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Sample records for basal medium supplemented

  1. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.

  2. Combination antibiotic supplementation of corneal storage medium.

    PubMed

    Hwang, D G; Nakamura, T; Trousdale, M D; Smith, T M

    1993-03-15

    Gram-positive cocci frequently contaminate donor corneal tissue and represent the most common cause of postkeratoplasty endophthalmitis. Although gentamicin is currently added to corneal storage medium in an effort to decrease bacterial contamination of donor tissue, it has poor or variable in vitro activity against many strains of streptococci and staphylococci. To investigate whether the antibiotic supplementation of corneal storage media could be improved, we surveyed 11 antibiotics for antimicrobial efficacy under simulated storage conditions against gentamicin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and St. viridans. All antibiotics showed markedly reduced activity at 4 C as compared to their predicted activity at 37 C. Bactericidal activity of streptomycin and tobramycin was enhanced by preceding 4 C storage with a three-hour period at room temperature (23 C). Under these conditions, streptomycin showed the best antimicrobial activity of the 11 antibiotics tested. Addition of gentamicin to streptomycin resulted in further improvement of activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, whereas the addition of penicillin G to streptomycin enhanced the activity against St. viridans. Optimal antibiotic activity (99% or more killing) against all four isolates of gentamicin-resistant gram-positive cocci was best achieved with the combination of gentamicin, streptomycin, and penicillin G, coupled with a three-hour period at room temperature before 4 C storage. PMID:8442488

  3. Soy Content of Basal Diets Determines the Effects of Supplemental Selenium in Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Quiner, Trevor E.; Nakken, Heather L.; Mason, Brock A.; Lephart, Edwin D.; Hancock, Chad R.; Christensen, Merrill J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of supplemental Se in rodent models may depend upon composition of the basal diet to which it is added. Wild-type male littermates of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice were fed until 18 wk of age 1 of 2 Se-adequate stock diets high in soy (HS) or low in phytoestrogens (LP) or the same diets supplemented with 3.0 mg Se/kg diet as seleno-methylselenocysteine. Body and abdominal fat pad weights were lower (P < 0.01) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplemental Se reduced fat pad weights in mice receiving the LP diet but increased body and fat pad weights in mice consuming the HS formulation (P-interaction < 0.005). Serum free triiodothyronine concentrations were unaffected by supplemental Se in mice fed the LP diet but were decreased by Se supplementation of mice given the HS feed (P-interaction < 0.02). Free thyroxine concentrations were higher in mice consuming the HS diet regardless of Se intake (P < 0.001). Hepatic mRNA for iodothyronine deiodinase I was lower (P < 0.001) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplementation of Se increased this mRNA (P < 0.001) in both diet groups. Results from this study show a significant interaction between the composition of basal diets and the effects of supplemental Se with respect to body composition. These findings have important implications for future studies in rodent models of the effects of supplemental Se on heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other conditions related to body weight and composition. PMID:22031663

  4. Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

  5. Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Couzens, D.A.; King, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

  6. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). PMID:26773377

  7. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 4, 1985-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    An extension is presented of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements which have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1985 to 1988, and 1985 IMF data from the Czechoslovakian Soviet Prognoz 10 spacecraft. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1985 to 1988 data as for the earlier data.

  8. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 4, 1985-1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Joseph H.

    1989-09-01

    An extension is presented of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements which have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1985 to 1988, and 1985 IMF data from the Czechoslovakian Soviet Prognoz 10 spacecraft. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1985 to 1988 data as for the earlier data.

  9. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 5, 1988-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.

    1994-01-01

    This publication represents an extension of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements that have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1988 through the end of 1993. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1988-1993 data as for the earlier data. Owing to a combination of non-continuity of IMP 8 telemetry acquisition and IMP's being out of the solar wind for about 40 percent of its orbit, the annual solar wind coverage for 1988-1993 is 40 plus or minus 5 percent. The plots and listings of this supplement are in essentially the same format as in previous supplements. Days for which neither IMF nor plasma data were available for any hours are omitted from the listings.

  10. Effect of addition of Tween 80 and potassium dihydrogenphosphate to basal medium on the isolation of marine eukaryotes, thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Yousuke; Nagano, Naoki; Okita, Yuji; Izumida, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2008-05-01

    Tween 80, KH(2)PO(4) and tomato juice were added to basal medium for the isolation of thraustochytrids. By the addition of Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4), the number of thraustochytrids isolated from seawater increased. KH(2)PO(4) and Tween 80 were considered to be useful for isolating thraustochytrids. PMID:18558350

  11. Human amniotic fluid cells grown in a hormone-supplemented medium: suitability for prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H C; Jones, O W; Masui, H

    1982-01-01

    A new supplemented medium has been developed to improve human amniotic fluid cell growth and to reduce the dependence on exogenously added serum. The medium consists of a mixture of Ham's F12 medium and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with Hepes, antibiotics, and 10 growth-promoting factors at 4% fetal bovine serum. Good clonal growth is achieved consistently in 8--13 days and is associated with large numbers of metaphase cells. Primary clones may be analyzed directly, thereby reducing difficulty with interpretation of chromosomal mosaicism. This medium could also be used for cultivation of fetal solid tissues and peripheral blood cultures of lymphocytes. Images PMID:6956891

  12. In vitro culture medium (IVC) supplementation with sericin improves developmental competence of ovine zygotes.

    PubMed

    Aghaz, Faranak; Hajarian, Hadi; KaramiShabankareh, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of supplementation of potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM-aa) with various sericin concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2.5%) on ovine zygotes. The results indicate that the supplementation of oocyte in vitro culture medium with optimal concentration of sericin (0.1 and 0.5%) may have beneficial effects on developmental competence of in vitro-derived ovine embryos. PMID:26952758

  13. Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pandey, Pramod K; Franz, Annaliese K; Deng, Huiping; Jeannotte, Richard

    2016-03-01

    To identify innovative ways for better utilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater, we have assessed the effect of dairy manure and supplementation with synthetic medium on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. A series of experiments were carried out to study the impacts of pretreatment of dairy wastewater and the benefits of supplementing dairy manure wastewater with synthetic medium on C. vulgaris growth increment and the ultrastructure (chloroplast, starch, lipid, and cell wall) of C. vulgaris cells. Results showed that the biomass production of C. vulgaris in dairy wastewater can be enhanced by pretreatment and using supplementation with synthetic media. A recipe combining pretreated dairy wastewater (40 %) and synthetic medium (60 %) exhibited an improved growth of C. vulgaris. The effects of dairy wastewater on the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris cells were distinct compared to that of cells grown in synthetic medium. The C. vulgaris growth in both synthetic medium and manure wastewater without supplementing synthetic medium was lower than the growth in dairy manure supplemented with synthetic medium. We anticipate that the results of this study will help in deriving an enhanced method of coupling nutrient-rich dairy manure wastewater for biofuel production. PMID:26897534

  14. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

    2013-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  15. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P < 0.05) when compared with birds fed diets without carbohydrases. Relative to the basal diet, AMEn was increased (P < 0.01) by 70 kcal/kg and 99 kcal/kg when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by 3.5% and 2.4%, respectively, when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of exogenous amylase and xylanase was independent of the presence of microbial phytase. PMID:26316335

  16. Evaluation of ebselen supplementation on cryopreservation medium in human semen

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. Objective: This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. Results: After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm. PMID:24976819

  17. Maternal choline supplementation differentially alters the basal forebrain cholinergic system of young-adult Ts65Dn and disomic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. While DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS that displays age-related degeneration of the BFCN system, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation on the BFCN system in adult Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates at 4.3–7.5 mos of age. Ts65Dn dams were maintained on a choline supplemented diet (5.1 g/kg choline chloride) or a control, unsupplemented diet with adequate amounts of choline (1 g/kg choline chloride) from conception until weaning of offspring; postweaning, offspring were fed the control diet. Mice were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde, brains were sectioned, and immunolabeled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). BFCN number and size, the area of the regions, and the intensity of hippocampal labeling were determined. Ts65Dn unsupplemented mice displayed region- and immunolabel-dependent increased BFCN number, larger areas, smaller BFCNs, and overall increased hippocampal ChAT intensity compared with 2N unsupplemented mice. These effects were partially normalized by maternal choline supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest a developmental imbalance in the Ts65Dn BFCN system. Early maternal-diet choline supplementation attenuates some of the genotype-dependent alterations in the BFCN system, suggesting this naturally occurring nutrient as a treatment option for pregnant mothers with knowledge that their offspring is trisomy 21. PMID:24178831

  18. Enhancement of Sf-9 cell growth and longevity through supplementation of culture medium with hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Maranga, Luis; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z; Bengala, André; Peixoto, Cristina C; Moraes, Roberto H P; Pereira, Carlos A; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of insect cell culture medium supplementation with hemolymph of Lonomia obliqua were investigated. The addition of hemolymph to the medium induced high levels of cell growth, and the viability was maintained for longer periods. The maximum cell yield increased almost 3-fold after hemolymph supplementation. Cultures in their stationary phase were rescued through hemolymph supplementation, also reaching high cell concentrations. These actions were much dependent on the concentration of hemolymph; low hemolymph concentration had a positive effect in cell growth, whereas high hemolymph concentration showed a deleterious effect. Fractionation of hemolymph by gel filtration chromatography showed the presence of three factors with different activity in insect cell culture: an potential anti-apoptotic factor, a growth-promoting factor, and an enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose. Addition of hemolymph to the medium induced high levels of glucose production. The sucrose to glucose conversion was also linearly dependent upon the hemolymph concentration. Therefore, we conclude that cell growth and longevity can be increased by supplementation of the culture medium with hemolymph. PMID:12573007

  19. Modulation of stratum corneum lipid composition and organization of human skin equivalents by specific medium supplements.

    PubMed

    Thakoersing, Varsha S; van Smeden, Jeroen; Boiten, Walter A; Gooris, Gert S; Mulder, Aat A; Vreeken, Rob J; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2015-09-01

    Our in-house human skin equivalents contain all stratum corneum (SC) barrier lipid classes, but have a reduced level of free fatty acids (FAs), of which a part is mono-unsaturated. These differences lead to an altered SC lipid organization and thereby a reduced barrier function compared to human skin. In this study, we aimed to improve the SC FA composition and, consequently, the SC lipid organization of the Leiden epidermal model (LEM) by specific medium supplements. The standard FA mixture (consisting of palmitic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) supplemented to the medium was modified, by replacing protonated palmitic acid with deuterated palmitic acid or by the addition of deuterated arachidic acid to the mixture, to determine whether FAs are taken up from the medium and are incorporated into SC of LEM. Furthermore, supplementation of the total FA mixture or that of palmitic acid alone was increased four times to examine whether this improves the SC FA composition and lipid organization of LEM. The results demonstrate that the deuterated FAs are taken up into LEMs and are subsequently elongated and incorporated in their SC. However, a fourfold increase in palmitic acid supplementation does not change the SC FA composition or lipid organization of LEM. Increasing the concentration of the total FA mixture in the medium resulted in a decreased level of very long chain FAs and an increased level of mono-unsaturated FAs, which lead to deteriorated SC lipid properties. These results indicate that SC lipid properties can be modulated by specific medium supplements. PMID:25939986

  20. Dietary medium chain fatty acid supplementation leads to reduced VLDL lipolysis and uptake rates in comparison to linoleic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B; Pasman, Wilrike J; Hendriks, Henk F J; Verheij, Elwin R; Rubingh, Carina M; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H J; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P; de Graaf, Albert A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  1. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  2. Effects of diet switching on growth and immunity in Nile tilapia fed a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with ß-glucan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia were fed either a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg ß -glucan for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, half the fish were continued on the same diet or switched to the other diet for 2 weeks. Tilapia were then challenged with Streptococcus iniae by intraperi...

  3. The use of tropical protein-rich leaves as supplements to Thai swamp buffalo receiving a basal diet of rice straw and treated leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Jetana, T; Vongpipatana, C; Usawang, S; Thongruay, S

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) the effects of protein-rich trees (PRTs) and (ii) the effects of leucaena treated with NaOH solution and leucaena plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, urinary purine derivatives excretion and blood metabolites in Thai swamp buffaloes. In Experiment 1, animals were fed with rice straw as a basal diet and one of the four PRT supplements: (i) oven-dried rain tree pods (RTPP, control); (ii) sun-dried leucaena leaves; (iii) sun-dried cassia leaves and (iv) sun-dried mulberry leaves. Fibre digestibility and N balance were lower (P < 0.05), but microbial N in the rumen was higher (P < 0.05) in animals supplemented with RTPP than in those fed with the other supplements. In Experiment 2, animals were fed with rice straw as a basal diet and leucaena were treated in one of three ways: (i) untreated (control), (ii) leucaena treated with NaOH solution and (iii) leucaena + PEG. Fibre digestibility and N balance in the rumen improved (P < 0.05) in animals supplemented with leucaena + PEG, but microbial N was not increased. The study demonstrated a way of using local PRTs for a suitable and worthwhile method to improve the quality of buffalo feeding systems in the tropics. PMID:20632093

  4. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids as a feed supplement for weaning and nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowska, E; Szewczyk, A; Swiatkiewicz, M; Okoń, K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of supplementing piglet diets with acidifiers containing the short-chain fatty acids - SCFA (propionic C3 and formic) together with medium-chain fatty acids -- MCFA (caprylic C8 and capric C10) on performance, nutrient apparent digestibility, intestinal microflora and small intestine structure was investigated. The study was performed on 326 piglets allocated to 5 experimental groups. They were fed a standard diet (Group I - control) or a standard diet supplemented with 0.5% propionic and formic acids (Group II - PF). Group III (PF + C8), group IV (PF + C10) and group V (PF + C8 + C10) received the same mixture as group II with a supplement of 0.2% of caprylic and/or capric acids, respectively. Apparent digestibility of nutrients and microbiological analyses were performed. The structure of jejunum mucosa was also examined. Piglets receiving capric acid (groups IV and V) had the highest body weight gains. Piglets receiving MCFA digested protein and fiber better (P < or = 0.05) than piglets receiving SCFA as acidifier. There was no difference in intestinal microflora except for Clostridium perfringens, the population of which was reduced by SCFA (group II). Villi of the mucosal epithelium were the highest (P < or = 0.05) in piglets receiving SCFA with capric acid (group IV). Under the conditions of this study a mixture of SCFA (propionic and formic) with capric acid significantly improves performance of piglets. PMID:24597298

  5. Conifer somatic embryogenesis: improvements by supplementation of medium with oxidation-reduction agents.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Copeland-Kamp, Brandi; Crockett, Jonathan; Lucrezi, Jacob; May, Sheldon W; Bucalo, Kylie

    2015-02-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue (ET) and continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment has been shown to decrease this recalcitrance. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiological concentrations. Major differences in stage-specific oxidation-reduction (redox) agents were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate potential growth-promotion of natural and inorganic redox agents added to early-stage somatic embryo growth medium. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase initiation of loblolly pine. Low-cost reducing agents sodium dithionite and sodium thiosulfate increased ET initiation for loblolly pine and Douglas fir (Mirb) Franco. Germination medium supplementation with GSSG increased somatic embryo germination. Early-stage somatic embryos grown on medium with or without sodium thiosulfate did not differ in GSH or GSSG content, suggesting that sodium thiosulfate-mediated growth stimulation does not involve GSH or GSSG. We have developed information demonstrating that alteration of the redox environment in vitro can improve ET initiation, early-stage embryo development and somatic embryo germination in loblolly pine. PMID:25716878

  6. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  7. Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanlong; Larson, Brian; Araujo, Joseph A; Lau, Winnie; de Rivera, Christina; Santana, Ruben; Gore, Asa; Milgram, Norton W

    2010-06-01

    The present study focused on the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG (MCT) will improve cognitive function in aged dogs by providing the brain with energy in the form of ketones. Aged Beagle dogs were subjected to a baseline battery of cognitive tests, which were used to establish cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups. The dogs in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with 5.5 % MCT. After an initial wash-in period, all the dogs were tested with a battery of cognitive test protocols, which assessed sequentially landmark discrimination learning ability, egocentric visuospatial function and attention. The groups were maintained on the diets for 8 months. The MCT-supplemented group showed significantly better performance in most of the test protocols than the control group. The group differences also varied as a function of task difficulty, with the more difficult task showing greater supplementation effects than the easier tasks. The group given the MCT supplement showed significantly elevated levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body. These results indicate, first, that long-term supplementation with MCT can have cognition-improving effects, and second, that MCT supplementation increases circulating levels of ketones. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of aged dogs can be improved by MCT supplementation, which provides the brain with an alternative energy source. PMID:20141643

  8. Oral supplementation of medium-chain fatty acids during the dry period supports the neutrophil viability of peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2013-08-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted to explore the effect of orally supplemented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to heifers and cows starting 6-8 weeks prior to expected calving date on blood and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocyte (PMNL) apoptosis between 1 and 3 d in milk (DIM). The effects of MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactation, and test-day somatic cell count (SCC) and average daily milk yield (MY) during the first 4 months of lactation were evaluated as well. Twenty-two animals were included of which half were orally supplemented with MCFA starting 6-8 weeks prior to calving and half served as non-supplemented controls. The PMNL viability in both blood and milk was quantified using dual-colour flow cytometry with fluorescein-labelled annexin and propidium iodide. In non-supplemented animals, % blood PMNL apoptosis significantly increased between start of supplementation and early lactation, reflecting a potential reduction in innate immune capacity, whereas this was not true in the MCFA-supplemented animals. Similar results were seen in milk PMNL apoptosis. Overall, the % apoptotic milk PMNL between 1 and 3 DIM was significantly lower in the MCFA-supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented group. There was no substantial effect of oral MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of quarter IMI nor on the composite test-day milk SCC or average daily MY. In conclusion, oral MCFA-supplementation starting 6-8 weeks before expected calving date supported the blood and milk neutrophil viability in early lactating dairy cows. Still, this was not reflected in an improvement of udder health nor MY in early and later lactation. The results should trigger research to further unravel the mechanisms behind the observed immunomodulating effect, and the potential relevance for the cows' performances throughout lactation. PMID:23570511

  9. Modification of the Technical Properties of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 by Supplementing the Growth Medium with Unsaturated Fatty Acids ▿

    PubMed Central

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Sybesma, W. F. H.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementing growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids on the technical properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, such as heat and acid tolerance, and inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Our results showed that the membrane composition and morphology of L. johnsonii NCC 533 were significantly changed by supplementing a minimal Lactobacillus medium with oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated plus cyclic fatty acids in the bacterial membrane decreased by almost 2-fold when minimal medium was supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids (10 μg/ml). The subsequent acid and heat tolerance of L. johnsonii decreased by 6- and 20-fold when the strain was grown in the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively, compared with growth in oleic acid (all at 10 μg/ml). Following acid exposure, significantly higher (P < 0.05) oleic acid content was detected in the membrane when growth medium was supplemented with linoleic or linolenic acid, indicating that saturation of the membrane fatty acids occurred during acid stress. Cell integrity was determined in real time during stressed conditions using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with flow cytometric analysis. Following heat shock (at 62.5°C for 5 min), L. johnsonii was unable to form colonies; however, 60% of the bacteria showed no cell integrity loss, which could indicate that the elevated heat inactivated vital processes within the cell, rendering it incapable of replication. Furthermore, L. johnsonii grown in fatty acid-enriched minimal medium had different adhesion properties and caused a 2-fold decrease in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1-lux invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells compared with bacteria grown in minimal medium alone. This could be related to changes in the hydrophobicity and fluidity of the membrane. Our study shows that technical properties underlying probiotic survivability can be affected by nutrient composition of the growth medium. PMID:21821758

  10. Effect of browse plant foliage supplementation on the performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top basal diet.

    PubMed

    Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami

    2015-08-01

    The effect of browse plants (Piliostigma thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Annona senegalensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, nutritive value and N utilization and growth performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top (TST) was investigated using 24 Red Sokoto goats (9.0 ± 0.25 kg) body weight (BW) which were randomly assigned to one of the six diets in a completely random design. Intakes of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, feed conversion ratio, digestibility of nutrients except for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), energy concentration, N utilization and average daily gain were superior (P < 0.05) in TST-supplemented diets compared to sole TST diet. Among the supplemental fodders, intakes of forage, DM, condensed tannins and most of the nutrients; digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrate, DOM and DCP; and N absorbed, balance and retention were greater (P < 0.05) in A. africana relative to the other fodders. Results indicate that the entire browse fodders are good supplements to low quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better nutritive value. PMID:25863959

  11. Optimization of nisin production by Lactococcus lactis UQ2 using supplemented whey as alternative culture medium.

    PubMed

    González-Toledo, S Y; Domínguez-Domínguez, J; García-Almendárez, B E; Prado-Barragán, L A; Regalado-González, C

    2010-08-01

    Lactococcus lactis UQ2 is a nisin A-producing native strain. In the present study, the production of nisin by L. lactis UQ2 in a bioreactor using supplemented sweet whey (SW) was optimized by a statistical design of experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). In a 1st approach, a fractional factorial design (FFD) of the order 2(5-1) with 3 central points was used. The effect on nisin production of air flow, SW, soybean peptone (SP), MgSO(4)/MnSO(4) mixture, and Tween 80 was evaluated. From FFD, the most significant factors affecting nisin production were SP (P = 0.011), and SW (P = 0.037). To find optimum conditions, a central composite design (CCD) with 2 central points was used. Three factors were considered, SW (7 to 10 g/L), SP (7 to10 g/L), and small amounts of added nisin as self-inducer (NI 34.4 to 74.4 IU/L). Nisin production was expressed as international units (IU). From RSM, an optimum nisin activity of 180 IU/mL was predicted at 74.4 IU/L NI, 13.8 g/L SP, and 14.9 or 5.11 g/L SW, while confirmatory experiments showed a maximum activity of 178 +/- 5.2 IU/mL, verifying the validity of the model. The 2nd-order model showed a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.828. Optimized conditions were used for constant pH fermentations, where a maximum activity of 575 +/- 17 IU/mL was achieved at pH 6.5 after 12 h. The adsorption-desorption technique was used to partially purify nisin, followed by drying. The resulting powder showed an activity of 102150 IU/g. Practical Application: Nisin production was optimized using supplemented whey as alternative culture medium, using a native L. lactis UQ2 strain. Soybean peptone, SW, and subinhibitory amounts of nisin were successfully employed to optimize nisin production by L. lactis UQ2. Dried semipurified nisin showed an activity of 102150 IU/g. PMID:20722935

  12. COMPARISON OF GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTERIACEAE ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS AND ON COMMERICALLY AVAILABLE MEDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to compare the ability of a medium supplemented with organic acids to the ability of commercially available, non-selective media to support growth of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter butzleri. Liquid medium was composed of yeast extract-peptone basal broth (BB) supplement...

  13. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  14. Intrinsic structures and associated rotational bands in medium-heavy deformed odd-odd nuclei. 2: Update supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.; Sood, P.C.; Jain, A.K.

    1998-07-01

    The preceding article, Intrinsic Structures and Associated Rotational Bands in Medium-Heavy Deformed Odd-Odd Nuclei, 1, by D.M. Headly et al., presents the experimentally observed energy levels of odd-odd nuclei with 57 {le} Z {le} 81 and 87 {le} N {le} 117 with a literature cutoff date of August 1995. This supplement updates the experimental data specifically dealing with level structures of these nuclei through March 1998.

  15. Effects of supplemental dietary fatty acids on milk yield and fatty acid composition in high and medium yielding cows.

    PubMed

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Wiking, Lars; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Lund, Peter

    2008-05-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that supplemental dietary fatty acids (FA) affect the energy corrected milk yield in proportion to the milk production level of dairy cows, and increase both long chain FA proportion of milk FA and milk fat globule diameter. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows were divided into four 4x4 Latin squares with two squares of medium yielding cows (32.2 kg energy corrected milk (ECM)/d; 158 days in milk (DIM)) and two squares of high yielding cows (40.0 kg ECM/d; 74 DIM). Experimental length was 12 weeks, with three weeks for each of the four periods. The four treatments were no supplementation (17 g FA/kg dry matter (DM)) and three diets with supplemented FA (29, 40, and 52 g total FA/kg DM, respectively) obtained by substituting barley with Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) fat. Diets were offered as total mixed rations with 63% grass/clover silage (DM basis). Dry matter intake decreased with increasing FA supplementation, but net energy intake was not affected. The general linear responses to 10 g/kg DM increase in FA level were 1.1 kg ECM (P<0.0001), 0.061 kg milk fat (P<0.0001), 0.012 kg milk protein (P=0.09) and 0.052 kg lactose (P=0.0002) per day, and linear responses in milk composition were 0.39 g fat (P=0.07), -0.71 g protein (P<0.0001) and 0.05 g lactose (P=0.3) per kg milk, and 0.092 microm (P<0.0001) in milk fat average globule diameter. Fatty acid supplementation decreased short- and medium-chain FA and C16:0 and increased C18:1 proportions of total FA in milk. Supplemental dietary FA increased ECM yield but not in proportion to production level as anticipated, and increased average FA chain length and milk fat globule diameter. PMID:18474130

  16. Effect of genistein supplementation of thawing medium on characteristics of frozen human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Soto, Juan Carlos; de DiosHourcade, Juan; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Landeras, José Lorenzo; Gadea, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of genistein supplementation of the thawing extender on frozen-thawed human semen parameters. We analyzed the effect of supplementation on sperm motility, capacitation (membrane lipid disorder), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, chromatin condensation and DNA damage. Using this preliminary information, it maybe possible to improve the cryopreservation process and reduce the cellular damage. We have confirmed that the isoflavone genistein (10 μmol L−1) has antioxidant properties on the frozen-thawed spermatozoa. This results in a decreased ROS production that shows a slight improvement in the sperm motility, and decreases the membrane lipid disorder and DNA damage caused by cryopreservation. These results suggest an effect of genistein on sperm functionality that could be of interest for assisted reproduction treatments using frozen-thawed human spermatozoa, but further studies will be necessary to confirm our findings and to evaluate the possible clinical applications. PMID:20173768

  17. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

  18. Ex vivo Expansion of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells in Xeno-Free Medium Supplemented with Platelet Releasate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml) neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%∼10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase α1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices and regulatory recommendations to limit the use of xenogenic materials. PMID:24945500

  19. Supplementation of culture medium with L-carnitine improves development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Takahashi T; Inaba Y; Somfai T; Kaneda M; Geshi M; Nagai T; Manabe N

    2013-01-01

    High lipid content in embryos is associated with low freezing tolerance. This study assessed the effects of exogenous L-carnitine, an enhancer of lipid metabolism, on the in vitro development and freezing survival of bovine embryos. Also, effects on metabolic activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were investigated. Supplementation of embryo culture medium with 1.518 mM or 3.030 mM L-carnitine significantly increased the rates of zygote development to the blastocyst stage and blastocyst cell numbers whereas 6.072 mM of this compound did not improve embryo development. Survival rates after slow freezing of blastocysts were significantly higher when embryos were cultured in the presence of 1.518 mM or 3.030 mM L-carnitine compared with the control. A lower density of lipid droplets was detected in L-carnitine-treated blastocysts compared with the control. L-carnitine significantly reduced ROS levels in 2-cell embryos but did not reduce ROS levels at later stages. The apoptotic cell rate was not different between control and L-carnitine-treated blastocysts. L-carnitine significantly increased ATP levels in 2-cell embryos but not at the 8-cell or blastocyst stages. L-carnitine increased the expression of metabolism-related ATP6 and COX1 genes in blastocysts. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation enhanced lipid metabolism in embryos resulting in improved development and cryotolerance of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

  20. Supplementation of culture medium with L-carnitine improves development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshikiyo; Inaba, Yasushi; Somfai, Tamas; Kaneda, Masahiro; Geshi, Masaya; Nagai, Takashi; Manabe, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    High lipid content in embryos is associated with low freezing tolerance. This study assessed the effects of exogenous L-carnitine, an enhancer of lipid metabolism, on the in vitro development and freezing survival of bovine embryos. Also, effects on metabolic activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were investigated. Supplementation of embryo culture medium with 1.518 mM or 3.030 mM L-carnitine significantly increased the rates of zygote development to the blastocyst stage and blastocyst cell numbers whereas 6.072 mM of this compound did not improve embryo development. Survival rates after slow freezing of blastocysts were significantly higher when embryos were cultured in the presence of 1.518 mM or 3.030 mM L-carnitine compared with the control. A lower density of lipid droplets was detected in L-carnitine-treated blastocysts compared with the control. L-carnitine significantly reduced ROS levels in 2-cell embryos but did not reduce ROS levels at later stages. The apoptotic cell rate was not different between control and L-carnitine-treated blastocysts. L-carnitine significantly increased ATP levels in 2-cell embryos but not at the 8-cell or blastocyst stages. L-carnitine increased the expression of metabolism-related ATP6 and COX1 genes in blastocysts. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation enhanced lipid metabolism in embryos resulting in improved development and cryotolerance of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. PMID:22954232

  1. Glycerol supplementation of the growth medium enhances in situ detoxification of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii during butanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural adversely affect fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals due to their toxicity on fermenting microbes. To harness the potential of lignocellulose as a cheap source of fermentable sugars, in situ detoxification of furfural and other lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors is essential. To enhance in situ detoxification and tolerance of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, the effect of glycerol on NADH/NADPH generation and ABE production by furfural (4, 5, and 6 g/L)-challenged cultures was investigated in this study. In all instances, beneficial outcomes were observed. For example, the fermentation medium supplemented with glycerol and subjected to 5 g/L furfural elicited up to 1.8- and 3-fold increases, respectively, in NADH and NADPH levels in C. beijerinckii 8052 relative to the control culture. These critical changes are the likely underpinnings for the glycerol-mediated 2.3-fold increase in the rate of detoxification of 5 g/L furfural, substrate consumption, and ABE production compared to the unsupplemented medium. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased intracellular NADH/NADPH in C. beijerinckii 8052 due to glycerol utilization engenders favorable effects on many aspects of cellular metabolism, including enhanced furfural reduction and increased ABE production. PMID:24839212

  2. Comparison of high fibre diets, basal insulin supplements, and flexible insulin treatment for non-insulin dependent (type II) diabetics poorly controlled with sulphonylureas.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, A. R.; Attenborough, Y.; Peacock, I.; Fletcher, E.; Jeffcoate, W. J.; Tattersall, R. B.

    1988-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare high fibre diet, basal insulin supplements and a regimen of insulin four times daily in non-insulin dependent (type II) diabetic patients who were poorly controlled with sulphonylureas. DESIGN--Run in period lasting 2-3 months during which self monitoring of glucose concentration was taught, followed by six months on a high fibre diet, followed by six months' treatment with insulin in those patients who did not respond to the high fibre diet. SETTING--Teaching hospital diabetic clinics. PATIENTS--33 patients who had had diabetes for at least two years and had haemoglobin A1 concentrations over 10% despite receiving nearly maximum doses of oral hypoglycaemic agents. No absolute indications for treatment with insulin. INTERVENTIONS--During the high fibre diet daily fibre intake was increased by a mean of 16 g (95% confidence interval 12 to 20 g.) Twenty five patients were then started on once daily insulin. After three months 14 patients were started on four injections of insulin daily. ENDPOINT--Control of diabetes (haemoglobin A1 concentration less than or equal to 10% and fasting plasma glucose concentration less than or equal to 6 mmol/l) or completion of six months on insulin treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS-- No change in weight, diet, or concentrations of fasting glucose or haemoglobin A1 occurred during run in period. During high fibre diet there were no changes in haemoglobin A1 concentrations, but mean fasting glucose concentrations rose by 1.7 mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 2.5, p less than 0.01). With once daily insulin mean concentrations of fasting plasma glucose fell from 12.6 to 7.6 mmol/l (p less than 0.001) and haemoglobin A1 from 14.6% to 11.2% (p less than 0.001). With insulin four times daily concentrations of haemoglobin A1 fell from 11.5% to 9.6% (p less than 0.02). Lipid concentrations were unchanged by high fibre diet. In patients receiving insulin the mean cholesterol concentrations fell from 7.1 to 6.4 mmol/l (p less than 0.0001), high density lipoprotein concentrations rose from 1.1 to 1.29 mmol/l (p less than 0.01), and triglyceride concentrations fell from 2.67 to 1.86 mmol/l (p less than 0.05). Patients taking insulin gained weight and those taking it four times daily gained an average of 4.2 kg. CONCLUSIONS--High fibre diets worsen control of diabetes in patients who are poorly controlled with oral hypoglycaemic agents. Maximum improvements in control of diabetes were achieved by taking insulin four times daily. PMID:2852514

  3. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis. PMID:24778327

  4. GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTER ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the main cause of bacteria foodborne illnesses in humans, and contaminated poultry products are major sources of campylobaceriosis. In this study, the growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with organic acids was examined. Trypose-yeast extract basal broth medium w...

  5. Serum-free medium supplemented with high-concentration FGF2 for cell expansion culture of human ear chondrocytes promotes redifferentiation capacity.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Erik W; van der Veen, Simone W; Verhaar, Jan A N; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2002-08-01

    For tissue engineering of autologous cartilage, cell expansion is needed to obtain the cell numbers required. Standard expansion media contain bovine serum. This has several disadvantages, that is, the risk of transmitting diseases and serum-batch variations. The aim of this study was to find a serum-free medium with at least the same potential to expand cell numbers as serum-containing media. Ear chondrocytes of three young children were expanded in either serum-containing medium (SCM; DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum) or serum-free medium (SFM; DMEM with ITS+) supplemented with 5 or 100 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). To promote cell adherence onto the culture flask, the serum-free conditions were cultured with 10% serum for 1 day after each trypsinization. After the fourth passage, the chondrocytes were encapsuled in alginate beads and redifferentiated in a SFM (DMEM with ITS+, hydrocortisone, and L-ascorbic acid) supplemented with 10 ng/mL IGF-I and 10 ng/mL TGFbeta-2. Results showed that expansion in SFM with 100 ng/mL FGF2 was comparable to expansion in SCM. Redifferentiation with SFM with IGF-I and TGFbeta-2 showed high collagen type II expression and high GAG/DNA production regardless of which expansion medium had been used. However, chondrocytes expanded in SFM with 100 ng/mL FGF2 resulted in less positive cells for collagen type I and 11-fibrau (a fibroblast membrane marker). The present study shows that it is possible to use serum-free medium for tissue engineering of cartilage. Expansion of immature ear chondrocytes in SFM supplemented with high-concentration FGF2 resulted in high cell numbers, which in addition had better redifferentiation capacity than cells expanded in medium with 10% serum. PMID:12201997

  6. Extending the Basal Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, M. Jean; Lankford, Mary D.

    Ten suggestions that can help the elementary school teacher expand and enhance the basal reading program are (1) collect additional material on the authors, genres, and art media found in the series; (2) supplement the program with audiovisual and human, as well as printed, resources; (3) meet with other staff members to plan the curriculum; (4)…

  7. Effect of sericin supplementation in maturation medium on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Aghaz, F; Hajarian, H; Shabankareh, H Karami; Abdolmohammadi, A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sericin with different concentrations (0% [control], 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5%) added to the IVM medium on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season. The resumption of meiosis was assessed by the frequency of germinal vesicle breakdown and the first polar body extrusion. After IVF with fresh ram semen, presumptive zygotes were cultured 8 days in potassium simplex optimization medium supplemented by amino acids, and the percentages developing to the two-cell and blastocyst stages were measured as the indicators of early embryonic developmental competence. More cumulus-oocyte complexes matured with 0.5% sericin underwent germinal vesicle breakdown and reached metaphase II stage compared with the control cumulus-oocyte complexes matured without sericin (P ≤ 0.05). The present findings indicated that supplementation with 0.5% sericin during the maturation culture may improve the nuclear maturation and the cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the percentage of blastocysts obtained from 0.5% and 0.1% sericin (37.8 ± 1.76% and 34.8 ± 1.09%, respectively) was higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the control medium (29.60 ± 1.67%). However, addition of 1% and 2.5% of sericin to the IVM medium oocytes had a negative effect on nuclear maturation and cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the percentage of cleavage and blastocyst rate was significantly lower in the 1% and 2.5% sericin groups than in the control group. These findings showed that supplementation of IVM medium with 0.5% sericin may improve the meiotic competence of oocytes and early embryonic development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season. PMID:26411362

  8. Comparison of an animal product free medium and normal growth supplement on the growth and barrier integrity of a human corneal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Peter J; Clothier, Richard H

    2005-10-01

    With the development of defined media for general and specific use with cell cultures, and concern over the use of human cells and over potential prion infections associated with growth factor extracts such as bovine pituitary extract, an animal product-free medium has become available. The basic keratinocyte defined medium can be used with a choice of animal product-containing or animal product-free supplements. Human corneal epithelia cell lines were cultured in the media with these two types of supplement, and compared in terms of their growth rates, their capacity to form tight barriers, and calcium regulation of the location of a junction-associated protein, zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1). The growth rates were not different in the two media, as long as the recommended coating was applied to the culture flask for the animal product-free medium. The barrier function was equally effective for confluent cultures seeded at the same densities. A calcium concentration of 100 microM or above resulted in ZO-1 localisation at the cell membrane in either medium. Hence, cultures in the media are comparable, when the coating is employed. Further experiments are being conducted to establish the comparability of responses to chronic treatment with surfactants. PMID:16268762

  9. A short-acting GLP-1 analog or prandial insulin to supplement basal insulin?--Moving toward personalized management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Irl B; Schneider, Doron; King, Aaron; Polonsky, William H; Reid, Timothy S; Shubrook, Jay; Verderese, Carol A; Wallace, Jeffrey; Riddle, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    New models of health care delivery that emphasize patient-centered care affirm the need for alternatives to add-on prandial insulin therapy when optimized basal insulin fails to maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Regimens that are easy to teach, convenient, and flexible generally improve the outlook for long-term success. Our review reconsiders traditional barriers to insulin intensification in primary care and provides an illustration of how the benefits and drawbacks of > 1 choice of action--specifically, adding rapid-acting insulin or a short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog--can be weighed by the patient and provider together to determine the best next treatment step that balances efficacy, safety, and adherence to therapy. Technological, organizational, and interpersonal strategies for applying personalized management at this often challenging crossroads of diabetes management are also described. PMID:24918799

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  11. Effect of supplementing a fibre basal diet with different nitrogen forms on ruminal fermentation and microbial growth in an in vitro semi-continuous culture system (RUSITEC)

    PubMed

    Carro, M D; Miller, E L

    1999-08-01

    Incubation trials were carried out with the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) to study the effects of four forms of N on the growth of ruminal micro-organisms and the fermentation variables when an all-fibre basal diet was incubated. The basal diet consisted of 10 g neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) from grass hay plus 2 g NDF from sugarbeet pulp. N forms were isolated soyabean protein, soyabean peptides, amino acids blended to profile soyabean protein and NH3 as NH4Cl. Half of the daily N supply was infused as NH4Cl and the other half was infused as each of the four treatments described. Non-NH3 N (NAN) forms increased NDF (P = 0.006), acid-detergent fibre (P = 0.003) and cellulose (P = 0.015) disappearance after 48 h incubation, CO2 (P < 0.001), CH4 (P = 0.002) and total volatile fatty acids production (P < 0.001), as well as the molar percentages of isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate, which reflected the fermentation of amino acid C skeletons. NAN treatments also increased microbial N flow (P < 0.001) compared with NH3, with peptides and protein supporting more (P = 0.036) than amino acids. The proportion of microbial N derived from NH3 decreased successively (P < 0.05) with NH3 > amino acids > peptides > protein treatments, indicating preferential uptake of peptides without passage through the NH3 pool. Microbial efficiency (g microbial N/kg organic matter apparent disappearance) was greater (P = 0.002) for the NAN forms than for the NH3 treatment, with peptides and protein treatments supporting higher (P = 0.009) values than amino acid treatment. These results indicate that N forms other than NH3 are required for optimal fibre digestion and microbial growth. PMID:10743487

  12. Assessment of different levels of enset (Ensete ventricosum) corm as an energy supplement in sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars Olav

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of enset corm as a supplement to sheep fed Rhodes grass hay. Thirty local yearling rams with a mean (±SD) body weight of 16.97 (±1.13) kg were used. Six sheep were allocated to each of the five treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were hay ad libitum and 129 g dry matter (DM) corm (T1), 188 g DM corm (T2), 248 g DM corm (T3), 100 g DM noug (T4) cake, and hay alone (T5). One hundred grams of noug seedcake was supplemented for all treatments except T5. Total DM and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep in T1, T2, and T3 were the highest (P < 0.05) compared with sheep in other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest DM and OM. The total crude protein (CP) intakes of sheep in T3 and T2 were greater (P < 0.05) than the other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest CP. The apparent DM and OM digestibility coefficients of T1, T2, and T3 diets were higher (P < 0.05) compared with T5. The lowest (P < 0.05) CP digestibility was in T5, whereas the digestibility among the supplemented groups was similar (P > 0.05). The daily body weight gain for T1, T2, and T3 diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that of T5. The feed conversion efficiency for T1 and T2 was higher (P < 0.05) than T5, while T4 had an intermediate value. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention was in sheep fed T3 diet, while the lowest was in those fed T5. It is concluded that farmers can supplement enset corm at 129 g DM/day as an alternative energy source to improve the productivity of sheep for small-scale farmers under enset-livestock production systems. PMID:24715206

  13. Enhanced anthocyanin production from grape callus in an air-lift type bioreactor using a viscous additive-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kousuke; Nagamori, Eiji; Omote, Mariko; Kato, Yoshihito; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    An N-medium containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was applied to an air-lift type bioreactor culture of grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Bailey alicant A.) callus, and anthocyanin production was investigated. Grape callus grew well at an air flow rate of 80 ml/min and anthocyanin production was significantly increased in the N-medium, reaching 17 mg/l after 7 d of culture. The anthocyanin content of the N-medium was about two times higher than that of the conventional medium without CMC. The effect of air flow rate was also investigated within the range from 40 to 160 ml/min. A twofold increase in anthocyanin content was obtained at all the air flow rates tested in the N-medium. The distribution of grape callus size obtained after 7 d of the bioreactor culture was investigated. The average callus size was 490 mum which was 1.6 times larger than that obtained in the conventional medium. It was found that large calli with a relatively high anthocyanin pigment content were formed in the bioreactor culture using the N-medium. The fluid dynamics in the bioreactor was also investigated at three points (top, middle and bottom) in the bioreactor by laser doppler velocimetry. The average axial velocity of the circulated medium was 0.4 times lower than that of the conventional medium while their average radial velocities were almost the same (zero). The standard deviation of radial velocity fluctuation in the N-medium was also 0.4 times less than that in the conventional medium. These results suggest that turbulent flow occurred in the bioreactor culture using the conventional medium and the degree of turbulent flow decreased significantly when 0.8% CMC was added to the medium to prepare the N-medium. A change of the flow pattern is considered to be the cause of the decrease in hydrodynamic stress, resulting in enhanced pigment production due to the enlargement of the callus. PMID:16233283

  14. A novel chemical-defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements supports undifferentiated growth in human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yanxia; Song Zhihua; Zhao Yang; Qin Han; Cai Jun; Zhang Hong; Yu Tianxin; Jiang Siming; Wang Guangwen; Ding Mingxiao; Deng Hongkui . E-mail: hongkui_deng@pku.edu.cn

    2006-07-21

    Traditionally, undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells or on matrigel with an MEF-conditioned medium (CM), which hampers the clinical applications of hESCs due to the contamination by animal pathogens. Here we report a novel chemical-defined medium using DMEM/F12 supplemented with N2, B27, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [termed NBF]. This medium can support prolonged self-renewal of hESCs. hESCs cultured in NBF maintain an undifferentiated state and normal karyotype, are able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and differentiate into three germ layers and extraembryonic cells. Furthermore, we find that hESCs cultured in NBF possess a low apoptosis rate and a high proliferation rate compared with those cultured in MEF-CM. Our findings provide a novel, simplified chemical-defined culture medium suitable for further therapeutic applications and developmental studies of hESCs.

  15. Supplemented αMEM/F12-based medium enables the survival and growth of primary ovarian follicles encapsulated in alginate hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Tagler, David; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Anderson, Nicholas R.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel-encapsulating culture systems for ovarian follicles support the in vitro growth of secondary follicles from various species including mouse, non-primate human, and human; however, the growth of early stage follicles (primary and primordial) has been limited. While encapsulation maintains the structure of early stage follicles, feeder cell populations, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), are required to stimulate growth and development. Hence, in this report, we investigated feeder-free culture environments for early stage follicle development. Mouse ovarian follicles were encapsulated within alginate hydrogels and cultured in various growth medium formulations. Initial studies employed embryonic stem cell medium formulations as a tool to identify factors that influence the survival, growth, and meiotic competence of early stage follicles. The medium formulation that maximized survival and growth was identified as αMEM/F12 supplemented with fetuin, insulin, transferrin, selenium, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This medium stimulated the growth of late primary (average initial diameter of 80 µm) and early secondary (average initial diameter of 90 µm) follicles, which developed antral cavities and increased to terminal diameters exceeding 300 µm in 14 days. Survival ranged from 18% for 80 µm follicles to 36% for 90 µm follicles. Furthermore, 80% of the oocytes from surviving follicles with an initial diameter of 90–100 µm underwent germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and the percentage of metaphase II (MII) eggs was 50%. Follicle/oocyte growth and GVBD/MII rates were not significantly different from MEF co-culture. Survival was reduced relative to MEF co-culture, yet substantially increased relative to the control medium that had been previously used for secondary follicles. Continued development of culture medium could enable mechanistic studies of early stage folliculogenesis and emerging strategies for fertility preservation. PMID:23801027

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  17. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls.

    PubMed

    Panyakaew, P; Boon, N; Goel, G; Yuangklang, C; Schonewille, J Th; Hendriks, W H; Fievez, V

    2013-12-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional organization. KO contains similar amounts of C12:0 as CO (420 and 458 g/kg FA, respectively), but has a higher proportion of C14:0 (464 v. 205 g/kg FA, respectively). Treatments contained 35 g supplemental fat per kg DM: a control diet with tallow (T); a diet with supplemental CO; and a diet with supplemental KO. A 4th treatment consisted of a diet with similar amounts of MCFA (i.e. C10:0+C12:0+C14:0) from CO and KO. To ensure isolipidic diets, extra tallow was supplied in the latter treatment (KO+T). Eight fistulated bulls (two bulls per treatment), fed a total mixed ration predominantly based on cassava chips, rice straw, tomato pomace, rice bran and soybean meal (1.5% of BW), were used. Both KO and CO increased the rumen volatile fatty acids, in particular propionate and decreased acetate proportions. Protozoal numbers were reduced through the supplementation of an MCFA source (CO, KO and KO+T), with the strongest reduction by KO. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays based on archaeal primers showed a decrease in abundance of Archaea when supplementing with KO and KO+T compared with T and CO. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the rumen archaeal population did not result in a grouping of treatments. Richness indices were calculated from the number of DGGE bands, whereas community organization was assessed from the Pareto-Lorenz evenness curves on the basis of DGGE band intensities. KO supplementation (KO and KO+T treatments) increased richness and evenness within the archaeal community. Further research including methane measurements and productive animals should elucidate whether KO could be used as a dietary methane mitigation strategy. PMID:24237673

  18. Isolation of uncultivated anaerobic thermophiles from compost by supplementing cell extract of Geobacillus toebii in enrichment culture medium.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Woo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Park, Ja Ryeong; Kim, Byung-Chun; Park, Yong-Ha

    2005-12-01

    Several researchers have reported that microorganisms can be cultivated only in the presence of other microorganisms. We suggest that a portion of uncultivated microorganisms might be cultivated in the presence of cellular components released from bacteria in their natural environments. In this study, the cell extract of Geobacillus toebii was used to enrich uncultivated thermophiles from compost. In the process of enrichment cultures, cell extract supplementation apparently changed the community composition. This change was monitored by PCR-DGGE targeting 16S rRNA gene. Five novel groups of microorganisms (similarity of 16S rRNA gene to the closest relative <96%) were specifically isolated from enrichment cultures by using cell extract-supplemented culture media. Their growth was found to be dependent on the addition of extract of G. toebii. Putting these findings together, we suggest that the extracts of bacteria could be one of the growth factors in the thermal ecosystem with a possibility of extending other ecological niches. PMID:16041476

  19. Timely initiation of basal insulin.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Matthew C

    2004-02-01

    Recognition of the basal and postprandial components of hyperglycemia, in tandem with the development of new insulins and other clinical research, has led to a reassessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. In the future, insulin will be used earlier, treatment will intensify as the disease progresses, and combination therapy will be routine. Hyperglycemia can be controlled initially with sulfonylureas and metformin, agents that mainly improve control of fasting and preprandial glucose. When glycemic control can no longer be achieved with these and other oral agents alone, insulin treatment can be started as a single injection of a long-acting insulin. This method of supplementing basal insulin is safe, simple, and less likely to cause weight gain than multiple daily injections with shorter-acting insulins. Continuing oral agents during basal insulin therapy can provide a smoother transition to insulin and reduce the risk of loss of glycemic control. Of currently available insulins, glargine has the activity profile best suited to basal insulin therapy, with no prominent activity peak and a long duration of action, allowing a single daily injection in most cases. Although the traditional approach has been to introduce insulin therapy only after very high glucose values have persisted, despite prolonged use of oral agents alone, a more desirable strategy would be to prevent patients from ever experiencing the loss of glycemic control associated with hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) elevations >7%. This goal could be achieved by diagnosing type 2 diabetes earlier in its course and by adding basal insulin to oral therapy much earlier. To maintain the recommended <7% HbA(1c) target level of control, treatments that target postprandial hyperglycemia will have to be added to basal insulin later on, as endogenous insulin continues to decline. PMID:15013454

  20. Development of porcine embryos from one- and two-cell stages to blastocysts in culture medium supplemented with porcine oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Archibong, A E; Petters, R M; Johnson, B H

    1989-12-01

    Oviductal fluid (OVF) was harvested chronically from 5 sows beginning on Day 1 of the estrous cycle (Day 0 of estrous cycle = day of detected estrus) and used for embryo culture (Day 3 OVF only). Two experiments were conducted to investigate in vitro development of 1-cell and 2-cell porcine embryos in a modified Kreb's Ringer bicarbonate medium (culture medium, CM), early luteal phase OVF or CM supplemented with OVF (CM-OVF, 25% OVF v/v in CM) with or without transfer to fresh CM. In Experiment 1, 1-cell and 2-cell embryos were harvested from sows (n = 7) approximately 44 h after detected estrus. In Experiment 2, 1-cell embryos were collected from 5 sows treated with altrenogest and gonadotropins, approximately 50 h after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. The volume of OVF (ml) declined progressively throughout the 4 days of collection (24 h, 8.44 +/- 0.28; 48 h, 6.88 +/- 1.78; 72 h, 4.96 +/- 0.35; 96 h, 4.64 +/- 0.25 after onset of estrus; p less than .01). In both experiments, development to blastocyst stage was lowest among embryos cultured in OVF and highest among those cultured in CM-OVF (Experiment 1: CM, 27.3; OVF, 10; CM-OVF, 63.6; Experiment 2: CM, 26.7; OVF, 0; CM-OVF, 82.4; % blastocyst formation).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2624868

  1. Conifer embryogenic tissue initiation: improvements by supplementation of medium with D-xylose and D-chiro-inositol.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Chase, Kelly-Marie; Skryabina, Anna; Bucalo, Kylie

    2009-01-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (LP, Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue and to continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment may decrease this recalcitrance. Sugar and sugar alcohol analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiologic concentrations (Pullman, G.S. and M. Buchanan. 2008. Identification and quantitative analysis of stage-specific carbohydrates in LP (Pinus taeda) zygotic embryo and female gametophyte tissues. Tree Physiol. 28:985-996). Major differences in stage-specific sugars were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate the potential growth promotion of individual carbohydrates added to initiation or multiplication media at physiologic concentrations. Seventeen sugars were screened. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase the initiation of LP. d-xylose and d-chiro-inositol produced statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth. When tested for improved initiation in P. taeda, Pseudotsuga menziesii (mirb) Franco and Picea abies L., Karst., d-xylose increased the averages of initiation by 6.5%, 7.3% and 16.7%, respectively. d-chiro-inositol increased the initiation in P. taeda by 7.3% in one test but not in the other, whereas in P. menziesii the initiation increases averaged 8.4% in two tests. Analyses of sugars and sugar alcohols in the seed environment coupled with a bioassay to screen potential media supplements for protocol improvement resulted in statistically significant increases in embryogenic tissue initiation for several coniferous species. PMID:19203940

  2. Enhancing Basal Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenfest, Ashleigh; Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This article addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to…

  3. Common Words Not Taught in Basal Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward; Sakiey, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Notes that basal series commonly used in kindergarten through grade six teach only about half of the most common English words. Offers a list of 382 common words that do not appear in the books and suggests that teachers supplement their basals with their own word learning lessons. (FL)

  4. Supplementation of conventional freezing medium with a combination of catalase and trehalose results in better protection of surface molecules and functionality of hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Sasnoor, Lalita M; Kale, Vaijayanti P; Limaye, Lalita S

    2003-10-01

    Our previous studies had shown that a combination of the bio-antioxidant catalase and the membrane stabilizer trehalose in the conventional freezing mixture affords better cryoprotection to hematopoietic cells as judged by clonogenic assays. In the present investigation, we extended these studies using several parameters like responsiveness to growth factors, expression of growth factor receptors, adhesion assays, adhesion molecule expression, and long-term culture-forming ability. Cells were frozen with (test cells) or without additives (control cells) in the conventional medium containing 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Experiments were done on mononuclear cells (MNC) from cord blood/fetal liver hematopoietic cells (CB/FL) and CD34(+) cells isolated from frozen MNC. Our results showed that the responsiveness of test cells to the two early-acting cytokines, viz. interleukin-3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor (SCF) in CFU assays was better than control cells as seen by higher colony formation at limiting concentrations of these cytokines. We, therefore, analyzed the expression of these two growth factor receptors by flow cytometry. We found that in cryopreserved test MNC, as well as CD34(+) cells isolated from them, the expression of both cytokine receptors was two- to three-fold higher than control MNC and CD34(+) cells isolated from them. Adhesion assays carried out with CB/FL-derived CD34(+) cells and KG1a cells showed significantly higher adherence of test cells to M210B4 than respective control cells. Cryopreserved test MNC as well as CD34(+) cells isolated from them showed increased expression of adhesion molecules like CD43, CD44, CD49d, and CD49e. On isolated CD34(+) cells and KG1a cells, there was a two- to three-fold increase in a double-positive population expressing CD34/L-selectin in test cells as compared to control cells. Long-term cultures (LTC) were set up with frozen MNC as well as with CD34(+) cells. Clonogenic cells from LTC were enumerated at the end of the fifth week. There was a significantly increased formation of CFU from test cells than from control cells, indicating better preservation of early progenitors in test cells. Our results suggest that use of a combination of catalase and trehalose as a supplement in the conventional freezing medium results in better protection of growth factor receptors, adhesion molecules, and functionality of hematopoietic cells, yielding a better graft quality. PMID:14594512

  5. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  6. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  7. Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bardy, Cedric; van den Hurk, Mark; Eames, Tameji; Marchand, Cynthia; Hernandez, Ruben V; Kellogg, Mariko; Gorris, Mark; Galet, Ben; Palomares, Vanessa; Brown, Joshua; Bang, Anne G; Mertens, Jerome; Böhnke, Lena; Boyer, Leah; Simon, Suzanne; Gage, Fred H

    2015-05-19

    Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. We found that classic basal media, as well as serum, impair action potential generation and synaptic communication. To overcome this problem, we designed a new neuronal medium (BrainPhys basal + serum-free supplements) in which we adjusted the concentrations of inorganic salts, neuroactive amino acids, and energetic substrates. We then tested that this medium adequately supports neuronal activity and survival of human neurons in culture. Long-term exposure to this physiological medium also improved the proportion of neurons that were synaptically active. The medium was designed to culture human neurons but also proved adequate for rodent neurons. The improvement in BrainPhys basal medium to support neurophysiological activity is an important step toward reducing the gap between brain physiological conditions in vivo and neuronal models in vitro. PMID:25870293

  8. Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bardy, Cedric; van den Hurk, Mark; Eames, Tameji; Marchand, Cynthia; Hernandez, Ruben V.; Kellogg, Mariko; Gorris, Mark; Galet, Ben; Palomares, Vanessa; Brown, Joshua; Bang, Anne G.; Mertens, Jerome; Bhnke, Lena; Boyer, Leah; Simon, Suzanne; Gage, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. We found that classic basal media, as well as serum, impair action potential generation and synaptic communication. To overcome this problem, we designed a new neuronal medium (BrainPhys basal + serum-free supplements) in which we adjusted the concentrations of inorganic salts, neuroactive amino acids, and energetic substrates. We then tested that this medium adequately supports neuronal activity and survival of human neurons in culture. Long-term exposure to this physiological medium also improved the proportion of neurons that were synaptically active. The medium was designed to culture human neurons but also proved adequate for rodent neurons. The improvement in BrainPhys basal medium to support neurophysiological activity is an important step toward reducing the gap between brain physiological conditions in vivo and neuronal models in vitro. PMID:25870293

  9. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor before taking a dietary supplement. What About Herbal Supplements? Herbal supplements are dietary supplements that come from plants. A ... and black cohosh . Researchers are looking at using herbal supplements to prevent or treat some health problems. It’s ...

  10. Basal thumb arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Richard; Chandrasenan, Jeevan; Rajaratnam, Vaikunthan; Burke, Frank D

    2007-01-01

    Basal thumb arthritis is a common condition seen in hand clinics across the United Kingdom and is often associated with other pathological conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and scaphotrapezial arthritis. Typically, patients complain of pain localised to the base of the thumb. This pain is often activity related, particularly after excessive use involving forceful pinch. A detailed history and examination is normally all that is needed to make the diagnosis. Provocative manoeuvres may be helpful in localising symptoms to the basal joint with degenerative changes or synovitis. Radiographs are useful for confirming the diagnosis and staging the disease in order to plan for surgery. The mainstay of initial treatment of basal thumb arthritis of any stage is activity modifications, rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, exercises and splinting. A variety of surgical procedures are available to treat the condition when conservative measures have failed, in order to control symptoms and improve function. We review the current literature and discuss the clinical aspects of this condition, staging, and treatment options available, and the difficulties treating this group of patients. PMID:17267677

  11. Basal thumb arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Richard; Chandrasenan, Jeevan; Rajaratnam, Vaikunthan; Burke, Frank D

    2007-01-01

    Basal thumb arthritis is a common condition seen in hand clinics across the United Kingdom and is often associated with other pathological conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and scaphotrapezial arthritis. Typically, patients complain of pain localised to the base of the thumb. This pain is often activity related, particularly after excessive use involving forceful pinch. A detailed history and examination is normally all that is needed to make the diagnosis. Provocative manoeuvres may be helpful in localising symptoms to the basal joint with degenerative changes or synovitis. Radiographs are useful for confirming the diagnosis and staging the disease in order to plan for surgery. The mainstay of initial treatment of basal thumb arthritis of any stage is activity modifications, rest, nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, exercises and splinting. A variety of surgical procedures are available to treat the condition when conservative measures have failed, in order to control symptoms and improve function. We review the current literature and discuss the clinical aspects of this condition, staging, and treatment options available, and the difficulties treating this group of patients. PMID:17267677

  12. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. PMID:26284828

  13. Cortical Basal Ganglionic Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Chin, Steven S.; Marder, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms. PMID:14602941

  14. Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Scarmeas, N; Chin, S S; Marder, K

    2001-10-01

    In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms. PMID:14602941

  15. Basal Septal Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kelshiker, Mihir A.; Mayet, Jamil; Unsworth, Beth; Okonko, Darlington O.

    2013-01-01

    A significant clinical problem is patients presenting with exercise-limiting dyspnoea, sometimes with associated chest pain, in the absence of detectable left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, coronary artery disease, or lung disease. Often the patients are older, female, and have isolated basal septal hypertrophy (BSH), frequently on a background of mild hypertension. The topic of breathlessness in patients with clinical heart failure, but who have a normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) has attracted significant controversy over the past few years. This review aims to analyse the literature on BSH, identify the possible associations between BSH and HFNEF, and consequently explore possible pathophysiological mechanisms whereby clinical symptoms are experienced. PMID:24313643

  16. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  17. Establishment of two chicken embryonic cell lines in a newly developed nutrient medium.

    PubMed

    Kadoi, Katsuyuki

    2010-10-01

    Two cell lines, named KCEK and KCEL, were established from chicken embryonic kidney and lung. The basal culture medium was newly developed and the cell growth medium consisted of K1999 supplemented with 10% heat inactivated chicken serum. Both cells were well adapted to grow in vitro and more than 50 passages have been made so far. Once the cell lines were established the cells were easily adapted to grow in other growth media supplemented with fetal calf serum. Neither tumor formation in chicks nor P52 avian leucosis common antigen was detected in these cells. However, the oncogene analysis on these cells has not been performed yet. Both cells were permissive hosts for the Aujeszky's disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus. PMID:21213599

  18. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC. PMID:25134314

  19. Paramecium tetraurelia basal body structure.

    PubMed

    Tassin, Anne-Marie; Lemullois, Michel; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium is a free-living unicellular organism, easy to cultivate, featuring ca. 4000 motile cilia emanating from longitudinal rows of basal bodies anchored in the plasma membrane. The basal body circumferential polarity is marked by the asymmetrical organization of its associated appendages. The complex basal body plus its associated rootlets forms the kinetid. Kinetids are precisely oriented within a row in correlation with the cell polarity. Basal bodies also display a proximo-distal polarity with microtubule triplets at their proximal ends, surrounding a permanent cartwheel, and microtubule doublets at the transition zone located between the basal body and the cilium. Basal bodies remain anchored at the cell surface during the whole cell cycle. On the opposite to metazoan, there is no centriolar stage and new basal bodies develop anteriorly and at right angle from the base of the docked ones. Ciliogenesis follows a specific temporal pattern during the cell cycle and both unciliated and ciliated docked basal bodies can be observed in the same cell. The transition zone is particularly well organized with three distinct plates and a maturation of its structure is observed during the growth of the cilium. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been performed in different organisms including Paramecium to understand the ciliogenesis process. The data have incremented a multi-organism database, dedicated to proteins involved in the biogenesis, composition and function of centrosomes, basal bodies or cilia. Thanks to its thousands of basal bodies and the well-known choreography of their duplication during the cell cycle, Paramecium has allowed pioneer studies focusing on the structural and functional processes underlying basal body duplication. Proteins involved in basal body anchoring are sequentially recruited to assemble the transition zone thus indicating that the anchoring process parallels the structural differentiation of the transition zone. This feature offers an opportunity to dissect spatio-temporally the mechanisms involved in the basal body anchoring process and transition zone formation. PMID:26862393

  20. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens. PMID:26981235

  1. Tetrahymena basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Bayless, Brian A; Galati, Domenico F; Pearson, Chad G

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahymena thermophila is a ciliate with hundreds of cilia primarily used for cellular motility. These cells propel themselves by generating hydrodynamic forces through coordinated ciliary beating. The coordination of cilia is ensured by the polarized organization of basal bodies (BBs), which exhibit remarkable structural and molecular conservation with BBs in other eukaryotes. During each cell cycle, massive BB assembly occurs and guarantees that future Tetrahymena cells gain a full complement of BBs and their associated cilia. BB duplication occurs next to existing BBs, and the predictable patterning of new BBs is facilitated by asymmetric BB accessory structures that are integrated with a membrane-associated cytoskeletal network. The large number of BBs combined with robust molecular genetics merits Tetrahymena as a unique model system to elucidate the fundamental events of BB assembly and organization. PMID:26793300

  2. FSH supplementation to culture medium is beneficial for activation and survival of preantral follicles enclosed in equine ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, F L N; Lunardi, F O; Lima, L F; Rocha, R M P; Bruno, J B; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cibin, F W S; Nunes-Pinheiro, D C S; Gastal, M O; Rodrigues, A P R; Apgar, G A; Gastal, E L; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of adding different concentrations of bovine recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on the IVC of equine preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments. Randomized ovarian fragments were fixed immediately (fresh noncultured control) or cultured for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM(+) supplemented with 0, 10, 50, and 100 ng/mL FSH and subsequently analyzed by classical histology. Culture media collected on Day 1 or Day 7 and were analyzed for steroids (estradiol and progesterone) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). After Day 1 and Day 7 of culture, 50-ng/mL FSH treatment had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of morphologically normal follicles when compared to the other groups, except the 10-ng/mL FSH treatment at Day 1 of culture. The percentage of developing follicles (transition, primary, and secondary), and follicular and oocyte diameters were higher (P < 0.05) in the 50-ng/mL FSH treatment compared to the other groups after Day 7 of culture. Furthermore, estradiol secretion and ROS production were maintained (P > 0.05) throughout the culture in the 50-ng/mL FSH treatment. In conclusion, the addition of 50 ng/mL of FSH promoted activation of primordial follicles to developing follicles, improved survival of preantral follicles, and maintained estradiol and ROS production of equine ovarian tissue after 7 days of culture. PMID:26723132

  3. Basal Twinning of Hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Fábio; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Barbosa, Paola

    2013-04-01

    When two crystals share a plane, there is a twinning composition plane. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a symmetrical manner. Crystallographers classify twinned crystals by a number of twin laws. These twin laws are specific to the crystal system. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic tool in mineral identification and characterization. Many twin laws cannot be recognized in ordinary optical analysis. So, the advent of diffraction techniques to describe punctual crystallographic orientation facilitated the identification of many twinned crystals in rocks. Samples containing hematite of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by EBSD technique. Crystallographic orientation data were obtained from automatically indexed EBSD patterns collected on a JEOL JSM-5510. EBSD analysis was carried out on thin sections cut perpendicular to the foliation (XZ plane) and parallel to the stretching lineation (X-direction). Thin sections were polished before EBSD analysis. EBSD patterns were indexed using CHANNEL 5 software from HKL Technology, Oxford Instruments. The resulting data are presented in form of pole figures (upper hemisphere, equal angle, stereographic projection) and of colour-coded maps using Coincidence Site Lattice (∑ 3) and Twin Boundaries Components. Through electron backscatter diffraction analysis of hematite grains was possible to detect twin boundaries similar to Dauphiné twinning in quartz that is not described for hematite. Dauphiné twinning in trigonal α-quartz consists of a 60° rotation around the c-axis resulting in a reversal of the crystallographic positive and negative forms (Frondel 1962). As both minerals show similar symmetry, the same mechanism can be described for hematite in this analysis. The basal twinning of hematite developed pervasively during the incipient stage of deformation. This paper investigates the relationships between this kind of twinning, deformation conditions and microstructural modifications in hematite grains. The results show that the presence of twins exerts an important role in the distribution of the intracrystalline plastic deformation in hematite, as well as in the activation of different sets of slip systems. We estimate that basal twin bands can be preferred sites for dynamic recrystallization.

  4. In vivo formation of bone and hematopoietic territories by transplanted human bone marrow stromal cells generated in medium with and without osteogenic supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Mankani, Mahesh H; Robey, Pamela Gehron

    2011-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has been successfully used for bone reconstruction. However, in order to advance this approach into the mainstream of bone tissue engineering, the conditions for BMSC cultivation and transplantation must be optimized. In a recent report, cultivation with dexamethasone (Dex) significantly increased bone formation by human BMSCs in vivo. Based on this important conclusion, we analyzed the data accumulated by our laboratory where human BMSCs have been routinely generated using media both with and without a combination of two osteogenic supplements: Dex at 10-8M and ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) at 10-4M. Our data demonstrate that for 22 out of 24 donors, BMSC strains propagated with and without Dex/AscP formed similar amounts of bone in vivo. Thus, human BMSCs do not appear to need to be induced to osteogenic differentiation ex vivo prior to transplantation. Similarly, for 12 of 14 donors, BMSC strains cultured with and without Dex/AscP formed hematopoietic territories to a comparable extent. While Dex/AscP did not increase bone formation, they significantly stimulated BMSC in vitro proliferation without affecting the number of BMSC colonies formed by the Colony Forming Units-Fibroblast. We conclude that for the substantial majority of donors, Dex/AscP have no effect on the ability of BMSCs to form bone and myelosupportive stroma in vivo. However, due to increased BMSC proliferation, the total osteogenic population obtained from a single marrow sample is larger after cultivation with Dex/AscP than without them. Secondary to increased BMSC proliferation, Dex/AscP may stimulate bone formation if BMSCs and/or the transplantation system are less than optimal. PMID:22052864

  5. Enhancement of dalesconols A and B production via upregulation of laccase activity by medium optimization and inducer supplementation in submerged fermentation of Daldinia eschscholzii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hua; Jiao, Rui-Hua; Lu, Yan-Hua; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Dalesconols (dalesconols A and B) are novel polyketides with strong immunosuppressive activity produced by Daldinia eschscholzii. In this work, the effects of different media (M1, M2, and M3) on fungus growth and dalesconols biosynthesis were firstly tested and compared. Intermediates and enzyme analysis indicated that laccase had the major contribution to dalesconols biosynthesis. The key role of laccase on dalesconols biosynthesis was further experimentally confirmed, which suggested that the modified M2 was more favored for laccase and dalesconols production. Thereafter, the medium composition was optimized by RSM with a fermentation titer of 36.66 mg/L obtained. Furthermore, Ca(2+) induction was employed to up-regulate of laccase activity and further enhanced dalesconols production (76.90 mg/L), which was 308% higher than that in M2. In addition, dalesconols production reached 63.42 mg/L in scale-up experiments. This work indicated great potential of laccase as a key enzyme on regulation of dalesconols production. PMID:26056775

  6. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Ring, H; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are important links between parts of the brain that have classically been considered to be related to emotional functioning and brain regions previously considered to have largely motor functions. The basal ganglia have a role in the development and integration of psychomotor behaviours, involving motor functions, memory and attentional mechanisms, and reward processes. PMID:11784818

  7. Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid

    PubMed Central

    LIU, TE; HUANG, YONGYI; BU, YANZHEN; ZHAO, YANHUI; ZOU, GANG; LIU, ZHIXUE

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin− HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and β-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA-E-cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and β-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

  8. Preparation, quality criteria, and properties of human blood platelet lysate supplements for ex vivo stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-25

    Most clinical applications of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases require a phase of isolation and ex vivo expansion allowing a clinically meaningful cell number to be reached. Conditions used for cell isolation and expansion should meet strict quality and safety requirements. This is particularly true for the growth medium used for MSC isolation and expansion. Basal growth media used for MSC expansion are supplemented with multiple nutrients and growth factors. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has long been the gold standard medium supplement for laboratory-scale MSC culture. However, FBS has a poorly characterized composition and poses risk factors, as it may be a source of xenogenic antigens and zoonotic infections. FBS has therefore become undesirable as a growth medium supplement for isolating and expanding MSCs for human therapy protocols. In recent years, human blood materials, and most particularly lysates and releasates of platelet concentrates have emerged as efficient medium supplements for isolating and expanding MSCs from various origins. This review analyzes the advantages and limits of using human platelet materials as medium supplements for MSC isolation and expansion. We present the modes of production of allogeneic and autologous platelet concentrates, measures taken to ensure optimal pathogen safety profiles, and methods of preparing PLs for MSC expansion. We also discuss the supply of such blood preparations. Produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety, human platelet materials can become the future 'gold standard' supplement for ex vivo production of MSCs for translational medicine and cell therapy applications. PMID:24929129

  9. Hedgehog signaling in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Levesque, Mitchell P; Dummer, Reinhard; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer, is occasionally aggressive with deep invasion, destruction of adjacent structures, recurrence and, on very rare occasions, regional and distant metastases. Mutations that occur in BCC in hedgehog (Hh) pathway genes primarily involve the genes encoding patched homolog (PTCH) and smoothened homolog (SMO). Several animal models have demonstrated the functional relevance of genetic alterations in the Hh pathway during tumorigenesis. Recently, targeted therapy has become available both commercially and in the context of human clinical trials. Interestingly, Hh pathway inhibitors not only suppress BCC progression but also promote acquired immune responses. Since immune responses are crucial for long-term tumor control, new clinical trials, such as those involving a combination of Hh inhibitors with immune modifiers, are needed to supplement standard methods of tumor control. PMID:25766766

  10. [Basal and spinous cell epitheliomas].

    PubMed

    Shaw, M; Sanguinetti, O; de Kaminsky, A R; Kaminsky, C A

    1975-01-01

    A study on 502 epithelial cutaneous cancers was carried out by the authors. The study included 377 basal cell carcinomas (57,5% in males and 42,4% in females) and 125 squamous cell carcinomas (78,4% in males and 21,6% in females). The basal cell carcinomas in both sexs had an earlier onset than the squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:1241706

  11. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  12. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  13. Giant polypoid basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McElroy, J; Knight, T E; Chang-Stroman, L

    1996-10-01

    Basal cell carcinomas may attain giant proportions due primarily to recurrence and neglect. Giant basal cell carcinomas (5 cm or more in diameter) are of four clinical subtypes: noduloulcerative, morpheaform, superficial, and polypoid. We report a patient with a typical polypoid lesion of fifteen years' duration on his shoulder. The polypoid variant differs from other giant basal cell carcinomas in several important ways: the polypoid lesions appear on the torso or extremity, rather than the head or neck, as beefy-red, friable, exophytic masses for which the patient typically has had no previous treatment; the histologic type tends to be nonaggressive; and finally, the lesions are amenable to surgical cure with low metastatic potential. PMID:8894428

  14. Teachers' Decisions and Basal Reader Teachers' Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, William D.

    Five speculations can be made about basal-series reading instruction: if it sells well, it may be bad; basal series may be based on marketing principles rather than educational principles; possession of a basal series by a school district tells llittle or nothing about the instruction in the school district that owns it; stories in basal series

  15. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  16. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  17. Basal cell nevus syndrome - plantar pits (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas (skin cancers). This ... close-up of the pits found on the sole of the foot of an individual with basal ...

  18. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  19. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... How FDA Helps You How to Be a Smart Shopper Dietary supplements are products that people add to their diets. They include vitamins, minerals, herbs, and amino acids. They can be pills, liquids, powders or energy bars. Although dietary supplements can help support good ...

  20. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy ... keeping bones strong. Pregnant women can take the vitamin folic acid to prevent ... provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  1. English as a Second Language: A Support System for the Basal Reading Series. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John H., Jr.; And Others

    The manual supplements "English as a Second Language Program: A Support System for the Basal Readers," an oral language guide that is a compilation of objectives and activities that use a sequential and systematic approach to develop language skills and concepts. Designed to help teachers and other instructional personnel in the implementation of…

  2. Novel culture medium for the axenic growth of Balamuthia mandrillaris.

    PubMed

    Lares-Jiménez, Luis Fernando; Gámez-Gutiérrez, Ricardo Alfredo; Lares-Villa, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    Until now, for axenic cultivation of Balamuthia mandrillaris, the BM-3 culture medium and the Modified Chang's special medium have been the only ones recommended, but they have some disadvantages, as both require many components and their preparations are laborious. Therefore, we developed a novel culture medium for B. mandrillaris axenic cultivation. Each one of the 11 components of BM-3 was combined with Cerva's medium as basal culture medium. Ten strains of B. mandrillaris including the reference strain CDC:V039 and 9 environmental isolates were used during trials. After testing all combinations, the basal medium complemented with 10× Hank's balanced salt solution was the only one that supported confluent growth of B. mandrillaris. Cell shape and motility of trophozoites were normal. This developed medium is as useful as BM-3 for axenization. The development of a cheaper and easy-to-prepare medium for B. mandrillaris opens the possibility of increasing its study. PMID:25957459

  3. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... calcium: Drink more fluids. Eat high-fiber foods Switch to another form of calcium if the diet ... Washington, DC, 2010. Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent ...

  4. Culture of primary lung tumors using medium conditioned by a lung carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, J M

    1989-10-01

    Medium conditioned by the established lung tumor cell line A549 was used as a supplement to culture cells from primary solid lung tumors. Of 36 cases placed into culture, primary cells were obtained in 33 (91.7%). Of 29 cases in which subcultures were attempted, 18 (62.1%) were successful. Nine cell lines have been established by this technique to date. In growth assays, conditioned medium (CM) was found to stimulate both monolayer colony formation and growth in semi-solid medium of cells cultured from primary solid tumors. CM has been found to contain factors with the properties of both transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The addition of a combination of these factors as purified peptides to basal medium at levels found in CM (0.1-0.5 ng/ml) stimulated colony formation of lung tumor cells by up to fourfold. These results indicate that secretion of growth factors may be important in tumor growth in vivo, and that use of CM may be a valuable tool for obtaining cultures from primary solid tumors. PMID:2559086

  5. The cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Eiji; Tremblay, Léon; Féger, Jean; Carras, Peter L; Strick, Peter L

    2005-11-01

    The cerebral cortex is interconnected with two major subcortical structures: the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. How and where cerebellar circuits interact with basal ganglia circuits has been a longstanding question. Using transneuronal transport of rabies virus in macaques, we found that a disynaptic pathway links an output stage of cerebellar processing, the dentate nucleus, with an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. PMID:16205719

  6. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26550910

  7. [Basal-like breast cancer: a review].

    PubMed

    Treilleux, Isabelle; Morellon-Mialhe, Blandine

    2009-06-01

    Breast cancers of basal phenotype have been identified by molecular profiling and are associated with a poor prognosis. This review describes the morphological characteristics of these tumors and focuses on their profiling using immunohistochemistry: absence of detectable hormone receptors and HER2, expression of basal cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14), myoepithelial markers (p63, smooth muscle actin) and HER1. This phenotype may be encountered in all histological types of breast cancer and is further divided into three subtypes according to prognosis and protein profiling. Pure basal and basal/myoepithelial subtypes have a poor prognosis in contrast to the myoepithelial subtype. PMID:19619822

  8. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  9. Effects of the composition of the basal diet on the evaluation of mineral phosphorus sources and interactions with phytate hydrolysis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Shastak, Y; Zeller, E; Witzig, M; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the availability of P from mineral phosphate sources by using different basal diets and measurement of P retention and prececal (pc) P digestibility as well as pc myo-inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation in broilers. Semi-synthetic and corn-soybean meal-based basal diets were used in experiment 1, and corn-based and wheat-based basal diets were used in experiment 2. Anhydrous monosodium phosphate (MSPa) or monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPh) was supplemented to increment the P concentration by 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% or by 0.075 and 0.150% in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were pelleted through a 3-mm screen. In experiment 1, retention was measured based on total excreta collection from 20 to 24 d of age using 7 replicated birds per diet. In experiment 2, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected from 22-d-old broilers penned in groups of 19 with 5 replicated pens per diet. The P retention response to supplemented MSPa did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 1. The response in pc P digestibility to MCPh supplements also did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 2, as calculated by linear regression analysis. Hydrolysis of InsP6 measured on both the excreta and pc levels was high in the basal diets without a mineral P supplement. Mineral P supplementation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) InsP6 hydrolysis from the InsP-containing diets in both experiments. Thus, the choice of the basal diet did not affect the evaluation of the supplemented mineral P source. However, calculated values for mineral P sources need to be adjusted for the decline in hydrolysis of InsP contained in the basal diet that results from the P supplement. PMID:25085939

  10. Basal ganglia echogenicity in tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Krzysztof; Serafin-Król, Małgorzata; Szlachta, Karol; Friedman, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Accumulating data confirm the usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The relevance of basal ganglia abnormalities depicted by TCS in atypical parkinsonian syndromes still needs further assessment. In the present study, 20 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 13 patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) were studied with the use of transcranial sonography. Echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) and lenticular nucleus (LN) were assessed. 0/20 patients with PSP and 8/12 (66.6 %) patients with CBS were characterized with SN hyperechogenicity. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 9/20 patients diagnosed with PSP and 0/11 of CBS patients. The combination of SN isoechogenicity and LN hyperechogenicity reached 100 % sensitivity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of PSP. The results of this study point out that CBS has to be taken into consideration when SN hyperechogenicity is depicted in a patient with parkinsonian syndrome. Normal echogenicity of the SN coexisting with LN hyperechogenicity practically excludes CBS. PMID:25204278

  11. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  12. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  13. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372

  14. Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, S.L.; Ham, R.G.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient medium, (MCDB 170, supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, and bovine pituitary extract. Replacement of pituitary extract with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and ovine prolactin yields a defined medium that supports rapid clonal growth and serial subculture for three of four passages. Cultures initiated in these media from normal reduction mammoplasty tissue remain diploid and maintain normal epithelia morphology, distribution of cell-associated fibronectin, expression of keratin fibrils, and a low level of expression of milk fat globule antigen. Large cell populations can now be generated and stored frozen, permitting multiple experiments over a period of time with cells from a single donor. These media greatly extend the range of experiments that can be performed both conveniently and reproducibly with cultured normal and tumor-derived human mammary epithelial cells. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Autofluorescence of Basal Laminar Drusen

    PubMed Central

    Meyerle, Catherine B.; Smith, R. Theodore; Barbazetto, Irene; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We report three cases illustrating autofluorescence (AF) of basal laminar drusen (BLD) in comparison to conventional fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA). Since patients with BLD are at risk for development of pseudovitelliform detachment of the macula which may masquerade as choroidal neovascularization (CNV), detection is essential for proper clinical evaluation and management. Methods Twenty patients with BLD were studied with AF and conventional imaging. AF imaging employed an excitation filter at 580 nm and a barrier filter at 695 nm with acquisition by a Topcon 50X fundus camera. Three selected patients with different degrees of BLD are presented. Corresponding detail regions in each image modality were enlarged for comparison. The AF detail image was registered by a projective transformation in Matlab (Mathworks 7.0, Natick, MA) with the color photograph/red free photograph (RF) and/or FA image detail for exact superimposition in Photoshop and lesion comparison. Results Each visible drusen in the color or red free photograph corresponded when superimposed to a focal hypoautofluorescent lesion in the AF image. However, similar to the “starry-sky pattern” in FA, the AF lesions significantly outnumbered the clinically evident drusen. Image registration revealed subtle depigmentation in the color image for some of the remaining AF lesions. When BLD lesions were not advanced enough to show the classic “starry sky” fluorescein hyperfluorescence, the BLD were detectable with AF. Conclusions AF imaging demonstrates a higher level of sensitivity than conventional fundus photography and is less invasive than FA. When BLD lesions are not advanced enough to show the classic “starry-sky” fluorescein hyperfluorescence, fundus AF appears to demonstrate a higher level of sensitivity. This imaging modality, therefore, is a valuable aid in diagnosing and following BLD, particularly since these patients are at risk for development of pseudovitelliform detachment which may simulate CNV. PMID:18040253

  16. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jelena; Stanić, Dušanka; Dmitrašinović, Gordana; Plećaš-Solarović, Bosiljka; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Batinić, Bojan; Popović, Dejana; Pešić, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is highly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. It is known that regular physical activity has positive effects on health; however several studies have shown that acute and strenuous exercise can induce oxidative stress and lead to DNA damage. As magnesium is essential in maintaining DNA integrity, the aim of this study was to determine whether four-week-long magnesium supplementation in students with sedentary lifestyle and rugby players could prevent or diminish impairment of DNA. By using the comet assay, our study demonstrated that the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with basal endogenous DNA damage is significantly higher in rugby players compared to students with sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, magnesium supplementation significantly decreased the number of cells with high DNA damage, in the presence of exogenous H2O2, in PBL from both students and rugby players, and markedly reduced the number of cells with medium DNA damage in rugby players compared to corresponding control nonsupplemented group. Accordingly, the results of our study suggest that four-week-long magnesium supplementation has marked effects in protecting the DNA from oxidative damage in both rugby players and in young men with sedentary lifestyle. Clinical trial is registered at ANZCTR Trial Id: ACTRN12615001237572. PMID:27042258

  17. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, Jelena; Stanić, Dušanka; Dmitrašinović, Gordana; Plećaš-Solarović, Bosiljka; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Batinić, Bojan; Popović, Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is highly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. It is known that regular physical activity has positive effects on health; however several studies have shown that acute and strenuous exercise can induce oxidative stress and lead to DNA damage. As magnesium is essential in maintaining DNA integrity, the aim of this study was to determine whether four-week-long magnesium supplementation in students with sedentary lifestyle and rugby players could prevent or diminish impairment of DNA. By using the comet assay, our study demonstrated that the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with basal endogenous DNA damage is significantly higher in rugby players compared to students with sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, magnesium supplementation significantly decreased the number of cells with high DNA damage, in the presence of exogenous H2O2, in PBL from both students and rugby players, and markedly reduced the number of cells with medium DNA damage in rugby players compared to corresponding control nonsupplemented group. Accordingly, the results of our study suggest that four-week-long magnesium supplementation has marked effects in protecting the DNA from oxidative damage in both rugby players and in young men with sedentary lifestyle. Clinical trial is registered at ANZCTR Trial Id: ACTRN12615001237572. PMID:27042258

  18. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal population in post-pharyngeal glands of leaf-cutting ants after lipid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2015-01-01

    The post-pharyngeal gland (PPG) occurs in ants and some Sphecidae wasps. Among its several roles is the storage of lipids from food. In order to investigate the effect of lipids on the cell, especially on mitochondria and peroxisomes, the present study was aimed at examining the peroxisomal and mitochondrial population in the PPG of Atta sexdens rubropilosa after lipid supplementation by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Soybean oil provided as lipid supplement was not toxic for A. sexdens rubropilosa workers for the first 48 h and 120 h. However, the ultrastructural cytochemical analysis revealed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the PPGs of ants after lipid supplementation at 48 h and 120 h, and smaller lipid droplets in the basal membrane of the PPG epithelium, showing lipid mobilization from the PPG to the hemolymph. The lipid supplementation reduces the life expectancy of medium workers, probably due to the high lipid metabolism. Most importantly, the PPGs of medium workers of leaf-cutting A. sexdens rubropilosa is probably a specialized gland in the lipid metabolism, due to the increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal population inside cells after lipid supplementation; participation of peroxisomal population in the ?-oxidation of long chain fatty acids into smaller chains and participation of mitochondrial population in the ?-oxidation of fatty acids for energy, or mobilization of lipid derivatives from the PPG to hemolymph, a process that requires energy. However, the hypothesis that the PPGs convert lipids from food in aldehydes and/or hydrocarbons must be better investigated. PMID:25203360

  19. Growth of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.S.; De Vellis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Astrocytes purified from primary cultures of neonatal rat cerebrum can not be grown in a synthetic medium supplemented with putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, insulin, fibroblast growth factor, and hydrocortisone. These five supplements have a marked synergistic effect on growth when used in combination but have little effect when used individually. Astrocytes grown in the defined medium exhibit dramatic changes in morphological characteristics in comparison to cells grown in serum-free or serum-supplemented medium. In addition, these cells express the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and are estimated by several criteria to be greater than 95% astrocytes.

  20. New Tetrahymena basal body protein components identify basal body domain structure.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Chandra L; Pearson, Chad G; Romijn, Edwin P; Meehl, Janet B; Giddings, Thomas H; Culver, Brady P; Yates, John R; Winey, Mark

    2007-09-10

    Basal bodies organize the nine doublet microtubules found in cilia. Cilia are required for a variety of cellular functions, including motility and sensing stimuli. Understanding this biochemically complex organelle requires an inventory of the molecular components and the contribution each makes to the overall structure. We define a basal body proteome and determine the specific localization of basal body components in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. Using a biochemical, bioinformatic, and genetic approach, we identify 97 known and candidate basal body proteins. 24 novel T. thermophila basal body proteins were identified, 19 of which were localized to the ultrastructural level, as seen by immunoelectron microscopy. Importantly, we find proteins from several structural domains within the basal body, allowing us to reveal how each component contributes to the overall organization. Thus, we present a high resolution localization map of basal body structure highlighting important new components for future functional studies. PMID:17785518

  1. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  2. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  3. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis. PMID:25746660

  4. Basal body components exhibit differential protein dynamics during nascent basal body assembly.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Chad G; Giddings, Thomas H; Winey, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Basal bodies organize cilia that are responsible for both mechanical beating and sensation. Nascent basal body assembly follows a series of well characterized morphological events; however, the proteins and their assembly dynamics for new basal body formation and function are not well understood. High-resolution light and electron microscopy studies were performed in Tetrahymena thermophila to determine how proteins assemble into the structure. We identify unique dynamics at basal bodies for each of the four proteins analyzed (alpha-tubulin, Spag6, centrin, and Sas6a). alpha-Tubulin incorporates only during new basal body assembly, Spag6 continuously exchanges at basal bodies, and centrin and Sas6a exhibit both of these patterns. Centrin loads and exchanges at the basal body distal end and stably incorporates during new basal body assembly at the nascent site of assembly and the microtubule cylinder. Conversely, both dynamic and stable populations of Sas6a are found only at a single site, the cartwheel. The bimodal dynamics found for centrin and Sas6a reveal unique protein assembly mechanisms at basal bodies that may reflect novel functions for these important basal body and centriolar proteins. PMID:19056680

  5. Action, time and the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Henry H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control the speed of movement is compromised in neurological disorders involving the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical cerebral nuclei that receive prominent dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. For example, bradykinesia, slowness of movement, is a major symptom of Parkinson's disease, whereas rapid tics are observed in patients with Tourette syndrome. Recent experimental work has also implicated dopamine (DA) and the basal ganglia in action timing. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the basal ganglia control the rate of change in kinaesthetic perceptual variables. In particular, the sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia network implements a feedback circuit for the control of movement velocity. By modulating activity in this network, DA can change the gain of velocity reference signals. The lack of DA thus reduces the output of the velocity control system which specifies the rate of change in body configurations, slowing the transition from one body configuration to another. PMID:24446506

  6. Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is ‘processed’ within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical ‘premotor’ regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic integration of functionally diverse information derived from the cortex. It is concluded that the essential concept of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia remains intact but that the role of the indirect pathway is more complex than previously suggested and that neurons of the globus pallidus are in a position to control the activity of virtually the whole of the basal ganglia. PMID:10923985

  7. Basal Ganglia Damage in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haining; Okubo, Shuichi; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a primary therapeutic target, and early SAH-induced basal ganglia injury is not well studied. The present study examined basal ganglia injury in a rat model of SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) weighing 275-300 g underwent endovascular perforation to mimic aneurysmal SAH. Sham rats (n = 12) underwent the same procedure but without perforation. Magnetic resonance imaging (T2 MRI) was performed at 24 h after SAH to measure ventricle volumes and brain T2 lesion. Hydrocephalus in SAH rats was defined as a ventricular volume greater than three standard deviations above that in shams. Western blotting and immunochemistry were utilized to assess basal ganglia damage. Sixty rats survived the SAH and 40 % of those animals had T2 lesions in the basal ganglia. Twenty-six SAH rats had hydrocephalus. Rats with hydrocephalus had higher incidence of basal ganglia lesion (69 vs. 18 % in rats without hydrocephalus; p < 0.01). Basal ganglia neuronal injury was also determined by examining the levels of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32). We found that rats with hydrocephalus had more severe basal ganglia injury with greater DARPP-32 depletion (DARPP-32/beta-actin: 0.38 ± 0.32 vs. 0.86 ± 0.45 in rats without hydrocephalus and 1.10 ± 0.28 in sham, p < 0.05). In conclusion, SAH resulted in severe basal ganglia damage, which is associated with hydrocephalus development. PMID:26463938

  8. Flying saucer located at the basal septum.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Murat; Senkaya, Emine Bilen; Bilge, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Arslantas, Ugur; Karakas, Fatih

    2008-08-01

    Left ventricular thrombus formation is a frequent complication in patients with ischemic heart disease and is associated with a high risk of systemic embolization. Generally, thrombi localize at the apical segment. However, thrombus localized at the basal septum has not been reported yet. In this case, we discuss a flying saucer shaped mass located at the basal septum, which was later diagnosed as thrombus after anticoagulant therapy. PMID:18422664

  9. Antioxidants Supplementation in Elderly Cardiovascular Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Susana; Azzato, F.; Milei, José

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with antioxidants and its benefit-risk relationship have been largely discussed in the elderly population. We evaluated whether antioxidants supplementation improved the biochemical profile associated with oxidative metabolism in elderly cardiovascular patients. Patients (n = 112) received daily supplementation with α-TP 400 mg, beta-carotene 40 mg, and vitamin C 1000 mg for 2 months (treatment). Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (α-TP), β-carotene (βC), ubiquinol-10 (QH-10), glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined before and after treatment. Response to treatment was dependent on pretreatment α-TP and βC levels. Increase in α-TP and βC levels was observed only in patients with basal levels <18 μM for α-TP (P < 0.01) and <0.30 μM for βC (P < 0.02). Ubiquinol-10, glutathione, and TBARS were unaffected by treatment: QH-10 (+57%, F1,110 = 3.611, P < 0.06, and N.S.), glutathione (+21%, F1,110 = 2.92, P < 0.09, and N.S.), and TBARS (−29%, F1,110 = 2.26, P < 0.14, and N.S.). Treatment reduced oxidative metabolism: 5.3% versus 14.6% basal value (F1,110 = 9.21, P < 0.0003). Basal TBARS/α-TP ratio was higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers: 0.11 ± 0.02 versus 0.06 ± 0.01 (F32,80 = 1.63, P < 0.04). Response to antioxidant supplementation was dependent on basal plasma levels of α-TP and βC. Smoking status was strongly associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and high TBARS/α-TP ratio (lipid peroxidation). PMID:24489984

  10. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. PMID:21889598

  11. Availability of the basal planes of graphene oxide determines whether it is antibacterial.

    PubMed

    Hui, Liwei; Piao, Ji-Gang; Auletta, Jeffrey; Hu, Kan; Zhu, Yanwu; Meyer, Tara; Liu, Haitao; Yang, Lihua

    2014-08-13

    There are significant controversies on the antibacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO): GO was reported to be bactericidal in saline, whereas its activity in nutrient broth was controversial. To unveil the mechanisms underlying these contradictions, we performed antibacterial assays under comparable conditions. In saline, bare GO sheets were intrinsically bactericidal, yielding a bacterial survival percentage of <1% at 200 μg/mL. Supplementing saline with ≤10% Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, however, progressively deactivated its bactericidal activity depending on LB-supplementation ratio. Supplementation of 10% LB made GO completely inactive; instead, ∼100-fold bacterial growth was observed. Atomic force microscopy images showed that certain LB components were adsorbed on GO basal planes. Using bovine serum albumin and tryptophan as well-defined model adsorbates, we found that noncovalent adsorption on GO basal planes may account for the deactivation of GO's bactericidal activity. Moreover, this deactivation mechanism was shown to be extrapolatable to GO's cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Taken together, our observations suggest that bare GO intrinsically kills both bacteria and mammalian cells and noncovalent adsorption on its basal planes may be a global deactivation mechanism for GO's cytotoxicity. PMID:25026597

  12. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows’ diets. PMID:25050036

  13. The growth of paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betaine when growing anaerobically.

  14. The growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betanine when growing anaerobically.

  15. Effects of medium concentration on antibody production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody production by two different cell lines was measured as the media were supplemented with varied amounts of glucose and fetal bovine serum. Both cell lines elaborated antidinitrophenyl hapten antibodies. Two basic media were used: RPMI 1640 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The production of antibodies was followed from 0 to 180 h and was assayed by radioimmunoassay.

  16. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  17. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with C3-monocarboxylates and C4-dicarboxylates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to examine aerobic growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with C4-dicarboxylates (fumarate, succinate, or malate) and C3-monocarboxylates (pyruvate or lactate). Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplement...

  18. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Protein Expression in Basal Cell Adenomas and Basal Cell Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tesdahl, Brennan A; Wilson, Thomas C; Hoffman, Henry T; Robinson, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell adenomas and basal cell adenocarcinomas show marked histomorphologic similarity and are separated microscopically primarily by the invasive characteristics of the adenocarcinomas. We wished to explore potential differences in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated proteins in these two tumor types. A tissue microarray was constructed utilizing 29 basal cell adenomas and 16 basal cell adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, Twist 1 and vimentin were investigated. Both tumors expressed all proteins in a relatively similar manner. Nuclear beta-catenin was essentially limited to the abluminal cell populations in both tumor types. E-cadherin was limited largely to luminal locations but was more prevalent in the adenocarcinomas as compared to the adenomas. Primarily abluminal expression for vimentin was seen, sometimes present in an apical dot-like pattern. Distinct populations of cellular expression of these four markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition were present but were similar in locations in both tumors with no patterns discerned to separate basal cell adenoma from basal cell adenocarcinoma. Given these findings, the mechanisms by which basal cell adenocarcinoma is able to invade while its counterpart, basal cell adenoma can not, may be more complex than in other tumor types. PMID:26442856

  19. Psychopharmacologic intervention after hemorrhagic basal ganglia damage.

    PubMed

    Al Owesie, Rafat Mohammed; Morton, Catherine Saino

    2012-11-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cognitive and behavioral impairments such as poor attention, learning, memory and planning ability and uncontrolled crying that can be more persistent problems than the physical disabilities. Cognitive enhancers have been shown to improve cognitive and behavioral impairments in patients with hemorrhagic basal ganglia lesions as well as other forms of TBI. There is little research about the use of cognitive enhancers after hemorrhagic basal ganglia damage. We present a case of a 38 year old male who made significant recovery with the use of cognitive enhancers. PMID:22795553

  20. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By performing graph theoretical analyses it turns out that beside the caudate putamen further regions like the mesencephalic reticular formation, amygdaloid complex and ventral tegmental area are important nodes in the basal ganglia connectome. The connectome data of this meta-study of tract-tracing reports of the basal ganglia are available for further network studies, the integration into neocortical connectomes and further extensive investigations of the basal ganglia dynamics in population simulations. PMID:25432770

  1. Altered Basal Ganglia Network Integration in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Mingjun; Chen, Xi; He, Hui; Jiang, Yuchao; Jiang, Sisi; Xie, Qiankun; Lai, Yongxiu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia involve in a range of functions that are disturbed in schizophrenia patients. This study decomposed the resting-state data of 28 schizophrenia patients and 31 healthy controls with spatial independent component analysis and identified increased functional integration in the bilateral caudate nucleus in schizophrenia patients. Further, the caudate nucleus in patients showed altered functional connection with the prefrontal area and cerebellum. These results identified the importance of basal ganglia in schizophrenia patients. Clinical Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Registration number ChiCTR-RCS-14004878. PMID:26528167

  2. GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTER ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the main cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans, and contaminated poultry products are major sources of campylobacteriosis. In this study, the growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with organic acids was examined. Tryptose-yeast extract basal broth mediu...

  3. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and supplements you use. These products can cause problems with surgery, including bleeding problems with anesthesia. You should stop using herbal health products or supplements at least ...

  4. Extending the Basal. Learning Package No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Norma; Smith, Carl, Comp.

    Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on extending the basal is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…

  5. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinoma on Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sudip; Kunal, Pranaya; Kishore, Barunesh; Ghosh, Kisalay

    2016-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  6. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  7. Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Control Motor Behavior and Basal Ganglia Function in Experimental Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Nicolas; Liberge, Martine; Jaouen, Florence; Ztaou, Samira; Hanini, Marwa; Camon, Jeremy; Deisseroth, Karl; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne

    2015-10-27

    Despite evidence showing that anticholinergic drugs are of clinical relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD), the causal role of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in PD pathophysiology remains elusive. Here, we show that optogenetic inhibition of CINs alleviates motor deficits in PD mouse models, providing direct demonstration for their implication in parkinsonian motor dysfunctions. As neural correlates, CIN inhibition in parkinsonian mice differentially impacts the excitability of striatal D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons, normalizes pathological bursting activity in the main basal ganglia output structure, and increases the functional weight of the direct striatonigral pathway in cortical information processing. By contrast, CIN inhibition in non-lesioned mice does not affect locomotor activity, equally modulates medium spiny neuron excitability, and does not modify spontaneous or cortically driven activity in the basal ganglia output, suggesting that the role of these interneurons in motor function is highly dependent on dopamine tone. PMID:26489458

  8. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The basal ganglia occupy a commanding place in neuroscience research, in clinical neurology and in biomedical education. The paucity of our understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in normal everyday life combined with our more extensive knowledge of their deficiencies in a variety of clinical syndromes is a potent spur to continuing investigation. That some of these neurodegenerative syndromes-such as Parkinson's disease-are already common only heightens the need for insight in the face of a population with increasing expectations of longevity. About a decade ago an explosion of information on the connectivity and immunocytochemistry of forebrain structures gave rise to concepts which have shaped the fabric of basal ganglia theory-'patch and matrix', 'disinhibition', 'parallel circuits'. Some of these ideas seemed to facilitate an understanding of the basal ganglia, others to render them more complex and impenetrable. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the work of the last decade has tended towards consolidation and refinement. However, several new developments are receiving attention, many of them related to disorders of the basal ganglia. The realisation that some forms of Parkinson's disease have a genetic determinant is gaining strength. The molecular biology of the dopaminergic synapse on the one hand and of the production of insoluble proteins on the other will clearly influence future research into therapeutic options and neuroprotection. The importance of apoptosis, neural plasticity and free radical formation remains unresolved but these are potential areas of promise. Meanwhile, scanning techniques for brain imaging are allowing real time investigation of the working striatum in normal and disordered humans and animals.We believe that the time is opportune for a broad review of current thinking on the basal ganglia in health and disease. The following articles are based on presentations given at a Symposium on the Neurobiology of the Basal Ganglia held at Glasgow University in July 1999 as part of the Summer Meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. The invited speakers were chosen to be wide ranging and contributions encompassed evolution, circuitry and receptors of the basal ganglia, striatal remodelling after dopamine loss, striatal functioning in humans with Huntington's disease and in primate models after midbrain fetal transplants, and the genetics of basal ganglia disorders. Short presentations and posters of current results supplemented the main presentations and some are also included amongst these reviews. PMID:10960285

  9. Humanized Foxp2 specifically affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Reimers-Kipping, S; Hevers, W; Pääbo, S; Enard, W

    2011-02-23

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution and influence aspects of speech and language. Recently it was shown that when these substitutions are introduced into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice, they increase dendrite length and long-term depression (LTD) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we investigated if these effects are found in other brain regions. We found that neurons in the cerebral cortex, the thalamus and the striatum have increased dendrite lengths in the humanized mice whereas neurons in the amygdala and the cerebellum do not. In agreement with previous work we found increased LTD in medium spiny neurons, but did not detect alterations of synaptic plasticity in Purkinje cells. We conclude that although Foxp2 is expressed in many brain regions and has multiple roles during mammalian development, the evolutionary changes that occurred in the protein in human ancestors specifically affect brain regions that are connected via cortico-basal ganglia circuits. PMID:21111790

  10. Micropropagation of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. 'Dura': Comparison of three basal media for efficient regeneration.

    PubMed

    Muniran, F; Bhore, Subhash J; Shah, Farida H

    2008-01-01

    Three basal plant tissue culture media, namely, N6, MS, and modified Y3, were compared to optimize micropropagation protocol for E. guineensis. Full strength media were used separately to regenerate plantlets directly using immature zygotic embryos (IZEs), and through somatic embryogenesis of calli obtained from IZEs. The plantlets regenerated by direct regeneration on three media were examined for shoot length and rooting percentage. For the induction of callus, somatic embryogenesis, and rooting modified Y3 medium was the most effective. In conclusion, the results indicate that modified Y3 medium is the most suitable for direct regeneration, callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in E. guineensis. PMID:18697576

  11. Use of diet crossover to determine the effects of ß-glucan supplementation on immunity and growth of Nile Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were fed either a basal, control diet (n=6 aquaria) or a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg ß-glucan (n=24 aquaria) for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, fish receiving ß-glucan were continued on the same diet (n=12 aquaria) or switched to the basal diet (n=1...

  12. Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Barcia, Carlos; Navarro, Juana Mari

    2002-08-01

    THALAMUS: The human thalamus is a nuclear complex located in the diencephalon and comprising of four parts (the hypothalamus, the epythalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the dorsal thalamus). The thalamus is a relay centre subserving both sensory and motor mechanisms. Thalamic nuclei (50-60 nuclei) project to one or a few well-defined cortical areas. Multiple cortical areas receive afferents from a single thalamic nucleus and send back information to different thalamic nuclei. The corticofugal projection provides positive feedback to the "correct" input, while at the same time suppressing irrelevant information. Topographical organisation of the thalamic afferents and efferents is contralateral, and the lateralisation of the thalamic functions affects both sensory and motoric aspects. Symptoms of lesions located in the thalamus are closely related to the function of the areas involved. An infarction or haemorrhage thalamic lesion can develop somatosensory disturbances and/or central pain in the opposite hemibody, analgesic or purely algesic thalamic syndrome characterised by contralateral anaesthesia (or hypaesthesia), contralateral weakness, ataxia and, often, persistent spontaneous pain. BASAL GANGLIA: Basal ganglia form a major centre in the complex extrapyramidal motor system, as opposed to the pyramidal motor system (corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways). Basal ganglia are involved in many neuronal pathways having emotional, motivational, associative and cognitive functions as well. The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) receive inputs from all cortical areas and, throughout the thalamus, project principally to frontal lobe areas (prefrontal, premotor and supplementary motor areas) which are concerned with motor planning. These circuits: (i) have an important regulatory influence on cortex, providing information for both automatic and voluntary motor responses to the pyramidal system; (ii) play a role in predicting future events, reinforcing wanted behaviour and suppressing unwanted behaviour, and (iii) are involved in shifting attentional sets and in both high-order processes of movement initiation and spatial working memory. Basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits maintain somatotopic organisation of movement-related neurons throughout the circuit. These circuits reveal functional subdivisions of the oculomotor, prefrontal and cingulate circuits, which play an important role in attention, learning and potentiating behaviour-guiding rules. Involvement of the basal ganglia is related to involuntary and stereotyped movements or paucity of movements without involvement of voluntary motor functions, as in Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy or Huntington's disease. The symptoms differ with the location of the lesion. The commonest disturbances in basal ganglia lesions are abulia (apathy with loss of initiative and of spontaneous thought and emotional responses) and dystonia, which become manifest as behavioural and motor disturbances, respectively. PMID:12192499

  13. What do the basal ganglia do?

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Marsden, C D

    1998-06-13

    We propose that the basal ganglia support a basic attentional mechanism operating to bind input to output in the executive forebrain. Such focused attention provides the automatic link between voluntary effort, sensory input, and the calling up and operation of a sequence of motor programmes or thoughts. The physiological basis for this attentional mechanism may lie in the tendency of distributed, but related, cortical activities to synchronise in the gamma (30 to 50 Hz) band, as occurs in the visual cortex. Coherent and synchronised elements are more effective when convergence occurs during successive stages of processing, and in this way may come together to give the one gestalt or action. We suggest that the basal ganglia have a major role in facilitating this aspect of neuronal processing in the forebrain, and that loss of this function contributes to parkinsonism and abulia. PMID:9635969

  14. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution. PMID:26130238

  15. Active decorrelation in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J

    2013-10-10

    The cytoarchitecturally-homogeneous appearance of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra has long been said to imply a high degree of afferent convergence and sharing of inputs by nearby neurons. Moreover, axon collaterals of neurons in the external segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata arborize locally and make inhibitory synapses on other cells of the same type. These features suggest that the connectivity of the basal ganglia may impose spike-time correlations among the cells, and it has been puzzling that experimental studies have failed to demonstrate such correlations. One possible solution arises from studies of firing patterns in basal ganglia cells, which reveal that they are nearly all pacemaker cells. Their high rate of firing does not depend on synaptic excitation, but they fire irregularly because a dense barrage of synaptic inputs normally perturbs the timing of their autonomous activity. Theoretical and computational studies show that the responses of repetitively-firing neurons to shared input or mutual synaptic coupling often defy classical intuitions about temporal synaptic integration. The patterns of spike-timing among such neurons depend on the ionic mechanism of pacemaking, the level of background uncorrelated cellular and synaptic noise, and the firing rates of the neurons, as well as the properties of their synaptic connections. Application of these concepts to the basal ganglia circuitry suggests that the connectivity and physiology of these nuclei may be configured to prevent the establishment of permanent spike-timing relationships between neurons. The development of highly synchronous oscillatory patterns of activity in Parkinson's disease may result from the loss of pacemaking by some basal ganglia neurons, and accompanying breakdown of the mechanisms responsible for active decorrelation. PMID:23892007

  16. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  17. Naegleria: a classic model for de novo basal body assembly.

    PubMed

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K; Fulton, Chandler

    2016-01-01

    The amoeboflagellate Naegleria was one of the first organisms in which de novo basal body/centriole assembly was documented. When in its flagellate form, this single-celled protist has two flagella that are templated by two basal bodies. Each of these basal bodies is structurally well conserved, with triplet microtubules and well-defined proximal cartwheel structures, similar to most other eukaryotic centrioles. The basal bodies are anchored to the nucleus by a single, long striated rootlet. The Naegleria genome encodes many conserved basal body genes whose expression is induced prior to basal body assembly. Because of the rapid and synchronous differentiation from centriole-less amoebae to temporary flagellates with basal bodies, Naegleria offers one of the most promising systems to study de novo basal body assembly, as well as the mechanisms regulating the number of centrioles assembled per cell. PMID:27047659

  18. The effect of tenascin and embryonic basal lamina on the behavior and morphology of neural crest cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Halfter, W; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R; Tucker, R P

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated the morphology and migratory behavior of quail neural crest cells on isolated embryonic basal laminae or substrata coated with fibronectin or tenascin. Each of these substrata have been implicated in directing neural crest cell migration in situ. We also observed the altered behavior of cells in response to the addition of tenascin to the culture medium independent of its effect as a migratory substratum. On tenascin-coated substrata, the rate of neural crest cell migration from neural tube explants was significantly greater than on uncoated tissue culture plastic, on fibronectin-coated plastic, or on basal lamina isolated from embryonic chick retinae. Neural crest cells on tenascin were rounded and lacked lamellipodia, in contrast to the flattened cells seen on basal lamina and fibronectin-coated plastic. In contrast, when tenascin was added to the culture medium of neural crest cells migrating on isolated basal lamina, a significant reduction in the rate of cell migration was observed. To study the nature of this effect, we used human melanoma cells, which have a number of characteristics in common with quail neural crest cells though they would be expected to have a distinct family of integrin receptors. A dose-dependent reduction in the rate of translocation was observed when tenascin was added to the culture medium of the human melanoma cell line plated on isolated basal laminae, indicating that the inhibitory effect of tenascin bound to the quail neural crest surface is probably not solely the result of competitive inhibition by tenascin for the integrin receptor. Our results show that tenascin can be used as a migratory substratum by avian neural crest cells and that tenascin as a substratum can stimulate neural crest cell migration, probably by permitting rapid detachment. Tenascin in the medium, on the other hand, inhibits both the migration rates and spreading of motile cells on basal lamina because it binds only the cell surface and not the underlying basal lamina. Cell surface-bound tenascin may decrease cell-substratum interactions and thus weaken the tractional forces generated by migrating cells. This is in contrast to the action of fibronectin, which when added to the medium stimulates cell migration by binding both to neural crest cells and the basal lamina, thus providing a bridge between the motile cells and the substratum. PMID:2465193

  19. Options for intensification of basal insulin in type 2 diabetes: Premeal insulin or short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists?

    PubMed

    Darmon, P; Raccah, D

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an evolutive disease with a progressive defect of beta-cell insulin secretion. This characteristic points to a need for treatment that takes into account such a natural history. When oral antidiabetic drugs fail to achieve the patient's target HbA1c level, basal insulin treatment is usually initiated and titrated in association with oral drugs to manage fasting hyperglycaemia. Over a period of time, it is enough to simply achieve the HbA1c target. However, when even a good fasting blood glucose level is no longer sufficient to control overall glycaemia, then prandial treatment must be combined with the titrated basal insulin to deal with the postprandial hyperglycaemia responsible for the elevation of HbA1c. Of the different therapeutic options now available for this, rapid-acting insulins and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) can be used. Rapid-acting insulins can be added either at each meal, achieving full insulin supplementation with a basal-bolus regimen, or at the main meal only as a "basal-plus" regimen. Compared with the full basal-bolus, the basal-plus strategy is associated with fewer injections, yet provides similar efficacy in terms of HbA1c improvement, but with less weight gain and lower hypoglycaemic risk. As for GLP-1 RAs, numerous studies, and especially those using short-acting GLP-1 RAs, have demonstrated more pronounced effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia, good complementary effects with basal insulin, and significant improvement of HbA1c with no weight gain and a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Similarly, direct and indirect comparisons of the use of rapid-acting insulins and GLP-1 RAs to intensify basal insulin have shown comparable efficacy in terms of HbA1c control, but with less weight gain and fewer hypoglycaemic episodes with GLP-1 RAs. PMID:26774016

  20. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  1. Interplanetary medium data book. Supplement 3: 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    The updating of the hourly resolution, near-Earth solar wind data compilation is discussed. Data plots and listings are then presented. In the text, the time shifting of ISEE 3 fine-scale magnetic field and and plasma data, using corotation delay, and the normalization of IMP-MIT and ISEE densities and temperatures to equivalent IMP-LANL values, are discussed in detail. The levels of arbitrariness in combining data sets, and of random differences between data sets, are elucidated.

  2. Interaction between fat type and lysolecithin supplementation in broiler feeds.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; Nuyens, F; Buyse, J; Leleu, S; Van Campenhout, L

    2015-10-01

    Lysolecithins are added to poultry diets to promote the intestinal absorption of nutrients, in particular of dietary fats. Lysolecithins contain a mixture of phospho- and lysophospholipids and differ in composition depending on the conditions and source of the lecithin used for its production. The importance of the lysolecithin composition and its interaction with the fat type was investigated in vitro in a fat digestion model and in vivo in a digestibility trial with broilers (24 to 28 d age). The in vitro digestion of soybean oil and pig lard was investigated without and with the inclusion of soybean or rapeseed lysolecithin. Correspondingly, for the digestibility trial, 108 Ross 308 male broilers were assigned to 6 dietary treatments: a basal diet with either soybean oil (5.3%) or pig lard (5.8%), each basal diet supplemented with 250 ppm soybean lysolecithin, and each basal diet supplemented with 250 ppm rapeseed lysolecithin. In vitro pig lard digestibility was significantly lower compared to soybean oil digestibility. Although in vivo no significant difference was observed for crude fat digestibility, broilers fed the basal diet with pig lard had a lower (P < 0.05) DM digestibility, nitrogen retention, and AMEn compared to those fed the basal diet with soybean oil. Lysolecithin supplementation showed a significant interaction with the fat type, both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro hydrolysis of pig lard, but not of soybean oil, increased (P < 0.001) with supplementation of soybean and rapeseed lysolecithin. Moreover, soybean and rapeseed lysolecithin supplementation improved (P < 0.05) DM digestibility of the basal diet with pig lard by 5.1 and 5.7%, respectively; nitrogen retention by 2.8 and 3.1 g/kg, respectively; and AMEn by 182 and 199 kcal/kg, respectively. Despite the major difference in molecular composition, there was, however, no impact of the lysolecithin composition on in vitro and in vivo fat digestibility. This study demonstrates that the improvements that can be made with lysolecithin supplementation are highly dependent on the fat incorporated in broiler feeds. PMID:26362973

  3. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PLASMA, MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS, AND UTERINE TISSUE IN PRIMIPAROUS BEEF COWS FED HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental objectives were to evaluate the influence of supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds on fatty acid concentrations in plasma, medial basal hypothalamus, uterine tissues, and serum 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2' metabolite (PGFM) in primiparous beef cows during early lactation. Begin...

  4. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric characteristics of the tumour nests and their associated peritumoral stroma were quantified, and the presence of a marked immune reaction or elastosis was noted. Results The tumour to stroma ratio was different among each tumour subtype. Elastosis was identified in a greater proportion of the infiltrative tumours. Conclusions Quantitative differences exist between the peritumoral stroma of basal cell carcinoma subtypes. Future work exploring the relation between these morphometric differences and biochemical variations in peritumoral stroma may further our understanding of the biology of carcinoma development. Trial Registration Not applicable. PMID:22405101

  5. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commission. Once a dietary supplement is on the market, FDA has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include ... selling these products. It is not legal to market a dietary supplement product as a treatment or ...

  6. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... analysis of studies that looked at magnesium from foods or supplements. Safety No serious side effects were reported in ... still preliminary on the effects on diabetes of supplements and foods rich in polyphenols —antioxidants found in fruits, grains, ...

  7. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/dietarysupplements.html Dietary Supplements Labels Database The Dietary Supplement Label Database—a project of ... links Instagram Read our disclaimer about external links LinkedIn E-mail Updates NCCIH Home Privacy and Policies ...

  8. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  9. Fractionation of a Basal Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, M.; Hernlund, J. W.; Labrosse, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is thought to be sustained by dynamo action in a convecting metallic outer core since at least 3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Convection induces an isentropic temperature gradient that drains 13±3 TW of heat from the core by thermal conduction (de Koker et al., 2012; Pozzo et al., 2012; Gomi et al., 2013), and suggests that Earth's core has cooled by ˜1,000 K or more since Earth's formation (Gomi et al., 2013). However, models of Earth's initial thermal evolution following a giant-impact predict rapid cooling to the mantle melting temperature (e.g., Solomatov, 2007). In order to understand how the core could have retained enough heat to explain the age of the geodynamo, we relax a key assumption of the basal magma ocean model of (Labrosse et al., 2007) to allow for the possibility that the magma is stably stratified. Recent giant impact simulations suggest extensive core-mantle mixing (Saitoh and Makino, 2013), which could have produced such a large stratified magma layer at the core-mantle boundary. In the presence of a stable density gradient, heat transfer through the basal magma ocean occurs through conduction and therefore delays heat loss from the core. Partitioning of iron in the liquid phase upon crystallization changes the density profile and triggers convection in the upper part of the basal magma ocean. Our hypothesis suggests that early core cooling is dominated by the diffusion timescale through the basal magma ocean, and predicts a delayed onset of the geodynamo (i.e, during the late Headean/early Archean). This model can therefore be falsified if the existence of a geomagnetic field can be inferred from magnetization of inclusions in Hadean zircons. N. de Koker et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 190, 4070-4073 (2012).H. Gomi et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 224, 88-103 (2013).S. Labrosse et al., Nature 450, 866-869 (2007).M. Pozzo et al., Nature 485, 355-358 (2012).T. Saitoh and J. Makino. Astrophys. J. 768, 44 (2013).V.S. Solomatov. In Treatise on Geophysics 9, 91-120. Elsevier (2007).J.A. Tarduno et al., Science 327, 1238-1240 (2010).

  10. Basal cell carcinomas: attack of the hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ervin H.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were essentially a molecular ‘black box’ until some 12 years ago, when identification of a genetic flaw in a rare subset of patients who have a great propensity to develop BCCs pointed to aberrant Hedgehog signalling as the pivotal defect leading to formation of these tumours. This discovery has facilitated a remarkable increase in our understanding of BCC carcinogenesis and has highlighted the carcinogenic role of this developmental pathway when aberrantly activated in adulthood. Importantly, a phase 1 first-in-human trial of a Hedgehog inhibitor has shown real progress in halting and even reversing the growth of these tumours. PMID:18813320

  11. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  12. The Sun's immutable basal quiet atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, W.; Wallace, L.

    2003-02-01

    We employ limb darkening, spectral energy distribution (color), and center-disk spectrum line strength to investigate photospheric temporal variability. Current limb-darkening curves agree to 1% with past observations taken at different epochs extending back to 1975. Concerning color, from the data of Labs and Neckel (Cox, 1999) we deduce that the solar limb is 1000 Å more red than disk center. But when integrated over the entire disk to represent the Sun-as-a-star, the color shift is only 30 Å. Color is therefore not a very sensitive indicator of full-disk photospheric change. We examine the center-disk time series for C 5380 Å and Fe 5379 Å equivalent width and the Ca K index. The ratio C 5380/Fe 5379 in equivalent width is 0.4221+0.00011 (+/-0.00003) y-1, indicating secular change but with no cycle modulation. Converted to temperature this variance amounts to +/-0.028 K. This is in contrast to the full-disk cycle modulation of these lines reported by Gray and Livingston (1997b). Ca K index also exhibits no cycle variation at disk center. Taking into account these findings, plus the small fraction of the photosphere occupied by magnetic elements as revealed in high-resolution G-band pictures, we suggest that cycle magnetic fields thread through the basal atmosphere without physical effect; that the basal quiet atmosphere is observationally immutable to the magnetic cycle within the limits given above.

  13. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  14. High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. )

    1992-09-01

    Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

  15. Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori

    2014-01-01

    Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

  16. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak

    PubMed Central

    Polymeropoulos, E. T.; Heldmaier, G.; Frappell, P. B.; McAllan, B. M.; Withers, K. W.; Klingenspor, M.; White, C. R.; Jastroch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence. PMID:21632624

  17. Nerve growth factor corrects developmental impairments of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the trisomy 16 mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, P; Coyle, J T

    1991-01-01

    The trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse, which shares genetic and phenotypic homologies with Down syndrome, exhibits impaired development of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Basal forebrains obtained from Ts16 and euploid littermate fetuses at 15 days of gestation were dissociated and cultured in completely defined medium, with cholinergic neurons identified by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. The Ts16 cultures exhibited fewer ChAT-immunoreactive neurons, which were smaller and emitted shorter, smoother, and more simplified neurites than those from euploid littermates. Whereas the addition of beta-nerve growth factor (100 ng/ml) augmented the specific activity of ChAT and neuritic extension for both Ts16 and euploid cholinergic neurons, only Ts16 cultures exhibited an increase in the number and size of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, Ts16 ChAT-immunoreactive neurites formed varicosities only in the presence of beta-nerve growth factor. Images PMID:2000385

  18. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as the use of basal wedges/prisms and significantly quicker and cheaper than accurate measures such as measuring DBH for all stems or utilising a terrestrial Lidar. Given that the method allows rapid collection ( <30 minutes per site) of this information we anticipate that this method will be widely applicable. Validation of this photopoint method against field measures and terrestrial lidar that was acquired coincidently is progressing and we look forward to further tests to quantify the accuracy of these methods and to account of the effect of occlusion. We are working on automating the extraction of this information and delivering these products freely online. We also hope to investigate the feasibility of the automatic extraction of growth form of species in the photographs to assist with site structural assessment.

  19. Nrf2 sensitizes prostate cancer cells to radiation via decreasing basal ROS levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Yao, Xu-Dong; Li, Wei; Geng, Jiang; Yan, Yang; Che, Jian-Ping; Xu, Yun-Fei; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was reported to lower basal ROS level in prostate cancer (PCa) and to sensitize PCa to radiation. We aimed to seek for the underlying molecular mechanism and to develop novel additive treatments to ADT in this regard. We simulated human androgen milieu in vitro and tested the ROS level in PCa cells undergoing ADT. We also tested the Nrf2 level in PCa cells with or without ADT. Genetic and pharmaceutical upregulation of Nrf2 was applied in vitro and in vivo in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice with or without castration to investigate whether Nrf2 overexpression supplemented the effect of ADT in PCa. We first discovered that androgen deprivation increased basal ROS level in PCa cells with AR expression. We then found that genetic Nrf2 upregulation lowered basal ROS similar to ADT. Also, SFN sensitized PCa cell to radiation via upregulation of Nrf2. We then found that Nrf2 level in control TRAMP groups was lower than castration or SFN groups. The SFN treated TRAMP mice showed similar level of Nrf2 to castration. Genetic and pharmaceutical upregulation of Nrf2 lowered the ROS in PCa cells and sensitized PCa cells to radiation similar to ADT, implicating possible administration of SFN in place of ADT for PCa patients requiring radiotherapy. PMID:25728635

  20. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-07-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  1. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  2. Skeletal ontogeny in basal scleractinian micrabaciid corals.

    PubMed

    Janiszewska, Katarzyna; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2013-03-01

    The skeletal ontogeny of the Micrabaciidae, one of two modern basal scleractinian lineages, is herein reconstructed based on serial micro-computed tomography sections and scanning electron micrographs. Similar to other scleractinians, skeletal growth of micrabaciids starts from the simultaneous formation of six primary septa. New septa of consecutive cycles arise between septa of the preceding cycles from unique wedge-shaped invaginations of the wall. The invagination of wall and formation of septa are accompanied by development of costae alternating in position with septa. During corallite growth, deepening invagination of the wall results in elevation of septa above the level of a horizontal base. The corallite wall is regularly perforated thus invaginated regions consist of pillars inclined downwardly and outwardly from the lower septal margins. Shortly after formation of septa (S2 and higher cycles) their upper margins bend and fuse with the neighboring members of a previous cycle, resulting in a unique septal pattern, formerly misinterpreted as "septal bifurcation." Septa as in other Scleractinia are hexamerally arranged in cycles. However, starting from the quaternaries, septa within single cycles do not appear simultaneously but are inserted in pairs and successively flank the members of a preceding cycle, invariably starting from those in the outermost parts of the septal system. In each pair, the septum adjacent to older septa arises first (e.g., the quinaries between S2 and S4 before quinaries between S3 and S4). Unique features of micrabaciid skeletal ontogeny are congruent with their basal position in scleractinian phylogeny, which was previously supported by microstructural and molecular data. PMID:23065665

  3. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Lamos, Elizabeth M; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration. PMID:27022271

  4. History of Debris-bearing Basal ice: Comparing Numerical Simulations of Basal Freeze-on to Borehole Video Images and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, P.; Tulaczyk, S.

    2002-12-01

    Debris-bearing basal ice are frequently observed in a variety of glaciers as well as in ice cores drilled to the base of modern ice sheets. A common feature of frozen-on basal ice is an layered structure of debris-rich, dirty ice and clean, transparent ice. The thermodynamic aspects governing the segregation mechanism that separates dirty ice and clean ice are poorly understood and quantitative assessments of basal freeze-on are rarely conducted. We have investigated the response of subglacial sediments to basal freeze-on in a high-resolution numerical model (node spacing: 0.01 m). The model adapts thermodynamics of frost heave (which is a much-studied process in permafrost engineering) to subglacial conditions. In fine-grained sub-ice stream till, in-situ freezing of pore water is inhibited due to surface tension arising from a small characteristic particle size. The till becomes super-cooled by up to -0.35°C from the pressure-melting point and thermally driven pore water flow is induced. This water flow feeds accretion of clean ice onto the ice base while the till dewaters. Our model predictions compare favorably with observations from the Ross sector of the West Antarctic ice sheet. When the ice base is in direct contact with the till, ice stream stoppage is predicted to occur ca. 70 years after basal freeze-on is triggered. Fast ice stream flow may be prolonged if a widespread basal water system is capable of separating the freezing ice base from the till. However, the small thickness of water filled gaps (ca. 1-2 mm) limits the time of enhanced flow prolongation. After the freezing ice base has consumed the water film, the ice stream will shut down due to dewatering of the till. However, the bed remains unfrozen and highly porous for long time periods subsequent to stoppage. We predict that complete freeze-up of a 5 m till layer takes several centuries. This result is supported by radar data showing that Ice Stream C, which stopped ca. 150 years ago, has a largely unfrozen bed, while Siple Ice Stream, which stopped about 300 years earlier, exhibits a partially frozen bed. A self-adjusting upper boundary in our numerical simulation allows the freezing front to move downwards into the till domain. This occurs when the ice-till interface is no longer the thermodynamically most favorable location for freezing. We can thus simulate growth of ice lenses within the till. Our model reproduces basal ice with a layered structure consisting of uniform bands of debris-filled ice and clean segregation ice. Medium-grained till develops thin ice lenses that are closely spaced while fine-grained till develops thick ice lenses with a wider spacing. Comparison of our results to borehole video images of basal ice beneath Ice Stream C and images from laboratory studies of freezing porous media indicates that thermodynamics of basal freeze-on and frost heaving are fundamentally related.

  5. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. PMID:27217355

  6. Fast Modulation of Visual Perception by Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Estandian, Daniel; Xu, Min; Kwan, Alex C.; Lee, Seung-Hee; Harrison, Thomas C.; Feng, Guoping; Dan, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain provides the primary source of cholinergic input to the cortex, and it plays a crucial role in promoting wakefulness and arousal. However, whether rapid changes in basal forebrain neuron spiking in awake animals can dynamically influence sensory perception is unclear. Here we show that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons rapidly regulate cortical activity and visual perception in awake, behaving mice. Optogenetic activation of the cholinergic neurons or their V1 axon terminals improved performance of a visual discrimination task on a trial-by-trial basis. In V1, basal forebrain activation enhanced visual responses and desynchronized neuronal spiking, which could partly account for the behavioral improvement. Conversely, optogenetic basal forebrain inactivation decreased behavioral performance, synchronized cortical activity and impaired visual responses, indicating the importance of cholinergic activity in normal visual processing. These results underscore the causal role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fast, bidirectional modulation of cortical processing and sensory perception. PMID:24162654

  7. Genetic heterogeneity in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J R M; Spiteri, E; Sobrido, M J; Hopfer, S; Klepper, J; Voit, T; Gilbert, J; Wszolek, Z K; Calne, D B; Stoessl, A J; Hutton, M; Manyam, B V; Boller, F; Baquero, M; Geschwind, D H

    2004-12-14

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC, Fahr disease) is an inherited neurologic condition characterized by basal ganglia and extra-basal ganglia brain calcifications, parkinsonism, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The authors examined six families for linkage to the previously identified genetic locus (IBGC1) located on chromosome 14q. The authors found evidence against linkage to IBGC1 in five of the six families supporting previous preliminary studies demonstrating genetic heterogeneity in familial IBGC. PMID:15596772

  8. Simplified Medium for Ampicillin Susceptibility Testing of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, James H.; Jones, Pamela M.

    1975-01-01

    Recent reports of bona fide ampicillin resistance among strains of Haemophilus influenzae have emphasized the need for improved methods of susceptibility testing of clinical isolates. A simplified medium composed of only Mueller-Hinton medium plus supplement C (yeast autolysate and hematin) was used successfully for ampicillin susceptibility testing of 20 recent clinical isolates of H. influenzae, including six strains with confirmed ampicillin resistance. With this medium, susceptible strains were inhibited by less than 1 μg of ampicillin per ml, whereas resistant strains had minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8 μg or greater per ml. This medium can be used for either disk diffusion, tube dilution, or agar plate dilution methods of susceptibility testing. It has the practical advantage of simplicity of preparation and retains the light color and transparency of Mueller-Hinton medium. This medium can also be used for preparation of an inoculum suspension that can be adjusted to a standardized turbidity. PMID:1079711

  9. Full and Constrained Moment Tensor Inversions of Basal Icequakes Beneath Gornergletscher, Switzerland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, F.; Dreger, D. S.; Clinton, J. F.; Deichmann, N.

    2009-12-01

    A solid understanding of glacier flow dynamics is fundamental to accurate predictions of changes in the cryosphere in response to a changing climate. For Alpine glaciers, such as Gornergletscher in southern Switzerland, basal hydrological processes are a controlling factor in the ice dynamics. The drastically varying basal water pressures can either enhance or inhibit glacier sliding. In the case of Gornergletscher, basal water pressure variations are mainly due to the diurnal melt-cycle as well as yearly drainage events of a nearby ice-marginal lake. The latter phenomenon is an example for glacier outburst floods, which can potentially occur in all glaciated areas throughout the world and pose the most significant hazard related to glaciers. In order to attain a better understanding of Gornergletscher’s flow dynamics in response to the lake drainages the ETH Zurich deployed campaign seismic networks covering four lake drainage sequences. The instruments were placed directly on glacier ice near the lake and detected seismic signals of well over 100,000 icequakes. Although the vast majority of these seismic events occurs at the glacier surface, a small subset was confidently located near the glacier bed. The temporal occurrence of these basal icequakes correlates strongly with variations in subglacial water pressure, which in turn controls basal sliding. Here we present the results of full and constrained moment tensor inversions of seismograms of an icequake cluster at Gornergletscher’s bed. As the glacier bed near the icequake hypocenters is strongly inclined we calculate Green’s Functions for a 3D medium. In order to estimate the effect of errors in Green’s Functions on the determined source mechanisms we perform a set of sensitivity studies. We use Green’s Functions for velocity models of different complexity, ranging from a homogeneous halfspace to a model that includes the three-dimensional basal topography and a basal intermediate layer. The results indicate the investigated icequakes exhibit near-horizontal tensile faulting, a result which is quite robust with respect to inaccuracies in the seismic velocity model.

  10. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome Showing Several Histologic Types of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Go, Jae Wan; Kim, Shin Han; Yi, Sang Yeop

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), or Gorlin Syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by multiple developmental abnormalities and associated with germline mutations in the PTCH gene. Patients show multiple and early onset basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in skin, odontogeniccysts in the jaw, pits on palms and soles, medulloblastoma, hypertelorism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. Clinical features of BCCs in these patients are indistinguishable from ordinary BCCs. However, some patients show variable histologic findings in subtypes of BCCs, and only one case associated with several histologic types of BCCs in the syndrome has been reported in Korea. We present a case of BCNS characterized by multiple BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts, multiple palmar pits, and calcified falx cerebri. Histopathologic findings of BCCs showed several patterns, which were nodular, superficial, and pigmented types. PMID:22028568

  11. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Sami N; Reynolds, L Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5. PMID:22879797

  12. Cerebral energetic effects of creatine supplementation in humans.

    PubMed

    Pan, J W; Takahashi, K

    2007-04-01

    There has been considerable interest in the use of creatine (Cr) supplementation to treat neurological disorders. However, in contrast to muscle physiology, there are relatively few studies of creatine supplementation in the brain. In this report, we use high-field MR (31)P and (1)H spectroscopic imaging of human brain with a 7-day protocol of oral Cr supplementation to examine its effects on cerebral energetics (phosphocreatine, PCr; ATP) and mitochondrial metabolism (N-acetyl aspartate, NAA; and Cr). We find an increased ratio of PCr/ATP (day 0, 0.80 +/- 0.10; day 7, 0.85 +/- 09), with this change largely due to decreased ATP, from 2.7 +/- 0.3 mM to 2.5 +/- 0.3 mM. The ratio of NAA/Cr also decreased (day 0, 1.32 +/- 0.17; day 7 1.18 +/- 0.13), primarily from increased Cr (9.6 +/- 1.9 to 10.1 +/- 2.0 mM). The Cr-induced changes significantly correlated with the basal state, with the fractional increase in PCr/ATP negatively correlating with the basal PCr/ATP value (R = -0.74, P < 0.001). As NAA is a measure of mitochondrial function, there was also a significant negative correlation between basal NAA concentrations with the fractional change in PCr and ATP. Thus healthy human brain energetics is malleable and shifts with 7 days of Cr supplementation, with the regions of initially low PCr showing the largest increments in PCr. Overall, Cr supplementation appears to improve high-energy phosphate turnover in healthy brain and can result in either a decrease or an increase in high-energy phosphate concentrations. PMID:17185404

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic therapy and topical chemotherapy. Radiotherapy should be avoided. Vitamin A analogs may play a preventive role against development of new BCCs. Life expectancy in NBCCS is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications can be substantial. Regular follow-up by a multi-specialist team (dermatologist, neurologist and odontologist) should be offered. Patients with NBCCS should strictly avoid an excessive sun exposure. PMID:19032739

  14. Heterogeneity of basal keratinocytes: nonrandom distribution of thymidine-labeled basal cells in confluent cultures is not a technical artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Milstone, L.M.; LaVigne, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    Basal surface autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)dThd-labeled, confluent, keratinocyte cultures reveals that proliferating cells have a nonrandom, patterned distribution. Unlabeled cells, likewise, appear nonrandomly in clusters. The authors show here that failure to detect DNA synthesis in some basal cells in culture is not an artifact caused either by physical separation of the labeled nuclei from the radiographic emulsion or by a diffusion barrier that would prevent (/sup 3/H)dThd from reaching basal cells.

  15. Effects of the dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in Miichthys miiuy fries*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tian-xing; Song, Zeng-fu; Cai, Li-sheng; Ding, Xue-yan; Yu, Qing-sen

    2005-01-01

    Effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in Miichthys miiuy fries were investigated. Nine hundred Miichthys miiuy fries were divided into 3 groups, each with triplicates. The basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with carnitine groups were considered as the negative and positive controls respectively. Results showed that the nitrogen concentration in excreted feces decreased significantly in fries fed the diet supplementation with 100010?6 fructooligosaccharides and 20010?6 carnitine (P<0.05). The ammonic-nitrogen concentration decreased significantly in the carnitine group only (P<0.05), indicating the decreasing tendency caused by the supplementation with fructooligosaccharides. Supplementation with both did not have significant effects on the concentration of phosphorus in feces of Miichthys miiuy fries. PMID:16052714

  16. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  17. Novel investigational drugs for basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jean Y; Epstein, Ervin H

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field In the United States, the annual incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is close to 1 million. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the main risk factor; however, the availability of ever more potent sunscreens and education have not prevented the rise in BCC incidence. Therefore, concerted effects to identify novel preventive and therapeutic strategies are necessary. Areas covered in this review This article summarizes our current understanding of the etiology and molecular mechanisms of BCC tumorigenesis and discusses the preclinical and clinical studies to identify agents with anti-BCC efficacy. What the reader will gain The discovery that hyperactive Hh pathway signaling causes several cancers, including BCC, has spawned the development of many pharmacologic inhibitors of Hh signaling. Early clinical testing of the most advanced, GDC-0449, demonstrated impressive efficacy in patients with advanced BCC. Other promising anti-BCC chemopreventive strategies include drugs that are already FDA-approved for treating other diseases. Take home message Preclinical and clinical trials with pre-existing FDA-approved drugs suggest novel uses for BCC chemoprevention and treatment. Also, new chemical entities that inhibit the Hh pathway show promise, and in combination with other drugs may provide a nonsurgical cure for this most common cancer. PMID:20662553

  18. Basal Terraces on Melting Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, P.; Stewart, C.; Jenkins, A.; Nicholls, K. W.; Corr, H. F. J.; Rignot, E. J.; Steffen, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers and individualglaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on thespatial distribution of melt. The bases of the ice shelves associated with Pine IslandGlacier (West Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) have similar geometries,including kilometers-wide, hundreds-of-meter-high channels oriented along and acrossthe direction of ice flow. The channels are enhanced by, and constrain, oceanic melt.New, meter-scale observations of basal topography reveal peculiar glaciated landscapes.Channel flanks are not smooth, but are instead stepped, with hundreds-of-meters-wideflat terraces separated by 5-50 m-high walls. Melting is shown to be modulated by thegeometry: constant across each terrace, changing from one terrace to the next, and greatlyenhanced on the ~45°-inclined walls. Melting is therefore fundamentally heterogeneousand likely associated with stratification in the ice-ocean boundary layer, challengingcurrent models of ice shelf-ocean interactions.

  19. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  20. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies in PANDAS.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S; Loiselle, Christopher R; Lee, Olivia; Minzer, Karen; Swedo, Susan; Grus, Franz H

    2004-04-01

    An autoimmune-mediated mechanism involving molecular mimicry has been proposed for a variety of pediatric movement disorders that occur after a streptococcal infection. In this study, anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in 15 children with the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and compared with those in 15 controls. ELISA and Western immunoblotting (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet (P2), and synaptosomal preparations from adult postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ELISA optical density values did not differ between PANDAS patients and controls across all preparations. Immunoblotting identified multiple bands in all subjects with no differences in the number of bands or their total density. Discriminant analysis, used to assess mean binding patterns, showed that PANDAS patients differed from controls only for the caudate S1 fraction (Wilks' lambda = 0.0236, P < 0.0002), with PANDAS-primarily tic subjects providing the greatest discrimination. Among the epitopes contributing to differences between PANDAS and control in the caudate S1 fraction, mean binding to the epitope at 183 kDa was the most different between groups. In conclusion, ELISA measurements do not differentiate between PANDAS and controls, suggesting a lack of major antibody changes in this disorder. Further immunoblot analyses using a caudate supernatant fraction are required to completely exclude the possibility of minor antibody repertoire differences in PANDAS subjects, especially in those who primarily have tics. PMID:15077238

  1. CBI: Systems or Medium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham-Wheat, Nancy L.

    This paper addresses one area of conflict in decisionmaking in computer-based instruction (CBI) research: the relationship between the researcher's definition of CBI either as a medium or as an integrated system and the design of meaningful research questions. (A medium is defined here as a device for the delivery of instruction, while an…

  2. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  3. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  4. Microglial regulation of cholinergic differentiation in the basal forebrain.

    PubMed

    Jonakait, G Miller; Pratt, Lorelei; Acevedo, Giselles; Ni, Li

    2012-06-01

    Because inflammation during pregnancy can lead to neurodevelopmental anomalies, we investigated the role of inflamed microglia on cholinergic precursors in the rat embryonic basal forebrain (BF) cultured on embryonic day 15. Conditioned medium (CM) taken from microglia stimulated variously (microglial CM; MCM) increased activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine biosynthesis and a phenotypic hallmark of the cholinergic neuron. There was a concomitant decline in glutamic acid decarboxylase expression. Of stimulators tested, only β-amyloid failed to produce effective MCM. Infection with a Lac-Z-containing retrovirus revealed that MCM promoted cholinergic differentiation from undifferentiated precursors in the population. Several candidates were tested for their ability to mimic MCM. Mature nerve growth factor (NGF) did not mimic MCM, but acted synergistically with it to promote enormous increases in ChAT activity. However, a microglial cell line produced high-molecular weight forms of NGF (pro-NGF) that were lethal to mature cholinergic neurons. Although bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) 2, 4, and 9 increased ChAT activity dose-dependently, noggin did not inhibit the effects of the MCM, suggesting that BMPs were not the only active factor(s) in the MCM. Embryonic microglia isolated following maternal inflammation produced a variety of immune system cytokines and chemokines. One of these, interleukin-6 (IL-6), was tested for its ability to promote cholinergic differentiation. Although IL-6 alone did not mimic the action of MCM, neutralization of it inhibited MCM effectiveness. Thus, following maternal inflammation, a complex microglial-derived cocktail of factors can promote excess cholinergic differentiation in the embryonic BF. PMID:21898853

  5. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  6. Comparative effect of bis-(beta-chloroethyl)-sulfide on basal and differential keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Scavarelli-Karantsavelos, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Bis-({beta}-Chloroethyl)sulfide (BCES), is a potent alkylating agent and vesicant for human skin. The effect of BCES on basal and differentiated keratinocytes was studied using an epidermal culture and whole rat epidermis. A procedure was developed to expose the epidermal culture and the epidermis topically to various doses of BCES. It was verified autoradiographically that upon application of BCES to the surface of the culture, no spillage into the medium occurred. DNA was determined to be the primary target of BCES by studying the incorporation of {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 3}H-uridine and {sup 14}C-leucine after epidermal cultures were exposed to doses of BCES ranging from 10 to 50 nmoles/cm{sup 2}. Hence a parameter related to DNA damage was utilized in determining the sensitivity of the two epidermal cell populations to BCES. This parameter was the nucleoid sedimentation assay, which detects DNA single-strand breaks. The assay indicated that the basal cells are more susceptible to BCES than the differentiated cells. This higher susceptibility was determined to be a consequence of a higher level of alkylation of the basal cell DNA compared to the differentiated cell DNA following exposure to BCES. The level of DNA alkylation was measured using a CsCl density gradient to isolate the DNA.

  7. The Treatment of Minorities in Nine Recently Published Basal Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jesus; Sadoski, Mark

    A study was conducted to determine how well-balanced and accurately the largest ethnic minority groups are portrayed in major contemporary basal reader series. The amount of ethnic minority content by group and by basal series was investigated, as were the qualitative aspects of that content: the locale of the story, the socioeconomic class…

  8. Basal Reading Readiness Programs: What Are They Really Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maria J.

    Six eclectic basal readers were evaluated to determine what basal readiness programs are teaching kindergarten and early first grade children. Each lesson was analyzed to discover the main purpose of instruction as stated in an objective or skill and the actual requirements placed upon the child during instruction. Using the recommendations from…

  9. Vismodegib resistance in basal cell carcinoma: not a smooth fit.

    PubMed

    Ridky, Todd W; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-03-01

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, two complementary papers by Atwood and colleagues and Sharpe and colleagues show that basal cell carcinomas resistant to the Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib frequently harbor SMO mutations that limit drug binding, with mutations at some sites also increasing basal SMO activity. PMID:25759014

  10. The Place of Career Women in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leondis, Mary T.

    A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

  11. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Puneet; Kishore, Praveen; Bhasin, Jasjit Singh; Arya, Subhash Chand

    2015-01-01

    Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ‘mineralizing angiopathy’ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described. PMID:26019426

  12. How are Senior Citizens Portrayed in Basal Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Doris F.

    Five commonly used basal readers from grades one through three were studied to determine how they portrayed and represented older adults. It was hypothesized that older adults would be portrayed as active, contributing, and productive members of society and that they would be represented in the basals in proportion to their numbers in the…

  13. A Study of How Basal Readers Reflect Family Living Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Grace; Mechler, Geraldine

    To determine how basal readers reflect the different kinds of family living found in American society today, information was gathered through an analysis of 462 stories relating to family life in eight basal reading series in grades one to six and a single series in grades one through three. Only fiction stories about children were used. The…

  14. Evolution and Diversification of the Basal Transcription Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Duttke, Sascha H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems. PMID:25661246

  15. Effects of high copper supplements on performance, health, plasma copper and enzymes in goats.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, S G.; Maloney, M A.; Qureshi, M A.; Davis, G; D'Andrea, G

    2001-08-01

    Six growing female Nubian goats (average BW=34.8+/-0.55kg, 7-8 months of age) were randomly assigned to either a basal diet (BD, 10-15ppm Cu/DM), or to medium Cu (MC, BD+50mgCu), or to high Cu (HC, BD+100mgCu) diets for 9 weeks. This level would cause Cu toxicity in sheep, but none occurred in the goats. Therefore, Cu supplementation was then increased to 150 and 300mg per head per day, for the following 14 weeks; to 300 and 600mg per head per day, for the next 8 weeks; and to 600 and 1200mg per head per day, for an additional 4 weeks, in the MC and HC group, respectively. Body weight and vital signs were recorded and blood samples collected at different time intervals. Hematological parameters, plasma Cu, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were determined. At the termination of the study, tissue Cu concentration in different organs was also determined. During first 23 weeks (<300mgCu per day) of the study there were no apparent signs of Cu toxicity. Cu supplementation at 600mg per head per day in young Nubian does, had no effect on respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and decreased (P<0.05) rectal temperature (RT) in the HC group only. Leukocyte counts were positively correlated with Cu supplementation (r=+0.296, P<0.02) and negatively correlated (r=-0.254, P<0.05) with RT in the HC group. Plasma SDH increased (P<0.05) when Cu supplementation was >/=300mg per head per day, thus, SDH may serve as an early indicator of Cu toxicosis in goats. Increases (P<0.05) in GOT were noted when Cu intake was >/=600mg per head per day. Contrary to the results observed for SDH and GOT, feeding goats 50mgCu per day or more, resulted in an increased plasma GGT as compared to BD goats. Levels of SDH, GOT and GGT of the BD goats were within normal range. Plasma Cu was not indicative of Cu status of animals. Copper improved ADG by 28% at the 100-150ppm level in diet. No relationship between Cu intake and hair Cu was found in the present study. Highest concentration of Cu was found in liver, followed by duodenum, rumen and brain. Results of this study indicate that goats are more resistant to Cu toxicity than sheep. This is one of the first reports documenting significant differences in Cu requirements and tolerance between goats and sheep. PMID:11445421

  16. Effects of one-seed juniper on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of feeding one-seed juniper on total intake, VFA profile, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and a basal diet with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or rumen degradable (SBM; RDP 15% CP) or undegradable (FM; RUP 15% CP) protein supplement. Aft...

  17. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  18. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  19. Membranous basal cell adenoma arising in the eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Yang, Min; Ding, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a specific entity that lacks the myxochondroid stromal component of pleomorphic adenoma. Membranous basal cell adenoma is a rare variant of BCA, which is characteristic by abundant eosinophilicextracellular hyaline material deposited either inside or at the periphery of the epithelial islands. Herin we describe the first case of membranous BCA arising in the upper eyelid in a 38-year-old woman. A well-demarcated nodule arising in the eyelid was composed of isomorphic basaloid cells organized with a prominent basal cell layer and distinct basement membrane-like material. Immunohistochemically, S100 protein and p63 highlighted the basal aspect of the peripheral epithelial cells, while CK7 expressed on the luminal cells. A diagnosis of membranous basal cell adenoma of the eyelid was made. At follow-up for 2 years and 3 months later, there was no evidence of recurrence. Further pathological characteristics of this disease are discussed. PMID:25120843

  20. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  1. Magnetic uniaxial wire medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Costa, João T.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that a racemic array of helical-shaped metallic wires may have a dual electromagnetic response, such that for arbitrarily large wavelengths it concurrently supports two modes with hyperbolic- and elliptical-type dispersions. Importantly, one of the eigenwaves is nearly dispersionless and sees the metamaterial as a medium with extreme magnetic anisotropy. The metamaterial may thus behave as the magnetic analog of the conventional wire medium formed by a set of parallel straight metallic wires. It is demonstrated that the magnetic wire medium enables channeling the subwavelength details of transverse electric (TE) polarized waves.

  2. Supplemental dietary inulin influences expression of iron and inflammation related genes in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown improved hemoglobin repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti, Tienen, Belgium) into a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In the present study, weanling pigs (5 or 6-wk old) were f...

  3. A Comparative Study of Two Approaches for Teaching Reading: Basal Reader Plus Management System Versus Basal Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Janet Elizabeth

    This study compared the achievement of students instructed by the use of a management system, Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development (WDRSD), for word attack skills in addition to the basal reader approach with the achievement of students instructed by the use of the basal reader approach alone. Two hundred forty-four fourth grade students…

  4. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed in training before being used in competition. It is recommended that dietary supplements are only used based on the advice of a qualified sports nutrition professional. PMID:16766503

  5. In vitro fertilization and development of bovine oocytes matured in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Saeki, K; Hoshi, M; Leibfried-Rutledge, M L; First, N L

    1991-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of serum (fetal calf serum), gonadotropins (LH, FSH, prolactin) and estradiol-17 beta (E2) to culture medium during in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes on subsequent fertilization and development to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Serum supplementation during bovine oocyte maturation was not required but hormonal supplementation, gonadotropins (LH + FSH) and E2, enhanced the fertilizability and developmental ability of bovine oocytes matured in vitro. The addition of prolactin to maturation medium containing LH, FSH, and E2 did not further enhance frequencies of fertilization and development. PMID:2009327

  6. Basal/HER2 breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufí, Silvia; Moreno, José Manuel; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Urruticoechea, Ander; Martín, Ángel G.; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Menendez, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of inherent primary resistance to the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) are frequent among HER2 gene-amplified breast carcinomas in both metastatic and adjuvant settings. The clinical efficacy of trastuzumab is highly correlated with its ability to specifically and efficiently target HER2-driven populations of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Intriguingly, many of the possible mechanisms by which cancer cells escape trastuzumab involve many of the same biomarkers that have been implicated in the biology of CS-like tumor-initiating cells. In the traditional, one-way hierarchy of CSCs in which all cancer cells descend from special self-renewing CSCs, HER2-positive CSCs can occur solely by self-renewal. Therefore, by targeting CSC self-renewal and resistance, trastuzumab is expected to induce tumor shrinkage and further reduce breast cancer recurrence rates when used alongside traditional therapies. In a new, alternate model, more differentiated non-stem cancer cells can revert to trastuzumab-refractory, CS-like cells via the activation of intrinsic or microenvironmental paths-to-stemness, such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Alternatively, stochastic transitions of trastuzumab-responsive CSCs might also give rise to non-CSC cellular states that lack major attributes of CSCs and, therefore, can remain “hidden” from trastuzumab activity. Here, we hypothesize that a better understanding of the CSC/non-CSC social structure within HER2-overexpressing breast carcinomas is critical for trastuzumab-based treatment decisions in the clinic. First, we decipher the biological significance of CSC features and the EMT on the molecular effects and efficacy of trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Second, we reinterpret the genetic heterogeneity that differentiates trastuzumab-responders from non-responders in terms of CSC cellular states. Finally, we propose that novel predictive approaches aimed at better forecasting early tumor responses to trastuzumab should identify biological determinants that causally underlie the intrinsic flexibility of HER2-positive CSCs to “enter” into or “exit” from trastuzumab-sensitive states. An accurate integration of CSC cellular states and EMT-related biomarkers with the currently available breast cancer molecular taxonomy may significantly improve our ability to make a priori decisions about whether patients belonging to HER2 subtypes differentially enriched with a “mesenchymal transition signature” (e.g., luminal/HER2 vs. basal/HER2) would distinctly benefit from trastuzumab-based therapy ab initio. PMID:23255137

  7. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  8. Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Redgrave, Peter; Coizet, Veronique; Comoli, Eliane; McHaffie, John G.; Leriche, Mariana; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hayes, Lauren M.; Overton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC), anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated. PMID:20941324

  9. Evaluation of desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) hay as a basal diet for growing local sheep in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Bimrew; Demeke, Solomon; Tolemariam, Taye; Tegegne, Firew; Wamatu, Jane; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine feed intake, digestibility, and body weight (BW) change of Washera sheep fed on desho grass and natural pasture hay as a basal diet and supplemented with concentrate mixtures. Twenty-five intact male sheeps with body weight of 19.4 ± 1.89 kg (mean ± SD) were used in randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were 100 % natural pasture hay (NPH) (T1), 75 % NPH + 25 % desho grass hay (DGH) (T2), 50 % NPH + 50 % DGH (T3), 25 % NPH + 75 % DGH (T4), and 100 % DGH (T5). Equal amount of concentrate mixture (CM) (300 g DM/day/h) was supplemented in all of the five treatments. The result of laboratory chemical analysis revealed that the CP content of the basal diets increased with increased proportion of desho grass hay inclusion in the treatments at the expense of natural pasture hay. Total DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF intake and digestibility was significant (P < 0.05) and in the increasing order of T1 < T2 < T3 < T4 < T5. The average daily body weight gain (ADG) of experimental sheep was significantly (P < 0.05) higher as proportion of desho grass increased from 0 to 100 % in the basal diet. The result indicated that desho grass can be used as a basal diet for local sheep with better performance than natural pasture hay-based diets. PMID:26970971

  10. Characteristics of basal cytokeratin expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Alshareeda, Alaa T; Soria, Daniele; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Rakha, Emad; Nolan, Christopher; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew R

    2013-05-01

    Breast cancer is recognised to be a heterogeneous disease and the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in women. Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is associated with aggressive characteristics including development of recurrent disease and reduced survival. BLBC has been defined in some studies as tumours lacking both oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor protein expression. Gene expression studies have shown that these tumours are also associated with expression of basal-type cytokeratins, the phenotypic patterns of basal cytokeratin expression in BLBC have not been widely studied. A well-characterised series of 995 invasive breast cancers with a long-term follow up were investigated using immunohistochemical staining for four basal cytokeratins (CK5, CK5/6, CK14 and CK17). The data were analysed using univariate and clustering analysis. As a result BLBC, as defined by negativity for ER and HER2 showed variable positivity for basal cytokeratin expression: 61.7 % CK5, 50.5 % CK5/6, 24.2 % CK14 and 23 % CK17. These characteristics were associated with poor outcome characteristics including high histological grade, mitosis, pleomorphism and tumour size >1.5 cm. CK5 positivity was more associated with ER(-), PgR(-), TN and double ER(-)PgR(-), than the other cytokeratins. Four different clusters of basal cytokeratin expression patterns were identified: (1) negativity for all basal cytokeratins, (2) CK5(+)/CK17(-), (3) CK5(-)/CK17(+) and (4) CK5(+)/CK17(+). These patterns of basal cytokeratin expression associated with differences in patient outcome, clusters 1 and 3 showed better outcomes than cluster 4 and 2, with cluster 2 having the poorest prognosis. In conclusion, four basal cytokeratin expression patterns were identified in human breast cancer using unsupervised clustering analysis and these patterns are associated with differences in patient outcome. PMID:23588953

  11. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function, which was possibly due to the decreasing apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and the improvement of intestinal microbiota. PMID:26727003

  12. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function, which was possibly due to the decreasing apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and the improvement of intestinal microbiota. PMID:26727003

  13. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  14. [Research progress on basal-like breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ying; Chen, Hong-Feng

    2008-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women all around the world. Presently, the prognosis of breast cancer is predicted based on histopathologic tumor characteristics. Molecular markers could help to predict the prognosis and treatment response in breast cancer. According to gene expression profile, invasive breast cancers are classified into four subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressing and basal-like) and associated with different prognosis. The basal-like subtype is associated with poor prognosis. This article simply introduced the distribution of molecular subtypes, summed up recent researches on the characteristics and prognosis of basal-like phenotype. PMID:18479610

  15. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Circuit Function in Psychiatric Disease.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2016-02-10

    Circuit dysfunction models of psychiatric disease posit that pathological behavior results from abnormal patterns of electrical activity in specific cells and circuits in the brain. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei implicated in cognitive and motor control. Here we discuss the role of the basal ganglia and connected prefrontal regions in the etiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression, emphasizing mechanistic work in rodent behavioral models to dissect causal cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying discrete behavioral symptom domains relevant to these complex disorders. PMID:26667072

  16. Cooccurrence of Multiple Sclerosis and Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, M.; Karimi, N.; Tabrizi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system that affects both white and gray matter. Idiopathic calcification of the basal ganglia is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by sporadic or familial brain calcification. Concurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) is very rare event. In this study, we describe a cooccurrence of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with multiple sclerosis. The association between this disease and MS is unclear and also maybe probably coincidental. PMID:26351460

  17. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

  18. Basal cell cocktail (34betaE12 + p63) improves the detection of prostate basal cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Shah, Rajal; Shen, Ronglai; Rubin, Mark A

    2003-03-01

    Antibodies against high molecular weight cytokeratin (34betaE12) and p63 are frequently used basal cell markers to aid in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (Pca). Absence of a basal cell marker in an atypical lesion histologically suspicious for cancer supports a diagnosis of Pca. However, absence of basal cells demonstrable by basal cell immunohistochemistry (IHC) is not always conclusive for PCa. Some benign prostatic lesions may have inconspicuous or even lack basal cell lining focally. Technical factors such as tissue fixation and antigen retrieval techniques may also make the detection of basal cells difficult. Improving the sensitivity of current basal cell markers is critical if these tests are being used to help make diagnostic decisions in conjunction with standard histology. In this study, we test the hypothesis that that inclusion of both 34betaE12 and p63 in the same IHC reaction (basal cell cocktail) is advantageous over either marker used alone. One thousand three hundred fifty glands from 9 trans-urethral resectioned of prostate specimens with benign prostatic hypertrophy were used to study the immunostaining intensity and pattern for 34betaE12, p63, and the basal cell cocktail. Basal cell marker expression was scored as strong, moderate, weak, or negative. Basal cell staining was considered complete if 75% of the gland's circumference was positive for the basal cell marker and partial if <25% of the circumference was stained. The mean staining intensity and variance were calculated for 34betaE12, p63, and the basal cell cocktail. A paired test was used to evaluate whether the overall basal cell staining was significantly different between 34betaE12, p63, and the basal cell cocktail. F-test was used to assess the variances for 34betaE12, p63, and the basal cell cocktail. A high-density tissue microarray (TMA) comprising prostate tissue from 103 tumors from men with clinically localized Pca and a separate TMA comprising metastatic hormone-refractory Pca samples from 23 rapid autopsy cases were used to study the aberrant expression of 34betaE12 and p63 in clinically localized and poorly differentiated Pca. The prostate glands in transition zone have variable basal cell staining intensity and pattern with 34betaE12, p63, or the cocktail. Histologically, benign glands lack basal cell lining in 2%, 6%, and 2% of glands with cocktail, 34betaE12, and p63 staining, respectively. The staining variance for the cocktail is significantly smaller than that for 34betaE12 (0.0100 vs 0.1559, p = 0.0008). It is also smaller than that for p63, although a statistical significance has not been reached (0.0100 vs 0.0345, p = 0.099). The basal cell cocktail stains the basal cell layers more intensely than either 34betaE12 or p63 alone, with complete and partial strong basal cell staining in 93% and 1% of benign glands, compared with 55% and 4% with 34betaE12 and 81% and 1% with p63. Complete and partial weak staining is seen in 0% and 0% of benign glands with basal cell cocktail, compared with 8% and 7% with 34betaE12 and 4% and 1% with p63 (p = 0.007 and 0.014 for cocktail vs 34betaE12 and cocktail vs p63, respectively). A total of 2.8% clinically localized Pca had positive 34betaE12 staining and 0.3% had positive p63 staining. Five (22%) of the metastatic Pca is positive for 34betaE12. However, none had p63 expression. The basal cell cocktail had a staining pattern identical to that of 34betaE12. IHC of the prostatic glands from the transition zone is subjected to staining variability that results in frequent variable and occasional negative basal cell staining in histologically benign glands; 34betaE12 is most susceptible, and basal cell cocktail is least susceptible to such variability. Basal cell cocktail not only increases the sensitivity of the basal cell detection, but also reduces the staining variability and therefore renders the basal cell immunostaining more consistent. We recommend this basal cell cocktail for routine Pca diagnostic work-up. PMID:12604893

  19. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

  20. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  1. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  2. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to synthesize additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin ... a vitamin supplement or from adequate exposure to sunlight. A number of factors decrease the amount of ...

  3. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals (Endocrine Practice) [945KB PDF] Probiotics and Children (Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition) [ ... Two Studies Explore the Potential Health Benefits of Probiotics (07/04/08) Traditional Chinese Herbs May Benefit ...

  4. Osteogenic differentiation of immature osteoblasts: Interplay of cell culture media and supplements.

    PubMed

    Brauer, A; Pohlemann, T; Metzger, W

    2016-03-01

    Differentiation of immature osteoblasts to mature osteoblasts in vitro initially was induced by supplementing the medium with β-gylcerophosphate and dexamethasone. Later, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, vitamin K3 and TGFβ1 were used in varying concentrations as supplements to generate a mature osteoblast phenotype. We tested the effects of several combinations of cell culture media, seeding protocols and osteogenic supplements on osteogenic differentiation of human primary osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation was analyzed by staining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate/nitro blue tetrazolium (BCIP/NBT) and by von Kossa staining of deposited calcium phosphate. The combinations of culture media and supplements significantly influenced osteogenic differentiation, but the seeding protocol did not. Staining of ALP and calcium phosphate could be achieved only if our own mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium or if a commercial mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with osteoblast growth medium. Especially for von Kossa, we observed great variations in the staining intensity. Because osteogenic differentiation is a complex process, the origin of the osteoblasts, cell culture media and osteogenic supplements should be established by preliminary experiments to achieve optimal differentiation. Staining of ALP or deposited calcium phosphate should be supplemented with qRT-PCR studies to learn more about the influence of specific supplements on osteogenic markers. PMID:26795823

  5. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Jin, Xingsheng; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang County, Henan Province, China. Although our phylogenetic analysis supports this taxon as the most basal neoceratopsian, Mosaiceratops exhibits many features previously considered unique to the Psittacosauridae among the basal Ceratopsia. These include a relatively highly positioned external naris, a proportionally large premaxilla, the nasal extending ventral to the external naris, slender postorbital and temporal bars, a large notch between the basal tubera, and the edentulous premaxilla. Thus, the discovery of Mosaiceratops reduces the morphological disparity between the Psittacosauridae and other basal ceratopsians. Character optimization suggests that basal neoceratopsians have re-evolved premaxillary teeth; a major reversal previously unknown in any dinosaur clade. The new specimen also highlights the mosaic nature of evolution among early ceratopsians and supports the phylogenetic hypothesis that the Psittacosauridae is a relatively derived clade, rather than the most basal group of the Ceratopsia. PMID:26388024

  6. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenjie; Jin, Xingsheng; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang County, Henan Province, China. Although our phylogenetic analysis supports this taxon as the most basal neoceratopsian, Mosaiceratops exhibits many features previously considered unique to the Psittacosauridae among the basal Ceratopsia. These include a relatively highly positioned external naris, a proportionally large premaxilla, the nasal extending ventral to the external naris, slender postorbital and temporal bars, a large notch between the basal tubera, and the edentulous premaxilla. Thus, the discovery of Mosaiceratops reduces the morphological disparity between the Psittacosauridae and other basal ceratopsians. Character optimization suggests that basal neoceratopsians have re-evolved premaxillary teeth; a major reversal previously unknown in any dinosaur clade. The new specimen also highlights the mosaic nature of evolution among early ceratopsians and supports the phylogenetic hypothesis that the Psittacosauridae is a relatively derived clade, rather than the most basal group of the Ceratopsia. PMID:26388024

  7. Iron supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mngen, Ercment

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Pregnant women are at especially high risk for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. A considerable proportion of pregnant women in both developing and industrialized countries become anemic during pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women has remained unacceptably high worldwide despite the fact that routine iron supplementation during pregnancy has been almost universally recommended to prevent maternal anemia, especially in developing countries over the past 30 years. The major problem with iron supplementation during pregnancy is compliance. Despite many studies, the relationship between maternal anemia and adverse pregnancy outcome is unclear. However, there is now sufficient evidence that iron supplements increase hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels during pregnancy and also improve the maternal iron status in the puerperium, even in women who enter pregnancy with adequate iron stores. Recent information also suggests an association between maternal iron status in pregnancy and the iron status of infants postpartum. The necessity of routine iron supplementation during pregnancy has been debated in industrialized countries and routine supplementation is not universally practiced in all these countries. In view of existing data, however, routine iron supplementation during pregnancy seems to be a safe strategy to prevent maternal anemia in developing countries, where traditional diets provide inadequate iron and where malaria and other infections causing increased losses are endemic. PMID:14601265

  8. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer stages Tests for basal and squamous cell skin cancers Most skin cancers are brought to a ... non-cancerous) without the need for a biopsy. Skin biopsy If the doctor thinks that a suspicious ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... in regulating phosphate levels within the body (phosphate homeostasis) by transporting phosphate across cell membranes. The SLC20A2 ... link familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with phosphate homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 12;44(3):254- ...

  10. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a smallpox vaccination site.

    PubMed Central

    Rich, J D; Shesol, B F; Horne, D W

    1980-01-01

    A case of pigmented basal cell carcinoma developing in a smallpox revaccination site is presented. Any progressive change within a smallpox vaccination scar should be thoroughly evaluated and treated appropriately after tissue diagnosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 1 PMID:7364950

  11. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype. PMID:26734870

  12. Origin of basal activity in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian odorant receptors form a large, diverse group of G protein–coupled receptors that determine the sensitivity and response profile of olfactory receptor neurons. But little is known if odorant receptors control basal and also stimulus-induced cellular properties of olfactory receptor neurons other than ligand specificity. This study demonstrates that different odorant receptors have varying degrees of basal activity, which drives concomitant receptor current fluctuations and basal action potential firing. This basal activity can be suppressed by odorants functioning as inverse agonists. Furthermore, odorant-stimulated olfactory receptor neurons expressing different odorant receptors can have strikingly different response patterns in the later phases of prolonged stimulation. Thus, the influence of odorant receptor choice on response characteristics is much more complex than previously thought, which has important consequences on odor coding and odor information transfer to the brain. PMID:20974772

  13. Marked Seizure Reduction after MCT Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Nabil J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man with history of nonsurgical partial epilepsy who previously failed multiple trials of antiepileptic drugs. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were added to his regular diet in the form of pure oil. Subsequently, his seizure frequency was markedly reduced from multiple daily seizures to one seizure every four days. His seizures recurred after transient discontinuation of MCT over a period of ten days. His seizure improvement was achieved at a dose of four tablespoons of MCT twice daily with no reported side effects. He developed significant diarrhea and flatulence at higher doses. We conclude that MCT oil supplementation to regular diet may provide better seizure control in some patients. MCT oil supplementation may be a more tolerable alternative to the standard ketogenic diet. PMID:24383019

  14. Basal cell carcinoma in a dog with chronic solar dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, M N; Day, M J; Apostolidis, K N; Tsioli, V; Athanasiou, L V; Koutinas, A F

    2013-02-01

    A seven-year-old, entire male, American Staffordshire bull terrier was diagnosed with chronic solar dermatitis and basal cell carcinoma, based on physical examination, cutaneous cytology and histopathology. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells did not express p53. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of canine basal cell carcinoma developing as a complication of chronic solar dermatitis. PMID:23373837

  15. Reassessing Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a series of interconnected subcortical nuclei. The function and dysfunction of these nuclei has been studied intensively as it pertains to motor control, but more recently our knowledge of these functions has broadened to include prominent roles in cognition and affective control. This review will summarize historical models of basal ganglia function, findings which have supported or conflicted with these models, and emphasize recent work in animals and humans directly testing the hypotheses generated by these models. PMID:25032493

  16. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  17. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

  18. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  19. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498

  20. The violent interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Observational evidence for high-velocity and high-temperature interstellar gas is reviewed. The physical processes that characterize this gas are described, including the ionization and emissivity of coronal gas, the behavior and appearance of high-velocity shocks, and interfaces between coronal gas and cooler interstellar gas. Hydrodynamical models for the action of supernova explosions and stellar winds on the interstellar medium are examined, and recent attempts to synthesize all the processes considered into a global model for the interstellar medium are discussed.

  1. Fabrics revealed in basal glacier ice through anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, E.; Lovell, H.; Benn, D.; Stevenson, C.; Hambrey, M.; Petronis, M. S.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2012-12-01

    The properties of basal ice are important for understanding interactions between glaciers and their substrates and is therefore of significant importance for understanding glacier motion and the processes operating at the glacier bed. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) uses the magnetic properties of minerals to reveal subtle fabrics. AMS can provide considerable information regarding the kinematics of deformation within rocks and sediment and has recently been applied to glacial geology to investigate subglacially deformed sediments. In this study, we present, as far as we are aware, the first AMS study from basal ice to investigate deformation within a glacier. Basal ice samples, field descriptions and structural measurements were collected from north-eastern and south-western exposures at the tidewater margin of Tunabreen, a surging glacier in Svalbard. AMS data indicate that the magnetic lineations (k1) are aligned parallel or sub-parallel to glacier flow direction from aerial photographs and parallel to the direction of extension and shear revealed from structural observations at the ice outcrop (folds, lineations, macrofabric). The magnetic foliation, given by the K1/K2 plane, dips gently up glacier, generally parallel to visible foliations within the ice. The magnetic fabric is interpreted as being formed by a preferred alignment of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic grains within detrital debris located at ice crystal boundaries. We hypothesise that as the glacier flowed, simple shear affected the basal ice causing stretching and extension. As such, detrital minerals in the spaces between ice crystals rotated into a preferred orientation reflecting the strain. On the north-western section, the imbrications of magnetic lineations away from the glacier margins suggest that, as well as longitudinal extension, there is a component of lateral shear. In contrast, at the south-eastern margin, the divergence of magnetic lineation away from flow reveals lateral spreading due to interactions between an advancing surge front into an irregular fjord bathymetry. The results suggest that AMS can be used as a petrofabric indicator in ice and subsequently has potential to be used as a tool for measuring strain direction and possibly magnitude within basal ice.a) The visualisation of a magnetic fabric through a susceptibility ellipsoid showing the K1 (long), K2 (medium) and K3 (short) susceptibility axes and relationships to glacier flow. b) The plotting of AMS data on an equal area, lower hemisphere stereonet.

  2. [Effect of food diet supplements with chromium on the clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Mazo, V K; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Nechaeva, S V

    2004-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of food diet supplements with chromium on dynamic of glycaemia, lipid profile, blood pressure and weight in type 2 diabetic patients. Traditional hypocaloric diet was supplemented with chromium-spirulina (50 mcg chromium per day). The results investigations indicated that a chromium-enriched diet has beneficial effects on basal and postprandial glycaemia, the content of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum in compared with a traditional hypocaloric diet. PMID:15754482

  3. Effects of supplementation with green tea by-products on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation in goats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Lee, J-W; Mun, H-S; Yang, C-J

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight castrated male goats were used to determine the effects of feeding green tea by-products (GTB) on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation. Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with four levels of GTB (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%). Four replicate pens were assigned to each treatment with three goats per replicate. Increasing dietary GTB tended to linearly increase the overall average weight gain and feed intake (p = 0.09). Water holding capacity, pH and sensory attributes of meat were not affected by GTB supplementation, while cooking loss was reduced both linearly and quadratically (p < 0.01). The redness (linear; p = 0.02, quadratic; p < 0.01) and yellowness (quadratic; p < 0.01) values of goat meat were improved by GTB supplementation. Increasing dietary GTB quadratically increased protein and decreased crude fat (p < 0.05), while linearly decreased cholesterol (p = 0.03) content of goat meat. The proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA increased linearly (p < 0.01) and n-3 PUFA increased quadratically (p < 0.05) as GTB increased in diets. Increasing dietary GTB linearly increased the PUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acid) and tended to linearly and quadratically increase (p ≤ 0.10) the n-6/n-3 ratio. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values of meat were lower in the 2.0% GTB-supplemented group in all storage periods (p < 0.05). Dietary GTB linearly decreased plasma glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.01) and quadratically decreased urea nitrogen concentrations (p = 0.001). The growth of spleen cells incubated in concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides medium increased significantly (p < 0.05) in response to GTB supplementation. Our results suggest that GTB may positively affect the growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation when supplemented as a feed additive in goat diet. PMID:25534643

  4. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  5. Eigenwaves of multiwire medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetluzhskii, A. Yu.; Lomukhin, Yu. L.

    2015-10-01

    Eigenwaves of the medium formed by a system of parallel conducting cylindrical elements have been investigated. It is shown that surface waves may propagate along this structure and the existence of these waves is determined by both properties of the wires and their mutual influence.

  6. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  7. Effects of dietary β-glucans supplementation on cytokine expression in porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M T; Collins, C B; O'Doherty, J V; Sweeney, T

    2012-12-01

    As dietary supplementation with β-glucans can stimulate the innate immune response in the porcine gastrointestinal system (GIT), the aim of this study was to determine if the effects of β-glucan supplementation extend beyond the GIT to systemic levels. Hence, the effects of dietary supplementation of β-glucans derived from Laminara digitata, Laminara hyperborea, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae on cytokine expression in the porcine liver with or without ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were examined. No significant differences in gene expression were observed in the unchallenged liver tissue, but differences were observed in all supplementation groups in the LPS challenged tissue. Relative to the basal diet, IL-6 (P < 0.05) was less expressed in the S. cerevisiae supplementation group, IL-6 (P < 0.05) and TLR-4 (P < 0.05) were less expressed in the L. digitata supplementation group, and IL-10 (P = 0.06) and IL-1α (P = 0.02) were more expressed in the L. hyperborea supplementation group. There was a ≈ 3-fold increase in both IL-10 and IL-1α in the liver samples of L. hyperborea relative to the L. digitata supplementation groups (P < 0.01). The results indicate that supplementation with β-glucans from both yeast and seaweed sources have systemic effects evidenced by changes in cytokine expression in the liver in response to LPS challenge; however, the cytokines affected varied according to the source of the β-glucan. PMID:23365278

  8. Supplemental carbohydrate sources for lactating dairy cows on pasture.

    PubMed

    Delahoy, J E; Muller, L D; Bargo, F; Cassidy, T W; Holden, L A

    2003-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate steam-flaked corn and nonforage fiber sources as supplemental carbohydrates for lactating dairy cows on pasture. Cows were allotted to a new paddock of an orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) pasture twice daily in one group in both trials. In experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows, averaging 216 d in milk, were randomly assigned to either a cracked-corn (CC) or a steam-flaked (SFC) supplement in a split plot design. The supplement contained 66.7% of corn and a protein/mineral pellet. In experiment 2, 28 Holstein cows, averaging 182 d in milk, were randomly assigned to either a ground corn (GC) or a nonforage fiber (NFF)-based supplemented in a single reversal design. The GC supplement contained 85% ground corn plus protein, mineral, and vitamins. The NFF supplement contained 35% ground corn, 18% beet pulp, 18% soyhulls, 8% wheat middlings plus protein, mineral, and vitamins. In both experiments, cows were fed the grain supplement twice daily after each milking at 1 kg/4 kg milk. In experiment 1, milk production (24.3 kg/d) and composition did not differ between treatments; however, plasma and milk urea N were lower with the SFC supplement. In experiment 2, milk production (27.5 kg/d) was not affected by treatments, which may be related to the medium quality of pasture grazed. The GC supplement tended to reduce plasma and milk urea N and increased milk protein percentage (3.23 vs. 3.19%). Pasture dry matter intake, measured using Cr2O3, did not differ between treatments in either experiment 1 (15.1 kg/d) or experiment 2 (12.2 kg/d). Milk production did not differ when mid-late lactation cows on pasture were supplemented with SFC or NFF instead of dry corn. PMID:12703627

  9. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented. Vismodegib should only be proposed to patients in whom basal cell cancer markedly undermines quality of life, and only in the context of clinical research. PMID:25729822

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acidsodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method. PMID:24326396

  11. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

  12. Basal bodies across eukaryotes series: basal bodies in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh, Juliette; Basquin, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has recently emerged as a valuable model system to study basal bodies (BBs) and cilia. Planarians are free-living flatworms that use cilia beating at the surface of their ventral epidermis for gliding along substrates. The ventral epidermis is composed of multiciliated cells (MCCs) that are similar to the MCCs in the respiratory airways, the brain ventricles, and the oviducts in vertebrates. In the planarian epidermis, each cell assembles approximately eighty cilia that beat in a coordinate fashion across the tissue. The BBs that nucleate these cilia all assemble de novo during terminal differentiation of MCCs. The genome of the planarian S. mediterranea has been sequenced and efficient methods for targeting gene expression by RNA interference are available. Defects induced by perturbing the expression of BB proteins can be detected simply by analyzing the locomotion of planarians. BBs are present in large numbers and in predictable orientation, which greatly facilitates analyses by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The great ease in targeting gene expression and analyzing associated defects allowed to identify a set of proteins required for BB assembly and function in planarian MCCs. Future technological developments, including methods for transgenic expression in planarians and in related species, will achieve turning free-living flatworms into powerful model systems to study MCCs and the associated human pathologies. PMID:26998257

  13. Molecular Characterization of Basal-Like and Non-Basal-Like Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prat, Aleix; Adamo, Barbara; Cheang, Maggie C.U.; Anders, Carey K.; Carey, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative (TN) and basal-like (BL) breast cancer definitions have been used interchangeably to identify breast cancers that lack expression of the hormone receptors and overexpression and/or amplification of HER2. However, both classifications show substantial discordance rates when compared to each other. Here, we molecularly characterize TN tumors and BL tumors, comparing and contrasting the results in terms of common patterns and distinct patterns for each. In total, when testing 412 TN and 473 BL tumors, 21.4% and 31.5% were identified as non-BL and non-TN, respectively. TN tumors identified as luminal or HER2-enriched (HER2E) showed undistinguishable overall gene expression profiles when compared versus luminal or HER2E tumors that were not TN. Similar findings were observed within BL tumors regardless of their TN status, which suggests that molecular subtype is preserved regardless of individual marker results. Interestingly, most TN tumors identified as HER2E showed low HER2 expression and lacked HER2 amplification, despite the similar overall gene expression profiles to HER2E tumors that were clinically HER2-positive. Lastly, additional genomic classifications were examined within TN and BL cancers, most of which were highly concordant with tumor intrinsic subtype. These results suggest that future clinical trials focused on TN disease should consider stratifying patients based upon BL versus non-BL gene expression profiles, which appears to be the main biological difference seen in patients with TN breast cancer. PMID:23404817

  14. Toward sophisticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: Review on basal ganglia deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K; Gibson, William S J; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H; Blaha, Charles D

    2015-11-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  15. Basal ganglia and Dopamine Contributions to Probabilistic Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Shohamy, D.; Myers, C.E.; Kalanithi, J.; Gluck, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems have recently been extended towards understanding the neural systems contributing to category learning. The basal ganglia, in particular, have been linked to probabilistic category learning in humans. A separate parallel literature in systems neuroscience has emerged, indicating a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in reward prediction and feedback processing. Here, we review behavioral, neuropsychological, functional neuroimaging, and computational studies of basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to learning in humans. Collectively, these studies implicate the basal ganglia in incremental, feedback-based learning that involves integrating information across multiple experiences. The medial temporal lobes, by contrast, contribute to rapid encoding of relations between stimuli and support flexible generalization of learning to novel contexts and stimuli. By breaking down our understanding of the cognitive and neural mechanisms contributing to different aspects of learning, recent studies are providing insight into how, and when, these different processes support learning, how they may interact with each other, and the consequence of different forms of learning for the representation of knowledge. PMID:18061261

  16. Phylogeny of Basal Iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): An Update

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional Camptosaurus and Iguanodon. The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees. PMID:22629328

  17. Prostatic inflammation enhances basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate cancer with a basal cell origin

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Zhang, Li; Ittmann, Michael M.; Xin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been shown to promote the initiation and progression of diverse malignancies by inducing genetic and epigenetic alterations. In this study, we investigate an alternative mechanism through which inflammation promotes the initiation of prostate cancer. Adult murine prostate epithelia are composed predominantly of basal and luminal cells. Previous studies revealed that the two lineages are largely self-sustained when residing in their native microenvironment. To interrogate whether tissue inflammation alters the differentiation program of basal cells, we conducted lineage tracing of basal cells using a K14-CreER;mTmG model in concert with a murine model of prostatitis induced by infection from the uropathogenic bacteria CP9. We show that acute prostatitis causes tissue damage and creates a tissue microenvironment that induces the differentiation of basal cells into luminal cells, an alteration that rarely occurs under normal physiological conditions. Previously we showed that a mouse model with prostate basal cell-specific deletion of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (K14-CreER;Ptenfl/fl) develops prostate cancer with a long latency, because disease initiation in this model requires and is limited by the differentiation of transformation-resistant basal cells into transformation-competent luminal cells. Here, we show that CP9-induced prostatitis significantly accelerates the initiation of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in this model. Our results demonstrate that inflammation results in a tissue microenvironment that alters the normal prostate epithelial cell differentiation program and that through this cellular process inflammation accelerates the initiation of prostate cancer with a basal cell origin. PMID:24367088

  18. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  19. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  20. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  1. Waves in Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, H.

    1998-03-01

    Many hydrodynamical researches have been developed. Especially, analysis of the compressible flow is significantly improved by interstellar physicists. To obtain sufficient appreciation, we should not analyze only the effect of self-gravity of the system but also consider the property of inhomogeneity of the interstellar medium. I stress that another hydrodynamical approach is appreciated. That is the multi-phase-flow method. In the astrophysical context, there are few preliminary works of it. I intend to develop it in more suitable method for the interstellar physics. This dissertation is only the first step for me. But, fundamental properties of the multi-phase-flow are presented, considering the effect of compressibility, self-(and/or mutual) gravity, and friction between two phases. All of these properties are generally important to examine the origin, destruction and the global distribution of interstellar medium. My motivation is trying to delve into the global properties of the interstellar medium. The method of multi-phase-flow has great advantage for my aim, and its usefulness has been shown in this thesis.

  2. Evaluation of steelmaking slag as basal media for coastal primary producers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro B; Yano, Hitomi; Koba, Kyohei; Katayama, Takahiro; Asaoka, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Nishijima, Wataru

    2015-11-15

    The use of granular steelmaking slag as a substitute for natural sand in the construction of tidal flats was investigated. Using an intertidal flat simulator, we evaluated dephosphorization slag mixed with 8% by dry weight of dredged sediment (DPS+DS) as a basal medium for the growth of benthic macro- and microalgae in comparison with silica sand mixed with 8% dredged sediment (SS+DS). Species compositions of macro- and microalgae were distinctly different between DPS+DS and SS+DS. The mean dry weight of macroalgae on DPS+DS was three orders of magnitude higher than that on SS+DS. Sediment shear strength and pH were higher in DPS+DS than in SS+DS or in the sediment of natural tidal flats. These results suggest that DPS contributes to changing the sediment environment, thereby changing the algal composition compared to the composition on natural tidal flats. PMID:26362456

  3. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... documents are processed in the same way as an original EA or EIS. No new scoping is required for a supplemental EIS filed within one year of the filing of the original ROD. If the review indicates no need for...

  4. Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Geoff

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

  5. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  6. Supplemental TV Taped Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Robert G.; Frank, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Videotapes were developed as supplemental material for a course in chemical engineering thermodynamics. Describes the course, videotapes produced (includes list by topics as related to course content), and effectiveness of the tapes. Although no significant improvement in test performance was noted, students indicated they learned material faster…

  7. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  8. The effect of dietary supplementation with the natural carotenoids curcumin and lutein on broiler pigmentation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Rajput, N; Naeem, M; Ali, S; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L; Wang, T

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with 2 carotenoids, curcumin and lutein, on pigmentation and immunity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated broiler chicks. Two hundred forty 1-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatment groups: a basal diet without carotenoid supplementation (control), a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg of curcumin (CRM), or a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg of lutein (LTN) for 42 d. The birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza on d 10. At 16, 18, and 20 d of age, half of the chicks in each group were injected in the abdominal region with either LPS (250 mg/kg of BW) or an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl. The intensity of the shank skin color (Roche color fan score) and the b* (yellow) values of the breasts and thighs were highest in lutein-supplemented broilers, followed by curcumin-supplemented and control broilers, whereas the a* (red) value of the thigh muscle was highest in curcumin-supplemented LPS-induced birds. At 42 d, the relative weight of the abdominal fat was lowest in the CRM-supplemented group, followed by the LTN-supplemented and control groups; the spleen weight was lower in the non-LPS-induced LTN-supplemented group than the LPS-induced control group. The ND and avian influenza titers were significantly higher in the CRM-supplemented group than in the other groups at 20 d; at 30 d, the ND titer was significantly higher in the LPS-induced LTN group. Supplementation with curcumin significantly promoted B and T lymphocyte proliferation in both LPS- and non-LPS-induced birds at 21 d. Curcumin also promoted B lymphocyte proliferation in non-LPS-induced birds at 42 d. Curcumin significantly reduced alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at 42 d in non-LPS-treated birds, whereas lutein significantly increased the activities of these enzymes in LPS-induced birds. Both carotenoids significantly lowered lipid oxidation in the liver of supplemented birds. Thus, in broiler chickens, lutein-supplemented birds exhibited better pigmentation efficiency, whereas curcumin-supplemented birds exhibited improved immune responses. PMID:23571326

  9. Oscillations and the basal ganglia: Motor control and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, John-Stuart; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oscillations form a ubiquitous feature of the central nervous system. Evidence is accruing from cortical and sub-cortical recordings that these rhythms may be functionally important, although the precise details of their roles remain unclear. The basal ganglia share this predilection for rhythmic activity which, as we see in Parkinson’s disease, becomes further enhanced in the dopamine depleted state. While certain cortical rhythms appear to penetrate the basal ganglia, others are transformed or blocked. Here, we discuss the functional association of oscillations in the basal ganglia and their relationship with cortical activity. We further explore the neural underpinnings of such oscillatory activity, including the important balance to be struck between facilitating information transmission and limiting information coding capacity. Finally, we introduce the notion that synchronised oscillatory activity can be broadly categorised as immutability promoting rhythms that reinforce incumbent processes, and mutability promoting rhythms that favour novel processing. PMID:23711535

  10. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  11. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  12. Deep-Brain Stimulation for Basal Ganglia Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R.

    2011-01-01

    The realization that medications used to treat movement disorders and psychiatric conditions of basal ganglia origin have significant shortcomings, as well as advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the brain, has led to a renaissance in functional neurosurgery, and particularly the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorders are now routinely being treated with DBS of ‘motor’ portions of the basal ganglia output nuclei, specifically the subthalamic nucleus and the internal pallidal segment. These procedures are highly effective and generally safe. Use of DBS is also being explored in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with targeting of the ‘limbic’ basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. The results of these procedures are also encouraging, but many unanswered questions remain in this emerging field. This review summarizes the scientific rationale and practical aspects of using DBS for neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21804953

  13. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unconscious, automatic, and insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. We critically evaluate for each of these how it has been defined, its utility for research in both humans and non-human animals, and the evidence that it serves as an accurate description of basal ganglia function. In conclusion, we propose a multi-faceted approach to habit learning and its relationship to the basal ganglia, emphasizing the need for formal definitions that will provide directions for future research. PMID:21909324

  14. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

  15. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of bruising and bleeding. Supplement: Goldenseal Root Possible drug-supplement interaction with: Cyclosporine. Can decrease ... using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Goldenseal root may decrease how quickly the liver breaks down ...

  16. Cell cycle of globose basal cells in rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huard, J M; Schwob, J E

    1995-05-01

    The olfactory epithelium of adult mammals has the unique property of generating olfactory sensory neurons throughout life. Cells of the basal compartment, which include horizontal and globose basal cells, are responsible for the ongoing process of neurogenesis in this system. We report here that the globose basal cells in olfactory epithelium of rats, as in mice, are the predominant type of proliferating cell, and account for 97.6% of the actively dividing cells in the basal compartment of the normal epithelium. Globose basal cells have not been fully characterized in terms of their proliferative properties, and the dynamic aspects of neurogenesis are not well understood. As a consequence, it is uncertain whether cell kinetic properties are under any regulation that could affect the rate of neurogenesis. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have determined the duration of both the synthesis phase (S-phase) and the full cell cycle of globose basal cells in adult rats. The duration of the S-phase was found to be 9 hr in experiments utilizing sequential injections of either IdU followed by BrdU or 3H-thy followed by BrdU. The duration of the cell cycle was determined by varying the time interval between the injections of 3H-thy and BrdU and tracking the set of cells that exit S shortly after the first injection. With this paradigm, the interval required for these cells to traverse G2, M, G1, and a second S-phase, is equivalent to the duration of one mitotic cycle and equals 17 hr. These observations serve as the foundation to assess whether the cell cycle duration is subject to regulation in response to experimental injury, and whether such regulation is partly responsible for changes in the rate of neurogenesis in such settings. PMID:7647371

  17. Image reconstruction of the flagellar basal body of Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Stallmeyer, M J; Hahnenberger, K M; Sosinsky, G E; Shapiro, L; DeRosier, D J

    1989-02-01

    The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus has a single polar flagellum, which is present for only a portion of its cell cycle. The flagellum is ejected from the swarmer cell and then synthesized de novo later in the cell cycle. The flagellum is composed of a transmembrane basal body, a hook and a filament. Single-particle averaging and image reconstruction methods were applied to the electron micrographs of negatively stained basal bodies from C. crescentus. These basal bodies have five rings threaded on a rod. The L and P rings are connected by a bridge of material at their outer radii. The E ring is a thin, flat disk. The S ring has a triangular cross section, the sides of the triangle abutting the E ring, the rod and the M ring. The M ring, which is at the inner membrane of the cell, has a different structure depending on the method of preparation. With one method, the M ring makes a snug contact with the S ring and is often capped by an axial button, a new component apparently distinct from the M ring. With the other method, the M ring is similar to that of S. typhimurium; that is, it contacts the S ring only at an outer radius and lacks the button. Averages of the rod-hook-filament subassembly ejected by swarmer cells reveal that the rod consists of two parts with the E ring marking the approximate position of the break. The structures of basal bodies from two mutants defective in the hook assembly were found to be indistinguishable from wild-type basal bodies, suggesting that the assembly of the basal body is independent of the hook or filament assembly. PMID:2926815

  18. Molecular characterization of Italian nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, L; Cusano, R; Nasti, S; Faravelli, F; Forzano, F; Baldo, C; Barile, M; Gliori, S; Muggianu, M; Ghigliotti, G; Lacaita, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Bianchi-Scarra, G

    2005-03-01

    Mutations in the PTCH gene, the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene, have been found to lead to the autosomal dominant disorder termed Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS, also called Gorlin Syndrome). Patients display an array of developmental anomalies and are prone to develop a variety of tumors, with multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas occurring frequently. We provide here the results of molecular testing of a set of Italian Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients. Twelve familial patients belonging to 7 kindreds and 5 unaffected family members, 6 non-familial patients and an additional set of 7 patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the disease were examined for mutations in the PTCH gene. All of the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients were found to carry variants of the PTCH gene. We detected nine novel mutations (1 of which occurring twice): 1 missense mutation (c.1436T>G [p.L479R]), 1 nonsense mutation (c.1138G>T [p.E380X]), 6 frameshift mutations (c.323_324ins2, c.2011_2012dup, c.2535_2536dup, c.2577_2583del, c.3000_3005del, c.3050_3051del), 1 novel splicing variant (c.6552A>T) and 3 mutations that have been previously reported (c.3168+5G>A, c.1526G>T [p.G509V], and c.3499G>A [p.G1167R]). None of the patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the syndrome, carried germline coding region mutations. PMID:15712338

  19. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  20. Photodynamic therapy of locally advanced basal cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, Mikhail V.; Stranadko, Evgeny P.

    2005-08-01

    The treatment of locally spread basal-cell skin cancer is very difficult and often complicated with local recurrence. Traditional techniques are sometimes insufficient for this pathology, especially for recurrent tumors. In the State Research Center for Laser Medicine photodynamic therapy had been used for treatment of 103 patients with locally spread basal-cell skin cancer, including 64 with recurrent tumors. Therapeutic effect has been achieved in all cases, including complete tumor resorption in 67% of patients. Presented paper contains analysis of immediate and long-term follow-up results.

  1. Radiation enhanced basal plane dislocation glide in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Vergeles, Pavel S.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    A movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth under low energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI) was studied by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) method. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocation segments were susceptible to irradiation and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in the structure with strong pinning. A dislocation velocity under LEEBI with a beam current lower than 1 nA was estimated as about 10 nm/s. The results assuming the REDG for prismatic plane dislocations were presented.

  2. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  3. The effect of copper nanoparticles supplementation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Saravana Bhavan, Periyakali; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant, metabolic enzyme levels, and non specific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu-NPs (200nm) were synthesized by facile and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. Cu-NPs were supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80mgkg(-1) with the basal diets. These Cu-NPs supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvements were observed in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities, concentrations of biochemical constituents and total and differential haemocytes count of prawns fed with 20mgCu-NPskg(-1) supplemented feed. Prawns fed with 40-80mgCu-NPskg(-1) supplemented feed showed negative performance. Activity of antioxidants and metabolic enzymes in the muscle and hepatopancreas of prawns showed no significant alterations (P>0.05) prawns fed with up to 20mgCu-NPskg(-1) supplemented feeds. Whereas, prawns fed with 40-80mgCu-NPskg(-1) supplemented feed showed significant (P<0.05) elevations in antioxidant and metabolic enzymes activities. Hence, 40-80mgCu-NPskg(-1) diets may have toxic effect to M. rosenbergii. Hence, present study suggests that 20mgCu-NPskg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating better survival, growth and immune response of M. rosenbergii PL. PMID:26854244

  4. Heat storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, J.; Haukelt, H.

    1982-08-03

    A heat storage medium contains (A) a sodium hydroxide in concentration from 60% by weight up to and including the stoichiometric concentration in sodium hydroxide monohydrate, (B) water in concentration from 40% by weight down to and including the said stoichiometric concentration, and (C) 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of tellurium dioxide, all percentages being expressed as percentages by weight of the total weight of sodium hydroxide and water. The tellurium dioxide reduces the tendency of the sodium hydroxide water system to supercool.

  5. Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.

    2012-04-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at the scale of the seismic refraction experiment ~100m). In order to interpret the value of the P-wave velocities, we measured in the laboratory the ultrasonic velocities on non-fractured blocks from the field. By, comparing the ultrasonic and the seismic velocities and using an effective medium model, we can estimate a mean crack density and a mean fracture aspect ratio. Finally this allows to estimate the permeability of this fractured aquifer.

  6. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-nine first parity sows (BW of 197.7 ± 2.5 kg and BF of 14.87 ± 0.21 mm) were used in this study. On d 60 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assigned to one of two dietary treatments which consisted of either a corn-soy meal basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% Fertilium™ (Uni...

  7. The Effects of Phosphatidylserine and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Supplement on Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Teruhisa

    2015-01-01

    Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS) may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17) and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. PMID:26266022

  8. The Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Interstellar Medium (ISM) forms an integral part of the lifecycle of stars and the galaxy. Stars are formed by gravitational contraction of interstellar clouds. Over their life, stars return much of their mass to the ISM through winds and supernova explosions, resulting in a slow enrichment in heavy elements. Understanding the origin and evolution of the ISM is a key problem within astrophysics. The KAO has made many important contributions to studies of the interstellar medium both on the macro and on the micro scale. In this overview, I will concentrate on two breakthroughs in the last decade in which KAO observations have played a major role: (1) the importance of large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules for the ISM (section 3) and (2) the study of Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) as an analog for the diffuse ISM at large (section 4). Appropriately, the micro and macro problem are intricately interwoven in these problems. Finally, section 5 reviews the origin of the (CII) emission observed by COBE.

  9. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in bilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lim CC

    2009-09-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radiologists may encounter bilaterally symmetrical abnormalities of the basal ganglia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), typically in the context of diffuse systemic, toxic or metabolic diseases. A systematic approach and broad knowledge of pathology causing this uncommon group of conditions would be useful.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review uses illustrative images to highlight metabolic conditions, such as Leigh's syndrome, citrullinaemia, hypoglycaemia or carbon monoxide poisoning, as well as other causes of bilateral basal ganglia lesions such as osmotic myelinolysis, deep cerebral venous thrombosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.RESULTS: Careful assessment of radiological findings outside the basal ganglia, such as involvement of the cortex, white matter, thalamus and pons, together with clinical correlation, may be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis, and directing further radiological, biochemical or genetic investigations. Recent advances in MR technology have resulted in newer techniques including diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging and MR spectroscopy (MRS); these may be helpful if appropriately used.CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal MRI findings in the basal ganglia should not be interpreted in isolation. A systematic approach including DW MR imaging, MRS, and a broad knowledge of diffuse systemic, toxic or metabolic diseases is helpful.

  11. Manufacturing Descent: Basal Readers and the Creation of Reading Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick; Crawford, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Describes how basal readers manufacture reading failures among students from less-privileged economic and social backgrounds. Reviews the history of reading instruction in the United States. Calls for educators to speak out against reading practices that protect the privilege of the upper and upper-middle classes by encoding their values and…

  12. Basal body assembly in ciliates: the power of numbers.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Chad G; Winey, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Centrioles perform the dual functions of organizing both centrosomes and cilia. The biogenesis of nascent centrioles is an essential cellular event that is tightly coupled to the cell cycle so that each cell contains only two or four centrioles at any given point in the cell cycle. The assembly of centrioles and their analogs, basal bodies, is well characterized at the ultrastructural level whereby structural modules are built into a functional organelle. Genetic studies in model organisms combined with proteomic, bioinformatic and identifying ciliary disease gene orthologs have revealed a wealth of molecules requiring further analysis to determine their roles in centriole duplication, assembly and function. Nonetheless, at this stage, our understanding of how molecular components interact to build new centrioles and basal bodies is limited. The ciliates, Tetrahymena and Paramecium, historically have been the subject of cytological and genetic study of basal bodies. Recent advances in the ciliate genetic and molecular toolkit have placed these model organisms in a favorable position to study the molecular mechanisms of centriole and basal body assembly. PMID:19192246

  13. Basal ganglion stroke presenting as subtle behavioural change.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephanie J; Begaz, T

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral infarctions can have many presentations ranging from hemiparesis to subtle behavioural changes. A case is presented in which the only sign of a left basal ganglion infarct was isolated abulia. This case highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation in cases of acute unexplained changes in behaviour. PMID:21686449

  14. Basal ganglion stroke presenting as subtle behavioural change.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S J; Begaz, T

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral infarctions can have many presentations ranging from hemiparesis to subtle behavioural changes. A case is presented in which the only sign of a left basal ganglion infarct was isolated abulia. This case highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation in cases of acute unexplained changes in behaviour. PMID:18573972

  15. Quantitative multiphoton imaging for guiding basal-cell carcinoma removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sung-Jan; Hsu, Chih-Jung; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Kuo, Chien-Jui; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chan, Jung-Yi; Lin, Wei-Chou; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    For secure removal of the basal cell carcinoma tissue, the technique of Mohs' micrographic surgery is often used. However, Mohs' micrographic surgery is time-consuming. In this work, we evaluate the ability of multiphoton fluorescence (MF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging to discriminate the borders of human basal cell carcinoma. Morphologically, basal cell carcinomas are featured by clumps of autofluorecent cells with relatively large nuclei and marked peripheral palisading in the dermis. In contrast, SHG from collagen contributes largely to the multiphoton signal in normal dermis. Within the cancer stroma, SHG signals diminish and are replaced by autofluorescent signals. The results suggest that normal collagen structures responsible for SHG have been altered in the cancer stroma and may reflect an up-regulated collagenolytic activity of cancer cells. To better delineate the cancer cells and cancer stroma from normal dermis, a quantitative MF to SHG index (MFSI) is developed. We demonstrate that this index can be used to differentiate cancer cells and adjacent cancer stroma from normal dermis. Our work shows that MF and SHG imaging can be an alternative for the real-time guidance of the secure removal of basal cell carcinoma.

  16. Basal ganglia morphology links the metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C; Muldoon, Matthew F; Christie, Israel C; Erickson, Kirk I; Gianaros, Peter J

    2014-01-17

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors that are often comorbid with depressive symptoms. Individual components of the MetS also covary with the morphology of basal ganglia regions that are altered by depression. However, it remains unknown whether the covariation between the MetS and depressive symptomatology can be accounted for in part by morphological changes in the basal ganglia. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that increased depressive symptoms among individuals with the MetS might be statistically mediated by reduced gray matter volume in basal ganglia regions. The presence of the MetS was determined in 147 middle-aged adults using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Basal ganglia volumes were determined on an a priori basis by automated segmentation of high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Even after controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, having the MetS and meeting more MetS criteria covaried with reduced globus pallidus volume. Meeting more MetS criteria and reduced pallidal volume were also related to depressive symptoms. Moreover, the MetS-depression association was statistically mediated by pallidal volume. In summary, reduced globus pallidus volume is a neural correlate of the MetS that may partly account for its association with depressive symptoms. PMID:24096008

  17. Task-phase-specific dynamics of basal forebrain neuronal ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Tingley, David; Alexander, Andrew S.; Kolbu, Sean; de Sa, Virginia R.; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases. PMID:25309352

  18. Shear jamming in granular experiments without basal friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hu; Dijksman, Joshua A.; Behringer, R. P.

    2014-08-01

    Jammed states of frictional granular systems can be induced by shear strain at densities below the isostatic jamming density (\\phi_c) . It remains unclear, however, how much friction affects this so-called shear jamming. Friction appears in two ways in this type of experiment: friction between particles, and friction between particles and the base on which they rest. Here, we study how particle-bottom friction, or basal friction, affects shear jamming in quasi-two-dimensional experiments. In order to study this issue experimentally, we apply simple shear to a disordered packing of photoelastic disks. We can tune the basal friction of the particles by immersing the particles in a density matched liquid, thus removing the normal force, hence the friction, between the particles and base. We record the overall shear stress, and particle motion, and the photoelastic response of the particles. We compare the shear response of dry and immersed samples, which enables us to determine how basal friction affects shear jamming. Our findings indicate that changing the basal friction shifts the point of shear jamming, but it does not change the basic phenomenon of shear jamming.

  19. Marine ice sheet profiles and stability under Coulomb basal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Victor; Stewart, Andrew; Thompson, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The behavior of marine-terminating ice sheets, like the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is of interest due to the possibility of rapid grounding line retreat and consequent catastrophic loss of ice. Critical to modeling this behavior is a choice of basal rheology, where the most popular approach is to relate the ice sheet velocity to a power-law function of basal stress. Recent experiments, however, suggest that near-grounding line tills exhibit Coulomb friction behavior. Here we address how Coulomb conditions modify ice sheet profiles and stability criteria. The basal rheology necessarily transitions to Coulomb friction near the grounding line due to low effective stresses, leading to changes in ice sheet properties within a narrow boundary layer. Ice sheet profiles 'taper off' towards a flatter upper surface, compared to the power-law case, and basal stresses vanish at the grounding line, consistent with observations. In the Coulomb case, the grounding line ice flux also depends more strongly on flotation ice thickness, which implies that ice sheets are more sensitive to climate perturbations. Furthermore, with Coulomb friction, the ice sheet grounds stably in shallower water than with a power-law rheology. This implies that smaller perturbations are required to push the grounding line into regions of negative bed slope, where it would become unstable. These results have important implications for ice sheet stability in a warming climate.

  20. Familial papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer.

    PubMed

    Brena, Michela; Besagni, Francesca; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tadini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer (PENS), a novel keratinocytic nevus, has recently been described as a mosaic condition with varying presentations. We herein describe typical PENS lesions, which usually occur sporadically, affecting two members of the same family. The concept of paradominant inheritance is proposed to explain the paradox of occasional transmission of normally sporadically occurring traits. PMID:24274825

  1. Basal ganglia play a crucial role in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the striatum, located at the interface of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit, consists of separate circuits that serve distinct functions It plays an important role in motor planning, value processing, and decision making. PMID:27069375

  2. Complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system modulates neuronal excitability and vascular tone throughout the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. This system is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and drug treatment to enhance cholinergic signaling is widely used as symptomatic therapy in AD. Defining the full morphologies of individual basal forebrain cholinergic neurons has, until now, been technically beyond reach due to their large axon arbor sizes. Using genetically-directed sparse labeling, we have characterized the complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse. Individual arbors were observed to span multiple cortical columns, and to have >1000 branch points and total axon lengths up to 50 cm. In an AD model, cholinergic axons were slowly lost and there was an accumulation of axon-derived material in discrete puncta. Calculations based on published morphometric data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in humans have a mean axon length of ∼100 meters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02444.001 PMID:24894464

  3. Ca segregation to basal surfaces in {alpha}-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, W.D.; Muellejans, H.; Ruehle, M.; Roedel, J.; Claussen, N.

    1995-10-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) were used to investigate the structure and chemistry of (0001) {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al interfaces in melt-infiltrated polycrystalline alumina composites. HRTEM revealed an interfacial region different from both Al and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with a structural width of 0.8 {plus_minus} 0.2 nm. AEM of the same interfaces revealed a Ca excess of {Lambda} = 2.5 {plus_minus} 0.5 Ca atoms per nm{sup 2} (Ca/nm{sup 2}). AEM of a basal twin boundary in the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} also revealed a Ca excess ({Lambda} = 1.0 {plus_minus} 0.5 Ca/nm{sup 2}). Since the metal-ceramic interfaces were the free surfaces of pores before melt infiltration, it can be concluded that Ca segregates to the basal surface of alumina, as well as to basal twin boundaries. Furthermore, the Ca at the free surfaces does not reside on only one cation plane, but is spread over 4 {plus_minus} 1 basal cation layers and forms an interfacial phase with a nominal composition of CaO{center_dot}6Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma Developing from Trichoepithelioma: Review of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, M. Ananta; Aryasomayajula, Sirish; Krishna, B.A. Rama

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign tumours but occasionally can undergo transformation to malignant neoplasms more commonly as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). The correct diagnosis between these tumours is very important because basal cell carcinoma is locally aggressive neoplasm and requires total surgical excision with wide healthy margins while trichoepithelioma needs simple excision. We describe three patients who developed basal cell carcinoma with facial trichoepitheliomas. The only clinical feature that distinguished the carcinomas from the trichoepitheliomas was their larger size, in all three patients, one patient with recurrent, hyper pigmented swelling with surface ulceration and in another patient there are multiple trichoepitheliomas, and other family members are also affected. The history, clinical features and histopathological findings were suggestive of the evolution of basal cell carcinoma directly from trichoepithelioma in our first two cases, but in the third case TE and BCC were separate lesions on face and we are uncertain about whether the BCC developed independently or by transformation from a trichoepithelioma. Based on our clinicopathological observations in the three patients and reports in the recent literature, BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoepithelioma are considered to be highly related. PMID:27134936

  5. Evaluating Pre-Primer Basal Readers Using Story Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Mary Jane

    1985-01-01

    The present study evaluated pre-primer basal reading materials using the Johnson and Mandler story grammar. Three stories from two widely used series were selected and rewritten in accord with the rules of the story grammar. First graders were studied under eight conditions, and conclusions were drawn. (Author/LMO)

  6. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  7. Sexism in Basal Readers: An Analysis of Male Main Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn-Roberson, Courtney; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated whether positive female traits were attributed to male main characters in six basal readers. Although positive female traits appeared in the male characters, the overall composite and depiction of individual characters indicate that male personalities are dominated by male-linked virtues such as independence and a willingness to take…

  8. Decodable Texts for Beginning Reading Instruction: The Year 2000 Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V.; Sailors, Misty; Patterson, Elizabeth U.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the features of the first grade texts included in basal readers used for beginning reading instruction in Texas in 2000. Investigates the general features of student texts with respect to the instructional design of the text, the accessibility of the text for beginning readers, and the engaging qualities of the text. Suggests that policy…

  9. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  10. Bld10/Cep135 stabilizes basal bodies to resist cilia-generated forces.

    PubMed

    Bayless, Brian A; Giddings, Thomas H; Winey, Mark; Pearson, Chad G

    2012-12-01

    Basal bodies nucleate, anchor, and organize cilia. As the anchor for motile cilia, basal bodies must be resistant to the forces directed toward the cell as a consequence of ciliary beating. The molecules and generalized mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of basal bodies remain to be discovered. Bld10/Cep135 is a basal body outer cartwheel domain protein that has established roles in the assembly of nascent basal bodies. We find that Bld10 protein first incorporates stably at basal bodies early during new assembly. Bld10 protein continues to accumulate at basal bodies after assembly, and we hypothesize that the full complement of Bld10 is required to stabilize basal bodies. We identify a novel mechanism for Bld10/Cep135 in basal body maintenance so that basal bodies can withstand the forces produced by motile cilia. Bld10 stabilizes basal bodies by promoting the stability of the A- and C-tubules of the basal body triplet microtubules and by properly positioning the triplet microtubule blades. The forces generated by ciliary beating promote basal body disassembly in bld10Δ cells. Thus Bld10/Cep135 acts to maintain the structural integrity of basal bodies against the forces of ciliary beating in addition to its separable role in basal body assembly. PMID:23115304

  11. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Chichilichi, Biswal; Mohanty, G. P.; Mishra, S. K.; Pradhan, C. R.; Behura, N. C.; Das, A.; Behera, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH) and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers. PMID:27047208

  12. Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

  13. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

  14. Bilateral basal ganglia activation associated with sensorimotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Seidler, R D; Noll, D C; Chintalapati, P

    2006-11-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation tasks can be classified into two types. When subjects adapt movements to visual feedback perturbations such as in prism lens adaptation, they perform kinematic adaptations. When subjects adapt movements to force field perturbations such as with robotic manipulanda, they perform kinetic adaptations. Neuroimaging studies have shown basal ganglia involvement in kinetic adaptations, but have found little evidence of basal ganglia involvement in kinematic adaptations, despite reports of deficits in patients with diseases of the basal ganglia, such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, in these. In an effort to resolve such apparent discrepancy, we used FMRI to focus on the first few minutes of practice during kinematic adaptation. Human subjects adapted to visuomotor rotations in the context of a joystick aiming task while lying supine in a 3.0 T MRI scanner. As demonstrated previously, early adaptive processes were associated with BOLD activation in the cerebellum and the sensory and motor cortical regions. A novel finding of this study was bilateral basal ganglia activation. This suggests that, at least for early learning, the neural correlates of kinematic adaptation parallel those of other types of skill learning. We observed activation in the right globus pallidus and putamen, along with the right prefrontal, premotor and parietal cortex, which may support spatial cognitive processes of adaptation. We also observed activation in the left globus pallidus and caudate nucleus, along with the left premotor and supplementary motor cortex, which may support the sensorimotor processes of adaptation. These results are the first to demonstrate a clear involvement of basal ganglia activation in this type of kinematic motor adaptation. PMID:16794848

  15. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  16. Nutritional requirements of shigellae for growth in a minimal medium.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Z U; Sarker, M R; Sack, D A

    1988-01-01

    Most (about 81%) of the clinical isolates of shigellae that were tested failed to grow in a minimal medium. Of the auxotrophic isolates belonging to the four Shigella species, 98% grew in a minimal medium containing methionine, nicotinic acid, and tryptophan. The combination of methionine and tryptophan appears to be an obligatory requirement for Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 strains, while the combination of nicotinic acid and tryptophan appears to be obligatory for serotype 2. Requirements which varied in other isolates were, however, genetically stable, indicating that the auxotypes may be useful as epidemiological markers. Cultures of shigellae in liquid minimal medium containing the above three supplements showed rapid growth and gave reasonably high cell yields. PMID:3346071

  17. Variability of facies and depositional environments represented in basal Pennsylvanian rocks in Wallace quadrangle of west-central Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbaugh, D.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Field mapping has graphically demonstrated that a great variety of facies and depositional environments is represented in the basal Pennsylvanian rocks of Indiana. Initial sedimentation took place on an erosion surface developed on rocks of Mississippian age. This surface consisted of upland areas as well as valleys as deep as 100 m. The subsequent infilling and covering of this irregular surface with the basal Pennsylvanian sediments have added to the complexity of the area. Relief on this surface is reflected in the Pennsylvanian rocks in the form of debris flows that contain Mississippian fossils. Lithofacies change laterally within a few hundreds of meters. Fluvial channel-fill sandstones grade laterally into rhythmically laminated gray shales and lenticular to wavey-bedded sandstones that represent subtidal to intertidal environments. Primary sedimentary structures include large (1-3 m), medium (0.4-1 m) and small (5-40 cm) planar and trough cross-beds. Ripple marks, burrows, mud-chip pebble conglomerates, desiccation cracks, peat rip-up, dewatering structures, and convolute bedding are some of the common sedimentary features found in these basal Pennsylvanian rocks. The paleocurrent direction of any one sandstone body is unimodal. Paleocurrent indicators in the fluvial-dominated sandstones indicate flow to the west, southwest, or northwest. The tide-dominated sandstones have paleocurrents indicating a predominant northeasterly or easterly trend.

  18. GlutaMAX prolongs the shelf life of the culture medium for porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2016-02-01

    In vitro porcine embryo production systems have been established and well characterized. However, the efficiency of embryo development during IVC is still very low. In the present study, we have investigated the development of parthenogenetic porcine embryos in the well-known PZM-5 medium for porcine embryos, which was modified by replacing glutamine with the GlutaMAX supplement. We revealed that blastocyst apoptosis was significantly lower in the presence of GlutaMAX, which reduced the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Furthermore, the expression of apoptosis genes was significantly lower during GlutaMAX treatment (P < 0.05). The modified medium was also examined for the eventual loss of its efficacy in the presence of GlutaMAX. Three, 6, and 12 months after medium preparation, blastocyst formation in the GlutaMAX-supplemented medium was significantly higher than the number of blastocysts in the medium containing glutamine. After a long period of storage, ammonia concentration was significantly increased in the glutamine medium, whereas it was not statistically different in the GlutaMAX medium. Elevated ammonia concentrations reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content of blastocysts in the glutamine medium. These results demonstrate that GlutaMAX can reduce blastocyst apoptosis via inhibition of the cytochrome c pathway and significantly extend the shelf life of the culture medium to at least 1 year. PMID:26462658

  19. Basal oxygen uptake: a new technique for an old test.

    PubMed

    Lim, V S; Zavala, D C; Flanigan, M J; Freeman, R M

    1986-05-01

    To assess the metabolic effects of T4 and T3, we measured serum total T4 (TT4), free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3), TSH, and basal oxygen uptake (VO2) in eight normal subjects in the basal state and after treatment with L-T3 (T3) and sodium ipodate for 2 weeks. T3 treatment resulted in a rise of serum TT3 from a baseline of 137 +/- 16 (+/- SE) to a peak of 239 +/- 15 ng/dl. Serum TT4 declined from 8.14 +/- 0.56 to 6.08 +/- 0.43 micrograms/dl, FT4 from 1.59 +/- 0.13 to 1.03 +/- 0.05 ng/dl, and TSH from 1.74 +/- 0.24 to 0.56 +/- 0.16 microU/ml. Basal VO2 increased from 2.66 +/- 0.11 to 3.15 +/- 0.09 ml/kg X min. Ipodate, on the other hand, led to a lower serum TT3 concentration (102 +/- 21 ng/dl), higher serum TT4 and FT4 (9.59 +/- 0.5 micrograms/dl and 1.91 +/- 0.13 ng/dl, respectively), and elevated TSH (3.64 +/- 0.14 microU/ml). Basal VO2 was reduced to 2.44 +/- 0.06 ml/kg X min. Linear regression analysis revealed an excellent positive correlation between serum TT3 and basal VO2 (n = 25; r = 0.747; P less than 0.001) and a significant negative correlation between serum TT3 and TSH (n = 26; r = -0.526; P less than 0.01). Serum TT4 and FT4 correlated negatively with VO2 and positively with serum TSH. The higher T4 level during ipodate treatment was associated with lower VO2 and higher TSH, and vice versa when T4 was suppressed while receiving T3. When ipodate was given concomitantly with T3 to five subjects, only the effects of T3, characterized by increased VO2 and decreased TSH, were evident. These data indicate that both basal VO2 and serum TSH are sensitive indices of thyroid hormone activities. The latter gives only the directional change (hyper- or hypothyroidism), while the former more accurately quantitates the magnitude of the derangement. Moreover, it appears that in man, T3, and not T4, is the primary hormone that regulates thermogenesis and TSH secretion. PMID:3958124

  20. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-01-01

    The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

  1. Digestion and performance responses to lasalocid and concentrate supplements by beef cattle fed bermudagrass hay.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, D S; Goetsch, A L; Galloway, D L; Forster, L A; Sun, W; Harrison, K F

    1992-01-01

    Beef cattle consuming bermudagrass hay were not supplemented or received a limited amount of ground corn alone or with a mix of protein meals to determine influences of concentrate supplementation on digestion and performance when the ionophore lasalocid (200 mg daily) was given. With limited feed intake, supplement treatment did not change the acetate to propionate shift in beef cows occurring with lasalocid (P < 0.06). Lasalocid did not affect sites of digestion of organic matter or nitrogen with any supplement treatment. However, lasalocid decreased (P < 0.10) ruminal digestion of neutral and acid detergent fibre. Live-weight gain by growing beef calves ingesting bermudagrass hay ad libitum was higher (P < 0.05) with than without supplementation and tended (P < 0.12) to be greater for corn plus protein meals than for corn alone. Lasalocid did not affect or interact with supplement treatment in feed intake or live-weight gain of heifers (236 kg; no growth stimulant) or steers (237 kg; treated with 200 mg progesterone and 20 mg estradiol benzoate). Lasalocid at 200 mg daily did not improve digestion characteristics or influence performance by beef cattle consuming a Basal diet of bermudagrass hay. Further, effects of lasalocid were not modulated by supplementation with concentrate, concentrate type or sex or growth stimulant usage. PMID:1295485

  2. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Bunchasak, Chaiyapoom; Kachana, Sompong

    2009-10-01

    We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B(12) on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64-72 weeks). Four levels of folate (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin B(12) (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4 x 3 factorial completely randomized design study. No significant physiological interaction between folate and vitamin B(12) was evident under our experimental conditions. There was no effect of vitamins supplementation on egg production or feed intake. Supplementation with folate significantly elevated serum (p < 0.01) and yolk (p < 0.05) folate levels. Supplementation with vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect serum or egg yolk vitamin B(12) levels. Supplementation with folate or vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect triglyceride or total phospholipid levels in serum or egg yolk although a positive relationship was observed between dietary folate supplementation and total serum phospholipid (r(2) = 0.68, p < 0.05). The study showed that it is possible to produce folate-enriched eggs. An increase in serum total phospholipids due to dietary supplementation with folate may provide physiological benefits to hens, although we did not observe any strong effects of these vitamins on lipid composition. PMID:19396565

  3. Effects of supplementation with two sources and two levels of copper on meat lipid oxidation, meat colour and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in Nellore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lísia Bertonha; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; de Paiva, Fernanda Alves; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; Netto, Arlindo Saran

    2014-10-28

    In the present study, thirty-five Nellore bulls were used to determine the effects of two levels and two sources (organic and inorganic) of Cu supplementation on the oxidative stability of lipids, measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) test, meat colour and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities. The following treatments were used: (1) control (C) - basal diet without supplementation of Cu (7 mg Cu/kg DM); (2) I10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate (inorganic form); (3) I40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate; (4) O10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate (organic form); (5) O40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate. Lipid oxidation was determined in meat samples exposed to display, modified atmosphere (MA) and vacuum packaging (VC) conditions and in liver samples using the TBARS test. These samples were also evaluated for meat discolouration after exposure to air. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes were determined in liver samples. In display, MA and VC conditions, the TBARS values of samples from animals supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM were lower than those of samples from control animals. There was no effect of treatment on the colour variables (L*, a*, b*). There was also no significant effect of treatment on hepatic TBARS concentrations and GSH-Px activity. Supplementation with Cu at 40 mg/kg, regardless of the source, induced higher hepatic SOD activity compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, Cu supplementation improved the oxidative stability of lipids in samples exposed to display, MA and VC conditions, demonstrating the antioxidant effect of this mineral. PMID:25313573

  4. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  5. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  6. Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Smitley, D R; Rebek, E J; Royalty, R N; Davis, T W; Newhouse, K F

    2010-02-01

    We conducted field trials at five different locations over a period of 6 yr to investigate the efficacy of imidacloprid applied each spring as a basal soil drench for protection against emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Canopy thinning and emerald ash borer larval density were used to evaluate efficacy for 3-4 yr at each location while treatments continued. Test sites included small urban trees (5-15 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), medium to large (15-65 cm dbh) trees at golf courses, and medium to large street trees. Annual basal drenches with imidacloprid gave complete protection of small ash trees for three years. At three sites where the size of trees ranged from 23 to 37 cm dbh, we successfully protected all ash trees beginning the test with <60% canopy thinning. Regression analysis of data from two sites reveals that tree size explains 46% of the variation in efficacy of imidacloprid drenches. The smallest trees (<30 cm dbh) remained in excellent condition for 3 yr, whereas most of the largest trees (>38 cm dbh) declined to a weakened state and undesirable appearance. The five-fold increase in trunk and branch surface area of ash trees as the tree dbh doubles may account for reduced efficacy on larger trees, and suggests a need to increase treatment rates for larger trees. PMID:20214376

  7. Investigational agents in metastatic basal cell carcinoma: focus on vismodegib

    PubMed Central

    Batty, Nicolas; Kossoff, Ellen; Dy, Grace K

    2012-01-01

    Vismodegib (GDC-0449, 2-chloro-N-(4-chloro-3-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide, Erivedge™) is a novel first-in-human, first-in class, orally bio-available Hedgehog pathway signaling inhibitor of the G-protein coupled receptor-like protein smoothened (SMO) which was approved in the United States on January 2012. This signaling pathway is involved in the carcinogenesis of several types of tumor, as exemplified by basal cell carcinoma. This review focuses on the role of the Hedgehog pathway in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma, the pharmacology and the clinical activity of vismodegib, as well as a brief summary of investigational agents in development targeting this pathway.

  8. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (<1 ice thickness) features may be artifacts of overfitting our solution to measurement errors, we tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  9. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  10. Basal ganglia circuits for reward value-guided behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Kim, Hyoung F.; Yasuda, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are equipped with inhibitory and disinhibitory mechanisms that enable to choose valuable objects and actions. Notably, a value can be determined flexibly by recent experience or stably by prolonged experience. Recent studies have revealed that the head and tail of the caudate nucleus selectively and differentially process flexible and stable values of visual objects. These signals are sent to the superior colliculus through different parts of the substantia nigra, so that the animal looks preferentially at high-valued objects, but in different manners. Relying on short-term value memories, the caudate head circuit allows gaze to move expectantly to recently valued objects. Relying on long-term value memories, the caudate tail circuit allows gaze to move automatically to previously valued objects. The basal ganglia also contain an equivalent parallel mechanism for action values. Such flexible-stable parallel mechanisms for object and action values create a highly adaptable system for decision making. PMID:25032497

  11. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  12. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  13. Canceling actions involves a race between basal ganglia pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Robert; Leventhal, Daniel K.; Mallet, Nicolas; Chen, Fujun; Berke, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Salient cues can prompt the rapid interruption of planned actions. It has been proposed that fast, reactive behavioral inhibition involves specific basal ganglia pathways, and we tested this by comparing activity in multiple rat basal ganglia structures during performance of a stop-signal task. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons showed low-latency responses to Stop cues, irrespective of whether actions were successfully canceled or not. By contrast, neurons downstream in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) responded to Stop cues only in trials with successful cancellation. Recordings and simulations together indicate that this sensorimotor gating arises from the relative timing of two distinct inputs to neurons in the SNr dorsolateral “core” subregion: cue-related excitation from STN and movement-related inhibition from striatum. Our results support race models of action cancellation, with successful stopping requiring Stop cue information to be transmitted from STN to SNr before increased striatal input creates a point of no return. PMID:23852117

  14. Basal forebrain neuronal inhibition enables rapid behavioral stopping

    PubMed Central

    Mayse, Jeffrey D.; Nelson, Geoffrey M.; Avila, Irene; Gallagher, Michela; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive inhibitory control, the ability to rapidly suppress responses inappropriate for the context, is essential for flexible and adaptive behavior. While most studies on inhibitory control have focused on the fronto-basal-ganglia circuit, here we explore a novel hypothesis and show that rapid behavioral stopping is enabled by neuronal inhibition in the basal forebrain (BF). In rats performing the stop signal task, putative noncholinergic BF neurons with phasic bursting responses to the go signal were inhibited nearly completely by the stop signal. The onset of BF neuronal inhibition was tightly coupled with and temporally preceded the latency to stop, the stop signal reaction time. Artificial inhibition of BF activity in the absence of the stop signal was sufficient to reproduce rapid behavioral stopping. These results reveal a novel subcortical mechanism of rapid inhibitory control by the BF, which provides bidirectional control over the speed of response generation and inhibition. PMID:26368943

  15. Basal ganglia iron in tardive dyskinesia: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Elkashef, A M; Egan, M F; Frank, J A; Hyde, T M; Lewis, B K; Wyatt, R J

    1994-01-01

    Alterations in brain iron could play an important role in the development of tardive dyskinesia in patients receiving neuroleptic medication. To test this hypothesis, magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain were performed on 21 chronic schizophrenic patients. Ten patients met research diagnostic criteria for persistent tardive dyskinesia, and 11 were free of tardive dyskinesia. All patients had received long-term neuroleptic treatment and were on a stable neuroleptic dose for at least 3 months before scanning. The signal intensity of basal ganglia structures was obtained as a quantitative estimate of brain iron content. No difference was found in the signal intensity ratios between the two groups. This suggests that iron deposition in the basal ganglia, at least as assessed by this measure, does not play a role in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia. PMID:8167198

  16. Solute effect on basal and prismatic slip systems of Mg.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Amitava; Kim, Seong-Gon; Horstemeyer, M F

    2014-11-01

    In an effort to design novel magnesium (Mg) alloys with high ductility, we present a first principles data based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT was employed to calculate the generalized stacking fault energy curves, which can be used in the generalized Peierls-Nabarro (PN) model to study the energetics of basal slip and prismatic slip in Mg with and without solutes to calculate continuum scale dislocation core widths, stacking fault widths and Peierls stresses. The generalized stacking fault energy curves for pure Mg agreed well with other DFT calculations. Solute effects on these curves were calculated for nine alloying elements, namely Al, Ca, Ce, Gd, Li, Si, Sn, Zn and Zr, which allowed the strength and ductility to be qualitatively estimated based on the basal dislocation properties. Based on our multiscale methodology, a suggestion has been made to improve Mg formability. PMID:25273695

  17. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Jesse M; Carucci, John A

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  18. Multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Sapdhare, Swati; Pujar, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is of particular interest because its recurrence rate is high and its behavior is aggressive. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), which is also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and with a predisposition to neoplasms. These multiple KCOTs have warranted an aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications. Recurrence of these lesions is a characteristic feature that has to be considered while explaining the prognosis to the patient. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old boy with clinical features of basal cell nevus syndrome and multiple KCOTs. In addition to the other common features, congenitally missing third molars in all the four quadrants is a feature which has not been previously reported in association with NBCCS in Indian patients. PMID:26981489

  19. Correlation of the basal Cretaceous beds of the Southeastern States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, Wythe

    1926-01-01

    The basal Cretaceous deposits that fringe the inner margin of the Coastal Plain from eastern Alabama to central North Carolina, where they are overlapped by Miocene sands, have been commonly classified as of Lower Cretaceous age and correlated roughly with the Patuxent formation of the Potomac group of Maryland and Virginia. In this paper the evidence on which this early correlation was based is reviewed, later evidence is considered, and the conclusion is reached that all the basal Cretaceous deposits in the area under consideration are of Upper Cretaceous age. Acknowledgments are gratefully made of the helpful criticism of the manuscript by L. W. Stephenson and of his generous assistance in the preparation of the correlation table.

  20. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  1. Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Poortmans, J R; Francaux, M

    2000-09-01

    The consumption of oral creatine monohydrate has become increasingly common among professional and amateur athletes. Despite numerous publications on the ergogenic effects of this naturally occurring substance, there is little information on the possible adverse effects of this supplement. The objectives of this review are to identify the scientific facts and contrast them with reports in the news media, which have repeatedly emphasised the health risks of creatine supplementation and do not hesitate to draw broad conclusions from individual case reports. Exogenous creatine supplements are often consumed by athletes in amounts of up to 20 g/day for a few days, followed by 1 to 10 g/day for weeks, months and even years. Usually, consumers do not report any adverse effects, but body mass increases. There are few reports that creatine supplementation has protective effects in heart, muscle and neurological diseases. Gastrointestinal disturbances and muscle cramps have been reported occasionally in healthy individuals, but the effects are anecdotal. Liver and kidney dysfunction have also been suggested on the basis of small changes in markers of organ function and of occasional case reports, but well controlled studies on the adverse effects of exogenous creatine supplementation are almost nonexistent. We have investigated liver changes during medium term (4 weeks) creatine supplementation in young athletes. None showed any evidence of dysfunction on the basis of serum enzymes and urea production. Short term (5 days), medium term (9 weeks) and long term (up to 5 years) oral creatine supplementation has been studied in small cohorts of athletes whose kidney function was monitored by clearance methods and urine protein excretion rate. We did not find any adverse effects on renal function. The present review is not intended to reach conclusions on the effect of creatine supplementation on sport performance, but we believe that there is no evidence for deleterious effects in healthy individuals. Nevertheless, idiosyncratic effects may occur when large amounts of an exogenous substance containing an amino group are consumed, with the consequent increased load on the liver and kidneys. Regular monitoring is compulsory to avoid any abnormal reactions during oral creatine supplementation. PMID:10999421

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Firnhaber, Jonathon M

    2012-07-15

    Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years. PMID:22962928

  3. Detection of Differentially Expressed Basal Cell Proteins by Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Todorović, Viktor; Desai, Bhushan V.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Yin, Taofei; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Mrksich, Milan; Green, Kathleen J.; Patterson, Melanie J. Schroeder

    2010-01-01

    The ability of cells to modulate interactions with each other and the substrate is essential for epithelial tissue remodeling during processes such as wound healing and tumor progression. However, despite strides made in the field of proteomics, proteins involved in adhesion have been difficult to study. Here, we report a method for the enrichment and analysis of proteins associated with the basal surface of the cell and its underlying matrix. The enrichment involves deroofing the cells with 20 mm ammonium hydroxide and the removal of cytosolic and organellar proteins by stringent water wash. Proteomic profiling was achieved by LC-FTMS, which allowed comparison of differentially expressed or shared proteins under different cell states. First, we analyzed and compared the basal cell components of mouse keratinocytes lacking the cell-cell junction molecule plakoglobin with their control counterparts. Changes in the molecules involved in motility and invasion were detected in plakoglobin-deficient cells, including decreased detection of fibronectin, integrin β4, and FAT tumor suppressor. Second, we assessed the differences in basal cell components between two human oral squamous cell carcinoma lines originating from different sites in the oral cavity (CAL33 and UM-SCC-1). The data show differences between the two lines in the type and abundance of proteins specific to cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis. Therefore, the method described here has the potential to serve as a platform to assess proteomic changes in basal cell components including extracellular and adhesion-specific proteins involved in wound healing, cancer, and chronic and acquired adhesion-related disorders. PMID:19955077

  4. On Chromospheric Heating Mechanisms of ``Basal Flux'' Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, P. G.; Carpenter, K. G.

    1998-02-01

    Several pieces of evidence have been pieced together over recent years to support the notion that the chromospheric emission measured from stars with convection zones results in part from the upward propagation and dissipation of acoustic waves. One argument, based on a statistical analysis of available UV data of such stars across the H-R diagram, suggests the presence of an omnipresent ``basal'' level of chromospheric heating, which has been postulated as resulting from nonlinear acoustic wave heating. However, with few exceptions, no studies have been made that test more directly the intrinsically dynamic nature of this shock-heating mechanism. Therefore, in order to search for more direct signatures of such upward-propagating shock waves in lines of C II, we examined Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph spectra of several evolved stars that have ``basal'' levels of activity. No evidence is found to support the presence of such waves as a dominant component of the heating mechanism. Instead, behavior reminiscent of the solar transition region is seen, suggesting a magnetic heating mechanism for these stars. We conclude that upward-propagating shock waves do not dominate the observed radiative losses from chromospheres of stars exhibiting typical ``basal'' behavior, and we suggest that the nonmagnetic origin of the basal components of all convective stars must be called into question. New solar data from the SUMER instrument on SOHO also suggest problems with the acoustic-wave interpretation, although further work is warranted. In the course of this work, we also found a simple explanation for previously noted discrepancies between calculated and observed ratios of C II lines in the spectrum of α Ori. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. Pure psychic akinesia with bilateral lesions of basal ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Laplane, D; Baulac, M; Widlöcher, D; Dubois, B

    1984-01-01

    Three patients showed dramatic psychic akinesia after recovery from toxic encephalopathy. They had no or only mild motor disorders. The spontaneous psychic akinesia was reversible when the patient was stimulated, as if there was a loss of self psychic activation. Intellectual capacities were normal. Two patients had stereotyped behaviours resembling compulsions. In all patients CT cans showed bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, mainly within the globus pallidus. Images PMID:6726263

  6. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera.

    PubMed

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed. PMID:26662298

  7. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  8. Cell Communication in the Basal Cells of the Human Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Van Heukelom, J. Siegenbeek; Slaaf, D. W.; Van Der Leun, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Electrotonic spread can be measured in the basal cells of the human epidermis. The communication between neighboring cells is high, whereas no leak to the intercellular spaces could be detected. The specific resistance of the membranes between the cells is about 10 Ωcm2. This finding suggests that for those particles that are able to pass the cell membrane the intracellular path through the epidermis is at least as suitable as the path through the intercellular spaces. Images PMID:5074742

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products. PMID:26642690

  10. [Physical activity and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Harald S; Hansen, Mette; Kiens, Bente; Kvorning, Thue; Nielsen, Lars N; Rasmussen, Lone B; Aagaard, Peter G

    2009-08-17

    The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has examined the scientific literature to evaluate the performance and health-related aspects of consuming dietary supplements in the context of physical activity. Certain nutritional supplements such as creatine and caffeine have documented ergogenic effects in specific situations. However, for the moderately physically active adult and healthy individual, who already consumes an energy- and nutrient balanced diet, consuming any currently legal dietary supplement does not seem to confer additional benefits on performance or health. PMID:19732518

  11. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in ornithischians and birds. Craniad migration of the iliofemoralis group muscles in birds correlates with increased leverage and use of medial femoral rotation to counter stance phase adduction moments at the hip. In Lesothosaurus the iliofemoralis group maintains significantly higher moment arms for abduction, consistent with the hip abduction mode of lateral limb support hypothesized for basal dinosaurs. Sensitivity analysis highlights ambiguity in the role of musculature associated with the retroverted pubis (puboischiofemoralis externus group) in ornithischians. However, it seems likely that this musculature may have predominantly functioned similarly to homologous muscles in extant birds, activating during the swing phase to adduct the lower limb through lateral rotation of the femur. Overall the results suggest that locomotor muscle leverage in Lesothosaurus (and by inference basal ornithischians in general) was more similar to that of other non-avian dinosaurs than the ostrich, representing what was probably the basal dinosaur condition. This work thereby contradicts previous hypotheses of ornithischian-bird functional convergence. PMID:22211275

  12. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Ornithischia (the bird-hipped dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in ornithischians and birds. Craniad migration of the iliofemoralis group muscles in birds correlates with increased leverage and use of medial femoral rotation to counter stance phase adduction moments at the hip. In Lesothosaurus the iliofemoralis group maintains significantly higher moment arms for abduction, consistent with the hip abduction mode of lateral limb support hypothesized for basal dinosaurs. Sensitivity analysis highlights ambiguity in the role of musculature associated with the retroverted pubis (puboischiofemoralis externus group) in ornithischians. However, it seems likely that this musculature may have predominantly functioned similarly to homologous muscles in extant birds, activating during the swing phase to adduct the lower limb through lateral rotation of the femur. Overall the results suggest that locomotor muscle leverage in Lesothosaurus (and by inference basal ornithischians in general) was more similar to that of other non-avian dinosaurs than the ostrich, representing what was probably the basal dinosaur condition. This work thereby contradicts previous hypotheses of ornithischianbird functional convergence. PMID:22211275

  13. The Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Mundy, Lee; Wolfire, Mark

    1997-01-01

    A major component of this research is to extend existing models of thermal processes in the local interstellar medium to the inner and outer Galaxy. In completing this goal we have calculated the thermal equilibrium gas temperature of the neutral diffuse gas and constructed phase diagrams (gas pressure versus density) for gas at galactic radii between 3 and 18 kpc. An important ingredient in this computation is the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field in the Galactic disk. This radiation is important since photoelectric heating via FUV radiation on dust grains is expected to be a dominant heating process in the diffuse via gas. As a check of our calculated FUV field, we compared the infrared luminosity predicted by our theory with the observations of the COBE DIRBE space satellite and found the two to be in quite good agreement. Using our phase diagrams we have predicted the thermal pressure in the Galactic plane for which a multiphase equilibrium can be maintained. In addition, by using the maximum thermal pressure allowed by the observations, we have constrained the Galactic radii over which both cold and warm gas must exist, may exist, and cannot exist.

  14. Evidence for basal distortion-product otoacoustic emission components.

    PubMed

    Martin, Glen K; Stagner, Barden B; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L

    2010-05-01

    Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured with traditional DP-grams and level/phase (L/P) maps in rabbits with either normal cochlear function or unique sound-induced cochlear losses that were characterized as either low-frequency or notched configurations. To demonstrate that emission generators distributed basal to the f(2) primary-tone contribute, in general, to DPOAE levels and phases, a high-frequency interference tone (IT) was presented at 1/3 of an octave (oct) above the f(2) primary-tone, and DPOAEs were re-measured as "augmented" DP-grams (ADP-grams) and L/P maps. The vector difference between the control and augmented functions was then computed to derive residual DP-grams (RDP-grams) and L/P maps. The resulting RDP-grams and L/P maps, which described the DPOAEs removed by the IT, supported the notion that basal DPOAE components routinely contribute to the generation of standard measures of DPOAEs. Separate experiments demonstrated that these components could not be attributed to the effects of the 1/3-oct IT on f(2), or DPOAEs generated by the addition of a third interfering tone. These basal components can "fill in" the lesion estimated by the commonly employed DP-gram. Thus, ADP-grams more accurately reveal the pattern of cochlear damage and may eventually lead to an improved DP-gram procedure. PMID:21117746

  15. Basal breast cancer: a complex and deadly molecular subtype.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, F; Finetti, P; Birnbaum, D

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, gene expression profiling of breast cancer has revealed the existence of five molecular subtypes and allowed the establishment of a new classification. The basal subtype, which represents 15-25% of cases, is characterized by an expression profile similar to that of myoepithelial normal mammary cells. Basal tumors are frequently assimilated to triple-negative (TN) breast cancers. They display epidemiological and clinico-pathological features distinct from other subtypes. Their pattern of relapse is characterized by frequent and early relapses and visceral locations. Despite a relative sensitivity to chemotherapy, the prognosis is poor. Recent characterization of their molecular features, such as the dysfunction of the BRCA1 pathway or the frequent expression of EGFR, provides opportunities for optimizing the systemic treatment. Several clinical trials dedicated to basal or TN tumors are testing cytotoxic agents and/or molecularly targeted therapies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this aggressive and hard-to-treat subtype of breast cancer. PMID:22082486

  16. Choosing sides – asymmetric centriole and basal body assembly

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Chad G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrioles and basal bodies (CBBs) are microtubule-rich cylindrical structures that nucleate and organize centrosomes and cilia, respectively. Despite their apparent ninefold rotational symmetry, the nine sets of triplet microtubules in CBBs possess asymmetries in their morphology and in the structures that associate with them. These asymmetries define the position of nascent CBB assembly, the orientation of ciliary beating, the orientation of spindle poles and the maintenance of cellular geometry. For some of these functions, the orientation of CBBs is first established during new CBB biogenesis when the daughter structure is positioned adjacent to the mother. The mother CBB organizes the surrounding environment that nascent CBBs are born into, thereby providing a nest for the new CBB to develop. Protists, including ciliates and algae, highlight the importance of this environment with the formation of asymmetrically placed scaffolds onto which new basal bodies assemble and are positioned. Recent studies illuminate the positioning of nascent centrioles relative to a modular pericentriolar material (PCM) environment and suggest that, like ciliates, centrosomes organize an immediate environment surrounding centrioles for their biogenesis and positioning. In this Commentary, I will explore the positioning of nascent CBB assembly as the first event in building cellular asymmetries and describe how the environment surrounding both basal bodies and centrioles may define asymmetric assembly. PMID:24895399

  17. Basal fat oxidation decreases with aging in women.

    PubMed

    Calles-Escandón, J; Arciero, P J; Gardner, A W; Bauman, C; Poehlman, E T

    1995-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that a decrease in basal fat oxidation in aging women is related to a loss of fat-free mass. Thirty-two nonsmoking women with a wide range of age (18-73 yr) were characterized for body composition (underwater weight), maximal aerobic capacity, and basal fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry). Results showed that fat oxidation was negatively correlated with age (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.017) but was positively correlated with the fat-free mass (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.0001) and with the level of aerobic fitness (maximal aerobic capacity) (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.007). Unexpectedly, fat oxidation had no relationship with fat mass (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.136). Partial correlation analysis showed that the decline in fat-free mass, and not the age or maximal O2 consumption, was the best single predictor of the decline in basal fat oxidation. These results support the theory that a decrease in fat oxidation with advancing age in healthy women is associated with a decrease in the fat-free mass and not age per se. Interventions that increase or preserve the quantity of fat-free mass (e.g., exercise training) may enhance fat oxidation and thus lessen the age-associated adiposity in women. PMID:7713822

  18. Basal Breast Cancer: A Complex and Deadly Molecular Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, F; Finetti, P; Birnbaum, D

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, gene expression profiling of breast cancer has revealed the existence of five molecular subtypes and allowed the establishment of a new classification. The basal subtype, which represents 15-25% of cases, is characterized by an expression profile similar to that of myoepithelial normal mammary cells. Basal tumors are frequently assimilated to triple-negative (TN) breast cancers. They display epidemiological and clinico-pathological features distinct from other subtypes. Their pattern of relapse is characterized by frequent and early relapses and visceral locations. Despite a relative sensitivity to chemotherapy, the prognosis is poor. Recent characterization of their molecular features, such as the dysfunction of the BRCA1 pathway or the frequent expression of EGFR, provides opportunities for optimizing the systemic treatment. Several clinical trials dedicated to basal or TN tumors are testing cytotoxic agents and/or molecularly targeted therapies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this aggressive and hard-to-treat subtype of breast cancer. PMID:22082486

  19. Molecular insights on basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Mev Dominguez; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Privat, Maud; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2012-07-01

    Molecular classification of breast cancer (BC) identified diverse subgroups that encompass distinct biological behavior and clinical implications, in particular in relation to prognosis, spread, and incidence of recurrence. Basal-like breast cancers (BLBC) compose up to 15% of BC and are characterized by lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER-2 amplification with expression of basal cytokeratins 5/6, 14, 17, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and/or c-KIT. There is an overlap in definition between triple-negative BC and BLBC due to the triple-negative profile of BLBC. Also, most BRCA1-associated BCs are BLBC, triple negative, and express basal cytokeratins (5/6, 14, 17) and EGFR. There is a link between sporadic BLBC (occurring in women without germline BRCA1 mutations) with dysfunction of the BRCA1 pathway. Despite the molecular and clinical similarities, these subtypes respond differently to neoadjuvant therapy. BLBCs are associated with an aggressive phenotype, high histological grade, poor clinical behavior, and high rates of recurrences and/or metastasis. Their molecular features render these tumors especially refractory to anti-hormonal-based therapies and the overall prognosis of this subset remains poor. In this article, the molecular profile, genomic, and epigenetic characteristics as well as BRCA1 pathway dysfunction, clinicopathological behavior, and therapeutic options in BLBC are presented, with emphasis on the discordant findings in current literature. PMID:22234518

  20. Molecular biology of basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Emmert, Steffen; Schn, Michael P; Haenssle, Holger A

    2014-01-01

    The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Both so called nonmelanoma skin cancers comprise the most common cancers in humans by far. Common risk factors for both tumor entities include sun-exposure, DNA repair deficiencies leading to chromosomal instability, or immunosuppression. Yet, fundamental differences in the development of the two different entities have been and are currently unveiled. The constitutive activation of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway by acquired mutations in the PTCH and SMO genes appears to represent the early basal cell carcinoma developmental determinant. Although other signaling pathways are also affected, small hedgehog inhibitory molecules evolve as the most promising basal cell carcinoma treatment options systemically as well as topically in current clinical trials. For squamous cell carcinoma development mutations in the p53 gene, especially UV-induced mutations, have been identified as early events. Yet, other signaling pathways including epidermal growth factor receptor, RAS, Fyn, or p16INK4a signaling may play significant roles in squamous cell carcinoma development. The improved understanding of the molecular events leading to different tumor entities by de-differentiation of the same cell type have begun to pave the way for modulating new molecular targets therapeutically with small molecules. PMID:25207369

  1. Regulation of basal body and ciliary functions by Diversin

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Takayuki; Itoh, Keiji; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2011-01-01

    The centrosome is essential for the formation of the cilia and has been implicated in cell polarization and signaling during early embryonic development. A number of Wnt pathway components were found to localize at the centrosome, but how this localization relates to their signaling functions is unclear. In this study, we assessed a role for Diversin, a putative Wnt pathway mediator, in developmental processes that involve cilia. We find that Diversin is specifically localized to the basal body compartment near the base of the cilium in Xenopus multi-ciliated skin cells. Overexpression of Diversin RNA disrupted basal body polarization in these cells, suggesting that tightly regulated control of Diversin levels is crucial for this process. In cells depleted of endogenous Diversin, basal body structure appeared abnormal and this was accompanied by disrupted polarity, shortened or absent cilia and defective ciliary flow. These results are consistent with the involvement of Diversin in processes that are related to the acquisition of cell polarity and require ciliary functions. PMID:21843637

  2. Basal ganglia correlates of fatigue in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Shinada, Takamitsu; Maruyama, Tsukasa; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Magistro, Daniele; Sakaki, Kohei; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sasaki, Yukako; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of chronic fatigue is approximately 20% in healthy individuals, there are no studies of brain structure that elucidate the neural correlates of fatigue outside of clinical subjects. We hypothesized that fatigue without evidence of disease might be related to changes in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex and be implicated in fatigue with disease. We aimed to identify the white matter structures of fatigue in young subjects without disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Healthy young adults (n = 883; 489 males and 394 females) were recruited. As expected, the degrees of fatigue and motivation were associated with larger mean diffusivity (MD) in the right putamen, pallidus and caudate. Furthermore, the degree of physical activity was associated with a larger MD only in the right putamen. Accordingly, motivation was the best candidate for widespread basal ganglia, whereas physical activity might be the best candidate for the putamen. A plausible mechanism of fatigue may involve abnormal function of the motor system, as well as areas of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia that are associated with motivation and reward. PMID:26893077

  3. The PCM-basal body/primary cilium coalition.

    PubMed

    Moser, Joanna J; Fritzler, Marvin J; Ou, Young; Rattner, Jerome B

    2010-04-01

    The centrosome is an organelle that acts as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) throughout the cell cycle. Within the centrosome are often two components that each have an ability to organize microtubule structures: the centriole that has the potential to function as a basal body and nucleate a cilium or a flagellum and a mass of protein material that in the presence of a centriole is commonly referred to as the pericentriolar material (PCM) that organizes cytoplasmic and spindle microtubule arrays. One characteristic of a large variety of cells is the ability to express a non-motile primary cilium. It is now appreciated that the function of the primary cilium is integral to a variety of essential cell functions and defects affecting this structure underlie a variety of human disease. While the function of the primary cilium and manner in which a basal body organizes a primary cilium has received extensive attention there is now a need to explore the inter-relationship between the PCM and the basal body/primary cilium. It is this latter topic that is the focus of this review where we show that the PCM is integrated with the centriole to form a coalition that is essential for both the expression and function of the primary cilium as well as the organization and function of the cellular environment that surrounds it. PMID:19591955

  4. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    PubMed Central

    N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

  5. Basal ganglia correlates of fatigue in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Shinada, Takamitsu; Maruyama, Tsukasa; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Magistro, Daniele; Sakaki, Kohei; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sasaki, Yukako; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of chronic fatigue is approximately 20% in healthy individuals, there are no studies of brain structure that elucidate the neural correlates of fatigue outside of clinical subjects. We hypothesized that fatigue without evidence of disease might be related to changes in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex and be implicated in fatigue with disease. We aimed to identify the white matter structures of fatigue in young subjects without disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Healthy young adults (n = 883; 489 males and 394 females) were recruited. As expected, the degrees of fatigue and motivation were associated with larger mean diffusivity (MD) in the right putamen, pallidus and caudate. Furthermore, the degree of physical activity was associated with a larger MD only in the right putamen. Accordingly, motivation was the best candidate for widespread basal ganglia, whereas physical activity might be the best candidate for the putamen. A plausible mechanism of fatigue may involve abnormal function of the motor system, as well as areas of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia that are associated with motivation and reward. PMID:26893077

  6. Autoimmunity and the basal ganglia: new insights into old diseases.

    PubMed

    Dale, R C

    2003-03-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) occurs weeks or months after Group A streptococcal infection, and is characterized by involuntary, purposeless movements of the limbs, in addition to behavioural alteration. There is a body of evidence which suggests that SC is an immune-mediated brain disorder with regional localization to the basal ganglia. Recent reports have suggested that the spectrum of post-streptococcal CNS disease is broader than chorea alone, and includes other hyperkinetic movement disorders (tics, dystonia and myoclonus). In addition, there are high rates of behavioural sequelae, particularly emotional disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression. These findings have lead to the hypothesis that similar immune-mediated basal ganglia processes may be operating in common neuropsychiatric disease such as tic disorders, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This review analyses the historical aspects of post-streptococcal CNS disease, and the recent immunological studies which have addressed the hypothesis that common neuropsychiatric disorders may be secondary to basal ganglia autoimmunity. PMID:12615982

  7. A seismic investigation of basal conditions in glaciated regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Leo Everett

    Seismic amplitude analysis of the ice bottom reflector is an effective way to constrain the basal regime of glaciated regions and better capture the role of the bed in ice dynamics. The strength and phase of this observed ice bottom reflection, and its variations when analyzed over a range of source-receiver offsets, relate to a unique set of elastic properties at the ice-bed interface that highlight the material properties of the subglacial bed. These observations allow us to obtain a greater understanding its role in facilitating ice drainage from the interior of the earth's ice sheets to the margins. This thesis builds upon the seismic amplitude variation with offset (AVO) technique to exploit seismic observations of the ice-bed interface to determine basal conditions. The primary goal of this thesis is to outline the overall approach for extracting the elastic properties of the subglacial bed from an observed seismic reflection, touching upon the various simplifications and shortcomings experienced along the way. The secondary goal is to highlight the robustness of seismic AVO analysis in glaciated regions by applying this technique to seismic reflection data from four locations in Antarctica and Greenland. Each example provides a different snapshot of the basal regime, revealing a subglacial system with various structural, mechanical, and hydrological components at work in shaping the evolution of ice dynamics within the earth's ice sheets.

  8. Proactive Selective Response Suppression Is Implemented via the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Majid, D. S. Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway. PMID:23946385

  9. A Centrin3-dependent, transient, appendage of the mother basal body guides the positioning of the daughter basal body in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Jerka-Dziadosz, Maria; Koll, France; Włoga, Dorota; Gogendeau, Delphine; Garreau de Loubresse, Nicole; Ruiz, Françoise; Fabczak, Stanisław; Beisson, Janine

    2013-05-01

    Basal bodies are tightly controlled not only for their time of duplication but also for their movements, which ensure proper division and morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying these movements only begin to be explored. We describe here a novel basal body appendage in Paramecium, the anterior left filament (ALF), which develops transiently from the mother basal body before duplication and disassembles once the new basal body is docked at the surface. By comparing the ultrastructure of dividing wild type cells to that of cells defective in basal body duplication, either by depletion of conserved proteins required for basal body assembly, or by mutation, we showed 1) that assembly of the ALF requires PtCen3p, one of the two basal body specific centrins and 2) that absence of the ALF correlates with a failure of the newly assembled basal bodies to tilt up to their docking site at the surface. This correlation suggests that the function of the ALF consists in anchoring centrin-containing contractile fibers which pull up the new basal body toward its site of docking. The presence in T. thermophila of an ALF-like appendage suggests the conservation of an ancestral mechanism ensuring the coupling of basal body duplication and cell morphogenesis. PMID:23261281

  10. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Jim

    For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

  11. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries. PMID:26159983

  12. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk. PMID:24667103

  13. Intestinal Alterations, Basal Hematology, and Biochemical Parameters in Adolescent Rats Fed Different Sources of Dietary Copper.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is required for basically all biochemical and physiological processes in the body. The aim was to evaluate the effects of different sources of dietary copper on jejunal epithelium histomorphometry in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 5 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control group was fed with standard diet providing the required Cu level (5 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day) in an inorganic form (sulfate) covered 100 % of daily demand, and the other three groups were supplemented with Cu-glycine complex covered 50, 75, and 100 % daily demand. Basal hematological and plasma biochemical analyses as well as histomorphometric examinations of the jejunal epithelium and liver were performed. Cu given in the organic form in 100 % of daily demand depressed the muscular and submucosa layer and the crypt depth (P < 0.05) without an influence of the innervation of the jejunum. In turn, organic Cu given in 75 % of daily demand did not influence the intestinal morphology in adult rats. Dietary organic Cu given to rats covering the daily demand in 50 or 75 % appears to be less harmful with regard to the intestinal epithelium than when administered in 100 % of daily demand. PMID:26432448

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Gorlin’s Patients: a Matter of Fibroblasts-Led Protumoral Microenvironment?

    PubMed Central

    Gache, Yannick; Brellier, Florence; Rouanet, Sophie; Al-Qaraghuli, Sahar; Goncalves-Maia, Maria; Burty-Valin, Elodie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Scarzello, Sabine; Ruat, Martial; Sevenet, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest tumor in human. About 70% sporadic BCCs bear somatic mutations in the PATCHED1 tumor suppressor gene which encodes the receptor for the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen (SHH). PATCHED1 germinal mutations are associated with the dominant Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), a major hallmark of which is a high susceptibility to BCCs. Although the vast majority of sporadic BCCs arises exclusively in sun exposed skin areas, 40 to 50% BCCs from NBCCS patients develop in non photo-exposed skin. Since overwhelming evidences indicate that microenvironment may both be modified by- and influence the- epithelial tumor, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could contribute to BCCs in NBCCS patients, notably those developing in non photo-exposed skin areas. The functional impact of NBCCS fibroblasts was then assessed in organotypic skin cultures with control keratinocytes. Onset of epidermal differentiation was delayed in the presence of primary NBCCS fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, keratinocyte proliferation was severely reduced and showed high levels of nuclear P53 in both organotypic skin cultures and in fibroblast-led conditioning experiments. However, in spite of increased levels of senescence associated β-galactosidase activity in keratinocytes cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by NBCCS fibroblasts, we failed to observe activation of P16 and P21 and then of bona fide features of senescence. Constitutive extinction of P53 in WT keratinocytes resulted in an invasive phenotype in the presence of NBCCS fibroblasts. Finally, we found that expression of SHH was limited to fibroblasts but was dependent on the presence of keratinocytes. Inhibition of SHH binding resulted in improved epidermal morphogenesis. Altogether, these data suggest that the repertoire of diffusible factors (including SHH) expressed by primary NBCCS fibroblasts generate a stress affecting keratinocytes behavior and epidermal homeostasis. Our findings suggest that defects in dermo/epidermal interactions could contribute to BCC susceptibility in NBCCS patients. PMID:26694869

  15. Stimulating basal mitochondrial respiration decreases doxorubicin apoptotic signaling in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Deus, Cláudia M; Zehowski, Cheryl; Nordgren, Kendra; Wallace, Kendall B; Skildum, Andrew; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-08-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is currently used in cancer chemotherapy, however, its use often results in adverse effects highlighted by the development of cardiomyopathy and ultimately heart failure. Interestingly, DOX cardiotoxicity is decreased by resveratrol or by physical activity, suggesting that increased mitochondrial activity may be protective. Conversely, recent studies showed that troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, increases the cytotoxicity of DOX against breast cancer cells by up-regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. The hypothesis for the current investigation was that DOX cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts is decreased when mitochondrial capacity is increased. We focused on several end-points for DOX cytotoxicity, including loss of cell mass, apoptotic signaling and alterations of autophagic-related proteins. Our results show that a galactose-based, modified cell culture medium increased H9c2 basal mitochondrial respiration, protein content, and mtDNA copy number without increasing maximal or spare respiratory capacity. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts cultured in the galactose-modified media showed lower DOX-induced activation of the apoptotic pathway, measured by decreased caspase-3 and -9 activation, and lower p53 expression, although ultimately loss of cells was not prevented. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone had no effect on DOX toxicity in this cardiac cell line, which agrees with the fact that troglitazone did not increase mitochondrial DNA content or capacity at the concentrations and duration of exposure used in this investigation. Our results show that mitochondrial remodeling caused by stimulating basal rates of oxidative phosphorylation decreased DOX-induced apoptotic signaling and increased DOX-induced autophagy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The differential effect on cytotoxicity in cardiac versus breast cancer cell lines suggests a possible overall improvement in the clinical efficacy for doxorubicin in treating cancer. PMID:25997894

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Gorlin's Patients: a Matter of Fibroblasts-Led Protumoral Microenvironment?

    PubMed

    Gache, Yannick; Brellier, Florence; Rouanet, Sophie; Al-Qaraghuli, Sahar; Goncalves-Maia, Maria; Burty-Valin, Elodie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Scarzello, Sabine; Ruat, Martial; Sevenet, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest tumor in human. About 70% sporadic BCCs bear somatic mutations in the PATCHED1 tumor suppressor gene which encodes the receptor for the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen (SHH). PATCHED1 germinal mutations are associated with the dominant Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), a major hallmark of which is a high susceptibility to BCCs. Although the vast majority of sporadic BCCs arises exclusively in sun exposed skin areas, 40 to 50% BCCs from NBCCS patients develop in non photo-exposed skin. Since overwhelming evidences indicate that microenvironment may both be modified by- and influence the- epithelial tumor, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could contribute to BCCs in NBCCS patients, notably those developing in non photo-exposed skin areas. The functional impact of NBCCS fibroblasts was then assessed in organotypic skin cultures with control keratinocytes. Onset of epidermal differentiation was delayed in the presence of primary NBCCS fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, keratinocyte proliferation was severely reduced and showed high levels of nuclear P53 in both organotypic skin cultures and in fibroblast-led conditioning experiments. However, in spite of increased levels of senescence associated β-galactosidase activity in keratinocytes cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by NBCCS fibroblasts, we failed to observe activation of P16 and P21 and then of bona fide features of senescence. Constitutive extinction of P53 in WT keratinocytes resulted in an invasive phenotype in the presence of NBCCS fibroblasts. Finally, we found that expression of SHH was limited to fibroblasts but was dependent on the presence of keratinocytes. Inhibition of SHH binding resulted in improved epidermal morphogenesis. Altogether, these data suggest that the repertoire of diffusible factors (including SHH) expressed by primary NBCCS fibroblasts generate a stress affecting keratinocytes behavior and epidermal homeostasis. Our findings suggest that defects in dermo/epidermal interactions could contribute to BCC susceptibility in NBCCS patients. PMID:26694869

  17. SNS Medium Beta Cryomodule Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Isidoro Campisi; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Jean Delayen; Christiana Grenoble; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Mircea Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Mark Wiseman

    2003-09-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) is producing 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, 11 medium-beta production, and 12 high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Each of the medium-beta cryomodules is scheduled to undergo complete operational performance testing at Jefferson Laboratory before shipment to ORNL. To date, the prototype and three production models of the medium beta cryomodule have been tested. The performance results of the tested cryomodules will be discussed.

  18. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite differences in appearance and bulk‒flow density. These results demonstrate that debris flows can have strong control on rates of steepland evolution and contribute to a foundation needed for modeling debris‒flow incision stochastically.

  19. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Tucker, G. E.; Kean, J. W.; Coe, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris-flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris-flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris-flow events had a large-magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time-averaged mean force), high-frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time-averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ˜ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time-averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (˜ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse-grained granular surges and water-rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite differences in appearance and bulk-flow density. These results demonstrate that debris flows can have strong control on rates of steepland evolution and contribute to a foundation needed for modeling debris-flow incision stochastically.

  20. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:27088481

  1. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24 Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions...

  2. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the initial supplemental sale only blocks for which bids were rejected after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered. If, after the initial supplemental sale, a supplemental sale is not held annually for any reason... Management, General § 556.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale...

  3. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the initial supplemental sale only blocks for which bids were rejected after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered. If, after the initial supplemental sale, a supplemental sale is not held annually for any reason... Management, General § 556.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale...

  4. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the initial supplemental sale only blocks for which bids were rejected after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered. If, after the initial supplemental sale, a supplemental sale is not held annually for any reason... Management, General § 556.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale...

  5. The Basal Onaping Intrusion — The Missing Roof Rocks of the Sudbury Igneous Complex?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, D.; Osinski, G. R.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    2015-09-01

    The Basal Onaping Intrusion is currently considered part of the Onaping Formation. This study provides petrographic and geochemical evidence that the Basal Onaping Intrusion are the roof rocks of the Sudbury Igneous Complex.

  6. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in basal and squamous cell skin cancer research? ... cancer cells. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Roewe, R. J.; Uhlman, Matthew A.; Bockholt, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision. PMID:25298901

  8. A patient centred approach to basal insulin choice for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-03-01

    Basal insulins are first line injectable therapy by all international guidelines. Basal insulins can be used alone, in combination with metformin, dual or triple oral therapy, glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists, or prandial insulin. However, all basal insulins are not similar. This article proposes objective parameters, and suggests a simple checklist, using history, physical examination, and investigations, to help choose the appropriate preparation, viz degludec, detemir, glargine or NPH insulin, for persons requiring basal insulin. PMID:26968297

  9. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  10. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Miro; Ando, Toshihiko; Akutsu, Masahisa; Furukawa, Yasushi; Miwa, Kiyoshi; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2007-04-01

    Dietary supplementation with an essential amino acid L-lysine has been shown to reduce chronic anxiety in humans with low dietary intake of L-lysine. A combination of L-lysine and L-arginine has been documented to normalize hormonal stress responses in humans with high trait anxiety. The present study was carried out in one hundred eight healthy Japanese adults. The aim of study was to find out whether a week-long oral treatment with L-lysine (2.64 g per day) and L-arginine (2.64 g per day) reduces trait and stress-induced state anxiety and basal levels of stress hormones. We confirmed that, without regard to gender, the amino acid treatment significantly reduced both trait anxiety and state anxiety induced by cognitive stress battery. In addition, we found that the treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine decreased the basal levels of salivary cortisol and chromogranin-A (a salivary marker of the sympatho-adrenal system) in male subjects. These results of this double-blind, placebo controlled and randomized study confirm the previous findings in humans and animals and point to a combination of L-lysine and L-arginine as a potentially useful dietary intervention in otherwise healthy humans with high subjective levels of mental stress and anxiety. PMID:17510493

  11. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... current nor meet current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. The presentation of dietary supplement label information is not an endorsement or guarantee of accuracy by the Office of Dietary Supplements or the National Library of Medicine, both part of the National Institutes ...

  12. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePlus

    ... study. These include glucosamine (for joint pain) and herbal supplements such as echinacea (immune health) and flaxseed oil ( ... be fine,” Coates says. “According to the FDA, supplement products most likely ... ingredients are herbal remedies promoted for weight loss and for sexual ...

  13. Music: Supplemental Material: Chorus, Junior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trott, Maralyn D.

    This document is a supplement to TE 499 767, presented in this issue. The contents are similar to the original document, but the supplement expands on the subject of "Course Procedures, Strategies, and Suggested Learning Activities." Resources for the Pupil and Teacher are listed. A Choral Written Test and a True and False Test conclude the…

  14. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  15. Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-09-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  16. Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yan, Hai; Lv, Le; Xu, Qianqian; Yin, Chunhua; Zhang, Keyi; Wang, Pei; Hu, Jiye

    2012-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Nine hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups with three replicate pens of 100 broiler chicks. Three treatments were i) control, ii) basal diets supplemented with 1 ml of B. licheniformis for each in feed water per day iii) basal diets supplemented with 2 ml of B. licheniformis per chick in feed water per day. The supplementation of B. licheniformis significantly increased body weight in grower chickens (p<0.05), and significantly improved the feed conversion in 3 to 6 and 0 to 6 wk feeding period compared with the control group (p<0.05). Additionally, the supplement also resulted in increased protein and free amino acid contents, and decreased fat content in chicken breast fillet (p<0.05). Furthermore, improvement in sensory attributes was observed in broilers fed with the probiotic. In conclusion, B. licheniformis treatments resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in broiler productivity based on an index taking into account daily weight gain and feed conversion rate. Meanwhile, the probiotic contributed towards an improvement of the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of breast fillet. Overall, the study indicates that B. licheniformis can be used as a growth promoter and meat quality enhancer in broiler poultry. PMID:25049614

  17. Energy storage medium and method

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.J.; White, G.T.

    1982-07-27

    An energy storage medium that can be raised to a high energy state is disclosed which is comprised of a gel of polyethylene oxide, water, and a salt which causes gelation of polyethylene oxide and water at or below about 90* C., and a method for storing energy with the medium.

  18. New medium licensed for campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A medium, “Campy-Cefex”, has been licensed by the ARS Office of Technology Transfer with Becton Dickinson (No. 1412-002) and Neogen (No. 1412-001) based on patent No. 5,891,709, “Campy-Cefex Selective and Differential Medium for Campylobacter” by Dr. Norman Stern of the Poultry Microbiological Safet...

  19. Reasoning in a Reading Context: Deductive Inferences in Basal Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Bridget A.; Mulhern, Sharon L.; Schillinger, Susan M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines three complete basal reading programs to determine how frequently logically necessary relationships are expressed in the text and whether direct instruction in making logically necessary inferences accompanies such expressions in basals. Finds that, although basals offer a natural context in which logical understanding may be constructed,…

  20. "Using a Howitzer to Kill a Butterfly": Teaching Literature with Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Elizabeth; Goodman, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that while basals have undergone a facelift in recent years, the core of the program remains the same. Analyzes the experiences children would have when reading Jane Yolen's "Grizzle's Grumble," assuming it were taught according to the guidelines provided in the basals. Asks Yolen about the treatment of her story in the basals. (TB)

  1. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association

  2. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  3. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  4. An Examination of Library World Wide Web Sites at Medium-Sized Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolppanen, Bradley P.; Miller, Joan; Wooden, Martha H.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of Web sites for 133 academic libraries serving medium-sized universities. Suggests that navigational and design aspects need improvement; information should not be included unless it will be accessed and used; and greater use should be made of online tutorials and virtual tours to supplement regular bibliographic…

  5. Dietary supplementation with L-glutamate and L-aspartate alleviates oxidative stress in weaned piglets challenged with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jielin; Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Ting; Cui, Zhijie; Huang, Xingguo; Wu, Li; Kim, Sung Woo; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xi; Wu, Guoyao; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the protective roles of L-glutamate (Glu) and L-aspartate (Asp) in weaned piglets challenged with H2O2. Forty weaned piglets were assigned randomly into one of five groups (8 piglets/group): (1) control group (NC) in which pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet and received intraperitoneal administration of saline; (2) H2O2 group (PC) in which pigs were fed the basal diet and received intraperitoneal administration of 10 % H2O2 (1 ml/kg body weight once on days 8 and repeated on day 11); (3) PC + Glu group (PG) in which pigs were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.0 % Glu before intraperitoneal administration of 10 % H2O2; (4) PC + Asp group (PA) in which pigs were fed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 % Asp before intraperitoneal administration of 10 % H2O2; (5) PC + Glu + Asp group (PGA) in which pigs were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.0 % Glu plus 1.0 % Asp before intraperitoneal administration of 10 % H2O2. Measured parameters included daily feed intake (DFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion rate (FCR), and serum anti-oxidative enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase-1), serum malondialdehyde and H2O2 concentrations, serum amino acid (AA) profiles, and intestinal expression of AA transporters. Dietary supplementation with Glu, Asp or their combination attenuated the decreases in DFI, ADG and feed efficiency, the increase in oxidative stress, the alterations of serum AA concentrations, and the changed expression of intestinal AA transporters in H2O2-challenged piglets. Thus, dietary supplementation with Glu or Asp alleviates growth suppression and oxidative stress, while restoring serum the amino acid pool in H2O2-challenged piglets. PMID:26255283

  6. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  7. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set developed here provides conclusive support for odonates as the most basal winged insect order (Chiastomyaria hypothesis). Data quality assessment indicates that proteins involved in cellular processes and signaling harbor the most informative phylogenetic signal. PMID:19713325

  8. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome. PMID:26778776

  9. Periocular basal cell carcinoma in a young school teacher

    PubMed Central

    Nikose, Archana Sunil; Laddha, Pradnya Mukesh; Bisen, Rupal Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with a nodular mass near the right lateral canthus since 1 year. The mass was nodular, pigmented with irregular surface and had a very well-defined margins. A wide excisional biopsy was done for the same. Histopathology reported a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin. BCC is very rare in young females and also the site of occurrence in this case was unusual. The mass was excised with a safety margin of 3 mm to ensure complete removal.

  10. Impairment of semantic memory after basal forebrain and fornix lesion.

    PubMed

    Solcà, Marco; Di Pietro, Marie; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Semantic memory impairment is classically associated with lesion of the anterior temporal lobe. We report the case of a patient with severe semantic knowledge impairment and anterograde amnesia after bilateral ischemic lesion of the fornix and of the basal forebrain following surgical clipping of an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed a temporal hypometabolism. Severe semantic impairment is a rare complication after rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and may result from disconnection of the temporal lobe. PMID:24498851

  11. Neglected basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hassan A; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Nunery, William R

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients with mental disorders can be a complicated and involved process, potentially resulting in decisions contrary to the advice of physicians. We present a schizophrenic patient with an invasive basal cell carcinoma involving the periocular structures and the right orbit. Exenteration was recommended with en bloc resection of the tumor. The ethical and legal committees decided against surgical intervention. Rather, the patient was admitted for medical treatment of his mental illness. A multidisciplinary approach with consultation of a psychiatrist, social worker, and ethical and legal committees is often necessary in the care of patients with mental illness. PMID:19033856

  12. Cis-platinum chemotherapy for ocular basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Morley, M.; Finger, P. T.; Perlin, M.; Weiselberg, L. R.; DeBlasio, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    We have used intravenous cis-platinum chemotherapy in the treatment of three patients with basal cell carcinoma of the lid extending into the orbit. Cis-platinum chemotherapy caused a reduction in tumour size and thereby delayed surgery in all cases. It allowed for local resection in one case, appeared to delay a patient's exenteration in a second case, and was used prior to radiotherapy in a third case. While not curative, cis-platinum may be useful as an adjuvant to decrease tumour mass prior to local excision and for patients who refuse or must delay exenteration. Images PMID:1854693

  13. Selective medium for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from soil and rhizosphere environments.

    PubMed Central

    Juhnke, M E; des Jardin, E

    1989-01-01

    A selective medium (XMSM) was developed for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from bulk soil and plant rhizosphere environments. The XMSM basal medium contained maltose, tryptone, bromthymol blue, and agar. Antibiotics added to select for X. maltophilia were cycloheximide, nystatin, cephalexin, bacitracin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin sulfate, and tobramycin. A comparison was made between XMSM and 1/10-strength tryptic soy broth agar for recovery of X. maltophilia from sterile and nonsterile soil infested with known X. maltophilia isolates. A recovery rate of 97% or greater for XMSM was demonstrated. XMSM was used to isolate X. maltophilia from a variety of soil and rhizosphere environments. PMID:2930173

  14. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  15. The effect of choline supplementation in growing pullet and laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Tsiagbe, V K; Kang, C W; Sunde, M L

    1982-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of choline supplementation on corn-soy-meat-based grower and laying hen diets. Diets contained 2.5% and 3% meat and bone meal in the growing and laying diets, respectively, and on chemical analysis contained 1005 and 1041 ppm of choline respectively. In the first experiment, 1000 ppm of choline were added to the basal growing and laying diets, and in the second experiment the laying diet was supplemented with 550 ppm or 1000 ppm of choline. In both trials, choline supplementation did not increase gains or feed efficiency for pullets from 8 to 20 weeks. However, choline supplementation during the laying period resulted in a statistically significant improvement of egg production and egg size. Supplementation of choline in the growing phase did not affect the laying performance. Laying performance was not improved by 2 micrograms/kg of supplementary vitamin B12 in a 1000 ppm choline supplement diet (78% vs. 76% hen-day production). In the second trial, added levels of choline (0, 500, and 1000 ppm) resulted in egg production from 24 to 64 weeks of 73, 76, and 76% hen-day production, respectively. Egg weights were 59, 61, and 61 g, respectively. This suggests that the total choline requirement of laying hens on a corn-soy-meat diet, and in absence of supplementary methionine, is greater than 1000 ppm but no more than 1500 ppm. PMID:7177996

  16. Rapamycin reverses insulin resistance (IR) in high-glucose medium without causing IR in normoglycemic medium

    PubMed Central

    Leontieva, O V; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetic retinopathy. In retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, insulin activates the mTOR pathway, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-dependent transcription in serum-free minimum essential medium Eagle (MEM). Serendipitously, we found that insulin failed to induce the HIF-1α-dependent response, when RPE cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). Whereas concentration of glucose in MEM corresponds to normal glucose levels in blood (5.5 mM), its concentration in DMEM corresponds to severe diabetic hyperglycemia (25 mM). Addition of glucose to MEM also caused IR. Glucose-mediated IR was characterized by basal activation of mTORC1 and its poor inducibility by insulin. Basal levels of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), S6 and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) S635/639 were high, whereas their inducibilities were decreased. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased and restored by rapamycin and an inhibitor of S6K. IR was associated with de-phosphorylation of IRS1 at S1011, which was reversed by rapamycin. Both short (16–40 h) and chronic (2 weeks) treatment with rapamycin reversed IR. Furthermore, rapamycin did not impair Akt activation in RPE cells cultured in normoglycemic media. In contrast, Torin 1 blocked Akt activation by insulin. We conclude that by activating mTOR/S6K glucose causes feedback IR, preventable by rapamycin. Rapamycin does not cause IR in RPE cells regardless of the duration of treatment. We confirmed that rapamycin also did not impair phosphorylation of Akt at T308 and S473 in normal myoblast C2C12 cells. Our work provides insights in glucose-induced IR and suggests therapeutic approaches to treat patients with IR and severe hyperglycemia and to prevent diabetic complications such as retinopathy. Also our results prompt to reconsider physiological relevance of numerous data and paradigms on IR given that most cell lines are cultured with grossly super-physiological levels of glucose. PMID:24810050

  17. Dietary glutamine supplementation improves growth performance, meat quality and colour stability of broilers under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Wang, L K; Wen, A Y; Wang, L X; Jin, G M

    2009-05-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) supplementation on growth performance, carcase characteristics and meat quality in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. A total of 240 35-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (three replicates of 20 birds per cage). The broilers were kept in a temperature-controlled room at either 23 degrees C (no-stress groups, NS) or 28 degrees C (heat stress groups, HS). The broilers were fed either on a basal diet (control, NS) or on the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5 or 1.0% Gln (HS). 3. Compared with the NS, the HS (0% Gln) group gained less weight and consumed less feed, had lower final body weight, gain-to-feed ratio, and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat in HS (0% Gln) had lower pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), a* value, ether extract (EE) content and crude protein (CP) content, and had higher shear force (SF) and L* value. 4. Linear increase were found in groups supplemented with Gln (0, 0.5% and 1.0%) for final body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, gain-to-feed ratio and abdominal fat yield. Supplementation with Gln improved breast meat pH, WHC, SF, L* value, a* value, EE content and CP content in broilers exposed to heat stress. No significant difference was observed in all the indices determined between the HS (1% Gln) and the NS. 5. Heat stress caused obvious breast meat discoloration in L*, a* and b* values. However, dietary supplementation with Gln gave a better colour stability. 6. The results indicated that dietary supplementation with Gln may alleviate heat stress-caused deterioration in growth performance, carcase characteristics, meat quality and meat colour stability of broilers. PMID:19637033

  18. Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, R L; Yin, Y L; Wu, G Y; Zhang, Y G; Li, T J; Li, L L; Li, M X; Tang, Z R; Zhang, J; Wang, B; He, J H; Nie, X Z

    2005-09-01

    The effect of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on ileal digestibilities of nutrients and performance in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian broilers (1-d-old) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatment groups (60 birds per pen with 8 pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg/kg of an antibiotic flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D, and E were formulated by adding 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of d 21 and 42, 64 birds (8 per pen with 8 pens per treatment) from the growth trial for each age group were killed by cervical dislocation for determination of the ileal digestibilities of nutrients. Dietary supplementation with COS and antibiotic enhanced (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibilities of DM, Ca, P, CP, and all amino acids (except for alanine in the 21-d-old birds or phenylalanine, glutamate, and glycine for the 42-d-old birds). Feed efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) in response to dietary supplementation of an antibiotic or COS (150 mg/kg for d 1 to 21, and 100 and 150 mg/kg for d 21 to 42). The results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that dietary COS supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Our findings may explain a beneficial effect of COS on chicken growth performance. PMID:16206559

  19. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  20. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  1. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  2. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  3. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P.Martin

    2007-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, ‘aquatic’ turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  4. TBP domain symmetry in basal and activated archaeal transcription.

    PubMed

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Hausner, Winfried; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2009-01-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is the platform for assembly of archaeal and eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complexes. Ancestral gene duplication and fusion events have produced the saddle-shaped TBP molecule, with its two direct-repeat subdomains and pseudo-two-fold symmetry. Collectively, eukaryotic TBPs have diverged from their present-day archaeal counterparts, which remain highly symmetrical. The similarity of the N- and C-halves of archaeal TBPs is especially pronounced in the Methanococcales and Thermoplasmatales, including complete conservation of their N- and C-terminal stirrups; along with helix H'1, the C-terminal stirrup of TBP forms the main interface with TFB/TFIIB. Here, we show that, in stark contrast to its eukaryotic counterparts, multiple substitutions in the C-terminal stirrup of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mja) TBP do not completely abrogate basal transcription. Using DNA affinity cleavage, we show that, by assembling TFB through its conserved N-terminal stirrup, Mja TBP is in effect ambidextrous with regard to basal transcription. In contrast, substitutions in either its N- or the C-terminal stirrup abrogate activated transcription in response to the Lrp-family transcriptional activator Ptr2. PMID:19007415

  5. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Womer, Fay Y.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn; Smith, Matthew J.; Csernansky, John G.; Barch, Deanna; Mamah, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing the BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866

  6. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  7. Basal Plane Affinity of an Insect Antifreeze Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertaya, N.; Gauthier, S. Y.; Davies, P. L.; Braslavsky, I.

    2007-03-01

    sbwAFP is a powerful antifreeze protein (AFP) with high thermal hysteresis activity that protects spruce budworm (sbw) from freezing during harsh winters in the spruce and fir forests of USA and Canada. Different types of antifreeze proteins have been found in many other species and have potential applications in cryomedicine and cryopreservation. When an ice crystal is cooled in the presence of AFP below the non-equilibrium freezing point the crystal will suddenly and rapidly grow in specific directions. Hyperactive antifreezes like sbwAFP expand perpendicular to the c-axis (in the plane of the a-axes), whereas moderately active AFPs, like type III from fish, grow in the direction parallel to the c-axis. It has been proposed that the basis for hyperactivity of certain AFPs is that they bind and accumulate on the basal plane to inhibit c-axial growth. By putting fluorescent tags on these two types of AFPs we have been able to directly visualize the binding of different types of AFPs to ice surfaces. We do indeed find that the insect AFP accumulates on the basal plane of an ice crystal while type III AFP does not. Supported by CIHR and BNTI.

  8. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  9. Basal shear stress of debris flow in the runout phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, V.; Bettella, F.; Cesca, M.

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory device is proposed to assess the basal shear stresses generated by debris-flow mixtures during their runout phase. The device consists of an inclinable box with a gate facing a deposition plane. The box is filled with a selected debris-flow mixture, and after sudden opening of the gate, the features of the dam-break deposit can be measured. Based on some simplified assumptions of the energy balance, a methodology is proposed to assess basal shear stresses. The device has been tested using sediment samples from debris-flow deposits generated by two catchments of the Dolomites (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Belluno, Italy) by carrying out runout tests for different sediment concentrations by volume. The results show how the static Coulomb friction law is valid in the runout phase, with friction angles on the order of the angle of repose of the same material in dry conditions. The data elaboration also yields an innovative constitutive equation for shear stresses. This relation merges the Coulomb mixture approach with the concept of a one-phase flow with a certain rheology. This integration offers a useful insight into the weaknesses of the rheological approach if it is not properly scaled up to the ambient pressure of interest.

  10. Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kirsty Y; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2016-05-17

    Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae. PMID:27140605

  11. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  12. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  13. A basal stress parameterization for modeling landfast ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Jean-François; Tremblay, L. Bruno; Dupont, Frédéric; Plante, Mathieu; Smith, Gregory C.; Dumont, Dany

    2015-04-01

    Current large-scale sea ice models represent very crudely or are unable to simulate the formation, maintenance and decay of coastal landfast ice. We present a simple landfast ice parameterization representing the effect of grounded ice keels. This parameterization is based on bathymetry data and the mean ice thickness in a grid cell. It is easy to implement and can be used for two-thickness and multithickness category models. Two free parameters are used to determine the critical thickness required for large ice keels to reach the bottom and to calculate the basal stress associated with the weight of the ridge above hydrostatic balance. A sensitivity study was conducted and demonstrates that the parameter associated with the critical thickness has the largest influence on the simulated landfast ice area. A 6 year (2001-2007) simulation with a 20 km resolution sea ice model was performed. The simulated landfast ice areas for regions off the coast of Siberia and for the Beaufort Sea were calculated and compared with data from the National Ice Center. With optimal parameters, the basal stress parameterization leads to a slightly shorter landfast ice season but overall provides a realistic seasonal cycle of the landfast ice area in the East Siberian, Laptev and Beaufort Seas. However, in the Kara Sea, where ice arches between islands are key to the stability of the landfast ice, the parameterization consistently leads to an underestimation of the landfast area.

  14. Energy intake and basal metabolic rate during maintenance chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, S A; Han, A M; Wootton, S A; Kohler, J A

    1992-01-01

    Energy intakes and basal metabolic rates were determined in 26 children receiving chemotherapy in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or solid tumours and 26 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Body weight and height on the two groups were comparable, although one patient was stunted (height for age) and three others wasted (weight for height). Energy intake in the patients at 7705 kJ/day (1842 kcal) and controls at 7773 kJ/day (1866 kcal)) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the patients at 4873 kJ/day (1172 kcal) and controls 4987 kJ/day (1196 kcal) for the two groups were not significantly different. Although the energy intake:BMR ratio for both groups was 1.59, the range of values for the patient group was large (0.96-2.73) and appeared to be greater than that observed in the control group (1.23-2.46). These results demonstrated that during this period of chemotherapy there was no evidence of raised energy expenditure at rest or reduced energy intake in the patient group. No indication of undernutrition in the patients as a group was evident, although some individuals might require further clinical nutritional assessment. PMID:1543386

  15. Luminal epithelial cells within the mammary gland can produce basal cells upon oncogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Hein, S M; Haricharan, S; Johnston, A N; Toneff, M J; Reddy, J P; Dong, J; Bu, W; Li, Y

    2016-03-17

    In the normal mammary gland, the basal epithelium is known to be bipotent and can generate either basal or luminal cells, whereas the luminal epithelium has not been demonstrated to contribute to the basal compartment in an intact and normally developed mammary gland. It is not clear whether cellular heterogeneity within a breast tumor results from transformation of bipotent basal cells or from transformation and subsequent basal conversion of the more differentiated luminal cells. Here we used a retroviral vector to express an oncogene specifically in a small number of the mammary luminal epithelial cells and tested their potential to produce basal cells during tumorigenesis. This in-vivo lineage-tracing work demonstrates that luminal cells are capable of producing basal cells on activation of either polyoma middle T antigen or ErbB2 signaling. These findings reveal the plasticity of the luminal compartment during tumorigenesis and provide an explanation for cellular heterogeneity within a cancer. PMID:26096929

  16. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  17. A chemically defined medium for the growth of Cowdria ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Zweygarth, E; Josemans, A I

    2001-03-01

    Chemically defined media, termed SFMC-23 and SFMC-36, were devised for the in vitro culture of Cowdria ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater in domestic ruminants. Both media were based on Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium nutrient mixture Ham F-12 (DME/F-12) containing various supplements. Medium SFMC-23 and SFMC-36 supported the long-term growth of the Welgevonden stock of C. ruminantium for a total of 55 and 28 passages, respectively, with regular passage intervals of 3 days. Using SFMC-23, split ratios varied from 5-10, depending on which host cell line was used. Other stocks of C. ruminantium (Sankat, Blaauwkrantz, Senegal) were successfully propagated for a test period of ten passages. PMID:11403428

  18. Maternal supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides improves intestinal health and immune status of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; O'Doherty, J V; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; Egan, A M; Thornton, K; Sweeney, T

    2015-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (-SDP v. +SDP, n   20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated. Dietary SDP reduced sow faecal Enterobacteriaceae gene numbers at parturition. Small-intestinal morphology, nutrient transporter and cytokine gene expression in newborn piglets did not differ between maternal dietary treatments (P > 0·10). At 48 h after birth, sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the ileum of piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P = 0·050). There was a SDP × LPS challenge interaction on IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the colon of piglets (P < 0·05). The gene expression of IL-1 and IL-6 was down-regulated in the LPS-challenged colon of piglets suckling the SDP sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P < 0·05). However, there was no difference in IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the unchallenged colon between treatment groups. At weaning, piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows had increased villus height in the jejunum and ileum compared with those suckling the basal-fed sows (P < 0·05). In conclusion, maternal dietary SDP supplementation enhanced the immune response of suckling piglets and improved gut morphology, making them more immune competent to deal with post-weaning adversities. PMID:26495119

  19. Medium-depth chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Monheit, G D

    2001-07-01

    The combination medium-depth chemical peel (Jessner's solution +35% TCA) has been accepted as a safe, reliable, and effective method for the treatment of moderate photoaging skin. This article discusses the procedure in detail, including postoperative considerations. PMID:11599398

  20. Neutron Properties in the Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloët, I. C.; Miller, Gerald A.; Piasetzky, E.; Ron, G.

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that for small values of momentum transfer Q2 the in-medium change of the GE/GM form factor ratio for a bound neutron is dominated by the change in the electric charge radius and predict within stated assumptions that the in-medium ratio will increase relative to the free result. This effect will act to increase the predicted cross section for the neutron recoil polarization transfer process He4(e→,e'n→)He3. This is in contrast with medium modification effects on the proton GE/GM form factor ratio, which act to decrease the predicted cross section for the He4(e→,e'p→)H3 reaction. Experiments to measure the in-medium neutron form factors are currently feasible in the range 0.1

  1. An improved holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Solid, linear chain hydrocarbons with molecular weight ranging from about 300 to 2000 can serve as long-lived recording medium in optical memory system. Suitable recording hydrocarbons include microcrystalline waxes and low molecular weight polymers or ethylene.

  2. Flows of nitrogen and amino acids in dairy cows fed diets containing supplemental feather meal and blood meal.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, K D; Cecava, M J; Johnson, T R

    1994-12-01

    Four Holstein cows, fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas, were used to determine the effects of supplemental feather meal and blood meal on ruminal fermentation and flows of N and AA to the duodenum. The basal diet contained (DM basis) 9.9% chopped alfalfa hay, 39.7% corn silage, 34.7% cracked corn, 8.2% corn starch, 2.1% vitamins and minerals, 4.4% casein, and 1% urea. A combination of feather meal and blood meal (3:1 on an N basis) was used to replace 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the casein and urea in the basal diet in a Latin square design. Intakes of DM, OM, and N were similar for all diets. Flows of total N, NAN, individual AA, total AA, and total essential AA were unaltered as supplemental feather meal plus blood meal increased. Flows of microbial N tended to decrease, but flow of non-ammonia, nonmicrobial N increased as supplemental feather meal plus blood meal increased. Increased proportions of dietary feather plus blood meal decreased the proportions of Ile, Lys, Met, and Thr in duodenal digesta. Molar percentages of ruminal pH and VFA were unchanged, but concentrations of ruminal NH3 N decreased linearly as supplemental feather meal plus blood meal increased. For the diets fed in this study, inclusion of one-third of the supplemental protein from feather plus blood meal resulted in maximum flows of NAN and microbial N to the small intestine. PMID:7699145

  3. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view. PMID:24516462

  4. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L−1 starch, 30 g L−1 soya bean and 9 g L−1 sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view. PMID:24516462

  5. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan deposition and processing at the basal epithelial surface in branching and beta-D-xyloside-inhibited embryonic salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Spooner, B.S.; Bassett, K.; Stokes, B.

    1985-05-01

    The authors investigated whether the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis and salivary branching morphogenesis by beta-D-xyloside was related to the deposition and processing of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycans at the basal epithelial surface that correlates with normal branching activity. Forty eight-hour cultures of control and 0.5 mM beta-xyloside-treated submandibular rudiments were labeled for 2 hr with (/sup 35/S)sulfate and fixed and processed for autoradiography, immediately or after 2, 4, 6, or 8 hr of postlabeling chase in nonradioactive medium. The data demonstrated that deposition of chondroitin sulfate-rich material at the basal epithelial surface was strikingly reduced in beta-xyloside-treated rudiments, while patterns of label loss during postlabeling chase were not altered.

  6. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is it OK to give my baby breast milk and formula? Although breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants, in ... with a supplemental nursing system in which pumped milk or formula goes through a small tube that ...

  7. Effect of protein supplementation on ruminal parameters and microbial community fingerprint of Nellore steers fed tropical forages.

    PubMed

    Bento, C B P; Azevedo, A C; Gomes, D I; Batista, E D; Rufino, L M A; Detmann, E; Mantovani, H C

    2016-01-01

    In tropical regions, protein supplementation is a common practice in dairy and beef farming. However, the effect of highly degradable protein in ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition has not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In this work, we aimed to investigate the impact of casein supplementation on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, specific activity of deamination (SAD), ammonia concentration and bacterial and archaeal community composition. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square balanced for residual effects, with four animals (average initial weight of 280±10 kg) and four experimental periods, each with duration of 29 days. The diet comprised Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay with an average CP content of 9.8%, on a dry matter basis. Animals received basal forage (control) or infusions of pure casein (230 g) administered direct into the rumen, abomasum or divided (50 : 50 ratio) in the rumen/abomasum. There was no differences (P>0.05) in ruminal pH and microbial protein concentration between supplemented v. non-supplemented animals. However, in steers receiving ruminal infusion of casein the SAD and ruminal ammonia concentration increased 33% and 76%, respectively, compared with the control. The total concentration of VFA increased (P0.05) in species richness and diversity of γ-proteobacteria, firmicutes and archaea between non-supplemented Nellore steers and steers receiving casein supplementation in the rumen. However, species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were lower (P<0.05) for the phylum bacteroidetes in steers supplemented with casein in the rumen compared with non-supplemented animals. Venn diagrams indicated that the number of unique bands varied considerably among individual animals and was usually higher in number for non-supplemented steers compared with supplemented animals. These results add new knowledge about the effects of ruminal and postruminal protein supplementation on metabolic activities of rumen microbes and the composition of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen of steers. PMID:26260519

  8. Vitamin D supplementation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of rickets. In our paediatrics department in a major London hospital, we audited the number of babies with low vitamin D levels attending our prolonged jaundice clinic. Prior to our newly designed intervention, those babies with low vitamin D levels would be given a letter to encourage collection of supplementation from their GP. The GP would receive a letter which included a 14-page guideline on vitamin D supplementation. For this project, we included all breastfed babies that attended our prolonged jaundice clinic between August 2012 and December 2012. Those babies that were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient were identified. We then followed up these patients and asked them whether they were being prescribed the correct supplementation after being identified as vitamin deficient. For our intervention, we designed a leaflet to simplify guidelines that was then distributed to mothers and their GPs. Following this intervention, we re-audited the new cohort of patients who received the leaflet between August and November 2013. The study found 71% of babies to be vitamin D deficient. Moreover, almost two in five mothers had less than the recommended six months of vitamin supplementation during pregnancy. After identifying a deficiency, one would expect that uptake of vitamin supplementation would increase dramatically. However, only four in 10 babies went on to receive the correct dose and preparation of supplements. A marked increase in uptake was seen during the re-audit post intervention, with 71% of babies receiving correct supplementation. While an increase in government advertising would have contributed to the rise in uptake of vitamin D supplementation, a leaflet proved to be a simple yet effective intervention in improving vitamin uptake in babies. As a result, this was then implemented as part of trust guidelines. PMID:26733062

  9. Nutritional supplements in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Genevieve Luehrs; McKinzie, Brian P; Bullington, Wendy Moore; Cooper, Tanna B; Pilch, Nicole Ann

    2011-01-01

    Poor nutritional intake during critical illness can contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. Although nutrition strategies for critically ill patients attempt to provide essential macronutrients, recent evidence suggests that certain micronutrients and supplements may improve wound healing and decrease infectious and inflammatory complications. This review will focus on mechanism of action, adverse effects and drug interactions reported in the literature, and appropriate dosing and outcomes data for specific nutritional supplements in various critically ill adult populations. PMID:22064578

  10. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for new data on efficacy as it becomes available ( ods.od.nih.gov ). PMID:15867902

  11. Enhancing Aerobic Growth of Campylobacter in Media Supplemented with Organic Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in was determined. A fumarate-pyruvate medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, or Campylobacter jejuni. Portions of the inoculated me...

  12. [Nutrient supplements - possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of micronutrient-supplements by the general public has become widespread; between 25 and more than 40% of individuals questioned in western developed nations confirm to regularly consume such products. In principle, there are two product categories for micronutrient-supplements - medicinal products (drugs) and foodstuffs. The latter are marketed as food supplements (FS) and dietary foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes (FSMP). FS serve the general supplementation of any consumer whilst foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses are directed at consumers with special dietary requirements; FSMP are intended for the dietary management of patients. There are clearly defined legal frameworks for those product categories. Independently of their legal product status, six areas of application can be characterised for micronutrient-supplements: general and special supplementation, primary prevention, compensation of disease-related deficits, therapeutic function and containment of diseases or avoidance of subsequent damages (secondary and tertiary function). Gauged with the mean-intake, micro nutrient supply in Germany is sufficient (exception: folic acid and vitamin D; partially also iodine). However, the intake of vitamins E, C, B1 and B2 as well as the minerals calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine could be improved in 20-50% of the general public. Micro nutrient preparations in physiological dose could contribute to closing this gap in supply. PMID:23758028

  13. Oral glutathione supplementation drastically reduces Helicobacter-induced gastric pathologies

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Foss, Dennis; Sanchez, Margaret; Joosten, Myrthe; Zhang, Guangzhi; Smet, Annemieke; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastric pathologies in both pigs and humans. Very little is known on the metabolism of this bacterium and its impact on the host. In this study, we have revealed the importance of the glutamate-generating metabolism, as shown by a complete depletion of glutamine (Gln) in the medium during H. suis culture. Besides Gln, H. suis can also convert glutathione (GSH) to glutamate, and both reactions are catalyzed by the H. suis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Both for H. pylori and H. suis, it has been hypothesized that the degradation of Gln and GSH may lead to a deficiency for the host, possibly initiating or promoting several pathologies. Therefore the in vivo effect of oral supplementation with Gln and GSH was assessed. Oral supplementation with Gln was shown to temper H. suis induced gastritis and epithelial (hyper)proliferation in Mongolian gerbils. Astonishingly, supplementation of the feed with GSH, another GGT substrate, resulted in inflammation and epithelial proliferation levels returning to baseline levels of uninfected controls. This indicates that Gln and GSH supplementation may help reducing tissue damage caused by Helicobacter infection in both humans and pigs, highlighting their potential as a supportive therapy during and after Helicobacter eradication therapy. PMID:26833404

  14. Oral glutathione supplementation drastically reduces Helicobacter-induced gastric pathologies.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Foss, Dennis; Sanchez, Margaret; Joosten, Myrthe; Zhang, Guangzhi; Smet, Annemieke; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastric pathologies in both pigs and humans. Very little is known on the metabolism of this bacterium and its impact on the host. In this study, we have revealed the importance of the glutamate-generating metabolism, as shown by a complete depletion of glutamine (Gln) in the medium during H. suis culture. Besides Gln, H. suis can also convert glutathione (GSH) to glutamate, and both reactions are catalyzed by the H. suis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Both for H. pylori and H. suis, it has been hypothesized that the degradation of Gln and GSH may lead to a deficiency for the host, possibly initiating or promoting several pathologies. Therefore the in vivo effect of oral supplementation with Gln and GSH was assessed. Oral supplementation with Gln was shown to temper H. suis induced gastritis and epithelial (hyper)proliferation in Mongolian gerbils. Astonishingly, supplementation of the feed with GSH, another GGT substrate, resulted in inflammation and epithelial proliferation levels returning to baseline levels of uninfected controls. This indicates that Gln and GSH supplementation may help reducing tissue damage caused by Helicobacter infection in both humans and pigs, highlighting their potential as a supportive therapy during and after Helicobacter eradication therapy. PMID:26833404

  15. Prospect of Stem Cell Conditioned Medium in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pawitan, Jeanne Adiwinata

    2014-01-01

    Background. Stem cell-derived conditioned medium has a promising prospect to be produced as pharmaceuticals for regenerative medicine. Objective. To investigate various methods to obtain stem cell-derived conditioned medium (CM) to get an insight into their prospect of application in various diseases. Methods. Systematic review using keywords “stem cell” and “conditioned medium” or “secretome” and “therapy.” Data concerning treated conditions/diseases, type of cell that was cultured, medium and supplements to culture the cells, culture condition, CM processing, growth factors and other secretions that were analyzed, method of application, and outcome were noted, grouped, tabulated, and analyzed. Results. Most of CM using studies showed good results. However, the various CM, even when they were derived from the same kind of cells, were produced by different condition, that is, from different passage, culture medium, and culture condition. The growth factor yields of the various types of cells were available in some studies, and the cell number that was needed to produce CM for one application could be computed. Conclusion. Various stem cell-derived conditioned media were tested on various diseases and mostly showed good results. However, standardized methods of production and validations of their use need to be conducted. PMID:25530971

  16. Introduction to the supplement.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-06-01

    In July of 2014, a symposium entitled "Enhancing Vaccine Immunity and Value" was held in Siena, Italy. The focus of the symposium was on how to best meet the challenge of developing and implementing vaccines for future disease targets. Vaccination has been responsible for averting estimated 3 billion cases of disease and more than 500 million lives to date through the prevention of infectious diseases. This has largely been responsible for dramatic increases in life span in developed countries. However, with the demographics of the world's population are changing, with many adults now surviving into their 80s, we now face the challenge of protecting the aging and other underserved populations not only against infectious diseases but also against cancer and other chronic conditions that occur in older adults. To face this challenge, we must harness new technologies derived from recent advances in the fields of immunology, structural biology, synthetic biology and genomics that promise a revolution in the vaccine field. Specifically, vaccine adjuvants have the potential to harness the immune system to provide protection against new types of diseases, improve protection in young children and expand this protection to adults and the elderly. However, in order to succeed, we need to overcome the non-technical challenges that could limit the implementation of innovative vaccines, including controversies regarding the safety of adjuvants, increasing regulatory complexity, the inadequate methods used to assess the value of novel vaccines, and the resulting industry alienation from future investment. In this supplement, we have assembled manuscripts from lectures and discussions of the symposium last July that addressed two related questions: how to improve vaccine efficacy using breakthrough technologies and how to capture the full potential of novel vaccines. PMID:26022560

  17. Adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment alter the patterns of basal and acute phase response-induced expression of acute phase protein genes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sevaljević, L; Macvanin, M; Zakula, Z; Kanazir, D T; Ribarac-Septić, N

    1998-09-01

    Hormonal requirements for full hepatic expression of alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), haptoglobin (Hp) and gamma-fibrinogen (Fb) were assessed at the level of mRNA. Prior to exposure to turpentine-induced inflammation, rats were either depleted of glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy or supplemented with an excess of dexamethasone. Adrenalectomy alone did not affect the basal level of acute phase protein (APP) expression except for alpha2M mRNA, the level of which was enhanced. In contrast, dexamethasone treatment alone promoted full induction of alpha2M, significant, but not maximal increase of AGP and Hp mRNAs and suppression of Fb. In adrenalectomized rats, acute phase (AP)-cytokines, released in response to inflammation, promoted full expression of Fb and Hp and increased the level of AGP mRNA whereas alpha2M mRNA remained at the basal level. Inflammation in dexamethasone pretreated rats elicited changes which, in comparison to mRNA values for dexamethasone unpretreated inflamed rats, were seen as overexpression of alpha2M, full expression of AGP and incomplete expression of Hp, whereas Fb mRNA remained at the basal level. These data suggest that glucocorticoids are the principal inducers of alpha2M and AP-cytokines of Fb. For full induction of AGP, additive actions of glucocorticoids and AP-cytokines are required whereas expression of Hp is predominantly controlled by AP-cytokines. PMID:9749840

  18. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., except that for the initial supplemental sale only blocks for which bids were rejected after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered. If, after the initial supplemental sale, a supplemental sale is not held... supplemental sale only blocks for which high bids were forfeited after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered....

  19. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in...

  20. 7 CFR 1955.22 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.22 Section 1955.22 Agriculture... Real and Chattel Property § 1955.22 State supplements. State Supplements will be prepared with the... supplements will be submitted to the National Office for post approval in accordance with FmHA or...

  1. 7 CFR 1951.207 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1951.207 Section 1951.207... Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.207 State supplements. State supplements developed to carry out the... regulations. State supplements are to be used only when required by National Instructions or necessary...

  2. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  4. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  7. Electron tomography and immuno-labeling of Tetrahymena thermophila basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Thomas H; Meehl, Janet B; Pearson, Chad G; Winey, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Basal bodies and centrioles are highly ordered, microtubule-based organelles involved in the organization of the mitotic spindle and the formation of cilia and flagella. The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila has more than 700 basal bodies per cell, making it an excellent choice for the study of the structure, function, and assembly of basal bodies. Here, we describe methods for cryofixation of Tetrahymena by high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution (HPF/FS) for the analysis of basal body structure with advanced electron microscopy techniques. Electron tomography of semi-thick HPF/FS sections was used to generate high-resolution three-dimensional images and models that reveal the intricate structure of basal bodies and associated structures. Immuno-labeling of thin sections from the same HPF/FS samples was used to localize proteins to specific domains within the basal body. To further optimize this model system, we used cell cycle synchronization to increase the abundance of assembling basal bodies. The Tetrahymena genome has been sequenced and techniques for genetic manipulations, such as construction of gene deletion strains, inducible expression and epitope tagging of proteins are now available. These advances have helped to make Tetrahymena a tractable experimental model system. Collectively, these methods facilitate studies of the mechanism of basal body assembly, the functions of basal body constituents and the cytological role of the basal body as a whole. PMID:20869521

  8. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-03-01

    Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs. PMID:23117836

  9. Effects of supplementing dietary laminarin and fucoidan on intestinal morphology and the immune gene expression in the weaned pig.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A M; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the benefit of combining seaweed extracts laminarin (LAM) and fucoidan (FUC) on improving growth in piglets' performance after weaning. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the interaction between FUC (0 and 240 mg/kg) and LAM (0 and 300 mg/kg) levels on gut morphology and colonic cytokine gene expression in the weaned pig. Twenty-eight piglets (6.9 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 8 d after weaning and then sacrificed. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) basal diet, (ii) basal diet + 240 mg/kg FUC, (iii) basal diet + 300 mg/kg LAM, and (iv) basal diet + 300 mg/kg LAM and 240 mg/kg FUC. There was an interaction (P < 0.01) between LAM and FUC supplementation on duodenal villous height and the villus height to crypt depth ratio. Pigs offered the LAM or FUC diet singularly had an increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio compared with pigs offered the basal diet. However, there was no effect of the LAM and FUC combination diet on morphology. Pigs offered the LAM-supplemented diets had a lower IL-6 (P < 0.05), IL-17 (P < 0.001), and IL-1β (P < 0.001) mRNA expression in the colon compared with pigs offered diets without LAM supplementation. In conclusion, the enhancement in intestinal structure and downregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression obtained suggest that LAM may provide a dietary means to improve gut health in weaned pigs. PMID:23365357

  10. Basal ganglia output to the thalamus: still a paradox

    PubMed Central

    Farries, Michael A.; Fee, Michale S.

    2013-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) recipient thalamus controls motor output but it remains unclear how its activity is regulated. Several studies report that thalamic activation occurs via disinhibition during pauses in the firing of inhibitory pallidal inputs from the BG. Other studies indicate that thalamic spiking is triggered by pallidal inputs via post-inhibitory ‘rebound’ calcium spikes. Finally excitatory cortical inputs can drive thalamic activity, which becomes entrained, or time-locked, to pallidal spikes. We present a unifying framework where these seemingly distinct results arise from a continuum of thalamic firing ‘modes’ controlled by excitatory inputs. We provide a mechanistic explanation for paradoxical pallidothalamic coactivations observed during behavior and raise new questions of what information is integrated in the thalamus to control behavior. PMID:24188636

  11. Concepts and clinical use of ultra-long basal insulin.

    PubMed

    Eliaschewitz, Freddy Goldberg; Barreto, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a public health issue, affecting around 382 million people worldwide. In order to achieve glycemic goals, insulin therapy is the frontline therapy for type 1 DM patients; for patients with type 2 DM, use of insulin therapy is an option as initial or add-on therapy for those not achieving glycemic control. Despite insulin therapy developments seen in the last decades, several barriers remain for insulin initiation and optimal maintenance in clinical practice. Fear of hypoglycemia, weight gain, pain associated with blood testing and injection-related pain are the most cited reasons for not starting insulin therapy. However, new generation of basal insulin formulations, with longer length of action, have shown the capability of providing adequate glycemic control with lower risk of hypoglycemia. PMID:26740822

  12. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  13. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lynne; Sauder, Maxwell B

    2012-01-01

    Background. Darier's disease (DD), also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002). Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis. PMID:21826272

  14. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  15. Basal ganglia output to the thalamus: still a paradox.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jesse H; Farries, Michael A; Fee, Michale S

    2013-12-01

    The basal ganglia (BG)-recipient thalamus controls motor output but it remains unclear how its activity is regulated. Several studies report that thalamic activation occurs via disinhibition during pauses in the firing of inhibitory pallidal inputs from the BG. Other studies indicate that thalamic spiking is triggered by pallidal inputs via post-inhibitory 'rebound' calcium spikes. Finally excitatory cortical inputs can drive thalamic activity, which becomes entrained, or time-locked, to pallidal spikes. We present a unifying framework where these seemingly distinct results arise from a continuum of thalamic firing 'modes' controlled by excitatory inputs. We provide a mechanistic explanation for paradoxical pallidothalamic coactivations observed during behavior that raises new questions about what information is integrated in the thalamus to control behavior. PMID:24188636

  16. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  17. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  18. A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alan H; Pol, Diego; Clarke, Julia A; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    Fossil evidence for changes in dinosaurs near the lineage leading to birds and the origin of flight has been sparse. A dinosaur from Mongolia represents the basal divergence within Dromaeosauridae. The taxon's small body size and phylogenetic position imply that extreme miniaturization was ancestral for Paraves (the clade including Avialae, Troodontidae, and Dromaeosauridae), phylogenetically earlier than where flight evolution is strongly inferred. In contrast to the sustained small body sizes among avialans throughout the Cretaceous Period, the two dinosaurian lineages most closely related to birds, dromaeosaurids and troodontids, underwent four independent events of gigantism, and in some lineages size increased by nearly three orders of magnitude. Thus, change in theropod body size leading to flight's origin was not unidirectional. PMID:17823350

  19. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J; Alpert, Michael H; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-04-26

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson's disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine's role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  20. A dystonic syndrome associated with anti-basal ganglia antibodies.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Dale, R C; Church, A J; Giovannoni, G; Bhatia, K P

    2004-06-01

    Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) have been associated with movement disorders (usually tics and chorea) and psychiatric disturbance in children. This report describes five adult and adolescent patients (one male, four females; mean age of onset, 16 years (range, 13-35)) who presented subacutely with a clinical syndrome dominated by dystonia and had ABGA binding to antigens of similar molecular weights to those seen in Sydenham's chorea. Three patients had a clear history of respiratory infection before the onset of their symptoms. Three patients received immunosuppressive treatment, with three showing a notable reduction in symptoms. It is hypothesised that dystonia in adults or adolescents may be part of the clinical spectrum of the post-infectious syndrome associated with ABGA. PMID:15146015