural vaccination? and ?sentinel animal? techniques are effective methods for stimulating immunity in replacement animals against disease-causing microorganisms in the herd. If a ?sentinel? cull animal gets sick... breeding swine is to prevent the herd from being exposed to new disease-causing organisms. During the isolation period, keep feed and water free of antibacterial agents to avoid ?covering up? signs of disease. If breed- ing swine in isolation become sick...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2002-01-31

206

Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

Foster, John E.

2000-01-01

207

Oropouche virus isolation, southeast Brazil.  

PubMed

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-10-01

208

ISOLATION OF EPIDERMAL DESMOSOMES  

PubMed Central

A method is reported for the isolation of desmosomes in a high yield and of a purity suitable for biochemical analysis. The procedure utilizes the selective solubilizing action of citric acid-sodium citrate (CASC) buffer, pH 2.6, on the non-cornified layers of cow nose epidermis, followed by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Electron microscopy with both thin sections of pellets and unfixed spread preparations reveals that after centrifugation, desmosomes are located mainly at the 55–60% sucrose interface. In the desmosome preparation thus obtained, the characteristic desmosome structure is well preserved, showing the midline, unit membranes, and dense plaques. Furthermore, removal of the epidermal filament bundles by the solubilizing action of CASC buffer has revealed a finely filamentous layer on the cytoplasmic surface of the plaques. The dimensions, location, and appearance of this layer correspond with those of the "connecting component" which has been previously suggested as being responsible for the attachment of epidermal filament bundles to the desmosome. PMID:4138144

Skerrow, Christine J.; Matoltsy, A. Gedeon

1974-01-01

209

New ventilated isolation cage.  

PubMed

A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH "shoebox" cage rack (60 inches wide x 28 inches deep x 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. PMID:5659368

Cook, R O

1968-05-01

210

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

211

Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:23400696

Berghoff, Walter

2012-01-01

212

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

213

Helicopter gearbox isolation using periodically layered fluidic isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rotorcraft transmissions, vibration generation by meshing gear pairs is a significant source of vibration and cabin noise. This high-frequency gearbox noise is primarily transmitted to the fuselage through rigid connections, which do not appreciably attenuate vibratory energy. The high-frequency vibrations typically include discrete gear-meshing frequencies in the range of 500--2000 Hz, and are often considered irritating and can reduce pilot effectiveness and passenger comfort. Periodically-layered isolators were identified as potential passive attenuators of these high frequency vibrations. Layered isolators exhibit transmissibility "stop bands," or frequency ranges in which there is very low transmissibility. An axisymmetric model was developed to accurately predict the location of these stop bands for isolators in compression. A Ritz approximation method was used to model the axisymmetric elastic behavior of layered cylindrical isolators. This model of layered isolators was validated with experiments. The physical design constraints of the proposed helicopter gearbox isolators were then estimated. Namely, constraints associated with isolator mass, axial stiffness, geometry, and elastomeric fatigue were determined. The passive performance limits of layered isolators were then determined using a design optimization methodology employing a simulated annealing algorithm. The results suggest that layered isolators cannot always meet frequency targets given a certain set of design constraints. Many passive and active design enhancements were considered to address this problem, and the use of embedded inertial amplifiers was found to exhibit a combination of advantageous effects. The first benefit was a lowering of the beginning stop band frequency, and thus a widening of the original stop band. The second was a tuned absorber effect, where the elastomer layer stiffness and the amplified tuned mass combined to act as a vibration absorber within the stop band. The use of embedded fluid elements was identified as an efficient means of implementing inertial amplification. When elastomer layers are compressed quasi-statically, the actual measured axial stiffness is quite higher the than one-dimensional stiffness predicted on the basis of a Young's modulus. Because of this effect, layered isolators can be designed to accommodate the high axial stiffnesses required for helicopter gearbox supports, while also providing broadband high frequency attenuation.

Szefi, Joseph Thomas

2003-07-01

214

Flight representative positive isolation disconnect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

1977-01-01

215

Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation.  

PubMed

Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

216

Negotiating the radiologically isolated syndrome.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis, always challenging, hands down a particular gauntlet with the concept of the radiologically isolated syndrome. This article discusses what it is, recent developments in the field and how these patients should be managed. PMID:25291606

Cummings, A; Chataway, J

2014-10-01

217

Study of base isolation systems  

E-print Network

The primary objective of this investigation is to outline the relevant issues concerning the conceptual design of base isolated structures. A 90 feet high, 6 stories tall, moment steel frame structure with tension cross ...

Manarbek, Saruar

2013-01-01

218

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperchlorhidrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... molecule (bicarbonate ion) and a positively charged hydrogen atom (known as a proton). The presence of protons ... glossary definitions help with understanding isolated hyperchlorhidrosis? acidity ; atom ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; bicarbonate ; Ca ; cell ; chloride ; dehydration ; ...

219

Isolation of Lignocellulose Transforming Microbes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research demonstrated that a Basidiomycete fungus, Irpex lacteus, isolated from active galleries of the beetle Xyloterinus politus in Quercus (oak) trees, degraded approximately five times as much lignin from the standard hardwood substrate, No. 002 wood,...

D. M. Norris

1980-01-01

220

Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Maple or Mathmatica, learner should be able to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities.

Smith, David

2002-01-12

221

GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

222

Isolated sphenoidal sinusitis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute isolated infectious sphenoiditis is an uncommon, potentially dangerous condition which is often misdiagnosed because\\u000a of its nonspecific symptoms and paucity of clinical signs. We present eight children with isolated sphenoiditis who were managed\\u000a in our medical centre during the last 2 years and review the literature. All the patients were adolescents or pre-adolescents\\u000a and all experienced moderate to severe

Y. Haimi-Cohen; J. Amir; A. Zeharia; Y. Danziger; N. Ziv; M. Mimouni

1999-01-01

223

Passive vibration isolation using a Roberts linkage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article present an ultralow frequency passive vibration isolation device as part of the preisolation stage for the Australian International Gravitational Observatory (AIGO). This isolator is based on the Roberts linkage and simulates a very long radius conical pendulum to provide two-dimensional isolation. It is designed as the second horizontal isolation component of the preisolator and it will support the remaining four isolation stages of the AIGO vibration isolator chain. A description of the device together with a theoretical model and its measured isolation performance are presented. With the current setup, we obtained 32 dB of isolation at 1 Hz.

Garoi, F.; Winterflood, J.; Ju, L.; Jacob, J.; Blair, D. G.

2003-07-01

224

Passive vibration isolation using a Roberts linkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article present an ultralow frequency passive vibration isolation device as part of the preisolation stage for the Australian International Gravitational Observatory (AIGO). This isolator is based on the Roberts linkage and simulates a very long radius conical pendulum to provide two-dimensional isolation. It is designed as the second horizontal isolation component of the preisolator and it will support the

F. Garoi; J. Winterflood; L. Ju; J. Jacob; D. G. Blair

2003-01-01

225

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, R.L.

1995-05-30

226

Social Recovery by Isolation-Reared Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total social isolation of macaque monkeys for at least the first 6 months of life consistently produces severe deficits in virtually every aspect of social behavior. Experiments designed to rehabilitate monkeys reared in isolation are described. While young isolates exposed to equal-age normal peers achieved only limited recovery of simple social responses, some mothers reared in isolation eventually exhibited acceptable

Harry F. Harlow; Stephen J. Suomi

1971-01-01

227

Entropy of isolated horizons revisited  

SciTech Connect

The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states ''living'' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in the horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient -(3/2), with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

Basu, Rudranil; Kaul, Romesh K.; Majumdar, Parthasarathi [SN Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113 (India); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2010-07-15

228

Perceived Social Isolation and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e., loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, more negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism, and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact emotions, decisions, behaviors, and interpersonal interactions that may contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally. PMID:19726219

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.

2009-01-01

229

Reactor steam isolation cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a reactor steam isolation cooling system. It comprises: a containment building having a containment wall; a reactor pressure vessel disposed inside the containment building and including a nuclear reactor core therein operable for generating reactor steam; an isolation pool disposed outside the containment building and adjacent to the containment wall and containing pool water; an isolation condenser including: a plurality of parallel heat pipes; a tube sheet disposed between the hot and cold tubes and through which the heat pipes are disposed in sealing contact therewith; and means for selectively channeling the reactor steam from the pressure vessel between the hot tubes of the evaporator assembly for removing heat therefrom to form reactor condensate.

Dillmann, C.W.

1992-10-27

230

Perceived social isolation and cognition.  

PubMed

Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, increased negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact on emotions, decisions, behaviors and interpersonal interactions that can contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally. PMID:19726219

Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C

2009-10-01

231

[Isolated giant hydatid in kidney].  

PubMed

Cyst hydatid of the kidney is parasitic condition caused by Echinococcus granulosus and identified in many countries, especially associated with sheep farming. Echinococcal larvae enter the bloodstream using the digestive system and invade any organs in the human body. The urinary system is the third most common area affected by parasitic infection after liver and lungs, but isolated renal involvement is a very rare situation, even in endemic areas. ?n our case, we aimed to report a 57-year-old female patient with an 18-centimeter isolated renal cyst hydatid treated by retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed by histopathologically. PMID:25016121

Ozgör, Faruk; Erbin, Akif; Berbero?lu, Ahmet Yalç?n; Binbay, Murat; Sar?lar, Omer; Müslümano?lu, Ahmet Yaser

2014-06-01

232

Isolation of DNA and RNA.  

PubMed

Blood samples for most coagulation tests are collected into 3.8% trisodium citrate in a ratio of 1 part anticoagulant to 9 parts blood. Whole-blood samples for DNA isolation can be stored at -50°C and the DNA prepared at a later stage. A more convenient method requiring less freezer space is to store buffy coats-the interface between the red cells and the plasma that is seen following centrifugation of whole blood. This latter method also allows isolation of the plasma fraction. PMID:21340978

Perry, D J

1999-01-01

233

Are Small, Isolated Wetlands Expendable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is most evident in the recent debate concerning new wetland regulations drafted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is that small, isolated wetlands will likely continue to be lost. The critical biological question is whether small wetlands are expendable, and the fundamental issue is the lack of biologically rele- vant data on the value of wetlands, especially so-called

Raymond D. Semlitsch; J. Russell Bodie

1998-01-01

234

Breaking the Barriers of Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the College of Eastern Utah's San Juan Center for Higher Education which was designed to serve San Juan County's isolated and economically disadvantaged population. Describes the diverse educational needs of county residents, the center's administration, cooperative arrangements, the use of community facilities and itinerant instructors,…

Potter, Van

1980-01-01

235

Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-06-30

236

Mitochondria: isolation, structure and function  

PubMed Central

Abstract Mitochondria are complex organelles constantly undergoing processes of fusion and fission, processes that not only modulate their morphology, but also their function. Yet the assessment of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle often involves mechanical isolation of the mitochondria, a process which disrupts their normally heterogeneous branching structure and yields relatively homogeneous spherical organelles. Alternatively, methods have been used where the sarcolemma is permeabilized and mitochondrial morphology is preserved, but both methods face the downside that they remove potential influences of the intracellular milieu on mitochondrial function. Importantly, recent evidence shows that the fragmented mitochondrial morphology resulting from routine mitochondrial isolation procedures used with skeletal muscle alters key indices of function in a manner qualitatively similar to mitochondria undergoing fission in vivo. Although these results warrant caution when interpreting data obtained with mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle, they also suggest that isolated mitochondrial preparations might present a useful way of interrogating the stress resistance of mitochondria. More importantly, these new findings underscore the empirical value of studying mitochondrial function in minimally disruptive experimental preparations. In this review, we briefly discuss several considerations and hypotheses emerging from this work. PMID:21708903

Picard, Martin; Taivassalo, Tanja; Gouspillou, Gilles; Hepple, Russell T

2011-01-01

237

Anaphylaxis in Isolated Rabbit Lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lungs from rabbits sensitized to ovalbumin or bovine ?-globulin were isolated and perfused with autologous blood. The response to antigen challenge via the perfusate was immunologically specific and characterized by a marked increase in perfusion resistance, a moderate increase in airway resistance and a small decrease in lung compliance. The response could also be elicited by specific antigen challenge in

T. S. Hakim; C. A. Dawson; V. L. Moore; J. J. Barboriak

1978-01-01

238

Resisting an Isolated Learning Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this paper is to suggest that researchers on workplace learning avoid an isolated learning discourse. The point at issue is that being a learner is just one aspect of people's sometimes complicated lives in the workplace, and that people may sometimes--for good reasons--resist a learning discourse if it is linked…

Tanggaard, Lene

2009-01-01

239

Isolation and identification among cockle isolates of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from Selangor, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrio vulnificus infections are worldwide public health problems associated with illnesses resulting from consumption of raw or partially cooked seafood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and identification of V. vulnificus in cockles from local wet (40) and supermarkets (38) from Selangor, Malaysia from July 2013 to February 2014. A total of 78(n=78) cockle were examined for the presence of V. vulnificus and at about 32% (25/78) cockle samples were positive to this bacterium. Colonies morphological observation and biochemical characterization for those isolates showed 60% (15/78) of isolates were classified as biotype 1 and 40% (10/78) belong to biotype 2.

Kurdi Al-Dulaimi, Mohammed M.; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Ghani, Ma`aruf Abd.

2014-09-01

240

Etiological differences between the isolated lateral ventricle and the isolated fourth ventricle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine if an etiological difference exists between isolation of the lateral ventricle and isolation of the fourth ventricle after ventricular shunting.Methods  Cases of symptomatic isolation of the lateral and fourth ventricles were reviewed retrospectively. The ages at presentation of ventricular isolation, the time course to development of isolation, the number of shunt surgeries leading up to symptomatic isolation, the types

Beng Ti Ang; Paul Steinbok; D. Douglas Cochrane

2006-01-01

241

Sleuthing the Isolated Compact Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early 1990's, isolated thermally-emitting neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium were predicted to show up in their thousands in the ROSAT soft X-ray all-sky survey. The glut of sources would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the equation of state of ultra-dense matter. Only seven objects have been firmly identified to date. The reasons for this discrepency are discussed and recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations of these objects are described. Spectra of the brightest of the isolated neutron star candidates, RX J1856.5-3754, continue to present interpretational difficulties for current neutron star model atmospheres and alternative models are briefly discussed. RX J1856.5-3754 remains a valid quark star candidate.

Drake, J. J.

2004-08-01

242

Heterogeneity of koala retrovirus isolates.  

PubMed

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus which may induce immune suppression, leukemia and lymphoma in koalas. Currently three KoRV subgroups (A, B, and J) have been reported. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that KoRV-B and KoRV-J should be classified as the same subgroup. In long terminal repeat (LTR), a KoRV-B isolate has four 17 bp tandem repeats named direct repeat (DR)-1, while a KoRV-J isolate (strain OJ-4) has three 37 bp tandem repeats named DR-2. We also found that the promoter activity of the KoRV-J strain OJ-4 is stronger than that of original KoRV-A, suggesting that KoRV-J may replicate more efficiently than KoRV-A. PMID:24239536

Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Shojima, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

2014-01-01

243

Isolated congenital left ventricular diverticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of isolated left ventricular diverticulum are presented. A 12-year-old boy and a 7-year-old girl, both asymptomatic, were admitted to our Department for evaluation of an abnormal electrocardiogram and an abnormal cardiac silhouette, respectively. Both patients had the diagnosis confirmed by cardiac catheterization and angiography and underwent successful surgical correction of the abnormality. We discuss the diagnosis, prognosis, and

G. Pomé; G. Vignati; L. Mauri; M. Morello; A. Figini; A. Pellegrini

1995-01-01

244

Isolated renal cells and uses thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention is directed to isolated renal cells, including tubular and erythropoietin (EPO)-producing kidney cell populations, and methods of isolating and culturing the same, as well as methods of treating a subject in need with the cell populations.

2012-11-27

245

Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

1983-07-01

246

The Victoria Isolation Scale, Form A  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors administered the Isolation Symptomatology Questionnaire to persons living in Antarctica who were either well or maladjusted to their environment. Eliminating those items not discriminating between the two groups, the authors constructed a new isolation scale. (SE)

Taylor, A. J. W.; Feletti, Grahame I.

1976-01-01

247

Isolated Malignant Melanoma Metastasis to the Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Summary: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.

Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P.

2013-01-01

248

Visible optical isolator using ZnSe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact Faraday effect optical isolator was constructed for visible wavelengths and tested at 5145 A. The nonreciprocal element of the isolator was polycrystalline zinc selenide placed in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. For 5145 A the isolator had a 2.06-dB insertion loss and a 25.5-dB isolation. Indices of refraction and Verdet constants were measured for zinc selenide in the wavelength region from 4700 to 6300 A.

Wunderlich, J. A.; Deshazer, L. G.

1977-01-01

249

Isolation of an alkaloid from Cassia occidentalis  

E-print Network

)ect: Biochemistry THE ISOLATION OF AN ALKALOID FROM CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS A Thesis Larry Ellis Puleo Approved as to style and oontent by: hairman o mmit e M ber Hea o partment Member ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 8 The writer wishes to express hie appreciationt To Dr. B... Scheme Page II Toxicity of various fractions of Cassia occidentalis 20 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Mass Speotrum of the Isolated Compound 2 Infrared Speotrum of the Isolated Com- pound Ultraviolet Absorption Speotrum oi the Isolated Compound...

Puleo, Larry Ellis

2012-06-07

250

Total main rotor isolation system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a preliminary design study and verification procedure for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are established. The system is developed and analyzed, and predesign drawings are created for an isolation system that achieves over 95 percent isolation of all six degrees of freedom.

Halwes, D. R.

1981-01-01

251

Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1988-01-01

252

Noninvasive diagnosis of isolated right ventricular infarction  

SciTech Connect

A rare case of isolated right ventricular infarction (RVI) is described. The lack of clinical and electrocardiographic findings characteristic of isolated RVI makes this pathology a diagnostic challenge. The role of the radionuclide scintigraphic procedures as a single possible tool for the diagnosis of isolated RVI is emphasized.

Garty, I.; Antonelli, D.; Barzilay, J.

1984-12-01

253

Using population isolates in genetic association studies  

PubMed Central

The use of genetically isolated populations can empower next-generation association studies. In this review, we discuss the advantages of this approach and review study design and analytical considerations of genetic association studies focusing on isolates. We cite successful examples of using population isolates in association studies and outline potential ways forward. PMID:25009120

Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Gilly, Arthur

2014-01-01

254

Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in urinary isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli accounted for about 80% of organisms in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), followed by Staphylococcus spp. especially Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Proteus mirabilis. Against E. coli isolates from patients with uncomplicated UTI, faropenem was the most effective. Up to 1999, fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were not observed in patients with uncomplicated UTI, but in 2001 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates emerged and

Tetsuro Muratani; Tetsuro Matsumoto

2004-01-01

255

Isolation of the Unmarried in Later Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports longitudinal research which examined isolation among the unmarried aged and assessed personal characteristics associated with isolation from family and friends. Men and women were more isolated from neighbors and friends than from family, although the never-married maintained more ties with friends. (Author/BL)

Keith, Pat M.

1986-01-01

256

The Isolated Perfused Heart and Its Pioneers.  

PubMed

In 1866, Carl Ludwig together with Elias Cyon created the first isolated perfused frog heart preparation. Perfusion systems for the isolated mammalian heart were developed by H. Newell Martin in 1883 and by Oscar Langendorff in 1895. In its working mode, the isolated perfused rat heart was established in the 1960s. PMID:11390791

Zimmer, Heinz-Gerd

1998-08-01

257

Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation Signal machines : localization of isolated  

E-print Network

Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation Signal machines : localization of isolated'Orléans, Orléans, FRANCE 6 mars 2011 Journées Calculabilités Paris 1 / 39 #12;Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation 1 Signal machines and isolated accumulations 2 Necessary conditions

Durand-Lose, Jérôme

258

Frequency response characteristics and response spectra of base-isolated and un-isolated structures  

SciTech Connect

The transmissibility of seismic loads through a linear base-isolation system is analyzed using an impedance method. The results show that the system acts like a {open_quotes}low-pass{close_quotes} filter. It attenuates high-frequency loads but passes through low-frequency ones. The filtering effect depends on the vibration frequencies and damping of the isolated structure and the isolation system. This paper demonstrates the benefits and design principles of base isolation by comparing the transmissibilities and response spectra of isolated and un-isolated structures. Parameters of typical isolated buildings and ground motions of the 1994 Northridge earthquake are used for the demonstration.

Mok, G.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Namba, H. [Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-07-06

259

Dityrosine: preparation, isolation, and analysis.  

PubMed

This article describes chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques that have multiple applications in the preparation, isolation, and analysis of dityrosine. A three-step chromatographic procedure facilitates the preparation of 120 mg or more (yield > 26% of theoretical maximum) of dityrosine from the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of tyrosine. DEAE-cellulose chromatography performed in a boric acid-sodium borate buffer removes most of the contaminating pigments. Two-dimensional pH-dependent chromatography on BioGel P-2 separates dityrosine from tyrosine, residual pigments, salts, etc. Elemental analysis indicates that the purified product is approximately 92% dityrosine by weight. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and two types of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), monitored in fluorescence and absorbance measurements, verify the purity of the dityrosine. The distinctive pH-dependent chromatography of dityrosine on BioGel P-2, with reversible adsorption to the matrix occurring at pH values less than 3, is useful for the isolation of varying quantities of dityrosine and for analysis per se. Affinity chromatography on immobilized phenyl boronate (Matrex Gel PBA-60) is an alternate method for the isolation and determination of dityrosine, which undergoes specific interactions with the boronate moiety and possible hydrophobic association with the phenyl group. Two new reverse-phase HPLC techniques expedite the analysis of picomole quantities of dityrosine. One employs isocratic elution (92% H2O, 8% acetonitrile, and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) of an ODS II Spherisorb column, with both fluorometric and spectrophotometric detection. The other procedure may be performed in conjunction with total amino acid analysis. A rapid gradient program, developed with a Phenomenex Ultracarb 20 column, clearly separates dabsylated dityrosine and tyrosine from other dabsylated amino acids. It is especially useful when dityrosine is a trace component. PMID:8937563

Malencik, D A; Sprouse, J F; Swanson, C A; Anderson, S R

1996-11-15

260

Mechanics of multidimensional isolated horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a multidimensional generalization of the isolated horizon framework has been proposed (Lewandowski and Pawlowski 2005 Class. Quantum Grav. 22 1573 98). Therein the geometric description was easily generalized to higher dimensions and the structure of the constraints induced by the Einstein equations was analysed. In particular, the geometric version of the zeroth law of black-hole thermodynamics was proved. In this work, we show how the IH mechanics can be formulated in a dimension-independent fashion and derive the first law of BH thermodynamics for arbitrarily dimensional IH. We also propose a definition of energy for non-rotating horizons.

Korzynski, Mikolaj; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Tomasz

2005-06-01

261

Evolution 101: Speciation - Reproductive Isolation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online educational module analyzes reproductive isolation as a cause of speciation. It offers a definition of the term as well as specific examples of barriers to gene flow that may contribute to speciation, including evolution of different mating location, mating time or mating rituals, lack of "fit" between sexual organs, and offspring inviability or sterility. The webpage is part of the Understanding Evolution educational website, a noncommercial resource designed to help you understand what evolution is, how it works, how it factors into your life, how research in evolutionary biology is performed, and how ideas in this area have changed over time.

Paleontology, University O.

262

Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles.  

PubMed

Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron+Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. PMID:24419285

Catinon, Mickaël; Ayrault, Sophie; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

2014-03-15

263

Prevalence study of antibody to ratborne pathogens and other agents among patients using a free clinic in downtown Los Angeles.  

PubMed

Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are hosts for various microbes. Homeless people who have contact with rats may be at risk of infection by them. The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services initiated a seroepidemiologic study among patients who used a free clinic in downtown Los Angeles; 200 serum specimens obtained for other routine assays were tested for antibodies to ratborne pathogens and other agents. The seroprevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus in this population was 13.6%; to Bartonella elizabethae, 12.5%; to B. quintana, 9.5%; to B. henselae, 3.5%; to Seoul virus, 0.5%; and to Rickettsia typhi, 0.0%. This study found that patients and locally trapped rats had antibodies to some of the same agents. PMID:12447746

Smith, Heather M; Reporter, Roshan; Rood, Michael P; Linscott, Andrea J; Mascola, Laurene M; Hogrefe, Wayne; Purcell, Robert H

2002-12-01

264

Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemiology and management.  

PubMed

Cervical lymphadenopathy (CL) is common in childhood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the etiology, follow-up, and treatment of persistent CL. The authors studied retrospectively 50 children with CL, hospitalized at the Department of Pediatrics and Pediatrics Surgery. Patients underwent ultrasonography. Thirty-six percent presented abnormal ultrasonographic image and underwent excisional biopsy. Biopsies revealed 4 thyroglossal cysts, 3 branchial cysts, 1 hemangioma, 2 sebaceous cysts, 1 dermoid cyst, 5 occurrences of tuberculosis lymphadenitis, 1 occurrence of Bartonella henselae lymphadenopathy, and 1 case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, CL is usually a benign finding; bacterial and viral infections are the most common causes. Ultrasonography help in etiology and follow-up of CL. PMID:19657996

Papadopouli, Evangelia; Michailidi, Eleni; Papadopoulou, Eleftheria; Paspalaki, Pinelopi; Vlahakis, Ioannis; Kalmanti, Maria

2009-09-01

265

[Update in infectious diseases. Part I: epidemiology].  

PubMed

A number of infectious agents has been newly detected in the last 10 years. Climatic changes and migration have been the most important factors in the emergence of new and old infections. Additionally, new methods for the detection of DNA and RNA have played an important role in the detection of agents difficult to culture. Relevant new bacterial pathogens are Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis), Tropheryma whippeli (Whipple's disease) and new Rickettsiae. Newly detected viral pathogens include Sin-nombre virus (pulmonary Hanta virus syndrome), Nipah- and Hendra virus and avian influenza. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been transmitted to humans causing the newly described syndrome of variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease. The extent of this new epidemic is not yet clear. These trends from the last years clearly indicate, that further new infections and infectious agents will be detected in the future. PMID:10935415

Salzberger, B; Franzen, C; Fätkenheuer, G

2000-06-15

266

A case report of seronegative cat scratch disease, emphasizing the histopathologic point of view  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cat scratch disease, necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by Bartonella henselae, usually benign and self-limited. However, various clinical manifestations and no pathognomonic histopathologic features can lead to misinterpretations and diagnostic disputes. We report a case of cat scratch disease in a 39-yr-old male patient with fever and left axillary lymphadenitis. He had a history of cat bite on the left hand dorsum. On excision, the lymph node showed follicular hyperplasia, stellate microabscesses with a rim of granulomatous inflammation. Warthin-Starry silver staining showed many clumps of silver-stained bacilli within the necrotic foci. Serological tests were negative. Diagnosis was established by PCR analysis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1877499238123059 PMID:24641870

2014-01-01

267

Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase  

SciTech Connect

We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA)); Anderson, J.B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

1990-09-01

268

Isolated oligodontia in monozygotic twins  

PubMed Central

This case report defines a case of isolated oligodontia of 9 and 10 permanent teeth in 9-year-old monozygotic twin sisters and gives information about the possible genetic and environmental etiology, related dental anomalies and treatment options. The twins have a negative family history of hypodontia and oligodontia in their parents, as well as their paternal and maternal grandmothers and first cousins. No other dental anomalies could be detected in either of the twins. With the occurrence of similarly located tooth agenesis, except for one tooth, in monozygotic twins, one may consider the influence of genetic and/or environmental factors in their etiology. Hereditary relationships associated with oligodontia could help the clinicians to predict the possibility of its occurrence in other family members and in the next generations. However, clinicians should consider oligodontia when it is not hereditary. PMID:24966717

Halicioglu, Koray; Sahin, Hakan; Corekci, Bayram; Irgin, Celal; Toptas, Orcun

2013-01-01

269

Propellant isolation shutoff valve program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

Merritt, F. L.

1973-01-01

270

Spectroscopy of Isolated Prebiotic Nucleobases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use multiphoton ionization and double resonance spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics of biologically relevant molecules as well as prebiotic nucleobases, isolated in the gas phase. Molecules that are biologically relevant to life today tend to exhibit short excited state lifetimes compared to similar but non-biologically relevant analogs. The mechanism is internal conversion, which may help protect the biologically active molecules from UV damage. This process is governed by conical intersections that depend very strongly on molecular structure. Therefore we have studied purines and pyrimidines with systematic variations of structure, including substitutions, tautomeric forms, and cluster structures that represent different base pair binding motifs. These structural variations also include possible alternate base pairs that may shed light on prebiotic chemistry. With this in mind we have begun to probe the ultrafast dynamics of molecules that exhibit very short excited states and search for evidence of internal conversions.

Svadlenak, Nathan; Callahan, Michael P.; Ligare, Marshall; Gulian, Lisa; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Nachtigallova, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; deVries, Mattanjah

2011-01-01

271

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

272

Conservation of Gene Order and Content in the Circular Chromosomes of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and Other Rhizobiales  

PubMed Central

‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ an insect-vectored, obligate intracellular bacterium associated with citrus-greening disease, also called “HLB," is a member of the Rhizobiales along with nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and facultative intracellular mammalian pathogen Bartonella henselae. Comparative analyses of their circular chromosomes identified 514 orthologous genes shared among all five species. Shared among all five species are 50 identical blocks of microsyntenous orthologous genes (MOGs), containing a total of 283 genes. While retaining highly conserved genomic blocks of microsynteny, divergent evolution, horizontal gene transfer and niche specialization have disrupted macrosynteny among the five circular chromosomes compared. Highly conserved microsyntenous gene clusters help define the Rhizobiales, an order previously defined by 16S RNA gene similarity and herein represented by the three families: Bartonellaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhizobiaceae. Genes without orthologs in the other four species help define individual species. The circular chromosomes of each of the five Rhizobiales species examined had genes lacking orthologs in the other four species. For example, 63 proteins are encoded by genes of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ not shared with other members of the Rhizobiales. Of these 63 proteins, 17 have predicted functions related to DNA replication or RNA transcription, and some of these may have roles related to low genomic GC content. An additional 17 proteins have predicted functions relevant to cellular processes, particularly modifications of the cell surface. Seventeen unshared proteins have specific metabolic functions including a pathway to synthesize cholesterol encoded by a seven-gene operon. The remaining 12 proteins encoded by ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genes not shared with other Rhizobiales are of bacteriophage origin. ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ shares 11 genes with only Sinorhizobium meliloti and 12 genes are shared with only Bartonella henselae. PMID:22496839

Kuykendall, L. David; Shao, Jonathan Y.; Hartung, John S.

2012-01-01

273

Fault Detection and Isolation for Hydraulic Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure sensors and isolation valves act to shut down defective servochannel. Redundant hydraulic system indirectly senses failure in any of its electrical control channels and mechanically isolates hydraulic channel controlled by faulty electrical channel so flat it cannot participate in operating system. With failure-detection and isolation technique, system can sustains two failed channels and still functions at full performance levels. Scheme useful on aircraft or other systems with hydraulic servovalves where failure cannot be tolerated.

1987-01-01

274

MSCs Isolation and Culture Ex Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can almost be found in any adult organ. They can be isolated and expanded within several weeks\\u000a up to hundreds of millions of cells. The cell isolation based on the surface antigen expression may significantly enrich for\\u000a the desired cell population and reduce the time required for cell expansion. This chapter aims to introduce the isolation

Xiaojie Xie; Chun Gui

275

Yersinae isolated from wapiti (Cervus canadensis roosevelti).  

PubMed

Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia enterocolitica-like bacteria were isolated from 22 of 90 fecal samples taken from five herds of wapiti studied in northwestern California. The serotypes included: (5), (6), (11), (16), (2,19), (4,16) and (6,15). In one herd, all of the organisms were isolated from within a one hectare area. A significantly higher (p < .02) prevalence of isolations was obtained during April and May. PMID:16498883

Martyny, J W; Botzler, R G

1976-07-01

276

Isolation of Providencia heimbachae from Human Feces  

PubMed Central

Providencia heimbachae was first described in 1986. It has been isolated from penguin feces and an aborted bovine fetus. To date, there has been no reported isolation of this organism from human specimens. We now report the isolation of P. heimbachae from the stool of a 23-year-old woman with idiopathic diarrhea. The identity of the human strain was determined biochemically and by DNA relatedness to the type strain of P. heimbachae. PMID:10449504

Mohr O'Hara, Caroline; Steigerwalt, Arnie G.; Green, Donna; McDowell, Michael; Hill, Bertha C.; Brenner, Don J.; Miller, J. Michael

1999-01-01

277

Models of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation  

PubMed Central

Mathematical models are presented for the evolution of postmating and premating reproductive isolation. In the case of postmating isolation it is assumed that hybrid sterility or inviability is caused by incompatibility of alleles at one or two loci, and evolution of reproductive isolation occurs by random fixation of different incompatibility alleles in different populations. Mutations are assumed to occur following either the stepwise mutation model or the infinite-allele model. Computer simulations by using Itô's stochastic differential equations have shown that in the model used the reproductive isolation mechanism evolves faster in small populations than in large populations when the mutation rate remains the same. In populations of a given size it evolves faster when the number of loci involved is large than when this is small. In general, however, evolution of isolation mechanisms is a very slow process, and it would take thousands to millions of generations if the mutation rate is of the order of 10-5 per generation. Since gene substitution occurs as a stochastic process, the time required for the establishment of reproductive isolation has a large variance. Although the average time of evolution of isolation mechanisms is very long, substitution of incompatibility genes in a population occurs rather quickly once it starts. The intrapopulational fertility or viability is always very high. In the model of premating isolation it is assumed that mating preference or compatibility is determined by male- and female-limited characters, each of which is controlled by a single locus with multiple alleles, and mating occurs only when the male and female characters are compatible with each other. Computer simulations have shown that the dynamics of evolution of premating isolation mechanism is very similar to that of postmating isolation mechanism, and the mean and variance of the time required for establishment of premating isolation are very large. Theoretical predictions obtained from the present study about the speed of evolution of reproductive isolation are consistent with empirical data available from vertebrate organisms. PMID:6840540

Nei, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Takeo; Wu, Chung-I

1983-01-01

278

Large plasmids of avian Escherichia coli isolates.  

PubMed

The plasmid DNA of 30 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens was extracted and examined using techniques designed to isolate large plasmids. This plasmid DNA was examined for the presence of certain known virulence-related genes including cvaC, traT, and some aerobactin-related sequences. Seventeen of the 30 isolates contained from one to four plasmids greater than 50 kb in size. Eleven of these 17 strains possessed plasmids greater than 100 kb in size. Therefore, E. coli isolates of chickens frequently contain large plasmids, and many of these plasmids are likely to contain virulence-related sequences. PMID:8980827

Doetkott, D M; Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Berryhill, D L

1996-01-01

279

Culture of isolated human adipocytes and isolated adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue (AT) is no longer considered merely as insulation or padding for human organs. It is an endocrine organ in its own right, which includes composite cells with the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lines. In fact, there is increasing evidence to support the theory that the causation of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders originate at the cellular or tissue level. Adipocyte dysfunction and chronic inflammatory states are able to modulate triglyceride storage and mobilization directly through cytokine and adipokine release. Significant variability exists between adipocyte isolation and culture techniques which subsequently can impact experimental results. We aim to explain the importance of controlling these variables, to assist tailoring methodological choice towards the investigational outcomes, and modifications of the techniques used accordingly. The techniques described in this chapter yield cell and adipose tissue which can be utilised in many different ways, including adipose tissue stem cells for differentiation, DNA analysis, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, lipolysis, glucose uptake, and LPL activity. PMID:22057454

Carswell, Kirstin A; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Fried, Susan K

2012-01-01

280

A Translocated Bacterial Protein Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The modulation of host cell apoptosis by bacterial pathogens is of critical importance for the outcome of the infection process. The capacity of Bartonella henselae and B. quintana to cause vascular tumor formation in immunocompromised patients is linked to the inhibition of vascular endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. Here, we show that translocation of BepA, a type IV secretion (T4S) substrate, is necessary and sufficient to inhibit EC apoptosis. Ectopic expression in ECs allowed mapping of the anti-apoptotic activity of BepA to the Bep intracellular delivery domain, which, as part of the signal for T4S, is conserved in other T4S substrates. The anti-apoptotic activity appeared to be limited to BepA orthologs of B. henselae and B. quintana and correlated with (i) protein localization to the host cell plasma membrane, (ii) elevated levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and (iii) increased expression of cAMP-responsive genes. The pharmacological elevation of cAMP levels protected ECs from apoptosis, indicating that BepA mediates anti-apoptosis by heightening cAMP levels by a plasma membrane–associated mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that BepA mediates protection of ECs against apoptosis triggered by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, suggesting a physiological context in which the anti-apoptotic activity of BepA contributes to tumor formation in the chronically infected vascular endothelium. PMID:17121462

Schmid, Michael C; Scheidegger, Florine; Dehio, Michaela; Balmelle-Devaux, Nadege; Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Chennakesava, Cuddapah S; Biedermann, Barbara; Dehio, Christoph

2006-01-01

281

FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) isolates active regulatory  

E-print Network

, chromatin is crosslinked with formaldehyde in vivo, sheared by sonication, and phenol-chloroform extractedFAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) isolates active regulatory elements chromatin, termed FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements). To perform FAIRE

Lieb, Jason

282

Frequency of Isolation of Staphylococcus lugdunensis among Staphylococcal Isolates Causing Endocarditis: a 20Year Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-nine staphylococcal isolates recovered from patients with bacterial endocarditis at the Mayo Clinic from 1980 to 1999 were studied to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus lugdunensis among clinical isolates of staphylococci causing endocarditis. Four isolates, all from patients with native mitral valve endo- carditis, were identified as S. lugdunensis. Staphylococci cause 20 to 35% of cases of native valve in-

ROBIN PATEL; KERRYL E. PIPER; MARK S. ROUSE; JAMES R. UHL; FRANKLIN R. COCKERILL; JAMES M. STECKELBERG

2000-01-01

283

Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals  

E-print Network

Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals A. T. KWAN, M. YU. EFREMOV, E. A-film differential scanning calorimetry to investigate the melt- ing of isolated polyethylene single crystals: microelectromechanical systems; calorimetry; nanocalorimetry; polyeth- ylene single crystals; melting INTRODUCTION We

Allen, Leslie H.

284

Isolation of Encephalitozoon cuniculi from urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Encephalitozoon cuniculi was isolated from the urine of infected rabbits using human and canine tissue cultures. The organism was isolated from 7 of 11 contaminated urines from seropositive animals. The advantages of urine over tissue as a source of E. cuniculi are that it is obtainable from living animals, can be examined for the presence of organisms, and is

D. Pye; J. C. Cox

1977-01-01

285

The Enterprise Isolation Program in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide comprehensive analysis of the isolation program for financially distressed firms in Romania. The results indicate that the isolation program did not deliver any tangible improvements in operational performance, nor did it enhance the process of privatization or liquidation of large loss-making enterprises. Firms included in the program faced softer budget constraints than their comparators outside the program, and

Simeon D. Djankov

1999-01-01

286

Social rehabilitation of isolate-reared monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies indicate that monkeys reared in total social isolation for 6 mo. or more exhibit apparently permanent social deficits in appropriate play, aggressive, sexual, and maternal behaviors. In the present study, 4 male rhesus monkeys that spent the 1st 6 mo. of life in total social isolation were permitted to interact with 4 female socially-normal controls 3 mo. younger

Stephen J. Suomi; Harry F. Harlow

1972-01-01

287

Isolation and measurement of rotor vibration forces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mounting for helicopter gearbox measures forces generated by rotor and isolates transmission from airframe. Mountings have frequency-dependent load/displacement relationship that gives statically rigid but dynamically soft support, lowering vibratory transfer. Previous isolation by springs or force-opposing devices required strain gages to measure rotor vibration and were operative at only one vibration frequency. Active system eliminates these limitations.

Kenigsberg, I.; Madden, J. F.

1981-01-01

288

Spectral characteristics of isolated blowfly rhabdoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple method for the isolation of rhabdoms from the eye of the blowflyCalliphora erythrocephala Meig. is described. Essentially this involves i) the excision of the retina, then its disintegration using a hypoosmotic buffer and ii) separation of the rhabdoms from other cell fragments by isopycnic centrifugation on Percoll.1.The isolated rhabdoms consist almost exclusively of the microvillar membranes

R. Paulsen; Allgemeine Zoologie; Oberer Eselsberg; Accepted April

1984-01-01

289

Outcome following isolated tricuspid valve replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The clinical outcome of isolated tricuspid valve replacement is not well defined because this procedure is usually performed concomitantly with other valve surgery. Methods: We retrospectively studied the short and long-term outcome of 15 consecutive patients (six men and nine women, aged 61±3 years) undergoing isolated tricuspid valve replacement from 1984 to 1996. The cause of valve dysfunction was

Arduino A Mangoni; Thomas G DiSalvo; Gus J Vlahakes; Carisi A Polanczyk; Michael A Fifer

2001-01-01

290

Isolation of viable human pancreatic islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a method for the isolation of viable pancreatic islets from the human pancreas. Isolated islets were obtained from human pancreata of cadavers, patients undergoing surgical operations, and fetuses, using a freehand microdissection procedure. Viability was assessed by light microscopy of sections stained with aldehyde fuchsin and by measuring the insulin output of islets in response to a

John Ferguson; Roger H. Allsopp; Ross M. R. Taylor; Ivan D. A. Johnston

1977-01-01

291

Discharge of nematocysts isolated from aeolid nudibranchs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematocysts were extracted from 3 nudibranch species and one sea anemone species, and the ability of several test fluids to promote discharge was examined. Except when isolated in sodium citrate, nudibranch nematocysts did not discharge in response to any test fluids. Nudibranch nematocysts isolated in sodium citrate discharged when tested with EGTA, distilled water, and calcium-free artificial seawater, but there

Paul G. Greenwood; Lynne K. Garrity

1991-01-01

292

Isolation of Genomic Clone for Human Cholinesterase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this work is to isolate the gene for human serum cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8). The authors have succeeded in isolating a partial clone that codes for amino acids phenylalanine 195 through leucine 574, and contains 302 bp of the 3' untranslated ...

O. Lockridge

1986-01-01

293

Spectroscopic characterization of matrix isolated transient species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I describes the electronic spectra of various actinide containing compounds isolated in solid Ar using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The IR spectra for many of the same molecules were also recorded to aid in the identification of the fluorescing species in the LIF spectra. LIF spectra of UO2 isolated in solid Ar were recorded to investigate the interactions

Christopher J. Lue

2008-01-01

294

Isolation of skeletal muscle nuclei.  

PubMed

A method employing aqueous media for isolation of nuclei from rat skeletal muscle is described. The technique involves (a) mincing and then homogenizing in a 0.32 M sucrose-salt solution with a Potter-Elvehjem type homogenizer using a Delrin (an acetal resin) pestle and a carefully controlled, relatively large pestle-to-glass clearance, (b) filtering through fiberglass and stainless steel screens of predetermined mesh size to remove myofibrils and connective tissue, and (c) centrifuging in a 2.15 M sucrose-salt solution containing 0.7 mM ATP. Electron and phase-contrast microscopic observations show that the nuclei are intact, unencumbered by cytoplasmic tags, and possess well preserved distinct nucleoli, nucleoplasm, and nuclear membranes. Cytoplasmic contamination is minimal and mainly mitochondrial. Chemical assays of the nuclear fraction show that the DNA/protein and RNA/DNA ratios are comparable to those obtained in other tissues. These ratios, as well as the low specific activity obtained for cytochrome c oxidase and the virtual absence of myofibrillar ATPase, indicate a high degree of purity with minimal mitochondrial and myofibrillar contamination. The steps comprising the technique and the reasons for their selection are discussed. PMID:4287141

Edelman, J C; Edelman, P M; Kniggee, K M; Schwartz, I L

1965-11-01

295

Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity  

DOEpatents

Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

Foreman, Pamela (Palo Alto, CA); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-02-23

296

Transfer of R388 derivatives by a pathogenesis-associated type IV secretion system into both bacteria and human cells.  

PubMed

Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are involved in processes such as bacterial conjugation and protein translocation to animal cells. In this work, we have switched the substrates of T4SSs involved in pathogenicity for DNA transfer. Plasmids containing part of the conjugative machinery of plasmid R388 were transferred by the T4SS of human facultative intracellular pathogen Bartonella henselae to both recipient bacteria and human vascular endothelial cells. About 2% of the human cells expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from the plasmid. Plasmids of different sizes were transferred with similar efficiencies. B. henselae codes for two T4SSs: VirB/VirD4 and Trw. A ?virB mutant strain was transfer deficient, while a ?trwE mutant was only slightly impaired in DNA transfer. DNA transfer was in all cases dependent on protein TrwC of R388, the conjugative relaxase, implying that it occurs by a conjugation-like mechanism. A DNA helicase-deficient mutant of TrwC could not promote DNA transfer. In the absence of TrwB, the coupling protein of R388, DNA transfer efficiency dropped 1 log. The same low efficiency was obtained with a TrwB point mutation in the region involved in interaction with the T4SS. TrwB interacted with VirB10 in a bacterial two-hybrid assay, suggesting that it may act as the recruiter of the R388 substrate for the VirB/VirD4 T4SS. A TrwB ATPase mutant behaved as dominant negative, dropping DNA transfer efficiency to almost null levels. B. henselae bacteria recovered from infected human cells could transfer the mobilizable plasmid into recipient Escherichia coli under certain conditions, underscoring the versatility of T4SSs. PMID:21908662

Fernández-González, Esther; de Paz, Héctor D; Alperi, Anabel; Agúndez, Leticia; Faustmann, Marco; Sangari, Félix J; Dehio, Christoph; Llosa, Matxalen

2011-11-01

297

Transfer of R388 Derivatives by a Pathogenesis-Associated Type IV Secretion System into both Bacteria and Human Cells ?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are involved in processes such as bacterial conjugation and protein translocation to animal cells. In this work, we have switched the substrates of T4SSs involved in pathogenicity for DNA transfer. Plasmids containing part of the conjugative machinery of plasmid R388 were transferred by the T4SS of human facultative intracellular pathogen Bartonella henselae to both recipient bacteria and human vascular endothelial cells. About 2% of the human cells expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from the plasmid. Plasmids of different sizes were transferred with similar efficiencies. B. henselae codes for two T4SSs: VirB/VirD4 and Trw. A ?virB mutant strain was transfer deficient, while a ?trwE mutant was only slightly impaired in DNA transfer. DNA transfer was in all cases dependent on protein TrwC of R388, the conjugative relaxase, implying that it occurs by a conjugation-like mechanism. A DNA helicase-deficient mutant of TrwC could not promote DNA transfer. In the absence of TrwB, the coupling protein of R388, DNA transfer efficiency dropped 1 log. The same low efficiency was obtained with a TrwB point mutation in the region involved in interaction with the T4SS. TrwB interacted with VirB10 in a bacterial two-hybrid assay, suggesting that it may act as the recruiter of the R388 substrate for the VirB/VirD4 T4SS. A TrwB ATPase mutant behaved as dominant negative, dropping DNA transfer efficiency to almost null levels. B. henselae bacteria recovered from infected human cells could transfer the mobilizable plasmid into recipient Escherichia coli under certain conditions, underscoring the versatility of T4SSs. PMID:21908662

Fernández-González, Esther; de Paz, Héctor D.; Alperi, Anabel; Agúndez, Leticia; Faustmann, Marco; Sangari, Félix J.; Dehio, Christoph; Llosa, Matxalen

2011-01-01

298

Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

2005-01-01

299

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

1999-01-01

300

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

Ernst, W.D.

1999-06-15

301

Microgravity vibration isolation research at the University of Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research at the University of Virginia on microgravity vibration isolation is reviewed. This work falls into three areas: the one degree of freedom isolation test rig and Lorentz actuator design, multiple degree of freedom active isolation system control, and innovative actuators for long stroke, non-contacting six degree of freedom isolation. Theoretical and design issues of multiple degree of freedom isolation are discussed.

Knospe, Carl R.; Lewis, David W.; Allan, A. Peter; Allaire, Paul E.; Humphris, Robert R.; Banerjee, Bibhuti B.; Hampton, R. David

1992-01-01

302

Biochemical characteristics of clinical and environmental isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical characteristics of 213 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei from patients with melioidosis and 140 isolates from the soil in central and northeastern Thailand were compared. Whereas the biochemical profiles of all the clinical isolates were similar, all soil isolates from the central area and 25% of isolates from northeastern Thailand comprised a different phenotype. This was characterised by the

VANAPORN WUTHIEKANUN; M. D. Smith; D. A. B. Dance; AMANDA L. WALSH; T. L. PITTT; N. J. White

1996-01-01

303

Seismic Behaviour of Vertical Mass Isolated Structures  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the seismic behaviour of vertical mass isolated structures against the earthquake is studied. These structures are assumed to be consisted of two subsystems. Mass subsystem possesses low lateral stiffness but carries the major part of mass of the system. Stiffness subsystem, however, controls the deformation of the mass subsystem and attributes with much higher stiffness. The isolator layer is, therefore, located in between the mass and the stiffness subsystems and assumed to be a viscous damper layer. The analytical model used for this investigation is a dual mass-spring model which is an extended form of the three element Maxwell model. In this study, the ability of mass isolation techniques in reducing earthquake effects on buildings with two approaches, parametric and numerical approaches, is shown. In the parametric approach, by definition an isolation factor for structure and determination the dynamic characteristics of system, the relative optimum value of the isolator damping coefficient is obtained. The results provide an insight on role of relative stiffness and mass ratio of the two subsystems. Finally, in the numerical approach, the spectral responses of these structures due to the earthquake are investigated. The results show a noticeable decrease in earthquake input force to vertical mass isolated structures in comparison with non-isolated structures.

Nekooei, M.; Ziyaeifar, M. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), P.O. Box 19395-3913, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

304

Social Recovery by Isolation-Reared Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Total social isolation of macaque monkeys for at least the first 6 months of life consistently produces severe deficits in virtually every aspect of social behavior. Experiments designed to rehabilitate monkeys reared in isolation are described. While young isolates exposed to equal-age normal peers achieved only limited recovery of simple social responses, some mothers reared in isolation eventually exhibited acceptable maternal behavior when forced to accept infant contact over a period of months, but showed no further recovery; isolate infants exposed to surrogates were able to develop crude interactive patterns among themselves. In contrast to the above results, 6-month-old social isolates exposed to 3-month-old normal monkeys achieved essentially complete social recovery for all situations tested. It is postulated that social stimulation that both permits subjects to achieve contact acceptability and provides an interactive medium conducive to gradual development of sophisticated social behaviors will result in almost complete recovery of social capabilities previously obliterated by rearing in isolation. Images PMID:5283943

Harlow, Harry F.; Suomi, Stephen J.

1971-01-01

305

Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

2010-01-01

306

Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of 10 kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

Silva, Everton F; Brod, Claudiomar S; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A

2007-03-31

307

Pathogenic Leptospiras Isolated from Malaysian Surface Waters  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic leptospiras (1,424) isolated from natural waters and wet soils in Malaysia comprised 29 different serovars (synonym serotypes). All except two of the serovars had been found previously in Malaysia. The exceptional serovars were werrasingha, an Autumnalis serogroup member originally isolated in Ceylon, and a new serovar designated evansi. Serovar evansi had serological affinities with serovar ranarum which was isolated from the kidney of a frog in Iowa. The large variety of serovars found in jungle areas was consistent with similar previous findings of diverse serovar infections in troops who had operated in Malaysian jungles. PMID:1110490

Alexander, A. D.; Evans, L. B.; Baker, M. F.; Baker, H. J.; Ellison, D.; Marriapan, M.

1975-01-01

308

Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep  

PubMed Central

The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of ten kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

Silva, Everton F.; Brod, Claudiomar S.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Bourscheidt, Debora; Seyffert, Nubia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S.; Ko, Albert I.; Dellagostin, Odir A.

2007-01-01

309

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

Martinson, Scott D. (inventor); Gray, David L. (inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (inventor)

1994-01-01

310

Cutaneous manifestations of opportunistic infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed Central

Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) presents most commonly as a cutaneous disease and is caused by two organisms. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae and Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana. Biopsy confirmation of cutaneous BA is essential because lesions can mimic nodular Kaposi's sarcoma in appearance. Although the vast majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with BA have CD4 lymphocyte counts of less than 100 cells per mm3, the disease responds well to antimicrobial therapy. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial skin pathogen affecting HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of skin disease due to S. aureus may be explained by high nasal carriage rates for the organism ( > or = 50%) and altered immune function in conjunction with an impaired cutaneous barrier. Herpes simplex virus causes mucocutaneous disease early in the course HIV infection and ulcerative lesions at any site in advanced HIV infection. Herpes zoster is common early in the course of HIV infection; recurrent and disseminated herpes zoster infections are characteristic of patients with advanced HIV disease. Acyclovir resistance is usually seen in patients with large, untreated, ulcerative lesions of herpes simplex virus and in patients with chronic, verrucous lesions of varicella-zoster virus. Cutaneous cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidiomycosis are markers of disseminated disease and require biopsy confirmation. Scabies is easily diagnosed but may be atypical in presentation and difficult to eradicate in advanced HIV disease. PMID:7553576

Tappero, J W; Perkins, B A; Wenger, J D; Berger, T G

1995-01-01

311

High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe.  

PubMed

Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia venatorum), unexpected (Borrelia miyamotoi), and rare (Bartonella henselae) pathogens in the three European countries. Moreover we detected Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia divergens, and Babesia venatorum for the first time in Danish ticks. This surveillance method represents a major improvement in epidemiological studies, able to facilitate comprehensive testing of TBPs, and which can also be customized to monitor emerging diseases. PMID:25120960

Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie; Umhang, Gérald; Aspan, Anna; Juremalm, Mikael; Chirico, Jan; van der Wal, Fimme J; Sprong, Hein; Boye Pihl, Thomas P; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Bødker, Rene; Fach, Patrick; Moutailler, Sara

2014-01-01

312

SOME ENZYMES OF ISOLATED NUCLEI  

PubMed Central

The composition of isolated nuclei and cell preparations from tissues of calf, beef, horse, and fowl was studied with respect to the following components: 1. Liver and kidney arginase, catalase, and uricase; pancreatic lipase and amylase; cardiac muscle myoglobin; erythrocyte hemoglobin; intestinal alkaline phospharase. These are referred to as "special" components in view of their characteristically restricted distribution reflecting the differentiated nature of the tissues in question. 2. Esterase, ?-glucuronidase, alkaline and nucleotide phosphatases, adenosine deaminase, guanase, and nucleoside phosphorylase. These are enzymes of general distribution. The differences in nuclear composition noted with respect to the "special" components, together with the broad variability in nuclear activity found for enzymes of general distribution, led to the conclusion that nuclei are differentiated structures. The following distribution was observed: 1. "Special" components: Hemoglobin was found to be present in fowl and goose erythrocyte nuclei, but myoglobin was entirely absent from heart muscle nuclei; of the special enzymes listed, only catalase and arginase appeared to be concentrated in some of the nuclei. There was no significant nuclear concentration of lipase, amylase, uricase, or alkaline phosphatase. No simple relationship was found between the concentration of a special enzyme in a tissue and its activity in the corresponding nuclei. For example, arginase activity, which is high in mammalian liver and in fowl kidney, was found in liver, not kidney, nuclei. Similarly, catalase activity was demonstrated only in mammalian liver nuclei, although, in mammals, both liver and kidney are rich sources of this enzyme. 2. Enzymes of general distribution fell into three classes: (a) Those present in low concentrations, if at all, in the nuclei—alkaline phosphatase, the nucleotide phosphatases) and ?-glucuronidase. (b) Those present in nuclei in varying concentrations—esterase. (c) Those present in high proportions in most nuclei—adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and guanase. The exceptionally low nuclear activity of intestinal mucosa with respect to these enzymes was discussed in relation to physiological considerations. The response of nuclei to changes in physiological state was demonstrated by experiments on starvation. The outstanding aspect of this response was a change in nuclear enzymatic activity opposing that observed in the cytoplasm. A comparison of fetal and adult mucosa cells led to the following tentative interpretation of the observed intracellular enzyme distribution: In cells tending to moribundity, as in those subjected to starvation, relative nuclear enzymatic activity falls. The occurrence of special enzymes in nuclei was considered in terms of differentiation, and the high nuclear concentration of the nucleoside-specific enzymes was interpreted in terms of general nuclear metabolic activity. PMID:14898035

Stern, H.; Allfrey, V.; Mirsky, A. E.; Saetren, H.

1952-01-01

313

Isolation, Pathogenicity and Safety of Curvularia eragrostidis Isolate QZ-2000 as a Bioherbicide Agent for Large Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pathogen isolated from lesions on blighted leaves of crabgrass in three different locations of China was identified as Curvularia eragrostidis. Isolate QZ-2000 was the most virulent of six isolates tested. Experiments on morphology, pathogenicity, effect of environmental factors, and host-range of isolate QZ-2000 were conducted in the laboratory, greenhouse and field to assess the potential of this isolate as

Yunzhi Zhu; Sheng Qiang

2004-01-01

314

21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a...

2013-04-01

315

21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a...

2014-04-01

316

21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a...

2011-04-01

317

21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a...

2012-04-01

318

46 CFR 153.980 - Isolation of automatic closing valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Isolation of automatic closing valves. 153.980 Section...Procedures § 153.980 Isolation of automatic closing valves. The person in charge of cargo transfer may isolate automatic closing valves described in §...

2010-10-01

319

Investigation of Asymmetrical Vibration Isolators for Maritime Machinery Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a novel vibration isolator test facility is described. It is used to measure the dynamic properties of vibration isolators commonly used in maritime and industrial machinery applications. The vibration isolator test facility is capable ...

J. D. Dickens

1999-01-01

320

Wire mesh isolator protects sensitive electronic components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitive electronic components are enclosed in wire mesh for protection. The wire mesh isolates the component from shock and vibration. It acts as a heat sink and as a screen against RF interference.

Kerley, J. J., Jr.

1965-01-01

321

Controlling the exotic diseases: 1. Isolation facilities.  

PubMed Central

The exotic diseases are highly virulent transmissible conditions that include Lassa fever, some viral hemorrhagic fevers, smallpox and plague. Any of these diseases could be brought into or diagnosed in Canada as the result of natural or laboratory acquired infection. The patients must be isolated until the presumptive diagnosis is proved. High-security isolation is necessary and needs to be backed up by high-security laboratory services. In Canada facilities for high-security isolation are generally not available; therefore, hospitals must preplan and be ready to effect the best possible isolation under the existing conditions. The plan should address construction, ventilation, filtration, temperature and humidity, together with protective measures for staff and careful handling of laboratory specimens. Materials the patient has contacted and areas or vehicles he or she has been in will have to be decontaminated, and appropriate, safe disposal of corpses must be considered. PMID:7437989

Clayton, A J; Best, H R

1980-01-01

322

Triterpene Alcohol Isolation from Oil Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoarborinol, an intact pentacyclic unsaturated alcohol, was isolated from the Messel oil shale (about 50 × 106 years old). Complex organic substances, even those very sensitive to oxidation, reduction, or acidic conditions, can thus survive without alteration for long periods.

P. Albrecht; G. Ourisson

1969-01-01

323

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated lissencephaly sequence  

MedlinePLUS

... inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. Where can I find information ... help with understanding isolated lissencephaly sequence? autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; cerebral cortex ; chromosome ; cytoskeleton ; disability ; encephalopathy ; epilepsy ; ...

324

Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

James, Daniel E.

1984-01-01

325

Microfabricated structures with electrical isolation and interconnections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is directed to a microfabricated device. The device includes a substrate that is etched to define mechanical structures at least some of which are anchored laterally to the remainder of the substrate. Electrical isolation at points where mechanical structures are attached to the substrate is provided by filled isolation trenches. Filled trenches may also be used to electrically isolate structure elements from each other at points where mechanical attachment of structure elements is desired. The performance of microelectromechanical devices is improved by 1) having a high-aspect-ratio between vertical and lateral dimensions of the mechanical elements, 2) integrating electronics on the same substrate as the mechanical elements, 3) good electrical isolation among mechanical elements and circuits except where electrical interconnection is desired.

Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

326

Oligotrophic bacteria isolated from clinical materials.  

PubMed Central

Oligotrophic bacteria (oligotrophs) are microorganisms that grow in extremely nutritionally deficient conditions in which the concentrations of organic substances are low. Many oligotrophic bacteria were isolated from clinical materials including urine, sputum, swabbings of the throat, vaginal discharges, and others. Seventy-seven strains of oligotrophic bacteria from 871 samples of clinical material were isolated. A relatively higher frequency of isolation of oligotrophic bacteria was shown in drainage, sputum, and throat specimens. Eleven strains of the obligate oligotrophic bacteria recovered showed scant growth on enriched medium, blood agar, and nutrient agar. Oligotrophic bacteria were isolated from a variety of materials but were not found in routine bacteriologic examinations in the hospital laboratory. The clinical significance of such oligotrophic bacteria is uncertain. PMID:7714215

Tada, Y; Ihmori, M; Yamaguchi, J

1995-01-01

327

Novel Actinomycete Isolated from Bulking Industrial Sludge  

PubMed Central

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images PMID:16347238

White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.

1986-01-01

328

Isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splenic metastases are unusual, arising in less than 1% of all metastases. Isolated solitary splenic metastasis from colorectal\\u000a carcinoma is considered exceptional. This rarity has been explained by several hypotheses relating to the anatomical, histological,\\u000a and immunological features of the spleen. We review the reported cases of isolated solitary splenic metastasis from colorectal\\u000a carcinoma and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic

George S. Abi Saad; Maher Hussein; Nagi S. El-Saghir; Salah Termos; Ala I. Sharara; Ali Shamseddine

329

Toxigenic fungi isolated from roquefort cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by fungi contaminating blue-veined cheese, as well as by the ripening fungus,Penicillium roqueforti, the fungal flora of six of local and imported brands was determined. A total of 19 fungi were isolated from the six brands tested. Fourteen of the isolates were toxic to chicken embryos. The toxigenic fungi produced the following mycotoxins:Aspergillus

A. H. Moubasher; M. I. A. Abdel-Kader; I. A. El-Kady

1979-01-01

330

Toxigenic fungi isolated from Roquefort cheese.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by fungi contaminating blue-veined cheese, as well as by the ripening fungus, Penicillium roqueforti, the fungal flora of six of local and imported brands was determined. A total of 19 fungi were isolated from the six brands tested. Fourteen of the isolates were toxic to chicken embryos. The toxigenic fungi produced the following mycotoxins: Aspergillus fumigatus, kojic acid; A. versicolor, sterigmatocystin; Penicillium roqueforti, penicillic acid and unidentified toxic metabolites. PMID:440405

Moubasher, A H; Abdel-Kader, M I; El-Kady, I A

1979-02-28

331

Isolation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum from geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two breeding flocks of 2?year?old geese in the Landes region of Southwest France were cultured for mycoplasmas. In one flock of 134 birds Mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from three individuals, from a different site in each bird (i.e. oesophagus, trachea, cloaca). M. gallisepticum was also isolated from the semen of one goose in the other flock of 70 birds, but

Benedicte Buntz; Janet M. Bradbury; A. Vuillaume

1986-01-01

332

Isolation and biological activity of frankiamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

  An antibiotic produced by the symbiotic actinomycete Frankia strain AiPs1 was isolated from culture broth using optimized thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography\\u000a (HPLC) methods. The novel compound that was isolated, dubbed frankiamide, displayed antimicrobial activity against all 14\\u000a Gram-positive bacterial strains and six pathogenic fungal strains tested. The pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis and the ooymycete Phytophthora were especially susceptible.

J P Haansuu; K D Klika; P P Söderholm; V V Ovcharenko; K Pihlaja; K K Haahtela; P M Vuorela

2001-01-01

333

Isolated sphenoid sinus adenocarcinoma: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

While solitary sphenoid sinus disease is uncommon, primary isolated sphenoid sinus carcinoma is extremely rare. We describe a case of isolated sphenoid sinus adenocarcinoma in a 68-year-old man. The patient presented with a persistent headache and with diplopia secondary to complete ophthalmoplegia. Paranasal sinus tomography showed a soft-tissue mass obliterating the sphenoid sinus and infiltrating the cavernous sinuses. The histological

Ozcan Cakmak; Tan N. Ergin; Volkan M. Aydin

2002-01-01

334

Plastic Fiber Optical Isolator and Current Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Verdet constant of poly-alpha-methylstyrene fiber doped with a biphenyl compound showed a value beyond 0.09 min\\\\cdotOe-1\\\\cdotcm-1 at 488 nm. The optical fiber isolator for the 488-nm laser, which was constructed using the above plastic fiber and a pulse magnetic field, had about 20-dB isolation. This plastic fiber could also be used as an optical sensor head for monitoring higher

Shinzo Muto; Nobuo Seki; Takashi Suzuki; Toru Tsukamoto

1992-01-01

335

Isolation of endothelial cells from murine tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation and long-term culture of murine endothelial cells (ECs) has often proven a difficult task. In this paper we describe a quick, efficient protocol for the isolation of microvascular endothelial cells from murine tissues. Murine lung or heart are mechanically minced and enzymatically digested with collagenase and trypsin. The single cell suspension obtained is then incubated with an anti-CD31

Federica M Marelli-Berg; Emma Peek; Elaine A Lidington; Hans J Stauss; Robert I Lechler

2000-01-01

336

Psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from -20°C freezer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three psychrotrophic bacteria, morpho-physiologically, identified as Bacillus subtilis MRLBA7, Bacillus licheniformis MRLBA8 and Bacillus megaterium MRLBA9 were isolated from -20°C freezer of the Microbiology Research Laboratory (MRL), Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. These strains were able to grow aerobically at 6°C but not at 40°C except MRLBA8 that could grow at 48°C. None of the isolates showed inhibition of growth in

Bashir Ahmad; Imran Javed; Aamer Ali Shah; Abdul Hameed; Fariha Hasan

2010-01-01

337

Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies  

E-print Network

Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful--too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1-3Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control samp...

Sulentic, J W

2009-01-01

338

Reproductive Isolation during Domestication[W  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that reproductive isolation should facilitate evolution under domestication. However, a systematic comparison of reproductive barrier strength between crops and their progenitors has not been conducted to test this hypothesis. Here, we present a systematic survey of reproductive barriers between 32 economically important crop species and their progenitors to better understand the role of reproductive isolation during the domestication process. We took a conservative approach, avoiding those types of reproductive isolation that are poorly known for these taxa (e.g., differences in flowering time). We show that the majority of crops surveyed are isolated from their progenitors by one or more reproductive barriers, despite the fact that the most important reproductive barrier in natural systems, geographical isolation, was absent, at least in the initial stages of domestication for most species. Thus, barriers to reproduction between crops and wild relatives are closely associated with domestication and may facilitate it, thereby raising the question whether reproductive isolation could be viewed as a long-overlooked “domestication trait.” Some of the reproductive barriers observed (e.g., polyploidy and uniparental reproduction), however, may have been favored for reasons other than, or in addition to, their effects on gene flow. PMID:22773750

Dempewolf, Hannes; Hodgins, Kathryn A.; Rummell, Sonja E.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

2012-01-01

339

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1994-05-01

340

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either (a) less than or equal to or (b) slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1992-01-01

341

Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates generally to a system for isolating ground interference from a transmission line, e.g., a ground isolation circuit for isolating a wideband transmission signal (such as a video signal) from ground by modulating the base signal on a carrier signal to permit the transmission signal to be isolated. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a pair of matched mixer circuits, each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input, after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In a preferred embodiment the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which can comprise an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer connects to an isolation transformer to ensure isolation from ground interference. The circuit is considered to be of commercial value in that it can provide isolation between transmitting and receiving circuits, e.g., ground isolation for television circuits or high frequency transmitters, without the need for video transformers or optical isolators, thereby reducing the complexity, power consumption, and weight of the system.

Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

342

Regional seroreactivity and vector-borne disease co-exposures in dogs in the United States from 2004-2010: utility of canine surveillance.  

PubMed

Abstract Vector-borne disease (VBD) pathogens remain an emerging health concern for animals and humans throughout the world. Surveillance studies of ticks and humans have made substantial contributions to our knowledge of VBD epidemiology trends, but long-term VBD surveillance data of dogs in the United States is limited. This seroreactivity study assessed US temporal and regional trends and co-exposures to Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia in dogs from 2004-2010. Dog serum samples (N=14,496) were submitted to the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for vector-borne pathogens diagnostic testing using immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays. These convenience samples were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The largest proportion of samples originated from the South (47.6%), with the highest percent of seroreactive samples observed in the Midatlantic (43.4%), compared to other US regions. The overall seroreactivity of evaluated VBD antigens were Rickettsia rickettsia (10.4%), B. burgdorferi (5.2%), Ehrlichia spp. (4.3%), Bartonella henselae (3.8%), Anaplasma spp. (1.9%), Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (1.5%), Babesia canis (1.1%), and D. immitis (0.8%). Significant regional and annual seroreactivity variation was observed with B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia exposures. Seasonal seroreactivity variation was evident with Rickettsia. Seroreactivity to more than one antigen was present in 16.5% of exposed dogs. Nationally, the most prevalent co-exposure was Rickettsia with Ehrlichia spp. (5.3%), and the highest odds of co-exposure was associated with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi (odds ratio=6.6; 95% confidence interval 5.0, 8.8). Notable annual and regional seroreactivity variation was observed with certain pathogens over 7 years of study, suggesting canine surveillance studies may have value in contributing to future VBD knowledge. PMID:25325316

Yancey, Caroline B; Hegarty, Barbara C; Qurollo, Barbara A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Weber, David J; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-10-01

343

Concentration- and time-response characteristics of plaque isolates of Agrotis ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus derived from a field isolate.  

PubMed

Plaque isolates derived from the Illinois field isolate of Agrotis ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus are distinguished by the presence or absence of a small deletion in the baculovirus egt (ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase) coding sequence. In concentration-response and time-response bioassays with both plaque and field isolates, plaque isolates with a mutated egt gene were less pathogenic against A. ipsilon larvae than other isolates, but killed larvae faster. Mixed infections with isolates representing the two different egt genotypes caused the same level of mortality as the field isolate and a plaque isolate with a wild-type egt gene. PMID:23220242

Harrison, Robert L

2013-02-01

344

Isolation of murine valve endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Normal valve structures consist of stratified layers of specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with valve interstitial cells (VICs) and surrounded by a monolayer of valve endothelial cells (VECs). VECs play essential roles in establishing the valve structures during embryonic development, and are important for maintaining life-long valve integrity and function. In contrast to a continuous endothelium over the surface of healthy valve leaflets, VEC disruption is commonly observed in malfunctioning valves and is associated with pathological processes that promote valve disease and dysfunction. Despite the clinical relevance, focused studies determining the contribution of VECs to development and disease processes are limited. The isolation of VECs from animal models would allow for cell-specific experimentation. VECs have been isolated from large animal adult models but due to their small population size, fragileness, and lack of specific markers, no reports of VEC isolations in embryos or adult small animal models have been reported. Here we describe a novel method that allows for the direct isolation of VECs from mice at embryonic and adult stages. Utilizing the Tie2-GFP reporter model that labels all endothelial cells with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we have been successful in isolating GFP-positive (and negative) cells from the semilunar and atrioventricular valve regions using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Isolated GFP-positive VECs are enriched for endothelial markers, including CD31 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and retain endothelial cell expression when cultured; while, GFP-negative cells exhibit molecular profiles and cell shapes consistent with VIC phenotypes. The ability to isolate embryonic and adult murine VECs allows for previously unattainable molecular and functional studies to be carried out on a specific valve cell population, which will greatly improve our understanding of valve development and disease mechanisms. PMID:25177896

Miller, Lindsey J; Lincoln, Joy

2014-01-01

345

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from cattle and pigs.  

PubMed

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 18 antimicrobial agents were determined for 49 Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolates (42 bovine isolates and 7 porcine isolates). Benzylpenicillin and ampicillin were the most active antibiotics, with MIC ranges of < or = 0.0125-0.05 microgram/ml for both bovine and porcine isolates. All isolates were susceptible to penicillins and cephems. MICs for 90% of the isolates of dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin and oxytetracycline for bovine isolates were > 100 micrograms/ml, 1.56 micrograms/ml and 25 micrograms/ml, respectively. More resistance to dihydrostreptomycin appeared among porcine isolates (85.7%) than among bovine isolates (52.4%). Resistance to gentamicin occurred in only 3 (7.1%) of the bovine isolates. Resistance to oxytetracycline also appeared more frequent among porcine isolates (85.7%) than among bovine isolates (57.1%). All bovine isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, tilmocosin and lincomycin, but two porcine isolates (28.6%) were simultaneously resistant to these antibiotics. Tiamulin was as active as tilmicosin, with an MIC for 50% of the isolates (MIC50) of 0.05 microgram/ml for both bovine and porcine isolates. The MIC50s of chloramphenicol and its derivatives florfenicol and thiamphenicol were all 1.56 micrograms/ml. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin and ofloxacin were not so active as penicillins and macrolides, with MIC50s of 0.78 microgram/ml and 1.56 micrograms/ml, respectively, for both bovine and porcine isolates. PMID:10763384

Yoshimura, H; Kojima, A; Ishimaru, M

2000-03-01

346

An active viscoelastic metamaterial for isolation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamaterials are of interest due to their ability to produce novel acoustic behaviour beyond that seen in naturally occurring media. Of particular interest is the appearance of band gaps which lead to very high levels of attenuation within narrow frequency ranges. Resonant elements within metamaterials allow band gaps to form within the long wavelength limit at low frequencies where traditional passive isolation solutions suffer poor performance. Hence metamaterials may provide a path to high performance, low frequency isolation. Two metamaterials are presented here. An acoustic material consisting of an array of split hollow spheres is developed, and its performance is validated experimentally. The application of an acoustic/mechanical analogy allows the development of an elastodynamic metamaterial that could be employed as a high performance vibration isolator at low frequencies. A prototype isolator is manufactured, and its performance is measured. The passively occurring band gap is enhanced using an active control architecture. The use of the active control system in conjunction with the natural passive behaviour of the metamaterial enables high levels of isolation across a broad frequency range. An eventual goal of the work is to produce such materials on a small scale, and as such the metamaterials developed are designed for, and produced using, additive layer manufacturing techniques.

Reynolds, M.; Daley, S.

2014-04-01

347

Two-Stage Passive Vibration Isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and testing of a structural system were implemented to hold the optics of the planned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) at positions and orientations characterized by vibrational translation and rotation errors of no more than a few nanometers or a few milliarcseconds, respectively. Much of the effort was devoted to a test bed for verifying the predicted behavior of a vibration- isolation structural subsystem working together with an active control system for positioning and orienting the SIM optics. There was considerable emphasis on the vibration-isolation subsystem, which was passive and comprised two stages. The main sources of vibration were six reaction wheels in an assembly denoted the "backpack." The first vibration-isolation stage consisted of hexapod isolator mounts - one for each reaction wheel - characterized by a natural vibration frequency of 10 Hz. The second stage was a set of three beams, disposed between the backpack and the structure that held the SIM optics, that were flexured such that they transmitted only bending loads, with a natural vibrational frequency and damping of about 5 Hz and 4 percent, respectively. Preliminary test results were presented and characterized as demonstrating the effectiveness of the two-stage vibration-isolation design.

Goullioud, Renaud; Gursel, Yekta; Neville, Timothy; Bronowicki, Allen J.; Platus, David; MacDonald, Rhonda

2008-01-01

348

[Isolation and identification of Tupaia orthoreovirus].  

PubMed

Pathogenic viruses can harm acutely the life and health of laboratory tree shrews acutely; however, few papers exist regarding natural pathogenic virus infection in this species. Six fecal samples obtained from dead tree shrews were collected. The fecal supernatant infected Vero cell line resulted in cytopathic effects (CPE) after 72 h. The CPE included granulating, shrinking, rounding, seining and falling off. Electron microscopy showed the isolation was spherical, double-layered capsid, and about 75 nm in diameter. The purified isolation genome was 10 segments in a typical 3:3:4 arrangements, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The isolation was confirmed by RT-PCR assays targeting the conserved region of the L1 gene, sequence analysis and reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree. The isolation was a Tupaia Orthoreovirus (TRV), belonging to Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV). The obtained strain had the closest phylogenetic relationship to the MRV strain T3/Bat/Germany/342/08. As a zoonotic virus, the novel TRV strain was first isolated from wild tree shrews, which is significant for promoting tree shrew standardization and providing scientific data for preventing zoonotic tree shrew-to-human transmission. PMID:23572361

Xu, Juan; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Wen-Guang; Yin, An-Guo; Xia, Xue-Shan; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Dai, Xie-Jie

2013-04-01

349

GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED WETLANDS IN EASTERN CAROLINA: SOUTHEAST ISOLATED WETLANDS ASSESSMENT, QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN (JULY 2008)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Southeastern Isolated Wetlands Assessment is the new Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) project in EPA Region 4. The project will produce data and synthesis on the ways that isolated wetlands can protect downstream water quality at a watershed s...

350

Seismic assessment of bridge structures isolated by a shape memory alloy/rubber-based isolation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA)/rubber-based isolation systems for seismic protection of bridges against near-field earthquakes by performing a sensitivity analysis. The isolation system considered in this study consists of a laminated rubber bearing, which provides lateral flexibility while supplying high vertical load-carrying capacity, and an auxiliary device made of multiple loops of SMA wires. The SMA device offers additional energy dissipating and re-centering capability. A three-span continuous bridge is modeled with the SMA/rubber-based (SRB) isolation system. Numerical simulations of the bridge are conducted for various near-field ground motions that are spectrally matched to a target design spectrum. The normalized forward transformation strength, forward transformation displacement and pre-strain level of the SMA device, ambient temperature and the lateral stiffness of the rubber bearings are selected as parameters of the sensitivity study. The variation of the seismic response of the bridge with the considered parameters is assessed. Also, the performance of the SRB isolation system with optimal design parameters is compared with an SMA-based sliding isolation system. The results indicate that the SRB isolation system can successfully reduce the seismic response of highway bridges; however, a smart isolation system that combines sliding bearings together with an SMA device is more efficient than the SRB isolation system.

Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

2011-01-01

351

Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents in Lactobacilli Isolated from Caper Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of lactobacilli comprising species of Lactobacillus plantarum (43 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (9 isolates) and Lactobacillus fermentum (6 isolates) obtained from spontaneous fermentations of capers (the fruits of Capparis spinosa) were investigated for resistance to antimicrobial agents. All isolates were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin (MIC  > 16 ?g\\/ml). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC  > 2 ?g\\/ml) was detected in

Rubén Pérez Pulido; Nabil Ben Omar; Rosario Lucas; Hikmate Abriouel; Magdalena Martínez Cañamero; Antonio Gálvez

2005-01-01

352

In Vitro Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities of 21 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates were determined using a broth microdilution technique. One isolate showed acquired resistance to lincomycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin, while five isolates were resistant to flumequine and enrofloxacin. Acquired resistance against these antimicrobials in M. hyopneumoniae field isolates was not reported previously. PMID:15504886

Vicca, J.; Stakenborg, T.; Maes, D.; Butaye, P.; Peeters, J.; de Kruif, A.; Haesebrouck, F.

2004-01-01

353

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-print Network

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan (Plan) for identified nitrate salt bearing waste disposed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Napp, Nils

354

ISOLATION OF PIG ROTAVIRUS IN FRANCE IDENTIFICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS  

E-print Network

ISOLATION OF PIG ROTAVIRUS IN FRANCE IDENTIFICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS G. CORTHIER J piglets with field rotavirus isolates. Bacteria-free isolates were inoculated orally to 6 piglets (2 per%mmuno%gie 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France Résumé ISOLEMENT DE ROTAVIRUS D'ORIGINE PORCINE EN FRANCE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Ris-R-1257(EN) Isolated Systems with Wind Power  

E-print Network

Risø-R-1257(EN) Isolated Systems with Wind Power An Implementation Guideline Niels-Erik Clausen energy in isolated communities. So far most studies of isolated systems with wind power have been case studies of isolated systems with wind power have mostly been case- oriented. Thus it has been difficult

356

Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isolation circuit is disclosed for isolating ground interference from a wideband transmission signal. The ground isolation circuit of the present invention is constructed using a pair of matched mixer circuits. each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In the preferred embodiment, the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which preferably comprises an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer circuits connects to an isolation transformer to insure isolation from ground interference.

Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

357

Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black racial isolation is associated with a higher body mass index and higher odds of obesity among women, but not men, highlighting important sex differences in the influence of neighborhood structure on health. Furthermore, the influence of high racial isolation on women’s weight status is mediated, in part, by the physically disordered nature of such neighborhoods. Disorder of a more social nature (as measured by incident crime) is not associated with weight status. PMID:20179775

Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

2010-01-01

358

Neo-allopatry and rapid reproductive isolation.  

PubMed

Over the past 3 centuries, many species have been dispersed beyond their natural geographic limits by humans, but to our knowledge, reproductive isolation has not been demonstrated for such neo-allopatric species. We grew seeds from three species of Centaurea (Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea calcitrapa, and Centaurea sulphurea) that are native to Spain and have been introduced into California, and we tested to what extent seed production was affected by pollen source. Compared with within-population crosses, seed production decreased by 52% and 44%, respectively, when C. solstitialis and C. sulphurea from California were pollinated with conspecific pollen from native populations in Spain. This implies rapid evolution of reproductive isolation between populations in their native and nonnative ranges. Whether reproductive isolation has evolved following the introduction of other species is unknown, but additional cases are likely, considering the large number of neo-allopatric species. PMID:22976015

Montesinos, Daniel; Santiago, Gilberto; Callaway, Ragan M

2012-10-01

359

A shock isolation method and apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shock isolation device for supporting the weight of an object and providing shock and isolation vibration is disclosed which includes a compressible elastomeric material. Apertures are drilled in the compressible elastomeric material for receiving buckling fibers. The buckling fibers are supported in the respective apertures by a buckling support plate positioned on a bottom surface of the compressible elastomeric material. The fibers extend above the top surface of the compressible elastomeric material to support an object above the top surface under normal conditions when no shocks occur. When a shock occurs, the buckling fibers are elastically or plastically buckled under an applied force caused by acceleration of the object and the object contacts the compressible elastomeric material to isolate the shock. A plurality of the buckling fibers are spaced evenly throughout the elastomeric material to support objects of different sizes and weights.

Tucchio, Michael; Lafreniere, Robert

1994-05-01

360

Medium for isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica.  

PubMed Central

A new differential plate medium, CAL (cellobiose-arginine-lysine) agar, was developed and evaluated for the isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica. For all but two isolates tested, distinctive colonies were formed on CAL agar within 40 h of incubation at 25 degrees C. These colonies were readily recognized and isolated from a mixed inoculum containing 10 other bacteria commonly found in water and fecal specimens. Y. enterocolitica was presumptively identified based on colonial morphology from 9 of 10 fecal cultures containing the organism when inoculated to CAL agar and incubated for 40 h at 25 degrees C. No false-positive identification were made. The medium has been shown to be as sensitive as MacConkey agar in supporting growth of Y. enterocolitica, and it can be used in broth from for enumeration of the organism from water and liquid specimens. The medium is easily made and does not need to be autoclaved. PMID:511986

Dudley, M V; Shotts, E B

1979-01-01

361

Thermally effective, electrically isolating heat intercept connections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical and electronic equipment often require thermally effective heat intercept connections that provide electrical isolation. Such connections can be developed by clamping, with a thermal-interference fit, an electrically insulating cylindrical tube between a central disk and an outer ring. Heat flows radially through the disk-tube-ring assembly. Thermal effectiveness, i.e., Delta-T for a given heat flux, and electrical isolation are controlled by tube geometry and material and by connection-assembly details. Connections of this type are being developed as cryogenic heat intercepts for electrical current leads that employ high-temperature superconductors. We discuss the design considerations and details of a heat intercept connection that transfers a 45-W thermal load at 60 K with a Delta-T of approximately 10 K while providing 7.5 kV electrical isolation. Prototype heat intercept connections have been evaluated for their thermal and electrical performance, and the results are presented.

Niemann, R. C.; Gonczy, J. D.; Nicol, T. H.

1995-03-01

362

Isolating prompt photons with narrow cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the isolation of prompt photons in hadronic collisions by means of narrow isolation cones and the QCD computation of the corresponding cross sections. We reconsider the occurence of large perturbative terms with logarithmic dependence on the cone size and their impact on the fragmentation scale dependence. We cure the apparent perturbative violation of unitarity for small cone sizes, which had been noticed earlier in next-to-leading-order (NLO) calculations, by resumming the leading logarithmic dependence on the cone size. We discuss possible implications regarding the implementation of some hollow cone variants of the cone criterion, which simulate the experimental difficulty to impose isolation inside the region filled by the electromagnetic shower that develops in the calorimeter.

Catani, S.; Fontannaz, M.; Guillet, J. Ph.; Pilon, E.

2013-09-01

363

Brucella canis Isolates from Canadian Dogs  

PubMed Central

Eleven Brucella canis isolates from Canadian dogs were characterized by dye and antibiotic sensitivity, phage susceptibility, urease and H2S production, CO2 requirement, and reaction with monospecific A,M, and R anti-Brucella antiserum. The isolates could be separated into two distinct groups. One group had a sensitivity pattern similar to that seen with the American type strain RM666, while the other group had a pattern identical to that of a Mexican strain, Mex 51. Epidemiological studies supported contraction of infections in the United States and Mexico respectively. The characteristics of all isolates were stable after repeated subculture indicating that strain differences could serve as useful epidemiological markers and supporting division of the species into two biovars. PMID:17422968

Forbes, Lorry B.; Pantekoek, James F.

1988-01-01

364

Identification of yeasts isolated from poultry meat.  

PubMed

In an assessment of the potential role of yeasts in the spoilage of poultry meat, the population and species diversity of yeasts were determined on 50 commercial raw and processed chicken and turkey product samples. Initial populations (log10 cfu/g) ranged from less than 0.1 to 2.9, and increased by the expiration date to 0.4 to 5.1, respectively. 145 of 152 isolates were identified as belonging to 12 species. Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida zeylanoides were predominant, accounting for 39% and 26% of the isolates, respectively. Six different species of basidiomycetous yeasts were determined representing 24% of the isolates. The ability of the predominant yeast species to grow at refrigeration temperatures and their proteolytic and lipolytic activies suggest that yeasts may play a more significant role than previously recognised in the spoilage of poultry products. PMID:11426853

Deák, T

2001-01-01

365

[Comparative analysis of Pleurotus ostreatus natural isolates].  

PubMed

A comparative analysis is performed of the polymorphism of the Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm naturally occurring strains isolated from the natural substrates found in two geographically remote Russian natural preserves, the Central Arboreal Biosphere Tver State Preserve (CABTSP) and the Moscow State University Zvenigorod Biological Station (ZBS, Moscow oblast), and within the city of Moscow. The results of the frequency analysis for the isozyme loci alleles and for the sexual and vegetative incompatibility groups are presented; the genetic structure and the interpopulation relations among 58 P. ostreatus dikaryotic strains are estimated. The natural samples from the Moscow and Tver oblasts are shown to have a high degree of polymorphism with a genetic differentiation of 0.743; in spite of their territorial remoteness, they are, however, actively exchanging genetic material. The natural fungal isolates form two reproductively isolated groups. PMID:15938400

Shtaer, O V; Belokon', Iu S; Belokon', M M; Shnyreva, A V

2005-01-01

366

Privacy Amplification in the Isolated Qubits Model  

E-print Network

Isolated qubits are a special class of quantum devices, which can be used to implement tamper-resistant cryptographic hardware such as one-time memories (OTM's). Unfortunately, these OTM constructions leak some information, and standard methods for privacy amplification cannot be applied here, because the adversary has advance knowledge of the hash function that the honest parties will use. In this paper we show a stronger form of privacy amplification that solves this problem, using a fixed hash function that is secure against all possible adversaries in the isolated qubits model. This allows us to construct single-bit OTM's which only leak an exponentially small amount of information. We then study a natural generalization of the isolated qubits model, where the adversary is allowed to perform a polynomially-bounded number of entangling gates, in addition to unbounded local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We show that our technique for privacy amplification is also secure in this setting.

Yi-Kai Liu

2014-10-15

367

RNA isolation and fractionation with compaction agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach to the isolation of RNA from bacterial lysates employs selective precipitation by compaction agents, such as hexammine cobalt and spermidine. Using 3.5 mM hexammine cobalt, total RNA can be selectively precipitated from a cell lysate. At a concentration of 2 mM hexammine cobalt, rRNA can be fractionated from low molecular weight RNA. The resulting RNA mixture is readily resolved to pure 5S and mixed 16S/23S rRNA by nondenaturing anion-exchange chromatography. Using a second stage of precipitation at 8 mM hexammine cobalt, the low molecular weight RNA fraction can be isolated by precipitation. Compaction precipitation was also applied to the purification of an artificial stable RNA derived from Escherichia coli 5S rRNA and to the isolation of an Escherichia coli-expressed ribozyme. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

Murphy, J. C.; Fox, G. E.; Willson, R. C.

2001-01-01

368

Streptococcus pyogenes clinical isolates and lipoteichoic acid.  

PubMed Central

Minimally subcultured clinical isolates of virulent nephritogenic and nonnephritogenic Streptococcus pyogenes of the same serotype showed major differences in lipoteichoic acid (LTA) production, secretion, and structure. These were related to changes in coccal adherence to and destruction of growing human skin cell monolayers in vitro. A possible relationship between cellular LTA content and group A streptococcal surface hydrophobicity was also investigated. Nephritogenic S. pyogenes M18 produced twice as much total (i.e., cellular and secretory) LTA as did the virulent, serologically identical, but nonnephritogenic isolate. Also, the LTAs from these organisms differed markedly. The polyglycerol phosphate chain of LTA from the nephritogenic isolate was longer (1.6 times) than was that from the nonnephritogenic isolate. Likewise, both LTAs indicated the presence of alanine and the absence of glucose. Amino sugars were found in LTA from only nephritogenic S. pyogenes. Teichoic acid, as a cellular component or secretory product, was not detected. The adherence of two different nephritogenic group A streptococcal serotypes (M18 and M2) exceeded that of the serologically identical but nonnephritogenic isolates (by about five times), indicating a correlation between virulent strains causing acute glomerulonephritis and adherence to human skin cell monolayers. Likewise, LTA from nephritogenic S. pyogenes M18 was more cytotoxic (1.5 times) than was that from the nonnephritogenic isolate for human skin cells, as determined by protein release. This difference was not perceptible by the more sensitive dye exclusion method (i.e., requiring less LTA), which emphasizes changes in host cell morphology and death. Also, the secretion of LTA by only virulent nephritogenic S. pyogenes M18 was exacerbated by penicillin (a maximum of four times). Finally, while the adherence of nephritogenic S. pyogenes M18 decreased markedly after continued subculturing in vitro, the surface hydrophobicity did not. PMID:2228247

Leon, O; Panos, C

1990-01-01

369

Resistance to antimicrobial agents in lactobacilli isolated from caper fermentations.  

PubMed

A collection of lactobacilli comprising species of Lactobacillus plantarum (43 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (9 isolates) and Lactobacillus fermentum (6 isolates) obtained from spontaneous fermentations of capers (the fruits of Capparis spinosa) were investigated for resistance to antimicrobial agents. All isolates were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin (MIC > 16 microg/ml). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC > 2 microg/ml) was detected in all isolates of L. brevis and L. fermentum as well as in most isolates of L. plantarum, whilst resistance to levofloxacin showed a much lower incidence. Among L. plantarum and L. brevis isolates, low levels of resistance to tetracycline and/or nitrofurantoin were detected. Higher resistance levels were also detected in some isolates. Resistance to penicillin and rifampicin were also detected among L. plantarum isolates. All isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, streptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. PMID:16284934

Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario; Abriouel, Hikmate; Martínez Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

2005-01-01

370

Isolated arterioportal fistula presenting with variceal hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

We report a case of life-threatening hematemesis due to portal hypertension caused by an isolated arterioportal fistula (APF). Intrahepatic APFs are extremely rare and are a cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Etiologies for APFs are comprised of precipitating trauma, malignancy, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, but these were not the case in our patient. Idiopathic APFs are usually due to congenital vascular abnormalities and thus usually present in the pediatric setting. This is one of the first cases of adult-onset isolated APF who presented with portal hypertension and was successfully managed through endoscopic hemostasis and subsequent interventional radiological embolization. PMID:23674881

Nookala, Anupama; Saberi, Behnam; Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon; Kanel, Gary; Duong, Phillip; Saito, Takeshi

2013-01-01

371

Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis masquerading as pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) remains a rarity despite the high incidence of tuberculosis in many of the African and Asian countries. Presentation as discrete pancreatic mass often masquerades as pancreatic neoplasm and diagnosis may require histology. Extra-hepatic portal hypertension due to splenic vein thrombosis complicating pancreatic TB has been reported in the literature. We report here a case of isolated pancreatic TB with pancreatic head mass mimicking neoplasm with extra-hepatic portal hypertension. The possibility of TB should be considered in the list of differential diagnoses of pancreatic mass and an endoscopic, ultrasound-guided biopsy might help to clinch the diagnosis of this potentially curable disease. PMID:24759351

Zacharia, George S.; Antony, Rajany; Kolassery, Sandesh; Ramachandran, Thazhath M.

2014-01-01

372

Isolation of Usutu Virus in Germany  

PubMed Central

Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged 2001 in Austria and caused deaths in wild birds. In Germany, 70,378 female mosquitoes were captured in 2009 and 2010 and assayed for USUV. Virus was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes trapped exclusively in August 2010 in Weinheim, Germany. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the isolated USUV strain from Germany and a USUV strain from Austria, which was detected in a dead blackbird in 2004. PMID:21896821

Jost, Hanna; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Sambri, Vittorio; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin H.; Gunther, Stephan; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

2011-01-01

373

Searching for debris disks around isolated pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different pieces of observational evidence suggest the existence of disks around isolated neutron stars. Such disks could be formed from supernova fallback when neutron stars are born in core-collapse supernova explosions. Efforts have been made to search for disks around different classes of pulsars, which include millisecond pulsars, young neutron star classes (magnetars, central compact objects, and X-ray dim isolated neutron stars), and regular radio pulsars. We review the main results from observations at wavelengths of from optical to sub-millimeter/millimeter.

Wang, Zhongxiang

2014-10-01

374

Portal Hypertension Secondary to Isolated Liver Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

In this report, we present a case of isolated liver tuberculosis (TB) as a cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension leading to bleeding esophageal varices. Although TB has been known to cause portal hypertension in a variety of ways, this case was notable for the presence of periportal inflammation and granulomas, also seen in hepatic schistosomiasis. Herein, we discuss isolated liver TB and the differential diagnosis of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. In endemic areas, TB should be considered in the differential diagnosis of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. PMID:22764308

Mojtahedzadeh, Mona; Otoukesh, Salman; Shahsafi, Mohammad R.; Tahbaz, Mohammad O.; Rahvari, Seyed K.; Poorabdollah, Mihan; Sajadi, Mohammad M.

2012-01-01

375

Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

Do?er, Emek; Köpük, ?ule Y.; Çak?ro?lu, Yi?it; Çak?r, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

2013-01-01

376

Isolation of an English uukuvirus (family Bunyaviridae).  

PubMed

A virus of the Uukuniemi serogroup was isolated from various organs of a moribund kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and from ticks (Ixodes uriae) that were feeding on the bird. The kittiwake was found on Marsden beach, north-east England. This is the first virus in the family Bunyaviridae to have been isolated in England and only the second English arthropod-borne virus after louping ill virus, family Togaviridae (Smith & Varma, 1981). The possibility of infection of humans by uukuviruses is discussed. PMID:6501877

Eley, S M; Nuttall, P A

1984-10-01

377

Isolated appendicular tuberculosis (TB) presented as peritonitis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is very common entity in both developing and under developed countries. Each year 3 million people worldwide died of the disease. Among extra pulmonary TB, alimentary system accounts for about 3.0% cases. The Commonest presentation of alimentary tuberculosis is Ileo-caecal disease, but isolated appendicular involvement is very rarely seen. Although some cases have been reported from our neighboring countries, there is still no such report from Bangladesh. We are here for the first time reporting a case of isolated appendicular tuberculosis which presented to us with peritonitis. PMID:20677612

Chowdhury, F R; Amin, M R; Khan, K H; Alam, M B; Ahasan, H A M N

2010-03-01

378

Site of Isolation Determines Biofilm Formation and Virulence Phenotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 3 Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a diverse species causing invasive as well as localized infections that result in massive global morbidity and mortality. Strains vary markedly in pathogenic potential, but the molecular basis is obscured by the diversity and plasticity of the pneumococcal genome. In the present study, S. pneumoniae serotype 3 blood (n = 12) or ear (n = 13) isolates were multilocus sequence typed (MLST) and assessed for biofilm formation and virulence phenotype. Blood and ear isolates exhibited similar MLST distributions but differed markedly in phenotype. Blood isolates formed robust biofilms only at pH 7.4, which were enhanced in Fe(III)-supplemented medium. Conversely, ear isolates formed biofilms only at pH 6.8, and Fe(III) was inhibitory. Biofilm formation paralleled luxS expression and genetic competence. In a mouse intranasal challenge model, blood isolates did not stably colonize the nasopharynx but spread to the blood; none spread to the ear. Ear isolates colonized the nasopharynx at higher levels and also spread to the ear compartment in a significant proportion of animals; none caused bacteremia. Thus, pneumococci of the same serotype and MLST exhibit distinct phenotypes in accordance with clinical site of isolation, indicative of stable niche adaptation within a clonal lineage. PMID:23208608

Trappetti, Claudia; van der Maten, Erika; Amin, Zarina; Potter, Adam J.; Chen, Austen Y.; van Mourik, Paula M.; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Paton, Adrienne W.

2013-01-01

379

Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation  

SciTech Connect

An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

1996-05-17

380

Static and dynamic stability of pneumatic vibration isolators and systems of isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pneumatic vibration isolation is the most widespread effective method for creating vibration-free environments that are vital for precise experiments and manufacturing operations in optoelectronics, life sciences, microelectronics, nanotechnology and other areas. The modeling and design principles of a dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolator, basically established a few decades ago, continue to attract attention of researchers. On the other hand, behavior of systems of such isolators was never explained in the literature in sufficient detail. This paper covers a range of questions essential for understanding the mechanics of pneumatic isolation systems from both design and application perspectives. The theory and a model of a single standalone isolator are presented in concise form necessary for subsequent analysis. Then the dynamics of a system of isolators supporting a payload is considered with main attention directed to two aspects of their behavior: first, the static stability of payloads with high positions of the center of gravity; second, dynamic stability of the feedback system formed by mechanical leveling valves. The direct method of calculating the maximum stable position of the center of gravity is presented and illustrated by three-dimensional stability domains; analytic formulas are given that delineate these domains. A numerical method for feedback stability analysis of self-leveling valve systems is given, and the results are compared with the analytical estimates for a single isolator. The relation between the static and dynamic phenomena is discussed.

Ryaboy, Vyacheslav M.

2014-01-01

381

Self-Disclosure in Isolated Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyses of self-disclosure behavior under multiple conditions of social isolation and confinement replicated earlier findings and generally confirmed hypotheses derived from social penetration theory. Major findings link self-disclosure to environmental parameters and interpersonal friction. In the Privacy without Stimulation condition, Ss…

Taylor, Dalmas A.

382

Isolation of salmonellae from dried rattlesnake preparations.  

PubMed Central

Salmonella arizonae and other Salmonella serovars were isolated from four different rattlesnake preparations which were used for self-treatment of various diseases. A case of disseminated S. arizonae infection is reported in a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and ingested dried rattlesnake. Images PMID:2312681

Babu, K; Sonnenberg, M; Kathpalia, S; Ortega, P; Swiatlo, A L; Kocka, F E

1990-01-01

383

ISOLATION OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FROM TEALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight of 30 teals (Anas crecca) died several days following capture and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was isolated from all eight. Brains from the dead birds were homogenized and inoculated into chicken embryos. The allantoic fluid from the embryos was inoculated into 10 domestic chickens susceptible to NDV and 10 chickens immunized against NDV. Eight of 10 (80%) susceptible chickens

M. H. BOZORGMEHRI-FARD; H. KEYVANFAR

384

Restraint and Isolation in Tennessee Schools  

E-print Network

as punishment, coercion, convenience or retaliation � restrain a student in any position that restricts, as punishment, coercion, convenience or retaliation Schools may use restraint or isolation ONLY in emergency about when and how often a behavior happens. Schools should use positive behavioral supports which

Cui, Yan

385

Characterization of IHNV isolates associated with neurotropism  

E-print Network

exhibited typical disease signs with the highest concentrations of virus detected in kidney-spleen tissue. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates obtained from brain or kidney-spleen tissue were) in susceptible salmonid fish is routinely done by examining hematopoietic tissues (kidney and spleen). During

Boyer, Edmond

386

Inferring Geographic Isolation of Wolverines in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineating a species' geographic range using the spatial distribution of museum specimens or even contemporary detection- non-detection data can be difficult. This is particularly true at the periphery of a species range where species' distributions are often disjunct. Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are wide-ranging mammals with discontinuous and potentially isolated populations at the periphery of their range. One potentially disjunct population

387

The NASA Langley Isolator Dynamics Research Lab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) is under construction at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A unique test apparatus is being fabricated to support both wall and in-stream measurements for investigating the internal flow of a dual-mode scramjet isolator model. The test section is 24 inches long with a 1-inch by 2-inch cross sectional area and is supplied with unheated, dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The test section is being fabricated with two sets (glass and metallic) of interchangeable sidewalls to support flow visualization and laser-based measurement techniques as well as static pressure, wall temperature, and high frequency pressure measurements. During 2010, a CFD code validation experiment will be conducted in the lab in support of NASA s Fundamental Aerodynamics Program. This paper describes the mechanical design of the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab test apparatus and presents a summary of the measurement techniques planned for investigating the internal flow field of a scramjet isolator model.

Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Humphreys, William M.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

2010-01-01

388

Plasmid distribution in European Diaporthe helianthi isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diaporthe helianthi is the causal agent of sunflower stem canker, a serious pathogen of sunflower in Europe, which has been sporadically recorded in Italy. A collection of 26 Diaporthe helianthi isolates deriving from different geographic origins was analysed in order to determine the presence of extra-chromosomal genetic determinants and their molecular diversity. Extra-chromosomal bands in total genomic DNAs were identified

Mariarosaria Vergara; Tiziana Capasso; Emanuela Gobbi; Giovanni Vannacci

2005-01-01

389

Isolated prolactin deficiency: a case report.  

PubMed

A 36-year-old woman, with lifelong oligomenorrhea and immeasurable serum PRL levels, conceived and had normal deliveries after ovulation induction with CC. Alactogenesis followed both deliveries. Evaluation of other pituitary hormones were within normal limits, and attempted stimulation of PRL levels by TRH was unsuccessful. The clinical significance of isolated hypoprolactinemia is discussed. PMID:1426359

Falk, R J

1992-11-01

390

Secure Isolation of Untrusted Legacy Applications  

E-print Network

, we have developed the PeaPod virtualization layer. The PeaPod virtualization layer provides a group of processes and associated users with two virtualization abstractions, pods and peas. A pod provides an isolated virtualized environment that is decoupled from the underlying operating sys- tem instance. A pea

Yang, Junfeng

391

Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Malassezia consists of lipophilic yeasts which are known to be components of the microflora of human skin and many mammals and birds and are rarely isolated from the environment (11). These yeasts have the typical physiological property of using lipids as a source of carbon. Except for Malassezia pachydermatis, the remaining species of the genus Malassezia require supplementation

M. J. CRESPO; M. L. ABARCA; F. J. CABANES

1999-01-01

392

Characteristics of some psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from different food products and foodborne disease outbreaks, and able to grow at temperatures < 7 °C were characterised. Generation times at 7 °C varied from 9.4 h up to 75 h. Lag phase of the vegetative cells at 7 °C was strongly influenced by the previous temperature history of the cells. Preincubation at

J. Dufrenne; M. Bijwaard; M. te Giffel; R. Beumer; S. Notermans

1995-01-01

393

Anaerobiospirillum species isolated from humans with diarrhoea.  

PubMed Central

Flagellated anaerobic motile spiral bacteria were isolated from the faeces of two patients with diarrhoea. They were recovered by the microaerophilic culture method used to detect campylobacters but demanded anaerobic conditions for subculture. Electron microscopy and other investigations showed them to be closely related to Anaerobiospirillum succiniproducens first described in beagle dogs and subsequently in three humans with bacteraemia. Images PMID:6619308

Malnick, H; Thomas, M E; Lotay, H; Robbins, M

1983-01-01

394

Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

Krasnov, I. V.

1977-01-01

395

Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

2011-01-01

396

Rabies in Sri Lanka: Splendid Isolation  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus exists in dogs on Sri Lanka as a single, minimally divergent lineage only distantly related to other rabies virus lineages in Asia. Stable, geographically isolated virus populations are susceptible to local extinction. A fully implemented rabies-control campaign could make Sri Lanka the first Asian country in >30 years to become free of rabies virus. PMID:12643834

Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2003-01-01

397

Bug isolation via remote program sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a low-overhead sampling infrastructure for gathering information from the executions experienced by a program's user community. Several example applications illustrate ways to use sampled instrumentation to isolate bugs. Assertion-dense code can be transformed to share the cost of assertions among many users. Lacking assertions, broad guesses can be made about predicates that predict program errors and a process

Ben Liblit; Alexander Aiken; Alice X. Zheng; Michael I. Jordan

2003-01-01

398

ORIGINAL PAPER Isolation, identification, and technological  

E-print Network

and four different strains of leuconostocs. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were often coisolated. One characteristics. Dominant lactic acid cocci were isolated on M17 and MRS-vancomycin plates from Algerian cow Leuconostocs . Lactococci . Enterococci . Raib type milk fermentation . Rep-PCR . . . Raib . Rep-PCR 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation  

SciTech Connect

The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

1991-01-01

400

Staphylococcus pasteun' sp. nov., Isolated from Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new novobiocin-susceptible species of the genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus pasteuri, is described on the basis of the results of a study of seven strains isolated from human, animal, and food specimens. DNA relatedness experiments (S1 nuclease method) showed that these strains form a homogeneous genomic species related at DNA homology levels of 2 to 13% to 27 type strains representing

A. MORVAN; F. GRIMONT; H. LABISCHINSKI

401

ASSESSMENT OF PHASED-ISOLATION DITCH TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents an assessment of phased isolation ditch technologies currently used in Denmark. They include process modifications to T and DE ditches for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Key objectives of the assessment were to (1) present a technology profile, (2) determine ...

402

Characterization of paramyxoviruses isolated from three snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple epizootics of pneumonia in captive snakes have been attributred to viruses which have been tentatively placed in the family Paramyxoviridae. Viruses isolated from an ill Neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), from an Aruba Island rattlesnake (Crotalus unicolor), and from a bush viper (Atheris sp.) were propagated in Vero cells and characterized. Viral particles produced in Vero cells were pleomorphic,

Gary A. Richter; Bruce L. Homer; Sue A. Moyer; Donna S. Williams; Gail Scherba; Sylvia J. Tucker; Betty J. Hall; Janice C. Pedersen; Elliott R. Jacobson

1996-01-01

403

Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**  

E-print Network

Brønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a new class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

Reed, Christopher A.

404

Natural proteins: Sources, isolation, characterization and applications.  

PubMed

Worldwide, plant protein contributes substantially as a food resource because it contains essential amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. However, many versatile plant proteins are used as medicinal agents as they are produced by using molecular tools of biotechnology. Proteins can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganism cells. The abundant economical proteins can be obtained from plant seeds. These natural proteins are obtained by isolation procedures depending on the physicochemical properties of proteins. Isolation and purification of single protein from cells containing mixtures of unrelated proteins is achievable due to the physical and chemical attributes of proteins. The following characteristics are unique to each protein: Amino acid composition, sequence, subunit structures, size, shape, net charge, isoelectric point, solubility, heat stability and hydrophobicity. Based on these properties, various methods of isolation exist, like salting out and isoionic precipitation. Purification of proteins is quiet challenging and, therefore, several approaches like sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and chromatography are available. Characterization of proteins can be performed by mass spectrometry/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The amino acid sequence of a protein can be detected by using tandem mass spectrometry. In this article, a review has been made on the sources, isolation, purification and characterization of natural proteins. PMID:24347918

Nehete, Jitendra Y; Bhambar, Rajendra S; Narkhede, Minal R; Gawali, Sonali R

2013-07-01

405

Novel process of isolating novolac resin fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical phenol/formaldehyde resin syntheses generate a broad distribution of molecular weight fragments with a wide polydispersity. A process was developed to isolate novolak resin fractions of narrow polydispersity from phenol- formaldehyde condensation products in ethyl lactate without any high temperature distillation. The characterization and the performance of these fractions in i-line photoresist composition are discussed.

Rahman, M. D.; Lu, Ping-Hung; Cook, Michelle M.

1997-07-01

406

Isolation of Genomic Clone for Human Cholinesterase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cDNA for human cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) was isolated from a human basal ganglia library. The clone has a total length of 2426 base pairs (bp), of which 1722 bp code for the mature protein, 212 bp are on the 5 side of the coding sequence, and 492 bp...

O. Lockridge

1987-01-01

407

Microsatellite markers isolated from saltgrass (Distichlis spicata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were isolated from saltgrass ( Distichlis spicata ) and optimized for future studies of its breeding system. The loci were screened for variability among 24 individuals from two populations. The primers amplified loci with numbers of alleles ranging from four to 14 per locus and polymorphic information content from 0.481 to 0.951. Observed heterozygosity varied

OLGA V. TSYUSKO; MAUREEN B. PETERS; TRACEY D. TUBERVILLE; CRIS HAGEN; SARAH M. EPPLEY; TRAVIS C. GLENN

2007-01-01

408

Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

2009-01-01

409

OPTIMAL LOCATION OF ISOLATION VALVES IN WATER  

E-print Network

. In other words, methods for evaluation of the nation's water supply services needs to consider not onlyCHAPTER 7 OPTIMAL LOCATION OF ISOLATION VALVES IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A RELIABILITY The cornerstone of any healthy population is access to safe drinking water. The goal of the United Nations

Mays, Larry W.

410

An Isolated Small Wind Turbine Emulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolated small wind turbine emulator is described in this paper. The system consists of a PC controlled variable speed DC motor coupled to a synchronous generator. Dump load is connected to the generator through a microcontroller controlled DC-DC converter. The varying aerodynamic torque of the wind turbine due to furling action and its resulting dynamics are incorporated in the

M. Tariq Iqbal; John E. Quaicoe

2006-01-01

411

Fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of particular importance to the development of models for isolated vortex ring dynamics in a real fluid is knowledge of ambient fluid entrainment by the ring. This time-dependent process dictates changes in the volume of fluid that must share impulse delivered by the vortex ring generator. Therefore fluid entrainment is also of immediate significance to the unsteady forces that arise

John O. Dabiri; Morteza Gharib

2004-01-01

412

CORE NETWORKS, SOCIAL ISOLATION, AND NEW MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from the US General Social Surveys (GSS) suggests that during the past 20 years, people have become increasingly socially isolated and their core discussion networks have become smaller and less diverse. One explanation offered for this trend is the use of mobile phones and the Internet. This study reports on the findings of a 2008 survey that replicates and

Keith N. Hampton; Lauren F. Sessions; Eun Ja Her

2011-01-01

413

Growth in patients with isolated gonadotrophin deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth pattern of 66 patients (50 males, 16 females) with isolated gonadotrophin deficiency (IGnD), who had reached their final height with epiphyseal closure, was evaluated. For the purpose of analysis the males were divided into two groups according to age at referral: group 1 less than 16 years (n = 23) and group 2 greater than or equal to

Z Dickerman; A Cohen; Z Laron

1992-01-01

414

Teaching social skills to isolated children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a social skill training program on socially isolated children are reported. The training program was derived from the results of a previous study of the specific social skills that discriminated popular from unpopular children. Training effects in the present investigation were assessed on sociometric position, and on the quality, frequency, and distribution of social interaction to peers.

John Gottman; Jonni Gonso; Philip Schuler

1976-01-01

415

Planobispora siamensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete strain, A-T 4600(T), which developed cylindrical sporangia containing a longitudinal pair of motile spores forming singly or in bundles on short ramifications of the aerial mycelium, was isolated from soil collected from an evergreen forest in Thailand. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars contained ribose, madurose, mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2). Mycolic acids were not detected. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, diphosphatidylglycerol and aminophosphoglycolipid. The predominant cellular fatty acids were unsaturated C17 : 1, C18 : 1, saturated C16 : 0, and C17 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was 70.8 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the isolate had the typical characteristics of members of the genus Planobispora. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Planobispora but as a putative novel species. DNA-DNA relatedness values that differentiate the isolate from previously described members of the genus Planobispora were significantly below 70 %. Following an evaluation of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic studies, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Planobispora siamensis sp. nov.; the type strain is A-T 4600(T) ( = BCC 39469(T) = NBRC 107568(T)). PMID:23291889

Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Tamura, Tomohiko; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques

2013-07-01

416

Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Toads  

PubMed Central

Understanding the general features of speciation is an important goal in evolutionary biology, and despite significant progress, several unresolved questions remain. We analyzed an extensive comparative dataset consisting of more than 1900 crosses between 92 species of toads to infer patterns of reproductive isolation. This unique dataset provides an opportunity to examine the strength of reproductive isolation, the development and sex ratios of hybrid offspring, patterns of fertility and infertility, and polyploidization in hybrids all in the context of genetic divergence between parental species. We found that the strength of intrinsic postzygotic isolation increases with genetic divergence, but relatively high levels of divergence are necessary before reproductive isolation is complete in toads. Fertilization rates were not correlated to genetic divergence, but hatching success, the number of larvae produced, and the percentage of tadpoles reaching metamorphosis were all inversely related with genetic divergence. Hybrids between species with lower levels of divergence developed to metamorphosis, while hybrids with higher levels of divergence stopped developing in gastrula and larval stages. Sex ratios of hybrid offspring were biased towards males in 70% of crosses and biased towards females in 30% of crosses. Hybrid females from crosses between closely related species were completely fertile, while approximately half (53%) of hybrid males were sterile, with sterility predicted by genetic divergence. The degree of abnormal ploidy in hybrids was positively related to genetic divergence between parental species, but surprisingly, polyploidization had no effect on patterns of asymmetrical inviability. We discuss explanations for these patterns, including the role of Haldane's rule in toads and anurans in general, and suggest mechanisms generating patterns of reproductive isolation in anurans. PMID:19065271

2008-01-01

417

Methanogenic archaea isolated from Taiwan's Chelungpu fault.  

PubMed

Terrestrial rocks, petroleum reservoirs, faults, coal seams, and subseafloor gas hydrates contain an abundance of diverse methanoarchaea. However, reports on the isolation, purification, and characterization of methanoarchaea in the subsurface environment are rare. Currently, no studies investigating methanoarchaea within fault environments exist. In this report, we succeeded in obtaining two new methanogen isolates, St545Mb(T) of newly proposed species Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre FG694aF, from the Chelungpu fault, which is the fault that caused a devastating earthquake in central Taiwan in 1999. Strain FG694aF was isolated from a fault gouge sample obtained at 694 m below land surface (mbls) and is an autotrophic, mesophilic, nonmotile, thin, filamentous-rod-shaped organism capable of using H(2)-CO(2) and formate as substrates for methanogenesis. The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to Methanobacterium palustre. The mesophilic strain St545Mb(T), isolated from a sandstone sample at 545 mbls, is a nonmotile, irregular, coccoid organism that uses methanol and trimethylamine as substrates for methanogenesis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain St545Mb(T) was 99.0% similar to that of Methanolobus psychrophilus strain R15 and was 96 to 97.5% similar to the those of other Methanolobus species. However, the optimal growth temperature and total cell protein profile of strain St545Mb(T) were different from those of M. psychrophilus strain R15, and whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization revealed less than 20% relatedness between these two strains. On the basis of these observations, we propose that strain St545Mb(T) (DSM 19953(T); BCRC AR10030; JCM 15159) be named Methanolobus chelungpuianus sp. nov. Moreover, the environmental DNA database survey indicates that both Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre are widespread in the subsurface environment. PMID:21148697

Wu, Sue-Yao; Lai, Mei-Chin

2011-02-01

418

Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from intertidal brackish sediments in mangroves.  

PubMed

Intertidal brackish sediments in mangroves were examined for isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis strains with novel toxicity spectra. A total of 18 B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from eight sediment samples (36.4%) out of 22 samples tested. The frequency of B. thuringiensis was 1.3% among the colonies of Bacillus cereus/B. thuringiensis group. While five isolates were allocated to the four H serogroups, the majority of the isolates were serologically untypable or untestable. Two isolates belonging to the serovar israelensis/tochigiensis (H14/19) exhibited strong toxicities against larvae of the mosquito, Culex pipiens molestus, and mammalian cells (sheep erythrocyte and two human cancer cell lines) in vitro. The other 16 isolates showed no toxicity against the mosquito and mammalian cells. None of the isolates showed larvicidal activity against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Strong lectin activities against sheep erythrocytes were associated with two serologically untestable isolates and an H3 isolate. PMID:11572461

Maeda, M; Mizuki, E; Hara, M; Tanaka, R; Akao, T; Yamashita, S; Ohba, M

2001-01-01

419

Halotolerant Ability and ?-Amylase Activity of Some Saltwater Fungal Isolates.  

PubMed

Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and ?-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the ?-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (isolate U1; CBS 132820), Fusarium incarnatum (isolate U2; CBS 132821), and Penicillium polonicum (isolate U3; CBS 132822, and isolate U4; CBS 132823). The growth of these isolates was determined by measuring the colony diameter and mycelia dry weight in Sabouraud dextrose agar and yeast nitrogen base medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl. Isolate U4 showed a growth up in 15% NaCl and U1 was the only isolate that could grow in 20% KCl. None of the strains grew in a media containing LiCl. The salt supplemented medium did not increase the size of colony diameter in all isolates (p > 0.05). The ability of the selected isolates for amylase production was quantitatively tested and showed that P. polonicum isolate U4 was the most potent producer of amylase with a yield of 260.9 U/L after 60 h, whereas P. polonicum isolate U3 was the lowest one with a production level of 97.9 U/L after 48 h. P. polonicum isolate U4 could be a suitable candidate for production of amylase on an industrial scale after optimization. PMID:24250679

Niknejad, Farhad; Moshfegh, Mahsa; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Houbraken, Jos; Rezaei, Shahla; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran

2013-01-01

420

Mycotoxin production by fusarium species isolated from bananas.  

PubMed

The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

Jimenez, M; Huerta, T; Mateo, R

1997-02-01

421

Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from Bananas  

PubMed Central

The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.

1997-01-01

422

Isolation and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Florida†  

PubMed Central

Of 3,063 ready-to-eat food samples tested, 91 (2.97%) were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and lineage 1 strains outnumbered lineage 2 strains 57 to 34. Seventy-one isolates (78%) exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance, and an L. monocytogenes-specific bacteriophage cocktail lysed 65 of 91 (71%) isolates. Determining phage, acid, and antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes enabled us to identify differences among strains which were otherwise indistinguishable by conventional methods. PMID:16820508

Shen, Yuelian; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yifan; Cripe, Jennifer; Conway, William; Meng, Jianghong; Hall, Grace; Bhagwat, Arvind A.

2006-01-01

423

Isolation and Identification of Kroppenstedtia eburnea Isolates from Multiple Patient Samples  

PubMed Central

No clinical isolates have been reported for the recently described thermoactinomycete Kroppenstedtia eburnea. Between 2006 and 2011, we obtained 14 clinical isolates from patients in 9 U.S. states. Here we report growth characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry-based identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of this recently described organism. PMID:22855518

Barker, Adam P.; Simmon, Keith E.; Cohen, Sam; Slechta, E. Susan; Fisher, Mark A.

2012-01-01

424

Demonstration of human apolipoprotien A in isolated mucosal cells from small intestine and isolated hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Isolated mucosal cells from the human jejunum and stomach, cryostat sections from the jejunum, isolated parenchymal liver cells and lymphocytes were investigated for the presence of apolipoprotien A (apoA). Antisera against purified human apoA-I and apoA-II were raised in rabbits and conjugated with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC). Mucosal cells from jejunum and stomach were isolated with pronase from tissue obtained from operated patients. ApoA-I and apoA-II could be demonstrated in isolated mucosal cells as well as in cryostat sections from the jejunum. The fluorescence pattern in isolated jejunal cells was coarse granular. In the radial gel diffusion test the homogenate from mucosal cells of jejunum showed a single precipitation line with anti-apoA-I and with anti-apoA-II, respectively. The reaction was more intensive with anti-apoA-I than with anti-apoA-II. Isolated gastric cells were negative for apoA. Hepatocytes incubated with FITC anti-apoA-I showed a fine granular fluorescence pattern in the cytoplasm. Anti-apoA-II did not react with hepatocytes. There was no evidence for an in vivo fixation of serum-apoA at the surface of isolated mucosal cells from jejunum or isolated hepatocytes. The results support the hypotheses that in man apoA is synthesised in the epithelial cells of the small intestine and in parenchymal liver cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:108182

Hopf, U; Assmann, G; Schaefer, H E; Capurso, A

1979-01-01

425

Isolation and characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp. isolated from shrimp imported from Thailand.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to isolate and characterize tetracycline and nalidixic acid-resistant Klebsiella spp. in farm-raised, imported shrimp sold in the United States. Sixty-seven multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella spp. strains were isolated from imported shrimp samples. Using morphological and biochemical methods, fifty-three strains were tentatively identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and fourteen as K. oxytoca. Although all isolates were resistant to tetracycline, only 8 were resistant to nalidixic acid. These 8 isolates were further screened by PCR for quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, B, S, gyrA, B and parC). PCR protocols failed to amplify any qnr genes. The purified PCR amplicons of gyrA, gyrB and parC were sequenced and analyzed for point mutations that confer resistance to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Analysis of the sequences of the gyrA amplicons from nalidixic acid-resistant Klebsiella spp. indicated two point mutations in gyrA at positions 83 (Ser?Phe) and 87 (Asp?Ala). Sequence analysis of the parC amplicons indicated an amino acid change at position 80 (Ser?Ile). No mutations were detected in gyrB. Template DNA from all isolates was screened for tetracycline resistance genes (tetA-E). Oligonucleotide primers specifically targeting a 305-bp region of tetB and a 477-bp region of tetD successfully amplified sequences from 91.0 and 44.0% of the isolates, respectively. None of the isolates contained tetA, tetC or tetE genes. Plasmids (2.0-16.0kb) were found in 23 of the 67 isolates. XbaI-PFGE identified 32 distinct macro restriction patterns (mrps) among the 61 multiple drug-resistant Klebsiella spp. that were typable. Our results indicate that imported shrimp is a reservoir for multidrug resistant Klebsiella spp. and potential health risks posed by such strains should not be underestimated. PMID:22405354

Nawaz, Mohamed; Khan, S A; Tran, Q; Sung, K; Khan, A A; Adamu, I; Steele, R S

2012-04-16

426

Protective isolation in a burns unit: the use of plastic isolators and air curtains  

PubMed Central

The use of plastic isolators and of an `air curtain' isolator for protection of patients against infection was studied in a burns unit. Preliminary bacteriological tests showed that very few airborne bacteria gained access to a plastic ventilated isolator; even when the filter and pre-filter were removed from the air inflow, settle-plate counts inside the isolator were much lower than those in the open ward, but the difference was smaller in tests made with an Anderson air sampler, which showed also that fewer large bacteria-carrying particles appeared inside the isolator than outside it. An open-topped isolator allowed virtually free access of bacteria from ambient air. The numbers of airborne bacteria inside an air curtain were appreciably lower than the counts of airborne bacteria in the open ward, but not as low as those in the plastic ventilated isolator. Controlled trials of isolators were made on patients with fresh burns of 4-30% of the body surface; the patients were given no topical chemoprophylaxis against Staphylococcus aureus or Gram-negative bacilli. Patients treated in plastic isolators showed a significantly lower incidence of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa than those treated in the open ward; this protective effect was shown by isolators with or without filters or with an open top. Ventilated isolators, which protected patients against personal contact and airborne infection, gave a limited protection against multi-resistant `hospital' strains of Staph. aureus, but no such protection was given by an open-topped isolator, which protected only against personal contact infection, or by air curtains, which protected only against airborne infection; the air curtain gave no protection against Ps. aeruginosa, and there was no evidence of protection by any isolator against Proteus spp. and coliform bacilli. Both the controlled trials and evidence from the bacteriology of air, hands, fomites and rectal and nasal swabs taken on admission and later, supported the view that Ps. aeruginosa is transferred mainly by personal contact, Staph. aureus probably by air as well as by contact and coliform bacilli mainly by self infection with faecal flora, many of which are first acquired from the hospital environment in food or on fomites. The use of plastic isolators is cumbersome, and of limited value except in the control of infection with Ps. aeruginosa. For this reason and because of the effectiveness of topical chemoprophylaxis such isolators are unlikely to have more than an occasional use in the treatment of burns. Though air curtains greatly reduce airborne contamination, their use in a burns unit does not appear to protect patients against infection when the alternative (and, for Ps. aeruginosa, more important) routes of contamination by personal contact and fomites are left open. ImagesPlate 2Fig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5002642

Lowbury, E. J. L.; Babb, J. R.; Ford, Pamela M.

1971-01-01

427

Extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds constitute a major class of plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and show a large structural diversity. These compounds occur as aglycones or glycosides, as monomers or constituting highly polymerized structures, or as free or matrix-bound compounds. Furthermore, they are not uniformly distributed in the plant and their stability varies significantly. This greatly complicates their extraction and isolation processes, which means that a single standardized procedure cannot be recommended for all phenolics and/or plant materials; procedures have to be optimized depending on the nature of the sample and the target analytes, and also on the object of the study. In this chapter, the main techniques for sample preparation, and extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds have been reviewed-from classical solvent extraction procedures to more modern approaches, such as the use of molecularly imprinted polymers or counter-current chromatography. PMID:22367907

Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Dueñas, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M

2012-01-01

428

Reconstituting the motility of isolated intracellular cargoes.  

PubMed

Kinesin, dynein, and myosin transport intracellular cargoes including organelles, membrane-bound vesicles, and mRNA along the cytoskeleton. These motor proteins work collectively in teams to transport cargoes over long distances and navigate around obstacles in the cell. In addition, several types of motors often interact on the same cargo to allow bidirectional transport and switching between the actin and microtubule networks. To examine transport of native cargoes in a simplified in vitro system, techniques have been developed to isolate endogenous cargoes and reconstitute their motility. Isolated cargoes can be tracked and manipulated with high precision using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and optical trapping. Through use of native cargoes, we can examine vesicular transport in a minimal system while retaining endogenous motor stoichiometry and the biochemical and mechanical characteristics of both motor and cargo. PMID:24630111

Hendricks, Adam G; Goldman, Yale E; Holzbaur, Erika L F

2014-01-01

429

Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate  

PubMed Central

NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point and frame shift mutations. In the chromosomal aberration test, NUTRALYS did not induce chromosome aberrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. In the bone marrow micronucleus test, NUTRALYS did not induce significant increases of micronucleated immature (polychromatic) erythrocytes in bone marrow of test animals. PMID:23762639

Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.

2013-01-01

430

Well liner with selective isolation screen  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well liner having a selective isolation screen for placement within a wellbore comprising: an elongate tubular member having a plurality of spaced apertures therethrough, spacer means on the tubular member for forming a longitudinal fluid flow annulus circumferentially surrounding the tubular member and in fluid communication with apertures of the tubular member, screen means surrounding the spacer means to form the exterior of the annulus and having openings therethrough in fluid communication with the annulus and the apertures, and circumferentially extending seal means vertically spaced on the tubular member within the annulus for isolating and sealing off communication between the apertures and screen openings at selected vertical locations along its length corresponding to specific well requirements of varying lengths and the spacing of production formations within the wellbore and the permeability variations of productive formations exposed to the apertures and screen openings.

Sparlin, D.D.

1988-09-20

431

Selective medium for isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.  

PubMed Central

A selective medium, TSBV (tryptic soy-serum-bacitracin-vancomycin) agar, was developed for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, TSBV agar contained (per liter) 40 g of tryptic soy agar, 1 g of yeast extract, 100 ml of horse serum. 75 mg of bacitracin, and 5 mg of vancomycin. The TSBV medium suppressed most oral species and permitted significantly higher recovery of A. actinomycetemcomitans than nonselective blood agar medium. The distinct colonial morphology and positive catalase reaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans easily distinguished this bacterium from Haemophilus aphrophilus, Capnocytophaga species, and a few other contaminating organisms. With the TSBV medium, even modestly equipped laboratories will be able to isolate and identify A. actinomycetemcomitans from clinical specimens. Images PMID:7068837

Slots, J

1982-01-01

432

Isolation of Legionella species from drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Three different species of Legionella were recovered from samples of water taken from chlorinated public water supplies where no coliform bacteria were simultaneously detected. Five of 856 samples yielded Legionella isolates. Three isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, the fourth was identified as Legionella dumoffii, and the fifth was identified as Legionella jordanis. Studies to determine the survival of L. pneumophila Flint 1 serogroup 1 in tap water at various temperatures and in tap water with added sodium hypochlorite were done. These organisms were found to survive for 299 days in tap water at 24 and 5 degrees C but not at 35 degrees C. A concentration of at least 0.2 mg of residual chlorine per ml was required to eliminate at least 90% of L. pneumophila and Escherichia coli inocula in 2 h. PMID:6508292

Hsu, S C; Martin, R; Wentworth, B B

1984-01-01

433

Isolated neutron stars discovered by ROSAT  

E-print Network

ROSAT has discovered a new group of isolated neutron stars characterized by soft black-body like spectra (kT ~ 50-120 eV), apparent absence of radio emission and no association with supernovae remnants. So far only six such sources are known. A small fraction of these stars exhibit X-ray pulsations with relatively long periods of the order of 10 sec. Two very different mechanisms may be envisaged to explain their properties. The neutron stars may be old and re-heated by accretion from the ISM in which case their population properties could provide information on past stellar formation and secular magnetic field decay. Alternatively, this group may at least partly be made of relatively young cooling neutron stars possibly descendant from magnetars. We review the last observational results and show how they can shed light on the evolutionary path of these new objects within the whole class of isolated neutron stars.

C. Motch

2000-08-30

434

ISOL TARGET-VAPOR TRANSPORT SYSTEM SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Computational simulation studies with state-of-the-art codes offer cost effective means for designing ISOL targets with optimized diffusion release properties and vapor transport systems with short effusion path lengths. To demonstrate the power of the technique for designing optimum thickness targets, analytic solutions to the diffusion equation are compared with those obtained from a finite-difference code for radioactive isotope diffusion release from simple geometry targets. The viability of the Monte Carlo technique as a practical means for optimally designing target-vapor transport systems is demonstrated by simulating the effusive-flow of neutral particles through several complex target-vapor transport systems. Important issues which affect the yield rates of short-lived species generated in high power ISOL targets are also discussed

Zhang, Yan [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Liu, Zhengzheng [ORNL

2010-01-01

435

Isolation of functional, coated, endocytic vesicles  

PubMed Central

Brief internalization of [125I]transferrin was used to label coated endocytic vesicles, which were then purified using a combination of 2H2O and 2H2O/Ficoll density gradients. Purification was monitored using an assay measuring fusion of endocytic organelles, so as to isolate functional vesicles. Isolated vesicles had all the properties of clathrin-coated vesicles, being enriched for the major components of clathrin coats and uncoated by either 1 M Tris-HCl or an uncoating ATPase. Nearly half of the labeled vesicles were able to participate in subsequent fusion events, as measured by the cell-free assay. Fusion was specific, requiring energy and cytosol, and being sensitive to N- ethyl maleimide. PMID:1900301

1991-01-01

436

Mosser Damper: Steam turbine isolation damper  

SciTech Connect

Ecolaire Corp. has designed, fabricated and installed a new type of isolation damper which provides alternatives to customary new power plant design and upgrades. Through the combined efforts of two experienced product groups, Ecolaire Corp. has successfully proved that a steam turbine can be isolated from the main condenser without taking the condenser out of service or requiring auxiliary condensing equipment. Ecolaire Heat Transfer, an international supplier of steam surface condensers, and Mosser Damper, supplier of flue gas dampers for wet flue gas desulfurization applications and other harsh environments have combined their technologies and field experiences to develop a guillotine damper which allows personnel to access the interior of the steam turbine while the main condenser continues to operate. The cooperation between product groups was critical in achieving a design for the application which addresses the varying equipment arrangements and operating conditions.

Fehnel, G.N.; Finelli, P.M. [Ecolaire Corp., Easton, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

437

Wave aberrations of the isolated crystalline lens  

PubMed Central

A method to measure wave aberrations in the isolated crystalline lens is demonstrated. The method employs a laser scanning technique in which the trajectories of narrow refracted laser beams are measured for an array of sample positions incident on the lens. The local slope of the emerging wavefront is calculated for each sample position, and a least squares procedure is used to fit a Zernike polynomial function to define the wave aberration. Measurements of the aberrations of an isolated porcine lens and macaque lens undergoing changes in accommodative state with mechanical stretching are shown. Many aberrations were present, but negative spherical aberration dominated. In the macaque lens, many aberrations underwent systematic changes with accommodation, most notably the 4th order spherical aberration, which became more negative, and the 6th order spherical aberration, which progressed from negative to positive. PMID:15134472

Roorda, Austin; Glasser, Adrian

2010-01-01

438

Antibiotic resistance in Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates.  

PubMed

The worldwide ratio of Enterococcus faecalis-Enterococcus faecium infections is currently changing in favor of E. faecium. Intrinsic and acquired antimicrobial resistance traits of this latter species can explain this evolution as well as the diffusion of hospital-adapted strains belonging to the clonal complex CC17. Like other enterococci, E. faecium is naturally resistant to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides (at low level). Because of its high genome plasticity, it can also acquire numerous other resistances. It is noteworthy that most modern isolates of E. faecium are highly resistant to ampicillin while a non-negligible proportion of them (depending on geographical locations) are resistant to glycopeptides (especially in the USA). Even if resistance to newer antimicrobial agents (linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline) is still uncommon, some clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility or resistance have already been reported and better understanding of resistance mechanisms is needed for prediction and prevention of their dissemination. PMID:24392717

Cattoir, Vincent; Giard, Jean-Christophe

2014-02-01

439

The Beijing ISOL initial conceptual design report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) are jointly proposing to construct a large science facility, temporarily called “Beijing ISOL”. This facility aims at both basic science and application goals, and is based on the double driver system, namely reactor driving and intense deuteron-beam driving. On the basic science side, the radioactive ion beams produced from the isotope separation online (ISOL) device will be used to study the new physics and technologies at the limit of nuclear stability. On the other side regarding to the applications, the facility will be devoted to material research for the nuclear energy system by using typically the intense neutron and ion beams. In the whole process of design, construction and operation, an opening policy will be pursued, and the domestic and international cooperation will be emphasized. Through this project, a joint research and education mode will be established.

Cui, Baoqun; Gao, Yuan; Ge, Yucheng; Guo, Zhiyu; Li, Zhihong; Liu, Weiping; Peng, Shixiang; Peng, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhi; Yan, Sha; Ye, Yanlin; Zeng, Sheng; Zhang, Guohui; Zhu, Feng

2013-12-01

440

??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? Isolation of Bacteriophages Specific to Enteric Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria in family Enterobacteriaceae are pathogenic to human and animals. They often contaminate food and water. In this study four bacteriophages specific to Shigella dysenteriae DMS2137, Salmonella Typhi DMS5784, Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and Enterobacter aerogenes were isolated from sewage water in Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, using double-layer plaque technique. All of them showed specificity only to their hosts. These results indicated

Kanjana Nukdee

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