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Sample records for basal medium supplemented

  1. Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. )

    1988-01-01

    The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

  2. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.

  3. Optimization of the basal medium for improving production and secretion of taxanes from suspension cell culture of Taxus baccata L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Taxol is one of the most effective anticancer drugs that isolated from Taxus sp. due to the slow growth of Taxus trees and low concentration of Taxol in the tissues, the biotechnological approaches especially plant cell culture have been considered to produce Taxol in commercial scale. Methods We investigated the effects of basal medium type used in culture media on production of Taxol and other taxane compounds from cell suspension culture of T. baccata L. Briefly, five commonly basal media including Gamborg, Murashige and Skoog, Woody Plant, Schenk and Hildebrandt, and Driver and Kuniyuki medium were used for preparing separate suspension culture media. The intra- and extra-cellular yields of taxanes were analyzed by using HPLC after 21 days period of culturing. Results The yields of taxanes were significantly different for the cultures prepared by different basal media. Moreover, the effects of basal medium on the yield of products differed for varius taxane compounds. Maximum yields of Baccatin III (10.03 mgl-1) and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (4.2 mgl-1) were achieved from the DKW basal media, but the yield of Taxol was maximum (16.58 mgl-1) in the WPM basal media. Furthermore, the secretion of taxanes from the cells into medium was also considerably affected by the type of basal medium. The maximum extra-cellular yield of Taxol (7.81 mgl-1), Baccatin III (5.0 mgl-1), and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (1.45 mgl-1) were also obtained by using DKW basal medium that were significantly higher than those obtained from other culture media. PMID:23352123

  4. Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

  5. Culture of Ovine IVM/IVF Zygotes in Isolated Mouse Oviduct: Effect of Basal Medium

    PubMed Central

    Farahavar, Abbas; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Kohram, Hamid; Shahneh, Ahmad Zareh; Sarvari, Ali; Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Zhandi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background The basal medium that supports Isolated Mouse Oviduct (IMO) is important for supporting embryo development and quality. Methods The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes was done in IMO using SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA as basal medium of IMO and in SOFaaBSA alone as control. For preparation of IMO mature inbred strain C57BL/6 female mice were synchronized and mated with vasectomized males. The females with vaginal plug were sacrificed and the zygotes were transferred in to the isolated oviduct at 20 hpi. The oviducts were cultured with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA for 6 days. Another group of zygotes were cultured in SOFaaBSA alone as control. Results Culture of zygotes in the IMO with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA, did not significantly affect the development and quality of embryos (p > 0.05). The hatching rate, total and trophectoderm cells number in IMO groups’ blastocysts were significantly higher than SOFaaBSA alone. The morphological appearance of IMO blastocysts was superior to SOFaaBSA alone. When the quality of oocytes was poor, IMO could better support ovine embryo development either with SOFaaBSA or SOFaaciBSA than SOFaaBSA alone and there was a significant difference in blastocyst formation at day 6 with SOFaaBSA alone. Conclusion The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes in IMO using two highly efficient ruminant embryo culture media not only could support development of ovine embryos similar to the level in non IMO culture system (SOFaaBSA alone) but also could improve the quality of resulting embryos. Additionally, IMO could better support the development of ovine embryos derived from poor quality oocytes compared to the SOFaaBSA alone. PMID:23799182

  6. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 4, 1985-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    An extension is presented of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements which have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1985 to 1988, and 1985 IMF data from the Czechoslovakian Soviet Prognoz 10 spacecraft. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1985 to 1988 data as for the earlier data.

  7. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 5, 1988-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.

    1994-01-01

    This publication represents an extension of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements that have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1988 through the end of 1993. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1988-1993 data as for the earlier data. Owing to a combination of non-continuity of IMP 8 telemetry acquisition and IMP's being out of the solar wind for about 40 percent of its orbit, the annual solar wind coverage for 1988-1993 is 40 plus or minus 5 percent. The plots and listings of this supplement are in essentially the same format as in previous supplements. Days for which neither IMF nor plasma data were available for any hours are omitted from the listings.

  8. Diet supplementation with vitamin E, vitamin C and beta-carotene cocktail enhances basal neutrophil antioxidant enzymes in athletes.

    PubMed

    Tauler, P; Aguiló, A; Fuentespina, E; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2002-03-01

    Exercise increases oxygen consumption and causes a disturbance of intracellular pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Few data are available as to the cumulative effects of exercise on the antioxidant defenses of the neutrophil. We studied the effects of 90 days' supplementation with placebo or an antioxidant cocktail of vitamin E (500 mg/day) and beta-carotene (30 mg/day) and the last 15 days also with vitamin C (1 g/day) on sportsmen's basal neutrophil antioxidant defenses. We analyzed the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in neutrophils purified from antecubital vein blood of sportsmen before and after diet supplementation. Plasma vitamin E, beta-carotene and vitamin C concentrations in the antioxidant-supplemented group were approximately 1.6, 10, and 1.2 times higher respectively than those of the placebo group. The antioxidant-supplemented group presented a significantly higher glutathione versus glutathione disulfide ratio in neutrophils (about 20%) than the placebo one. Antioxidant supplementation enhances the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in neutrophils. PMID:11889577

  9. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ?-amylase and ?-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo ?-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo ?-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal ?-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P < 0.05) when compared with birds fed diets without carbohydrases. Relative to the basal diet, AMEn was increased (P < 0.01) by 70 kcal/kg and 99 kcal/kg when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by 3.5% and 2.4%, respectively, when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of exogenous amylase and xylanase was independent of the presence of microbial phytase. PMID:26316335

  10. Maternal choline supplementation differentially alters the basal forebrain cholinergic system of young-adult Ts65Dn and disomic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. While DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS that displays age-related degeneration of the BFCN system, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation on the BFCN system in adult Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates at 4.3–7.5 mos of age. Ts65Dn dams were maintained on a choline supplemented diet (5.1 g/kg choline chloride) or a control, unsupplemented diet with adequate amounts of choline (1 g/kg choline chloride) from conception until weaning of offspring; postweaning, offspring were fed the control diet. Mice were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde, brains were sectioned, and immunolabeled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). BFCN number and size, the area of the regions, and the intensity of hippocampal labeling were determined. Ts65Dn unsupplemented mice displayed region- and immunolabel-dependent increased BFCN number, larger areas, smaller BFCNs, and overall increased hippocampal ChAT intensity compared with 2N unsupplemented mice. These effects were partially normalized by maternal choline supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest a developmental imbalance in the Ts65Dn BFCN system. Early maternal-diet choline supplementation attenuates some of the genotype-dependent alterations in the BFCN system, suggesting this naturally occurring nutrient as a treatment option for pregnant mothers with knowledge that their offspring is trisomy 21. PMID:24178831

  11. Evaluation of ebselen supplementation on cryopreservation medium in human semen

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. Objective: This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. Results: After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm. PMID:24976819

  12. Supplementation of canine oocyte in vitro maturation medium with progesterone, somatotropin, and epidermal growth factor 

    E-print Network

    Willingham-Rocky, Lauri Ann

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess meiotic resumption of canine oocytes in vitro in response to medium supplemented with either progesterone (P?), somatotropin (ST), and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF). A mono-phasic in vitro maturation (IVM...

  13. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  14. COMPARISON OF GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTERIACEAE ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS AND ON COMMERICALLY AVAILABLE MEDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to compare the ability of a medium supplemented with organic acids to the ability of commercially available, non-selective media to support growth of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter butzleri. Liquid medium was composed of yeast extract-peptone basal broth (BB) supplement...

  15. Conifer somatic embryogenesis: improvements by supplementation of medium with oxidation-reduction agents.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Copeland-Kamp, Brandi; Crockett, Jonathan; Lucrezi, Jacob; May, Sheldon W; Bucalo, Kylie

    2015-02-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue (ET) and continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment has been shown to decrease this recalcitrance. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiological concentrations. Major differences in stage-specific oxidation-reduction (redox) agents were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate potential growth-promotion of natural and inorganic redox agents added to early-stage somatic embryo growth medium. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase initiation of loblolly pine. Low-cost reducing agents sodium dithionite and sodium thiosulfate increased ET initiation for loblolly pine and Douglas fir (Mirb) Franco. Germination medium supplementation with GSSG increased somatic embryo germination. Early-stage somatic embryos grown on medium with or without sodium thiosulfate did not differ in GSH or GSSG content, suggesting that sodium thiosulfate-mediated growth stimulation does not involve GSH or GSSG. We have developed information demonstrating that alteration of the redox environment in vitro can improve ET initiation, early-stage embryo development and somatic embryo germination in loblolly pine. PMID:25716878

  16. Effect of browse plant foliage supplementation on the performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top basal diet.

    PubMed

    Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami

    2015-08-01

    The effect of browse plants (Piliostigma thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Annona senegalensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, nutritive value and N utilization and growth performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top (TST) was investigated using 24 Red Sokoto goats (9.0?±?0.25 kg) body weight (BW) which were randomly assigned to one of the six diets in a completely random design. Intakes of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, feed conversion ratio, digestibility of nutrients except for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), energy concentration, N utilization and average daily gain were superior (P?supplemented diets compared to sole TST diet. Among the supplemental fodders, intakes of forage, DM, condensed tannins and most of the nutrients; digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrate, DOM and DCP; and N absorbed, balance and retention were greater (P?supplements to low quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better nutritive value. PMID:25863959

  17. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  18. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  19. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Jessica A.; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Strupp, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) lessens hippocampal dysfunction and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1 g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0 g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17 months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial learning and memory followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing powerful support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for the trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  20. Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy in the Short and Medium Term in the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis, Basal Cell Carcinoma, Acne Vulgaris and Photoaging: Results from Four Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Carpio, PA; Alcolea-López, JM; Vélez, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical efficacy of methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL)-Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), acne vulgaris (AV) and photoaging (PA), in the short and medium term. Subjects and methods: Four separate prospective studies were designed on patients with AK (n=25), BCC (n=20), AV (n=20) and PA (n=25). Two PDT protocols were applied, and different clinical efficacy criteria were established, including lesion count and size. Two semi-quantitative and four analogue visual scales were completed for the evaluation of results according to the therapist, the patient and two independent experts. Results: In the AK and BCC studies, full clinical remission was observed in 84.7% and 75.7% of lesions, respectively. In the AV study, the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions fell significantly (p<0.001, p<0.05). In the PA study a reduction in Dover scale scores (3.19 vs. 2.14, p<0.001) was proven. The percentages of satisfied or very satisfied patients were: AK=88%, BCC=90%, AV=89% and PA=80%. A year later, none of the AK or BCC lesions had reappeared, and the cases of AV and PA remained stable, with a tendency towards improvement. Conclusion: the MAL-PDT procedures used produced efficacious, safe and satisfactory results in KA, BCC, AV and PA in the short and medium term. PMID:24511190

  1. Honey Supplementation to Semen-Freezing Medium ImprovesHuman Sperm Parameters Post-Thawing

    PubMed Central

    Alsaadi, Rana A-R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of honey supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm motility, concentration, morphology and agglutination. Materials and methods Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1, control) alone, or enriched with 5% honey (G2) or with 10% honey (G3) for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196°C in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post-thawing. Sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post-thawing. Results Results appeared that the percentage of sperm motility for G1 and G2 groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post-thawing when compared to pre-cryopreservation. However, there was no significant difference in the total motility (%) of the post-thaw sperm between the G1 and G2 groups. While there was significant increased (P < 0.05) in the percentage of normal sperm morphology for G1 and G3 groups post-thawing. Post-thawing normal sperm morphology (%) for G3 group was significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared to G1 and G2 groups. In contrast non significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) was seen in the sperm concentration for all groups post-thawing as compared to pre-cryopreservation groups. After thawing the results reveal significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the sperm agglutination (%) for G3 group as compared to G1 and G2 groups. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the supplementation of honey (10%) to cryoprotectant solution results in enhancement of sperm quality post-thawing. PMID:24971130

  2. COMPARISON OF GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTERIAE ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS AND ON COMMERICALLY AVAILABLE MEDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Media formulated for culturing Campylobacter must contain growth factors that support growth of these bacteria. Recent research has indicated that Campylobacter can grow in basal medium supplemented with organic acids. In the present study, growth of Campylobacter in broth and agar media supplemente...

  3. GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTER ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the main cause of bacteria foodborne illnesses in humans, and contaminated poultry products are major sources of campylobaceriosis. In this study, the growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with organic acids was examined. Trypose-yeast extract basal broth medium w...

  4. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

  5. Ex vivo Expansion of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells in Xeno-Free Medium Supplemented with Platelet Releasate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml) neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%?10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase ?1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices and regulatory recommendations to limit the use of xenogenic materials. PMID:24945500

  6. Ex vivo expansion of bovine corneal endothelial cells in xeno-free medium supplemented with platelet releasate.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming-Li; Burnouf, Thierry; Wang, Tsung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml) neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%?10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase ?1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices and regulatory recommendations to limit the use of xenogenic materials. PMID:24945500

  7. Basal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Basal cell skin cancer; Rodent ulcer; Skin cancer - basal cell; Cancer - skin - basal cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer; Basal cell NMSC ... the skin together Curettage and electrodessication: Scraping away cancer cells and using electricity to kill any that remain; ...

  8. Supplementation of IVF medium with melatonin: effect on sperm functionality and in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheuquemán, C; Arias, M E; Risopatrón, J; Felmer, R; Álvarez, J; Mogas, T; Sánchez, R

    2015-08-01

    Gamete co-incubation generates high free radical levels surrounding growing zygotes which may impair subsequent embryo viability. Melatonin eliminates a wide variety of free radicals; hence, we tried to improve in vitro embryo production by adding melatonin to in vitro fertilisation (IVF) media in high (Exp. 1) and low concentrations (Exp. 2), and we evaluated its effect on bull sperm function during IVF co-incubation time (Exp. 3). In Experiment 1, we supplemented IVF media culture with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mmol of melatonin, along with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 2, melatonin levels were reduced to 10, 100 and 1000 nmol, with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated in IVF media with melatonin (as Exp. 2) and functional parameters were analysed at 0, 4 and 18 h. In Experiment 1, only 1 mmol melatonin showed lesser blastocyst rates than control (C: 23.2 ± 6.7% versus 1 mmol: 2.0 ± 1.7%). In Experiment 2, no statistical differences were found in cleavage percentage, blastocyst percentage and total cell count for any melatonin treatment. In Experiment 3, sperm samples with 1000 nmol melatonin had a significantly higher wobbler (WOB) coefficient, a lower percentage of intact acrosomes, a lower percentage of viable spermatozoa with ROS, greater DNA fragmentation and higher DNA oxidation than controls. Total fluorescence intensity for ROS at 10 nmol melatonin was significantly greater than controls (P < 0.05). IVF media with 1 mmol melatonin is deleterious for embryo development, and in lower concentrations, it modulated sperm functionality, but had no effects on embryo production. PMID:25059349

  9. Effect of knockout serum replacement supplementation to culture medium on porcine blastocyst development and piglet production.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Suzuki, Chie; Yoshioka, Koji

    2015-03-01

    We have previously developed chemically defined media suitable for in vitro production (IVP) of porcine embryos and subsequently generated piglets by nonsurgical embryo transfer. In this study, to further improve the culture conditions for IVP of porcine embryos, we evaluated the effect of knockout serum replacement (KSR), a substitute for serum or albumin, on the viability and development of porcine blastocysts. The addition of 5% (v:v) KSR to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) on Day 5 (Day 0 = IVF) significantly increased the survival and hatching rates of blastocysts and the total cell number of Day-7 blastocysts compared with those in cultures without KSR or addition of 10% fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, the number of cells in the trophectoderm of Day-6 blastocysts and the ATP content of Day-7 blastocysts cultured with 5% KSR were significantly higher than those of blastocysts cultured without KSR. The mRNA expression of a rate-limiting enzyme in ?-oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, in Day-6 blastocysts, and a serine proteinase, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in Day-7 blastocysts cultured in 5% KSR-PBM was significantly higher than that of blastocysts cultured in PBM alone. Four of eight recipients (50%), in which Day-5 blastocysts treated with 5% KSR were transferred nonsurgically, became pregnant. However, the efficiency of piglet production (percentage of piglets born based on the number of embryos transferred) was similar to recipients with transferred blastocysts treated without KSR. The present study demonstrated that the addition of KSR to PBM enhanced the in vitro viability of porcine blastocysts. In addition, our data suggest that KSR improved development to the hatching stage and blastocyst quality by increasing ATP content and hatching-related mRNA expression of blastocysts. PMID:25434774

  10. Human amniotic epithelial cells differentiate into cells expressing germ cell specific markers when cultured in medium containing serum substitute supplement

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) maintain the plasticity of pregastrulation embryonic cells, having the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. The potential of these cells to differentiate into cells expressing germ cell specific markers has never been described before. Methods In the present study, hAECs were cultured in medium containing serum substitute supplement (SSS). Gene and protein expression of germ cell and oocyte specific markers was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence staining and flow activated cell sorter analysis (FACS) in hAECs at different time points during the differentiation into cells expressing germ cell specific markers. Results When cultured with SSS, already at passage 1, hAECs start to express the germ cell specific genes C-KIT, DAZL, VASA and ZP3 and at passage 5 large round cells, resembling oocytes, appeared. The cells express the germ cell specific marker DAZL, the oocyte specific markers GDF9 and ZP3 and the meiosis specific markers DMC1 and SCP3 at the protein level. Conclusions From our preliminary results we can conclude that hAECs have the potential to differentiate into cells expressing germ cell specific markers. PMID:23241213

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  12. Effect of sericin supplementation in maturation medium on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Aghaz, F; Hajarian, H; Shabankareh, H Karami; Abdolmohammadi, A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sericin with different concentrations (0% [control], 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5%) added to the IVM medium on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season. The resumption of meiosis was assessed by the frequency of germinal vesicle breakdown and the first polar body extrusion. After IVF with fresh ram semen, presumptive zygotes were cultured 8 days in potassium simplex optimization medium supplemented by amino acids, and the percentages developing to the two-cell and blastocyst stages were measured as the indicators of early embryonic developmental competence. More cumulus-oocyte complexes matured with 0.5% sericin underwent germinal vesicle breakdown and reached metaphase II stage compared with the control cumulus-oocyte complexes matured without sericin (P ? 0.05). The present findings indicated that supplementation with 0.5% sericin during the maturation culture may improve the nuclear maturation and the cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the percentage of blastocysts obtained from 0.5% and 0.1% sericin (37.8 ± 1.76% and 34.8 ± 1.09%, respectively) was higher (P ? 0.05) than that of the control medium (29.60 ± 1.67%). However, addition of 1% and 2.5% of sericin to the IVM medium oocytes had a negative effect on nuclear maturation and cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the percentage of cleavage and blastocyst rate was significantly lower in the 1% and 2.5% sericin groups than in the control group. These findings showed that supplementation of IVM medium with 0.5% sericin may improve the meiotic competence of oocytes and early embryonic development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season. PMID:26411362

  13. Tooth Tissue Engineering: The Importance of Blood Products as a Supplement in Tissue Culture Medium for Human Pulp Dental Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pisciolaro, Ricardo Luiz; Duailibi, Monica Talarico; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Pallos, Debora; Yelick, Pamela Crotty; Vacanti, Joseph Phillip; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Duailibi, Silvio Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals in using cells for tissue engineering (TE) and cell therapy consists of optimizing the medium for cell culture. The present study compares three different blood product supplements for improved cell proliferation and protection against DNA damage in cultured human dental pulp stem cells for tooth TE applications. Human cells from dental pulp were first characterized as adult stem cells (ectomesenchymal mixed origin) by flow cytometry. Next, four different cell culture conditions were tested: I, supplement-free; II, supplemented with fetal bovine serum; III, allogeneic human serum; and IV, autologous human serum. Cultured cells were then characterized for cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and colony-forming units (CFU) capability. After 28 days in culture, the comet assay was performed to assess possible damage in cellular DNA. Our results revealed that Protocol IV achieved higher cell proliferation than Protocol I (p?=?0.0112). Protocols II and III resulted in higher cell proliferation than Protocol I, but no statistical differences were found relative to Protocol IV. The comet assay revealed less cell damage in cells cultured using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. The damage percentage observed on Protocol II was significantly higher than all other protocols. CFUs capability was highest using Protocol IV (p?=?0.0018) and III, respectively, and the highest degree of mineralization was observed using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. Protocol IV resulted in significantly improved cell proliferation, and no cell damage was observed. These results demonstrate that human blood product supplements can be used as feasible supplements for culturing adult human dental stem cells. PMID:26414682

  14. Pilot feasibility and safety study examining the effect of medium chain triglyceride supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Liu, Ann G.; Johnson, William D.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired brain glucose metabolism appears to be a potential pathogenic feature of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study examined the potential for increasing circulating ketone bodies through medium chain triglyceride (MCT) supplementation, as a means to beneficially modulate brain homeostasis in subjects with MCI. Methods Six participants with MCI were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants received 56 g/day of either medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) or placebo for 24 weeks. Serum ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, apolipoprotein-E4 status, and cognitive assessments were carried out. Due to the small number of participants only the raw scores were examined. Results Intake of MCT oil increased serum ketone bodies and improved memory, while intake of placebo did not show improvement in any of the cognitive measures tested. Conclusions Consumption of 56 g/day of MCTs for 24 weeks increases serum ketone concentrations and appears to be a candidate for larger randomized control trials in the future that quantify the modulation of cognitive function through supplementation with ketone precursors, in patients with MCI.

  15. Effect of supplementation of different growth factors in embryo culture medium with a small number of bovine embryos on in vitro embryo development and quality.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, C J; Salvador, I; Cebrian-Serrano, A; Lopera, R; Silvestre, M A

    2013-03-01

    When embryos are cultured individually or in small groups, blastocyst yield efficiency and quality are usually reduced. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of supplementation of the embryo culture medium (CM) with several growth factors (GFs) on embryo development and apoptosis rate when a reduced number of embryos were in vitro cultured. Two experimental studies (ES) were carried out. In ES 1, five treatments were tested to study the effect of GF on embryo development: Control (?30 to 50 embryos cultured in 500 ?l of CM); Control 5 (Five embryos cultured in 50 ?l microdrops of CM), without addition of GF in either of the two control groups; epidermal GF (EGF); IGF-I; and transforming GF-? (TGF-?) (Five embryos were cultured in 50 ?l microdrops of CM with 10 ng/ml EGF, 10 ng/ml IGF-I or 10 ng/ml TGF-?, respectively). In ES 2, following the results obtained in ES 1, four different treatments were tested to study their effect on embryo development and quality (number of cells per blastocyst and apoptotic rate): Control; Control 5; EGF, all three similar to ES 1; EGF + IGF-I group (five embryos cultured in 50 ?l microdrops of CM with 10 ng/ml EGF and 10 ng/ml IGF-I). In both ESs, it was observed that a higher proportion of embryos cultured in larger groups achieved blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in reduced groups (22.6% v. 14.0%, 12.6% and 5.3% for Control v. Control 5, IGF-I, TGF-? groups in ES 1, and 24.9% v. 17.1% and 19.0% for Control v. Control 5 and EGF in ES 2, respectively; P < 0.05), with the exception of embryos cultured in medium supplemented with EGF (18.5%) or with EGF + IGF-I (23.5%), in ES 1 and ES 2, respectively. With regard to blastocyst quality, embryos cultured in reduced groups and supplemented with EGF, alone or combined with IGF-I, presented lower apoptosis rates than embryos cultured in reduced groups without GF supplementation (11.6% and 10.5% v. 21.9% for EGF, EGF + IGF-I and Control 5 groups, respectively; P < 0.05). The experimental group did not affect the total number of cells per blastocyst. In conclusion, this study showed that supplementation of the CM with EGF and IGF could partially avoid the deleterious effect of in vitro culture of small groups of bovine embryos, increasing blastocyst rates and decreasing apoptosis rates of these blastocysts. PMID:23121725

  16. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls.

    PubMed

    Panyakaew, P; Boon, N; Goel, G; Yuangklang, C; Schonewille, J Th; Hendriks, W H; Fievez, V

    2013-12-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional organization. KO contains similar amounts of C12:0 as CO (420 and 458 g/kg FA, respectively), but has a higher proportion of C14:0 (464 v. 205 g/kg FA, respectively). Treatments contained 35 g supplemental fat per kg DM: a control diet with tallow (T); a diet with supplemental CO; and a diet with supplemental KO. A 4th treatment consisted of a diet with similar amounts of MCFA (i.e. C10:0+C12:0+C14:0) from CO and KO. To ensure isolipidic diets, extra tallow was supplied in the latter treatment (KO+T). Eight fistulated bulls (two bulls per treatment), fed a total mixed ration predominantly based on cassava chips, rice straw, tomato pomace, rice bran and soybean meal (1.5% of BW), were used. Both KO and CO increased the rumen volatile fatty acids, in particular propionate and decreased acetate proportions. Protozoal numbers were reduced through the supplementation of an MCFA source (CO, KO and KO+T), with the strongest reduction by KO. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays based on archaeal primers showed a decrease in abundance of Archaea when supplementing with KO and KO+T compared with T and CO. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the rumen archaeal population did not result in a grouping of treatments. Richness indices were calculated from the number of DGGE bands, whereas community organization was assessed from the Pareto-Lorenz evenness curves on the basis of DGGE band intensities. KO supplementation (KO and KO+T treatments) increased richness and evenness within the archaeal community. Further research including methane measurements and productive animals should elucidate whether KO could be used as a dietary methane mitigation strategy. PMID:24237673

  17. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  18. Isolation of uncultivated anaerobic thermophiles from compost by supplementing cell extract of Geobacillus toebii in enrichment culture medium.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Woo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Park, Ja Ryeong; Kim, Byung-Chun; Park, Yong-Ha

    2005-12-01

    Several researchers have reported that microorganisms can be cultivated only in the presence of other microorganisms. We suggest that a portion of uncultivated microorganisms might be cultivated in the presence of cellular components released from bacteria in their natural environments. In this study, the cell extract of Geobacillus toebii was used to enrich uncultivated thermophiles from compost. In the process of enrichment cultures, cell extract supplementation apparently changed the community composition. This change was monitored by PCR-DGGE targeting 16S rRNA gene. Five novel groups of microorganisms (similarity of 16S rRNA gene to the closest relative <96%) were specifically isolated from enrichment cultures by using cell extract-supplemented culture media. Their growth was found to be dependent on the addition of extract of G. toebii. Putting these findings together, we suggest that the extracts of bacteria could be one of the growth factors in the thermal ecosystem with a possibility of extending other ecological niches. PMID:16041476

  19. Supplementation of the dilution medium after thawing with reduced glutathione improves function and the in vitro fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gadea, Joaquín; Gumbao, David; Cánovas, Sebastián; García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Grullón, Luis Alberto; Gardón, Juan Carlos

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of glutathione (l-gamma-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine; GSH) supplementation of the thawing extender on bull semen parameters to compensate for the decrease in GSH content observed during sperm freezing. To address these questions fully, we used a set of functional sperm tests. These included tests of sperm motility assayed by computer-assisted semen analysis, membrane lipid packing disorder, spontaneous acrosome reaction, free radical production [reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation], sperm chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling and acridine orange staining measured by flow cytometry. Finally, the in vitro penetrability of in vitro matured oocytes and the in vitro production of embryos were evaluated. The main findings emerging from this study were that addition of GSH to the thawing medium resulted in: (i) a higher number of non-capacitated viable spermatozoa; (ii) a reduction in ROS generation; (iii) lower chromatin condensation; (iv) lower DNA fragmentation; (v) higher oocyte penetration rate in vitro and (vi) higher in vitro embryo production compared with control group. Nevertheless, GSH had no significant effect on motion parameters or the occurrence of the spontaneous acrosome reaction. Addition of GSH to the thawing extender could be of significant benefit in improving the function and fertilizing capacity of frozen bull spermatozoa. PMID:18190425

  20. Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bardy, Cedric; van den Hurk, Mark; Eames, Tameji; Marchand, Cynthia; Hernandez, Ruben V.; Kellogg, Mariko; Gorris, Mark; Galet, Ben; Palomares, Vanessa; Brown, Joshua; Bang, Anne G.; Mertens, Jerome; Böhnke, Lena; Boyer, Leah; Simon, Suzanne; Gage, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. We found that classic basal media, as well as serum, impair action potential generation and synaptic communication. To overcome this problem, we designed a new neuronal medium (BrainPhys basal + serum-free supplements) in which we adjusted the concentrations of inorganic salts, neuroactive amino acids, and energetic substrates. We then tested that this medium adequately supports neuronal activity and survival of human neurons in culture. Long-term exposure to this physiological medium also improved the proportion of neurons that were synaptically active. The medium was designed to culture human neurons but also proved adequate for rodent neurons. The improvement in BrainPhys basal medium to support neurophysiological activity is an important step toward reducing the gap between brain physiological conditions in vivo and neuronal models in vitro. PMID:25870293

  1. Supplemental Data: Supplemental Methods

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Supplemental Data: Supplemental Methods: Hela array. HeLa cells (ATCC) were transfected with mi.01. Supplemental Table: Top 100 Biologic Process Gene Ontology Terms Modulated in HeLa Cells Transfected with mi

  2. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  3. Basal Twinning of Hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Fábio; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Barbosa, Paola

    2013-04-01

    When two crystals share a plane, there is a twinning composition plane. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a symmetrical manner. Crystallographers classify twinned crystals by a number of twin laws. These twin laws are specific to the crystal system. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic tool in mineral identification and characterization. Many twin laws cannot be recognized in ordinary optical analysis. So, the advent of diffraction techniques to describe punctual crystallographic orientation facilitated the identification of many twinned crystals in rocks. Samples containing hematite of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by EBSD technique. Crystallographic orientation data were obtained from automatically indexed EBSD patterns collected on a JEOL JSM-5510. EBSD analysis was carried out on thin sections cut perpendicular to the foliation (XZ plane) and parallel to the stretching lineation (X-direction). Thin sections were polished before EBSD analysis. EBSD patterns were indexed using CHANNEL 5 software from HKL Technology, Oxford Instruments. The resulting data are presented in form of pole figures (upper hemisphere, equal angle, stereographic projection) and of colour-coded maps using Coincidence Site Lattice (? 3) and Twin Boundaries Components. Through electron backscatter diffraction analysis of hematite grains was possible to detect twin boundaries similar to Dauphiné twinning in quartz that is not described for hematite. Dauphiné twinning in trigonal ?-quartz consists of a 60° rotation around the c-axis resulting in a reversal of the crystallographic positive and negative forms (Frondel 1962). As both minerals show similar symmetry, the same mechanism can be described for hematite in this analysis. The basal twinning of hematite developed pervasively during the incipient stage of deformation. This paper investigates the relationships between this kind of twinning, deformation conditions and microstructural modifications in hematite grains. The results show that the presence of twins exerts an important role in the distribution of the intracrystalline plastic deformation in hematite, as well as in the activation of different sets of slip systems. We estimate that basal twin bands can be preferred sites for dynamic recrystallization.

  4. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal ?-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal ?-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. PMID:26284828

  5. Preparation, quality criteria, and properties of human blood platelet lysate supplements for ex vivo stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-25

    Most clinical applications of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases require a phase of isolation and ex vivo expansion allowing a clinically meaningful cell number to be reached. Conditions used for cell isolation and expansion should meet strict quality and safety requirements. This is particularly true for the growth medium used for MSC isolation and expansion. Basal growth media used for MSC expansion are supplemented with multiple nutrients and growth factors. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has long been the gold standard medium supplement for laboratory-scale MSC culture. However, FBS has a poorly characterized composition and poses risk factors, as it may be a source of xenogenic antigens and zoonotic infections. FBS has therefore become undesirable as a growth medium supplement for isolating and expanding MSCs for human therapy protocols. In recent years, human blood materials, and most particularly lysates and releasates of platelet concentrates have emerged as efficient medium supplements for isolating and expanding MSCs from various origins. This review analyzes the advantages and limits of using human platelet materials as medium supplements for MSC isolation and expansion. We present the modes of production of allogeneic and autologous platelet concentrates, measures taken to ensure optimal pathogen safety profiles, and methods of preparing PLs for MSC expansion. We also discuss the supply of such blood preparations. Produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety, human platelet materials can become the future 'gold standard' supplement for ex vivo production of MSCs for translational medicine and cell therapy applications. PMID:24929129

  6. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  7. Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances in vitro skeletal muscle cell growth via a COX-2-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the metabolic precursor to a diverse range of downstream bioactive lipid mediators. A positive or negative influence of individual eicosanoid species [e.g., prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids] has been implicated in skeletal muscle cell growth and development. The collective role of AA-derived metabolites in physiological states of skeletal muscle growth/atrophy remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the direct effect of free AA supplementation and subsequent eicosanoid biosynthesis on skeletal myocyte growth in vitro. C2C12 (mouse) skeletal myocytes induced to differentiate with supplemental AA exhibited dose-dependent increases in the size, myonuclear content, and protein accretion of developing myotubes, independent of changes in cell density or the rate/extent of myogenic differentiation. Nonselective (indomethacin) or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)-selective (NS-398) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs blunted basal myogenesis, an effect that was amplified in the presence of supplemental free AA substrate. The stimulatory effects of AA persisted in preexisting myotubes via a COX-2-dependent (NS-389-sensitive) pathway, specifically implying dependency on downstream PG biosynthesis. AA-stimulated growth was associated with markedly increased secretion of PGF(2?) and PGE(2); however, incubation of myocytes with PG-rich conditioned medium failed to mimic the effects of direct AA supplementation. In vitro AA supplementation stimulates PG release and skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via a COX-2-dependent pathway. PMID:23076795

  8. Enhancement of dalesconols A and B production via upregulation of laccase activity by medium optimization and inducer supplementation in submerged fermentation of Daldinia eschscholzii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hua; Jiao, Rui-Hua; Lu, Yan-Hua; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Dalesconols (dalesconols A and B) are novel polyketides with strong immunosuppressive activity produced by Daldinia eschscholzii. In this work, the effects of different media (M1, M2, and M3) on fungus growth and dalesconols biosynthesis were firstly tested and compared. Intermediates and enzyme analysis indicated that laccase had the major contribution to dalesconols biosynthesis. The key role of laccase on dalesconols biosynthesis was further experimentally confirmed, which suggested that the modified M2 was more favored for laccase and dalesconols production. Thereafter, the medium composition was optimized by RSM with a fermentation titer of 36.66 mg/L obtained. Furthermore, Ca(2+) induction was employed to up-regulate of laccase activity and further enhanced dalesconols production (76.90 mg/L), which was 308% higher than that in M2. In addition, dalesconols production reached 63.42 mg/L in scale-up experiments. This work indicated great potential of laccase as a key enzyme on regulation of dalesconols production. PMID:26056775

  9. Development and manufacturability assessment of chemically-defined medium for the production of protein therapeutics in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wai Lam W; Bai, Yunling; Cheng, Cheng; Padawer, Ishai; Wu, Changjian

    2015-09-01

    Advantages of using internally developed chemically-defined (CD) media for cell culture-based therapeutic protein production over commercial media include better raw material control and medium vendor options, and most importantly, flexibility for process development and subsequent optimization needed for therapeutic protein production. Through several rounds of design of experiment (DOE) screening, and medium component supplementation and optimization studies, we successfully developed a CD basal medium (CDM) for CHO cell culture. The internally prepared liquid CDM demonstrated comparable cell culture performance to that from a commercially available control medium. However, when the same CDM formulation was transferred to two major commercial medium suppliers for manufacturing, cell culture performance utilizing these newly prepared media was significantly reduced compared with the in-house prepared counterpart. An investigation was launched to assess whether key medium components were sensitive to large-scale preparation of the final bulk media by the vendors. Further work necessitated the reformulation of the original CDM formulation into a core medium that was suitable for large-scale media manufacturing. The modified preparation of the core medium with two separate supplements to generate the final CDM was able to recover the expected cell culture performance and monoclonal antibody (mAb) productivity. Confirmation of cell culture robustness in cell growth and production was corroborated in two additional mAb-expressing cell lines. This work demonstrates that a robust CD medium is not only one that performs during the development stage, but also one that must be reproducible by commercial media vendors. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:1163-1171, 2015. PMID:26013818

  10. Developmental competence and embryo quality of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goats cultured in IVM medium supplemented with low level of hormones, insulin-transferrin-selenium and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Hammami, S; Morató, R; Romaguera, R; Roura, M; Catalá, M G; Paramio, M T; Mogas, T; Izquierdo, D

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) and L-ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation and the hormonal level during in vitro maturation (IVM) of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goat on the blastocyst yield and quality. Concretely, we used four maturation media: conventional IVM medium (CM), growth medium (GM: CM+ITS+AA and low level of hormones), modified CM (mCM: CM with low level of hormones) and modified GM (mGM: CM+ITS+AA and normal level of hormones). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were classified into two categories according to oocyte diameter: <125 ?m and ? 125 ?m. Large oocytes were matured 24 h in CM (Treatment A). Small oocytes were matured randomly in six experimental groups: Treatment B: 24 h in CM; Treatment C: 12 h in GM and 12 h in CM; Treatment D: 24 h in mGM; Treatment E: 12 h in mGM and 12 h in CM; Treatment F: 12 h in mCM and 12 h in CM; and Treatment G: 12 h in GM and 12 h in mGM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized and cultured for 8 days. The blastocyst quality was assessed by the survival following vitrification/warming and the mean cell number. When different maturation media were combined, the blastocyst rate did not improve. The large oocytes produced the highest blastocysts yield. However, the culture of small oocytes in GM (53.3%) enhanced the post-warming survival of blastocysts compared to large oocytes matured in CM (35.7%). In conclusion, IVM of pre-pubertal goat small oocytes in GM would be useful to improve the quality of in vitro-produced blastocysts. PMID:22908901

  11. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and Lactobacillus species growth in a defined medium simulating vaginal secretions.

    PubMed

    Stingley, Robin L; Liu, Huanli; Mullis, Lisa B; Elkins, Christopher A; Hart, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus species are commensal with the healthy vaginal environment and inhibit the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the vaginal tract by a variety of mechanisms, such as the production of hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and antimicrobial substances. Simulation of the vaginal environment is crucial for proper investigation of the effects of Lactobacillus species on pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we modified a medium used to simulate vaginal secretions to improve the growth of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains and Lactobacillus species so that interactions between these bacteria may be examined. A medium consisting of basal salts, vitamins, albumin, glycogen, mucin, urea, sodium bicarbonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, and amino acids supported the growth of S. aureus and the production of TSST-1 as determined by Western analysis. Improved growth of the Lactobacillus species was seen when this same medium was supplemented with manganese chloride, sodium acetate, and an increase in glucose concentration. However, growth of S. aureus in the supplemented medium resulted in reduced levels of TSST-1. Production of TSST-1 was not detected in a medium routinely used for the growth of Lactobacillus species although S. aureus growth was not inhibited. The development of an improved genital tract secretion medium provides a more authentic environment in which to study the interactions of Lactobacillus species and vaginal pathogens, such as S. aureus. PMID:25135489

  12. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  13. Supplemental Material Supplemental methods

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Photoshop using regions similar to those shown in Supplemental figure 1. Technetium experiments. Technetium-99m experiments were done by labeling Suc-e9-xPLG(MeC)Ax-r9-k(DTPA) (MeC = methylcysteine) peptide with technetium-99m and injecting the probe intravenously into animals (n=3). Organs were counted using a gamma

  14. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lan?ok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Bo?a, Roman

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 ?m in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  15. CULTIVATION OF MAMMALIAN CELLS IN DEFINED MEDIA WITH PROTEIN AND NONPROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Healy, George M.; Parker, Raymond C.

    1966-01-01

    An improved chemically defined basal medium (CMRL-1415) has been used to advantage in studying the effects on trypsinized, newly explanted mouse embryo cells of certain glycoproteins from plasma and serum, certain nonprotein macromolecules, and various combinations of these, in stationary cultures. When protein and nonprotein fractions were separated from fetal calf serum, the entire growth activity was found to be associated with the protein. When 100 mg % of dialyzed, freeze-dried, supernatant solution of Cohn's fraction V (method 6) from human plasma was used as a supplement for CMRL-1415, there was considerable improvement in the cultures; and seromucoid prepared from calf serum had a similar effect. Supernatant V was further fractionated by gel filtration to give a threefold concentration of growth activity in a single, highly purified ?1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid). Starch gel electrophoresis of horse serum that was used to supplement the basal medium revealed a decrease of both ?1-acid glycoprotein and ?2-macroglobulin during the cultivation of mouse embryo cells. When horse serum was fractionated on DEAE-cellulose columns, the only fraction that showed growth activity was a slow ?2-globulin. When the ?2-macroglobulin of Schultze was prepared from horse serum by salt precipitation, it was equally effective. When the ?2-macroglobulin from horse serum was tested (at 100 mg %) in combination with ?1-acid glycoprotein from Supernatant V, seromucoid from calf serum, or unfractionated Supernatant V, the growth response was greatly in excess of that produced by any of these supplements tested separately. The ?2-macroglobulin from horse serum could be replaced by certain nonprotein macromolecules (e.g., dextran or Ficoll). Thus, dextran (mol. wt. 100,000 to 200,000) had no visible effect on the cells when used alone at 0.1 or 1%. But when these levels of dextran were used in combination with low molecular weight glycoproteins (e.g., unfractionated Supernatant V at 100 mg %), the cultures remained active and healthy for unusually long periods. PMID:5971006

  16. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administration (FDA) approval before they come on the market. Supplement manufacturers do have to follow the FDA's ... be unsafe after it has gone on the market. Critics of the supplement industry point out cases ...

  17. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  18. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26550910

  19. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  20. Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, S.L.; Ham, R.G.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient medium, (MCDB 170, supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, and bovine pituitary extract. Replacement of pituitary extract with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and ovine prolactin yields a defined medium that supports rapid clonal growth and serial subculture for three of four passages. Cultures initiated in these media from normal reduction mammoplasty tissue remain diploid and maintain normal epithelia morphology, distribution of cell-associated fibronectin, expression of keratin fibrils, and a low level of expression of milk fat globule antigen. Large cell populations can now be generated and stored frozen, permitting multiple experiments over a period of time with cells from a single donor. These media greatly extend the range of experiments that can be performed both conveniently and reproducibly with cultured normal and tumor-derived human mammary epithelial cells. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  2. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  3. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE The neglected constituent of the basal forebrain

    E-print Network

    Bruno, John P.

    REVIEW ARTICLE The neglected constituent of the basal forebrain corticopetal projection system and Neuroscience, 27 Townshend Hall, Columbus, OH 43210, USA Keywords: acetylcholine, basal forebrain, cognition, GABA, prefrontal cortex Abstract At least half of the basal forebrain neurons which project

  5. Basal Forebrain Glutamatergic Modulation of Cortical Acetylcholine Release

    E-print Network

    Bruno, John P.

    Basal Forebrain Glutamatergic Modulation of Cortical Acetylcholine Release JIM FADEL, MARTIN SARTER KEY WORDS acetylcholine; basal forebrain; cortex; microdialysis; glutamate recep- tors; kainate; NMDA ABSTRACT The mediation of cortical ACh release by basal forebrain glutamate receptors was studied in awake

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Basal forebrain activation controls contrast

    E-print Network

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Basal forebrain activation controls contrast sensitivity in primary,2* Abstract Background: The basal forebrain (BF) regulates cortical activity by the action of cholinergic Cholinergic neuromodulation is mediated by several basal forebrain (BF) structures including the nucleus

  7. Basal constriction : shaping the vertebrate brain

    E-print Network

    Graeden, Ellie Graham

    2011-01-01

    Organs are primarily formed from epithelia, polarized sheets of cells with an apical surface facing a lumen and basal surface resting on the underlying extracellular matrix. Cells within a sheet are joined by junctions, ...

  8. Basal Ganglia Damage in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haining; Okubo, Shuichi; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a primary therapeutic target, and early SAH-induced basal ganglia injury is not well studied. The present study examined basal ganglia injury in a rat model of SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?78) weighing 275-300 g underwent endovascular perforation to mimic aneurysmal SAH. Sham rats (n?=?12) underwent the same procedure but without perforation. Magnetic resonance imaging (T2 MRI) was performed at 24 h after SAH to measure ventricle volumes and brain T2 lesion. Hydrocephalus in SAH rats was defined as a ventricular volume greater than three standard deviations above that in shams. Western blotting and immunochemistry were utilized to assess basal ganglia damage. Sixty rats survived the SAH and 40 % of those animals had T2 lesions in the basal ganglia. Twenty-six SAH rats had hydrocephalus. Rats with hydrocephalus had higher incidence of basal ganglia lesion (69 vs. 18 % in rats without hydrocephalus; p?Basal ganglia neuronal injury was also determined by examining the levels of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32). We found that rats with hydrocephalus had more severe basal ganglia injury with greater DARPP-32 depletion (DARPP-32/beta-actin: 0.38?±?0.32 vs. 0.86?±?0.45 in rats without hydrocephalus and 1.10?±?0.28 in sham, p?basal ganglia damage, which is associated with hydrocephalus development. PMID:26463938

  9. Tektins as structural determinants in basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R E; Lemieux, N A

    1998-01-01

    Tektins, present as three equimolar 47-55 kDa protein components, form highly insoluble protofilaments that are integral to the junctional region of outer doublet microtubules in cilia and flagella. To identify and quantify tektins in other compound microtubules such as centrioles or basal bodies, a rabbit antiserum was raised against tektin filaments isolated from Spisula solidissima (surf clam) sperm flagellar outer doublets and affinity-purified with nitrocellulose blot strips of tektins resolved by SDS- or SDS-urea-PAGE. These antibodies recognized analogous tektins in axonemes of organisms ranging from ctenophores to higher vertebrates. Quantitative immunoblotting established that outer doublet tektins occur in a 1:17 weight ratio to tubulin. Cilia and basal apparatuses were prepared from scallop gill epithelial cells; cilia and deciliated cells were prepared from rabbit trachea. Tektins were detected by immunoblotting in basal body-enriched preparations while tektins were localized to individual basal bodies by immunofluorescence. Supported by greater fluorescence in basal bodies than in adjacent axonemes in tracheal cells, analysis of basal apparatuses demonstrated both a proportionately greater ratio of tektin to tubulin (approximately 1:13) and two distinct solubility classes of tektins, consistent with tektins comprising the B-C junction of triplets in addition to the A-B junction as in doublets. PMID:9712267

  10. Removal of insect basal laminae using elastase.

    PubMed

    Levinson, G; Bradley, T J

    1984-01-01

    We have used the enzyme elastase to remove the basal lamina of epithelia from two insects: the upper Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus and imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster. Removal of the basal lamina was confirmed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Use of the technique on the Malphighian tubules of Rhodnius reveals for the first time the three-dimensional organization of the circumferential folds of the basal plasma membrane. Elastase is much more effective in removing the basal lamina than are the enzymes hyaluronidase, collagenase, and chymotrypsin, either alone or in combination. Following elastase treatment, cells of the Malpighian tubules dissociate with only mild mechanical agitation into single, viable cells. Treatment with elastase removes the basal laminae of imaginal discs of Drosophila and accelerates evagination as has been previously described for trypsin. To obtain single cell preparations from elastase-treated imaginal discs, mechanical stirring in Ringer low in Ca2+ was required. In addition to its usefulness in cell isolation, elastase treatment allows examination of the effect of removal of basal laminae on the physiology and development of insect epithelia. PMID:6431633

  11. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  12. Growth of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.S.; De Vellis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Astrocytes purified from primary cultures of neonatal rat cerebrum can not be grown in a synthetic medium supplemented with putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, insulin, fibroblast growth factor, and hydrocortisone. These five supplements have a marked synergistic effect on growth when used in combination but have little effect when used individually. Astrocytes grown in the defined medium exhibit dramatic changes in morphological characteristics in comparison to cells grown in serum-free or serum-supplemented medium. In addition, these cells express the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and are estimated by several criteria to be greater than 95% astrocytes.

  13. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows’ diets. PMID:25050036

  14. Schwann cell basal lamina and nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ide, C; Tohyama, K; Yokota, R; Nitatori, T; Onodera, S

    1983-12-12

    Nerve segments approximately 7 mm long were excised from the predegenerated sciatic nerves of mice, and treated 5 times by repetitive freezing and thawing to kill the Schwann cells. Such treated nerve segments were grafted into the original places so as to be in contact with the proximal stumps. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after the grafting. The grafts were examined by electron microscopy in the middle part of the graft, i.e. 3-4 mm distal to the proximal end and/or near the proximal and distal ends of the graft. In other instances, the predegenerated nerve segments were minced with a razor blade after repetitive freezing and thawing. Such minced nerves were placed in contact with the proximal stumps of the same nerves. The animals were sacrificed 10 days after the grafting. Within 1-2 days after grafting, the dead Schwann cells had disintegrated into fragments. They were then gradually phagocytosed by macrophages. The basal laminae of Schwann cells, which were not attacked by macrophages, remained as empty tubes (basal lamina scaffolds). In the grafts we examined, no Schwann cells survived the freezing and thawing process. The regenerating axons always grew out through such basal lamina scaffolds, being in contact with the inner surface of the basal lamina (i.e. the side originally facing the Schwann cell plasma membrane). No axons were found outside of the scaffolds. One to two days after grafting, the regenerating axons were not associated with Schwann cells, but after 5-7 days they were accompanied by Schwann cells which were presumed to be migrating along axons from the proximal stumps. Ten days after grafting, proliferating Schwann cells observed in the middle part of the grafts had begun to sort out axons. In the grafts of minced nerves, the fragmented basal laminae of the Schwann cells re-arranged themselves into thicker strands or small aggregations of basal laminae. The regenerating axons, without exception, attached to one side of such modified basal laminae. Collagen fibrils were in contact with the other side, indicating that these modified basal laminae had the same polarity in terms of cell attachment as seen in the ordinary basal laminae of the scaffolds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6661636

  15. Altered Basal Ganglia Network Integration in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Mingjun; Chen, Xi; He, Hui; Jiang, Yuchao; Jiang, Sisi; Xie, Qiankun; Lai, Yongxiu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia involve in a range of functions that are disturbed in schizophrenia patients. This study decomposed the resting-state data of 28 schizophrenia patients and 31 healthy controls with spatial independent component analysis and identified increased functional integration in the bilateral caudate nucleus in schizophrenia patients. Further, the caudate nucleus in patients showed altered functional connection with the prefrontal area and cerebellum. These results identified the importance of basal ganglia in schizophrenia patients. Clinical Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Registration number ChiCTR-RCS-14004878. PMID:26528167

  16. Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master social…

  17. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  18. Basal Textbooks and the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2010-01-01

    Basal textbooks are rather popular for social studies teachers to use in the classroom setting. There are selected reasons for this occurring. They do provide beginning and new teachers a framework for ongoing lessons and units of study. The accompanying Manual provides suggestions for learning activities for learners to pursue. Evaluation…

  19. The growth of paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betaine when growing anaerobically.

  20. The growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betanine when growing anaerobically.

  1. Biphasic Growth of Acetobacter suboxydans on a Glycerol-Limiting Medium1

    PubMed Central

    Batzing, B. L.; Claus, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Dihydroxyacetone was quantitatively produced from glycerol during the primary exponential growth phase and depleted during the secondary exponential phase. Although no growth was detected on the basal medium, growth occurred upon addition of dihydroxyacetone. Images PMID:5122812

  2. GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTER ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the main cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans, and contaminated poultry products are major sources of campylobacteriosis. In this study, the growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with organic acids was examined. Tryptose-yeast extract basal broth mediu...

  3. Effects of medium concentration on antibody production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody production by two different cell lines was measured as the media were supplemented with varied amounts of glucose and fetal bovine serum. Both cell lines elaborated antidinitrophenyl hapten antibodies. Two basic media were used: RPMI 1640 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The production of antibodies was followed from 0 to 180 h and was assayed by radioimmunoassay.

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis.

    PubMed

    Bedir, Recep; Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-07-01

    Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

  5. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D J; To, T; Gran, L; Wong, D; Lane, P R

    1989-11-01

    Completed questionnaires regarding suspected risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were completed by 538 basal cell carcinoma patients and 738 age-, sex-, and location-matched controls in Saskatchewan. Significant risk factors were identified using chi2 analyses. Relative risks were subsequently computed. The following relative risks were identified: occupation of farming, 1.29; prominent freckles in childhood, 1.23; family history of skin cancer, 1.22; sunburn, 1.19; Irish, Scottish, Welsh mother, 1.19; light skin color, 1.18; red/blond hair color, 1.16; and working outdoors more than 3 hours/day in winter, 1.13: The average age of cases of BCC with a family history of skin cancer was significantly lower than cases of BCC with no family history of skin cancer (63.86 vs. 67.02 years, p = 0.018). No association was noted between BCC and psoriasis. PMID:2583903

  6. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-07-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  7. Insulin pumps: Beyond basal-bolus.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Richard; Becerra, Nancy Mora; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-12-01

    Insulin pumps are a major advance in diabetes management, making insulin dosing easier and more accurate and providing great flexibility, safety, and efficacy for people who need basal-bolus insulin therapy. They are the preferred treatment for people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes who require insulin. This article reviews the basics of how insulin pumps work, who benefits from a pump, and how to manage inpatients and outpatients on insulin pumps. PMID:26651892

  8. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  9. The Role of the Subthalamic Nucleus in the Basal Ganglia 

    E-print Network

    Gillies, Andrew J

    The basal ganglia are a collection of interconnected subcortical nuclei which have been implicated inmotor, cognitive and limbic functions. The subthalamic nucleus is the sole excitatory structure within the basal ganglia. ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease On this page: ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2014 What is biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease? Biotin-thiamine-responsive ...

  11. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PLASMA, MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS, AND UTERINE TISSUE IN PRIMIPAROUS BEEF COWS FED HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental objectives were to evaluate the influence of supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds on fatty acid concentrations in plasma, medial basal hypothalamus, uterine tissues, and serum 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2' metabolite (PGFM) in primiparous beef cows during early lactation. Begin...

  12. UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS DOOR AND FRAMES

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    finish: medium density fiberboard overly (MDO/MDF). #12;UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL. Best Access Systems ships the cylinders directly to the UGA FMD Key Shop. The FMD Key Shop finalizes

  13. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  14. Influence of soyabean meal supplementation on the resistance of Scottish blackface lambs to haemonchosis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, D S; Bairden, K; Duncan, J L; Fishwick, G; Gill, M; Holmes, P H; McKellar, Q A; Murray, M; Parkins, J J; Stear, M

    1996-03-01

    Protein supplementation improves the resistance of sheep to haemonchosis. This experiment investigated the Scottish blackface breed to establish whether dietary protein supplementation is still beneficial in a genetically resistant breed. Lambs were given either a basal diet or a diet supplemented with soyabean meal to give an additional 80 g crude protein kg dry matter-1. The lambs were given an initial loading dose of Haemonchus contortus, followed by a trickle infection for 10 weeks. The weight gains of the lambs given the supplemented diet were greater and their carcases were leaner, irrespective of infection status. Infected animals on the basal diet were more anaemic and hypoalbuminaemic than animals receiving the supplemented diet, although there were no statistically significant differences in mean worm burdens or faecal egg counts. PMID:8685535

  15. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements On This Page Key Facts ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  16. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral Supplements Fact Sheet for Consumers What are multivitamin/mineral (MVM) dietary supplements? Multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements contain ...

  17. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  18. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  19. Fractionation of a Basal Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, M.; Hernlund, J. W.; Labrosse, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is thought to be sustained by dynamo action in a convecting metallic outer core since at least 3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Convection induces an isentropic temperature gradient that drains 13±3 TW of heat from the core by thermal conduction (de Koker et al., 2012; Pozzo et al., 2012; Gomi et al., 2013), and suggests that Earth's core has cooled by ˜1,000 K or more since Earth's formation (Gomi et al., 2013). However, models of Earth's initial thermal evolution following a giant-impact predict rapid cooling to the mantle melting temperature (e.g., Solomatov, 2007). In order to understand how the core could have retained enough heat to explain the age of the geodynamo, we relax a key assumption of the basal magma ocean model of (Labrosse et al., 2007) to allow for the possibility that the magma is stably stratified. Recent giant impact simulations suggest extensive core-mantle mixing (Saitoh and Makino, 2013), which could have produced such a large stratified magma layer at the core-mantle boundary. In the presence of a stable density gradient, heat transfer through the basal magma ocean occurs through conduction and therefore delays heat loss from the core. Partitioning of iron in the liquid phase upon crystallization changes the density profile and triggers convection in the upper part of the basal magma ocean. Our hypothesis suggests that early core cooling is dominated by the diffusion timescale through the basal magma ocean, and predicts a delayed onset of the geodynamo (i.e, during the late Headean/early Archean). This model can therefore be falsified if the existence of a geomagnetic field can be inferred from magnetization of inclusions in Hadean zircons. N. de Koker et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 190, 4070-4073 (2012).H. Gomi et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 224, 88-103 (2013).S. Labrosse et al., Nature 450, 866-869 (2007).M. Pozzo et al., Nature 485, 355-358 (2012).T. Saitoh and J. Makino. Astrophys. J. 768, 44 (2013).V.S. Solomatov. In Treatise on Geophysics 9, 91-120. Elsevier (2007).J.A. Tarduno et al., Science 327, 1238-1240 (2010).

  20. High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. )

    1992-09-01

    Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

  1. Evolution of basal deuterostome nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z

    2015-02-15

    Understanding the evolution of deuterostome nervous systems has been complicated by the by the ambiguous phylogenetic position of the Xenocoelomorpha (Xenoturbellids, acoel flat worms, nemertodermatids), which has been placed either as basal bilaterians, basal deuterostomes or as a sister group to the hemichordate/echinoderm clade (Ambulacraria), which is a sister group of the Chordata. None of these groups has a single longitudinal nerve cord and a brain. A further complication is that echinoderm nerve cords are not likely to be evolutionarily related to the chordate central nervous system. For hemichordates, opinion is divided as to whether either one or none of the two nerve cords is homologous to the chordate nerve cord. In chordates, opposition by two secreted signaling proteins, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, regulates partitioning of the ectoderm into central and peripheral nervous systems. Similarly, in echinoderm larvae, opposition between BMP and Nodal positions the ciliary band and regulates its extent. The apparent loss of this opposition in hemichordates is, therefore, compatible with the scenario, suggested by Dawydoff over 65 years ago, that a true centralized nervous system was lost in hemichordates. PMID:25696827

  2. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial. PMID:26564075

  3. Interaction between fat type and lysolecithin supplementation in broiler feeds.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; Nuyens, F; Buyse, J; Leleu, S; Van Campenhout, L

    2015-10-01

    Lysolecithins are added to poultry diets to promote the intestinal absorption of nutrients, in particular of dietary fats. Lysolecithins contain a mixture of phospho- and lysophospholipids and differ in composition depending on the conditions and source of the lecithin used for its production. The importance of the lysolecithin composition and its interaction with the fat type was investigated in vitro in a fat digestion model and in vivo in a digestibility trial with broilers (24 to 28 d age). The in vitro digestion of soybean oil and pig lard was investigated without and with the inclusion of soybean or rapeseed lysolecithin. Correspondingly, for the digestibility trial, 108 Ross 308 male broilers were assigned to 6 dietary treatments: a basal diet with either soybean oil (5.3%) or pig lard (5.8%), each basal diet supplemented with 250 ppm soybean lysolecithin, and each basal diet supplemented with 250 ppm rapeseed lysolecithin. In vitro pig lard digestibility was significantly lower compared to soybean oil digestibility. Although in vivo no significant difference was observed for crude fat digestibility, broilers fed the basal diet with pig lard had a lower (P < 0.05) DM digestibility, nitrogen retention, and AMEn compared to those fed the basal diet with soybean oil. Lysolecithin supplementation showed a significant interaction with the fat type, both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro hydrolysis of pig lard, but not of soybean oil, increased (P < 0.001) with supplementation of soybean and rapeseed lysolecithin. Moreover, soybean and rapeseed lysolecithin supplementation improved (P < 0.05) DM digestibility of the basal diet with pig lard by 5.1 and 5.7%, respectively; nitrogen retention by 2.8 and 3.1?g/kg, respectively; and AMEn by 182 and 199 kcal/kg, respectively. Despite the major difference in molecular composition, there was, however, no impact of the lysolecithin composition on in vitro and in vivo fat digestibility. This study demonstrates that the improvements that can be made with lysolecithin supplementation are highly dependent on the fat incorporated in broiler feeds. PMID:26362973

  4. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as the use of basal wedges/prisms and significantly quicker and cheaper than accurate measures such as measuring DBH for all stems or utilising a terrestrial Lidar. Given that the method allows rapid collection ( <30 minutes per site) of this information we anticipate that this method will be widely applicable. Validation of this photopoint method against field measures and terrestrial lidar that was acquired coincidently is progressing and we look forward to further tests to quantify the accuracy of these methods and to account of the effect of occlusion. We are working on automating the extraction of this information and delivering these products freely online. We also hope to investigate the feasibility of the automatic extraction of growth form of species in the photographs to assist with site structural assessment.

  5. Seismic signals associated with basal processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röösli, Claudia; Walter, Fabian; Kisslin, Edi; Helmstetter, Agnes; Lüthi, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding ice sheet and glacier dynamics is crucial for modeling of ice mass balance and resulting sea level changes. Ice dynamics is strongly influenced by surface melt water accumulating at the glacier base and its effect on basal sliding. The relationship between surface melt and ice flow depends on hydraulic processes in the subglacial drainage system. However, both subglacial and englacial drainage systems are inherently difficult to investigate due to their remoteness, and basal processes to date remain poorly understood. Borrowing concepts from volcano studies, recent glacier studies are employing passive seismology as a supplement to traditional glaciological techniques. When monitoring the seismic activity of a glacier or an ice sheet, several different types of so-called 'icequakes' and some times even 'tremor' may be detected in the seismic records that is dominated by the large number of surficial icequakes. Deep icequakes may provide information about englacial water flow and basal motion in response to hydraulic events over a region whose size is only limited by seismic background noise and the aperture of the monitoring network. Here, we present results from a passive seismic deployment on western Greenland's ablation zone during summer 2011. The high-density seismometer network consisted of 17 three-component stations installed at the ice surface or in boreholes. We recorded a large variety of seismic signals, including thousands of near-surface crevasse events as well as dislocation events deep within the ice sheet and near its bed. We discuss these 'deep icequakes' in view of hydraulic processes and basal motion. Furthermore, the seismic deployment was part of larger field campaign including a deep drilling project and glaciological surface observations. This provides the unique opportunity to interpret the seismic monitoring results within the variety of observations including subglacial water pressures and other borehole measurements.

  6. Fast Modulation of Visual Perception by Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Estandian, Daniel; Xu, Min; Kwan, Alex C.; Lee, Seung-Hee; Harrison, Thomas C.; Feng, Guoping; Dan, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain provides the primary source of cholinergic input to the cortex, and it plays a crucial role in promoting wakefulness and arousal. However, whether rapid changes in basal forebrain neuron spiking in awake animals can dynamically influence sensory perception is unclear. Here we show that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons rapidly regulate cortical activity and visual perception in awake, behaving mice. Optogenetic activation of the cholinergic neurons or their V1 axon terminals improved performance of a visual discrimination task on a trial-by-trial basis. In V1, basal forebrain activation enhanced visual responses and desynchronized neuronal spiking, which could partly account for the behavioral improvement. Conversely, optogenetic basal forebrain inactivation decreased behavioral performance, synchronized cortical activity and impaired visual responses, indicating the importance of cholinergic activity in normal visual processing. These results underscore the causal role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fast, bidirectional modulation of cortical processing and sensory perception. PMID:24162654

  7. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  8. Burden of basal cell carcinoma in USA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyuan; Elkin, Elena E; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy diagnosed in the USA and its incidence continues to increase. While BCC is still most prevalent in the older segments of the population, it is becoming ever more frequent in younger individuals. The costs of treatment and morbidity associated with BCCs place a heavy public health and economic burden on patients, their families and the American healthcare system and underscore the importance of efficient management and prevention efforts directed toward this malignancy. In this article, we address economic aspects of BCC using evidence from large-scale epidemiological studies. This information may help clinicians in developing better and more cost-effective methods for dealing with the most common cancer in America and in the world. PMID:26466906

  9. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their childhood. Multiple BCCs were seen in 79.3% and 10.3% of patients with history and without history of radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: X-ray radiation is still a major etiologic factor in developing BCC in northern Iran. Patients with positive history for radiotherapy have higher rate of recurrence. PMID:26114066

  10. Skeletal ontogeny in basal scleractinian micrabaciid corals.

    PubMed

    Janiszewska, Katarzyna; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Stolarski, Jaros?aw

    2013-03-01

    The skeletal ontogeny of the Micrabaciidae, one of two modern basal scleractinian lineages, is herein reconstructed based on serial micro-computed tomography sections and scanning electron micrographs. Similar to other scleractinians, skeletal growth of micrabaciids starts from the simultaneous formation of six primary septa. New septa of consecutive cycles arise between septa of the preceding cycles from unique wedge-shaped invaginations of the wall. The invagination of wall and formation of septa are accompanied by development of costae alternating in position with septa. During corallite growth, deepening invagination of the wall results in elevation of septa above the level of a horizontal base. The corallite wall is regularly perforated thus invaginated regions consist of pillars inclined downwardly and outwardly from the lower septal margins. Shortly after formation of septa (S2 and higher cycles) their upper margins bend and fuse with the neighboring members of a previous cycle, resulting in a unique septal pattern, formerly misinterpreted as "septal bifurcation." Septa as in other Scleractinia are hexamerally arranged in cycles. However, starting from the quaternaries, septa within single cycles do not appear simultaneously but are inserted in pairs and successively flank the members of a preceding cycle, invariably starting from those in the outermost parts of the septal system. In each pair, the septum adjacent to older septa arises first (e.g., the quinaries between S2 and S4 before quinaries between S3 and S4). Unique features of micrabaciid skeletal ontogeny are congruent with their basal position in scleractinian phylogeny, which was previously supported by microstructural and molecular data. PMID:23065665

  11. A Search For Principles of Basal Ganglia Function

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Charles H.

    million neurons in humans. Dierent modes of basal ganglia dysfunction lead to Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which have debilitating motor and cognitive symptoms. However, despite intensive study

  12. Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

  13. Confocal microscopy study of the different patterns of 2-NBDG uptake in rabbit enterocytes in the apical and basal zone.

    PubMed

    Román, Y; Alfonso, A; Louzao, M C; Vieytes, M R; Botana, L M

    2001-11-01

    D-Glucose uptake in isolated rabbit enterocytes was studied using confocal microscopy and 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NDBG), a D-glucose fluorescent analogue, by analysing the fluorescence of apical and basal enterocyte zones. Under normal conditions, apical fluorescence was always higher than basal, presumably due to the location of the Na+-D-glucose cotransporter in the brush-border membrane. After blocking this transporter with phlorizin, apical and basal fluorescence values were similar. This suggests that both brush-border and basolateral membranes participate in phlorizin-insensitive D-glucose transport, since transport across only one membrane cannot explain the uniform overall fluorescence observed. Similarly, after inhibiting the Na+-D-glucose cotransporter by incubating the enterocytes in a medium containing 0.5 mM Na+, neither apical nor basal fluorescence predominated. In contrast, with 130.5 mM extracellular Na+, apical fluorescence was clearly higher than basal fluorescence. These results suggest that phlorizin-insensitive, Na+-independent 2-NDBG uptake occurred through both brush-border and basolateral membranes, probably via the glucose uniporters GLUT2 and GLUT5, suggesting that the latter is a D-glucose transporter. PMID:11713649

  14. Influence of supplementation with dietary soyabean meal on resistance to haemonchosis in Hampshire down lambs.

    PubMed

    Wallace, D S; Bairden, K; Duncan, J L; Fishwick, G; Gill, M; Holmes, P H; McKellar, Q A; Murray, M; Parkins, J J; Stear, M J

    1995-05-01

    The influence of dietary protein supplementation on resistance to haemonchosis was examined in Hampshire down lambs fed either a basal diet or a diet supplemented with soyabean. At seven months of age the lambs were challenged with an initial loading dose of Haemonchus contortus, followed by a trickle infection three times a week. Blood and faecal samples were collected three times a week and bodyweights were recorded weekly. After 10 weeks the lambs were slaughtered and their worm burdens and carcase composition determined. Although their mean worm burdens were similar, the lambs given the basal diet had higher faecal egg counts, lower packed red cell volumes and lower concentrations of total plasma protein and plasma albumin than the lambs given the supplemented diet. The dietary supplementation also improved the carcase composition of the lambs. PMID:7659847

  15. Differential contribution of extracellular and intracellular calcium sources to basal transmission and long-term potentiation in the sympathetic ganglion of the rat.

    PubMed

    Vargas, R; Cifuentes, F; Morales, M A

    2007-04-01

    Calcium involved in basal ganglionic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) can arise either by influx from the extracellular medium or release from intracellular stores. No attempts have yet been made to concurrently explore the contributions of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ to basal ganglionic transmission or LTP. Here, we investigate this subject using the superior cervical ganglion of the rat. To explore the extracellular Ca2+ contribution, we evaluated basal transmission and LTP at different extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. To assess intracellular Ca2+ release, we explored the contribution of the calcium-induced calcium release process by overactivation or blockade of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ receptor channel with caffeine, and also by blocking either IP3R with Xestospongin C or the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump with thapsigargin. Extracellular Ca2+ affected ganglionic basal transmission and LTP to different extents. While 25% of the physiological Ca2+ concentration supported 80% of basal transmission, 50% of normal Ca2+ was required to achieve 80% of LTP. Notably, disruption of intracellular Ca2+ release by all the drugs tested apparently did not affect basal ganglionic transmission but impaired LTP. We conclude that basal transmission requires only a small level of Ca2+ entry, while LTP expression not only requires more Ca2+ entry but is also dependent on Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. PMID:17443810

  16. Selective migration of terminally differentiating cells from the basal layer of cultured human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    How terminally differentiating cells are selectively expelled from the basal layer of epidermis has been a source of interest and speculation for many years. The problem can now be studied in culture, using involucrin synthesis as an early marker of terminal differentiation in human keratinocytes. When keratinocytes are forced to grow as a monolayer by reducing the calcium ion concentration of the culture medium, they still begin to synthesize involucrin. Raising the level of calcium ions induces stratification, and cells that are synthesizing involucrin are selectively expelled from the basal layer. I have found that during calcium-induced stratification no new proteins or glycoproteins are synthesized, and the rate of cell division does not change. Movement of involucrin-positive cells out of the basal layer was found to be unaffected by cycloheximide, tunicamycin, or cytosine arabinoside. These results suggest that keratinocytes growing as a monolayer already have the necessary properties to determine their position when stratification is induced. Addition of calcium simply allows formation of desmosomes and other intimate cell contacts required for stratification. The properties of involucrin-positive cells that determine their suprabasal position include a reduced affinity for the culture substrate and preferential adhesion to other cells at the same stage of terminal differentiation. The molecular basis of these adhesive changes is discussed. PMID:6546761

  17. Comparative effect of bis-(beta-chloroethyl)-sulfide on basal and differential keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Scavarelli-Karantsavelos, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Bis-({beta}-Chloroethyl)sulfide (BCES), is a potent alkylating agent and vesicant for human skin. The effect of BCES on basal and differentiated keratinocytes was studied using an epidermal culture and whole rat epidermis. A procedure was developed to expose the epidermal culture and the epidermis topically to various doses of BCES. It was verified autoradiographically that upon application of BCES to the surface of the culture, no spillage into the medium occurred. DNA was determined to be the primary target of BCES by studying the incorporation of {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 3}H-uridine and {sup 14}C-leucine after epidermal cultures were exposed to doses of BCES ranging from 10 to 50 nmoles/cm{sup 2}. Hence a parameter related to DNA damage was utilized in determining the sensitivity of the two epidermal cell populations to BCES. This parameter was the nucleoid sedimentation assay, which detects DNA single-strand breaks. The assay indicated that the basal cells are more susceptible to BCES than the differentiated cells. This higher susceptibility was determined to be a consequence of a higher level of alkylation of the basal cell DNA compared to the differentiated cell DNA following exposure to BCES. The level of DNA alkylation was measured using a CsCl density gradient to isolate the DNA.

  18. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jiquan

    Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate Wenping Yuan,1 Yiqi Luo,2] Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity

  19. CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder,8 both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

  20. CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder8 , both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

  1. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Puneet; Kishore, Praveen; Bhasin, Jasjit Singh; Arya, Subhash Chand

    2015-01-01

    Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ‘mineralizing angiopathy’ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described. PMID:26019426

  2. [Squamous epithelial and basal cell carcinomas in naevus sebaceus (Jadassohn)].

    PubMed

    Smolin, T; Hundeiker, M

    1986-03-01

    Investigation of 181 nevi sebacei (Jadassohn) revealed the development of basal cell carcinoma in 21 cases, prickle-cell carcinoma in 1 patient. 2 basal cell carcinomas had been taken from different parts of the same systematized nevus. All these secondary tumors had developed in postpubertal patients. PMID:3962409

  3. The Place of Career Women in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leondis, Mary T.

    A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

  4. Do Basal Readers Deskill Teachers? Reading Research Report No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Heubach, Kathleen M.

    A study evaluated the assertion that basal reading programs limit or control teachers' instructional decision making through a process referred to as "deskilling" by surveying elementary educators regarding their use of and opinions about basal reading programs. Responses from 553 of 1,000 randomly sampled International Reading Association members…

  5. Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic

    E-print Network

    Gluck, Mark

    and reversal. Amnesic subjects with selective hippocampal dam- age, Parkinson subjects with disrupted basalDistinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal Daphna have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning--the ability to adaptively

  6. Working together: basal ganglia pathways in action selection.

    PubMed

    Friend, Danielle M; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2014-06-01

    Jin, Tecuapetla, and Costa combined in vivo electrophysiology with optogenetic-identification to examine firing in multiple basal ganglia nuclei during rapid motor sequences. Their results support a model of basal ganglia function in which co-activation of the direct and indirect pathways facilitate appropriate, while inhibiting competing, motor programs. PMID:24816402

  7. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10?12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10?9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10?12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10?16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  8. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the forehead: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rudi?, Milan; Kranjcec, Zoran; Lisica-Siki?, Natasa; Kovaci?, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6 cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carcinomas are rare tumors and are usually result of a long duration and patient neglect. In comparison to the ordinary basal cell carcinoma these tumors have a higher metastatic potential. Surgical resection with negative surgical margin is the best possible treatment option. PMID:22816239

  9. Tobacco Use Supplement: An Overview

    Cancer.gov

    1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current

  10. Analysis of Basal Plane Bending and Basal Plane Dislocations in 4H-SiC Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Noboru; Katsuno, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Tatsuo; Nakabayashi, Masashi; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Hirokatsu; Aigo, Takashi; Hirano, Hosei; Hoshino, Taizo; Ohashi, Wataru

    2009-06-01

    4H-SiC single crystals were grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) growth method under different thermoelastic stress conditions, and the degree of basal plane bending in the crystals was characterized by the peak shift measurement of X-ray rocking curves. The results indicate that the degree of basal plane bending largely depends on the magnitude of the thermoelastic stresses imposed on the crystals during PVT growth. Quantitative analysis of basal plane bending revealed that the density of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) estimated from basal plane bending is much smaller than that obtained from defect-selective etching. It was also found that the BPD density is correlated with the threading screw dislocation (TSD) density in PVT-grown SiC crystals. These aspects of BPDs were discussed in terms of the BPD multiplication process triggered by the intersection of BPDs with a forest of TSDs extending along the c-axis.

  11. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  12. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Commission. Once a dietary supplement is on the market, FDA has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include ... selling these products. It is not legal to market a dietary supplement product as a treatment or ...

  13. A nucleus-basal body connector in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that may function in basal body localization or segregation

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated a nucleus-basal body complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The complex is strongly immunoreactive to an antibody generated against a major protein constituent of isolated Tetraselmis striata flagellar roots (Salisbury, J. L., A. Baron, B. Surek, and M. Melkonian, J. Cell Biol., 99:962-970). Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analysis indicates that, like the Tetraselmis protein, the Chlamydomonas antigen consists of two acidic isoforms of approximately 20 kD. Indirect immunofluorescent staining of nucleus- basal body complexes reveals two major fibers in the connector region, one between each basal body and the nucleus. The nucleus is also strongly immunoreactive, with staining radiating around much of the nucleus from a region of greatest concentration at the connector pole. Calcium treatment causes shortening of the connector fibers and also movement of nuclear DNA towards the connector pole. Electron microscopic observation of negatively stained nucleus-basal body complexes reveals a cluster of approximately 6-nm filaments, suspected to represent the connector, between the basal bodies and nuclei. A mutant with a variable number of flagella, vfl-2-220, is defective with respect to the nucleus-basal body association. This observation encourages us to speculate that the nucleus-basal body union is important for accurate basal body localization within the cell and/or for accurate segregation of parental and daughter basal bodies at cell division. A physical association between nuclei and basal bodies or centrioles has been observed in a variety of algal, protozoan, and metazoan cells, although the nature of the association, in terms of both structure and function, has been obscure. We believe it likely that fibrous connectors homologous to those described here for Chlamydomonas are general features of centriole-bearing eucaryotic cells. PMID:4055898

  14. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  15. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryan A; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Witte, Owen N

    2015-11-24

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  16. Charmonium in Hot Medium 

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Xingbo

    2012-02-14

    We investigate charmonium production in the hot medium created by heavy-ion collisions by setting up a framework in which in-medium charmonium properties are constrained by thermal lattice QCD (lQCD) and subsequently ...

  17. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

  18. Cooccurrence of Multiple Sclerosis and Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, M.; Karimi, N.; Tabrizi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system that affects both white and gray matter. Idiopathic calcification of the basal ganglia is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by sporadic or familial brain calcification. Concurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) is very rare event. In this study, we describe a cooccurrence of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with multiple sclerosis. The association between this disease and MS is unclear and also maybe probably coincidental. PMID:26351460

  19. Nevoid Basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Bala Subramanyam, S; Naga Sujata, D; Sridhar, K; Pushpanjali, M

    2015-03-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises of a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Diagnosis may be difficult because of the variability of expressivity and different ages of onset for different traits of this disorder. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cysts like radiolucencies are discovered on panoramic view. This article reports a case of Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and provides an overview on diagnosis and management. PMID:25838663

  20. The basal ganglia-circa 1982 - A review and commentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent studies which utilize new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods in order to improve knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and to clarify their sites of origin. These studies have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and have revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Also examined are the many new histochemical techniques that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in or interconnecting with the basal ganglia.

  1. Supplemental dietary inulin influences expression of iron and inflammation related genes in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown improved hemoglobin repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti, Tienen, Belgium) into a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In the present study, weanling pigs (5 or 6-wk old) were f...

  2. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Jin, Xingsheng; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang County, Henan Province, China. Although our phylogenetic analysis supports this taxon as the most basal neoceratopsian, Mosaiceratops exhibits many features previously considered unique to the Psittacosauridae among the basal Ceratopsia. These include a relatively highly positioned external naris, a proportionally large premaxilla, the nasal extending ventral to the external naris, slender postorbital and temporal bars, a large notch between the basal tubera, and the edentulous premaxilla. Thus, the discovery of Mosaiceratops reduces the morphological disparity between the Psittacosauridae and other basal ceratopsians. Character optimization suggests that basal neoceratopsians have re-evolved premaxillary teeth; a major reversal previously unknown in any dinosaur clade. The new specimen also highlights the mosaic nature of evolution among early ceratopsians and supports the phylogenetic hypothesis that the Psittacosauridae is a relatively derived clade, rather than the most basal group of the Ceratopsia. PMID:26388024

  3. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenjie; Jin, Xingsheng; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang County, Henan Province, China. Although our phylogenetic analysis supports this taxon as the most basal neoceratopsian, Mosaiceratops exhibits many features previously considered unique to the Psittacosauridae among the basal Ceratopsia. These include a relatively highly positioned external naris, a proportionally large premaxilla, the nasal extending ventral to the external naris, slender postorbital and temporal bars, a large notch between the basal tubera, and the edentulous premaxilla. Thus, the discovery of Mosaiceratops reduces the morphological disparity between the Psittacosauridae and other basal ceratopsians. Character optimization suggests that basal neoceratopsians have re-evolved premaxillary teeth; a major reversal previously unknown in any dinosaur clade. The new specimen also highlights the mosaic nature of evolution among early ceratopsians and supports the phylogenetic hypothesis that the Psittacosauridae is a relatively derived clade, rather than the most basal group of the Ceratopsia. PMID:26388024

  4. Eastern Olympus Mons Basal Scarp: A Landslide Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, M. B.; McGovern, P. J.; Fournier, T.; Morgan, J. K.; Katz, O.

    2012-03-01

    Olympus Mons is surrounded by aureole deposit landforms that may be the result of catastrophic failures of the edifice. We examine the stability of the eastern basal scarp to evaluate a landslide mechanism for the formation of the aureole lobes.

  5. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancers staged? How are basal and squamous cell skin cancers diagnosed? Most skin cancers are brought to ... non-cancerous) without the need for a biopsy. Skin biopsy If the doctor thinks that a suspicious ...

  6. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype.

  7. Basal Anthropoids from Egypt and the Antiquity of Africa's Higher

    E-print Network

    Licciardi, Joseph M.

    Basal Anthropoids from Egypt and the Antiquity of Africa's Higher Primate Radiation Erik R, into a morphologically and behaviorally diverse parapithecoid clade of great antiquity. The early or early middle Eocene

  8. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    E-print Network

    Gershman, Samuel J.

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still ...

  9. Neural Representation of Time in Cortico-basal Ganglia Circuits

    E-print Network

    Jin, Dezhe Z.

    Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia ...

  10. Clinical manifestation and neuroimaging methods in diagnosing basal ganglia calcifications.

    PubMed

    Stenc Bradvica, Ivanka; Jan?uljak, Davor; Butkovi?-Soldo, Silva; Mihaljevi?, Ivan; Vladeti?, Mirjana; Bradvica, Mario

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this case study was to evaluate the clinical symptoms in patients with basal ganglia calcifications and compare the neuroimaging methods used in confirming this state. The clinical status and performed transcranial sonography of basal ganglia structures in patients with brain calcifications found by computed brain tomography was examined. In one of these patients DaTSCAN was performed. A large spectrum of different symptoms was found. Transcranial sonography of basal ganglia showed the hyperechogenicity of nucleus lenticularis in eight out of 10 patients. DaTSCAN, which was performed to one patient with parkinsonian signs and the hyperechogenicity of substantia nigra found by transcranial sonography, was normal. Transcranial sonography is a newly neuroimaging method which can contribute to diagnosing basal ganglia calcifications in patients with different neurological signs. Computed tomography of brain remains the most adequate technique in visualising calcifications. PMID:23348181

  11. INTRODUCTION Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed a basal

    E-print Network

    Schuettpelz, Eric

    INTRODUCTION Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed a basal dichotomy within vascular plants, separating the lyco- phytes (less than 1% of extant vascular plants) from the euphyllophytes (Fig. 1 phylogeny depicting relationships of major vascular plant lineages. Topology summarizes the results

  12. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Erich D.

    Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds Lubica Kubikova1 repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity

  13. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  14. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

  15. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

  16. Basal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Minotto, Ivanete; Abdala, Nitamar; Miachon, Adriana Aparecida Siviero; Spinola e Castro, Angela Maria; Imamura, Paulo; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes

    2007-12-01

    The basal encephaloceles refer to rare entities and they correspond to herniation of brain tissue through defects of skull along the cribiform plate or the sphenoid bone. A rare morning glory syndrome, with characteristic retinal defect has been reported in association with basal encephaloceles. Hypophysis hormonal deficiencies may occur. We accounted for a pituitary dwarfism with delayed diagnosed transsphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome, showing the alterations found in retinography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:18094860

  17. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function, which was possibly due to the decreasing apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and the improvement of intestinal microbiota. PMID:26727003

  18. Can subglacial processes reset the luminescence of basal sediment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Darrel; Bateman, Mark; Piotrowski, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of the natural luminescence of basal sediment from Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland (Swift et al., under revision) has revived speculation that erosion and/or sediment transport in the subglacial environment may constitute effective luminescence resetting mechanisms. The plausibility of these resetting mechanisms rests on the presumption that luminescence signals can be reset if sediment grains are exposed to sufficient stress. The ice-bedrock contact zone of active glacial systems and the shear zones of active fault systems have been cited as environments where shearing has the potential to reset luminescence; however, laboratory studies that have investigated the effects of shearing on luminescence have produced conflicting results. We present the first results from a laboratory-based project that aims to determine the efficacy of resetting in the subglacial environment by shearing sediment under conditions representative of the ice-bedrock contact zone of active glacial systems. Preliminary luminescence data will be shown from an initial experiment that aims to quantify the effect of shearing on the luminescence of quartz. Homogenous medium-sand was obtained for the experiment from relict dune systems that possess substantial natural luminescence (we anticipate that glacial sediments with a wider range of grain sizes will be used in later experiments). Shearing was conducted using a state-of-the-art ring-shear apparatus using an imposed normal stress of 50 kPa at a shearing rate of 1 mm per minute for a distance of ~ 1200 mm, with samples for luminescence analyses taken from the shearing zone at pre-defined intervals. It is anticipated that further experiments using a range of imposed normal stresses and further analyses of changes in the luminescence and surface microtexture of grains in specific grain-size fractions will elucidate and quantify the specific nature of the resetting mechanism. Swift, D.A., Sanderson, D.C.W., Nienow, P.W., Bingham, R.G. and Cochrane, I.C. Under Revision. Luminescence investigation of subglacial sediment at Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. Quaternary Geochronology.

  19. Response of laying hens to choline when fed practical diets devoid of supplemental sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Miles, R D; Ruiz, N; Harms, R H

    1986-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted with White Leghorn laying hens. In both experiments, a corn-soybean meal basal diet was used, and hens were housed individually in cages in open-type houses. In Experiment 1, the basal diet contained no supplemental choline, inorganic sulfate, or sulfur amino acids and was supplemented with 0 or 660 mg choline/kg, and 0 and .1% K2SO4, or K2Mg(SO4)2. In Experiment 2, the basal diet contained .1% reagent grade K2SO4. Four diets were formulated to contain 0, 110, 220, and 440 mg choline/kg, respectively. A fifth diet was formulated to contain 440 mg choline/kg and .15% DL-methionine. In Experiment 1, a significant increase in egg production resulted from supplementing the diet with 660 mg choline/kg in the absence of supplemental inorganic sulfate and sulfur amino acids. Only a numerical increase in egg production resulted from adding inorganic sulfate alone or in combination with choline. Addition of choline and inorganic sulfate in combination resulted in an increase in egg weight. In Experiment 2, 220 mg of supplemental choline/kg, or 114 mg choline intake/bird/day, resulted in maximum egg production and feed efficiency. However, maximum egg size was obtained only when supplemental DL-methionine and choline were present. The results obtained in this study indicate that laying hens will respond to supplemental choline in practical situations when diets are deficient in total sulfur amino acids, and daily sulfur amino acid intake is insufficient to meet the animal's requirement. For maximum egg size, adequate sulfur amino acids must be present in the diet, because supplementing choline alone will not maximize egg size. PMID:3774741

  20. Luminal and basal-like breast cancer cells show increased migration induced by hypoxia, mediated by an autocrine mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Some breast cancer patients receiving anti-angiogenic treatment show increased metastases, possibly as a result of induced hypoxia. The effect of hypoxia on tumor cell migration was assessed in selected luminal, post-EMT and basal-like breast carcinoma cell lines. Methods Migration was assessed in luminal (MCF-7), post-EMT (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435S), and basal-like (MDA-MB-468) human breast carcinoma cell lines under normal and oxygen-deprived conditions, using a collagen-based assay. Cell proliferation was determined, secreted cytokine and chemokine levels were measured using flow-cytometry and a bead-based immunoassay, and the hypoxic genes HIF-1? and CA IX were assessed using PCR. The functional effect of tumor-cell conditioned medium on the migration of neutrophil granulocytes (NG) was tested. Results Hypoxia caused increased migratory activity but not proliferation in all tumor cell lines, involving the release and autocrine action of soluble mediators. Conditioned medium (CM) from hypoxic cells induced migration in normoxic cells. Hypoxia changed the profile of released inflammatory mediators according to cell type. Interleukin-8 was produced only by post-EMT and basal-like cell lines, regardless of hypoxia. MCP-1 was produced by MDA-MB-435 and -468 cells, whereas IL-6 was present only in MDA-MB-231. IL-2, TNF-?, and NGF production was stimulated by hypoxia in MCF-7 cells. CM from normoxic and hypoxic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435S cells and hypoxic MCF-7 cells, but not MDA-MB-468, induced NG migration. Conclusions Hypoxia increases migration by the autocrine action of released signal substances in selected luminal and basal-like breast carcinoma cell lines which might explain why anti-angiogenic treatment can worsen clinical outcome in some patients. PMID:21535870

  1. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  2. Effects of supplementation with green tea by-products on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation in goats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Lee, J-W; Mun, H-S; Yang, C-J

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight castrated male goats were used to determine the effects of feeding green tea by-products (GTB) on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation. Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with four levels of GTB (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%). Four replicate pens were assigned to each treatment with three goats per replicate. Increasing dietary GTB tended to linearly increase the overall average weight gain and feed intake (p = 0.09). Water holding capacity, pH and sensory attributes of meat were not affected by GTB supplementation, while cooking loss was reduced both linearly and quadratically (p < 0.01). The redness (linear; p = 0.02, quadratic; p < 0.01) and yellowness (quadratic; p < 0.01) values of goat meat were improved by GTB supplementation. Increasing dietary GTB quadratically increased protein and decreased crude fat (p < 0.05), while linearly decreased cholesterol (p = 0.03) content of goat meat. The proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA increased linearly (p < 0.01) and n-3 PUFA increased quadratically (p < 0.05) as GTB increased in diets. Increasing dietary GTB linearly increased the PUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acid) and tended to linearly and quadratically increase (p ? 0.10) the n-6/n-3 ratio. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values of meat were lower in the 2.0% GTB-supplemented group in all storage periods (p < 0.05). Dietary GTB linearly decreased plasma glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.01) and quadratically decreased urea nitrogen concentrations (p = 0.001). The growth of spleen cells incubated in concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides medium increased significantly (p < 0.05) in response to GTB supplementation. Our results suggest that GTB may positively affect the growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation when supplemented as a feed additive in goat diet. PMID:25534643

  3. Basal nonselective cation permeability in rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Francesco; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Baruffi, Silvana; Spaggiari, Santina; Adams, David J; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco

    2002-09-01

    The presence of a basal nonselective cation permeability was mainly investigated in primary cultures of rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) by applying both the patch-clamp technique and Fura-2 microfluorimetry. With low EGTA in the pipette solution, the resting membrane potential of CMEC was -21.2 +/- 1.1 mV, and a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) conductance was present. When the intracellular Ca(2+) was buffered with high EGTA, the membrane potential decreased to 5.5 +/- 1.2 mV. In this condition, full or partial substitution of external Na(+) by NMDG(+) proportionally reduced the inward component of the basal I-V relationship. This current was dependent on extracellular monovalent cations with a permeability sequence of K(+) > Cs(+) > Na(+) > Li(+) and was inhibited by Ca(2+), La(3+), Gd(3+), and amiloride. The K(+)/Na(+) permeability ratio, determined using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation, was 2.01. The outward component of the basal I-V relationship was reduced when intracellular K(+) was replaced by NMDG(+), but was not sensitive to substitution by Cs(+). Finally, microfluorimetric experiments indicated the existence of a basal Ca(2+) entry pathway, inhibited by La(3+) and Gd(3+). The basal nonselective cation permeability in CMEC could be involved both in the control of myocardial ionic homeostasis, according to the model of the blood-heart barrier, and in the modulation of Ca(2+)-dependent processes. PMID:12204642

  4. Evaluation of steelmaking slag as basal media for coastal primary producers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro B; Yano, Hitomi; Koba, Kyohei; Katayama, Takahiro; Asaoka, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Nishijima, Wataru

    2015-11-15

    The use of granular steelmaking slag as a substitute for natural sand in the construction of tidal flats was investigated. Using an intertidal flat simulator, we evaluated dephosphorization slag mixed with 8% by dry weight of dredged sediment (DPS+DS) as a basal medium for the growth of benthic macro- and microalgae in comparison with silica sand mixed with 8% dredged sediment (SS+DS). Species compositions of macro- and microalgae were distinctly different between DPS+DS and SS+DS. The mean dry weight of macroalgae on DPS+DS was three orders of magnitude higher than that on SS+DS. Sediment shear strength and pH were higher in DPS+DS than in SS+DS or in the sediment of natural tidal flats. These results suggest that DPS contributes to changing the sediment environment, thereby changing the algal composition compared to the composition on natural tidal flats. PMID:26362456

  5. GLIAL CELL SIGNALING. Circuit-specific signaling in astrocyte-neuron networks in basal ganglia pathways.

    PubMed

    Martín, R; Bajo-Grañeras, R; Moratalla, R; Perea, G; Araque, A

    2015-08-14

    Astrocytes are important regulatory elements in brain function. They respond to neurotransmitters and release gliotransmitters that modulate synaptic transmission. However, the cell- and synapse-specificity of the functional relationship between astrocytes and neurons in certain brain circuits remains unknown. In the dorsal striatum, which mainly comprises two intermingled subtypes (striatonigral and striatopallidal) of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and synapses belonging to two neural circuits (the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia), subpopulations of astrocytes selectively responded to specific MSN subtype activity. These subpopulations of astrocytes released glutamate that selectively activated N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in homotypic, but not heterotypic, MSNs. Likewise, astrocyte subpopulations selectively regulated homotypic synapses through metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. Therefore, bidirectional astrocyte-neuron signaling selectively occurs between specific subpopulations of astrocytes, neurons, and synapses. PMID:26273054

  6. Toward sophisticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: Review on basal ganglia deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K; Gibson, William S J; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H; Blaha, Charles D

    2015-11-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  7. Azo pigments and a basal cell carcinoma at the thumb.

    PubMed

    Engel, Eva; Ulrich, Heidi; Vasold, Rudolf; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Süttinger, Rudolf; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of the skin, whereas the localization at the nail unit is very rare. We report the case of a 58-year-old patient with a periungual basal cell carcinoma at the thumb. The specific feature of the reported case is the frequent exposure to fishing baits that the patient had stained with an unknown colorant. The use of chromatography, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy revealed the colorant as the azo pigment Solvent Red 8. Solvent Red 8 is a widespread synthetic azo pigment that is applied to stain consumer products. Compounds such as Solvent Red 8 can be cleaved to carcinogenic amines under, for example, light exposure, in particular after incorporation into the human body. As a result of the frequent skin contact to this azo pigment, this hazard compound might have induced the basal cell carcinoma in our patient. PMID:18032904

  8. Neurotransmitters in the human and nonhuman primate basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Haber, S N

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, a number of new molecules, particularly peptides, have been identified as putative neurotransmitters. The basal ganglia, is especially rich in a number of classical transmitter molecules, amino acids and neuropeptides considered to function in neurotransmission. These include: the well-described terminal fields in the striatum which originate from the brain stem and contain the monoamines, dopamine and serotonin; amino acid containing axons projecting from the cortex and thalamus; striatal cholinergic and peptide-positive interneurons; and amino acid and peptide containing projection neurons to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Two amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are considered to provide excitatory input to the striatum while gamma aminobutyric acid is thought to mediate inhibitory output. Neuropeptides which are richly concentrated in the basal ganglia include, enkephalin, dynorphin, substance P, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and cholincystokinease. Changes in many of these peptide levels have recently been associated with a number of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:2876974

  9. Immunohistochemical study of basal cell adenoma in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hamano, H; Abiko, Y; Hashimoto, S; Inoue, T; Shimono, M; Takagi, T; Noma, H

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland was studied with immunohistochemical methods. We observed cells in the tumor with positive reaction to polyclonal keratin, prekeratin, monoclonal PKK-1, polyclonal S-100 protein, monoclonal S-100 protein (alpha), secretory component, actin and laminin. However, no cells which stained positively with monoclonal KL-1, amylase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or epithelial membrane antigen were recognized. From these immunohistochemical results and our ultrastructural observations reported previously, we conclude that the cells constituting the basal cell adenoma are ductal, myoepithelial, and squamous cells but not secretory ones. It is also suggested that the origins of basal cell ademona as well as those of pleomorphic and clear cell adenoma are undifferentiated cells of intercalated duct. PMID:2133439

  10. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

  11. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  12. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E. (Danville, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  13. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you can’t get her to eat more iron-rich foods, consult your pediatrician about adding an iron supplement ... and keep offering her a wide variety of iron-rich foods so that, eventually, supplementation won’t be necessary. ...

  14. Current Biology Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Stearns, Tim

    Current Biology Supplemental Information Zeta-Tubulin Is a Member of a Conserved Tubulin Module Sedzinski, John B. Wallingford, and Tim Stearns #12;Supplemental Figures: Figure S1. Zeta-tubulin) Zeta-tubulin is expressed in adult tissues of X. tropicalis, with highest expression in the testis

  15. MSEIP Documentation Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    The Midwestern States Educational Information Project's "MSEIP Documentation Supplement" is a companion publication to "MSEIP Documentation of Project Development and General System Design; Revised, June 1969." (LI 003275). The supplement starts with an overview of the MSEIP Data Control System which explains many of the techniques used in the…

  16. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Basal breast cancers (BCs) represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES). Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS) in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73). This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518) sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test). Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation. PMID:21777462

  17. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498

  18. Isolation of basal and mucous cell populations from rabbit trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, B.S.; Kennedy, J.R.; Nicosia, S.V.

    1981-12-01

    The application of a unit gravity sedimentation procedure to monodispersed rabbit tracheal cells resulted in the isolation of enriched (2-fold to 2.5-fold) basal and mucous cell populations. Cellular integrity was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion index of 93%, (3H) leucine incorporation, and ultrastructural analysis. Unit gravity sedimentation is an affective and rapid procedure for obtaining viable, homogeneous preparations of basal and mucous cells that may be used for in vitro studies of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and glycoprotein biosynthesis in respiratory mucous epithelia.

  19. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  20. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3. PMID:23484024

  1. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24?mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10?mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  2. Sano, et al. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION I. Supplemental Materials and Methods

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Sano, et al. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION I. Supplemental Materials and Methods Cell Lines-1 HeLa cells) or RPMI (H322M cells) supplemented with 10% tetracycline­ free FBS, penicillin (100 UI% CO2. For DT40 cells we used RPMI supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% chicken serum. To induce BI-1

  3. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-nine first parity sows (BW of 197.7 ± 2.5 kg and BF of 14.87 ± 0.21 mm) were used in this study. On d 60 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assigned to one of two dietary treatments which consisted of either a corn-soy meal basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% Fertilium™ (Uni...

  4. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Hoonakker, Amanda H.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters presynaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the postsynaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and postsynaptic D1-like and D2-like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1-like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1-like and D2-like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption. PMID:24678634

  5. The Basal Ganglia Mahlon R. DeLong

    E-print Network

    Ulanovsky, Nachum

    the pyramidal system. Because they are so common, disorders of the basal ganglia have always been important in clinical neurology. Parkinson disease was the first disease of the nervous system to be identified of which play a major role in normal voluntary movement. Unlike most other components of the motor system

  6. Multidimensional Sequence Learning in Patients with Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, J.C.; Aparicio, P.; Ivry, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's patients have been found to be impaired in learning movement sequences. In the current study, patients with unilateral basal ganglia lesions due to stroke were tested on a serial reaction time task in which responses were based on the spatial location of each stimulus. The spatial locations either followed a fixed sequence or were…

  7. Bilateral large traumatic hemorrhage of the basal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nityanand; Mahapatra, Ashok; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed is extremely rare. It is defined as a hemorrhagic lesion located in the basal ganglia or neighboring structures such as the internal capsule and the thalamus. This report describes a 37-year-old man who had large bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) with subdural hematoma and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. With regards to an etiology of bilateral hemorrhage of the basal ganglia, we could not disclose any possible cause except head injury in spite of full diagnostic work-up. Our final diagnosis was bilateral traumatic BGH (TBGH). The pathomechanism of such injuries is still not clear and it is proposed to be due to shear injury to the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. Rather than any features of the TBGH itself, duration of coma and/or associated temporal herniation predicted slower recovery and worse outcome. Bilateral TBGH is an extremely rare entity, compatible with a favorable recovery, if not associated with damage to other cortical and subcortical structures and occurring in isolation. TBGH can be considered as a marker of poor outcome rather than its cause. The BGHs seem to be hemorrhagic contusions resulting from a shearing injury, due to high velocity impact. PMID:25685230

  8. Basal melt rates beneath Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Beem, Lucas H.; Jezek, Ken C.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.

    2010-08-05

    . Downstream of the onset of shear crevasses, strong basal melt (20–50 mm a?1) is concentrated beneath the relatively narrow shear margins. Farther upstream, melt rates are consistently 3–7 mm a?1 across the width of the ice stream. We show that the transition...

  9. Repeatability of basal metabolism in breeding female kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    of more than one day. Keywords: adaptive evolution; endotherms; metabolic rate; repeatability 1 metabolism of a resting, post-absorptive, endothermic organism which involves no thermoregulatory costsRepeatability of basal metabolism in breeding female kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla Claus Bech1

  10. The role of the basal ganglia in reinforcement learning

    E-print Network

    (positive surprise). This signal is in accordance with a reinforcement error signal. However, the low tonicThe role of the basal ganglia in reinforcement learning Thesis submitted for the degree of "Doctor ............................................. 4 I. Formalism of the reinforcement learning problem ..................................... 4 II

  11. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    E-print Network

    of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP such as psychosis. Neuroimaging studies, including those that directly compare BP and SCZ, indicate both overlapping elucidate underlying mechanisms of psychosis when these BP subgroups are compared with SCZ. However, studies

  12. Complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system modulates neuronal excitability and vascular tone throughout the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. This system is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and drug treatment to enhance cholinergic signaling is widely used as symptomatic therapy in AD. Defining the full morphologies of individual basal forebrain cholinergic neurons has, until now, been technically beyond reach due to their large axon arbor sizes. Using genetically-directed sparse labeling, we have characterized the complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse. Individual arbors were observed to span multiple cortical columns, and to have >1000 branch points and total axon lengths up to 50 cm. In an AD model, cholinergic axons were slowly lost and there was an accumulation of axon-derived material in discrete puncta. Calculations based on published morphometric data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in humans have a mean axon length of ?100 meters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02444.001 PMID:24894464

  13. CREB expression mediates amyloid ?-induced basal BDNF downregulation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elyse; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    In Alzheimer's disease, accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) is associated with loss of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapses, and memory. Previous work demonstrated that A? decreases activity-induced BDNF transcription by regulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. However, the specific mechanism by which A? reduces basal BDNF expression remains unclear. Differentiated, unstimulated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells treated with oligomeric A? exhibited significantly reduced CREB messenger RNA compared with controls. Phosphorylated and total CREB proteins were decreased in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of A?-treated cells. However, neither pCREB129 nor pCREB133 levels were altered relative to total CREB levels. The protein kinase A activator forskolin increased pCREB133 levels and prevented A?-induced basal BDNF loss when administered before A? but did not rescue BDNF expression when administered later. These data demonstrate a new mechanism for A?-induced BDNF downregulation: in the absence of cell stimulation, A? downregulates basal BDNF levels via A?-induced CREB transcriptional downregulation, not changes in CREB phosphorylation. Thus, A? reduces basal and activity-induced BDNF expression by different mechanisms. PMID:26025137

  14. Basal Dynamics of p53 Reveal Transcriptionally Attenuated Pulses

    E-print Network

    Lahav, Galit

    Basal Dynamics of p53 Reveal Transcriptionally Attenuated Pulses in Cycling Cells Alexander Loewer.05.031 SUMMARY The tumor suppressor p53 is activated by stress and leads to cellular outcomes such as apoptosis- cycle arrest or apoptosis may be unfavorable. How does the p53 pathway achieve the right balance between

  15. Amorphous Medium Language

    E-print Network

    Beal, Jacob

    Programming reliable behavior on a large mesh network composed of unreliable parts is difficult. Amorphous Medium Language addresses this problem by abstracting robustness and networking issues away from the programmer via ...

  16. Cell adhesion molecule contactin-associated protein 3 is expressed in the mouse basal ganglia during early postnatal stages.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Haruna; Umemori, Juzoh; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Koide, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Kazutada; Shimoda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules play important roles in the development of the nervous system. Among the contactin-associated protein (Caspr; also known as Cntnap) family, which belongs to the neurexin superfamily of proteins, Caspr and Caspr2 are indispensable for the formation and maintenance of myelinated nerves. In contrast, a physiological role for Caspr3 remains to be elucidated. This study examines the expression and localization of Caspr3 in the mouse brain using newly generated Caspr3 antibodies. Caspr3 was expressed abundantly between the first and the second postnatal weeks. During this period, Caspr3 was localized especially to the basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, and substantia nigra, and no gross abnormalities were apparent in the basal ganglia of Caspr3 knockout mice. In the striatum, Caspr3 was expressed by a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons that constitute the direct and indirect pathways. Caspr3 immunostaining was observed as punctate around the cell bodies as well as in the soma. These Caspr3 signals did not, however, overlap with those of synaptic markers. Our findings suggest that Caspr3 may play an important role in basal ganglia development during early postnatal stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26389685

  17. Eastern Olympus Mons Basal Scarp: Potential for active slope mobilization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, M. B.; McGovern, P. J.; Fournier, T.; Katz, O.; Morgan, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    The volcanic edifice of Olympus Mons is surrounded by presumed mass-movement landforms known as the aureole deposits. It has been suggested that the aureole deposits are the result of a catastrophic failure of the volcanic edifice. Tantalizingly, a topographic examination of the Eastern flank of Olympus Mons suggests that a large failure may have been captured. The flank exhibits a ~ 80 km near-continuous extensional fracture, bounded on either side by radial tear faults, that cut both the scarp face, and the more recent lava flows that have modified the basal scarp. Observed along fault offsets are on the order of 100 m. A compressional toe, parallel and downslope to the extensional fracture, may be linked and the result of downslope movement of the flank. If so, then a significant portion of the outer edge of the Eastern basal scarp may define a coherent zone of slope instability, or failure. Using digital elevation models derived from HRSC data, several transects along the basal scarp slope face are analyzed to better understand and quantify the stability of each section of the eastern slope, and examine potential failure conditions and mechanisms. Slope stability analysis is used to determine the likelihood of the Eastern basal scarp experiencing a catastrophic failure along the entire fault trace. This result may indicate an active failure process that can lead to an aureole type deposit. If this failure were to occur, a simple case of a curvilinear slip surface connecting the up-slope extensional and down-slope compressional fault traces produces an estimate for the potential mobile landslide volume on the order of 1000 cubic km, or ~ 5-10% of the volume previously estimated for the aureole lobe off of the east flank of Olympus Mons. Preliminary results from topography show that numerous smaller-scale localized slope failures that are emplaced upon young lava flows have occurred along this section of the basal scarp, suggesting significant instability and a strong potential for failure.

  18. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000?gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321?±?144?gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454?±?174?gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

  19. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

  20. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  1. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  2. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dietary Supplements Hoodia Horse Chestnut I Iodine Iron K Kava Vitamin K L Lavender Licorice Root M Magnesium Melatonin Milk ... B6 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K W Weight Loss Y Yohimbe Z Zinc Share ...

  3. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals (Endocrine Practice) [945KB PDF] Probiotics and Children (Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition) [ ... Two Studies Explore the Potential Health Benefits of Probiotics (07/04/08) Traditional Chinese Herbs May Benefit ...

  4. USP Verified Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... amounts Does not contain harmful levels of specified contaminants Is made according to FDA and USP Good ... market. Misleading health claims, potentially harmful levels of contaminants, and supplement mislabeling challenge consumer trust. The USP ...

  5. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  6. NCI Diversity Supplements Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    This document applies to applications requesting research supplement funding to active National Cancer Institute (NCI) grants in response to PA-15-322. The purpose is to clarify the application process and highlight NCI-specific requirements.

  7. Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows 

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Stephen P.; Gill, Ronald J.

    2000-05-03

    &M University System. L-5354 4-00 A Forage Quality. Poor quality forage has less than 6 percent to 7 percent crude protein (CP) and is low in digestibility, with less than 50 percent total digestible nutrients (TDN). These deficiencies limit the amount... of such forage that an animal can eat. Because both consumption and nutrient content of poor quality forage are low, supplemental needs are high. Medium quality forage (7 percent to 11 per- cent CP, 50 percent to 57 percent TDN) eliminates or significantly...

  8. The Effects of Phosphatidylserine and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Supplement on Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Teruhisa

    2015-01-01

    Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS) may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17) and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. PMID:26266022

  9. Basal forebrain neuronal inhibition enables rapid behavioral stopping.

    PubMed

    Mayse, Jeffrey D; Nelson, Geoffrey M; Avila, Irene; Gallagher, Michela; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive inhibitory control, the ability to rapidly suppress responses inappropriate for the context, is essential for flexible and adaptive behavior. Although most studies on inhibitory control have focused on the fronto-basal-ganglia circuit, we found that rapid behavioral stopping is enabled by neuronal inhibition in the basal forebrain (BF). In rats performing the stop signal task, putative noncholinergic BF neurons with phasic bursting responses to the go signal were nearly completely inhibited by the stop signal. The onset of BF neuronal inhibition was tightly coupled with and temporally preceded the latency to stop, the stop signal reaction time. Artificial inhibition of BF activity in the absence of the stop signal was sufficient to reproduce rapid behavioral stopping. These results reveal a previously unknown subcortical mechanism of rapid inhibitory control by the BF, which provides bidirectional control over the speed of response generation and inhibition. PMID:26368943

  10. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vezhavendan, N; Shabana, F; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Arunakiry, N

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  11. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Vezhavendan, N.; Shabana, F.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Arunakiry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  12. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  13. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  14. [Surgical vs nonsurgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Aguayo-Leiva, I R; Ríos-Buceta, L; Jaén-Olasolo, P

    2010-10-01

    Numerous therapeutic options are now available for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, few randomized controlled trials with 5-year follow-up have compared the effectiveness of the different treatments. Such a comparison is difficult, probably because efficacy depends on several factors: those related to the tumor, the patient, the technique, and the dermatologist's experience. We first describe the available therapeutic options, including certain innovative treatments. We have divided them into 2 main groups-surgical and nonsurgical-and focus on the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of each one, as well as on the cure and recurrence rates. Then, based on the evidence reviewed, we attempt to provide an outline of the therapeutic strategies recommended in basal cell carcinoma, and the approach to be used in specific situations. We also describe our own experience. PMID:20965011

  15. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  16. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate.

    PubMed

    Petros, Timothy J; Bultje, Ronald S; Ross, M Elizabeth; Fishell, Gord; Anderson, Stewart A

    2015-11-10

    Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination. PMID:26526999

  17. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or "Fahr's disease," is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  18. Early-onset acral basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, A; Vicente, A; Navarro, L; Planaguma, M; Bueno, E; González-Sarmiento, R; Hernández-Martín, A; Noguera-Morel, L; Requena, L; Colmenero, I; Parareda, A; González-Enseñat, M A; Happle, R

    2014-11-01

    Two patients are reported in whom early-onset, distal papules with a histopathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma were the first manifestation of Gorlin syndrome (GS). These lesions showed no progression and remained stable through follow-up. Two different PTCH1 gene mutations were detected in the two patients, and thus a phenotype-genotype correlation of this manifestation of GS was not possible. PMID:24837096

  19. Molecular biology of basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Emmert, Steffen; Schön, Michael P; Haenssle, Holger A

    2014-01-01

    The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Both so called nonmelanoma skin cancers comprise the most common cancers in humans by far. Common risk factors for both tumor entities include sun-exposure, DNA repair deficiencies leading to chromosomal instability, or immunosuppression. Yet, fundamental differences in the development of the two different entities have been and are currently unveiled. The constitutive activation of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway by acquired mutations in the PTCH and SMO genes appears to represent the early basal cell carcinoma developmental determinant. Although other signaling pathways are also affected, small hedgehog inhibitory molecules evolve as the most promising basal cell carcinoma treatment options systemically as well as topically in current clinical trials. For squamous cell carcinoma development mutations in the p53 gene, especially UV-induced mutations, have been identified as early events. Yet, other signaling pathways including epidermal growth factor receptor, RAS, Fyn, or p16INK4a signaling may play significant roles in squamous cell carcinoma development. The improved understanding of the molecular events leading to different tumor entities by de-differentiation of the same cell type have begun to pave the way for modulating new molecular targets therapeutically with small molecules. PMID:25207369

  20. Ancestral Vascular Lumen Formation via Basal Cell Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ku?era, Tomáš; Strili?, Boris; Regener, Kathrin; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent; Lammert, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of bilaterians developed from a common ancestor. However, no endothelial cells exist in invertebrates demonstrating that primitive cardiovascular tubes do not require this vertebrate-specific cell type in order to form. This raises the question of how cardiovascular tubes form in invertebrates? Here we discovered that in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus, the basement membranes of endoderm and mesoderm line the lumen of the major vessels, namely aorta and heart. During amphioxus development a laminin-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) was found to fill the space between the basal cell surfaces of endoderm and mesoderm along their anterior-posterior (A-P) axes. Blood cells appear in this ECM-filled tubular space, coincident with the development of a vascular lumen. To get insight into the underlying cellular mechanism, we induced vessels in vitro with a cell polarity similar to the vessels of amphioxus. We show that basal cell surfaces can form a vascular lumen filled with ECM, and that phagocytotic blood cells can clear this luminal ECM to generate a patent vascular lumen. Therefore, our experiments suggest a mechanism of blood vessel formation via basal cell surfaces in amphioxus and possibly in other invertebrates that do not have any endothelial cells. In addition, a comparison between amphioxus and mouse shows that endothelial cells physically separate the basement membranes from the vascular lumen, suggesting that endothelial cells create cardiovascular tubes with a cell polarity of epithelial tubes in vertebrates and mammals. PMID:19125185

  1. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    PubMed Central

    N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

  2. Structural Findings in the Basal Ganglia in Genetically Determined and Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Gaser, Christian

    Structural Findings in the Basal Ganglia in Genetically Determined and Idiopathic Parkinson likely have an increased risk to develop Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized BG morphological Key words: basal ganglia; magnetic resonance imaging; Parkinson's disease; Parkin mutation carriers

  3. The Basal Onaping Intrusion — The Missing Roof Rocks of the Sudbury Igneous Complex?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, D.; Osinski, G. R.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    2015-09-01

    The Basal Onaping Intrusion is currently considered part of the Onaping Formation. This study provides petrographic and geochemical evidence that the Basal Onaping Intrusion are the roof rocks of the Sudbury Igneous Complex.

  4. Changes in basal ganglia processing of cortical input following magnetic stimulation in Parkinsonism

    E-print Network

    Bar-Gad, Izhar

    Changes in basal ganglia processing of cortical input following magnetic stimulation Available online 31 July 2012 Keywords: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Parkinson's disease Primate Basal ganglia Motor cortex Parkinsonism is associated with major changes in neuronal activity throughout

  5. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in research and treatment of basal and squamous ... become cancerous. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  6. The role of basal ganglia-forebrain circuitry in the vocal learning of songbirds

    E-print Network

    Andalman, Aaron Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The basal ganglia form the largest sub-cortical structure in the human brain and are implicated in numerous human diseases. In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and ...

  7. Stimulating basal mitochondrial respiration decreases doxorubicin apoptotic signaling in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Deus, Cláudia M; Zehowski, Cheryl; Nordgren, Kendra; Wallace, Kendall B; Skildum, Andrew; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-08-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is currently used in cancer chemotherapy, however, its use often results in adverse effects highlighted by the development of cardiomyopathy and ultimately heart failure. Interestingly, DOX cardiotoxicity is decreased by resveratrol or by physical activity, suggesting that increased mitochondrial activity may be protective. Conversely, recent studies showed that troglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, increases the cytotoxicity of DOX against breast cancer cells by up-regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. The hypothesis for the current investigation was that DOX cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts is decreased when mitochondrial capacity is increased. We focused on several end-points for DOX cytotoxicity, including loss of cell mass, apoptotic signaling and alterations of autophagic-related proteins. Our results show that a galactose-based, modified cell culture medium increased H9c2 basal mitochondrial respiration, protein content, and mtDNA copy number without increasing maximal or spare respiratory capacity. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts cultured in the galactose-modified media showed lower DOX-induced activation of the apoptotic pathway, measured by decreased caspase-3 and -9 activation, and lower p53 expression, although ultimately loss of cells was not prevented. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist troglitazone had no effect on DOX toxicity in this cardiac cell line, which agrees with the fact that troglitazone did not increase mitochondrial DNA content or capacity at the concentrations and duration of exposure used in this investigation. Our results show that mitochondrial remodeling caused by stimulating basal rates of oxidative phosphorylation decreased DOX-induced apoptotic signaling and increased DOX-induced autophagy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The differential effect on cytotoxicity in cardiac versus breast cancer cell lines suggests a possible overall improvement in the clinical efficacy for doxorubicin in treating cancer. PMID:25997894

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Gorlin’s Patients: a Matter of Fibroblasts-Led Protumoral Microenvironment?

    PubMed Central

    Gache, Yannick; Brellier, Florence; Rouanet, Sophie; Al-Qaraghuli, Sahar; Goncalves-Maia, Maria; Burty-Valin, Elodie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Scarzello, Sabine; Ruat, Martial; Sevenet, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest tumor in human. About 70% sporadic BCCs bear somatic mutations in the PATCHED1 tumor suppressor gene which encodes the receptor for the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen (SHH). PATCHED1 germinal mutations are associated with the dominant Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), a major hallmark of which is a high susceptibility to BCCs. Although the vast majority of sporadic BCCs arises exclusively in sun exposed skin areas, 40 to 50% BCCs from NBCCS patients develop in non photo-exposed skin. Since overwhelming evidences indicate that microenvironment may both be modified by- and influence the- epithelial tumor, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could contribute to BCCs in NBCCS patients, notably those developing in non photo-exposed skin areas. The functional impact of NBCCS fibroblasts was then assessed in organotypic skin cultures with control keratinocytes. Onset of epidermal differentiation was delayed in the presence of primary NBCCS fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, keratinocyte proliferation was severely reduced and showed high levels of nuclear P53 in both organotypic skin cultures and in fibroblast-led conditioning experiments. However, in spite of increased levels of senescence associated ?-galactosidase activity in keratinocytes cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by NBCCS fibroblasts, we failed to observe activation of P16 and P21 and then of bona fide features of senescence. Constitutive extinction of P53 in WT keratinocytes resulted in an invasive phenotype in the presence of NBCCS fibroblasts. Finally, we found that expression of SHH was limited to fibroblasts but was dependent on the presence of keratinocytes. Inhibition of SHH binding resulted in improved epidermal morphogenesis. Altogether, these data suggest that the repertoire of diffusible factors (including SHH) expressed by primary NBCCS fibroblasts generate a stress affecting keratinocytes behavior and epidermal homeostasis. Our findings suggest that defects in dermo/epidermal interactions could contribute to BCC susceptibility in NBCCS patients. PMID:26694869

  9. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  10. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  11. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24?cm by 15.24?cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris?flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4?year monitoring period, 11 debris?flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64?mm. The basal force during these erosive debris?flow events had a large?magnitude (up to 21?kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time?averaged mean force), high?frequency (greater than 1?Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time?averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~?20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time?averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~?5?cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse?grained granular surges and water?rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite differences in appearance and bulk?flow density. These results demonstrate that debris flows can have strong control on rates of steepland evolution and contribute to a foundation needed for modeling debris?flow incision stochastically.

  12. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  13. Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians Kim L. Hoke the existence of a homologue of the mam- malian substantia nigra­basal ganglia circuit in the amphibian brain proposed that homologous basal ganglia circuits may exist in both amphibians and mammals (reviewed

  14. AGE-RELATED ATTENUATION OF STIMULATED CORTICAL ACETYLCHOLINE RELEASE IN BASAL FOREBRAIN-LESIONED

    E-print Network

    Bruno, John P.

    AGE-RELATED ATTENUATION OF STIMULATED CORTICAL ACETYLCHOLINE RELEASE IN BASAL FOREBRAIN into the ventral pallidum/substantia innominata region of the basal forebrain. The lesion produced comparable (65, microdialysis, 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin, basal forebrain. Normal human ageing and dementia are associated

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHEMOARCHITECTURE OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN: SPATIALLY SPECIFIC ASSOCIATION OF CHOLINERGIC

    E-print Network

    Zaborszky, Laszlo

    THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHEMOARCHITECTURE OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN: SPATIALLY SPECIFIC ASSOCIATION Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA Abstract--The basal forebrain refers to heterogeneous struc in Alzheimer's and related neurodegenera- tive diseases. The basal forebrain does not display any cyto

  16. C H A P T E R The Basal Forebrain Cholinergic

    E-print Network

    Zaborszky, Laszlo

    C H A P T E R 28 The Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Projection System in Mice Laszlo Zaborszkyy Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia O U T L I N E Introduction 684 Neuron Types in the Basal Forebrain 686 in the `Cytoarchitectonic Space' of the Basal Forebrain 690 Efferent, Afferent, Intrinsic Connections and Organization 690

  17. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32 (2008) 219236 Basal ganglia and dopamine contributions

    E-print Network

    Gluck, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32 (2008) 219­236 Review Basal ganglia and dopamine, indicating a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in reward prediction and feedback studies of basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to learning in humans. Collectively, these studies

  18. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ma huang) is a plant that’s native to China. It contains substances that stimulate your nervous system, ... Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand( s) of dietary supplements should I purchase? For information ...

  19. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ...

  20. Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Soloveichik, David

    (Invitrogen) supplemented with penicillin, streptomycin and glutamine at 37 C with 5% CO2 in a humidified, cells were starved over- night in DMEM supplemented with glutamine, penicillin, streptomycin, and 20 m

  1. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair ...

  2. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so ...

  3. GlutaMAX prolongs the shelf life of the culture medium for porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2016-02-01

    In vitro porcine embryo production systems have been established and well characterized. However, the efficiency of embryo development during IVC is still very low. In the present study, we have investigated the development of parthenogenetic porcine embryos in the well-known PZM-5 medium for porcine embryos, which was modified by replacing glutamine with the GlutaMAX supplement. We revealed that blastocyst apoptosis was significantly lower in the presence of GlutaMAX, which reduced the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Furthermore, the expression of apoptosis genes was significantly lower during GlutaMAX treatment (P < 0.05). The modified medium was also examined for the eventual loss of its efficacy in the presence of GlutaMAX. Three, 6, and 12 months after medium preparation, blastocyst formation in the GlutaMAX-supplemented medium was significantly higher than the number of blastocysts in the medium containing glutamine. After a long period of storage, ammonia concentration was significantly increased in the glutamine medium, whereas it was not statistically different in the GlutaMAX medium. Elevated ammonia concentrations reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content of blastocysts in the glutamine medium. These results demonstrate that GlutaMAX can reduce blastocyst apoptosis via inhibition of the cytochrome c pathway and significantly extend the shelf life of the culture medium to at least 1 year. PMID:26462658

  4. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  5. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  6. Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus

    E-print Network

    Wilkerson, Clarence

    4.1B Rotations and the Sunshine Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.1C The Principle of Least on the Sunshine formula (see §4.1C of this internet supplement), see http in writing the supplement on the sunshine formula (see the supplement to Chapter 4) and for making a variety

  7. Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus

    E-print Network

    Hulshof, Joost

    Rotations and the Sunshine Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.1C The Principle of Least Action on the Sunshine formula (see §4.1C of this internet supplement), see http in writing the supplement on the sunshine formula (see the supplement to Chapter 4) and for making a variety

  8. Calcium Supplements and Kidney Health

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Calcium_Supplements_101415.html Calcium Supplements and Kidney Health HealthDay News Video - October 15, 2015 To use ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Calcium Dietary Supplements Kidney Stones About MedlinePlus ...

  9. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set developed here provides conclusive support for odonates as the most basal winged insect order (Chiastomyaria hypothesis). Data quality assessment indicates that proteins involved in cellular processes and signaling harbor the most informative phylogenetic signal. PMID:19713325

  10. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  11. Basal plane dislocation-free epitaxy of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Sudarshan, T. S.

    2005-10-01

    Molten KOH etching was implemented on SiC substrates before growing epilayers on them. It was found that the creation of basal plane dislocation (BPD) etch pits on the substrates can greatly enhance the conversion of BPDs to threading edge dislocations during epitaxy, and thus low BPD density and BPD-free SiC epilayers are obtained by this method. The reason why BPD etch pits can promote the earlier conversion is discussed. The SiC epilayer growth by this method is very promising in overcoming forward voltage drop degradation of SiC PiN diodes.

  12. [Plexiform neurofibroma and basal ganglia anomaly in Watson syndrome].

    PubMed

    Weber, P; Kotthoff, S; Schuierer, G; Kurlemann, G

    1999-01-01

    A 4 year-old boy was referred for diagnostic reevaluation with known pulmonary valve stenosis. Physical examination revealed multiple cafe-au-lait spots, inguinal freckling and on the right side in supraclavicular region a softly, non-painful tumour. The boy showed a mild mental and language retardation. Ultrasound and MRT demonstrated supraclavicular a plexiform neurofibroma and intracranial increased intensity lesions in basal ganglia and mesencephalon. In our patient, we have diagnosed a Watson-Syndrome, the overlap and differences to neurofibromatosis type I is discussed. PMID:10412128

  13. Structure and motion of basal dislocations in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenau, A. T.; Fall, C. J.; Jones, R.; Öberg, S.; Frauenheim, T.; Briddon, P. R.

    2003-11-01

    30° and 90° Shockley partial dislocations lying in {111} and basal planes of cubic and hexagonal silicon carbide, respectively, are investigated theoretically. Density-functional-based tight-binding total-energy calculations are used to determine the core structure and energetics of the dislocations. In a second step their electronic structure is investigated using a pseudopotential method with a Gaussian basis set. Finally, the thermal activation barriers to glide motion of 30° and 90° Shockley partials are calculated in terms of a process involving the formation and migration of kinks along the dislocation line. The mechanism for enhanced dislocation movement observed under current injection conditions in bipolar silicon carbide devices is discussed.

  14. Failure of vismodegib in advanced Basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hansel, G; Tchernev, G; Chokoeva, A A; Lotti, T; Schönlebe, J; Wollina, U

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of mankind. For locally advanced and metastatic BCC treatment options are limited. Recently, the first hedgehog signal pathway inhibitor, vismodegib, has been approved for such tumors. Although high response rates have been reported for spontaneous BCC and Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, some tumors do not respond primarily or secondarily. We report about a 38-year-old female patient with a large multicentric BCC of temple with primary chemoresistance of the tumor. We discuss possible mechanism and other limitations of vismodegib in BCC. PMID:26016959

  15. Magnetocrystalline and magnetoelastic basal plane anisotropies in Ho / Lu superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, L.; Arnaudas, J. I.; Ciria, M.; de La Fuente, C.; Del Moral, A.; Ward, R. C. C.; Wells, M. R.

    2004-08-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the effective magnetic anisotropy constant in the basal plane of the hcp structure (K66,eff) of Ho/Lu superlattices. High-sensitivity vibration sample vector magnetometry was used to obtain the magnetic torque curves from which K66,eff was determined. It is shown, in the framework of the single-ion theory, the paramount role of the magnetoelastic contribution to K66,eff through both the magnetostrictive and epitaxial strains. The presence of epitaxial strain gives rise to a magnetoelastic contribution that reduces the strength of K66,eff .

  16. Taking iron supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taking a vitamin C supplement or drinking orange juice with your iron pill. This can help the iron absorb into your body. Drinking 8 ounces of fluid with an iron pill is also okay. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you are ...

  17. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  18. Developmental Cell Supplemental Data

    E-print Network

    Bartel, David

    ::gfp plus ajm-1::gfp which mark seam cell nuclei and cell borders, respectively (a gift from M. Maduro and J1 Developmental Cell Supplemental Data Li et al. Regulatory mutations of mir-48, a C. elegans let-7/hbl-1 controls developmental time and is regulated by microRNAs. Dev Cell 4, 625-637. Mello, C. C

  19. Supplemental Information spacer spacer

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    Supplemental Information cas9 repeat spacer spacer dsDNA Transcription DNA scanning CRISPRcas1 cas2RNA) and the host RNase III. After cleavage, one single protein, Cas9, recognizes and binds to the cleaved form of the crRNA. Cas9 guides crRNA to DNA and scans the DNA molecule. The complex is stabilized by basepairing

  20. Supporting Information Supplement 1

    E-print Network

    Kondic, Lou

    fidelity present in the slice edges following the metal lift off step limited the maximum thin filmSupporting Information Supplement 1 The lithography and metallization methods used constrain/width) for the initial varicose slices was limited to relatively small h/w ratios. It is also important to note

  1. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  2. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  3. Basal body proteins regulate Notch signaling through endosomal trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Carmen C.; Lodh, Sukanya; Prieto-Echagüe, Victoria; Badano, Jose L.; Zaghloul, Norann A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteins associated with primary cilia and basal bodies mediate numerous signaling pathways, but little is known about their role in Notch signaling. Here, we report that loss of the Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins BBS1 or BBS4 produces increased Notch-directed transcription in a zebrafish reporter line and in human cell lines. Pathway overactivation is accompanied by reduced localization of Notch receptor at both the plasma membrane and the cilium. In Drosophila mutants, overactivation of Notch can result from receptor accumulation in endosomes, and recent studies implicate ciliary proteins in endosomal trafficking, suggesting a possible mechanism by which overactivation occurs in BBS mutants. Consistent with this, we observe genetic interaction of BBS1 and BBS4 with the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) gene TSG101 and accumulation of receptor in late endosomes, reduced endosomal recycling and reduced receptor degradation in lysosomes. We observe similar defects with disruption of BBS3. Loss of another basal body protein, ALMS1, also enhances Notch activation and the accumulation of receptor in late endosomes, but does not disrupt recycling. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in the regulation of Notch through endosomal trafficking of the receptor. PMID:24681783

  4. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  5. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    E-print Network

    Kirsty Y. Wan; Raymond E. Goldstein

    2015-10-12

    In a great many of the contexts in which groups of cilia or flagella are found they exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in $Chlamydomonas$ flagella, and metachronal wave formation in the ciliary arrays of $Paramecium$ or in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga $Volvox$ has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. Moreover, when the flagellar power strokes are oriented in the same direction they synchronize in-phase, but when opposed they synchronize in antiphase. The situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. Specifically, the unicellular biflagellate $Chlamydomonas$ swims with opposing power strokes, yet synchronizes in phase in the familiar breaststroke. This indicates that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. Here we show that in comparison to the wildtype, markedly different synchronization states are found in $Chlamydomonas$ mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies. Quantitative studies of complex flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  6. Adenosine inhibits glutamatergic input to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hawryluk, J. M.; Ferrari, L. L.; Keating, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A1 receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated. PMID:22357797

  7. A basal stress parameterization for modeling landfast ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Jean-François; Tremblay, L. Bruno; Dupont, Frédéric; Plante, Mathieu; Smith, Gregory C.; Dumont, Dany

    2015-04-01

    Current large-scale sea ice models represent very crudely or are unable to simulate the formation, maintenance and decay of coastal landfast ice. We present a simple landfast ice parameterization representing the effect of grounded ice keels. This parameterization is based on bathymetry data and the mean ice thickness in a grid cell. It is easy to implement and can be used for two-thickness and multithickness category models. Two free parameters are used to determine the critical thickness required for large ice keels to reach the bottom and to calculate the basal stress associated with the weight of the ridge above hydrostatic balance. A sensitivity study was conducted and demonstrates that the parameter associated with the critical thickness has the largest influence on the simulated landfast ice area. A 6 year (2001-2007) simulation with a 20 km resolution sea ice model was performed. The simulated landfast ice areas for regions off the coast of Siberia and for the Beaufort Sea were calculated and compared with data from the National Ice Center. With optimal parameters, the basal stress parameterization leads to a slightly shorter landfast ice season but overall provides a realistic seasonal cycle of the landfast ice area in the East Siberian, Laptev and Beaufort Seas. However, in the Kara Sea, where ice arches between islands are key to the stability of the landfast ice, the parameterization consistently leads to an underestimation of the landfast area.

  8. Basal ganglia circuits for reward value-guided behavior.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Kim, Hyoung F; Yasuda, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are equipped with inhibitory and disinhibitory mechanisms that enable a subject to choose valuable objects and actions. Notably, a value can be determined flexibly by recent experience or stably by prolonged experience. Recent studies have revealed that the head and tail of the caudate nucleus selectively and differentially process flexible and stable values of visual objects. These signals are sent to the superior colliculus through different parts of the substantia nigra so that the animal looks preferentially at high-valued objects, but in different manners. Thus, relying on short-term value memories, the caudate head circuit allows the subject's gaze to move expectantly to recently valued objects. Relying on long-term value memories, the caudate tail circuit allows the subject's gaze to move automatically to previously valued objects. The basal ganglia also contain an equivalent parallel mechanism for action values. Such flexible-stable parallel mechanisms for object and action values create a highly adaptable system for decision making. PMID:25032497

  9. Basal shear stress of debris flow in the runout phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, V.; Bettella, F.; Cesca, M.

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory device is proposed to assess the basal shear stresses generated by debris-flow mixtures during their runout phase. The device consists of an inclinable box with a gate facing a deposition plane. The box is filled with a selected debris-flow mixture, and after sudden opening of the gate, the features of the dam-break deposit can be measured. Based on some simplified assumptions of the energy balance, a methodology is proposed to assess basal shear stresses. The device has been tested using sediment samples from debris-flow deposits generated by two catchments of the Dolomites (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Belluno, Italy) by carrying out runout tests for different sediment concentrations by volume. The results show how the static Coulomb friction law is valid in the runout phase, with friction angles on the order of the angle of repose of the same material in dry conditions. The data elaboration also yields an innovative constitutive equation for shear stresses. This relation merges the Coulomb mixture approach with the concept of a one-phase flow with a certain rheology. This integration offers a useful insight into the weaknesses of the rheological approach if it is not properly scaled up to the ambient pressure of interest.

  10. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Womer, Fay Y.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn; Smith, Matthew J.; Csernansky, John G.; Barch, Deanna; Mamah, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing the BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866

  11. Immunohistochemical characterization of basal cell adenomas of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Fujita, S; Okabe, H; Tsuda, N; Tezuka, F

    1991-03-01

    Seven cases of basal cell adenomas of the salivary gland were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods with a broad panel of routinely used antibodies. Histologically the epithelial elements were classified as tubuloglandular, trabecular and solid patterns. The authors' results indicated the following: 1) The duct lining cells of tubuloglandular and trabecular patterns have distinct epithelial features with cytokeratins (KL 1, PKK 1, *PKK 2 and PKK 3), alpha-one-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-ACT), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and S-100 alpha subunit positivity. 2) The basaloid cells in the trabecular and solid patterns expressed two immunophenotypes: one had actin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S-100 protein and S-100 beta subunit patterns typical of myoepithelial cells in normal glands. The other basaloid cells had vimentin and S-100 protein patterns. The former cell type could be found in 4 of 7 cases and the latter was found in 7 cases. This represents a minor participation of the myoepithelial cells in the basal cell adenoma. 3) The basement membrane and stromal connective tissue around the neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-one-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT). This antibody is a good marker in identifying the basement membrane-like material. PMID:2067993

  12. Ca(2+)-dependent heat production under basal and near-basal conditions in the mouse soleus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Chinet, A; Decrouy, A; Even, P C

    1992-01-01

    1. The rate of energy expended for the clearance of sarcoplasmic Ca2+ by sarcoreticular Ca2+ uptake process(es), plus the concomitant metabolic reactions, was evaluated from measurements of resting heat production by mouse soleus muscle before and after indirect inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). 2. Direct inhibition of the Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase of SR membrane in intact muscle preparations exposed to the specific inhibitor 2,5-di(tert-butyl-1,4-benzohydroquinone (tBuBHQ) slowly increased the rate of heat production (E). Indirect inhibition of SR Ca2+ uptake was obtained by reducing sarcoplasmic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i) as a consequence of reducing Ca2+ release from the SR using dantrolene sodium. This promptly decreased E by 12%. Exposure of the preparations to an Mg(2+)-enriched environment (high Mg2+) or to the chemical phosphatase 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), two other procedures aimed at decreasing SR Ca2+ release, also acutely decreased E, by 20 and 24%, respectively. 3. Subthreshold-for-contracture depolarization of the sarcolemma achieved by increasing extracellular K+ concentration to 11.8 mM induced a biphasic increase of E: an initial peak to 290% of basal E, followed by a plateau phase at 140% of basal E during which resting muscle tension was increased by less than 3%. Most, if not all, of the plateau-phase metabolic response was quickly suppressed by dantrolene or high Mg2+ or BDM. Another means of increasing SR Ca2+ cycling was to partially remove the calmodulin-dependent control of SR Ca2+ release using the calmodulin inhibitor W-7. The progressive increase in E with 30 microM-W-7 was largely reduced by dantrolene or high Mg2+ or BDM. 4. In the presence of either dantrolene or BDM to prevent the effect of W-7 on SR Ca2+ release, exposure of the muscle to W-7 acutely suppressed about 3% of E. This and the above results confirm that the plasmalemmal, calmodulin-dependent Ca(2+)-ATPase, although a qualitatively essential part of the Ca2+i homeostatic system of the cell, can only be responsible for a very minor part of the energy expenditure devoted to the homeostasis of Ca2+i. Active Ca2+ uptake by SR which, at least in the submicromolar range of Ca2+i, is expected to be responsible for most of this Ca(2+)-dependent energy expenditure, might dissipate up to 25-40% of total metabolic energy in the intact mouse soleus under basal and near-basal conditions. Images Fig. 3 PMID:1484367

  13. Sorting cells for basal and induced autophagic flux by quantitative ratiometric flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Jacob M; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We detail here a protocol using tandem-tagged mCherry-EGFP-LC3 (C-G-LC3) to quantify autophagic flux in single cells by ratiometric flow cytometry and to isolate subpopulations of cells based on their relative levels of autophagic flux. This robust and sensitive method measures autophagic flux rather than autophagosome number and is an important addition to the autophagy researcher’s array of tools for measuring autophagy. Two crucial steps in this protocol are i) generate cells constitutively expressing C-G-LC3 with low to medium fluorescence and low fluorescence variability, and ii) correctly set up gates and voltage/gain on a properly equipped flow cytometer. We have used this method to measure autophagic flux in a variety of cell types and experimental systems using many different autophagy stimuli. On a sorting flow cytometer, this technique can be used to isolate cells with different levels of basal autophagic flux, or cells with variable induction of flux in response to a given stimulus for further analysis or experimentation. We have also combined quantification of autophagic flux with methods to measure apoptosis and cell surface proteins, demonstrating the usefulness of this protocol in combination with other flow cytometry labels and markers. PMID:24915460

  14. The Local Interstellar Medium

    E-print Network

    R. Ferlet

    1999-03-17

    Substantial progress in the field of the Local Interstellar Medium has been largely due to recent launches of space missions, mostly in the UV and X-ray domains, but also to ground-based observations, mainly in high resolution spectroscopy. However, a clear gap seems to remain between the wealth of new data and the theoretical understanding. This paper gives an overview of some observational aspects, with no attempt of completeness or doing justice to all the people involved in the field. As progress rarely evolves in straight paths, we can expect that our present picture of the solar system surroundings is not definitive.

  15. Inferring basal plasticity in a temperate ice cap from observationally constrained ice-flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchew, B. M.; Simons, M.; Bjornsson, H.; Palsson, F.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.; Hensley, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the importance of glacier bed mechanics to understanding glacier flow and projecting the future glacier states, our knowledge of some fundamental concepts concerning the coupling of basal shear stress, water pressure, and slip rate remains incomplete. Here we infer the existence of a plastically deforming bed beneath Hofsjökull, a temperate ice cap in central Iceland, using numerical ice flow models constrained by surface velocity observations. Basal plasticity is evident by the independence of basal shear stress and basal slip rate, both of which we inferred using higher-order flow models in the Ice Sheet Systems Model (ISSM). We derived seasonal surface velocity fields from airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data collected with NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in winter and during the early melt season. Using velocity fields from different seasons and applying a simple plastic model for basal stress, we present estimates of surface-melt-driven changes in basal water pressure that correspond to observed variations in surface velocity. Our data and an idealized basal slip model show that the sensitivity of basal slip to basal water pressure variability scales as the inverse of the ice surface slope, making glaciers with shallow surface slopes more sensitive to basal water pressure fluctuations than steep-sloped glaciers.

  16. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  17. The Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Interstellar Medium (ISM) forms an integral part of the lifecycle of stars and the galaxy. Stars are formed by gravitational contraction of interstellar clouds. Over their life, stars return much of their mass to the ISM through winds and supernova explosions, resulting in a slow enrichment in heavy elements. Understanding the origin and evolution of the ISM is a key problem within astrophysics. The KAO has made many important contributions to studies of the interstellar medium both on the macro and on the micro scale. In this overview, I will concentrate on two breakthroughs in the last decade in which KAO observations have played a major role: (1) the importance of large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules for the ISM (section 3) and (2) the study of Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) as an analog for the diffuse ISM at large (section 4). Appropriately, the micro and macro problem are intricately interwoven in these problems. Finally, section 5 reviews the origin of the (CII) emission observed by COBE.

  18. [Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with corpus callosum agenesis, PTCH1 mutation and absence of basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mazzuoccolo, Luis D; Martínez, María Florencia; Muchnik, Carolina; Azurmendi, Pablo J; Stengel, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, mainly due to PTCH1 gene mutations, that comprises a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The presence of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is a cardinal sign in NBCCS, therefore cases in which BCCs are absent entails a delay in the diagnosis.We present a 14 years old boy with a clinical diagnosis of NBCCS by the presence of odontogenic cysts, hypertelorism, macrocephaly, and corpus callosum agenesia, but with absence of skin lesions. His 43 years old mother has NBCCS diagnosis and no history of BCCs. For a deeper study, PTCH1 mutation screening from peripheral blood samples were performed by both bidirectional sequencing and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) techniques. The proband and his mother carry 25 pb duplication in exon 10 (c.1375dupl25bp) that causes a reading frameshift with a premature stop codon. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that this mutation results in a truncated protein shorter than normal. Our results suggest that complete clinical and genealogical studies accompanied by genetic analysis are essential in the early detection of the NBCCS cases such the one presented here. PMID:25188659

  19. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  20. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH?)?SO?; peptone and yeast extract; (NH?)?SO?, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH?)?SO?, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH?)?SO? and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH?)?SO? was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  1. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  2. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  3. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina) platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Harriet; Imianovsky, Ulisses; Oliveira, Jorge L.B.; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2008-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30°C, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 ?mol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air) in three different culture media: (1) Paoletti medium (control), (2) Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water) and (3) Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%), while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO. PMID:24031187

  4. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue < 0.021) and Huang et al. (Pvalue ? 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate. PMID:25436144

  5. Basal insulin analogues in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: What progress have we made?

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, continuous progress has been made in the development of insulin therapy. Basal insulins were developed around 60 years ago. However, existing basal insulins were found to have limitations. An ideal basal insulin should have the following properties viz. longer duration of action, a flat time-action profile, low day-to-day glycaemic variability, and the potential for flexible dosing. Basal insulins have advanced over the years, from lectin and neutral protamine Hagedorn to the currently available insulin degludec. Currently, the focus is on developing a basal insulin that can give coverage for the entire day, with lesser variability and flexible administration. Insulin degludec has been a significant leap in that direction. In addition, U300 insulin glargine and pegylated lispro represent further developments in basal insulin pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:25941658

  6. The metabolic and mitogenic properties of basal insulin analogues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Retrospective, observational studies have reported an association between diabetes treatment with insulin and a higher incidence of cancer. Objective Overview the literature for in vitro and in vivo studies of the metabolic and mitogenic properties of basal insulin analogues and assess the implications for clinical use. Methods Relevant studies were identified through PubMed and congress abstract database searches; data on metabolic and mitogenic signalling in relation to insulin treatment of diabetes are included in this review. Results The balance of evidence shows that although some analogues have demonstrated mitogenic potency in some in vitro studies in cancer cell lines, these findings do not translate to the in vivo setting in animals or to the clinical setting in humans. Conclusions The current consensus is that there is no clinical or in vivo evidence to indicate that any commercially available insulin analogue has carcinogenic effects. Large-scale, prospective clinical and observational studies will further establish any potential link. PMID:23373726

  7. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  8. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  9. Dermoscopy in the diagnosis and management of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Ioannides, Dimitrios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Castagnetti, Fabio; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Palmieri, Tamara; Ramundo, Dafne; Zalaudek, Iris

    2015-11-01

    The dermoscopic findings of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were first described more than a decade ago and the list of BCC-related criteria has been several times updated and enriched. Today, the dermatoscope is considered the key tool for the diagnosis of BCC, since it allows its early detection and enables its discrimination from other pigmented and nonpigmented skin tumors. The dermoscopic pattern of BCC results from several combinations of well-known BCC criteria, depending on several factors, including histopathologic subtype, location, gender, age and pigmentary trait. In addition, recent evidence highlighted that dermoscopy is also useful in the management of BCC, since it provides information on the tumor subtype, the presence of pigmentation or ulceration and the response to nonablative treatments. PMID:26450622

  10. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  11. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms.

    PubMed

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P; Ferrari, Loris L; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  12. Genomic analysis of smoothened inhibitor resistance in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Hayley J; Pau, Gregoire; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Modrusan, Zora; Januario, Thomas; Tsui, Vickie; Durham, Alison B; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Haverty, Peter M; Bourgon, Richard; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y; Dirix, Luc; Fisher, David C; Rudin, Charles M; Sofen, Howard; Migden, Michael R; Yauch, Robert L; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2015-03-01

    Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors are under clinical investigation for the treatment of several cancers. Vismodegib is approved for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Most BCC patients experience significant clinical benefit on vismodegib, but some develop resistance. Genomic analysis of tumor biopsies revealed that vismodegib resistance is associated with Hedgehog (Hh) pathway reactivation, predominantly through mutation of the drug target SMO and to a lesser extent through concurrent copy number changes in SUFU and GLI2. SMO mutations either directly impaired drug binding or activated SMO to varying levels. Furthermore, we found evidence for intra-tumor heterogeneity, suggesting that a combination of therapies targeting components at multiple levels of the Hh pathway is required to overcome resistance. PMID:25759019

  13. The Nervous Systems of Basally Branching Nemertea (Palaeonemertea)

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks. PMID:23785478

  14. Perfect Dispersive Medium

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion is at the heart of all ultrafast real-time signal processing systems across the entire electromagnetic spectrum ranging from radio-frequencies to optics. However, following Kramer-Kronig relations, these signal processing systems have been plagued with the parasitic amplitude distortions due to frequency dependent, and non-flat amplitude transmission of naturally dispersive media. This issue puts a serious limitation on the applicability and performance of these signal processing systems. To solve the above mentioned issue, a perfect dispersive medium is proposed in this work, which artificially violates the Kramer-Kronig relations, while satisfying all causality requirements. The proposed dispersive metamaterial is based on loss-gain metasurface pairs and exhibit a perfectly flat transmission response along with arbitrary dispersion in a broad bandwidth, thereby solving a seemingly unavoidable issue in all ultrafast signal processing systems. Such a metamaterial is further shown using sub-waveleng...

  15. Trichilemmoma in continuity with pigmented basal cell carcinoma; with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kaptan, Moayad Al; Kattampallil, Joseph; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    A case of trichilemmoma in continuity with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma is presented with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. The distinction between the two lesions was evident dermatoscopically and was confirmed dermatopathologically. While trichilemmoma has been reported in association with basal cell carcinoma and dermatoscopy images of four previous cases of trichilemmoma have been published, no previous dermatoscopy image has been published of trichilemmoma associated with basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26114053

  16. Basal cell ameloblastoma–review of literature with report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Giraddi, Girish B; Anusha, AJ Sai

    2012-01-01

    The ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaw with several histologic variants viz. follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, desmoplastic, and granular cell and basal cell types. The basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare histological variant which tends to demonstrate microscopic features similar to cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. In the current article we report three cases and review the literature of this rare tumor PMID:25756034

  17. Maternal supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides improves intestinal health and immune status of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; O'Doherty, J V; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; Egan, A M; Thornton, K; Sweeney, T

    2015-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (-SDP v. +SDP, n   20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated. Dietary SDP reduced sow faecal Enterobacteriaceae gene numbers at parturition. Small-intestinal morphology, nutrient transporter and cytokine gene expression in newborn piglets did not differ between maternal dietary treatments (P > 0·10). At 48 h after birth, sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the ileum of piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P = 0·050). There was a SDP × LPS challenge interaction on IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the colon of piglets (P < 0·05). The gene expression of IL-1 and IL-6 was down-regulated in the LPS-challenged colon of piglets suckling the SDP sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P < 0·05). However, there was no difference in IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the unchallenged colon between treatment groups. At weaning, piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows had increased villus height in the jejunum and ileum compared with those suckling the basal-fed sows (P < 0·05). In conclusion, maternal dietary SDP supplementation enhanced the immune response of suckling piglets and improved gut morphology, making them more immune competent to deal with post-weaning adversities. PMID:26495119

  18. Long-term in vitro culture of bovine preantral follicles: Effect of base medium and medium replacement methods.

    PubMed

    Araújo, V R; Gastal, M O; Wischral, A; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2015-10-01

    Two culture media and replacement methods were compared during long-term in vitro culture of secondary follicles of cattle using ?-MEM(+) or TCM-199(+) as base media. The medium replacement methods were: Conventional - removal and subsequent addition of the same amount (60?l) in a 100?l aliquot (MEM-C and TCM-C), and Small Supplementation - addition of 5?l of fresh medium to an initial small aliquot (50?l), resulting in a final volume of 125?l on the last day of culture (MEM-S and TCM-S). A total of 207 secondary follicles were cultured individually for 32 days at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 and medium replacement was performed every other day. The MEM-S treatment resulted in a larger (P<0.01) follicular diameter, greater (P<0.02) growth rate, greater (P<0.02) antrum formation, as well as greater (P<0.0001) estradiol concentrations when compared with the MEM-C treatment. The medium change methods did not affect (P>0.05) the follicular and estradiol end points for TCM-199(+). The expression of the FSHR gene was greater (P<0.03) with the TCM-C than TCM-S treatment, while the relative amounts of mRNA for IGF1 was greater (P<0.02) with MEM-S than TCM-S treatments and for VEGF was greater (P<0.02) with MEM-C than TCM-C treatment. In conclusion, the type of base medium and the effect of periodic addition of medium differentially affected follicle development, estradiol production, and gene expression. Furthermore, ?-MEM(+) can be used to replace TCM-199(+) for culture of preantral follicles of cattle if progressive addition of medium is used for medium change. PMID:26304751

  19. [Physical activity and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Harald S; Hansen, Mette; Kiens, Bente; Kvorning, Thue; Nielsen, Lars N; Rasmussen, Lone B; Aagaard, Peter G

    2009-08-17

    The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has examined the scientific literature to evaluate the performance and health-related aspects of consuming dietary supplements in the context of physical activity. Certain nutritional supplements such as creatine and caffeine have documented ergogenic effects in specific situations. However, for the moderately physically active adult and healthy individual, who already consumes an energy- and nutrient balanced diet, consuming any currently legal dietary supplement does not seem to confer additional benefits on performance or health. PMID:19732518

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kami?ska, Dorota; D?ugaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products. PMID:26642690

  1. Effect of protein supplementation on ruminal parameters and microbial community fingerprint of Nellore steers fed tropical forages.

    PubMed

    Bento, C B P; Azevedo, A C; Gomes, D I; Batista, E D; Rufino, L M A; Detmann, E; Mantovani, H C

    2016-01-01

    In tropical regions, protein supplementation is a common practice in dairy and beef farming. However, the effect of highly degradable protein in ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition has not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In this work, we aimed to investigate the impact of casein supplementation on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, specific activity of deamination (SAD), ammonia concentration and bacterial and archaeal community composition. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square balanced for residual effects, with four animals (average initial weight of 280±10 kg) and four experimental periods, each with duration of 29 days. The diet comprised Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay with an average CP content of 9.8%, on a dry matter basis. Animals received basal forage (control) or infusions of pure casein (230 g) administered direct into the rumen, abomasum or divided (50 : 50 ratio) in the rumen/abomasum. There was no differences (P>0.05) in ruminal pH and microbial protein concentration between supplemented v. non-supplemented animals. However, in steers receiving ruminal infusion of casein the SAD and ruminal ammonia concentration increased 33% and 76%, respectively, compared with the control. The total concentration of VFA increased (P0.05) in species richness and diversity of ?-proteobacteria, firmicutes and archaea between non-supplemented Nellore steers and steers receiving casein supplementation in the rumen. However, species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were lower (P<0.05) for the phylum bacteroidetes in steers supplemented with casein in the rumen compared with non-supplemented animals. Venn diagrams indicated that the number of unique bands varied considerably among individual animals and was usually higher in number for non-supplemented steers compared with supplemented animals. These results add new knowledge about the effects of ruminal and postruminal protein supplementation on metabolic activities of rumen microbes and the composition of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen of steers. PMID:26260519

  2. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Jim

    For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

  3. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk. PMID:24667103

  4. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries. PMID:26159983

  5. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Blood Meal and Additional Magnesium on Carnosine and Anserine Concentrations of Pig Muscles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of blood meal as a source of L-histidine, and the addition of magnesium (Mg) as a catalyst of carnosine synthetase for the carnosine and anserine concentrations of pig muscles (longissimus dorsi, LD and vastus intermedius, VI). A total of twenty-four pigs with an average body weight of 60.2±4.2 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (eight replicates), during 56 d of the feeding trial. Dietary treatments included: (1) Basal: basal diet; (2) BM: 95% basal diet + 5% blood meal; and (3) BM+Mg: 94.8% basal diet + 5% blood meal + 0.2% MgO (60% Mg). Results indicated that drip loss in the LD was less (p<0.05) for meat with BM+Mg treatment than that with Basal treatment, but the values for BM treatment did not differ from those of the other two treatment groups. The concentrations of carnosine in the LD were increased by 10.0% in both BM and BM+Mg treatment groups over the Basal treatment group (significance not verified). The concentrations of carnosine and anserine in the VI were not affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of additional Mg in diets had no effect on carnosine and anserine concentrations in the LD and VI. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of blood meal could be a potential method of fortifying the pork with carnosine. Inclusion of additional Mg in the diets containing blood meal had no benefit on carnosine and anserine depositions in pig muscles.

  6. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  7. Special supplement introduction: hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-07-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  8. Supplemental Material (Doan and Rudner 2007) 1 SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL

    E-print Network

    Rudner, David

    Supplemental Material (Doan and Rudner 2007) 1 SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL Perturbations to engulfment do that perturbations to engulfment directly inhibit the B processing enzyme (Jiang et al., 2005). These researchers of these experiments is that the level of the B processing enzyme is significantly reduced in the absence of Bof

  9. Rapamycin reverses insulin resistance (IR) in high-glucose medium without causing IR in normoglycemic medium.

    PubMed

    Leontieva, O V; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetic retinopathy. In retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, insulin activates the mTOR pathway, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and HIF-dependent transcription in serum-free minimum essential medium Eagle (MEM). Serendipitously, we found that insulin failed to induce the HIF-1?-dependent response, when RPE cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). Whereas concentration of glucose in MEM corresponds to normal glucose levels in blood (5.5 mM), its concentration in DMEM corresponds to severe diabetic hyperglycemia (25 mM). Addition of glucose to MEM also caused IR. Glucose-mediated IR was characterized by basal activation of mTORC1 and its poor inducibility by insulin. Basal levels of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), S6 and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) S635/639 were high, whereas their inducibilities were decreased. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased and restored by rapamycin and an inhibitor of S6K. IR was associated with de-phosphorylation of IRS1 at S1011, which was reversed by rapamycin. Both short (16-40 h) and chronic (2 weeks) treatment with rapamycin reversed IR. Furthermore, rapamycin did not impair Akt activation in RPE cells cultured in normoglycemic media. In contrast, Torin 1 blocked Akt activation by insulin. We conclude that by activating mTOR/S6K glucose causes feedback IR, preventable by rapamycin. Rapamycin does not cause IR in RPE cells regardless of the duration of treatment. We confirmed that rapamycin also did not impair phosphorylation of Akt at T308 and S473 in normal myoblast C2C12 cells. Our work provides insights in glucose-induced IR and suggests therapeutic approaches to treat patients with IR and severe hyperglycemia and to prevent diabetic complications such as retinopathy. Also our results prompt to reconsider physiological relevance of numerous data and paradigms on IR given that most cell lines are cultured with grossly super-physiological levels of glucose. PMID:24810050

  10. Similarity of organized patterns in driving and basal stresses of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets beneath extensive areas of basal sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O. V.; Creyts, T. T.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.

    2014-06-01

    The rate of ice transport from the interior of ice sheets to their margins, and hence the rate with which it contributes to sea level, is determined by the balance of driving stress, basal resistance, and ice internal deformation. Using recent high-resolution observations of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, we compute driving stress and ice deformation velocities, inferring basal traction by inverse techniques. The results reveal broad-scale organization in 5-20 km band-like patterns in both the driving and basal shear stresses located in zones with substantial basal sliding. Both ice sheets experience basal sliding over areas substantially larger than previously recognized. The likely cause of the spatial patterns is the development of a band-like structure in the basal shear stress distribution that is the results of pattern-forming instabilities related to subglacial water. The similarity of patterns on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets suggests that the flow of ice sheets is controlled by the same fundamental processes operating at their base, which control ice sheet sliding and are highly variable on relatively short spatial and temporal scales, with poor predictability. This has far-reaching implications for understanding of the current and projection of the future ice sheets' evolution.

  11. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

  12. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

  13. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

  14. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

  15. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

  16. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  17. Is Hazardous Waste Injection into Basal Aquifers a Good Idea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Person, M. A.; Rupp, J.; Celia, M. A.; Gable, C. W.; Bowen, B. B.; Mozley, P. S.; Evans, J. P.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The recent induced M3.8 - M5.5 seismic events across the midcontinent, USA have raised concern regarding regulations for hazardous waste injection. It is also important to note that in the midcontinent region, the Illinois Basin is the main target for storing CO2 up to 1 million metric tons over a 3-year period in the CCS project of DOE. Here we present a hydrogeologic-geomechanical sensitivity study using a hybrid analytic-numerical cross-sectional model to assess a wide variety of possible failure scenarios within crystalline rocks. The hydrostratigraphic framework model we used in this study is based on the geology of the Illinois Basin. The model includes 2.8 km thick Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers and confining units underlain by 4 km of bedrock. We represented injection at 1000 gallons per minute (3785 liters per minute) into a basal sandstone aquifer (Mt. Simon Sandstone) as well as the overlying carbonate and siliciclastic reservoirs (middle aquifer: Knox Dolomite, St. Peter Sandstone, upper Ordovician Carbonates). In some scenarios, we included high/low permeability vertical and sub-horizontal thrust faults. Deviatoric pore pressures from the model were used to estimate failure along critically stressed faults within the bedrock. For a basement permeability between 10-15 m2 to 10-16 m2, injection into the basal aquifer (Mt. Simon sandstone) resulted in a failure envelop within the crystalline basement to depths of about 1.4 - 4 km and extending laterally up to 6 km. Including a transmissive vertical normal fault increased the depth of the failure envelope to 4 km below the base of the sedimentary pile. If a 108 order of magnitude permeability contrast exists between the thrust fault (10-10 m2) and basement rocks (10-18 m2), then pore pressures can propagate along a sub-horizontal fault about 12 km from the injection well. For middle aquifer injection, the presence of a bottom seal (Eau Claire Formation) has a prophylactic effect, preventing downward propagation of deviatoric pressures into the basement as shown in the simulation results in Figure 1.

  18. GRAND DANUBE NO SINGLE SUPPLEMENT

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    GRAND DANUBE PASSAGE NO SINGLE SUPPLEMENT FOR SOLO TRAVELERS CRUISE THE featuring PRAGUE & SOFIA and informa- tion. Single supplement waived for solo travelers! (Limited availability.) AUGUST 22-SEPTEMBER 5 by delving into the rich culture of Prague, and explore its Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Embark

  19. ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han; Bertello, Luca E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu

    2013-04-10

    We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

  20. Brain Research Bulletin 72 (2007) 293301 Effect of basal forebrain neuropeptide Y administration on sleep

    E-print Network

    Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    Brain Research Bulletin 72 (2007) 293­301 Effect of basal forebrain neuropeptide Y administration 2006; accepted 9 January 2007 Available online 2 February 2007 Abstract Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is present. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Neuropeptide Y; Cortical activation; Basal forebrain

  1. An immunohistochemical study of leucocytes in human endometrium, first and third trimester basal decidua.

    PubMed

    Haller, H; Radillo, O; Rukavina, D; Tedesco, F; Candussi, G; Petrovi?, O; Randi?, L

    1993-01-01

    An immunohistochemical quantitative study of leucocyte subpopulations on fresh human endometrium and on biopsy specimens of first and third trimester basal decidua in normal (uncomplicated) pregnancies was performed. The most prominent population in endometrial and decidual stroma of basal decidua are macrophages. B cells as well as gamma/delta T cell receptor positive cells were found occasionally, scattered throughout the endometrial/decidual stroma. CD3+ cells were present in a relatively small number in the endometrium as well as in the first trimester basal decidua, but their number was elevated (doubled) in the third trimester of pregnancy. CD2+ cells showed a slight increase in first trimester basal decidua when compared with both endometrium and third trimester basal decidua. Cells with positive NKH-1 marker (CD56+) showed a significant increase in the first trimester, while in the third trimester their number diminished drastically. CD56:CD3 cell ratio increased to more than five times in first trimester basal decidua, while in the third trimester basal decidua decreased drastically. The mentioned increase of CD56+ cells in the first trimester and that of CD3+ cells at term suggests that these cells could have some specific function(s). However, it still has to be established whether the described quantitative changes of decidual leucocytes in basal decidua during pregnancy are of any importance for the mechanism(s) for the fetal allograft protection. PMID:8429523

  2. Origin of stratified basal ice in outlet glaciers of Vatnaj okull and O rfaj okull, Iceland

    E-print Network

    Origin of stratified basal ice in outlet glaciers of Vatnaj ¨okull and O¨ ræfaj ¨okull, Iceland.S. 2010 (July): Origin of stratified basal ice in outlet glaciers of Vatnaj ¨okull and O¨ ræfaj ¨okull ice from warm-based outlet glaciers of Vatnaj ¨okull and O¨ ræfaj ¨okull, Iceland, and analysed them

  3. The Relevance of Illustration in Basal Readers as It Relates to Contextual Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesnov, Wendy Beth

    A study examined the hypothesis that illustrations found in first-grade basal texts do not always relate to context. Six texts were analyzed to determine the percentage of illustration miscues appearing in each story. The basal readers used were: "Story Clouds," Scott Foresman Reading: An American Tradition (1987); "Red Rock," Rand McNally Reading…

  4. Dynamical states of the cortico basal ganglia circuits Thesis submitted for the degree of

    E-print Network

    Dynamical states of the cortico ­ basal ganglia circuits Thesis submitted for the degree of "Doctor anatomical pathways of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) circuit. The model explains the appearance that are synchronized across many neurons. These synchronized population bursts are absent from the BG of the same

  5. The effect of basal channels on oceanic ice-shelf melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millgate, Thomas; Holland, Paul R.; Jenkins, Adrian; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of ice-shelf basal channels has been noted in a number of Antarctic and Greenland ice shelves, but their impact on basal melting is not fully understood. Here we use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model to investigate the effect of ice-shelf basal channels on oceanic melt rate for an idealized ice shelf resembling the floating tongue of Petermann Glacier in Greenland. The introduction of basal channels prevents the formation of a single geostrophically balanced boundary current; instead the flow is diverted up the right-hand (Coriolis-favored) side of each channel, with a return flow in the opposite direction on the left-hand side. As the prescribed number of basal channels is increased the mean basal melt rate decreases, in agreement with previous studies. For a small number of relatively wide channels the subice flow is found to be a largely geostrophic horizontal circulation. The reduction in melt rate is then caused by an increase in the relative contribution of weakly melting channel crests and keels. For a larger number of relatively narrow channels, the subice flow changes to a vertical overturning circulation. This change in circulation results in a weaker sensitivity of melt rates to channel size. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Rossby radius of deformation. Our results explain why basal channels play an important role in regulating basal melting, increasing the stability of ice shelves.

  6. Noncholinergic Neurons in the Basal Forebrain: Often Neglected but Motivationally Salient

    E-print Network

    Salzman, Daniel

    Noncholinergic Neurons in the Basal Forebrain: Often Neglected but Motivationally Salient Brian Lau.1016/j.neuron.2008.06.017 Although noncholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain are known to contribute to cognition, their response properties in behaving animals is unclear. In this issue of Neuron, Lin

  7. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting Christopher M. Little,1

    E-print Network

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting Christopher M. Little,1 Anand Gnanadesikan,2 5 December 2009. [1] The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates

  8. Individual variation in the basal metabolism of Zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata: no effect of food quality

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    metabolism of a resting, postabsorptive, endothermic organism at thermoneutral conditions [1]. The 0531Individual variation in the basal metabolism of Zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata: no effect the physiological background to individual variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR) in a laboratory population

  9. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones Jonathan Verreault a,b,*, Claus Bech c , Robert J form 22 March 2006; accepted 25 March 2006 Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively. Abstract Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress

  10. The Allometry of Avian Basal Metabolic Rate: Good Predictions Need Good Data

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Blair O.

    requirements of endotherms have typically focused on the minimum maintenance metabolic rate during normo502 The Allometry of Avian Basal Metabolic Rate: Good Predictions Need Good Data Andrew E. Mc-0001 Accepted 10/10/03 ABSTRACT Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is often predicted by allometric interpolation

  11. Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine E.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Sage, Jake; Gluck, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interestingly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning--the ability to adaptively change a response when…

  12. Effects of nuclease and protease digestion on the ultrastructure of Paramecium basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Dippell, R V

    1976-06-01

    The action of deoxyribonuclease, ribonuclease, perchloric acid, and pronase on the fine structure of basal bodies of sectioned Paramecium was observed as part of a more extensive autoradiographic electron microscope analysis directed toward the problem of basal body DNA. DNase was found to have no detectable effect on basal body fine structure. Pronase first solubilized the linkers and C tubules of the triplets, then attacked the protein portion of the axosome, a localized portion of the ciliary axoneme adjacent to the distal end of the basal body, the rim fiber, and newly described lumen spiral complex. Prolonged pronase treatment disrupted the remaining microtubular elements, basal body plates, and cartwheel. RNase removed material from the axosome and the lumen complex, a conspicuous structure occupying the central portion of the basal body and consisting of a twisted or looped 90-A diam fiber or, more probably, pair of fibers, in association with large, dense granules. The apparent removal of both RNA and protein from this basal body structure by either of the two corresponding enzymes suggests an unusual organization of the two components. Observations from this and other laboratories suggest that the basal body RNA is single stranded. Its function is unknown but alternatives are discussed. PMID:178669

  13. Effects of Direct Instruction and Basal Reading Instruction Programs on the Reading Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Deborah R.

    1999-01-01

    Compares the reading achievement of second graders who were taught with a direct instruction program to second graders who were taught with a basal reading program in three areas: vocabulary, comprehension, and language. Finds Direct Instruction was more successful than the basal reading program. (NH)

  14. Systems/Circuits Impact of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Inputs on Basolateral

    E-print Network

    Zaborszky, Laszlo

    Systems/Circuits Impact of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Inputs on Basolateral Amygdala Neurons Cagri-conditioningtaskswherethetimingof conditionedandunconditionedstimuliisnotoptimalfortheinductionofsynapticplasticity. Key words: acetylcholine; amygdala; emotion; fear; memory; state dependence Introduction Basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons contribute dense pro- jections to the entire cortical mantle (Zaborszky

  15. Isolated Rat Epididymal Basal Cells Share Common Properties with Adult Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mandon, Marion; Hermo, Louis; Cyr, Daniel G

    2015-11-01

    There is little information on the function of epididymal basal cells. These cells secrete prostaglandins, can metabolize radical oxygen species, and have apical projections that are components of the blood-epididymis barrier. The objective of this study was to develop a reproducible protocol to isolate rat epididymal basal cells and to characterize their function by gene expression profiling. Integrin-alpha6 was used to isolate a highly purified population of basal cells. Microarray analysis indicated that expression levels of 552 genes were enriched in basal cells relative to other cell types. Among these genes, 45 were expressed at levels of 5-fold or greater. These highly expressed genes coded for proteins implicated in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal function, ion transport, cellular signaling, and epidermal function, and included proteases and antiproteases, signal transduction, and transcription factors. Several highly expressed genes have been reported in adult stem cells, suggesting that basal cells may represent an epididymal stem cell population. A basal cell culture was established that showed that these basal cells can differentiate in vitro from keratin (KRT) 5-positive cells to cells that express KRT8 and connexin 26, a marker of columnar cells. These data provide novel information on epididymal basal cell gene expression and suggest that these cells can act as adult stem cells. PMID:26400399

  16. Pathways for control of face and neck musculature by the basal ganglia and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pong, Milton; Horn, Kris M; Gibson, Alan R

    2008-08-01

    The basal ganglia are believed to influence movement via thalamo-cortical projections. However, the basal ganglia may also affect brainstem areas involved in movement control such as the red nucleus. The red nucleus receives input from the cerebellum and projects to motor neurons and premotor neurons in the contralateral brainstem and spinal cord. Are there pathways that allow output from the basal ganglia to influence processing in the red nucleus? This study uses the bidirectional tracer, WGA-HRP, to demonstrate that regions of the cat red nucleus receive input from the basal ganglia as well as from the cerebellum. Output from the entopeduncular nucleus, the feline equivalent of the internal segment of the globus pallidus, provides a modest direct input to the red nucleus as well as a more substantial indirect input via projections to the zona incerta and the fields of Forel. Regions of the red nucleus with input from the basal ganglia also receive input from the cerebellar dentate nucleus and lateral regions of interpositus. The regions of the red nucleus receiving basal gangliar input project to the contralateral facial nucleus and upper segments of the cervical spinal cord. Therefore, the red nucleus provides a junction where output from the basal ganglia can interact with output of the cerebellum for movement control of the head and face. The pathway may provide a substrate for a variety of movement disorders that are seen with diseases of the basal ganglia such as cervical dystonia and Parkinson's facies. PMID:18199482

  17. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Koebele, Stephanie V; Kingston, Melissa L; Tsang, Candy W S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Baxter, Leslie C; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. We evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory as well as basal forebrain cholinergic integrity using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory; tonic delivery of low EE, a dose that corresponds to the most popular doses used in the clinic today, did not impact cognition on any measure. Both medium and high injection doses of EE reduced the number of ChAt-immunoreactive cells in the basal forebrain, and cell population estimates in the vertical/diagonal bands negatively correlated with working memory errors. PMID:25679306

  18. Metformin and erlotinib synergize to inhibit basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Ying-Ka Ingar; Du, Xing; Reyannavar, Vinayak; Hopkins, Benjamin; Shaw, Jacquelyn; Bessler, Eliana; Thomas, Tiffany; Pires, Maira M.; Keniry, Megan; Parsons, Ramon E.; Cremers, Serge; Szabolcs, Matthias; Maurer, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like breast cancers (BBCs) are enriched for increased EGFR expression and decreased expression of PTEN. We found that treatment with metformin and erlotinib synergistically induced apoptosis in a subset of BBC cell lines. The drug combination led to enhanced reduction of EGFR, AKT, S6 and 4EBP1 phosphorylation, as well as prevented colony formation and inhibited mammosphere outgrowth. Our data with other compounds suggested that biguanides combined with EGFR inhibitors have the potential to outperform other targeted drug combinations and could be employed in other breast cancer subtypes, as well as other tumor types, with activated EGFR and PI3K signaling. Analysis of BBC cell line alterations led to the hypothesis that loss of PTEN sensitized cells to the drug combination which was confirmed using isogenic cell line models with and without PTEN expression. Combined metformin and erlotinib led to partial regression of PTEN-null and EGFR-amplified xenografted MDA-MB-468 BBC tumors with evidence of significant apoptosis, reduction of EGFR and AKT signaling, and lack of altered plasma insulin levels. Combined treatment also inhibited xenografted PTEN null HCC-70 BBC cells. Measurement of trough plasma drug levels in xenografted mice and a separately performed pharmacokinetics modeling study support possible clinical translation. PMID:25361177

  19. Basal Murphy belt and Chilhowee Group -- Sequence stratigraphic comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Aylor, J.G. Jr. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The lower Murphy belt in the central western Blue Ridge is interpreted to be correlative to the Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group of the westernmost Blue Ridge and Appalachian fold and thrust belt. Basal Murphy belt depositional sequence stratigraphy represents a second-order, type-2 transgressive systems tract initiated with deposition of lowstand turbidites of the Dean Formation. These transgressive deposits of the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations are interpreted as middle to outer continental shelf deposits. Cyclic and stacked third-order regressive, coarsening upwards sequences of the Nantahala Formation display an overall increase in feldspar content stratigraphically upsection. These transgressive siliciclastic deposits are interpreted to be conformably overlain by a carbonate highstand systems tract of the Murphy Marble. Palinspastic reconstruction indicates that the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations possibly represent a basinward extension of up to 3 km thick siliciclastic wedge. The wedge tapers to the southwest along the strike of the Murphy belt at 10[degree] and thins northwestward to 2 km in the Tennessee depocenter where it is represented by the Chilhowee Group. The Murphy belt basin is believed to represent a transitional rift-to-drift facies deposited on the lower plate of the southern Blue Ridge rift zone.

  20. Encoding by response duration in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Parush, Naama; Arkadir, David; Nevet, Alon; Morris, Genela; Tishby, Naftali; Nelken, Israel; Bergman, Hagai

    2008-12-01

    Several models have suggested that information transmission in the basal ganglia (BG) involves gating mechanisms, where neuronal activity modulates the extent of gate aperture and its duration. Here, we demonstrate that BG response duration is informative about a highly abstract stimulus feature and show that the duration of "gate opening" can indeed be used for information transmission through the BG. We analyzed recordings from three BG locations: the external part of the globus pallidus (GPe), the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) during performance of a probabilistic visuomotor task. Most (>85%) of the neurons showed significant rate modulation following the appearance of cues predicting future reward. Trial-to-trial mutual information analysis revealed that response duration encoded reward prospects in many (42%) of the responsive SNr neurons, as well as in the SNc (26.9%), and the GPe (29.3%). Whereas the low-frequency discharge SNc neurons responded with only an increase in firing rate, SNr and GPe neurons with high-frequency tonic discharge responded with both increases and decreases. Conversely, many duration-informative neurons in SNr (68%) and GPe (50%) responded with a decreased rather than an increased rate. The response duration was more informative than the extreme (minimal or maximal) amplitude or spike count in responsive bins of duration-informative neurons. Thus response duration is not simply correlated with the discharge rate and can provide additional information to the target structures of the BG. PMID:18842956

  1. A method for preparing skeletal muscle fiber basal laminae

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.C.; Carlson, B.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Previous attempts to prepare skeletal muscle basal laminae (BL) for ultrastructural analyses have been hampered by difficulties in successfully removing skeletal muscle proteins and cellular debris from BL tubes. In the present study the authors describe a two phase method which results in an acellular muscle preparation, the BL of which are examined by light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. In the first phase, excised rat extensor digitorum longus muscles are subjected to x-radiation and then soaked in Marcaine to inhibit muscle regeneration and to destroy peripheral muscle fibers. The muscles are then grafted back into their original sites and allowed to remain in place 7-14 days to allow for maximal removal of degenerating muscle tissue with minimal scar tissue formation. In the second phase, the muscle grafts are subjected sequentially to EDTA, triton X-100, DNAase, and sodium deoxycholate to remove phagocytizing cells and associated degenerating muscle tissue. These procedures result in translucent, acellular muscle grafts which show numerous empty tubes of BL backed by endomysial collagenous fibers. These preparations should be useful for morphological analyses of isolated muscle BL and for possible in vitro studies by which the biological activity of muscle BL can be examined.

  2. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores.

    PubMed

    Dabe, Emily C; Sanford, Rachel S; Kohn, Andrea B; Bobkova, Yelena; Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic modifications control gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. However, little is known about DNA methylation in invertebrates and its evolution. Here, we characterize two types of genomic DNA methylation in ctenophores, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) and the unconventional form of methylation 6-methyl adenine (6-mA). Using both bisulfite sequencing and an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 5-mC DNA methylation in ctenophores. In contrast to other invertebrates studied, Mnemiopsis leidyi has lower levels of genome-wide 5-mC methylation, but higher levels of 5-mC methylation in promoters when compared with gene bodies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ctenophores have distinct forms of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); the zf-CXXC domain type, which localized DNMT1 to CpG sites, and is a metazoan specific innovation. We also show that ctenophores encode the full repertoire of putative enzymes for 6-mA DNA methylation, and these genes are expressed in the aboral organ of Mnemiopsis. Using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 6-mA methylation in the genomes of three different species of ctenophores, M. leidyi, Beroe abyssicola, and Pleurobrachia bachei. The functional role of this novel epigenomic mark is currently unknown. In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. PMID:26173712

  3. Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Laura A.; Behn, Mark D.; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Das, Sarah B.; Joughin, Ian; Herring, Thomas; Shean, David E.; King, Matt A.

    2015-06-01

    Water-driven fracture propagation beneath supraglacial lakes rapidly transports large volumes of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet. These drainage events drive transient ice-sheet acceleration and establish conduits for additional surface-to-bed meltwater transport for the remainder of the melt season. Although it is well established that cracks must remain water-filled to propagate to the bed, the precise mechanisms that initiate hydro-fracture events beneath lakes are unknown. Here we show that, for a lake on the western Greenland Ice Sheet, drainage events are preceded by a 6-12 hour period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip. Our observations from a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network allow us to determine the distribution of meltwater at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after three rapid drainages in 2011-2013, each of which generates tensile stresses that promote hydro-fracture beneath the lake. We hypothesize that these precursors are associated with the introduction of meltwater to the bed through neighbouring moulin systems (vertical conduits connecting the surface and base of the ice sheet). Our results imply that as lakes form in less crevassed, interior regions of the ice sheet, where water at the bed is currently less pervasive, the creation of new surface-to-bed conduits caused by lake-draining hydro-fractures may be limited.

  4. Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura A; Behn, Mark D; McGuire, Jeffrey J; Das, Sarah B; Joughin, Ian; Herring, Thomas; Shean, David E; King, Matt A

    2015-06-01

    Water-driven fracture propagation beneath supraglacial lakes rapidly transports large volumes of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet. These drainage events drive transient ice-sheet acceleration and establish conduits for additional surface-to-bed meltwater transport for the remainder of the melt season. Although it is well established that cracks must remain water-filled to propagate to the bed, the precise mechanisms that initiate hydro-fracture events beneath lakes are unknown. Here we show that, for a lake on the western Greenland Ice Sheet, drainage events are preceded by a 6-12 hour period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip. Our observations from a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network allow us to determine the distribution of meltwater at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after three rapid drainages in 2011-2013, each of which generates tensile stresses that promote hydro-fracture beneath the lake. We hypothesize that these precursors are associated with the introduction of meltwater to the bed through neighbouring moulin systems (vertical conduits connecting the surface and base of the ice sheet). Our results imply that as lakes form in less crevassed, interior regions of the ice sheet, where water at the bed is currently less pervasive, the creation of new surface-to-bed conduits caused by lake-draining hydro-fractures may be limited. PMID:26040890

  5. Basal secretion of von Willebrand factor from human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Jonathan P; Hewlett, Lindsay J; Hannah, Matthew J

    2008-08-15

    Endothelial cells store the adhesive glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF) in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), distinctively shaped regulated secretory organelles that undergo exocytosis in response to secretagogue. A significant proportion of newly synthesized VWF is also secreted spontaneously from nonstimulated cells, through what is thought to be the constitutive secretory pathway. To learn more about VWF trafficking, we performed kinetic analyses of the storage and nonstimulated secretion of VWF in cultured human endothelial cells. We found that most VWF was secreted through a route that was significantly delayed compared with constitutive secretion, although this pathway was responsible for secretion of a small amount of uncleaved VWF precursor. Disruption of pH-dependent sorting processes with ammonium chloride converted the secretion kinetics of mature VWF to that of its precursor. Conversely, preventing constitutive secretion of nascent protein with brefeldin A had only a modest effect on the spontaneous release of VWF, showing that most VWF secreted by nonstimulated cells was not constitutive secretion but basal release of a post-Golgi storage organelle, presumably the WPB. These data suggest that VWF is sorted to the regulated secretory pathway in endothelial cells much more efficiently than previously reported. PMID:18344423

  6. Discovery of alpha-defensins in basal mammals.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David J; Bradley, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-defensins are essential molecules of the innate immune system that have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and viruses. To date, alpha-defensins have only been identified in the Euarchontoglires branch of the mammals. This has led to speculation that alpha-defensins may be specific to this group, a somewhat surprising finding, given their importance in the immune system. The mammalian genome project provided us with the opportunity to search for alpha-defensins in previously unexamined mammalian superorders. Using hidden Markov model (HMM) profile searching, we report the discovery of alpha-defensins in the African savanna elephant, the lesser hedgehog tenrec, and the nine-banded armadillo genomes representing two of the most basal mammalian superorders, Afrotheria and Xenarthra. Furthermore, we identify an alpha-defensin-like gene in the gray short-tailed opossum, suggesting that alpha-defensins may have evolved much earlier than previously thought, before the divergence of placental mammals and marsupials approximately 130 mya. PMID:17367857

  7. Basal Ganglia Outputs Map Instantaneous Position Coordinates during Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Barter, Joseph W.; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A.; Bartholomew, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  8. Current landscape for treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foley, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) account for around 80% of non-melanoma skin cancer. Australia has the highest incidence of BCC globally and the rates continue to increase in both Australia and New Zealand. BCC causes significant morbidity, placing an enormous burden on the healthcare system. Treatment of patients with advanced BCC can be particularly challenging. A panel of UK experts recently defined advanced disease as BCC that in which current treatment modalities are considered potentially contraindicated by clinical or patient-driven factors. Research has found that mutations in the hedgehog signalling pathway underpin the pathogenesis of the vast majority of sporadic BCC, as well as Gorlin syndrome. The first-in-class oral small molecule hedgehog pathway inhibitor - vismodegib-is now approved in a number of countries for use in locally-advanced and metastatic BCC and has resulted in improved outcomes in the majority of patients treated. With a number of similar agents in the pipeline, research is now focusing on identifying mechanisms that may contribute to resistance to this agent in some lesions. PMID:25715811

  9. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yasa, I Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells' growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, "IKVAV", and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, "RGD", into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  10. Carvedilol analog modulates both basal and stimulated sinoatrial node automaticity.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Tetsuji; Kim, Daehyeok; Joung, Boyoung; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Back, Thomas G; Wayne Chen, S R; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Lin, Shien-Fong

    2014-05-01

    The membrane voltage clock and calcium (Ca(2+)) clock jointly regulate sinoatrial node (SAN) automaticity. VK-II-36 is a novel carvedilol analog that suppresses sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release but does not block the ?-receptor. The effect of VK-II-36 on SAN function remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether VK-II-36 can influence SAN automaticity by inhibiting the Ca(2+) clock. We simultaneously mapped intracellular Ca(2+) and membrane potential in 24 isolated canine right atriums using previously described criteria of the timing of late diastolic intracellular Ca elevation (LDCAE) relative to the action potential upstroke to detect the Ca(2+) clock. Pharmacological interventions with isoproterenol (ISO), ryanodine, caffeine, and VK-II-36 were performed after baseline recordings. VK-II-36 caused sinus rate downregulation and reduced LDCAE in the pacemaking site under basal conditions (P < 0.01). ISO induced an upward shift of the pacemaking site in SAN and augmented LDCAE in the pacemaking site. ISO also significantly and dose-dependently increased the sinus rate. The treatment of VK-II-36 (30 ?mol/l) abolished both the ISO-induced shift of the pacemaking site and augmentation of LDCAE (P < 0.01), and it suppressed the ISO-induced increase in sinus rate (P = 0.02). Our results suggest that the sinus rate may be partly controlled by the Ca(2+) clock via SR Ca(2+) release during ?-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:23836067

  11. Observation of sonified movements engages a basal ganglia frontocortical network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Producing sounds by a musical instrument can lead to audiomotor coupling, i.e. the joint activation of the auditory and motor system, even when only one modality is probed. The sonification of otherwise mute movements by sounds based on kinematic parameters of the movement has been shown to improve motor performance and perception of movements. Results Here we demonstrate in a group of healthy young non-athletes that congruently (sounds match visual movement kinematics) vs. incongruently (no match) sonified breaststroke movements of a human avatar lead to better perceptual judgement of small differences in movement velocity. Moreover, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhanced activity in superior and medial posterior temporal regions including the superior temporal sulcus, known as an important multisensory integration site, as well as the insula bilaterally and the precentral gyrus on the right side. Functional connectivity analysis revealed pronounced connectivity of the STS with the basal ganglia and thalamus as well as frontal motor regions for the congruent stimuli. This was not seen to the same extent for the incongruent stimuli. Conclusions We conclude that sonification of movements amplifies the activity of the human action observation system including subcortical structures of the motor loop. Sonification may thus be an important method to enhance training and therapy effects in sports science and neurological rehabilitation. PMID:23496827

  12. Predicting the Risk of a Second Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Verkouteren, Joris A C; Smedinga, Hilde; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Hofman, Albert; Nijsten, Tamar

    2015-11-01

    A third of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients will develop subsequent BCCs. We aimed to develop a simple model to predict the absolute risk of a second BCC. We observed 14,628 participants of Northern European ancestry from a prospective population-based cohort study. BCCs were identified using a linkage with the Dutch Pathology Registry (Pathological Anatomy National Automated Archive). Predictors for a second BCC included 13 phenotypic, lifestyle, and tumor-specific characteristics. The prediction model was based on the Fine and Gray regression model to account for the competing risk of death from other causes. Among 1,077 participants with at least one BCC, 293 developed a second BCC at a median of 3 years. Several well-known risk factors for a first BCC were not prognostic for a second BCC, whereas having more than one initial BCC was the strongest predictor. Discriminative ability at 3 years was reasonable (bootstrap validated c-index=0.65). Three groups were created, with 7, 12, and 28% risk of a second BCC within 3 years. We conclude that a combination of readily available clinical characteristics can reasonably identify patients at high risk of a second BCC. External validation and extension with stronger predictors is desirable to further improve risk prediction. PMID:26121210

  13. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  14. Basal forebrain circuit for sleep-wake control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Chung, Shinjae; Zhang, Siyu; Zhong, Peng; Ma, Chenyan; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Weissbourd, Brandon; Sakai, Noriaki; Luo, Liqun; Nishino, Seiji; Dan, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian basal forebrain (BF) has important roles in controlling sleep and wakefulness, but the underlying neural circuit remains poorly understood. We examined the BF circuit by recording and optogenetically perturbing the activity of four genetically defined cell types across sleep-wake cycles and by comprehensively mapping their synaptic connections. Recordings from channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-tagged neurons revealed that three BF cell types, cholinergic, glutamatergic and parvalbumin-positive (PV+) GABAergic neurons, were more active during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (wake/REM active) than during non-REM (NREM) sleep, and activation of each cell type rapidly induced wakefulness. By contrast, activation of somatostatin-positive (SOM+) GABAergic neurons promoted NREM sleep, although only some of them were NREM active. Synaptically, the wake-promoting neurons were organized hierarchically by glutamatergic?cholinergic?PV+ neuron excitatory connections, and they all received inhibition from SOM+ neurons. Together, these findings reveal the basic organization of the BF circuit for sleep-wake control. PMID:26457552

  15. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  16. Chemopreventive opportunities to control basal cell carcinoma: Current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Cynthia; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a major health problem with approximately 2.8?million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States. BCC incidences have continued to rise due to lack of effective chemopreventive options. One of the key molecular characteristics of BCC is the sustained activation of hedgehog signaling through inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene patch (Ptch) or activating mutations in Smoothened. In the past, several studies have addressed targeting the activated hedgehog pathway for the treatment and prevention of BCC, although with toxic effects. Other studies have attempted BCC chemoprevention through targeting the promotional phase of the disease especially the inflammatory component. The compounds that have been utilized in pre-clinical and/or clinical studies include green and black tea, difluoromethylornithine, thymidine dinucleotide, retinoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin D3, and silibinin. In this review, we have discussed genetic and epigenetic modifications that occur during BCC development as well as the current state of BCC pre-clinical and clinical chemoprevention studies. PMID:26053157

  17. Antipathetic magnesium-manganese relationship in basal metalliferous sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloch, S.

    1981-01-01

    Basal metalliferous sediments from sites 77B, 80 and 81 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project represent mixtures of pelagic clay, biogenic ooze, and a metalliferous component of hydrothermal origin. The metalliferous end-member of the sediments displays a strong inverse relationship (r = -0.88) between Mg and Mn. Mg is most likely tied up in an X-ray amorphous Mg-silicate ("sepiolite"), whereas Mn occurs almost exclusively in an oxide phase. Precipitation of the Mg-rich phase is favored by high flow rates and limited mixing of the hydrothermal end-member (source of silica) with seawater (source of Mg). Under those conditions much of the hydrothermal Mn2+, with its slow oxidation kinetics, may escape to the free water column. In contrast, in highly-diluted hydrothermal fluids, which provide a source solution for Mn-rich sediments, dissolved silica is diluted below saturation with respect to "sepiolite". The separation of the Mn and Mg phases may be further compounded by hydraulic fractionation. ?? 1981.

  18. Effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts on growth performance and aspects of gastrointestinal health of newly weaned piglets after challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

    2014-12-28

    In the present study, a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts ( - SWE v. +SWE, n 20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on post-weaning (PW) growth performance, faecal score, faecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) toxin quantification, intestinal histology and cytokine mRNA of unchallenged and ETEC-challenged pigs. Pigs were ETEC challenged on day 9 PW. There was a maternal treatment × challenge (SWE × ETEC) interaction effect on growth performance and faecal score (P< 0.05). Pigs from SWE-supplemented sows and ETEC-challenged (SE) had higher average daily gain (ADG) during 0-13 d PW and reduced faecal score during 0-72 h post-challenge than those from basal-fed sows and ETEC-challenged (BE) (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference between unchallenged pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows (SC) and basal-fed sows (BC) (P>0.10). Pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows had reduced heat-labile enterotoxin gene copy numbers than those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). Maternal SWE supplementation increased the villus height in the ileum of pigs (P< 0.05). There was a SWE × ETEC interaction effect (P< 0.05) on IL-6 mRNA and a SWE × gastrointestinal (GI) region interaction effect (P< 0.05) on transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and TNF-? mRNA. IL-6 mRNA was down-regulated in SC pigs than BC pigs (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in IL-6 mRNA between SE and BE pigs. The mRNA of TGF-?1 and TNF-? was down-regulated in the colon of pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows compared with those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in TGF-?1 and TNF-? mRNA in the ileum between the pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows and basal-fed sows. In conclusion, maternal SWE supplementation improves ADG and the aspects of GI health of weaned pigs following an ETEC challenge. PMID:25345748

  19. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  20. Enhancing Aerobic Growth of Campylobacter in Media Supplemented with Organic Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in was determined. A fumarate-pyruvate medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, or Campylobacter jejuni. Portions of the inoculated me...

  1. New medium licensed for campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A medium, “Campy-Cefex”, has been licensed by the ARS Office of Technology Transfer with Becton Dickinson (No. 1412-002) and Neogen (No. 1412-001) based on patent No. 5,891,709, “Campy-Cefex Selective and Differential Medium for Campylobacter” by Dr. Norman Stern of the Poultry Microbiological Safet...

  2. Towards a Biopsychological Understanding of Costly Punishment: The Role of Basal Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:24416441

  3. Effects of selenium supplementation on plasma progesterone concentrations in pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Hachiro; Nonaka, Itoko; Takenouchi, Naoki; Amari, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    It is known that selenium (Se) has various functions in animals. Many investigations on the biochemical and physiological effects of Se have been previously reported; however, the detailed function of Se in reproduction is not yet clear. We proposed the possibility that Se plays a notable role in progesterone production. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of Se supplementation on progesterone levels of pregnant Holstein heifers. Eight Holstein heifers (-Se) were fed basal diet (containing 0.022?ppm of Se) throughout the experiment. While a 0.3?ppm diet of Se (sodium selenite) was fed to another seven animals (+Se) with basal diet. Blood sampling was carried out every week. Plasma Se concentrations were higher in Se-supplemented cows compared with controls (-Se) (P?supplementation increased plasma progesterone in the 29-39 weeks of pregnancy from 4.98?±?0.64 to 6.86?±?0.49?ng/mL on average (P?

  4. Dietary supplementation with glutamate precursor ?-ketoglutarate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Li, Yongtang; Ding, Binying; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Hang; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-07-01

    There is growing interest in glutamate as a functional amino acid in nutrition and health. This study was conducted to determine whether glutamate precursor ?-ketoglutarate (AKG) could alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in young pigs. Twenty-four piglets were randomly assigned to the control, LPS, or LPS + AKG group. Piglets in the control and LPS groups were fed a basal diet, whereas piglets in the NAC group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 1 % AKG. On days 10, 12, 14, and 16 of the trial, piglets in the LPS and LPS + AKG groups received intraperitoneal administration of LPS (80 ?g/kg BW), whereas piglets in the control group received the same volume of saline. On day 16 of the trial, blood samples were collected 3 h after LPS or saline injection. Twenty-four hours post-administration of LPS or saline (on day 17 of the trial), piglets were killed to obtain liver for analysis. Dietary AKG supplementation alleviated LPS-induced histomorphological abnormalities and mitigated LPS-induced increases in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and AST/ALT ratio (P < 0.05). Compared with the LPS group, dietary supplementation with AKG decreased plasma glutamate concentration, while increasing hepatic concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, leucine, asparagine, lysine, alanine, serine, threonine, valine, and phenylalanine (P < 0.05). LPS challenge dramatically increased concentrations of malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver. Additionally, LPS challenge enhanced concentrations of AMP and total protein, as well as RNA/DNA and total protein/DNA ratios, while decreasing hepatic ADP concentrations. These adverse effects of LPS challenge were ameliorated by AKG supplementation. Collectively, dietary AKG supplementation provides a new means to ameliorate LPS-induced liver injury by increasing anti-oxidative capacity and improving energy metabolism in young pigs. PMID:25795418

  5. Influence of divergent exercise contraction mode and whey protein supplementation on atrogin-1, MuRF1, and FOXO1/3A in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Renae J; Lamon, Séverine; Rahbek, Stine K; Farup, Jean; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Wallace, Marita A; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge from human exercise studies on regulators of muscle atrophy is lacking, but it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms influencing skeletal muscle protein turnover and net protein gain. This study examined the regulation of muscle atrophy-related factors, including atrogin-1 and MuRF1, their upstream transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A and the atrogin-1 substrate eIF3-f, in response to unilateral isolated eccentric (ECC) vs. concentric (CONC) exercise and training. Exercise was performed with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) or isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation. Twenty-four subjects were divided into WPH and CHO groups and completed both single-bout exercise and 12 wk of training. Single-bout ECC exercise decreased atrogin-1 and FOXO3A mRNA compared with basal and CONC exercise, while MuRF1 mRNA was upregulated compared with basal. ECC exercise downregulated FOXO1 and phospho-FOXO1 protein compared with basal, and phospho-FOXO3A was downregulated compared with CONC. CONC single-bout exercise mediated a greater increase in MuRF1 mRNA and increased FOXO1 mRNA compared with basal and ECC. CONC exercise downregulated FOXO1, FOXO3A, and eIF3-f protein compared with basal. Following training, an increase in basal phospho-FOXO1 was observed. While WPH supplementation with ECC and CONC training further increased muscle hypertrophy, it did not have an additional effect on mRNA or protein levels of the targets measured. In conclusion, atrogin-1, MuRF1, FOXO1/3A, and eIF3-f mRNA, and protein levels, are differentially regulated by exercise contraction mode but not WPH supplementation combined with hypertrophy-inducing training. This highlights the complexity in understanding the differing roles these factors play in healthy muscle adaptation to exercise. PMID:24458747

  6. Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat. PMID:23747628

  7. Response to dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

  8. Influence of thyrotropin and thyroid volume on basal serum calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Grani, G; D'Alessandri, M; Del Sordo, M; Carbotta, G; Vitale, M; Fumarola, A

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid volume was found to be a determinant of serum calcitonin levels in animal models and in thyroid-healthy subjects, as recently reported. This study aims to evaluate if this finding is confirmed in patients undergoing ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of suspicious thyroid nodules. A dataset of 561 patients including basal serum FT4, FT3, TSH, calcitonin, thyroid volume, anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and cytology report, was retrospectively analysed. The median thyroid volume was 20.5?ml (14.5-26.8) in males and 12.0?ml (9.3-17.0) in females (p<0.001). The overall median serum calcitonin value was 2.00?pg/ml (2.00-3.10). A Spearman's correlation was performed between serum calcitonin levels and thyroid volume, showing a weak direct relationship (rs=0.173, p<0.001). This relationship is confirmed both in the smokers group (rs=0.337, p=0.003) and in non-smokers group (rs=0.115, p=0.012), and both in the TPOAb-positive patients (rs=0.419, p<0.001) and negative ones (rs=0.107, p=0.025). There is no correlation between serum TSH and calcitonin levels. In patients grouped according to morphologic diagnosis, calcitonin levels are slightly higher in the high-volume groups: the interquartile range was 2.00-2.00?pg/ml in the atrophy, 2.00-2.82?pg/ml in the normal volume, and 2.00-3.85?pg/ml in the goiter group (p=0.02). When males and females are computed separately, the statistical significance is lost. In conclusion, thyroid volume can mildly influence calcitonin levels. Gender acts as a "surrogate marker" of thyroid volume and the application of a gender-specific cut-off can probably overcome this issue in clinical practice. PMID:25314647

  9. Effect of niclosamide on basal-like breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I.; Arend, Rebecca C.; Aristizabal, Laura; Lu, Wenyan; Samant, Rajeev S.; Metge, Brandon J.; Hidalgo, Bertha; Grizzle, William E.; Conner, Michael; Forero-Torres, Andres; LoBuglio, Albert F.; Li, Yonghe; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are poorly differentiated and display aggressive clinical behavior. These tumors become resistant to cytotoxic agents and tumor relapse has been attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). One of the pathways involved in CSC regulation is the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. LRP6, a Wnt ligand receptor, is one of the critical elements of this pathway and could potentially be an excellent therapeutic target. Niclosamide has been shown to inhibit the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway by causing degradation of LRP6. TRA-8, a monoclonal antibody specific to TRAIL death receptor 5, is cytotoxic to BLBC cell lines and their CSC enriched populations. The goal of this study was to examine whether niclosamide is cytotoxic to BLBCs, specifically the CSC population, and if in combination with TRA-8 could produce increased cytotoxicity. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a known marker of CSCs. By testing BLBC cells for ALDH expression by flow cytometry, we were able to isolate a non-adherent population of cells that have high ALDH expression. Niclosamide showed cytotoxicity against these non-adherent ALDH expressing cells in addition to adherent cells from four BLBC cell lines: 2LMP, SUM159, HCC1187 and HCC1143. Niclosamide produced reduced levels of LRP6 and ?-catenin, which is a downstream Wnt/?-catenin signaling protein. The combination of TRA-8 and niclosamide produced additive cytotoxicity and a reduction in Wnt/?-catenin activity. Niclosamide in combination with TRA-8 suppressed growth of 2LMP orthotopic tumor xenografts. These results suggest that niclosamide or congeners of this agent may be useful for the treatment of BLBC. PMID:24552774

  10. Basal ganglia—thalamus and the “crowning enigma”

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Arbuthnott, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    When Hubel (1982) referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as “… a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come …” he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1), the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU) input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory (S1) cortex before focusing on motor cortex. PMID:26582979

  11. Climatic influences on basal metabolic rates among circumpolar populations.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R; Sorensen, Mark V; Galloway, Victoria A; Spencer, Gary J; Mosher, M J; Osipova, Ludmilla; Spitsyn, Victor A

    2002-01-01

    This article examines evidence for elevations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) among indigenous Northern (circumpolar) populations and considers potential mechanisms and the adaptive basis for such elevations. Data on BMR among indigenous (n = 109 males; 122 females) and nonindigenous (n = 15 males; 22 females) circumpolar groups of North America and Siberia are compiled and compared to predicted BMRs based on three different references: body surface area (Consolazio et al., 1963), body mass (Schofield, 1985), and fat-free mass (Poehlman and Toth, 1995). Regardless of which reference is used, indigenous circumpolar groups show systematic and statistically significant elevations in BMR ranging from +7% to +19% above predicted values for indigenous men and from +3 to +17% for indigenous women. Nonindigenous males also show elevations in BMR, although not to the same extent as in indigenous men (deviations = +3 to +14%), whereas nonindigenous females show no clear evidence of elevated BMRs (deviations = -7 to +5%). This pattern of variation between indigenous and nonindigenous groups suggests that both functional and genetic factors play a role in metabolic adaptation to northern climes. Recent studies on the ecology and genetics of thyroid function offer insights into the mechanisms through which indigenous circumpolar populations may regulate metabolic rates. Studies of seasonal variation in thyroid hormone levels suggest that indigenous circumpolar populations may have a greater capacity to elevate BMR during severe cold than nonindigenous groups. Recent twin studies indicate a significant genetic component of thyroid responses to environmental stressors. Further research exploring the genetics of seasonal variation in thyroid function and BMR among circumpolar groups would advance understanding of the role that selection may have played in shaping metabolic variation. PMID:12203815

  12. Basal ganglia-thalamus and the "crowning enigma".

    PubMed

    Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Arbuthnott, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    When Hubel (1982) referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as "… a 'crowning mystery' to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come …" he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80's and 90's there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1), the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU) input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory (S1) cortex before focusing on motor cortex. PMID:26582979

  13. Impact of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Inputs on Basolateral Amygdala Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Cagri T.; Pare, Denis

    2015-01-01

    In addition to innervating the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons send a dense projection to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). In this study, we investigated the effect of near physiological acetylcholine release on BLA neurons using optogenetic tools and in vitro patch-clamp recordings. Adult transgenic mice expressing cre-recombinase under the choline acetyltransferase promoter were used to selectively transduce BFc neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 and a reporter through the injection of an adeno-associated virus. Light-induced stimulation of BFc axons produced different effects depending on the BLA cell type. In late-firing interneurons, BFc inputs elicited fast nicotinic EPSPs. In contrast, no response could be detected in fast-spiking interneurons. In principal BLA neurons, two different effects were elicited depending on their activity level. When principal BLA neurons were quiescent or made to fire at low rates by depolarizing current injection, light-induced activation of BFc axons elicited muscarinic IPSPs. In contrast, with stronger depolarizing currents, eliciting firing above ?6–8 Hz, these muscarinic IPSPs lost their efficacy because stimulation of BFc inputs prolonged current-evoked afterdepolarizations. All the effects observed in principal neurons were dependent on muscarinic receptors type 1, engaging different intracellular mechanisms in a state-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that acetylcholine enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in principal BLA neurons. Moreover, the cholinergic engagement of afterdepolarizations may contribute to the formation of stimulus associations during fear-conditioning tasks where the timing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is not optimal for the induction of synaptic plasticity. PMID:25589777

  14. Cholinergic Neurons Excite Cortically Projecting Basal Forebrain GABAergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; McKenna, James T.; Zant, Janneke C.; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in the control of cortical activation and attention. Understanding the modulation of BF neuronal activity is a prerequisite to treat disorders of cortical activation involving BF dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we reveal the interaction between cholinergic neurons and cortically projecting BF GABAergic neurons using immunohistochemistry and whole-cell recordings in vitro. In GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, BF cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase-positive) neurons were intermingled with GABAergic (GFP+) neurons. Immunohistochemistry for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter showed that cholinergic fibers apposed putative cortically projecting GABAergic neurons containing parvalbumin (PV). In coronal BF slices from GAD67-GFP knock-in or PV-tdTomato mice, pharmacological activation of cholinergic receptors with bath application of carbachol increased the firing rate of large (>20 ?m diameter) BF GFP+ and PV (tdTomato+) neurons, which exhibited the intrinsic membrane properties of cortically projecting neurons. The excitatory effect of carbachol was blocked by antagonists of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors in two subpopulations of BF GABAergic neurons [large hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) and small Ih, respectively]. Ion substitution experiments and reversal potential measurements suggested that the carbachol-induced inward current was mediated mainly by sodium-permeable cation channels. Carbachol also increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons/fibers caused a mecamylamine- and atropine-sensitive inward current in putative GABAergic neurons. Thus, cortically projecting, BF GABAergic/PV neurons are excited by neighboring BF and/or brainstem cholinergic neurons. Loss of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease may impair cortical activation, in part, through disfacilitation of BF cortically projecting GABAergic/PV neurons. PMID:24553925

  15. Environment, migratory tendency, phylogeny and basal metabolic rate in birds.

    PubMed

    Jetz, Walter; Freckleton, Robert P; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2008-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) represents the minimum maintenance energy requirement of an endotherm and has far-reaching consequences for interactions between animals and their environments. Avian BMR exhibits considerable variation that is independent of body mass. Some long-distance migrants have been found to exhibit particularly high BMR, traditionally interpreted as being related to the energetic demands of long-distance migration. Here we use a global dataset to evaluate differences in BMR between migrants and non-migrants, and to examine the effects of environmental variables. The BMR of migrant species is significantly higher than that of non-migrants. Intriguingly, while the elevated BMR of migrants on their breeding grounds may reflect the metabolic machinery required for long-distance movements, an alternative (and statistically stronger) explanation is their occupation of predominantly cold high-latitude breeding areas. Among several environmental predictors, average annual temperature has the strongest effect on BMR, with a 50% reduction associated with a 20 degrees C gradient. The negative effects of temperature variables on BMR hold separately for migrants and non-migrants and are not due their different climatic associations. BMR in migrants shows a much lower degree of phylogenetic inertia. Our findings indicate that migratory tendency need not necessarily be invoked to explain the higher BMR of migrants. A weaker phylogenetic signal observed in migrants supports the notion of strong phenotypic flexibility in this group which facilitates migration-related BMR adjustments that occur above and beyond environmental conditions. In contrast to the findings of previous analyses of mammalian BMR, primary productivity, aridity or precipitation variability do not appear to be important environmental correlates of avian BMR. The strong effects of temperature-related variables and varying phylogenetic effects reiterate the importance of addressing both broad-scale and individual-scale variation for understanding the determinants of BMR. PMID:18810267

  16. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, W.; Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, T.; Bahn, M.; Black, A.; Desai, A.R.; Cescatti, A.; Marcolla, B.; Jacobs, C.; Chen, J.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gielen, B.; Bohrer, G.; Cook, D.R.; Dragoni, D.; Dunn, A.L.; Gianelle, D.; Grnwald, T.; Ibrom, A.; Leclerc, M.Y.; Lindroth, A.; Liu, H.; Marchesini, L.B.; Montagnani, L.; Pita, G.; Rodeghiero, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Starr, G.; Stoy, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ???3S to ???70N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual temperature can be considered as BR in empirical models. A strong correlation was found between the mean annual ER and mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Consequently, GPP, which is typically more accurately modeled, can be used to estimate BR. A light use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr -1, with the highest respiration rate over tropical forests and the lowest value in dry and high-latitude areas. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Influence of different amounts and sources of selenium supplementation on performance, some blood parameters, and nutrient digestibility in lambs.

    PubMed

    Alimohamady, Reza; Aliarabi, Hassan; Bahari, Aliasghar; Dezfoulian, Amir Hossein

    2013-07-01

    Two trials were conducted in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of selenium (Se) on performance, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility in male lambs on a barley-based diet. The first trial lasted for 70 days and consisted of 30 lambs (35.6?±?2.6 kg mean body weight, about 4-5 months of age) which were randomly allotted to five treatments including: (1) basal diet (containing 0.06 mg Se/kg DM; control) without supplementary Se, (2) basal diet?+?0.20 mg/kg Se as sodium selenite (SeS 0.20), (3) basal diet?+?0.40 mg/kg Se as sodium selenite (SeS 0.40), (4) basal diet?+?0.20 mg/kg Se as selenium yeast (SeY 0.20), and (5) basal diet?+?0.40 mg/kg Se as selenium yeast (SeY 0.40). For the second trial, four lambs from each group of experiment 1 were randomly allocated to individual metabolic cages for 14 days to measure the effects of dietary Se on nutrient digestibility. The results revealed that there were no significant differences for average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, hematological parameters (packed cell volume, red blood cell, white blood cell, and hemoglobin values), serum total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase due to supplementation of different amounts and sources of Se in lambs. Dietary Se supplementation significantly improved (P?supplementation. It may be concluded that supplementation of Se in lambs had no significant effect on performance and blood hematology, but increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity and serum T3 amount and decreased serum T4 amount as compared to non-supplemented control lambs. Furthermore, Se yeast improved nutrient digestibility in lambs. PMID:23677850

  18. Dietary supplementation with pectin and guar gum on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Heitman, D W; Hardman, W E; Cameron, I L

    1992-05-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with pectin and/or guar gum on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis was studied using 120 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were given a weekly injection of DMH for 8 weeks and were maintained on a basal fiber-free diet supplemented with 5% cellulose. The rats were then subdivided into four groups and kept on the basal fiber-free diet supplemented with either no fiber, 10% pectin, 10% guar gum or a combination of 5% pectin/5% guar gum for a period of 24 weeks. The 8 weeks of DMH administration were defined as the initiation stage of carcinogenesis and the next 24 weeks were defined as the promotional stage of carcinogenesis. Food and water were available ad libitum. The rats were killed 32 weeks after the start of the experiment and tumor incidence, location and frequency in the colon were determined. Other parameters measured were body weight and caloric intake. Dietary fiber supplementation with 10% pectin or with 10% guar gum but not with the combination of 5% pectin/5% guar gum (fed during the promotional stage of carcinogenesis), was found to suppress colon cancer incidence to a significant extent. PMID:1316814

  19. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Formation from probasal bodies, isolation, and partial characterization

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The assembly and composition of basal bodies was investigated in the single-celled, biflagellate green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using the cell wall-less strain, cw15. In the presence of EDTA, both flagellar axonemes remained attached to their basal bodies while the entire basal body-axoneme complex was separated from the cell body, without cell lysis, by treatment with polyethylene glycol-400. The axonemes were then removed from the basal bodies in the absence of EDTA, leaving intact basal body pairs, free from particulate contamination from other regions of the cell. The isolated organelles produced several bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gels, including two tubilin bands which co-electrophoresed with flagellar tubulin. The formation of probasal bodies was observed by electron microscopy of whole mount preparations. Synchronous cells were lysed, centrifuged onto carbon-coated grids, and either negatively stained or shadowed with platinum. The two probasal bodies of each cell appeared shortly after mitosis as thin "annuli," not visible in thin sections, each consisting of nine rudimentary triplet microtubules. Each annulus remained attached to one of the mature basal bodies by several filaments about 60 in diameter, and persisted throughout interphase until just before the next cell division. It then elongated into a mature organelle. The results revive the possibility of the nucleated assembly of basal bodies. PMID:805149

  20. BMP-driven NRF2 activation in esophageal basal cell differentiation and eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Ku, Wei-Yao; Zhou, Zhongren; Dellon, Evan S; Falk, Gary W; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun; Liu, Kuancan; Wang, Jun; Katzka, David A; Peters, Jeffrey H; Lan, Xiaopeng; Que, Jianwen

    2015-04-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, especially in tissues that are constantly replenished like the esophagus. Disruption of this balance is associated with pathological conditions, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), in which basal progenitor cells become hyperplastic upon proinflammatory stimulation. However, how basal cells respond to the inflammatory environment at the molecular level remains undetermined. We previously reported that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is critical for epithelial morphogenesis in the embryonic esophagus. Here, we address how this pathway regulates tissue homeostasis and EoE development in the adult esophagus. BMP signaling was specifically activated in differentiated squamous epithelium, but not in basal progenitor cells, which express the BMP antagonist follistatin. Previous reports indicate that increased BMP activity promotes Barrett's intestinal differentiation; however, in mice, basal progenitor cell-specific expression of constitutively active BMP promoted squamous differentiation. Moreover, BMP activation increased intracellular ROS levels, initiating an NRF2-mediated oxidative response during basal progenitor cell differentiation. In both a mouse EoE model and human biopsies, reduced squamous differentiation was associated with high levels of follistatin and disrupted BMP/NRF2 pathways. We therefore propose a model in which normal squamous differentiation of basal progenitor cells is mediated by BMP-driven NRF2 activation and basal cell hyperplasia is promoted by disruption of BMP signaling in EoE. PMID:25774506

  1. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for voluntary and automatic behaviour to reach rewards.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung F; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-07-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, value processing and decision-making. Many studies have shown that the inputs and outputs of each basal ganglia structure are topographically organized, which suggests that the basal ganglia consist of separate circuits that serve distinct functions. A notable example is the circuits that originate from the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the caudate nucleus, both of which target the superior colliculus. These two caudate regions encode the reward values of visual objects differently: flexible (short-term) values by the caudate head and stable (long-term) values by the caudate tail. These value signals in the caudate guide the orienting of gaze differently: voluntary saccades by the caudate head circuit and automatic saccades by the caudate tail circuit. Moreover, separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate the caudate head and tail and may selectively guide the flexible and stable learning/memory in the caudate regions. Studies focusing on manual handling of objects also suggest that rostrocaudally separated circuits in the basal ganglia control the action differently. These results suggest that the basal ganglia contain parallel circuits for two steps of goal-directed behaviour: finding valuable objects and manipulating the valuable objects. These parallel circuits may underlie voluntary behaviour and automatic skills, enabling animals (including humans) to adapt to both volatile and stable environments. This understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the basal ganglia parallel circuits may inform the differential diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:25981958

  2. BMP-driven NRF2 activation in esophageal basal cell differentiation and eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Ku, Wei-Yao; Zhou, Zhongren; Dellon, Evan S.; Falk, Gary W.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun; Liu, Kuancan; Wang, Jun; Katzka, David A.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Lan, Xiaopeng; Que, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, especially in tissues that are constantly replenished like the esophagus. Disruption of this balance is associated with pathological conditions, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), in which basal progenitor cells become hyperplastic upon proinflammatory stimulation. However, how basal cells respond to the inflammatory environment at the molecular level remains undetermined. We previously reported that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is critical for epithelial morphogenesis in the embryonic esophagus. Here, we address how this pathway regulates tissue homeostasis and EoE development in the adult esophagus. BMP signaling was specifically activated in differentiated squamous epithelium, but not in basal progenitor cells, which express the BMP antagonist follistatin. Previous reports indicate that increased BMP activity promotes Barrett’s intestinal differentiation; however, in mice, basal progenitor cell–specific expression of constitutively active BMP promoted squamous differentiation. Moreover, BMP activation increased intracellular ROS levels, initiating an NRF2-mediated oxidative response during basal progenitor cell differentiation. In both a mouse EoE model and human biopsies, reduced squamous differentiation was associated with high levels of follistatin and disrupted BMP/NRF2 pathways. We therefore propose a model in which normal squamous differentiation of basal progenitor cells is mediated by BMP-driven NRF2 activation and basal cell hyperplasia is promoted by disruption of BMP signaling in EoE. PMID:25774506

  3. Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix in a 20-year-old female: a case report

    PubMed Central

    DePond, William David; Flauta, Victor Santos; Lingamfelter, Daniel Christian; Schnee, David Mark; Menendez, Kristyn Poncy

    2006-01-01

    Background Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition mostly occurring among postmenopausal women. Although it can be confused with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix, adenoid basal carcinoma has several clinicopathologic features that will allow distinction from adenoid cystic carcinoma. Case presentation This is the case of a twenty-year old African-American female who initially presented with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on Pap smear, with a subsequent cervical LEEP specimen revealing adenoid basal carcinoma. The lesion showed the characteristic histologic features of adenoid basal carcinoma and was positive for the immunohistochemical marker EMA and negative for collagen IV, further defining the tumor while helping to rule out the possibility of adenoid cystic carcinoma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the youngest reported case of adenoid basal carcinoma to date. Conclusion This case shows that adenoid basal carcinoma can deviate markedly from its typical postmenopausal demographics to affect women as young as 20 years of age. In addition, adenoid basal carcinoma has several identifiable features that will differentiate it from adenoid cystic carcinoma including histologic and cellular morphologies, as well as immunohistochemistry. Treatment for most patients involves hysterectomy, LEEP, or a conization procedure which provides a favorable prognosis because of this lesion's low potential for recurrence and metastasis. PMID:16914043

  4. Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijssen, Annieke; Bakker Schut, Tom C; Heule, Freerk; Caspers, Peter J; Hayes, Donal P; Neumann, Martino H A; Puppels, Gerwin J

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to explore the applicability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding noncancerous tissue; therefore, identifying possibilities for the development of an in vivo diagnostic technique for tumor border demarcation. Raman spectra were obtained in a two-dimensional grid from unstained frozen sections of 15 basal cell carcinoma specimens. Pseudo-color Raman images were generated by multivariate statistical analysis and clustering analysis of spectra and compared with histopathology. In this way a direct link between histologically identifiable skin layers and structures and their Raman spectra was made. A tissue classification model was developed, which discriminates between basal cell carcinoma and surrounding nontumorous tissue, based on Raman spectra. The logistic regression model, shows a 100% sensitivity and 93% selectivity for basal cell carcinoma. The Raman spectra were, furthermore, used to obtain information about the differences in molecular composition between different skin layers and structures. An interesting finding was that in four samples of nodular basal cell carcinoma, the collagen signal contribution in spectra of dermis close to a basal cell carcinoma, was markedly reduced. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy to biochemical changes in tissue accompanying malignancy, resulting in a high accuracy when discriminating between basal cell carcinoma and noncancerous tissue. PMID:12164926

  5. The Basal Onaping Intrusion in the North Range: Roof rocks of the Sudbury Igneous Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Denise; Osinski, Gordon R.; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Brillinger, Derek T. M.

    2015-09-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact structure is one of the largest impact structures on Earth. Igneous bodies—the so-called "Basal Onaping Intrusion"—occur at the contact between the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) and the overlying Onaping Formation and occupy ~50% of this contact zone. The Basal Onaping Intrusion is presently considered part of the Onaping Formation, which is a complex series of breccias. Here, we present petrological and geochemical data from two drill cores and field data from the North Range of the Sudbury structure, which suggests that the Basal Onaping Intrusion is not part of the Onaping Formation. Our observations indicate that the Basal Onaping Intrusion crystallized from a melt and has a groundmass comprising a skeletal intergrowth of feldspar and quartz that points to simultaneous cooling of both components. Increasing grain size and decreasing amounts of clasts with increasing depth are general features of roof rocks of coherent impact melt rocks at other impact structures and the Basal Onaping Intrusion. Planar deformation features within quartz clasts of the Basal Onaping Intrusion are indicators for shock metamorphism and, together with the melt matrix, point to the Basal Onaping Intrusion as being an impact melt rock, by definition. Importantly, the contact between Granophyre of the SIC and Basal Onaping Intrusion is transitional and we suggest that the Basal Onaping Intrusion is what remains of the roof rocks of the SIC and, thus, is a unit of the SIC and not the Onaping Formation. We suggest henceforth that this unit be referred to as the "Upper Contact Unit" of the SIC.

  6. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T) levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L) (n = 187); Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH < = 10 IU/L) (n = 1073). We studied the association of basal T levels with ovarian response and IVF outcome in the two groups. Long luteal down-regulation protocol was used in all patients, that is, the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist was administered in the midluteal phase of the previous cycle and use of recombinant FSH was started when satisfactory pituitary desensitization was achieved. Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm) on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response. PMID:21247501

  7. Basal Forebrain Atrophy Contributes to Allocentric Navigation Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kerbler, Georg M.; Nedelska, Zuzana; Fripp, Jurgen; Laczó, Jan; Vyhnalek, Martin; Lisý, Ji?í; Hamlin, Adam S.; Rose, Stephen; Hort, Jakub; Coulson, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain degenerates in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and this process is believed to contribute to the cognitive decline observed in AD patients. Impairment in spatial navigation is an early feature of the disease but whether basal forebrain dysfunction in AD is responsible for the impaired navigation skills of AD patients is not known. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between basal forebrain volume and performance in real space as well as computer-based navigation paradigms in an elderly cohort comprising cognitively normal controls, subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and those with AD. We also tested whether basal forebrain volume could predict the participants’ ability to perform allocentric- vs. egocentric-based navigation tasks. The basal forebrain volume was calculated from 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and navigation skills were assessed using the human analog of the Morris water maze employing allocentric, egocentric, and mixed allo/egocentric real space as well as computerized tests. When considering the entire sample, we found that basal forebrain volume correlated with spatial accuracy in allocentric (cued) and mixed allo/egocentric navigation tasks but not the egocentric (uncued) task, demonstrating an important role of the basal forebrain in mediating cue-based spatial navigation capacity. Regression analysis revealed that, although hippocampal volume reflected navigation performance across the entire sample, basal forebrain volume contributed to mixed allo/egocentric navigation performance in the AD group, whereas hippocampal volume did not. This suggests that atrophy of the basal forebrain contributes to aspects of navigation impairment in AD that are independent of hippocampal atrophy. PMID:26441643

  8. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

  9. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

  10. Heat-transfer analysis of the basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Minale, M.; Astarita, G.

    1993-12-01

    Basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves is an important element in the overall balance of Antarctic ice. A heat-transfer model for the basal melting of the Drygalski Ice Tongue is presented. The model does not contain any adjustable parameter. The calculated basal melting rate agrees very well with the value estimated from an overall ice balance on the ice tongue. It is concluded that relatively simple concepts of transport phenomena may be used to model some important features of the dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheet.

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising on a Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Analia; Aguinaga, Felipe; Marinho, Flauberto; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of basal cell carcinoma that appeared from an epidermal verrucous nevus in a 61-year-old patient. The onset of basal cell carcinoma in sebaceous nevi, basal cell nevi and dysplastic nevi is relatively common, but it is rarely associated with epidermal verrucous nevi. There is no consensus on whether the two lesions have a common cellular origin or whether they merely represent a collision of two distinct tumors. Since this association – as with other malignant tumors – is rare, there is no need for prophylactic removal of epidermal verrucous nevi. PMID:25848348

  12. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  13. Supplement to Logic and Computer

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    1 Supplement to Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals 3rd Edition1 CMOS CIRCUITS So far we have Design Fundamentals are provided here for optional coverage and for self-study if desired. This material

  14. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whether you need a supplement in the first place, the dose and possible interactions with medicine you’re already taking.” For vitamins and minerals, check the % Daily Value (DV) for each nutrient to make sure you’ ...

  15. Eddy-resolving simulations of the Fimbul Ice Shelf cavity circulation: Basal melting and exchange with open ocean

    E-print Network

    Lilly, Jonathan

    are close to the surface freezing point. The basal mass loss in this so-called state of ``shallow melt- ingEddy-resolving simulations of the Fimbul Ice Shelf cavity circulation: Basal melting and exchange processes Fimbul Ice Shelf basal melting Eddy overturning Mesoscale ocean modeling a b s t r a c t Melting

  16. The Response of Ice Shelf Basal Melting to Variations in Ocean Temperature PAUL R. HOLLAND AND ADRIAN JENKINS

    E-print Network

    Holland, David

    The Response of Ice Shelf Basal Melting to Variations in Ocean Temperature PAUL R. HOLLAND ice shelf basal melt increases quadratically as the ocean offshore of the ice front warms. This occurs to suggest that an increase in ice shelf basal melting, caused by warmer ocean waters reaching these ice

  17. A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis for Its

    E-print Network

    Baker, David

    A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis report the crystal structures of three domains of the prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 basal body, and use) A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis for Its

  18. Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92%) to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%). Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However, myxospores could not be isolated from the fish and confirmation was by PCR alone. The relationship between the myxosporean infection in gill monogeneans and the presence of parasitic DNA in fish is not yet fully understood. Nonetheless, myxospores with a Myxidium-like morphology, two of which we have shown to be phylogenetically related, have now been reported to develop in three different gill monogeneans, indicating that myxosporeans are true parasites of monogeneans. PMID:22115202

  19. Earth Tidal Controls on Basal Dynamics and Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulessa, B.; Hubbard, B. P.; Brown, G. H.; Becker, J.

    2001-12-01

    We appraise earth tidal forcing of coupled mechanical and hydrological processes beneath warm-based ice masses, which have to date been poorly documented but represent exciting phenomena that have important implications for future studies of glacier dynamics. Regular cycles in winter and early spring electrical self-potential (SP), water pressure (PW) and electrical conductivity (EC) were recorded at the bases of several boreholes drilled through Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. Fourier power spectra of these data reflect the presence of diurnal and semi-diurnal cycles, and comparison with the earth tidal spectrum indicates that at least four components of the latter are visible in the borehole spectra: the luni-solar diurnal, the principal lunar diurnal, the principal solar semi-diurnal, and the principal lunar semi-diurnal. This correspondence suggests that earth tides exert a strong control over water flow at the bed of the glacier, at least during winter and early spring. We envisage a mechanism that involves earth-tide induced deformation of the bedrock and the unconsolidated sediments beneath the glacier, and to a certain extent probably also the overlying ice body. Basal water pockets, including those containing our sensors, located within these media are in turn also likely to be deformed periodically. We believe that PW gradients induced by such deformation may result in transient water flow and SPs in the pockets. Since PW and EC are typically out-of-phase, injection of waters of lower EC into the pockets during times of peak water flow is likely. Several lines of evidence suggest that such injection was caused by melting of the ice wall due to frictional heating, balancing creep closure which sustained some pockets through the winter. Further, the first annually-repeated post-winter reorganization event, termed the May event, may well be triggered by tidally-induced releases of waters from storage. This implies that the May event marks the opening of the subglacial drainage conditions at the start of the summer, and not the Spring event, as commonly assumed to date.

  20. Effect of different supplements on eggshell quality, some characteristics of gastrointestinal tract and performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Shalaei, Mosayeb; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Zergani, Emel

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on performance, egg shell quality, pH value of gastrointestinal (GI) tract and small intestinal morphology of laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain (W-36) from 32 to 42 weeks of age, with five treatments, four replicates and eight hens in each replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of: 1-basal diet, 2-basal diet + 150 g per ton antibiotic (oxytetracycline), 3-basal diet + 3 kg per ton mixture of organic acids supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g per ton probiotic (protoxin) and 5-basal diet + 2 kg per ton prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide). During the experimental period, performance characteristics were evaluated. At the end of experiment two birds per replicate was sacrificed for small intestinal morphology. The results showed that organic acid and mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased average egg weight. Also feed conversion ratio significantly improved by mannan oligosaccharide. Eggshell quality was not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Regarding gastrointestinal tract characteristics, pH value of different parts of GI tract were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Villi height in duodenum by probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. Villi width in duodenum by antibiotic and probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. The number of goblet cells in duodenum by addition of antibiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. It was concluded that the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharide could have positive effects on performance of laying hens. PMID:25610579

  1. Improved cryopreservation of bovine preimplantation embryos cultured in chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kwang Taek; Jang, Goo; Ko, Kyung Hee; Lee, Won Wou; Park, Hee Jung; Kim, Joung Joo; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2008-01-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of modifications to a standard slow freezing protocol on the viability of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Bovine oocytes were matured, fertilized with frozen-thawed semen, and presumptive zygotes cultured in defined two-step culture media. The standard freezing medium was 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG), 0.1M sucrose, 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (D-PBS). A preliminary trial showed that in vitro produced embryos cryopreserved in this medium had a survival rate of 74.6% at 24h and 53.5% at 48 h post-thaw. Experiment 1 studied the effects of omitting the sucrose supplement or replacing it with 0.1M xylose. In Experiment 2, the effects of partial (0%, 25% or 50%) or total (100%) replacement of sodium chloride with choline chloride in the cryopreservation medium were examined (the medium with 100% replacement was designated CJ1). The effects of replacing the 10% FBS with 0.4% BSA or 0.4% lipid-rich BSA (Albumax I) in CJ1 was studied in Experiment 3. In Experiment 4, pregnancy/calving rates following the post-thaw transfer of in vitro produced embryos cryopreserved in the standard freezing medium were compared with those of in vitro and in vivo produced embryos cryopreserved in the improved medium (Albumax I in CJ1). Supplementation of the cryopreservation medium with 0.1M sucrose resulted in higher post-thaw survival rates at 24 h (71.3% versus 53.5 and 51.7%; P<0.05), 48 h (51.1% versus 45.3 and 40.2%), and 72 h (34.0% versus 24.4 and 23.0%) than 0.1M xylose or no supplement, respectively, in Experiment 1. Experiment 2 showed that embryos cryopreserved in the standard medium had poorer survival rates at 24 h (72.8% versus 86.5%; P<0.05), 48 h (53.1% versus 66.3%) or 72 h (28.4% versus 44.9%) than those frozen in CJ1. The post-thaw survival rate of embryos frozen in medium supplemented with Albumax I was better than that for the FBS or BSA supplements at 24h (92.0% versus 90.7 and 87.3%), 48 h (87.3% versus 76.9 and 70.9%; P<0.05), and 72 h (70.4% versus 49.1 and 46 4%; P<0.05; Experiment 3). In Experiment 4, in vitro produced embryos cryopreserved in CJ1 medium supplemented with Albumax I resulted in higher pregnancy rates at Day 35 (31.9% versus 22.9%) and Day 60 (24.1% versus 14.3%) of gestation, and calving rates (22.6% versus 10.0%; P<0.05) than similar embryos frozen in the standard medium. However, in vivo produced embryos cryopreserved in Albumax I in CJ1 resulted in higher pregnancy rates at Day 35 (50.7%; P<0.05) and Day 60 (45.1%; P<0.05) of gestation, and calving rate (43.7%; P<0.05). It was concluded that modification of the freezing medium by addition of lipid-rich BSA and replacing sodium chloride with choline chloride improves the post-thaw survival of in vitro produced embryos, and their viability post-transfer. PMID:17321080

  2. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Procyanidin on Growth Performance and Immune Response in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. C.; Lee, S. H.; Hong, J. K.; Cho, J. H.; Kim, I. H.; Park, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of procyanidin on growth performance, blood characteristics, and immune function in growing pigs. In experiment 1 (Exp. 1), thirty-two crossbred pigs with an initial BW of 19.2±0.3 kg were allocated into 4 treatments for an 8-wk experiment: i) CON (basal diet), ii) MOS 0.1 (basal diet+0.1% mannanoligosaccharide), iii) Pro-1 (basal diet+0.01% procyanidin), and iv) Pro-2 (basal diet+0.02% procyanidin). Pigs fed Pro-1 and Pro-2 diets had greater (p<0.05) gain:feed ratio compared with those fed CON or MOS 0.1 diets. Serum creatinine concentration was less (p<0.05) in Pro-2 treatment than those in CON, MOS 0.1 and Pro-1 treatments. In Exp. 2, twelve pigs (BW 13.4±1.3 kg) received basal diet with i) 0 (CON), ii) 0.02% (Pro-0.02%), and iii) 0.04% procyanidin (Pro-0.04%) for 4 wk. Concentration of platelets was lower (p<0.05) in the Pro-0.04% group compared to CON at 24 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In addition, secretion of cytokines from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence or absence of procyanidin was examined. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were lower (p<0.05) in Pro (LPS-stimulated PBMCs+procyanidin) than those in CON (LPS-stimulated PBMCs+PBS) at 4 h after LPS challenge. These data suggest that dietary addition of procyanidin improves feed efficiency and anti-inflammatory cytokines of pigs. PMID:25049935

  3. Effects of yeast selenium supplementation on the growth performance, meat quality, immunity, and antioxidant capacity of goose.

    PubMed

    Baowei, W; Guoqing, H; Qiaoli, W; Bin, Y

    2011-08-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of yeast selenium (YS) supplementation on the growth performance, meat quality, immunity, and antioxidant variables of geese. A total of 96 one-day-old geese with similar body weight were randomly divided into four groups, with three replicates per group and eight geese in each replicate. The birds were fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.10, 0.30, 0.50 mg/kg YS (on selenium basis) during the 63-day experiment. Yeast selenium supplementation showed no effect on the growth performance of geese, but significantly improved the meat quality. No changes in ash or fat content were observed in breast muscle, but significant (p < 0.05) protein content increase was detected in the 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg groups. Yeast selenium supplementation significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) promoted Se deposition in liver, kidney, pancreas, and muscle and the highest increases were all detected in the 0.5 mg/kg group. Yeast selenium supplementation enhanced the organ and cellular immunity of geese, but did not alter the humoral immunity. Furthermore, dietary YS significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the antioxidant capacity of both muscle and liver, but the effects varied with YS levels and organs. Hence, dietary YS supplementation was a good measure to improve the meat quality, Se content, immunity function, and antioxidant capacity of goose. PMID:21050274

  4. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  5. 27 CFR 19.914 - Medium plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medium plants. 19.914 Section 19.914 ...Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.914 Medium plants. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant shall make application for...

  6. Microalgae digestate effluent as a growth medium for Tetraselmis sp. in the production of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Mason; Ward, Andrew J; Ball, Andrew S; Lewis, David M

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated an alternative nutrient source arising from anaerobically digested Tetraselmis sp. effluent (MDE) as a nutrient feed stock to form a closed loop nutrient system. To determine MDE suitability the following factors were observed: growth, lipid content, and the bacterial diversity. MDE was diluted according to the concentration of NH4(+) content (20, 40, 60, 80 mg/L) and compared against F/2 medium a standard medium for Tetraselmis sp. The growth rate on the MDE medium was not as rapid as the F/2 medium and the less diluted MDE correlated (R(2)) with lower total lipid contents (R(2), 0.927), additionally acyl carrier proteins (ACP) gene expression rates displayed lower gene expression within MDE treatments. Lastly, higher concentrations of MDE were correlated with a higher bacterial diversity throughout the investigation. The suitability of MDE as a nutrient supplement for the production of Tetraselmis sp. biomass and lipid is feasible. PMID:24971948

  7. Study of mechanical motions in the basal region of the chinchilla cochlea

    E-print Network

    Kemnitz, Joseph

    Study of mechanical motions in the basal region of the chinchilla cochlea William S. Rhodea of the chinchilla cochlea indicate the basilar membrane in the hook region 12­18 kHz vibrates essentially as it does

  8. Modeling the role of the basal ganglia in motor control and motor programming

    E-print Network

    Mao, Zhi-Hong, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of highly interconnected nuclei buried deep in the brain. They are involved in an important range of brain functions, including both lower-level movement control and higher-level cognitive ...

  9. Basal foot MTOC organizes pillar MTs required for coordination of beating cilia.

    PubMed

    Clare, Daniel K; Magescas, Jérémy; Piolot, Tristan; Dumoux, Maud; Vesque, Christine; Pichard, Evelyne; Dang, Tien; Duvauchelle, Boris; Poirier, Françoise; Delacour, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Coordination of ciliary beating is essential to ensure mucus clearance in the airway tract. The orientation and synchronization of ciliary motion responds in part to the organization of the underlying cytoskeletal networks. Using electron tomography on mouse trachea, we show that basal bodies are collectively hooked at the cortex by a regular microtubule array composed of 4-5 microtubules. Removal of galectin-3, one of basal-body components, provokes misrecruitment of ?-tubulin, disorganization of this microtubule framework emanating from the basal-foot cap, together with loss of basal-body alignment and cilium orientation, defects in cilium organization and reduced fluid flow in the tracheal lumen. We conclude that galectin-3 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the microtubule-organizing centre of the cilium and the 'pillar' microtubules, and that this network is instrumental for the coordinated orientation and stabilization of motile cilia. PMID:25215410

  10. A spiking neural network based on the basal ganglia functional anatomy.

    PubMed

    Baladron, Javier; Hamker, Fred H

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a spiking neural network of the basal ganglia capable of learning stimulus-action associations. We model learning in the three major basal ganglia pathways, direct, indirect and hyperdirect, by spike time dependent learning and considering the amount of dopamine available (reward). Moreover, we allow to learn a cortico-thalamic pathway that bypasses the basal ganglia. As a result the system develops new functionalities for the different basal ganglia pathways: The direct pathway selects actions by disinhibiting the thalamus, the hyperdirect one suppresses alternatives and the indirect pathway learns to inhibit common mistakes. Numerical experiments show that the system is capable of learning sets of either deterministic or stochastic rules. PMID:25863288

  11. Clonal Dynamics Reveal Two Distinct Populations of Basal Cells in Slow-Turnover Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Watson, Julie K; Rulands, Steffen; Wilkinson, Adam C; Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Göttgens, Berthold; Blanpain, Cédric; Simons, Benjamin D; Rawlins, Emma L

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial lineages have been studied at cellular resolution in multiple organs that turn over rapidly. However, many epithelia, including those of the lung, liver, pancreas, and prostate, turn over slowly and may be regulated differently. We investigated the mouse tracheal epithelial lineage at homeostasis by using long-term clonal analysis and mathematical modeling. This pseudostratified epithelium contains basal cells and secretory and multiciliated luminal cells. Our analysis revealed that basal cells are heterogeneous, comprising approximately equal numbers of multipotent stem cells and committed precursors, which persist in the basal layer for 11 days before differentiating to luminal fate. We confirmed the molecular and functional differences within the basal population by using single-cell qRT-PCR and further lineage labeling. Additionally, we show that self-renewal of short-lived secretory cells is a feature of homeostasis. We have thus revealed early luminal commitment of cells that are morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells. PMID:26119728

  12. Clonal Dynamics Reveal Two Distinct Populations of Basal Cells in Slow-Turnover Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Julie K.; Rulands, Steffen; Wilkinson, Adam C.; Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Göttgens, Berthold; Blanpain, Cédric; Simons, Benjamin D.; Rawlins, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epithelial lineages have been studied at cellular resolution in multiple organs that turn over rapidly. However, many epithelia, including those of the lung, liver, pancreas, and prostate, turn over slowly and may be regulated differently. We investigated the mouse tracheal epithelial lineage at homeostasis by using long-term clonal analysis and mathematical modeling. This pseudostratified epithelium contains basal cells and secretory and multiciliated luminal cells. Our analysis revealed that basal cells are heterogeneous, comprising approximately equal numbers of multipotent stem cells and committed precursors, which persist in the basal layer for 11 days before differentiating to luminal fate. We confirmed the molecular and functional differences within the basal population by using single-cell qRT-PCR and further lineage labeling. Additionally, we show that self-renewal of short-lived secretory cells is a feature of homeostasis. We have thus revealed early luminal commitment of cells that are morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells. PMID:26119728

  13. Sumoylation Pathway Is Required to Maintain the Basal Breast Cancer Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Bogachek, Maria V.; Chen, Yizhen; Kulak, Mikhail V.; Woodfield, George W.; Cyr, Anthony R.; Park, Jung Min; Spanheimer, Philip M.; Li, Yingyue; Li, Tiandao; Weigel, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The TFAP2C/AP-2? transcription factor regulates luminal breast cancer genes and loss of TFAP2C induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition. By contrast, the highly homologous family member, TFAP2A, lacks transcriptional activity at luminal gene promoters. A detailed structure-function analysis identified that sumoylation of TFAP2A blocks its ability to induce the expression of luminal genes. Disruption of the sumoylation pathway by knockdown of sumoylation enzymes, mutation of the SUMO-target lysine of TFAP2A, or treatment with sumoylation inhibitors induced a basal to luminal transition, which was dependent upon TFAP2A. Sumoylation inhibitors cleared the CD44+/hi/CD24?/low cell population characterizing basal cancers and inhibited tumor outgrowth of basal cancer xenografts. These findings establish a critical role for sumoylation in regulating the transcriptional mechanisms that maintain the basal cancer phenotype. PMID:24835590

  14. Disturbed basal ice seen in radio echo images coincide with zones of big interlocking ice crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Panton, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Improvement of the depth sounding radio echo sounding (RES) over Antarctica and Greenland Ice Sheet has made it possible to map the near basal layers that have not been 'seen' earlier due to the very high demand of attenuation needed to reach through more than 3000m of ice. The RES internal reflectors show that the near basal ice at many locations has disturbed layering. At the locations where ice cores reach the bedrock both in Greenland and Antarctica studies of the ice crystal size and orientation show that the near basal ice has big and interlocking ice crystals which suggests the ice is not actively deforming. These observations challenge the often used constitutive equations like Glens flow law in ice sheet modelling. A discussion of the impact of the RES findings on ice sheet modeling and the quest to find the oldest ice in Antarctic based on the anisotropy of the basal ice will follow.

  15. The involvement of the primate frontal cortex-basal ganglia system in arbitrary visuomotor association learning

    E-print Network

    Machon, Michelle S

    2009-01-01

    It is the goal of this thesis to examine the frontal cortex-basal ganglia system during arbitrary visuomotor association learning, the forming of arbitrary links between visual stimuli and motor responses (e.g. red means ...

  16. EZH2 promotes a bi-lineage identity in basal-like breast cancer cells

    E-print Network

    Granit, R. Z.

    The mechanisms regulating breast cancer differentiation state are poorly understood. Of particular interest are molecular regulators controlling the highly aggressive and poorly differentiated traits of basal-like breast ...

  17. Autism spectrum disorder susceptibility gene TAOK2 affects basal dendrite formation in the neocortex

    E-print Network

    Calderon de Anda, Froylan

    How neurons develop their morphology is an important question in neurobiology. Here we describe a new pathway that specifically affects the formation of basal dendrites and axonal projections in cortical pyramidal neurons. ...

  18. High pressure freezing, electron microscopy, and immuno-electron microscopy of Tetrahymena thermophila basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Meehl, Janet B; Giddings, Thomas H; Winey, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Preservation of Tetrahymena thermophila basal body ultrastructure for visualization by transmission electron microscopy is improved by a combination of high pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS). These methods also reliably retain the antigenicity of cellular proteins for immuno-electron microscopy, which enables the precise localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged and native basal body proteins. The plastic-embedded samples generated by these methods take full advantage of higher resolution visualization techniques such as electron tomography. We describe protocols for cryofixation, FS, immunolabeling, and staining. Suggestions for trouble shooting and evaluation of specimen quality are discussed. In combination with identification and manipulation of a rapidly expanding list of basal body-associated gene products, these methods are being used to increase our understanding of basal body composition, assembly, and function. PMID:19768433

  19. Validation of Algorithms for Basal Insulin Rate Reductions in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Practising Physical Activity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-04-19

    Type 1 Diabetes With a Subcutaneous Insulin Pump; Adjustment of the Recommended Basal Insulin Flow Rate in the Event of Physical Activity; Adjustment of the Recommended Prandial Insulin in the Event of Physical Activity

  20. A basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird biases motor output to avoid vocal errors

    E-print Network

    Andalman, Aaron S.

    In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and production of complex motor behaviors; however, the precise role of these circuits remains unknown. It has recently been shown ...

  1. GIARDIA LAMBLIA: STIMULATION OF GROWTH BY HUMAN INTESTINAL MUCUS AND EPITHELIAL CELLS IN SERUMFREE MEDIUM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites specifically colonize the upper human small intestine which is normally serum-free, but grow in vitro only in medium supplemented with serum or serum fractions. Recently, biliary lipids were shown to support the growth of G. lamblia without serum. Now...

  2. Investigating the Geometry and Conditions for Basal Accretion of Englacial Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leysinger Vieli, G. J.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Martin, C.

    2014-12-01

    Large englacial features at the base of the ice sheet have been observed in recent radio echo sounding data in both Antarctica and Greenland. In Greenland such features are found in many places, especially in North Greenland, where high availability in basal water is likely. In the interior of Antarctica such features are observed in the Dome A region, a slow flowing region, where the alpine like relief of the Gamburtsev subglacial mountains allows for basal melt in the deeply incised valleys. All these observed englacial features resemble plumes, which can, in terms of their geometric structure, be reproduced by modelling internal isochrone layers by including basal ice-accretion. However, to produce such large freeze-on features sufficiently high basal accretion rates are needed. Here we investigate the conditions required, in terms of water flux and bed slope, to obtain the needed basal accretion rates through the process of Clausius-Clapeyron cooling of basal water. Furthermore, we examine the geometrical aspect of the plumes and the related englacial isochrone pattern to understand the relationship with ice flux. We use the 3-D numerical model BASISM to calculate temperature, melt water flux and ice flux. We find that for most areas where plumes are found the relationship between water flux and steep ascending slopes in the basal topography along flow is sufficient to explain the accretion rates through the process of Clausius-Clapeyron cooling. Further, we find that the plume height for a given accretion rate is inversely related to the ice flux, matching areas with reduced local ice flux showing high plumes. Since ice rheology affects the ice flux and in addition, might be affected by basal freeze-on, we use the ELMER/ICE model to explore the effect of ice fabric evolution and internal temperature variation.

  3. Lacritin, a Novel Human Tear Glycoprotein, Promotes Sustained Basal Tearing and Is Well Tolerated

    PubMed Central

    Lattanzio, Frank A.; Lossen, Victoria; Hosseini, Alireza; Sheppard, John D.; McKown, Robert L.; Laurie, Gordon W.; Williams, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Lacritin is a novel human tear glycoprotein that promotes basal tear peroxidase secretion by rat lacrimal acinar cells in vitro. This study investigates whether lacritin is prosecretory when added topically to the ocular surface of normal living rabbits, and if so, what is its efficacy and tolerability versus cyclosporine and artificial tears. Methods. Purified recombinant human lacritin (1, 10, 50, or 100 ?g/mL), inactive lacritin truncation mutant C-25 (10 ?g/mL), cyclosporine (0.05%), or artificial tears were topically administered to eyes of normal New Zealand White rabbits either as a single dose or three times daily for 14 days with monitoring of basal tear production. Basal tearing under proparacaine anesthesia was repeatedly assessed throughout and 1 week after chronic treatment ceased. Eyes were examined weekly by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Results. Lacritin acutely increased basal tearing to 30% over vehicle at 240 minutes. Three times daily treatment with 10–100 ?g/mL lacritin was well tolerated. Basal tearing became progressively elevated 4, 7, and 14 days later and was 50% over baseline (50 ?g/mL lacritin) 1 week after treatment had ceased. Cyclosporine elevated tearing to a similar level on days 4 and 7 but had little or no effect on day 14 and had returned to baseline 1 week after ending treatment. C-25 and artificial tears had no effect. Conclusions. Lacritin acutely stimulates basal tear flow that is sustained for at least 240 minutes. Two weeks of lacritin treatment three times daily was well tolerated and progressively elevated the basal tear flow. One week after treatment ended, basal tearing was still 50% over baseline. In contrast, cyclosporine triggered mild to moderate corneal irritation and a temporary elevation in tearing. PMID:21087963

  4. Hedgehog- and mTOR-targeted therapies for advanced basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Paquet, Philippe; Herfs, Michael; Delvenne, Philippe; Piérard, Gérald E

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are the most frequent human cancer. Over 90% of all BCCs have a mutation in PTCH1 or smoothened, two conducting proteins of the Hedgehog pathway. They rarely progress deeply and metastasize; however, if they do, these advanced basal cell carcinoma become amenable to treatment by inhibiting the Hedgehog and the P13K-mTOR pathways. Such innovative drugs include vismodegib, cyclopamine, itraconazole, everolimus and a few other agents that are in early clinical development. PMID:26437034

  5. Effects of dietary star anise (Illicium verum?Hook f) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the performance of lactating multiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong Ying; Yang, ChongWu; Yang, Zaibin; Yang, Weiren; Jiang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Guiguo; Guo, Yixuan; Wei, Maolian

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-two sows were allocated to four treatments to evaluate the effect of dietary star anise (SA) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the lactational performance of sows. At 85 days of gestation, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. After farrowing, sows were further allotted to one of two lactation diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. On a weekly basis, body weight (BW) of sows and piglets was measured. Blood and milk samples were obtained from the sows and piglets. Number of days from weaning to estrus, milk yield and feed intake were also recorded. Weight gain of piglets from sows fed the SA-supplemented diet during lactation was greater between days 7 and 14, days 14 and 21 and the overall experimental period compared with control groups. Supplementation of SA during lactation improved weaning weight of piglets, milk yield and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows. The SA diet increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ordinary milk and prolactin (PRL) in serum of sows. In conclusion, this study has indicated the beneficial effects of dietary SA addition in improving the lactation performance of sows. PMID:25438815

  6. Basal Lamina Scaffold-Anatomy and Significance for Maintenance of Orderly Tissue Structure

    PubMed Central

    Vracko, Rudolf

    1974-01-01

    The basal lamina is an extracellular scaffold positioned between parenchymal cells and connective tissue. Parenchymal cells attach to one of its surfaces and the other is anchored to connective tissue. By its presence it defines the spatial relationships among similar and dissimilar types of cells and between these cells and the space occupied by connective and supportive tissues. Replenishment of cells which have died during normal functioning or have become damaged in course of injury occurs with new cells in an orderly way along the framework of the basal lamina scaffold. This process appears to be aided by the polarity of the basal lamina and by an apparent specificity for cell types, and it enables multicellular organisms to reconstitute histologic structures of most tissues and organs to what they were prior to loss of cells. If the basal lamina is destroyed, the healing in most tissues results in formation of scar and loss of function. The properties of the basal lamina concerned with maintenance of histologic order in organs and tissues offer new ways to interpret the pathogenesis of several common disorders, including emphysema, scars, adhesions, cirrhosis of liver and excessive accumulation of basal lamina material as, for example, it occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8 PMID:4614671

  7. Airway basal cells. The "smoking gun" of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-12-15

    The earliest abnormality in the lung associated with smoking is hyperplasia of airway basal cells, the stem/progenitor cells of the ciliated and secretory cells that are central to pulmonary host defense. Using cell biology and 'omics technologies to assess basal cells isolated from bronchoscopic brushings of nonsmokers, smokers, and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), compelling evidence has been provided in support of the concept that airway basal cells are central to the pathogenesis of smoking-associated lung diseases. When confronted by the chronic stress of smoking, airway basal cells become disorderly, regress to a more primitive state, behave as dictated by their inheritance, are susceptible to acquired changes in their genome, lose the capacity to regenerate the epithelium, are responsible for the major changes in the airway that characterize COPD, and, with persistent stress, can undergo malignant transformation. Together, these observations led to the conclusion that accelerated loss of lung function in susceptible individuals begins with disordered airway basal cell biology (i.e., that airway basal cells are the "smoking gun" of COPD, a potential target for the development of therapies to prevent smoking-related lung disorders). PMID:25354273

  8. The Basal NPO crh Fluctuation is Sustained Under Compromised Glucocorticoid Signaling in Diurnal Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min

    2015-01-01

    The circadian activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis is crucial for maintaining vertebrate homeostasis. In mammals, both the principle regulator, corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the final effector, the glucocorticoids show daily rhythmic patterns. While glucocorticoids are the main negative regulator of PVN crh under stress, whether they modulate the PVN crh rhythm under basal condition is unclear in diurnal animals. Using zebrafish larvae, a recently-established diurnal model organism suited for the HPA/I axis and homeostasis research, we ask if glucocorticoid changes are required to maintain the daily variation of PVN crh. We first characterized the development of the HPI axis overtime and showed that the basal activity of the HPI axis is robust and tightly regulated by circadian cue in 6-day old larvae. We demonstrated a negative correlation between the basal cortisol and neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO) crh variations. To test if cortisol drives NPO crh variation, we analyzed the NPO crh levels in glucorcorticoid antagonist-treated larvae and mutants lacking circadian cortisol variations. We showed that NPO crh basal fluctuation is sustained although the level was decreased without proper cortisol signaling in zebrafish. Our data indicates that glucocorticoids do not modulate the basal NPO crh variations but may be required for maintaining overall NPO crh levels. This further suggests that under basal and stress conditions the HPA/I axis activity is modulated differently by glucocorticoids. PMID:26696807

  9. Prostacyclin can either increase or decrease heart rate depending on the basal state.

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarelli, M.; Moncada, S.; Mullane, K. M.

    1982-01-01

    1 The influence of the basal heart rate on the change in rate induced by prostacyclin (PGI2) was investigated in beagles anaesthetized with chloralose. 2 In male dogs with a low basal heart rate (less than 100 beats/min) PGI2, in doses up to 0.5 microgram/kg intravenously, induced hypotension and tachycardia. 3 In contrast, PGI2-induced hypotension was accompanied by bradycardia when either the basal heart rate was increased (greater than 130 beats/min) with isoprenaline or nitroprusside, or the dose of PGI2 was increased. 4 Female beagles were less sensitive than males to the stimulation of a reflex bradycardia by PGI2. 5 The influence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and bradykinin on heart rate was also found to depend upon the basal state in some dogs. 6 Bilateral vagotomy reversed the bradycardia provoked by PGI2, PGE2 and bradykinin. 7 Thus, PGI2-induced bradycardia in dependent on both the dose and the basal heart rate. Similarly the effects of PGE2 and bradykinin on heart rate also depend upon the basal state in some dogs. Moreover, there is a correlation between the ability of all three agonists to induce bradycardia, suggesting a common mechanism of action. PMID:7042022

  10. Basal cells of the human airways acquire mesenchymal traits in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in culture.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Hulda R; Arason, Ari J; Palsson, Ragnar; Franzdottir, Sigridur R; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Isaksson, Helgi J; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Magnusson, Magnus K

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease with high morbidity and mortality. The cellular source of the fibrotic process is currently under debate with one suggested mechanism being epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the alveolar region. In this study, we show that airway epithelium overlying fibroblastic foci in IPF contains a layer of p63-positive basal cells while lacking ciliated and goblet cells. This basal epithelium shows increased expression of CK14, Vimentin and N-cadherin while retaining E-cadherin. The underlying fibroblastic foci shows both E- and N-cadherin-positive cells. To determine if p63-positive basal cells were able to undergo EMT in culture, we treated VA10, a p63-positive basal cell line, with the serum replacement UltroserG. A sub-population of treated cells acquired a mesenchymal phenotype, including an E- to N-cadherin switch. After isolation, these cells portrayed a phenotype presenting major hallmarks of EMT (loss of epithelial markers, gain of mesenchymal markers, increased migration and anchorage-independent growth). This phenotypic switch was prevented in p63 knockdown (KD) cells. In conclusion, we show that airway epithelium overlying fibroblastic foci in IPF lacks its characteristic functional identity, shows increased reactivity of basal cells and acquisition of a partial EMT phenotype. This study suggests that some p63-positive basal cells are prone to phenotypic changes and could act as EMT progenitors in IPF. PMID:26390052

  11. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  12. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  13. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  14. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  15. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  16. Ammonium acetate enhances solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 using cassava as a fermentation medium.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang; Hu, Shiyuan; Chen, Jun; Shao, Lijun; He, Huiqi; Yang, Yunliu; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2009-09-01

    Cassava, due to its high starch content and low cost, is a promising candidate substrate for large-scale fermentation processes aimed at producing the solvents acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE). However, the solvent yield from the fermentation of cassava reaches only 60% of that achieved by fermenting corn. We have found that the addition of ammonium acetate (CH(3)COONH(4)) to the cassava medium significantly promotes solvent production from cassava fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018, a mutant with a high butanol ratio. When cassava medium was supplemented with 30 mM ammonium acetate, the acetone, butanol and total solvent production reached 5.0, 13.0 and 19.4 g/l, respectively, after 48 h of fermentation. This level of solvent production is comparable to that obtained from corn medium. Both ammonium (NH(4) (+)) and acetate (CH(3)COO(-)) were required for increased solvent synthesis. We also demonstrated substantially increased acetic and butyric acid accumulation during the acidogenesis phase as well as greater acid re-assimilation during the solventogenesis period in ammonium acetate-supplemented cassava medium. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transcription of several genes encoding enzymes related to acidogenesis and solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 were enhanced by the addition of ammonium acetate to the cassava medium. PMID:19543929

  17. Extensive basal ganglia edema caused by a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: a rare presentation related to a basal vein of Rosenthal anatomical variation.

    PubMed

    Ract, Isabelle; Drier, Aurélie; Leclercq, Delphine; Sourour, Nader; Gabrieli, Joseph; Yger, Marion; Nouet, Aurélien; Dormont, Didier; Chiras, Jacques; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    The authors report a very rare presentation of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) with extensive edema of the basal ganglia and brainstem because of an anatomical variation of the basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR). A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the authors' institution for left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and a comatose state caused by right orbital trauma from a thin metal rod. Brain MRI showed a right CCF and vasogenic edema of the right side of the brainstem, right temporal lobe, and basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed a high-flow direct CCF and revealed a hypoplastic second segment of the BVR responsible for the hypertension in inferior striate veins and venous congestion. Endovascular treatment was performed on an emergency basis. One month after treatment, the patient's symptoms and MRI signal abnormalities almost totally disappeared. Basal ganglia and brainstem venous congestion may occur in traumatic CCF in cases of a hypoplastic or agenetic second segment of the BVR and may provoke emergency treatment. PMID:24527815

  18. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  19. Introduction to the supplement.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-06-01

    In July of 2014, a symposium entitled "Enhancing Vaccine Immunity and Value" was held in Siena, Italy. The focus of the symposium was on how to best meet the challenge of developing and implementing vaccines for future disease targets. Vaccination has been responsible for averting estimated 3 billion cases of disease and more than 500 million lives to date through the prevention of infectious diseases. This has largely been responsible for dramatic increases in life span in developed countries. However, with the demographics of the world's population are changing, with many adults now surviving into their 80s, we now face the challenge of protecting the aging and other underserved populations not only against infectious diseases but also against cancer and other chronic conditions that occur in older adults. To face this challenge, we must harness new technologies derived from recent advances in the fields of immunology, structural biology, synthetic biology and genomics that promise a revolution in the vaccine field. Specifically, vaccine adjuvants have the potential to harness the immune system to provide protection against new types of diseases, improve protection in young children and expand this protection to adults and the elderly. However, in order to succeed, we need to overcome the non-technical challenges that could limit the implementation of innovative vaccines, including controversies regarding the safety of adjuvants, increasing regulatory complexity, the inadequate methods used to assess the value of novel vaccines, and the resulting industry alienation from future investment. In this supplement, we have assembled manuscripts from lectures and discussions of the symposium last July that addressed two related questions: how to improve vaccine efficacy using breakthrough technologies and how to capture the full potential of novel vaccines. PMID:26022560

  20. Identifying the Basal Ganglia Network Model Markers for Medication-Induced Impulsivity in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi Priyadharsini; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ali, Manal; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity, i.e. irresistibility in the execution of actions, may be prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine precursors or dopamine receptor agonists. In this study, we combine clinical investigations with computational modeling to explore whether impulsivity in PD patients on medication may arise as a result of abnormalities in risk, reward and punishment learning. In order to empirically assess learning outcomes involving risk, reward and punishment, four subject groups were examined: healthy controls, ON medication PD patients with impulse control disorder (PD-ON ICD) or without ICD (PD-ON non-ICD), and OFF medication PD patients (PD-OFF). A neural network model of the Basal Ganglia (BG) that has the capacity to predict the dysfunction of both the dopaminergic (DA) and the serotonergic (5HT) neuromodulator systems was developed and used to facilitate the interpretation of experimental results. In the model, the BG action selection dynamics were mimicked using a utility function based decision making framework, with DA controlling reward prediction and 5HT controlling punishment and risk predictions. The striatal model included three pools of Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs), with D1 receptor (R) alone, D2R alone and co-expressing D1R-D2R. Empirical studies showed that reward optimality was increased in PD-ON ICD patients while punishment optimality was increased in PD-OFF patients. Empirical studies also revealed that PD-ON ICD subjects had lower reaction times (RT) compared to that of the PD-ON non-ICD patients. Computational modeling suggested that PD-OFF patients have higher punishment sensitivity, while healthy controls showed comparatively higher risk sensitivity. A significant decrease in sensitivity to punishment and risk was crucial for explaining behavioral changes observed in PD-ON ICD patients. Our results highlight the power of computational modelling for identifying neuronal circuitry implicated in learning, and its impairment in PD. The results presented here not only show that computational modelling can be used as a valuable tool for understanding and interpreting clinical data, but they also show that computational modeling has the potential to become an invaluable tool to predict the onset of behavioral changes during disease progression. PMID:26042675

  1. Moderate dietary supplementation with vitamin E enhances lymphocyte functionality in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Teresa; Thomas, David G; Morel, Patrick C H; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of supplemental Vit E and/or Se on selected parameters of the immune system of the cat. Nine diets were fed in a 3?×?3 factorial design with no supplementation (control (C)); and either moderate (M); or high (H) levels of Vit E (0, 225 or 450?mg/kg DM diet) and/or Se (0, 2 or 10?mg/kg DM diet) added to a complete and balanced basal diet. After 28 days of feeding, enhanced lymphocyte proliferative responses to Concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin were observed (P?supplemental Vit E, irrespective of whether they also contained Se. Cats in the MVitE, HVitE, MVitE?+?MSe, HVitE?+?MSe, and HVitE?+?HSe groups all showed enhancement of phagocytic activity compared to control animals (P?supplemental level of 225?mg/kg DM diet Vit E appears to have beneficial effects on immune function in the cat. PMID:25660045

  2. Association between mammographic density and basal-like and luminal A breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer overall, but few studies have examined the association between mammographic density and specific subtypes of breast cancer, especially aggressive basal-like breast cancers. Because basal-like breast cancers are less frequently screen-detected, it is important to understand how mammographic density relates to risk of basal-like breast cancer. Methods We estimated associations between mammographic density and breast cancer risk according to breast cancer subtype. Cases and controls were participants in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). A total of 491 cases had mammograms within five years prior to and one year after diagnosis and 528 controls had screening or diagnostic mammograms close to the dates of selection into CBCS. Mammographic density was reported to the CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories. The expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (HER1 and HER2), and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) were assessed by immunohistochemistry and dichotomized as positive or negative, with ER+ and/or PR+, and HER2- tumors classified as luminal A and ER-, PR-, HER2-, HER1+ and/or CK5/6+ tumors classified as basal-like breast cancer. Triple negative tumors were defined as negative for ER, PR and HER2. Of the 491 cases 175 were missing information on subtypes; the remaining cases included 181 luminal A, 17 luminal B, 48 basal-like, 29 ER-/PR-/HER2+, and 41 unclassified subtypes. Odds ratios comparing each subtype to all controls and case-case odds ratios comparing mammographic density distributions in basal-like to luminal A breast cancers were estimated using logistic regression. Results Mammographic density was associated with increased risk of both luminal A and basal-like breast cancers, although estimates were imprecise. The magnitude of the odds ratio associated with mammographic density was not substantially different between basal-like and luminal A cancers in case–control analyses and case-case analyses (case-case OR = 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.30, 3.84)). Conclusions These results suggest that risk estimates associated with mammographic density are not distinct for separate breast cancer subtypes (basal-like/triple negative vs. luminal A breast cancers). Studies with a larger number of basal-like breast cancers are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24008056

  3. Partial denervation of sub-basal axons persists following debridement wounds to the mouse cornea.

    PubMed

    Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Kyne, Briana M; Saban, Daniel R; Stepp, Mary Ann

    2015-11-01

    Although sensory reinnervation occurs after injury in the peripheral nervous system, poor reinnervation in the elderly and those with diabetes often leads to pathology. Here we quantify sub-basal axon density in the central and peripheral mouse cornea over time after three different types of injury. The mouse cornea is highly innervated with a dense array of sub-basal nerves that form a spiral called the vortex at the corneal center or apex; these nerves are readily detected within flat mounted corneas. After anesthesia, corneal epithelial cells were removed using either a dulled blade or a rotating burr within an area demarcated centrally with a 1.5?mm trephine. A third wound type, superficial trephination, involved demarcating the area with the 1.5?mm trephine but not removing cells. By 7 days after superficial trephination, sub-basal axon density returns to control levels; by 28 days the vortex reforms. Although axon density is similar to control 14 days after dulled blade and rotating burr wounding, defects in axon morphology at the corneal apex remain. After 14 days, axons retract from the center leaving the sub-basal axon density reduced by 37.2 and 36.8% at 28 days after dulled blade and rotating burr wounding, respectively, compared with control. Assessment of inflammation using flow cytometry shows that persistent inflammation is not a factor in the incomplete reinnervation. Expression of mRNAs encoding 22 regeneration-associated genes involved in axon targeting assessed by QPCR reveals that netrin-1 and ephrin signaling are altered after wounding. Subpopulations of corneal epithelial basal cells at the corneal apex stop expressing ki67 as early as 7 days after injury and by 14 and 28 days after wounding, many of these basal cells undergo apoptosis and die. Although sub-basal axons are restored to their normal density and morphology after superficial trephination, sub-basal axon recovery is partial after debridement wounds. The increase in corneal epithelial basal cell apoptosis at the apex observed at 14 days after corneal debridement may destabilize newly reinnervated sub-basal axons and lead to their retraction toward the periphery. PMID:26280222

  4. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Meng, Goh Yong; Sheau Wei, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPAR? and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption. PMID:25309587

  5. Evidence for a direct role of nascent basal bodies during spindle pole initiation in the green alga Spermatozopsis similis.

    PubMed

    Lechtreck, K F; Grunow, A

    1999-08-01

    Basal body replication in the naked biflagellate green alga Spermatozopsis similis was analyzed using standard electron microscopy and immunogold localization of centrin, an ubiquitous centrosomal protein, and p210, a recently characterized basal apparatus component of S. similis. Fibrous disks representing probasal bodies appear at the proximal end of parental basal bodies at the end of interphase and development proceeds via a ring of nine singlet microtubules. Nascent basal bodies dock early to the plasma membrane but p210, usually present in basal body-membrane-linkers of S. similis, was already present on the cytosolic basal body precursors. In addition to the distal connecting fiber and the nuclear basal body connectors (NBBC) of the parental basal bodies, centrin was present on the fibrous probasal bodies, in a linker between probasal bodies and the basal apparatus, in the connecting fiber between nascent basal bodies and their corresponding parent, and, finally, a fiber linking the nascent basal bodies to the nucleus. This NBBC probably is present only in mitotic cells. During elongation a cartwheel of up to seven layers is formed, protruding from the proximal end of nascent basal bodies. Microtubules develop on the cartwheel indicating that it temporarily functions as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC). These microtubules and probably the cartwheels, touch the nuclear envelope at both sides of a nuclear projection. We propose that spindle assembly is initiated at these attachment sites. During metaphase, the spindle poles were close to thylakoid-free lobes of the chloroplast, and the basal bodies were not in the spindle axis. The role of nascent basal bodies during the initial steps of spindle assembly is discussed. PMID:10505416

  6. ?-Alanine supplementation and military performance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Harris, Roger C; Moran, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    During sustained high-intensity military training or simulated combat exercises, significant decreases in physical performance measures are often seen. The use of dietary supplements is becoming increasingly popular among military personnel, with more than half of the US soldiers deployed or garrisoned reported to using dietary supplements. ?-Alanine is a popular supplement used primarily by strength and power athletes to enhance performance, as well as training aimed at improving muscle growth, strength and power. However, there is limited research examining the efficacy of ?-alanine in soldiers conducting operationally relevant tasks. The gains brought about by ?-alanine use by selected competitive athletes appears to be relevant also for certain physiological demands common to military personnel during part of their training program. Medical and health personnel within the military are expected to extrapolate and implement relevant knowledge and doctrine from research performed on other population groups. The evidence supporting the use of ?-alanine in competitive and recreational athletic populations suggests that similar benefits would also be observed among tactical athletes. However, recent studies in military personnel have provided direct evidence supporting the use of ?-alanine supplementation for enhancing combat-specific performance. This appears to be most relevant for high-intensity activities lasting 60-300 s. Further, limited evidence has recently been presented suggesting that ?-alanine supplementation may enhance cognitive function and promote resiliency during highly stressful situations. PMID:26206727

  7. Fatty Acid Profiles of Supraspinatus, Longissimus lumborum and Semitendinosus Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine

    PubMed Central

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Nakyinsige, K.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS), longissimus lumborum (LL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of 22.00±1.17 kg were individually and randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each for 100 d of feeding prior to slaughter. The animals were offered the same concentrate (basal) diet as 1% of body weight with ad libitum amount of fresh guinea grass. The four groups were as follows: T1 (control) - basal diet without supplementation; T2 - basal diet with 0.6 mg Se/kg DM; T3 - basal diet with 0.6 mg I/kg DM; T4 - basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se/kg DM and 0.6 mg I/kg DM. The major fatty acids (FAs) detected in the serum were palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1n9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6), while the major FAs in the selected muscles were C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9 acids. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) detected in muscles and serum were (CI8:2n-6), linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) among the four groups. PUFA concentrations in the goats supplemented with Se (T2) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the goats of the control group (T1). The PUFA: SFA ratio was significantly higher in the animals supplemented with dietary Se (T2) than those of control ones (T1). It is concluded that dietary supplementation of inorganic Se increased the unsaturated fatty acids in muscle. The supplementation of iodine with or without Se had negligible effects on muscle fatty acid content of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049986

  8. Fatty Acid Profiles of Supraspinatus, Longissimus lumborum and Semitendinosus Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine.

    PubMed

    Aghwan, Z A; Alimon, A R; Goh, Y M; Nakyinsige, K; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS), longissimus lumborum (LL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of 22.00±1.17 kg were individually and randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each for 100 d of feeding prior to slaughter. The animals were offered the same concentrate (basal) diet as 1% of body weight with ad libitum amount of fresh guinea grass. The four groups were as follows: T1 (control) - basal diet without supplementation; T2 - basal diet with 0.6 mg Se/kg DM; T3 - basal diet with 0.6 mg I/kg DM; T4 - basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se/kg DM and 0.6 mg I/kg DM. The major fatty acids (FAs) detected in the serum were palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1n9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6), while the major FAs in the selected muscles were C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9 acids. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) detected in muscles and serum were (CI8:2n-6), linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) among the four groups. PUFA concentrations in the goats supplemented with Se (T2) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the goats of the control group (T1). The PUFA: SFA ratio was significantly higher in the animals supplemented with dietary Se (T2) than those of control ones (T1). It is concluded that dietary supplementation of inorganic Se increased the unsaturated fatty acids in muscle. The supplementation of iodine with or without Se had negligible effects on muscle fatty acid content of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049986

  9. The interaction between maternal and post-hatch n-3 fatty acid supplementation in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their control-fed counterparts and the importance of timing of omega-3 supplementation. Therefore, 480 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment). The control diet (CON) was a basal diet, rich in n-6 fatty acids (FA). The three other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). At 33 weeks of age, eggs were incubated to obtain 1440 offspring. They were set up according to their maternal diet and sex in 48 pens of 30 chicks each (12 pens per maternal treatment: six male and six female). Half of the offspring were given a post-hatch control diet, whereas to other half received an n-3-supplemented diet. Zootechnical performance was followed for starter, grower and finisher phase, and at the end of each phase two, chicks per pen were sacrificed to determine the weight of the immune organs. No interaction was found between maternal and post-hatch n-3 treatment for zootechnical performance. An interaction arose between the maternal and post-hatch n-3 supplementation for proportional bursa weight at day 1 and day 14 and proportional liver weight at day 14, but effects on immune organ weight were rather limited. Offspring post-hatch n-3 supplementation did not enhance maternal n-3 supplementation. PMID:25754307

  10. Lower apoptosis rate in ovine preantral follicles from ovaries stored in supplemented preservation media.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R J S; Cavalcante, A Y P; Gouveia, B B; Lins, T L B; Barberino, R S; Menezes, V G; Barros, V R P; Macedo, T J S; Figueiredo, J R; Matos, M H T

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ovarian tissue transportation conditions (medium and period of time) on the morphology, apoptosis and development of ovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro. Each ovarian pair was cut into nine slices, with one fragment being fixed immediately (fresh control). The remaining fragments were placed individually in cryotubes containing conservation medium (minimal essential medium (MEM) without supplementation or MEM+ - with supplementation) and stored at 35ºC for 6 or 12 h without (non-cultured) or with subsequent culture for 5 days. Then, the fragments were processed for histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) examination. Preservation of ovarian slices in MEM or MEM+ (non-cultured) resulted in similar percentages of normal follicles when compared with the fresh control. Nevertheless, compared with the fresh control, a decrease in the percentage of normal follicles was observed in tissues cultured for 5 days. Only for tissues preserved in supplemented medium (MEM+) for 6 h, the percentage of TUNEL positive cells was similar between non-cultured tissues and tissues cultured for 5 days. Follicular activation and growth (follicular and oocyte diameter) were higher in cultured tissues than in fresh control or non-cultured tissues, except those from fragments preserved for 6 h in MEM and then cultured for 5 days in which no growth was observed. In conclusion, ovine ovarian tissue was successfully preserved in supplemented medium (MEM+) at a temperature close to physiological values (35°C) for up to 6 h without affecting apoptosis in the ovarian follicles and their ability to develop in vitro. PMID:25626913

  11. Does Insulin Glargine Increase the Risk of Cancer Compared With Other Basal Insulins?

    PubMed Central

    Fagot, Jean-Paul; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Ricordeau, Philippe; Weill, Alain; Alla, François; Allemand, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore in France the relationship between insulin glargine use and overall and specific cancer risks in type 2 diabetic patients compared with other basal insulins. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were extracted from French health insurance information system (Système National d'Information Inter-Régimes de l'Assurance Maladie) linked with data from the French Hospital Discharge database (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Information). Included were 70,027 patients aged 40–79 years who started a basal insulin in 2007–2009. Cox proportional hazards models with age as time-scale were used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for associations between type of basal insulin and risk of overall cancer, breast cancer, and seven other cancer sites. RESULTS The median follow-up was 2.67 years in patients exposed to insulin glargine. Absolute event rates for all cancer in patients exposed to glargine versus other basal insulin users were 1,622 and 1,643 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. No significant association was observed between glargine exposure and overall cancer incidence after adjustment for sex, with a hazard ratio of 0.97 (95% CI 0.87–1.07), or after additional adjustment for any other hypoglycemic agent use and duration of diabetes. No increased risk of breast cancer was observed for glargine users compared with other basal insulins users, with a fully adjusted hazard ratio of 1.08 (0.72–1.62). CONCLUSIONS In a large cohort of patients newly treated by basal insulin, no increased risk of any cancer was observed in insulin glargine users compared with other basal insulin users. Because follow-up did not exceed 4 years, longer-term studies are needed. PMID:22966091

  12. Characterization of the basal angiosperm Aristolochia fimbriata: a potential experimental system for genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies in basal angiosperms have provided insight into the diversity within the angiosperm lineage and helped to polarize analyses of flowering plant evolution. However, there is still not an experimental system for genetic studies among basal angiosperms to facilitate comparative studies and functional investigation. It would be desirable to identify a basal angiosperm experimental system that possesses many of the features found in existing plant model systems (e.g., Arabidopsis and Oryza). Results We have considered all basal angiosperm families for general characteristics important for experimental systems, including availability to the scientific community, growth habit, and membership in a large basal angiosperm group that displays a wide spectrum of phenotypic diversity. Most basal angiosperms are woody or aquatic, thus are not well-suited for large scale cultivation, and were excluded. We further investigated members of Aristolochiaceae for ease of culture, life cycle, genome size, and chromosome number. We demonstrated self-compatibility for Aristolochia elegans and A. fimbriata, and transformation with a GFP reporter construct for Saruma henryi and A. fimbriata. Furthermore, A. fimbriata was easily cultivated with a life cycle of just three months, could be regenerated in a tissue culture system, and had one of the smallest genomes among basal angiosperms. An extensive multi-tissue EST dataset was produced for A. fimbriata that includes over 3.8 million 454 sequence reads. Conclusions Aristolochia fimbriata has numerous features that facilitate genetic studies and is suggested as a potential model system for use with a wide variety of technologies. Emerging genetic and genomic tools for A. fimbriata and closely related species can aid the investigation of floral biology, developmental genetics, biochemical pathways important in plant-insect interactions as well as human health, and various other features present in early angiosperms. PMID:23347749

  13. Automated segmentation of multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted MRI hypointensities

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Andreas; Bastin, Mark E.; Kiker, Alexander J.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted (T2*w) hypointensities, which are believed to arise mainly from vascular mineralization, were recently proposed as a novel MRI biomarker for small vessel disease and ageing. These T2*w hypointensities are typically segmented semi-automatically, which is time consuming, associated with a high intra-rater variability and low inter-rater agreement. To address these limitations, we developed a fully automated, unsupervised segmentation method for basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities. This method requires conventional, co-registered T2*w and T1-weighted (T1w) volumes, as well as region-of-interest (ROI) masks for the basal ganglia and adjacent internal capsule generated automatically from T1w MRI. The basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities were then segmented with thresholds derived with an adaptive outlier detection method from respective bivariate T2*w/T1w intensity distributions in each ROI. Artefacts were reduced by filtering connected components in the initial masks based on their standardised T2*w intensity variance. The segmentation method was validated using a custom-built phantom containing mineral deposit models, i.e. gel beads doped with 3 different contrast agents in 7 different concentrations, as well as with MRI data from 98 community-dwelling older subjects in their seventies with a wide range of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities. The method produced basal ganglia T2*w hypointensity masks that were in substantial volumetric and spatial agreement with those generated by an experienced rater (Jaccard index = 0.62 ± 0.40). These promising results suggest that this method may have use in automatic segmentation of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities in studies of small vessel disease and ageing. PMID:25451469

  14. The effect of basal friction on melting and freezing in ice shelf-ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyther, David E.; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin K.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Roberts, Jason L.; Hunter, John R.

    2015-11-01

    The ocean is an important control on the mass budget of the Antarctic ice sheet, through basal melting and refreezing underneath the floating extensions of the ice sheet known as ice shelves. The effect of the ice surface roughness (basal roughness) on melting and refreezing is investigated with idealised ice shelf-ocean numerical simulations. Both "hot" ocean forcing (e.g. Pine Island Glacier; high basal melting) and "cold" ocean forcing (e.g. Amery Ice Shelf; low basal melting, stronger refreezing) environments are investigated. The interaction between the ocean and ice shelf is further explored by examining the contributions to melt from heat exchange across the ice-ocean interface and across the boundary layer-ocean interior, with a varying drag coefficient. Simulations show increasing drag strengthens melting. Refreezing increases with drag in the cold cavity environment, while in the hot cavity environment, refreezing is small in areal extent and decreases with drag. Furthermore, melting will likely be focussed where there are strong boundary layer currents, rather than at the deep grounding line. The magnitude of the thermal driving of the basal melt decreases with increasing drag, except for in cold cavity refreeze zones where it increases. The friction velocity, a function of the upper layer ocean velocity and the drag coefficient, monotonically increases with drag. We find friction-driven mixing into the boundary layer is important for representing the magnitude and distribution of refreezing and without this effect, refreezing is underestimated. Including a spatially- and temporally-varying basal roughness (that includes a more realistic, rougher refreezing drag coefficient) alters circulation patterns and heat and salt transport. This leads to increased refreezing, altered melt magnitude and distribution, and a pattern of altered vertical flow across the entire ice shelf. These results represent a summary of melting and freezing beneath ice shelves and strongly motivate the inclusion of appropriate vertical mixing schemes and basal roughness values that vary spatially and temporally in ocean models of ice shelf cavities.

  15. Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade

    2015-01-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

  16. A gene expression signature identifies two prognostic subgroups of basal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Renaud; Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Lambaudie, Eric; Esterni, Benjamin; Mamessier, Emilie; Tallet, Agnès; Chabannon, Christian; Extra, Jean-Marc; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bertucci, François

    2011-04-01

    Prognosis of basal breast cancers is poor but heterogeneous. Medullary breast cancers (MBC) display a basal profile, but a favorable prognosis. We hypothesized that a previously published 368-gene expression signature associated with MBC might serve to define a prognostic classifier in basal cancers. We collected public gene expression and histoclinical data of 2145 invasive early breast adenocarcinomas. We developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier based on this 368-gene list in a learning set, and tested its predictive performances in an independent validation set. Then, we assessed its prognostic value and that of six prognostic signatures for disease-free survival (DFS) in the remaining 2034 samples. The SVM model accurately classified all MBC samples in the learning and validation sets. A total of 466 cases were basal across other sets. The SVM classifier separated them into two subgroups, subgroup 1 (resembling MBC) and subgroup 2 (not resembling MBC). Subgroup 1 exhibited 71% 5-year DFS, whereas subgroup 2 exhibited 50% (P = 9.93E-05). The classifier outperformed the classical prognostic variables in multivariate analysis, conferring lesser risk for relapse in subgroup 1 (HR = 0.52, P = 3.9E-04). This prognostic value was specific to the basal subtype, in which none of the other prognostic signatures was informative. Ontology analysis revealed effective immune response (IR), enhanced tumor cell apoptosis, elevated levels of metastasis-inhibiting factors and low levels of metastasis-promoting factors in the good-prognosis subgroup, and a more developed cell migration system in the poor-prognosis subgroup. In conclusion, based on this 368-gene SVM model derived from an MBC signature, basal breast cancers were classified in two prognostic subgroups, suggesting that MBC and basal breast cancers share similar molecular alterations associated with aggressiveness. This signature could help define the prognosis, adapt the systemic treatment, and identify new therapeutic targets. PMID:20490655

  17. Pristine Basal- and Edge-Plane-Oriented Molybdenite MoS2 Exhibiting Highly Anisotropic Properties.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu Min; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zden?k; Huber, Št?pán; Sedmidubský, David; Pumera, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The layered structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) is structurally similar to that of graphite, with individual sheets strongly covalently bonded within but held together through weak van der Waals interactions. This results in two distinct surfaces of MoS2 : basal and edge planes. The edge plane was theoretically predicted to be more electroactive than the basal plane, but evidence from direct experimental comparison is elusive. Herein, the first study comparing the two surfaces of MoS2 by using macroscopic crystals is presented. A careful investigation of the electrochemical properties of macroscopic MoS2 pristine crystals with precise control over the exposure of one plane surface, that is, basal plane or edge plane, was performed. These crystals were characterized thoroughly by AFM, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, voltammetry, digital simulation, and DFT calculations. In the Raman spectra, the basal and edge planes show anisotropy in the preferred excitation of E2g and A1g phonon modes, respectively. The edge plane exhibits a much larger heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant k(0) of 4.96×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3) ?cm?s(-1) for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH3 )6 ](3+/2+) redox probes, respectively, compared to the basal plane, which yielded k(0) tending towards zero for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) and about 9.3×10(-4) ?cm?s(-1) for [Ru(NH3 )6 ](3+/2+) . The industrially important hydrogen evolution reaction follows the trend observed for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) in that the basal plane is basically inactive. The experimental comparison of the edge and basal planes of MoS2 crystals is supported by DFT calculations. PMID:25821017

  18. Basal Keratinocytes Contribute to All Strata of the Adult Zebrafish Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis of terrestrial vertebrates is a stratified epithelium and forms an essential protective barrier. It is continually renewed, with dead corneocytes shed from the surface and replaced from a basal keratinocyte stem cell population. Whilst mouse is the prime model system used for epidermal studies, there is increasing employment of the zebrafish to analyse epidermis development and homeostasis, however the architecture and ontogeny of the epidermis in this system are incompletely described. In particular, it is unclear if adult zebrafish epidermis is derived entirely from the basal epidermal stem cell layer, as in the mouse, or if the most superficial keratinocyte layer is a remnant of the embryonic periderm. Furthermore, a relative paucity of cellular markers and genetic reagents to label and manipulate the basal epidermal stem cell compartment has hampered research. Here we show that the type I keratin, krtt1c19e, is a suitable marker of the basal epidermal layer and identify a krtt1c19e promoter fragment able to drive strong and specific expression in this cell type. Use of this promoter to express an inducible Cre recombinase allowed permanent labelling of basal cells during embryogenesis, and demonstrated that these cells do indeed generate keratinocytes of all strata in the adult epidermis. Further deployment of the Cre-Lox system highlighted the transient nature of the embryonic periderm. We thus show that the epidermis of adult zebrafish, as in the mouse, derives from basal stem cells, further expanding the similarities of epidermal ontogeny across vertebrates. Future use of this promoter will assist genetic analysis of basal keratinocyte biology in zebrafish. PMID:24400120

  19. Action potentials in basal and oblique dendrites of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Antic, Srdjan D

    2003-01-01

    Basal and oblique dendrites comprise ?2/3 of the total excitable membrane in the mammalian cerebral cortex, yet they have never been probed with glass electrodes, and therefore their electrical properties and overall impact on synaptic processing are unknown. In the present study, fast multi-site voltage-sensitive dye imaging combined with somatic recording was used to provide a detailed description of the membrane potential transients in basal and oblique dendrites of pyramidal neurons during single and trains of action potentials (APs). The optical method allowed simultaneous measurements from several dendrites in the visual field up to 200 ?m from the soma, thus providing a unique report on how an AP invades the entire dendritic tree. In contrast to apical dendrites, basal and oblique branches: (1) impose very little amplitude and time course modulation on backpropagating APs; (2) are strongly invaded by the somatic spike even when somatic firing rates reach 40 Hz (activity-independent backpropagation); and (3) do not exhibit signs of a ‘calcium shoulder’ on the falling phase of the AP. A compartmental model incorporating AP peak latencies and half-widths obtained from the apical, oblique and basal dendrites indicates that the specific intracellular resistance (Ri) is less than 100 ? cm. The combined experimental and modelling results also provide evidence that all synaptic locations along basal and oblique dendrites, situated within 200 ?m from the soma, experience strong and near-simultaneous (latency < 1 ms) voltage transients during somatic firing. The cell body, axon hillock and basal dendritic compartments achieve unique synchronization during each AP. Therefore, with respect to a retrograde signal (AP), basal and proximal oblique dendrites should be considered as an integral part of the axo-somatic compartment. PMID:12730348

  20. Synthesis of medium chain length fatty acid ethyl esters in engineered Escherichia coli using endogenously produced medium chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liping; Liu, Junfeng; Nie, Kaili; Liu, Luo; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2013-07-10

    Microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived biofuels from renewable carbon sources has attracted significant attention in recent years. Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of micro-diesel. The expression of codon optimized two plants (Umbellularia californica and Cinnamomum camphora) medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase genes (ucFatB and ccFatB) in Escherichia coli resulted in a very high level of extractable medium-chain-specific hydrolytic activity and caused large accumulation of medium-chain free fatty acids. By heterologous co-expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, specific plant thioesterases in E. coli, with supplementation of exogenous ethanol, resulted in drastic changes in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) composition ranging from 12:0 to 18:1. Through an optimized microbial shake-flask fermentation of two modified E. coli strains, yielded FFAs and FAEEs in the concentration of approximately 500 mg L(-1)/250 mg L(-1) and 2.01 mg g(-1)/1.99 mg g(-1), respectively. The optimal ethanol level for FAEEs yield in the two recombinant strains was reached at the 3% ethanol concentration, which was about 5.4-fold and 1.93-fold higher than that of 1% ethanol concentration. PMID:23769314

  1. Nutritional supplements: fact vs. fiction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W A; Landry, G L

    1998-10-01

    An athlete may think that if a small amount of a chemical helps his or her performance, more will work better. The most appealing supplements are those that claim to help build muscle, improve endurance, and reduce body fat. Widespread acceptance of herbal of "natural" alternatives to mainstream medicine (especially nutritional supplements) is increasing, and the market is largely unregulated. The authors summarize the facts and fiction surrounding the use of popular products that may be found at the pharmacy and health food store that are being used in the locker rooms of high schools, colleges, and gyms in the U.S. They urge clinicians to stress the value of a well balanced diet to their active adolescent patients and not to encourage supplement use. PMID:9928464

  2. Oculomotor learning revisited: a model of reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia incorporating an efference copy of motor actions

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Michale S.

    2012-01-01

    In its simplest formulation, reinforcement learning is based on the idea that if an action taken in a particular context is followed by a favorable outcome, then, in the same context, the tendency to produce that action should be strengthened, or reinforced. While reinforcement learning forms the basis of many current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function, these models do not incorporate distinct computational roles for signals that convey context, and those that convey what action an animal takes. Recent experiments in the songbird suggest that vocal-related BG circuitry receives two functionally distinct excitatory inputs. One input is from a cortical region that carries context information about the current “time” in the motor sequence. The other is an efference copy of motor commands from a separate cortical brain region that generates vocal variability during learning. Based on these findings, I propose here a general model of vertebrate BG function that combines context information with a distinct motor efference copy signal. The signals are integrated by a learning rule in which efference copy inputs gate the potentiation of context inputs (but not efference copy inputs) onto medium spiny neurons in response to a rewarded action. The hypothesis is described in terms of a circuit that implements the learning of visually guided saccades. The model makes testable predictions about the anatomical and functional properties of hypothesized context and efference copy inputs to the striatum from both thalamic and cortical sources. PMID:22754501

  3. Manus Track Preservation Bias as a Key Factor for Assessing Trackmaker Identity and Quadrupedalism in Basal Ornithopods

    PubMed Central

    Castanera, Diego; Vila, Bernat; Razzolini, Novella L.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Canudo, José I.; Manning, Phillip L.; Galobart, Àngel

    2013-01-01

    Background The Las Cerradicas site (Tithonian–Berriasian), Teruel, Spain, preserves at least seventeen dinosaur trackways, some of them formerly attributed to quadrupedal ornithopods, sauropods and theropods. The exposure of new track evidence allows a more detailed interpretation of the controversial tridactyl trackways as well as the modes of locomotion and taxonomic affinities of the trackmakers. Methodology/Principal Findings Detailed stratigraphic analysis reveals four different levels where footprints have been preserved in different modes. Within the tridactyl trackways, manus tracks are mainly present in a specific horizon relative to surface tracks. The presence of manus tracks is interpreted as evidence of an ornithopod trackmaker. Cross-sections produced from photogrammetric digital models show different depths of the pes and manus, suggesting covariance in loading between the forelimbs and the hindlimbs. Conclusions/Significance Several features (digital pads, length/width ratio, claw marks) of some ornithopod pes tracks from Las Cerradicas are reminiscent of theropod pedal morphology. This morphological convergence, combined with the shallow nature of the manus tracks, which reduces preservation potential, opens a new window into the interpretation of these tridactyl tracks. Thus, trackmaker assignations during the Jurassic–Cretaceous interval of purported theropod trackways may potentially represent ornithopods. Moreover, the Las Cerradicas trackways are further evidence for quadrupedalism among some basal small- to medium-sized ornithopods from this time interval. PMID:23349817

  4. Glasma Evolution in Partonic Medium

    E-print Network

    A. V. Nazarenko

    2010-11-23

    We examine a scenario of the abelianized Glasma evolution with accounting for back-reaction of partonic medium in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We announce that such a generalization leads to the instabilities and the presence of negative color conductivity in the system.

  5. Interstellar Medium: dust Interstellar dust

    E-print Network

    Estalella, Robert

    Interstellar Medium: dust Interstellar dust Dust grains (silicate/carbon cores, ice mantles) Sizes of ~0.1 m Effects in the visible domain: extinction, reddening, polarization Dust opacity , = 1-2 Thermal emission: mm, submm, FIR (optically thin) #12;Interstellar dust Dust grains (silicate

  6. Supplementation of Perkinsus marinus Cultures with Host Plasma or Tissue Homogenate Enhances Their Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Earnhart, Christopher G.; Vogelbein, Mary Ann; Brown, Gwynne D.; Reece, Kimberly S.; Kaattari, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    The protozoan oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus can be cultured in vitro in a variety of media; however, this has been associated with a rapid attenuation of infectivity. Supplementation of defined media with products of P. marinus-susceptible (Crassostrea virginica) and -tolerant (Crassostrea gigas, Crassostrea ariakensis) oysters alters proliferation and protease expression profiles and induces differentiation into morphological forms typically seen in vivo. It was not known if attenuation could be reversed by host extract supplementation. To investigate correlations among these changes as well as their association with infectivity, the effects of medium supplementation with tissue homogenates from both susceptible and tolerant oyster species were examined. The supplements markedly altered both cell size and proliferation, regardless of species; however, upregulation of low-molecular-weight protease expression was most prominent with susceptible oysters extracts. Increased infectivity occurred with the use of oyster product-supplemented media, but it was not consistently associated with changes in cell size, cell morphology, or protease secretion and was not related to the susceptibility of the oyster species used as the supplement source. PMID:14711671

  7. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens supplementation alleviates immunological stress in lipopolysaccharide-challenged broilers at early age.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Yang, M X; Zhang, L L; Lu, Z X; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ( BA: ) on the immune function of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide ( LPS: ). 192 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly distributed into four treatments: 1) broilers fed a basal diet; 2) broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with BA; 3) LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet; and 4) LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with BA. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with eight broilers per replicate. Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with either 500 ?g LPS per kg body weight or sterile saline at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. LPS decreased the average daily gain ( ADG: , P = 0.001) and average daily feed intake (P = 0.001). The decreased ADG (P = 0.009) and increased feed conversion ratio (P = 0.047) in LPS-challenged broilers were alleviated by BA. LPS increased the relative spleen weight (P = 0.001). Relative spleen (P = 0.014) and bursa (P = 0.024) weights in the LPS-challenged broilers were reduced by BA. LPS increased white blood cell ( WBC: ) numbers (P = 0.001). However, the WBC numbers (P = 0.042) and the ratio of lymphocytes to WBC (P = 0.020) in LPS-challenged broilers were decreased with BA treatment. LPS decreased plasma lysozyme activity (P = 0.001), but increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone (P = 0.012) and IL-2 (P = 0.020). In contrast, BA increased lysozyme activity in plasma (P = 0.040). LPS increased mRNA abundances of splenic toll-like receptor 4 (P = 0.046), interferon ? (P = 0.008), IL-1? (P = 0.045) and IL-6, (P = 0.006). IL-2 (P = 0.014) and IL-6 (P = 0.074) mRNA abundances in LPS-challenged broilers were reduced by BA, although BA had an opposite effect for IL-10 mRNA expression in those broilers (P = 0.004). In conclusion, BA supplementation could partially alleviate the compromised growth performance and immune status of broilers under immune stress induced by LPS challenge at early age. PMID:26009750

  8. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

  9. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

  10. Progress in Developing Dietary Supplement Databases: The Analytically Validated Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) and Dietary Supplement Label Databases (DSLD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although an estimated 50% of the US population consumes dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on bioactive constituents in them are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database deve...

  11. Accounts Payable Check Request Supplement/Checklist

    E-print Network

    Geller, Michael R.

    Accounts Payable Check Request Supplement/Checklist Payments to Nonresident Aliens (non-salary payments) October,2004 http://www.busfin.uga.edu/forms/check_request_supplement.pdf This checklist should

  12. Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Supplemental Feeding 

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Bruce B.; Hart, Charles R.

    2001-05-31

    When forage quality and/or quantity is affected by drought, livestock producers usually must decide whether to offer supplemental feed. This publication offers advice on making decisions about supplementation and gives feed management tips....

  13. Prostate Cancer and Men's Health Supplements

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Prostate_Cancer_102015.html Prostate Cancer and Men's Health Supplements HealthDay News Video - October 21, 2015 To ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Dietary Supplements Men's Health Prostate Cancer About ...

  14. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  15. Basal Shear Traction, not Slab-Pull, may be the Dominant Plate-Driving Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, W. K.; Bird, P.

    2007-12-01

    We previously reported [2006 AGU T11F-05] that we used thin-shell finite-element program SHELLS [Kong & Bird, 1995, JGR] to model the 52 plates of the PB2002 plate model [Bird, 2003, G3], and adjusted fault friction to the value of 0.1, at which we obtained the best possible fit to global geodetic velocities, stress directions, seafloor spreading rates, and seismic anisotropy. Here we analyze the forces and torques in the best model, in an attempt to better understand the balance which drives and resists plate motions. All boundary tractions acting on any plate are divided into 3 types: lithostatic pressure, side-strength, and basal- strength. ("Strength" is a modified stress tensor from which lithostatic pressure has been subtracted.) Side- strength is dominated by fault friction. Basal-strength includes distributed basal shear tractions (for all plates) and net slab-pull (for subducting plates only). Computed basal strength tractions are very large for some small plates, but we show that these large values are probably dominated by errors resulting from locally-incorrect (global-mean) fault friction used to compute side-strengths. Any possible correlations with physical characteristics of plates is concealed by these large errors in basal-strength tractions for small plates. However, results for large non-subducting plates (whose mean side friction will more closely approximate the global mean) suggest basal shear tractions of 1 MPa or less. Since Forsyth & Uyeda [1975, GJRAS], many have considered net slab-pull to be the dominant driving force on subducting plates. To investigate such a model, we compute net slab-pull for 11 plates with large subducting slabs by assuming negligible distributed basal shear tractions, and ascribing all basal-strength forces to net slab-pull (as line forces along trenches, acting only on the subducting plate). These model-dependent net slab- pull forces are mostly of plausible magnitude (<4x1012 N/m, except for outliers with large uncertainties). However, they show no clear correlation with: known sea floor age, relative or subduction velocity, trench depth, age-corrected trench depth, or trench length. While this lack of systematic relationships could be due to additional unknown errors in our model, we interpret these negative results as tending to disprove the initial assumption. That is, distributed basal shear traction forces are probably of comparable magnitude to, or greater than, net slab- pull forces, and the primary determinant of plate motion. Plate velocity, forward net slab-pull, and forward basal shear tractions are examined using Africa-fixed, no-net- rotation, and NUVEL1A-HS3 (hotspot) "absolute" reference frames. All analyses show basal tractions to be primarily forward, with the no-net-rotation reference frame leading to the most positive (forward) results for basal strength tractions. Our interpretation is that active mantle convection is typically driving plate motions with basal shear tractions, rather than resisting them.

  16. Estimates of the Basal-Strength Torques and Tractions That Drive the Plates From Below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Liu, Z.; Rucker, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    We divide the torques on each surface plate into 3 parts: lithostatic-pressure, side-strength, and basal- strength. (The strength tensor is the stress tensor minus lithostatic pressure.) We compute each part for 52 plates using a thin-shell finite-element model of the lithosphere with: topography, variable heat-flow, variable crust and lithosphere thicknesses from seismic data, transient geotherms, nonlinear rheology, and weak faults. We iterate solutions, adjusting boundary conditions to get correct plate velocities without the need for any model of deep mantle flow. Uncertainty remains because side-strength torques and inferred basal- strength torques depend on the effective friction of faults. Therefore, we compute a suite of models with differing trench resistance and differing fault friction, and evaluate their misfits relative to: seafloor spreading rates, geodetic velocities, intraplate stress directions, and azimuths of seismic anisotropy. The minimum misfit occurs at effective fault friction of 0.1 and trench resistance 2x1012 N/m. Unfortunately, computed values of mean basal-strength traction systematically increase for smaller plates. We analyze error sources and find that the largest is unmodeled variation in effective friction of plate- boundary faults. Discounting highly uncertain results, we find mean basal shear tractions of no more than 1 MPa for the 6 largest slabless plates: AF 0.2 MPa; AN 0.1 MPa; NA 0.6 MPa; EU 1.0 MPa; SA 1.0 MPa; SO 0.9 MPa. The directions of basal shear traction on these plates are generally forward, meaning subparallel to absolute velocity. Basal-strength torques on plates with subducting slabs represent the sum of net slab-pull and distributed basal shear traction; if these torques are attributed to net slab-pull alone, net slab-pull is generally toward the trench and of order 5x1012 N/m. However, our attempts to correlate these inferred net slab- pull values with objective measures like trench depth or plate age have failed, raising doubts about the validity of this distribution of basal strength. Present plate motions on Earth appear to be driven primarily by deep mantle convection, rather than by topography and associated lithostatic pressures. Our conceptual model is that dense slabs drive convective rolls in the mesosphere, which provide forward/active driving force to many slow-moving (e.g., continental) plates through basal shear tractions. Plumes contribute only then they lie on spreading boundaries, and then primarily through their effects on topography and lithostatic pressures.

  17. Lacustrine Basal Ages Constrain the Last Deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Jeffrey; Laabs, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Basal radiocarbon ages from 21 high-elevation lakes limit the timing of final Pleistocene deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah, USA. The lakes are located in glacial valleys and cirques 5 to 20 km upstream from LGM terminal moraines at elevations from 2830 to 3475 m. Many are impounded behind recessional moraines. Cores were retrieved from a floating platform with a percussion corer driven to the point of refusal. All penetrated inorganic silty clay beneath gyttja. AMS radiocarbon analyses were made on terrestrial macrofossils, daphnia ephippia, pollen concentrates, and bulk sediment retrieved from the base of each core. No radiocarbon reservoir effect was observed when bulk dates were checked against terrestrial material. Radiocarbon results were converted to calendar years using the IntCal09 calibration curve in OxCal 4.1. Given the stratigraphy observed in the cores, these calibrated basal ages are considered close limits on the timing of the local deglaciation and lake formation. The oldest three lakes have basal radiocarbon ages that calibrate to a few centuries after the Bölling/Alleröd warming, indicating that the landscape was becoming ice free at this time. These are followed by an overlapping group of five lakes with basal ages between 13.5 and 13.0 ka BP. Five more cores, from four separate lakes, have basal ages tightly clustered between 13.0 and 12.5 ka BP. Three of these lakes are dammed by moraines, suggesting glacial activity during the early part of the Younger Dryas interval. The lone kettle lake in the study yielded a basal age of 12.3 ka BP, considerably younger than the basal age of 13.9 ka BP from a nearby lake filling a bedrock basin, indicating that buried ice may have been locally stable for more than a millennium after deglaciation. The remaining seven lakes have basal ages between 12.0 and 11.0 ka BP. Four of these lakes are also dammed by moraines. These two non-overlapping clusters of basal ages for moraine-dammed lakes, with maximum probabilities ca. 12.7 and 11.3 ka BP, suggest that active glaciers were present in the Uinta Mountains during the Younger Dryas, and that Younger Dryas glacier activity was concentrated in two separate intervals.

  18. ISAB 2003-3 Supplementation Report ISAB Review of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation

    E-print Network

    ISAB 2003-3 Supplementation Report 1 ISAB Review of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation to natural populations of salmon and steelhead where supplementation was broadly viewed as those salmon are the empirical results of salmon supplementation to date? What has worked, and what aspects are largely

  19. Pathways of basal meltwater released from Antarctic ice shelves: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusahara, K.; Hasumi, H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate spreading pathways of basal meltwater released from all Antarctic ice shelves using a circumpolar coupled ice shelf-sea ice-ocean model that reproduces major features of the Southern Ocean circulation, including the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Several independent virtual tracers are used to identify detailed pathways of basal meltwaters. The spreading pathways of the meltwater tracers depend on formation sites because the meltwaters are transported by local ambient ocean circulation. Meltwaters from ice shelves in the Weddell and Amundsen--Bellingshausen Seas in surface/subsurface layers are effectively advected to lower latitudes with the ACC. Although a large portion of the basal meltwaters is present in surface and subsurface layers, a part of the basal meltwaters penetrates into the bottom layer through active dense water formation along the Antarctic coastal margins. The signals at the seafloor extend along the topography, showing a horizontal distribution similar to the observed spreading of Antarctic Bottom Water. Meltwaters originating from ice shelves in the Weddell and Ross Seas and in the Indian sector significantly contribute to the bottom signals. A series of numerical experiments in which thermodynamic interaction between the ice shelf and ocean is neglected regionally demonstrates that the basal meltwater of each ice shelf impacts sea ice and/or ocean thermohaline circulation in the Southern Ocean.

  20. Sas-4 proteins are required during basal body duplication in Paramecium

    PubMed Central

    Gogendeau, Delphine; Hurbain, Ilse; Raposo, Graca; Cohen, Jean; Koll, France; Basto, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Centrioles and basal bodies are structurally related organelles composed of nine microtubule (MT) triplets. Studies performed in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos have shown that centriole duplication takes place in sequential way, in which different proteins are recruited in a specific order to assemble a procentriole. ZYG-1 initiates centriole duplication by triggering the recruitment of a complex of SAS-5 and SAS-6, which then recruits the final player, SAS-4, to allow the incorporation of MT singlets. It is thought that a similar mechanism (that also involves additional proteins) is present in other animal cells, but it remains to be investigated whether the same players and their ascribed functions are conserved during basal body duplication in cells that exclusively contain basal bodies. To investigate this question, we have used the multiciliated protist Paramecium tetraurelia. Here we show that in the absence of PtSas4, two types of defects in basal body duplication can be identified. In the majority of cases, the germinative disk and cartwheel, the first structures assembled during duplication, are not detected. In addition, if daughter basal bodies were formed, they invariably had defects in MT recruitment. Our results suggest that PtSas4 has a broader function than its animal orthologues. PMID:21289083

  1. An Unusual Basal Therizinosaur Dinosaur with an Ornithischian Dental Arrangement from Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Lü, Junchang; Xu, Li; Wu, Yanhua; Chang, Huali; Zhang, Jiming; Jia, Songhai

    2013-01-01

    Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Jianchang County, western part of Liaoning Province, which sheds light on our understanding of anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. This new dinosaur shows some typical therizinosaur features, such as neural spines of the anterior caudal vertebrae that possess anterior and posterior alae, a rectangular buttress on the ventrolateral side of the proximal end of metacarpal I, and appressed metatarsal shafts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a basal therizinosaur (sister taxon to Therizinosauroidea) because it bears many basal therizinosaur characters in the dentition, pelvis and hind limbs. The new therizinosaur described here has unique tooth and jaw characters such as the offsetting of the tooth row by a shelf and dentary teeth with labially concave and lingually convex dentary teeth, similar to ornithopods and ceratopsians. PMID:23734177

  2. The evolution of basal progenitors in the developing non-mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tadashi; Ohtaka-Maruyama, Chiaki; Yamashita, Wataru; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Murakami, Yasunori; Calegari, Federico; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The amplification of distinct neural stem/progenitor cell subtypes during embryogenesis is essential for the intricate brain structures present in various vertebrate species. For example, in both mammals and birds, proliferative neuronal progenitors transiently appear on the basal side of the ventricular zone of the telencephalon (basal progenitors), where they contribute to the enlargement of the neocortex and its homologous structures. In placental mammals, this proliferative cell population can be subdivided into several groups that include Tbr2(+) intermediate progenitors and basal radial glial cells (bRGs). Here, we report that basal progenitors in the developing avian pallium show unique morphological and molecular characteristics that resemble the characteristics of bRGs, a progenitor population that is abundant in gyrencephalic mammalian neocortex. Manipulation of LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein) and Cdk4/cyclin D1, both essential regulators of neural progenitor dynamics, revealed that basal progenitors and Tbr2(+) cells are distinct cell lineages in the developing avian telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified a small population of subapical mitotic cells in the developing brains of a wide variety of amniotes and amphibians. Our results suggest that unique progenitor subtypes are amplified in mammalian and avian lineages by modifying common mechanisms of neural stem/progenitor regulation during amniote brain evolution. PMID:26732839

  3. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A; Berezovskii, Vladimir K; Johnson, Caroline A; Kingery, Nathan D; Elliott, Hunter L; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-05-01

    The basal ganglia are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning. Current models postulate that the basal ganglia modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by direct- and indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs, respectively). The basal ganglia thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the basal ganglia, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT(+) cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis, as well as ChAT(-) cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus, GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signalling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the basal ganglia to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  4. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an Uncommon Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Meela; Bhaskar Reddy, L. Raja; Kharat, Sagar; Mahesh, B.S.; Gandi, Lakshmi; Mahendra, Ashish; Nigam, Pankhuri; Grewal, Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell adenoma and intra-osseous adenoid cystic carcinoma. This report describes the case of a 27-year-old male with an ameloblastoma in the right posterior mandible. Orthopantomography computed tomography and finally histopathological examination directed us toward the confirmatory diagnosis of basal cell variant of ameloblastoma. Considering the rarity of the lesion and histological paradox regarding its diagnosis, we report here an interesting and rare case of basal cell ameloblastoma of the mandible with emphasis on differential diagnosis from other entities with basaloid differentiation having varying prognosis. After surgery, long-term follow-up at regular intervals is recommended as no sufficient statistical information regarding the behavior of this tumor is available. PMID:25838772

  5. On the relations between cratonic lithosphere thickness, plate motions, and basal drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, I.; Artemieva, I.; Mooney, W. D.

    2001-12-01

    Seismic and thermal estimates suggest a highly variable thickness of Precambrian lithosphere (140-350 km), with a bimodal distribution for Archean cratons ( ~ 220 km and ~ 350 km). We discuss the origin of such large variations in lithospheric thickness and examine mechanisms of lithospheric erosion. Our analysis shows that the horizontal and vertical dimensions of Archean cratons are strongly correlated: larger cratons have thicker lithosphere. The basal drag model of lithosphere erosion (Sleep, 2001) is tested as a means of explaining the present-day bimodal distribution of lithospheric thicknesses of the Archean cratons. In agreement with theoretical predictions, we find that lithospheric thickness in Archean keels is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the craton length (along the direction of plate motion) to the plate velocity. These results show that the basal drag model provides a viable explanation for the variation in thickness of Archean cratonic roots. Basal drag may have varied in magnitude over the past 4 Ga. Higher mantle temperatures in the Archean would have resulted in lower mantle viscosity. This in turn would have reduced basal drag and basal erosion, and promoted the preservation of thick (>300 km) Archean keels, even if plate velocities were high during the Archean.

  6. Basal cell ameloblastoma: a rare histological variant of an uncommon tumor.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Meela; Bhaskar Reddy, L Raja; Kharat, Sagar; Mahesh, B S; Gandi, Lakshmi; Mahendra, Ashish; Nigam, Pankhuri; Grewal, Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell adenoma and intra-osseous adenoid cystic carcinoma. This report describes the case of a 27-year-old male with an ameloblastoma in the right posterior mandible. Orthopantomography computed tomography and finally histopathological examination directed us toward the confirmatory diagnosis of basal cell variant of ameloblastoma. Considering the rarity of the lesion and histological paradox regarding its diagnosis, we report here an interesting and rare case of basal cell ameloblastoma of the mandible with emphasis on differential diagnosis from other entities with basaloid differentiation having varying prognosis. After surgery, long-term follow-up at regular intervals is recommended as no sufficient statistical information regarding the behavior of this tumor is available. PMID:25838772

  7. Combination therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: adding empagliflozin to basal insulin

    PubMed Central

    Ahmann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management is complex, with few patients successfully achieving recommended glycemic targets with monotherapy, most progressing to combination therapy, and many eventually requiring insulin. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are an emerging class of antidiabetes agents with an insulin-independent mechanism of action, making them suitable for use in combination with any other class of antidiabetes agents, including insulin. This review evaluates a 78-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the impact of empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, as add-on to basal insulin in patients with inadequate glycemic control on basal insulin, with or without metformin and/or a sulfonylurea. Empagliflozin added on to basal insulin resulted in significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels compared with placebo. Empagliflozin has previously been shown to induce weight loss, and was associated with sustained weight loss in this study. This combination therapy was well tolerated, with similar levels of hypoglycemic adverse events in the empagliflozin and placebo groups over the 78-week treatment period. Urinary tract infections and genital infections, side effects associated with SGLT2 inhibitors, were reported more commonly in the empagliflozin group; however, such events led to treatment discontinuation in very few patients. These findings suggest that, with their complementary mechanisms of action, empagliflozin added on to basal insulin may be a useful treatment option in patients on basal insulin who need additional glycemic control without weight gain.

  8. Selection of cortical dynamics for motor behaviour by the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    The basal ganglia and cortex are strongly implicated in the control of motor preparation and execution. Re-entrant loops between these two brain areas are thought to determine the selection of motor repertoires for instrumental action. The nature of neural encoding and processing in the motor cortex as well as the way in which selection by the basal ganglia acts on them is currently debated. The classic view of the motor cortex implementing a direct mapping of information from perception to muscular responses is challenged by proposals viewing it as a set of dynamical systems controlling muscles. Consequently, the common idea that a competition between relatively segregated cortico-striato-nigro-thalamo-cortical channels selects patterns of activity in the motor cortex is no more sufficient to explain how action selection works. Here, we contribute to develop the dynamical view of the basal ganglia-cortical system by proposing a computational model in which a thalamo-cortical dynamical neural reservoir is modulated by disinhibitory selection of the basal ganglia guided by top-down information, so that it responds with different dynamics to the same bottom-up input. The model shows how different motor trajectories can so be produced by controlling the same set of joint actuators. Furthermore, the model shows how the basal ganglia might modulate cortical dynamics by preserving coarse-grained spatiotemporal information throughout cortico-cortical pathways. PMID:26537483

  9. Repression of Igf1 expression by Ezh2 prevents basal cell differentiation in the developing lung.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Laura A; Holik, Aliaksei Z; Short, Kieran M; Pasquet, Julie; Lun, Aaron T L; Blewitt, Marnie E; Smyth, Ian M; Ritchie, Matthew E; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse

    2015-04-15

    Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the establishment of lung epithelial cell lineage identities during development are largely unknown. Here, we explored the role of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 during lung lineage determination. Loss of Ezh2 in the lung epithelium leads to defective lung formation and perinatal mortality. We show that Ezh2 is crucial for airway lineage specification and alveolarization. Using optical projection tomography imaging, we found that branching morphogenesis is affected in Ezh2 conditional knockout mice and the remaining bronchioles are abnormal, lacking terminally differentiated secretory club cells. Remarkably, RNA-seq analysis revealed the upregulation of basal genes in Ezh2-deficient epithelium. Three-dimensional imaging for keratin 5 further showed the unexpected presence of a layer of basal cells from the proximal airways to the distal bronchioles in E16.5 embryos. ChIP-seq analysis indicated the presence of Ezh2-mediated repressive marks on the genomic loci of some but not all basal genes, suggesting an indirect mechanism of action of Ezh2. We found that loss of Ezh2 de-represses insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) expression and that modulation of IGF1 signaling ex vivo in wild-type lungs could induce basal cell differentiation. Altogether, our work reveals an unexpected role for Ezh2 in controlling basal cell fate determination in the embryonic lung endoderm, mediated in part by repression of Igf1 expression. PMID:25790853

  10. An unusual basal Therizinosaur dinosaur with an ornithischian dental arrangement from northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Lü, Junchang; Xu, Li; Wu, Yanhua; Chang, Huali; Zhang, Jiming; Jia, Songhai

    2013-01-01

    Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Jianchang County, western part of Liaoning Province, which sheds light on our understanding of anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. This new dinosaur shows some typical therizinosaur features, such as neural spines of the anterior caudal vertebrae that possess anterior and posterior alae, a rectangular buttress on the ventrolateral side of the proximal end of metacarpal I, and appressed metatarsal shafts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a basal therizinosaur (sister taxon to Therizinosauroidea) because it bears many basal therizinosaur characters in the dentition, pelvis and hind limbs. The new therizinosaur described here has unique tooth and jaw characters such as the offsetting of the tooth row by a shelf and dentary teeth with labially concave and lingually convex dentary teeth, similar to ornithopods and ceratopsians. PMID:23734177

  11. Combined effects of temperature and medium composition on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M in a whey permeate based medium.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria G; Lacroix, Christophe; Champagne, Claude P

    2002-01-01

    The effects of temperature (22-42 degrees C), whey permeate concentration (WP, 1.6-8.4%), and supplementation level with yeast nitrogen base (YNB, 0-2.0%) on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was studied during 20 pH-controlled (pH = 6.0) batch cultures with Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M, using a central composite design (CCD). The EPS production was measured using both the conventional method based on ethanol precipitation of EPS and a new ultrafiltration (UF) method. EPS production was not growth-associated for high temperatures (32-42 degrees C) and WP concentrations (7.0-8.4%). In contrast, at suboptimal temperature (22-26 degrees C), EPS production was growth-associated. Maximal EPS production measured with the UF method was approximately 2-fold higher than those measured with the conventional method and varied from 125 to 477 mg/L. This parameter was significantly influenced by WP and YNBWP interaction, whereas ANOVA for maximal EPS production measured by the conventional method did not show significant factor effects. EPS volumetric productivities varied from 3.0 to 16.4 mg EPS/L small middle doth. YNB supplementation did not promote cell growth but did increase EPS production at high WP concentrations. Our data indicate the potential of L. rhamnosus RW-9595M for producing EPS in a supplemented WP medium and suggest that this production could be further increased by the addition of a growth-limiting nutrient in the medium. PMID:11934282

  12. Behavioral Abnormalities and Circuit Defects in the Basal Ganglia of a Mouse Model of 16p11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Portmann, Thomas; Ellegood, Jacob; Dolen, Gul; Bader, Patrick L.; Grueter, Brad A.; Goold, Carleton; Fisher, Elaine; Clifford, Katherine; Rengarajan, Pavitra; Kalikhman, David; Loureiro, Darren; Saw, Nay L.; Zhengqui, Zhou; Miller, Michael A.; Lerch, Jason P.; Henkelman, Mark; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A deletion on human chromosome 16p11.2 is associated with autism spectrum disorders. We deleted the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7F3. MRI and high-throughput single-cell transcriptomics revealed anatomical and cellular abnormalities, particularly in cortex and striatum of juvenile mutant mice (16p11+/?). We found elevated numbers of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing the dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2+) and fewer dopamine-sensitive (Drd1+) neurons in deep layers of cortex. Electrophysiological recordings of Drd2+ MSN revealed synaptic defects, suggesting abnormal basal ganglia circuitry function in 16p11+/? mice. This is further supported by behavioral experiments showing hyperactivity, circling, and deficits in movement control. Strikingly, 16p11+/? mice showed a complete lack of habituation reminiscent of what is observed in some autistic individuals. Our findings unveil a fundamental role of genes affected by the 16p11.2 deletion in establishing the basal ganglia circuitry and provide insights in the pathophysiology of autism. PMID:24794428

  13. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002?ppm to 0.001?ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

  14. Effect of chromium supplementation on productive and reproductive performances and some metabolic parameters in late gestation and early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafilzadeh, F; shabankareh, H Karami; Targhibi, M R

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental chromium as chromium-L-methionine (Cr-Met) on productive and reproductive performances and some metabolic parameters in late gestation and early lactation of dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows according to prior lactation, parity, body mass (682±33 kg), and expected calving date were divided equally (30 cows/treatment) and were randomly allocated to one of the two groups. One group received basal diet without Cr (control group) and another group received Cr-Met supplement added at manufacturer's recommended level (8 mg of "Cr"/head per day) from 21 days before expected calving date until 21 days of lactation. Supplemental Cr tended to increase milk yield (P=0.08) while percentage of lactose and lactose yield increased (P<0.01). Chromium supplementation decreased serum nonesterified fatty acids concentration at 7 days prepartum and 21 days postpartum. Serum insulin concentration for cows receiving Cr was higher than the control group (P=0.05). Serum cortisol concentration decreased (P<0.05) in prepartum period in supplemented group. Chromium did not affect concentrations of metabolic parameters at calving. However, serum glucose concentration increased at 21 days postpartum in the supplemented group (P<0.05). Chromium supplementation increased neutrophil and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in prepartum period (P<0.05). Based on serum concentrations of progesterone, days to first ovulation tended (P=0.07) to occur earlier in the supplemented group. Furthermore, days to first service and days to first estrus of the supplemented group occurred earlier than the control group (P<0.05) but days open, services per conception and conception rates at first insemination did not differ between two groups (P>0.05). Percentage of cyclic cows at 36 days postpartum and estrous behavior before AI was higher in the supplemented group. PMID:22552822

  15. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  16. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  17. BUSINESS/FARM SUPPLEMENT School Year

    E-print Network

    Dorf, Martin E.

    First BUSINESS/FARM SUPPLEMENT School Year 2015-16 Instructions for Completing the Business/Farm Supplement If you have more than one business or farm, or a business and a farm, complete a supplement --specifically, Form 1040, Schedules C, D and F, as applicable. If an incorporated business is involved, refer

  18. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  19. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  20. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...