Sample records for basal medium supplemented

  1. Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. (East Texas State Univ., Commerce (USA))

    1988-01-01

    The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

  2. Recombinant Protein Production by the Baculovirus-Insect Cell System in Basal Media Without Serum Supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norikatsu Nishikawa; Hideki Yamaji; Hideki Fukuda

    2003-01-01

    The production of ?-galactosidase by Sf9 cells infected with recombinant Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) was investigated in shake-flask culture using two serum-free basal media: Grace's medium and\\u000a TNM-FH (Grace's medium supplemented with lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeast extract). At the time of infection, cells grown\\u000a in serum-supplemented TNM-FH were transferred into fresh basal media without adaptation. The absence of serum depressed

  3. Effect of medium supplementation on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW9595M in whey permeate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Macedo; C. Lacroix; N. J. Gardner; C. P. Champagne

    2002-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M was studied in whey permeate medium supplemented with different nitrogen sources or with yeast extract and vitamins, salts and amino acids used in the formulation of defined basal minimum medium (BMM). All nitrogen sources tested exhibited very limited or no effect on biomass production using acidification and automated spectrophotometry test. A multilevel-factorial design

  4. Culture medium pH is influenced by basal medium, carbohydrate source, gelling agent, activated charcoal, and medium storage method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry R. Owen; Donna Wengerd; A. Raymond Miller

    1991-01-01

    When four carbohydrates were tested against six commonly cited inorganic basal media, post-autoclave pH was highest for carbohydrate-free and sucrose containing media, and progressively lower for maltoseglucose and fructose-containing media, respectively. Post-autoclave pH for these media without carbohydrates was related to medium buffering capacity. Addition of gelling agents (10 of 11 tested) increased the postautoclave pH of MS medium containing

  5. Easy Reader Books: A Viable Supplement to Today's Basals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegley, Peggy Ann

    A study investigated whether trade books labeled "easy reader" consistently conform to specific sight word lists and to what degree the vocabulary in those books matches that in K-2 basals. Ten "easy reader" books were chosen at random from each of three publishers. Three popular sight word lists were matched separately to every one of the words…

  6. Optimization of Basal Medium for Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Cheese Whey Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuri Azbar; F. Tuba Çetinkaya Dokgöz; Zerife Peker

    2009-01-01

    In this study, optimal basal medium composition for fermentative hydrogen production from cheese whey wastewater was investigated in batch tests. Twenty-five different basal medium formulas was prepared, each containing trace metals concentration (Co, Ni, Zn: 0–5 mg\\/l), macro elements concentration (Mg: 0–200 mg\\/l; Mn: 0–10 mg\\/l, Fe: 0–100 mg\\/l, Ca: 0–1000 mg\\/l), C\\/N ratio of 5–50, and yeast extract and

  7. MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna spp.) SUPPLEMENTATION OF GROWING SHEEP FED WITH A BASAL DIET OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Castillo-Caamal; J. B. Castillo-Caamal; A. J. Ayala-Burgos

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of Mucuna bean as a supplement for growing Pelibuey sheep fed with a basal diet of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Twenty males averaging 19.9 ± 2.19 kg LW were divided in four treatment groups and fed Napier grass ad libitum. The Mucuna bean supplementation consisted of Mucuna bean grain and husks that had been

  8. Phosphate assimilation by Chlorella and adjustment of phosphate concentration in basal medium for its cultivation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chun-Bo; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Shi, Xian-Ming

    2008-10-01

    Assimilation of phosphate by Chlorella pyrenoidosa was 0.81-8.1 mg PO(4)-P/g dry weight for heterotrophic cultures and 0.81-16.1 mg/g for mixotrophic cultures. Optimal carbon:phosphorous (C/P) ratios were 206:1-2060:1 and 103:1-2060:1 for heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivations, respectively. These requirements for phosphate for growth of C. pyrenoidosa under either heterotrophic or mixotrophic conditions are much less (6.25-62.5 or 3.12-62.5-fold at 10 g glucose/l) than its concentration in basal medium. PMID:18566756

  9. Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

  10. Basal medium composition and serum or serum replacement concentration influences on the maintenance of murine embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad A. Chaudhry; Timothy Z. Vitalis; Bruce D. Bowen; James M. Piret

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of stem cell numbers while retaining their developmental properties is a bioprocess challenge. We compared the\\u000a growth rates and embryoid body (EB) formation yields of R1 and EFC murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) cultured in two basal\\u000a media (DMEM or DMEM:F12) with additions of 1.7–15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or serum replacer (KOSR). Whereas the basal medium\\u000a or

  11. Culture of Ovine IVM/IVF Zygotes in Isolated Mouse Oviduct: Effect of Basal Medium

    PubMed Central

    Farahavar, Abbas; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Kohram, Hamid; Shahneh, Ahmad Zareh; Sarvari, Ali; Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Zhandi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background The basal medium that supports Isolated Mouse Oviduct (IMO) is important for supporting embryo development and quality. Methods The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes was done in IMO using SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA as basal medium of IMO and in SOFaaBSA alone as control. For preparation of IMO mature inbred strain C57BL/6 female mice were synchronized and mated with vasectomized males. The females with vaginal plug were sacrificed and the zygotes were transferred in to the isolated oviduct at 20 hpi. The oviducts were cultured with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA for 6 days. Another group of zygotes were cultured in SOFaaBSA alone as control. Results Culture of zygotes in the IMO with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA, did not significantly affect the development and quality of embryos (p > 0.05). The hatching rate, total and trophectoderm cells number in IMO groups’ blastocysts were significantly higher than SOFaaBSA alone. The morphological appearance of IMO blastocysts was superior to SOFaaBSA alone. When the quality of oocytes was poor, IMO could better support ovine embryo development either with SOFaaBSA or SOFaaciBSA than SOFaaBSA alone and there was a significant difference in blastocyst formation at day 6 with SOFaaBSA alone. Conclusion The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes in IMO using two highly efficient ruminant embryo culture media not only could support development of ovine embryos similar to the level in non IMO culture system (SOFaaBSA alone) but also could improve the quality of resulting embryos. Additionally, IMO could better support the development of ovine embryos derived from poor quality oocytes compared to the SOFaaBSA alone. PMID:23799182

  12. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 4, 1985-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    An extension is presented of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements which have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1985 to 1988, and 1985 IMF data from the Czechoslovakian Soviet Prognoz 10 spacecraft. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1985 to 1988 data as for the earlier data.

  13. The effects of decreased glucose concentrations on the in vitro development of the post-blastocyst mouse embryo in a fetal calf serum-or bovine serum albumin-supplemented medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Hendryx; R. J. Wordinger

    1979-01-01

    Summary Decreasing the glucose concentration from 1.0 mg\\/ml to 0.25 mg\\/ml has no detrimental effects on postblastocyst embryo development when either dialyzed fetal calf serum (20%) or bovine serum albumin (4.0 mg\\/ml) is used to supplement Eagle's Basal Medium (BME). Development is reduced in both serum-and BSA-supplemented BME devoid of glucose in comparison to glucose controls. Serum-supplemented media support better

  14. Effect of addition of Tween 80 and potassium dihydrogenphosphate to basal medium on the isolation of marine eukaryotes, thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Yousuke; Nagano, Naoki; Okita, Yuji; Izumida, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2008-05-01

    Tween 80, KH(2)PO(4) and tomato juice were added to basal medium for the isolation of thraustochytrids. By the addition of Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4), the number of thraustochytrids isolated from seawater increased. KH(2)PO(4) and Tween 80 were considered to be useful for isolating thraustochytrids. PMID:18558350

  15. Effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium on conversion of somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

    2000-01-01

    The effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium were studied to produce plants from somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L. There was a significant difference among concentrations of sugar but not among kinds of sugar tested in the present experiment in growth of shoots and roots. When the sucrose concentrations were 10, 30, or 50gl?1, the fresh weight

  16. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 5, 1988-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.

    1994-01-01

    This publication represents an extension of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements that have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1988 through the end of 1993. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1988-1993 data as for the earlier data. Owing to a combination of non-continuity of IMP 8 telemetry acquisition and IMP's being out of the solar wind for about 40 percent of its orbit, the annual solar wind coverage for 1988-1993 is 40 plus or minus 5 percent. The plots and listings of this supplement are in essentially the same format as in previous supplements. Days for which neither IMF nor plasma data were available for any hours are omitted from the listings.

  17. Cross flow diafiltration of serum with basal medium suitable for growth of hybridomas, sterilization and protein reduction.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, A; Wenisch, E; Steindl, F; Himmler, G; Reiter, S; Rüker, F; Wagner, K; Katinger, H

    1987-01-01

    Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) was extensively extracted by cross flow diafiltration (Pellicon, Millipore) and sterilized using the basal growth medium (DMEM) for the extraction. Ultrafiltration membranes of 10(5) and 3 X 10(5) Dalton cut off were used respectively. The diafiltrates were used for hybridoma cultivation and the results of growth and mAb-production were compared with standard medium (DMEM + 5% FCS). Slightly reduced mAb-titers were achieved. These were, however, compensated by decreased concentration of contaminating protein and higher specific mAb/protein ratio as examined by SDS-PAGE and enzyme linked immuno electro transfer blot (EITB). PMID:3582774

  18. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

    2013-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  19. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  20. Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    : June 1, 2012 - May 31, 2015 Office of Nuclear Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program1 Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University/University of Surrey masters student each year as part of the Richmond program in electromagnetic nuclear physics

  1. Basal medium composition and serum or serum replacement concentration influences on the maintenance of murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Muhammad A; Vitalis, Timothy Z; Bowen, Bruce D; Piret, James M

    2008-11-01

    The expansion of stem cell numbers while retaining their developmental properties is a bioprocess challenge. We compared the growth rates and embryoid body (EB) formation yields of R1 and EFC murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) cultured in two basal media (DMEM or DMEM:F12) with additions of 1.7-15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or serum replacer (KOSR). Whereas the basal medium or KOSR dose did not have a significant effect on growth rate for either cell line, increasing doses of KOSR had a significant negative effect on the EB yield of EFC cells. Use of DMEM:F12 and increasing doses of FBS independently and significantly increased the growth rate for both cell lines. DMEM:F12 also significantly increased EB yields for both cell lines. The results show that use of DMEM:F12 and several-fold lower than conventional concentrations of KOSR can efficiently support maintenance of mESC and that KOSR should be dose as well as lot optimized. PMID:19101815

  2. Effects of diet switching on growth and immunity in Nile tilapia fed a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with ß-glucan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia were fed either a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg ß -glucan for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, half the fish were continued on the same diet or switched to the other diet for 2 weeks. Tilapia were then challenged with Streptococcus iniae by intraperi...

  3. Redifferentiation of proliferated rat hepatocytes cultured in L15 medium supplemented with EGF and DMSO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiro Mitaka; Ken-Ichi Norioka; Yohichi Mochizuki

    1993-01-01

    Summary  Primary adult rat hepatocytes were cultured in serum-free L15 medium supplemented with 20 mM NaHCO3 and 10 ng\\/ml epidermal growth factor in a 5% CO2:95% air incubator. The number of cells increased and reached about 180% of the initial value by Day 4, and after 2% dimethyl\\u000a sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the culture medium at Day 4, the cells

  4. Supplementation of canine oocyte in vitro maturation medium with progesterone, somatotropin, and epidermal growth factor 

    E-print Network

    Willingham-Rocky, Lauri Ann

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess meiotic resumption of canine oocytes in vitro in response to medium supplemented with either progesterone (P?), somatotropin (ST), and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF). A mono-phasic in vitro maturation (IVM...

  5. Nutrient supplemented serum-free medium increases cardiomyogenesis efficiency of human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Sherwin; Lecina, Marti; Chan, Yau-Chi; Tse, Hung Fat; Reuveny, Shaul; Oh, Steve KW

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To development of an improved p38 MAPK inhibitor-based serum-free medium for embryoid body cardiomyocyte differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. METHODS: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) differentiated to cardiomyocytes (CM) using a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) based serum-free medium (SB media). Nutrient supplements known to increase cell viability were added to SB medium. The ability of these supplements to improve cardiomyogenesis was evaluated by measurements of cell viability, total cell count, and the expression of cardiac markers via flow cytometry. An improved medium containing Soy hydrolysate (HySoy) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) (SupSB media) was developed and tested on 2 additional cell lines (H1 and Siu-hiPSC). Characterization of the cardiomyocytes was done by immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: hESC cell line, HES-3, differentiating in SB medium for 16 d resulted in a cardiomyocyte yield of 0.07 ± 0.03 CM/hESC. A new medium (SupSB media) was developed with the addition of HySoy and BSA to SB medium. This medium resulted in 2.6 fold increase in cardiomyocyte yield (0.21 ± 0.08 CM/hESC). The robustness of SupSB medium was further demonstrated using two additional pluripotent cell lines (H1, hESC and Siu1, hiPSC), showing a 15 and 9 fold increase in cardiomyocyte yield respectively. The age (passage number) of the pluripotent cells did not affect the cardiomyocyte yields. Embryoid body (EB) cardiomyocytes formed in SupSB medium expressed canonical cardiac markers (sarcomeric ?-actinin, myosin heavy chain and troponin-T) and demonstrated all three major phenotypes: nodal-, atrial- and ventricular-like. Electrophysiological characteristics (maximum diastolic potentials and action potential durations) of cardiomyocytes derived from SB and SupSB media were similar. CONCLUSION: The nutrient supplementation (HySoy and BSA) leads to increase in cell viability, cell yield and cardiac marker expression during cardiomyocyte differentiation, translating to an overall increase in cardiomyocyte yield. PMID:23904910

  6. Improvement of Preimplantation Development of In Vitro-Fertilized Bovine Zygotes by Glucose Supplementation to a Chemically Defined Medium

    PubMed Central

    SAKAGAMI, Nobutada; NISHINO, Osamu; ADACHI, Satoshi; UMEKI, Hidenobu; UCHIYAMA, Hiroko; ICHIKAWA, Kyoko; TAKESHITA, Kazuhisa; KANEKO, Etsushi; AKIYAMA, Kiyoshi; KOBAYASHI, Shuji; TAMADA, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

  7. Improvement of preimplantation development of in vitro-fertilized bovine zygotes by glucose supplementation to a chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Nishino, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Umeki, Hidenobu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2014-10-01

    The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

  8. Influence of serum supplements in culture medium on gonadotropin-releasing hormone effects on colony formation.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Masahiro; Mori, Takao; Park, Min

    2002-09-20

    A number of studies have demonstrated that GnRH has anti-proliferative effects on various carcinomas of breast, ovary, endometrium, prostate, pancreas, and liver origin. In contrast, GnRH increases the proliferative activity of lymphoid tissues and cells, which suggests that GnRH is also an important immunomodulator. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the colony-forming efficiencies of HHUA (derived from human endometrial carcinoma) and Jurkat (derived from human mature leukemia) cells are affected by the GnRH agonist Buserelin, and that the conditioned media of HHUA and Jurkat cells severely affect the Buserelin activity. The latter finding suggests that substances in the culture medium have some relation to the GnRH activity. Therefore, in the present study, to evaluate the effect of serum supplements on the colony-forming efficiency assay, the assay was performed using 3 lots of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 2 lots of Nu-Serum I, a semi-synthetic serum supplement. The results showed that the colony-forming efficiencies of HHUA and Jurkat cells fluctuated greatly depending on the lot of FBS. In contrast, Buserelin significantly affected the colony-forming efficiency to similar extents in the media containing both the lots of Nu-Serum I. These results strongly suggest that the constituents of the serum supplements also influence the effect of GnRH on cell proliferation. For further studies about the relationship between substances in the culture medium and the GnRH effects on cell proliferation, it will be necessary to use a completely defined medium, and that a semi-synthetic serum supplement such as Nu-Serum I will also be useful. PMID:12204773

  9. Ex vivo expanded autologous limbal epithelial cells on amniotic membrane using a culture medium with human serum as single supplement.

    PubMed

    Shahdadfar, Aboulghassem; Haug, Kristiane; Pathak, Meeta; Drolsum, Liv; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Johnsen, Erik O; Petrovski, Goran; Moe, Morten C; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2012-04-01

    In patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), transplantation of ex vivo expanded human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) can restore the structural and functional integrity of the corneal surface. However, the protocol for cultivation and transplantation of HLECs differ significantly, and in most protocols growth additives such as cholera toxins, exogenous growth factors, hormones and fetal calf serum are used. In the present article, we compare for the first time human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) cultivated on human amniotic membrane (HAM) in a complex medium (COM) including fetal bovine serum to a medium with human serum as single growth supplement (HSM), and report on our first examinations of HLECs expanded in autologous HSM and used for transplant procedures in patients with LSCD. Expanded HLECs were examined by genome-wide microarray, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and for cell viability, morphology, expression of immunohistochemical markers and colony forming efficiency. Cultivation of HLECs in HSM produced a multilayered epithelium where cells with markers associated with LESCs were detected in the basal layers. There were few transcriptional differences and comparable cell viability between cells cultivated in HSM and COM. The p63 gene associated with LESCs were expressed 3.5 fold more in HSM compared to COM, and Western blotting confirmed a stronger p63? band in HSM cultures. The cornea-specific keratin CK12 was equally found in both culture conditions, while there were significantly more CK3 positive cells in HSM. Cells in epithelial sheets on HAM remaining after transplant surgery of patients with LSCD expressed central epithelial characteristics, and dissociated cells cultured at low density on growth-arrested fibroblasts produced clones containing 21 ± 12% cells positive for p63? (n = 3). In conclusion, a culture medium without growth additives derived from animals or from animal cell cultures and with human serum as single growth supplement may serve as an equivalent replacement for the commonly used complex medium for ex vivo expansion of HLECs on HAM. PMID:22342952

  10. Pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent as a basal medium and its immobilization by selected materials.

    PubMed

    Asih, Devi Ratna; Alam, Md Zahangir; Alam, Zahangir; Salleh, Md Noor; Salleh, Noor; Salihu, Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%. PMID:25017863

  11. Supplementation of strontium to a chondrogenic medium promotes chondrogenic differentiation of human dedifferentiated fat cells.

    PubMed

    Okita, Naoya; Honda, Yoshitomo; Kishimoto, Naotaka; Liao, Wen; Azumi, Eiko; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2015-05-01

    Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) isolated from adipose tissue have been demonstrated to differentiate into chondrogenic cells in vitro. Nevertheless, an efficient method to facilitate its chondrogenic differentiation is still unexplored, hampering the extensive application of these cells in cartilage regeneration therapies. Here we provide the evidence that supplementation of strontium ions (Sr) in a chondrogenic medium (CM) significantly promotes early chondrogenic differentiation of DFAT cells. Human DFAT cells and the mesenchymal stem cell line (RCB2153) were subjected to the CM supplemented with/without Sr. After 14 days, alcian blue staining intensity significantly increased in DFAT cells, but not in RCB2153, subjected to CM with Sr. mRNA expression analysis revealed that the CM with 1.5?mM Sr increased the expression of chondrogenic marker, collagen type 2 alpha 1, whereas there was no significant change in osteogenic markers, collagen type 1 alpha 1, runt-related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin, and hypertrophic chondrogenic marker, collagen type 10 alpha 1. Inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) pathways significantly diminished the alcian blue staining intensity, providing the first evidence that these signal pathways are associated with chondrogenic differentiation of DFAT cells. CaSR and ERK1/2 pathways independently induced Sr-mediated early chondrogenic differentiation. These results suggest that Sr supplementation into the CM may provide a powerful platform for preparing chondrogenically differentiated DFAT cells for cartilage regeneration. PMID:25669848

  12. Growth of anuran oocytes in serum-supplemented medium R. A. WALLACE, Ziva MISULOVIN, H. S. WILEY

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -glutamine solutions, and fetal calf serum were purchased from Grand Island Biologicals (Grand Island, NY). EstradiolGrowth of anuran oocytes in serum-supplemented medium R. A. WALLACE, Ziva MISULOVIN, H. S. WILEY. Appropriately-sized oocytes from Xenopus laevis can be grown in vitro in vitellogenin-containing serum for up

  13. Honey Supplementation to Semen-Freezing Medium ImprovesHuman Sperm Parameters Post-Thawing

    PubMed Central

    Alsaadi, Rana A-R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of honey supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm motility, concentration, morphology and agglutination. Materials and methods Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1, control) alone, or enriched with 5% honey (G2) or with 10% honey (G3) for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196°C in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post-thawing. Sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post-thawing. Results Results appeared that the percentage of sperm motility for G1 and G2 groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post-thawing when compared to pre-cryopreservation. However, there was no significant difference in the total motility (%) of the post-thaw sperm between the G1 and G2 groups. While there was significant increased (P < 0.05) in the percentage of normal sperm morphology for G1 and G3 groups post-thawing. Post-thawing normal sperm morphology (%) for G3 group was significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared to G1 and G2 groups. In contrast non significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) was seen in the sperm concentration for all groups post-thawing as compared to pre-cryopreservation groups. After thawing the results reveal significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the sperm agglutination (%) for G3 group as compared to G1 and G2 groups. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the supplementation of honey (10%) to cryoprotectant solution results in enhancement of sperm quality post-thawing. PMID:24971130

  14. Improved cell growth and total flavonoids of Saussurea medusa on solid culture medium supplemented with rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaofan Yuan; Qian Wang; Bing Zhao; Yuchun Wang

    2002-01-01

    Callus cultures of Saussurea medusa were cultivated on solid culture medium supplemented with either Ce3+, La3+, Nd3+ or a mixture of rare earth elements. Ce3+, 0.05 mM, gave the highest biomass (0.53 g dry wt per flask) and total flavonoids (27.5 mg per flask), which were, 70% and 100% higher than those without Ce3+ addition, respectively. Ce3+, 0.01–0.1 mM, or

  15. Effect of delayed supplementation of fetal calf serum to culture medium on bovine embryo development in vitro and following transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G Thompson; N. W Allen; L. T McGowan; A. C. S Bell; M. G Lambert; H. R Tervit

    1998-01-01

    Supplementation of synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) medium plus amino acids and bovine serum albumin (BSA) with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or charcoal-treated FCS (CT-FCS) from Day 5 of development was investigated to determine if either in vitro or post-transfer development was altered. Development to the compact morula stage or beyond was similar for all 3 treatments. However, blastocyst development

  16. Development of Cell Cultures Derived from Lake Trout Liver and Kidney in a Hormone-Supplemented, Serum-Reduced Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Lin Cheng; P. R. Bowser; J. M. Spitsbergen

    1993-01-01

    Primary cultures of liver cells and kidney cells of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were initiated in a hormone-supplemented, serum-reduced medium in plastic dishes. Cells plated on fibronectin-coated plastic attached with high efficiency (87–93%), in contrast to cells cultured on uncoated or polymer-coated plastic (< 8–52%). Primary cultures were obtained from young lake trout by trypsin-EDTA dissociation at 10–15°C for 40

  17. Reductions in workload and reporting time by use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening with MRSASelect medium compared to mannitol-salt medium supplemented with oxacillin.

    PubMed

    Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Alfa, Michelle J; Manickam, Kanchana; Harding, Godfrey K M

    2008-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both nosocomial and community settings, and screening for carriers is an important infection control practice in many hospitals. In this retrospective study, we demonstrate that the implementation of an MRSA screening protocol using a selective chromogenic medium (MRSASelect) reduced the workload for this screening test by 63.7% overall and by 12.6% per specimen and reduced the turnaround time for reporting by an average of 1.33 days for all MRSA screening specimens, 1.97 days for MRSA-positive specimens, and 1.3 days for MRSA-negative specimens compared to standard mannitol-salt agar supplemented with 6 mg of oxacillin/liter. PMID:18234863

  18. Supplemented ?MEM/F12-based medium enables the survival and growth of primary ovarian follicles encapsulated in alginate hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Tagler, David; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Anderson, Nicholas R.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel-encapsulating culture systems for ovarian follicles support the in vitro growth of secondary follicles from various species including mouse, non-primate human, and human; however, the growth of early stage follicles (primary and primordial) has been limited. While encapsulation maintains the structure of early stage follicles, feeder cell populations, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), are required to stimulate growth and development. Hence, in this report, we investigated feeder-free culture environments for early stage follicle development. Mouse ovarian follicles were encapsulated within alginate hydrogels and cultured in various growth medium formulations. Initial studies employed embryonic stem cell medium formulations as a tool to identify factors that influence the survival, growth, and meiotic competence of early stage follicles. The medium formulation that maximized survival and growth was identified as ?MEM/F12 supplemented with fetuin, insulin, transferrin, selenium, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This medium stimulated the growth of late primary (average initial diameter of 80 µm) and early secondary (average initial diameter of 90 µm) follicles, which developed antral cavities and increased to terminal diameters exceeding 300 µm in 14 days. Survival ranged from 18% for 80 µm follicles to 36% for 90 µm follicles. Furthermore, 80% of the oocytes from surviving follicles with an initial diameter of 90–100 µm underwent germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and the percentage of metaphase II (MII) eggs was 50%. Follicle/oocyte growth and GVBD/MII rates were not significantly different from MEF co-culture. Survival was reduced relative to MEF co-culture, yet substantially increased relative to the control medium that had been previously used for secondary follicles. Continued development of culture medium could enable mechanistic studies of early stage folliculogenesis and emerging strategies for fertility preservation. PMID:23801027

  19. Autoinduction activity of a conditioned medium obtained from high density cultures of the green alga Scenedesmus subspicatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Grabski; Zbigniew Tukaj

    2008-01-01

    Culture filtrates (conditioned medium, CM) containing exudates obtained from cells of Scenedesmus subspicatus grown in batch culture were tested for their autoinduction activity. Undiluted CM completely inhibited the proliferation\\u000a of cells due to depletion of nitrogen in this medium. When undiluted CM was supplemented with fresh bold basal medium (BBM)\\u000a medium, enhancement of population growth in a dilution-dependent manner was

  20. The differentiation of oligodendrocytes in a serum-free hormone-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Eccleston, P A; Silberberg, D H

    1984-09-01

    Primary mixed cultures of trypsin-dissociated fetal and newborn rat brain and spinal cord have been grown in a serum-free medium. This medium, containing insulin, selenium, transferrin and triiodothyronine, was optimized for oligodendrocyte survival by determining the number of cells which expressed surface galactocerebroside. Comparison of cultures in serum-containing and serum-free media revealed that galactocerebroside positive (GalC+) oligodendrocytes could be detected earlier in the absence of serum. This early differentiation occurred in the absence of the added hormones and nutrients, whose main function appeared to be to prolong survival of the cells. The effect of serum on the differentiation of oligodendrocytes was studied by comparing the expression of surface GalC in media containing 2.5% or 10% fetal calf serum. At a given time a much greater number of GalC+ oligodendrocytes could be detected at the lower serum concentration. However, when cultures were transferred from 10% serum to serum-free medium (or 1% serum) large numbers of GalC+ oligodendrocytes subsequently appeared, showing that precursors were present in the high-serum medium, but that they were unable to differentiate. Possible explanations of the effect of serum on oligodendrocyte differentiation are discussed. PMID:6386106

  1. Ex vivo Expansion of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells in Xeno-Free Medium Supplemented with Platelet Releasate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml) neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%?10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase ?1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices and regulatory recommendations to limit the use of xenogenic materials. PMID:24945500

  2. Ex vivo expansion of bovine corneal endothelial cells in xeno-free medium supplemented with platelet releasate.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming-Li; Burnouf, Thierry; Wang, Tsung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml) neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%?10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase ?1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices and regulatory recommendations to limit the use of xenogenic materials. PMID:24945500

  3. A simple and effective method for the removal of trace metal cations from a mammalian culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Rayner; Kazuo T. Suzuki

    1995-01-01

    Direct batch addition of sterile Chelex ion-exchange resin to Dubecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum with gentle stirring removed a very wide variety of trace metal ions from the medium to varying extents dependent upon Chelex content (between 0.01 and 4% w\\/v), exposure time (between 5 min and 10 days) and temperature 4, 25 and 37

  4. Factors Associated with the Intention to Use Vitamin D Supplements: Quantitative Study among a Sample of Elderly People in a Medium-Sized Town in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Engels; Patricia van Assema; Elisabeth Dorant; Lilian Lechner

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess which factors are related to the intention of elderly people to use vitamin D supplements. A questionnaire that was based on several theories, feedback of experts, and personal interviews with members of the target group was distributed among a random sample of 497 elderly people in a medium-sized town in the Netherlands

  5. Evaluation of Clitoria, Gliricidia and Mucuna as nitrogen supplements to Napier grass basal diet in relation to the performance of lactating Jersey cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Juma; S. A. Abdulrazak; R. W. Muinga; M. K. Ambula

    2006-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Mtwapa in Coastal lowland Kenya to evaluate the effects of supplementing Napier grass variety Bana (Pennisetum purpureum) with Clitoria ternatea (Clitoria), Gliricidia sepium (Gliricidia) and Mucuna pruriens (Mucuna) on feed intake, diet digestibility and milk yield of lactating Jersey cows. Clitoria and Mucuna were compared with Gliricidia; a widely

  6. An Optimal Medium Supplementation Regimen for Initiation of Hepatocyte Differentiation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2015-08-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells are an ideal source for hepatocytes. Glucose and arginine are necessary for cells to survive. Hepatocytes have galactokinase (GALK), which metabolizes galactose for gluconeogenesis, and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), which converts ornithine to arginine in the urea cycle. Hepatocyte selection medium (HSM) lacks both glucose and arginine, but contains galactose and ornithine. Although human primary hepatocytes survive in HSM, all the hiPS cells die in 3 days. The aim of this study was to modify HSM so as to initiate hepatocyte differentiation in hiPS cells within 2 days. Hepatocyte differentiation initiating medium (HDI) was prepared by adding oncostatin M (10?ng/ml), hepatocyte functional proliferation inducer (10?nM), 2,2'-methylenebis (1,3-cyclohexanedione) (M50054) (100??g/ml), 1× non-essential amino acid, 1× sodium pyruvate, nicotinamide (1.2?mg/ml), L-proline (30?ng/ml), and L-glutamine (0.3?mg/ml) to HSM. HiPS cells (201B7 cells) were cultured in HDI for 2 days. RNA was isolated, used as template for cDNA, and subjected to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Alpha-fetoprotein, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase, and delta-like 1 were upregulated. Expression of albumin was not observed. Expression of transcription factors specific to hepatocytes was upregulated. The expression of GALK2, OTC, and CYP3A4 were increased. In conclusion, differentiation of 201B7 cells to hepatoblast-like cells was initiated in HDI. Limitations were small number of cells were obtained, and the cells with HDI were not mature hepatocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1479-1489, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25683148

  7. Supplementation of IVF medium with melatonin: effect on sperm functionality and in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheuquemán, C; Arias, M E; Risopatrón, J; Felmer, R; Álvarez, J; Mogas, T; Sánchez, R

    2015-08-01

    Gamete co-incubation generates high free radical levels surrounding growing zygotes which may impair subsequent embryo viability. Melatonin eliminates a wide variety of free radicals; hence, we tried to improve in vitro embryo production by adding melatonin to in vitro fertilisation (IVF) media in high (Exp. 1) and low concentrations (Exp. 2), and we evaluated its effect on bull sperm function during IVF co-incubation time (Exp. 3). In Experiment 1, we supplemented IVF media culture with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mmol of melatonin, along with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 2, melatonin levels were reduced to 10, 100 and 1000 nmol, with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated in IVF media with melatonin (as Exp. 2) and functional parameters were analysed at 0, 4 and 18 h. In Experiment 1, only 1 mmol melatonin showed lesser blastocyst rates than control (C: 23.2 ± 6.7% versus 1 mmol: 2.0 ± 1.7%). In Experiment 2, no statistical differences were found in cleavage percentage, blastocyst percentage and total cell count for any melatonin treatment. In Experiment 3, sperm samples with 1000 nmol melatonin had a significantly higher wobbler (WOB) coefficient, a lower percentage of intact acrosomes, a lower percentage of viable spermatozoa with ROS, greater DNA fragmentation and higher DNA oxidation than controls. Total fluorescence intensity for ROS at 10 nmol melatonin was significantly greater than controls (P < 0.05). IVF media with 1 mmol melatonin is deleterious for embryo development, and in lower concentrations, it modulated sperm functionality, but had no effects on embryo production. PMID:25059349

  8. Biological activity of a standardized freeze-dried platelet derivative to be used as cell culture medium supplement.

    PubMed

    Muraglia, Anita; Ottonello, Chiara; Spanò, Raffaele; Dozin, Beatrice; Strada, Paolo; Grandizio, Michele; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    Serum of animal origin and in particular fetal bovine serum is the most commonly utilized cell culture medium additive for in vitro cell growth and differentiation. However, several major concerns have been raised by the scientific community regarding the use of animal sera for human cell-based culture applications. Among the possible alternatives to the animal serum, platelet-derived compounds have been proposed since more than 10 years. Nevertheless, the high degree of variability between the different platelet preparations, and the lack of standardized manufacturing and quality control procedures, made difficult to reach a consensus on the applicability of this novel cell culture medium supplement. In this study, we describe the preparation of a standardized platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivative obtained starting from human-certified buffy coat samples with a defined platelet concentration and following protocols including also freeze-drying, gamma irradiation and biological activity testing prior the product release as cell culture medium additive. Biological activity testing of the different preparations was done by determining the capability of the different PRP preparations to sustain human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clone formation and proliferation. Taking advantage of a developed MSC in vitro clonogenicity test, we also determined biological activity and stability of the freeze-dried gamma-sterilized PRP preparations after their storage for different times and at different temperatures. The PRP effects on cell proliferation were determined both on primary cell cultures established from different tissues and on a cell line. Results were compared with those obtained in "traditional" parallel control cultures performed in the presence of bovine serum [10% fetal calf serum (FCS)]. Compared to FCS, the PRP addition to the culture medium increased the MSC colony number and average size. In primary cell cultures and in cell line cultures, the PRP promoted cell proliferation also in conditions where the FCS had not a proliferation stimulating effect due to either the nature of the cells and the tissue of origin (such as human articular chondrocytes from elderly patients) or to the critical low density cell seeding (such as for HeLa cells). In summary, the standardized PRP formulation would provide an "off-the-shelf" product to be used for the selection and expansion of several cell types also in critical cell culture conditions. PMID:23885791

  9. Lipoprotein metabolism and LCAT activity in chronic renal failure dogs supplemented with PUFA oils

    E-print Network

    Malcik, Kimberly L

    1996-01-01

    protein/phosphorous restricted diets: low protein canned (LPC), medium protein canned (MPC), or low protein dry (LPD), for 3 to 5 weeks. Basal diets were then supplemented for 6 weeks with menhaden fish oil (MHO) or safflower oil (SFO) in a crossover...

  10. Lipid peroxidation and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase and glutamine synthetase in hepatoma and glioma cells grown in bovine colostrum-supplemented medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Odland; Stefan Wallin; Erik Walum

    1986-01-01

    Summary  The growth stimulating properties of bovine serum and colostrum were compared in rat hepatoma (HTC) and glioma (C6) cell cultures.\\u000a A colostrum concentration of 2% was optimal for HTc cells, which then reached a terminal density 40% of that in serum-supplemented\\u000a medium. The corresponding figures for C6 cells were 10 and 81%, respectively. After 4 d in culture, levels of

  11. Study on reproductive endocrinology of human placenta--culture of highly purified cytotrophoblast cell in serum-free hormone supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Li, R H; Zhuang, L Z

    1991-08-01

    A new method of long-term culture of cytotrophoblast cells in serum-free medium has been developed. Cytotrophoblast cells were isolated with cold trypsin and purified by unit gravity sedimentation through BSA density gradients. The cells were cultured in the FD medium with supplement of EGF, insulin, transferrin and sodium selenite. They could survive over three weeks. The results showed that both EGF and insulin stimulated hCG and progesterone secretion and that sodium selenite elevated hCG output but not progesterone secretion. Transferrin produced synergistic effect with EGF and insulin on hCG and progesterone secretion but it was ineffective when used alone. This study demonstrates that the four growth factors mentioned above are essential for the survival of cytotrophoblast cells in vitro. It is therefore suggested that EGF, insulin and selenium may possibly be involved in the regulation of hCG and progesterone secretion in the human placenta. PMID:1801845

  12. A novel chemical-defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements supports undifferentiated growth in human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yanxia [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Song Zhihua [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Zhao Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Qin Han [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Cai Jun [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhang Hong [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yu Tianxin [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Jiang Siming [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Wang Guangwen [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ding Mingxiao [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Hongkui [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China) and Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China)]. E-mail: hongkui_deng@pku.edu.cn

    2006-07-21

    Traditionally, undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells or on matrigel with an MEF-conditioned medium (CM), which hampers the clinical applications of hESCs due to the contamination by animal pathogens. Here we report a novel chemical-defined medium using DMEM/F12 supplemented with N2, B27, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [termed NBF]. This medium can support prolonged self-renewal of hESCs. hESCs cultured in NBF maintain an undifferentiated state and normal karyotype, are able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and differentiate into three germ layers and extraembryonic cells. Furthermore, we find that hESCs cultured in NBF possess a low apoptosis rate and a high proliferation rate compared with those cultured in MEF-CM. Our findings provide a novel, simplified chemical-defined culture medium suitable for further therapeutic applications and developmental studies of hESCs.

  13. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls.

    PubMed

    Panyakaew, P; Boon, N; Goel, G; Yuangklang, C; Schonewille, J Th; Hendriks, W H; Fievez, V

    2013-12-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional organization. KO contains similar amounts of C12:0 as CO (420 and 458 g/kg FA, respectively), but has a higher proportion of C14:0 (464 v. 205 g/kg FA, respectively). Treatments contained 35 g supplemental fat per kg DM: a control diet with tallow (T); a diet with supplemental CO; and a diet with supplemental KO. A 4th treatment consisted of a diet with similar amounts of MCFA (i.e. C10:0+C12:0+C14:0) from CO and KO. To ensure isolipidic diets, extra tallow was supplied in the latter treatment (KO+T). Eight fistulated bulls (two bulls per treatment), fed a total mixed ration predominantly based on cassava chips, rice straw, tomato pomace, rice bran and soybean meal (1.5% of BW), were used. Both KO and CO increased the rumen volatile fatty acids, in particular propionate and decreased acetate proportions. Protozoal numbers were reduced through the supplementation of an MCFA source (CO, KO and KO+T), with the strongest reduction by KO. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays based on archaeal primers showed a decrease in abundance of Archaea when supplementing with KO and KO+T compared with T and CO. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the rumen archaeal population did not result in a grouping of treatments. Richness indices were calculated from the number of DGGE bands, whereas community organization was assessed from the Pareto-Lorenz evenness curves on the basis of DGGE band intensities. KO supplementation (KO and KO+T treatments) increased richness and evenness within the archaeal community. Further research including methane measurements and productive animals should elucidate whether KO could be used as a dietary methane mitigation strategy. PMID:24237673

  14. Monitoring the enzyme expression in a respiratory chain of Corynebacterium glutamicum in a copper ion-supplemented culture medium.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Tomoichirou; Aoyagi, Makoto; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Sakamoto, Junshi

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum has a branched respiratory chain: one of the branches is cytochrome bcc complex and cytochrome aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase, and the other is cytochrome bd-type menaquinol oxidase. The factors that influence the expression patterns of these respiratory enzymes remain unclear. To investigate the expressional control mechanism of the enzymes, we have previously constructed a promoter assay system utilizing enhanced green fluorescence protein. Here, we monitored respiratory enzymes' expression by using this system during growth in various culture media, with and without Cu(2+) ion supplementation. The promoter activities of cytochrome aa3 oxidase in the early stationary phase in the media supplemented with Cu(2+) ion at 40 or 400 ?M were significantly increased 1.49-fold or 1.99-fold, respectively, as compared to the control. Moreover, the H(+)/O ratio, or the proton-pumping activity of the cells, increased about 1.6 times by the Cu(2+) supplementation. These facts indicate that copper ions can switch the branches. PMID:25338939

  15. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  16. Effects of supplementing Erythrina brucei leaf as a substitute for cotton seed meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Yinnesu, Asmamaw; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The replacement value of dried Erythrina brucei leaf for cotton seed meal (CSM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics was evaluated. Twenty-five yearling buck goats (15.8?±?1.4 kg) were assigned into five treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100% CSM (T2), 67% CSM?+?33% E. brucei (T3), 33% CSM?+?67% E. brucei (T4), and 100% E. brucei (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats consumed more (P?supplemented group, but the intakes were not influenced (P?>?0.05) by the proportion of the supplements. The highest (P?supplemented with CSM alone, whereas the lowest intake was observed in the non-supplemented group. Total CP intake decreased (P?supplement mixture. The supplemented goats gained more (P?supplemented goats than in the non-supplemented ones, but similar (P?>?0.05) among the supplemented group. The digestibility of CP was higher (P?supplemented goats, except in those goats fed E. brucei alone, than the non-supplemented group. Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P?supplemented goats than for the non-supplemented ones. It could be concluded that E. brucei could be used as a substitute to CSM under smallholder production systems. PMID:21735342

  17. In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Reynoso-Cuevas; M. E. Gallegos-Martínez; F. Cruz-Sosa; M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination

  18. In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Reynoso-Cuevas, L; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Cruz-Sosa, F; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-09-01

    The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination was not affected for any assayed concentration; however, the length of the stems and roots decreased when HCM increased and the survival of the four species also diminished. Except for F. arundinacea, a direct link between hydrocarbon concentration and plant survival was observed. In vitro studies are clean and easy to handle techniques allowing isolation of the plant activity from that derived from associations with microorganisms in non-sterile cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first work towards phytoremediation assisted by in vitro plant cultivation. PMID:18222086

  19. Conifer embryogenic tissue initiation: improvements by supplementation of medium with D-xylose and D-chiro-inositol.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Chase, Kelly-Marie; Skryabina, Anna; Bucalo, Kylie

    2009-01-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (LP, Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue and to continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment may decrease this recalcitrance. Sugar and sugar alcohol analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiologic concentrations (Pullman, G.S. and M. Buchanan. 2008. Identification and quantitative analysis of stage-specific carbohydrates in LP (Pinus taeda) zygotic embryo and female gametophyte tissues. Tree Physiol. 28:985-996). Major differences in stage-specific sugars were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate the potential growth promotion of individual carbohydrates added to initiation or multiplication media at physiologic concentrations. Seventeen sugars were screened. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase the initiation of LP. d-xylose and d-chiro-inositol produced statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth. When tested for improved initiation in P. taeda, Pseudotsuga menziesii (mirb) Franco and Picea abies L., Karst., d-xylose increased the averages of initiation by 6.5%, 7.3% and 16.7%, respectively. d-chiro-inositol increased the initiation in P. taeda by 7.3% in one test but not in the other, whereas in P. menziesii the initiation increases averaged 8.4% in two tests. Analyses of sugars and sugar alcohols in the seed environment coupled with a bioassay to screen potential media supplements for protocol improvement resulted in statistically significant increases in embryogenic tissue initiation for several coniferous species. PMID:19203940

  20. Alteration of osteocalcin mRNA expression in ovine osteoblasts in dependence of sodium fluoride and sodium selenite medium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liting; Yu, Fuqing; Xu, Zhihua; Zeng, Xinmei; Ferreri, Miro; Han, Bo

    2010-03-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the quantification of osteocalcin (OCN) expression by ovine osteoblasts cultured with different concentrations of sodium fluoride (F) and sodium selenite (Se) to evaluate the interaction of these agents on OCN expression in vitro . We wanted to demonstrate a possible protective effect of selenium on the toxic effect of fluoride. Osteoblasts were isolated by complete trypsin and collagenase digestion from ovine calvarial bone and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 15% FBS at 37 degrees C in a humidified 5% CO 2 incubator. Identified osteoblasts were divided into one control group (C) and eight experimental groups, which were exposed to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (F; 0, 0.5, 1 mM) sodium selenite (Se; 0, 0.1, 1 microM). At different time points after treatment total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into first-strand cDNA. OCN mRNA was indirectly measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). OCN mRNA expression in F 1 mM with Se 1 microM group was found to have a high peak at day seven and was lower before and afterwards. Expression of OCN mRNA in all groups except control could be promoted by F and/or Se showing a general upregulation. Furthermore, the toxicity from excessive exposure of osteoblast with F could be circumvented by usage of moderate concentration of Se. Osteoblasts cultured in vitro may have stressful responses to F and Se at the first few days. Low concentrations of Se inhibit the toxic effects of high concentrations of F. Therefore, F and Se could be used as antagonistic factors, which could regulate osteocalcin expression. PMID:20194099

  1. [Endometriosis and basal temperature].

    PubMed

    Köhler, G; Lober, R

    1988-01-01

    Basal body temperature of 168 cycles have been measured in 20 infertile women (age 21-31 years) with endometriosis. There were 10.1% anovulatory cycles, and in 22.5% of the 151 biphasic cycles the hyperthermic phase lasted less than 11 days. A late decline of basal body temperature after the onset of menstruation was recorded in 34.5% and may be only limitedly indicative of endometriosis. In 64.9% of all cycles basal body temperature was somewhat elevated and/or proved one or more temperature peaks in the follicular phase. Perhaps this may be indicative of endometriosis. Nevertheless the so-called endocrinologic infertility requires endoscopy for accurate diagnosis. PMID:3394441

  2. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  3. Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bardy, Cedric; van den Hurk, Mark; Eames, Tameji; Marchand, Cynthia; Hernandez, Ruben V.; Kellogg, Mariko; Gorris, Mark; Galet, Ben; Palomares, Vanessa; Brown, Joshua; Bang, Anne G.; Mertens, Jerome; Böhnke, Lena; Boyer, Leah; Simon, Suzanne; Gage, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. We found that classic basal media, as well as serum, impair action potential generation and synaptic communication. To overcome this problem, we designed a new neuronal medium (BrainPhys basal + serum-free supplements) in which we adjusted the concentrations of inorganic salts, neuroactive amino acids, and energetic substrates. We then tested that this medium adequately supports neuronal activity and survival of human neurons in culture. Long-term exposure to this physiological medium also improved the proportion of neurons that were synaptically active. The medium was designed to culture human neurons but also proved adequate for rodent neurons. The improvement in BrainPhys basal medium to support neurophysiological activity is an important step toward reducing the gap between brain physiological conditions in vivo and neuronal models in vitro. PMID:25870293

  4. Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bardy, Cedric; van den Hurk, Mark; Eames, Tameji; Marchand, Cynthia; Hernandez, Ruben V; Kellogg, Mariko; Gorris, Mark; Galet, Ben; Palomares, Vanessa; Brown, Joshua; Bang, Anne G; Mertens, Jerome; Böhnke, Lena; Boyer, Leah; Simon, Suzanne; Gage, Fred H

    2015-05-19

    Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. We found that classic basal media, as well as serum, impair action potential generation and synaptic communication. To overcome this problem, we designed a new neuronal medium (BrainPhys basal + serum-free supplements) in which we adjusted the concentrations of inorganic salts, neuroactive amino acids, and energetic substrates. We then tested that this medium adequately supports neuronal activity and survival of human neurons in culture. Long-term exposure to this physiological medium also improved the proportion of neurons that were synaptically active. The medium was designed to culture human neurons but also proved adequate for rodent neurons. The improvement in BrainPhys basal medium to support neurophysiological activity is an important step toward reducing the gap between brain physiological conditions in vivo and neuronal models in vitro. PMID:25870293

  5. Future of newer basal insulin

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins PMID:23776897

  6. Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E Eldridge; Mary Bartlett Bunge; Richard P. Bunge; Patrick M. Wood

    1987-01-01

    Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum-free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE

  7. Influence of hyperosmolar basal media on hybridoma cell growth and antibody production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Ryu; G. M. Lee

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the influence of hyperosmolar basal media on hybridoma response, S3H5\\/юbA2 and DB9G8 hybridomas were cultivated in a batch mode using hyperosmolar basal media resulting from additional sodium chloride supplementation. The basal media used in this study were IMDM, DMEM, and RPMI 1640, all of which are widely used for hybridoma cell culture. In IMDM, two hybridomas showed different

  8. Retroactions Between Basal Hydrology and Basal Sliding from Numerical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardini, O.; Passalacqua, O.; Werder, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The basal sliding of glaciers is modulated by the presence of basal water and more precisely its pressure. On one hand, where the basal water pressure increases, the ice friction on the bedrock is reduced and the basal sliding velocity increases. On an other hand, an increase of basal sliding will influence the development of the basal hydrology systems. These processes leads to non-steady ice velocities and have a seasonal or even diurnal signature. In this study, a basal hydrology model is coupled with an ice flow model through a water pressure dependent friction law. The basal hydrology model includes an inefficient cavity-type water sheet and a network of efficient discrete channels. Both systems are connected and evolve in time in response to the water inputs. Ice flow is modelled either solving the full-Stokes equations or the shallow shelf approximation. Basal hydrology and ice flow are connected through a Coulomb type friction law which depends on the basal water pressure. The equations of both ice flow and hydrology are implemented in the open source, finite element, ice sheet / ice flow model Elmer/Ice. The coupling of basal hydrology and ice flow is studied for different glacier geometries and external forcing having different amplitude and temporal signatures. The classically used one way coupling, where only the hydrology influence the ice flow, is compared to a two way coupling where both hydrology and ice flow interact in a fully coupled way.

  9. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  10. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p < 0.001) total DM (553, 567, 505, and 515 g/day), respectively, when compared to the nonsupplemented (T1) goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P < 0.01) (0.69, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.74) than in T1 (0.56). Apparent digestibility of CP was observed to be higher (P < 0.001) in T3, T4, T5 (0.78, 0.83, and 0.88) when compared to the bucks in T2 (0.60). Higher (P < 0.001) daily weight gain (31.2, 46.4, 48.6, and 47.6 g/day) were recorded for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, whereas the nonsupplemented goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements. PMID:22987286

  11. SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Supplemental Procedures

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    ' - CACCAATCCCGTGAAGGTATTGCTTT-3'; mouse TLR4 (392 bp) - forward 5'- CTTGCCTTCAAAACCTGGCTG-3', reverse 5 (442bp) - forward 5'-GATCTGTCTCATAATGGCTTG-3', reverse 5'- GTTGTGGAAGCCAAGCAAAG-3'; human TLR4 (477 bp1 SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Supplemental Procedures Expression analysis of genes involved in TLR

  12. Defined medium for Aquaspirillum serpens VHL effective in batch and continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Whitby, G E; Murray, R G

    1980-01-01

    A defined medium for Aquaspirillum serpens VHL allows the replacement of the complex media now in use. It was developed by batch culture methods but supports growth in continuous culture. A basal salts medium supplemented with L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, and L-glutamic acid provided the best growth (turbidity), as long as ammonium chloride was omitted. Ammonium chloride caused either a lag or a reduction or a complete inhibition of the growth of A. serpens VHL on the above amino acids and other organic supplements depending on the combination used. Ammonium sulfate and ammonium hydroxide with L-glutamic acid allowed growth, but the lag period was increased in shake flask cultures. Vitamins, cysteine hydrochloride, and carbon dioxide had no effect on the growth rate. Viability (less than 50%) was inadequate to maintain continuous culture with L-glutamic acid as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Combinations of amino and carboxylic acids were then tested and, of these, L-glutamic acid (1 g/liter) and L-histidine (75 mg/liter) without ammonium chloride in the basal salts medium supported growth in batch and continuous culture. L-Glutamic acid was the limiting substrate for growth. PMID:6766700

  13. CHAPTER SEVEN Were Basal Primates

    E-print Network

    233 CHAPTER SEVEN Were Basal Primates Nocturnal? Evidence from Eye and Orbit Shape Callum F. Ross pattern, Charles-Dominique (1975: 86) suggested that the last common ancestor of primates "had an eye or a strepsirrhine eye. By the late 1970s, the issue of the activity pattern of basal primates was independently

  14. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Ring, H; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are important links between parts of the brain that have classically been considered to be related to emotional functioning and brain regions previously considered to have largely motor functions. The basal ganglia have a role in the development and integration of psychomotor behaviours, involving motor functions, memory and attentional mechanisms, and reward processes. PMID:11784818

  15. Polar basal melting on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.

    1987-08-01

    The potential importance of basal melting on Mars is illustrated through the discussion of four examples: (1) the origin of the major polar reentrants, (2) the removal and storage of an ancient Martian ice sheet, (3) the mass balance of the polar terrains, and (4) the possibility of basal melting at temperate latitudes. This analysis suggests that the process of basal melting may play a key role in understanding the evolution of the Martian polar terrains and the long-term climatic behavior of water on Mars.

  16. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  17. Extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates the EGF-induced migration of liver epithelial cells in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Bade; B. Nitzgen

    1985-01-01

    Summary  The influence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins collagen, IV laminin (LN), and fibronectin (FN) on the in vitro\\u000a migration of epithelial cells was studied using the ECM migration track method (4) with preparations immunostained for LN\\u000a and FN. The locomotion of rat liver epithelial cells stimulated to migrate in serum-free medium by epidermal growth factor\\u000a (EGF) in the presence

  18. Prospective comparison of a new chromogenic medium, MRSASelect, to CHROMagar MRSA and mannitol-salt medium supplemented with oxacillin or cefoxitin for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Stoakes, Luba; Reyes, Romina; Daniel, Janis; Lennox, Gwen; John, Michael A; Lannigan, Robert; Hussain, Zafar

    2006-02-01

    MRSASelect agar was compared to CHROMagar, mannitol-salt agar with oxacillin, and mannitol-salt agar with cefoxitin (MSA-CFOX) for the isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The sensitivities and specificities were 97.3% and 99.8%, 82.9% and 99.1%, 80.2% and 79%, and 99.1% and 84.8%, respectively. MSA-CFOX and MRSASelect had a high sensitivity. MRSASelect, however, was more specific and proved to be a more reliable and rapid medium for the detection of MRSA. PMID:16455933

  19. The basal ganglia Ann M. Graybiel

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    of the basal ganglia lead to devastating motor disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. In addition, the basal ganglia have been implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, and basal ganglia function is disrupted in addictive states. The basal ganglia are also thought to have

  20. Culture medium study of human mesenchymal stem cells for practical use of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sayaka; Yamada, Yoichi; Baba, Shunsuke; Kato, Harumi; Kogami, Hiroyuki; Takao, Makoto; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Ueda, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have potential to differentiate into various phenotypes and appear useful for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Basal Medium (MSCBM; Cambrex) is a widespread and suitable medium used in MSC cultivation, but it is extremely difficult to use generally for clinical treatment because of its unclear traceability and cost. Assessment of cost-effectiveness is a critical issue for successful practical application; therefore, we have evaluated the effects of a generally used medium, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (D-MEM) on the expansion of MSCs in comparison with MSCBM. To isolate human MSCs, bone marrow aspirates were taken and cultured in MSCBM or D-MEM. Proliferation assay indicated that MSCs isolated in both media showed a similar growth rate. When supplemented with osteo-inductive reagents, alkaline phosphatase activity was not significantly different between cells in D-MEM and MSCBM. Moreover, the cells expressed identical mesenchymal lineage markers, but not endothelial and hematopoietic lineage markers. Our findings suggest that cells obtained from bone marrow and cultured in D-MEM might possess proliferative capacity and the potential to differentiate into an osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, D-MEM might be a suitable basal medium for the cultivation of MSCs for clinical applications. PMID:18725693

  1. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Panyakaew; N. Boon; G. Goel; C. Yuangklang; J. Th. Schonewille; W. H. Hendriks; V. Fievez

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0),\\u000a myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to\\u000a decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study\\u000a aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO)\\u000a or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and\\u000a archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional\\u000a organization.

  2. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  3. The Code, Connectionism, and Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Examines computer modeling of the reading process and the instructional technology of basals, the two pillars of Marilyn Adams text, "Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print." Explains why the author believes Adams is fundamentally wrong in her theoretical approach to reading instruction. (MG)

  4. Enhancement of dalesconols A and B production via upregulation of laccase activity by medium optimization and inducer supplementation in submerged fermentation of Daldinia eschscholzii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hua; Jiao, Rui-Hua; Lu, Yan-Hua; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Dalesconols (dalesconols A and B) are novel polyketides with strong immunosuppressive activity produced by Daldinia eschscholzii. In this work, the effects of different media (M1, M2, and M3) on fungus growth and dalesconols biosynthesis were firstly tested and compared. Intermediates and enzyme analysis indicated that laccase had the major contribution to dalesconols biosynthesis. The key role of laccase on dalesconols biosynthesis was further experimentally confirmed, which suggested that the modified M2 was more favored for laccase and dalesconols production. Thereafter, the medium composition was optimized by RSM with a fermentation titer of 36.66mg/L obtained. Furthermore, Ca(2+) induction was employed to up-regulate of laccase activity and further enhanced dalesconols production (76.90mg/L), which was 308% higher than that in M2. In addition, dalesconols production reached 63.42mg/L in scale-up experiments. This work indicated great potential of laccase as a key enzyme on regulation of dalesconols production. PMID:26056775

  5. Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid

    PubMed Central

    LIU, TE; HUANG, YONGYI; BU, YANZHEN; ZHAO, YANHUI; ZOU, GANG; LIU, ZHIXUE

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin? HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA-E-cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

  6. Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi; Bu, Yanzhen; Zhao, Yanhui; Zou, Gang; Liu, Zhixue

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin- HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA?E?cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

  7. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further studies are needed to address the impact of this diet on other tumour-relevant functions such as invasive growth and metastasis. PMID:18447912

  8. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. PMID:21572528

  9. Dietary Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Rigassio Radler

    Dietary supplements fall under the rubric of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Patterns of use of CAM and dietary\\u000a supplements by Americans have increased, while the dietary supplement market has concurrently grown due to the demand and\\u000a the regulatory changes. People with kidney disease may seek to use dietary supplements to prevent further deterioration of\\u000a kidney function or to ameliorate

  10. Basal norepinephrine in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Daphne; Guralnik, Orna; Knutelska, Margaret; Yehuda, Rachel; Schmeidler, James

    2003-11-01

    In contrast to the noradrenergic dysregulation described in PTSD, little is known regarding noradrenergic function in dissociative disorders. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate basal norepinephrine in depersonalization disorder (DPD). Nine subjects with DSM-IV DPD, without lifetime PTSD, were compared to nine healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Norepinephrine was measured via 24-h urine collection and three serial plasma determinations. Groups did not differ significantly in plasma norepinephrine levels. Compared to the HC group, the DPD group demonstrated significantly higher urinary norepinephrine, only prior to covarying for anxiety. The DPD group also demonstrated a highly significant inverse correlation between urinary norepinephrine and depersonalization severity (r=-0.88). Norepinephrine and cortisol levels (reported in a prior study) were not intercorrelated. We concluded that although dissociation accompanied by anxiety was associated with heightened noradrenergic tone, there was a marked basal norepinephrine decline with increasing severity of dissociation. The findings are in concordance with the few reports on autonomic blunting in dissociation and merit further investigation. PMID:14572626

  11. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  12. Morphological and Electrophysiological Characteristics of Noncholinergic Basal

    E-print Network

    Tepper, James M.

    pallidum and substantia innominata were recorded extracellularly, labeled juxtacellularly with biocytin acetyltransferase; GABA; biocytin; juxtacellular labeling The magnocellular basal forebrain cholinergic system has

  13. Ice Sheet Stratigraphy Can Constrain Basal Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, M.; Creyts, T. T.; Buck, W. R.; Bell, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Basal slip is an important component of ice sheet mass flux and dynamics. Basal slip varies over time due to variations in basal temperature, water pressure, and sediment cover. All of these factors can create coherent patterns of basal slip that migrate over time. Our knowledge of the spatial variability in basal slip comes from inversions of driving stress, ice thickness, and surface velocity, but these inversions contain no information about temporal variability. We do not know if the patterns in slip revealed by those inversions move over time. While englacial stratigraphy has classically been used to constrain surface accumulation and geothermal flux, it is also sensitive to horizontal gradients in basal slip. Here we show that englacial stratigraphy can constrain the velocity of basal slip patterns. Englacial stratigraphy responds strongly to patterns of basal slip that move downstream over time close to the ice sheet velocity. In previous work, we used a thermomechanical model to discover that thermally controlled slip patterns migrate downstream and create stratigraphic structures, but we were unable to directly control the pattern velocity, as that arose naturally out of the model physics. Here, we use a kinematic flowline model that allows us to directly control pattern velocity, and thus is applicable to a wide variety of slip mechanisms in addition to basal temperature. We find that the largest and most intricate stratigraphic structures develop when the pattern moves at the column-average ice velocity. Patterns that move slower than the column-average ice velocity produce overturned stratigraphy in the lower part of the ice sheet, while patterns moving at the column-average eventually cause the entire ice sheet to overturn if they persist long enough. Based on these forward models, we develop an interpretive guide for deducing moving patterns in basal slip from ice sheet internal layers. Ice sheet internal stratigraphy represents a potentially vast untapped source of information on basal sliding.

  14. Novel culture medium for the axenic growth of Balamuthia mandrillaris.

    PubMed

    Lares-Jiménez, Luis Fernando; Gámez-Gutiérrez, Ricardo Alfredo; Lares-Villa, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    Until now, for axenic cultivation of Balamuthia mandrillaris, the BM-3 culture medium and the Modified Chang's special medium have been the only ones recommended, but they have some disadvantages, as both require many components and their preparations are laborious. Therefore, we developed a novel culture medium for B. mandrillaris axenic cultivation. Each one of the 11 components of BM-3 was combined with Cerva's medium as basal culture medium. Ten strains of B. mandrillaris including the reference strain CDC:V039 and 9 environmental isolates were used during trials. After testing all combinations, the basal medium complemented with 10× Hank's balanced salt solution was the only one that supported confluent growth of B. mandrillaris. Cell shape and motility of trophozoites were normal. This developed medium is as useful as BM-3 for axenization. The development of a cheaper and easy-to-prepare medium for B. mandrillaris opens the possibility of increasing its study. PMID:25957459

  15. Introduction Sismicit profonde et frottement basal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Introduction Sismicité profonde et frottement basal Inuence du jökulhlaup sur la sismicité Laboratoire de Géophysique Interne et Tectonophysique Université de Savoie, Chambéry, France Le Bourget du Lac profonde et frottement basal Inuence du jökulhlaup sur la sismicité Corrélation de bruit au glacier d

  16. Basal ganglia echogenicity in tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Krzysztof; Serafin-Król, Ma?gorzata; Szlachta, Karol; Friedman, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Accumulating data confirm the usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The relevance of basal ganglia abnormalities depicted by TCS in atypical parkinsonian syndromes still needs further assessment. In the present study, 20 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 13 patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) were studied with the use of transcranial sonography. Echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) and lenticular nucleus (LN) were assessed. 0/20 patients with PSP and 8/12 (66.6 %) patients with CBS were characterized with SN hyperechogenicity. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 9/20 patients diagnosed with PSP and 0/11 of CBS patients. The combination of SN isoechogenicity and LN hyperechogenicity reached 100 % sensitivity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of PSP. The results of this study point out that CBS has to be taken into consideration when SN hyperechogenicity is depicted in a patient with parkinsonian syndrome. Normal echogenicity of the SN coexisting with LN hyperechogenicity practically excludes CBS. PMID:25204278

  17. High cholesterol diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil but not olive oil stimulates lipid peroxidation in plasma, liver, and aorta of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin Bulur; Gül Özdemirler; Büge Öz; Gülçin Toker; Muzaffer Öztürk; Müjdat Uysal

    1995-01-01

    To determine the effect of a high cholesterol diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil or olive oil on plasma, liver, and aorta lipid peroxidation, rats were fed a basal diet, a high cholesterol diet (basal diet containing 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid), or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 10% (wtwt) sunflower seed oil or 10% (wtwt) olive oil

  18. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal population in post-pharyngeal glands of leaf-cutting ants after lipid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2015-01-01

    The post-pharyngeal gland (PPG) occurs in ants and some Sphecidae wasps. Among its several roles is the storage of lipids from food. In order to investigate the effect of lipids on the cell, especially on mitochondria and peroxisomes, the present study was aimed at examining the peroxisomal and mitochondrial population in the PPG of Atta sexdens rubropilosa after lipid supplementation by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Soybean oil provided as lipid supplement was not toxic for A. sexdens rubropilosa workers for the first 48 h and 120 h. However, the ultrastructural cytochemical analysis revealed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the PPGs of ants after lipid supplementation at 48 h and 120 h, and smaller lipid droplets in the basal membrane of the PPG epithelium, showing lipid mobilization from the PPG to the hemolymph. The lipid supplementation reduces the life expectancy of medium workers, probably due to the high lipid metabolism. Most importantly, the PPGs of medium workers of leaf-cutting A. sexdens rubropilosa is probably a specialized gland in the lipid metabolism, due to the increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal population inside cells after lipid supplementation; participation of peroxisomal population in the ?-oxidation of long chain fatty acids into smaller chains and participation of mitochondrial population in the ?-oxidation of fatty acids for energy, or mobilization of lipid derivatives from the PPG to hemolymph, a process that requires energy. However, the hypothesis that the PPGs convert lipids from food in aldehydes and/or hydrocarbons must be better investigated. PMID:25203360

  19. Development of nalidixic acid amphotericin B vancomycin (NAV) medium for the isolation of Campylobacter ureolyticus from the stools of patients presenting with acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, A; Koziel, M; De Barra, L; Corcoran, D; Bullman, S; Lucey, B; Sleator, R D

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Campylobacter ureolyticus has been detected for the first time in the faeces of patients with acute gastroenteritis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Cultural isolation of C. ureolyticusis is not possible using the established selective methods for the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from faeces. The aim of the current study is to develop a new selective medium capable of isolating C. ureolyticus from faecal samples. The newly-developed medium consists of Anaerobe Basal Agar with 10 g/L additional agar, 2 g/L sodium formate and 3 g/L sodium fumarate dibasic, to which 10 mg/L nalidixic acid, 10 mg/L amphotericin B and 20 mg/L vancomycin (NAV) are added as selective agents. Validation studies have shown that this experimental selective medium completely inhibits growth of Candida spp. and of Enterococcus spp. and permits reduced growth of selected coliforms and Proteus spp. Growth of Campylobacter ureolyticus on NAV medium is optimal in anaerobic and enriched hydrogen atmospheres. Additionally, an overnight enrichment step using Bolton broth to which 2 g/L sodium formate, 3 g/L sodium fumarate dibasic and the NAV supplement are added, in place of the commercial Bolton broth supplement, allows improved recovery of C. ureolyticus from patients' faeces. PMID:24693569

  20. Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, S.L.; Ham, R.G.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient medium, (MCDB 170, supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, and bovine pituitary extract. Replacement of pituitary extract with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and ovine prolactin yields a defined medium that supports rapid clonal growth and serial subculture for three of four passages. Cultures initiated in these media from normal reduction mammoplasty tissue remain diploid and maintain normal epithelia morphology, distribution of cell-associated fibronectin, expression of keratin fibrils, and a low level of expression of milk fat globule antigen. Large cell populations can now be generated and stored frozen, permitting multiple experiments over a period of time with cells from a single donor. These media greatly extend the range of experiments that can be performed both conveniently and reproducibly with cultured normal and tumor-derived human mammary epithelial cells. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Human Tracheobronchial Basal Cells. Normal versus Remodeling/Repairing Phenotypes In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Moumita; Ahmad, Shama; Jian, Abhilasha; Li, Bilan; Smith, Russell W.; Helm, Karen M.; Seibold, Max A.; Groshong, Steven D.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Human tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) basal cells (BCs) function as progenitors in normal tissue. However, mechanistic studies are typically performed in vitro and frequently use BCs recovered from patients who die of nonrespiratory disease. It is not known whether the cadaveric epithelium (1) is undergoing homeostatic remodeling and/or repair, or (2) yields BC clones that represent homeostatic processes identified in tissue. We sought to compare the phenotype of TBE-BCs with that of BCs cultured under optimal clone-forming conditions. TBE pathology was evaluated using quantitative histomorphometry. The cultured BC phenotype was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Clone organization and cell phenotype were determined by immunostaining. The cadaveric TBE is 20% normal. In these regions, BCs are keratin (K)-5+ and tetraspanin CD151+, and demonstrate a low mitotic index. In contrast, 80% of the cadaveric TBE exhibits homeostatic remodeling/repair processes. In these regions, BCs are K5+/K14+, and a subset expresses tissue factor (TF). Passage 1 TBE cells are BCs that are K5+/TF+, and half coexpress CD151. Optimal clone formation conditions use an irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblast feeder layer (American Type Culture Collection, Frederick, MD) and serum-supplemented Epicult-B medium (Stemcell Technologies, La Jolla, CA). The TF+/CD151? BC subpopulation is the most clonogenic BC subtype, and is enriched with K14+ cells. TF+/CD151? BCs generate clones containing BCs that are K5+/Trp63+, but K14?/CD151?. TF+ cells are limited to the clone edge. In conclusion, clonogenic human TBE BCs (1) exhibit a molecular phenotype that is a composite of the normal and remodeling/reparative BC phenotypes observed in tissue, and (2) generate organoid clones that contain phenotypically distinct BC subpopulations. PMID:23927678

  2. Human tracheobronchial basal cells. Normal versus remodeling/repairing phenotypes in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Moumita; Ahmad, Shama; Jian, Abhilasha; Li, Bilan; Smith, Russell W; Helm, Karen M; Seibold, Max A; Groshong, Steven D; White, Carl W; Reynolds, Susan D

    2013-12-01

    Human tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) basal cells (BCs) function as progenitors in normal tissue. However, mechanistic studies are typically performed in vitro and frequently use BCs recovered from patients who die of nonrespiratory disease. It is not known whether the cadaveric epithelium (1) is undergoing homeostatic remodeling and/or repair, or (2) yields BC clones that represent homeostatic processes identified in tissue. We sought to compare the phenotype of TBE-BCs with that of BCs cultured under optimal clone-forming conditions. TBE pathology was evaluated using quantitative histomorphometry. The cultured BC phenotype was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Clone organization and cell phenotype were determined by immunostaining. The cadaveric TBE is 20% normal. In these regions, BCs are keratin (K)-5(+) and tetraspanin CD151(+), and demonstrate a low mitotic index. In contrast, 80% of the cadaveric TBE exhibits homeostatic remodeling/repair processes. In these regions, BCs are K5(+)/K14(+), and a subset expresses tissue factor (TF). Passage 1 TBE cells are BCs that are K5(+)/TF(+), and half coexpress CD151. Optimal clone formation conditions use an irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblast feeder layer (American Type Culture Collection, Frederick, MD) and serum-supplemented Epicult-B medium (Stemcell Technologies, La Jolla, CA). The TF(+)/CD151(-) BC subpopulation is the most clonogenic BC subtype, and is enriched with K14(+) cells. TF(+)/CD151(-) BCs generate clones containing BCs that are K5(+)/Trp63(+), but K14(-)/CD151(-). TF(+) cells are limited to the clone edge. In conclusion, clonogenic human TBE BCs (1) exhibit a molecular phenotype that is a composite of the normal and remodeling/reparative BC phenotypes observed in tissue, and (2) generate organoid clones that contain phenotypically distinct BC subpopulations. PMID:23927678

  3. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Micha? S; Jefimow, Ma?gorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. PMID:21889598

  4. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  5. Dietary Supplements

    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

    ... Search FDA Submit search. ... FDA regulates dietary supplement labels and other labeling, such as package inserts and accompanying literature. ...

  6. Effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk Fatty Acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow's diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows' diets. PMID:25050036

  7. Action, time and the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Henry H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control the speed of movement is compromised in neurological disorders involving the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical cerebral nuclei that receive prominent dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. For example, bradykinesia, slowness of movement, is a major symptom of Parkinson's disease, whereas rapid tics are observed in patients with Tourette syndrome. Recent experimental work has also implicated dopamine (DA) and the basal ganglia in action timing. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the basal ganglia control the rate of change in kinaesthetic perceptual variables. In particular, the sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia network implements a feedback circuit for the control of movement velocity. By modulating activity in this network, DA can change the gain of velocity reference signals. The lack of DA thus reduces the output of the velocity control system which specifies the rate of change in body configurations, slowing the transition from one body configuration to another. PMID:24446506

  8. Computer Modeling in Basal Ganglia Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luis Contreras-Vidal

    The last two decades have witnessed an increasing interest in the use of computational modeling and mathematical analysis\\u000a as tools to unravel the complex neural mechanisms and computational algorithms underlying the function of the basal ganglia\\u000a and related structures under normal and neurological conditions (1–3). Computational modeling of basal ganglia disorders has until recently been focused on Parkinson’s disease (PD),

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Lo Muzio

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1\\/57,000 to 1\\/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and

  10. Growth of dissociated rat cerebellar cells using serum-free supplemented media and varied transferrin concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Messer; Joseph E. Mazurkiewicz; Paul Maskin

    1981-01-01

    Dissociated neonatal rat cerebellar cells were grown on medium supplemented with 10% horse serum (HS) and compared with those grown using a serum-free supplemented (SFS) medium, modified from Bottenstein and Sato (1979). containing insulin, transferrin, progesterone, putrescine, and selenium (after an initial 24 hr in 10% horse serum). Cells survived for several weeks using either medium. Cells grown in SFS

  11. Strategies for repair of white matter: influence of osmolarity and microglia on proliferation and apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in different basal culture media

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsimlinghaus, Karolina; Marx, Romy; Serdar, Meray; Bendix, Ivo; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to obtain high yields of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in culture. This is a first step in facilitation of myelin repair. We show that, in addition to factors, known to promote proliferation, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) the choice of the basal medium exerts a significant influence on the yield of OPCs in cultures from newborn rats. During a culture period of up to 9 days we observed larger numbers of surviving cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), and Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium (RPMI) compared with Neurobasal Medium (NB). A larger number of A2B5-positive OPCs was found after 6 days in RPMI based media compared with NB. The percentage of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells was largest in cultures maintained in DMEM and RPMI. The percentage of caspase-3 positive cells was largest in NB, suggesting that this medium inhibits OPC proliferation and favors apoptosis. A difference between NB and DMEM as well as RPMI is the reduced Na+-content. The addition of equiosmolar supplements of mannitol or NaCl to NB medium rescued the BrdU-incorporation rate. This suggested that the osmolarity influences the proliferation of OPCs. Plating density as well as residual microglia influence OPC survival, BrdU incorporation, and caspase-3 expression. We found, that high density cultures secrete factors that inhibit BrdU incorporation whereas the presence of additional microglia induces an increase in caspase-3 positive cells, indicative of enhanced apoptosis. An enhanced number of microglia could thus also explain the stronger inhibition of OPC differentiation observed in high density cultures in response to treatment with the cytokines TNF-? and IFN-?. We conclude that a maximal yield of OPCs is obtained in a medium of an osmolarity higher than 280 mOsm plated at a relatively low density in the presence of as little microglia as technically achievable. PMID:24421756

  12. Constraining basal hydrology with model inversions of basal friction using new InSAR surface velocities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, E.; Rignot, E.; Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.

    2012-04-01

    Constraining ice flow models for continental ice sheets such as Antarctica or Greenland can be difficult, especially regarding the specification of basal friction at the ice/bed interface. Historically, two approches have been taken: 1) model the basal hydrology of the ice sheet, and relate the resulting basal water pressure to the basal drag coefficient and 2) invert for the basal drag coefficient using InSAR surface velocities, and infer the resulting basal hydrology. Here, we use both approaches within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), the JPL/UCI developed ice flow model, for which we have developed a new hydrological model based on LeBrocq et al, 2009. We compare this model against a large scale inversion of Antarctica's basal drag coefficient using new InSAR surface velocities from Rignot et al 2011. We discuss the potential for this model to improve constraints on basal friction evolution, and implications for projections of ice flow dynamics in a changing climate. We also discuss relevance for calibrating thermal models of Antarctica. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  13. Constraining basal hydrology with model inversions of basal friction using new InSAR surface velocities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, E. Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.

    2011-12-01

    Constraining ice flow models for continental ice sheets such as Antarctica or Greenland can be difficult, especially regarding the specification of basal friction at the ice/bed interface. Historically, two approches have been taken: 1) model the basal hydrology of the ice sheet, and relate the resulting basal water pressure to the basal drag coefficient and 2) invert for the basal drag coefficient using InSAR surface velocities, and infer the resulting basal hydrology. Here, we use both approaches within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), the JPL/UCI developed ice flow model, for which we develop a new hydrological model based on Johnson et al 2002. We compare this model against a massive inversion of Antarctica's basal drag coefficient using new InSAR surface velocities from Rignot et al 2011. We discuss the potential for this model to improve constraints on basal friction evolution, and implications for projections of ice flow dynamics in a changing climate. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  14. Development of a Chemically Defined Medium to Assay the Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Inhye

    2014-04-16

    /v). Furthermore, a commercial redox indicator was supplemented to the final formulation in order to facilitate the indirect assessment of cellular metabolism through the direct measurement of medium coloration. As proof of concept, the KMS medium was used...

  15. [Motor control by the basal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2009-06-01

    The cerebral cortex controls cognitive and voluntary process of movements. The brainstem and spinal cord are involved in the execution of innately acquired motor patterns such as postural reflexes, muscle tone regulation and locomotion. Cortico-reticular projections arising from the motor cortical areas contribute to the postural control that precedes the voluntary movement process. The basal ganglia cooperatively regulates the activities of the cerebral cortex and the brainstem-spinal cord by its strong inhibitory and dis-inhibitory effects upon these target structures so that goal-directed movements could be appropriately performed. We propose that basal ganglia disfunction, including the abnormality in the dopaminergic projection system, may disturb the cooperative regulation, resulting in motor deficiencies expressed in basal diseases. PMID:19618841

  16. Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenesis gene expression and CpG methylation of lipoprotein lipase gene in broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinyi XingLi; Li Kang; Yunliang Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on mRNA expression levels of lipogenesis genes\\u000a and CpG methylation of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) in broilers. From 22 days of age, 78 broilers were feed basal diet without betaine and basal diet supplemented with 0.1%\\u000a betaine, respectively, and at 56 and 66 days of age, the traits of 15 chickens (7

  17. GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTER ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the main cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans, and contaminated poultry products are major sources of campylobacteriosis. In this study, the growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with organic acids was examined. Tryptose-yeast extract basal broth mediu...

  18. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Figure 2. Culture-based example of issue regarding the correct identification is based on the formulation of Evans and Parslow (1985), with slight modifications following Moore et al latitude and based on the light model of Evans and Parslow (1985). As in Evans and Parslow (1985

  19. The growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betanine when growing anaerobically.

  20. Use of diet crossover to determine the effects of ß-glucan supplementation on immunity and growth of Nile Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were fed either a basal, control diet (n=6 aquaria) or a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg ß-glucan (n=24 aquaria) for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, fish receiving ß-glucan were continued on the same diet (n=12 aquaria) or switched to the basal diet (n=1...

  1. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  2. GABAergic output of the basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Hikosaka

    2007-01-01

    Using GABAergic outputs from the SNr or GPi, the basal ganglia exert inhibitory control over several motor areas in the brainstem which in turn control the central pattern generators for the basic motor repertoire including eye–head orientation, locomotion, mouth movements, and vocalization. These movements are by default kept suppressed by tonic rapid firing of SNr\\/GPi neurons, but can be released

  3. Middle-Ear Pressure Under Basal Conditions

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    Middle-Ear Pressure Under Basal Conditions Leif Hergils, MD, Bengt Magnuson, MD, PhD \\s=b\\Spontaneous pressure changes in the middle ear were measured under bas- al conditions in ten subjects with healthy ears. Results showed that the pressure in the majority of ears remained slightly above the atmo- spheric

  4. Le Crtac terminal et le Palocne basal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Le Crétacé terminal et le Paléocène basal de l'Europe nord-occidentale* The end Cretaceous that Cretaceous sedimentation in northwest Europe continued until the end ofthe Maastrichtian. Following the end-Maastrichtian regression. marked by a period qfkarst- ification, northwest Europe was affected by two successive

  5. Basal Textbooks and the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2010-01-01

    Basal textbooks are rather popular for social studies teachers to use in the classroom setting. There are selected reasons for this occurring. They do provide beginning and new teachers a framework for ongoing lessons and units of study. The accompanying Manual provides suggestions for learning activities for learners to pursue. Evaluation…

  6. Perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation is not supported by evidence.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Dylan W; Kars, Marleen

    2008-10-01

    Ever since the first descriptions of adrenal insufficiency following exogenous supplementation physicians dread to abolish perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation. Now, 55 years after the first publications we can challenge those first reports. However, these cases have resulted in the supplementation of supraphysiological doses of glucocorticosteroids to patients that use exogenous corticosteroids: the so-called perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation or "(gluco)corticosteroid stress scheme". It is very questionable whether a dose that exceeds the normal daily production of 5.7 mg cortisol per square meter of body surface area is necessary to prevent perioperative hypotension. Retrospective, prospective and randomised studies, though all methodologically flawed, are discussed and show that continuation of the "basal" amount of glucocorticosteroids is sufficient to counterbalance surgical stress. The current and rather defensive strategy of perioperative supraphysiological glucocorticosteroid supplementation is not embedded in medical evidence. Additionally, high doses of glucocorticosteroids have disadvantages that should not be ignored. PMID:18848181

  7. Systems analysis of hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hermelee; M. Beller; J. DAcierno

    1981-01-01

    The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen

  8. Effects of reverse CO 2 acidification cycles, calcium supplementation, pH adjustment and chilled storage on physico-chemical and rennet coagulation properties of reconstituted low- and medium-heat skim milk powders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul H. Klandar; Dominique Chevalier-Lucia; Alain Lagaude

    2009-01-01

    The reversibility extent of one and two reverse CO2 acidification cycles on the physico-chemical and rennet coagulation properties of milks reconstituted from low- (LH) or medium- (MH) heat skim powder, enriched or not with calcium and pH adjusted or not was investigated. The ionized calcium concentration, buffering properties and average casein micelle size of untreated and CO2-treated milks were evaluated

  9. New basal media for half-anther culture of Anthurium andreanum Linden ex André cv. Tropical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Budi Winarto; F. Rachmawati

    A successful protocol for high frequency callus induction and plant regeneration from Anthurium andreanum Linden ex André cv. Tropical half-anthers is described. Different variables using Winarto and Teixeira and Murashige and\\u000a Skoog basal media supplemented with several plant growth regulators [2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.1–1.0 mg\\/l), ?-naphthalene\\u000a acetic acid (0.01–0.2 mg\\/l), thidiazuron (0.5–2.0 mg\\/l), 6-benzylaminopurine (0.5–1.0 mg\\/l), and kinetin (0.5–1.0 mg\\/l)] were\\u000a tested for their ability

  10. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PLASMA, MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS, AND UTERINE TISSUE IN PRIMIPAROUS BEEF COWS FED HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental objectives were to evaluate the influence of supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds on fatty acid concentrations in plasma, medial basal hypothalamus, uterine tissues, and serum 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2' metabolite (PGFM) in primiparous beef cows during early lactation. Begin...

  11. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ... of kidney problems. Are any dietary supplements for diabetes effective? There is not enough scientific evidence to ...

  12. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  13. Creation of a culture medium with blood analog mechanical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. van den Broek; M. C. M. Rutten; F. N. van de Vosse

    2007-01-01

    Organ culture, which is an effective way to study living tissue, has become increasingly important in studying atherosclerosis and the effect of clinical interventions (3). The arteries in such ex vivo studies are perfused with culture medium. Often, the culture medium is supplemented with dextran to obtain physiological fluid viscosity and wall shear stress. However, several researchers (2,4) reported side

  14. Improved growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum using a new culture medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catalina Cepeda; Sonia Garc??a-Márquez; Ysabel Santos

    2004-01-01

    The comparative study of different media used for cultivation of Flavobacterium psychrophilum showed that tryptone–yeast extract–salts supplemented with glucose, named FLP medium, was the most appropriate for the growth of this fish pathogen. By means of the endpoint dilution method, it was found that the bacterium grew more efficiently on the improved FLP medium than on the other four solid

  15. Novel inhibitors of basal glucose transport as potential anticancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihe Zhang; Yi Liu; Xiaozhuo Chen; Stephen C. Bergmeier

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cells commonly show increased levels of glucose uptake and dependence. A potential strategy for the treatment of cancer may be the inhibition of basal glucose transport. We report here the synthesis of a small library of polyphenolic esters that inhibit basal glucose transport in H1299 lung and other cancer cells. These basal glucose transport inhibitors also inhibit cancer cell

  16. Food habits and the basal rate of metabolism in birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian K. McNab

    1988-01-01

    The correlation of basal rate of metabolism with various factors is examined in birds. Chief among these is body mass. As in mammals, much of the remaining variation in basal rate among birds is associated with food habits. Birds other than passerines that feed on grass, nectar, flying insects, or vertebrates generally have basal rates that are similar to mammals

  17. Optimization of culture medium for novel cell-associated tannase production from Bacillus massiliensis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Belur, Prasanna D; Goud, Rakesh; Goudar, Dinesh C

    2012-02-01

    Naturally immobilized tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.1.20) has many advantages, as it avoids the expensive and laborious operation of isolation, purification, and immobilization, plus it is highly stable in adverse pH and temperature. However, in the case of cell-associated enzymes, since the enzyme is associated with the biomass, separation of the pure biomass is necessary. However, tannic acid, a known inducer of tannase, forms insoluble complexes with media proteins, making it difficult to separate pure biomass. Therefore, this study optimizes the production of cell-associated tannase using a "protein-tannin complex" free media. An exploratory study was first conducted in shake-flasks to select the inducer, carbon source, and nitrogen sources. As a result it was found that gallic acid induces tannase synthesis, a tryptose broth gives higher biomass, and lactose supplementation is beneficial. The medium was then optimized using response surface methodology based on the full factorial central composite design in a 3 l bioreactor. A 2(3) factorial design augmented by 7 axial points (alpha = 1.682) and 2 replicates at the center point was implemented in 17 experiments. A mathematical model was also developed to show the effect of each medium component and their interactions on the production of cell-associated tannase. The validity of the proposed model was verified, and the optimized medium was shown to produce maximum cell-associated tannase activity of 9.65 U/l, which is 93.8% higher than the activity in the basal medium, after 12 h at pH 5.0, 30 degrees C. The optimum medium consists of 38 g/l lactose, 50 g/l tryptose, and 2.8 g/l gallic acid. PMID:22370349

  18. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  19. Basal cell carcinomas: attack of the hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ervin H.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were essentially a molecular ‘black box’ until some 12 years ago, when identification of a genetic flaw in a rare subset of patients who have a great propensity to develop BCCs pointed to aberrant Hedgehog signalling as the pivotal defect leading to formation of these tumours. This discovery has facilitated a remarkable increase in our understanding of BCC carcinogenesis and has highlighted the carcinogenic role of this developmental pathway when aberrantly activated in adulthood. Importantly, a phase 1 first-in-human trial of a Hedgehog inhibitor has shown real progress in halting and even reversing the growth of these tumours. PMID:18813320

  20. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Millikan; Beth Newman; Chiu-Kit Tse; Patricia G. Moorman; Kathleen Conway; Lisa V. Smith; Miriam H. Labbok; Joseph Geradts; Jeannette T. Bensen; Susan Jackson; Sarah Nyante; Chad Livasy; Lisa Carey; H. Shelton Earp; Charles M. Perou

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal\\u000a growth factor receptor 2-positive\\/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based,\\u000a case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive\\u000a and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared

  1. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  2. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat on the yolk characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Peebles; M. R. Burnham; S. L. Branton; S. K. Womack

    2009-01-01

    3 Abstract: Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary Poultry Fat (PF) on the blood characteristics of commercial layers between 24 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk of age and dietary treatments (Basal Control Diets (BC) and basal control

  3. Development of a serum-free medium for in vitro expansion of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes using a statistical design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Kyoung Jeon; Jong-Baeck Lim; Gyun Min Lee

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum-containing medium (SCM), which has a number of poorly defined components with varying concentrations, hampers standardization of lymphocyte cultures. In order to develop a serum-free medium (SFM) for the expansion of human lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), a statistical optimization approach based on a fractional factorial method and a response surface method was adopted. A basal medium

  4. Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2007-05-01

    Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-?m thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph port of the microscope to collect light from a specific micro area of the sample. The collected light is transmitted via the fiber to a disperserve type CCD spectrometer for spectral analysis. Results. The measurement results showed significant spectral differences between normal and cancerous tissues. For normal tissue regions, the spectral results agreed with our previous findings on autofluorescence of normal skin sections. For the cancerous regions, the epidermis showed very weak fluorescence signal, while the stratum corneum exhibited fluorescence emissions peaking at about 510 nm. In the dermis, the basal cell island and a band of surrounding areas showed very weak fluorescence signal, while distal dermis above and below the basal cell island showed greater fluorescence signal but with different spectral shapes. The very weak autofluorescence from the basal cell island and its surrounding area may be attributed to their degenerative properties that limited the production of collagens. Conclusions. The obtained microscopic results very well explain the in vivo fluorescence properties of BCC lesions in that they have decreased fluorescence intensity compared to the surrounding normal skin. The intrinsic spectra of various microstructures and the microscopic fluorescence images (corresponding fluorophore distribution in tissue) obtained in this study will be used for further theoretical modeling of in vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of skin cancers.

  5. Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

  6. All-source basal vitamin D inputs are greater than previously thought and cutaneous inputs are smaller.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G; French, Christine

    2013-05-01

    The magnitude of vitamin D inputs in individuals not taking supplements is unknown; however, there is a great deal of information on quantitative response to varying supplement doses. We reanalyzed individual 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration data from 8 studies involving cholecalciferol supplementation (total sample size = 3000). We extrapolated individual study dose-response curves to zero concentration values for serum 25(OH)D by using both linear and curvilinear approaches and measured seasonal oscillation in the serum 25(OH)D concentration. The total basal input (food plus solar) was calculated to range from a low of 778 iu/d in patients with end-stage renal disease to a high of 2667 iu/d in healthy Caucasian adults. Consistent with expectations, obese individuals had lower baseline, unsupplemented 25(OH)D concentrations and a smaller response to supplements. Similarly, African Americans had both lower baseline concentrations and lower calculated basal, all-source inputs. Seasonal oscillation in 4 studies ranged from 5.20 to 11.4 nmol/L, reflecting a mean cutaneous synthesis of cholecalciferol ranging from 209 to 651 iu/d at the summer peak. We conclude that: 1) all-source, basal vitamin D inputs are approximately an order of magnitude higher than can be explained by traditional food sources; 2) cutaneous, solar input in these cohorts accounts for only 10-25% of unsupplemented input at the summer peak; and 3) the remainder must come from undocumented food sources, possibly in part as preformed 25(OH)D. PMID:23514768

  7. The effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids and/or L-carnitine on ovarian activity of Rahmani ewes.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, K H; Abo-El maaty, Amal M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids with or without of l-carnitine on ovarian activity using 24 Rahmani ewes randomly allocated to four treatments. Control animals (n=6) were fed a basal diet of hay (64.2%) and barley grain (35.0%) plus minerals and vitamins (0.8%). Ewes on the three treatments received the same basal diet supplemented with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids (CSFA) at 3% of the basal diet dry matter intake (1.4 kg/ewe/d); 250 ppm l-carnitine (LC); or both these supplements (CSFA+LC). All use exhibited natural estrus on one or two occasions and were weighed at the start and the end of the study as well as body condition score was assessed at the end of study. All ewes were then synchronised for estrus using intravaginal sponges for 12 d prior to the start of the nutritional treatments and three weeks after the nutritional treatments began. The nutritional treatments were imposed for a total of 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of treatments and every two weeks thereafter except after sponge removal of first and second synchronisation where the blood samples were collected daily for progesterone assay. The results revealed that Rahmani ewes received basal diet (control) and l-carnitine had significantly decrease final body weight and body condition score (36.3+/-0.4; 36.8+/-0.3; 2.2+/-0.04; 2.1+/-0.05; p<0.05, respectively) than those on CSFA and CSFA+LC (38.6+/-0.9; 39.5+/-0.6; 3.3+/-0.07; 3.4+/-0.06; respectively). At the second ultrasound examination, the control animals had significantly fewer total follicles (7.3+/-0.8; p<0.05) than those on the CSFA (8.4+/-0.8), l-carnitine (8.7+/-1.5) and CSFA+LC (8.0+/-0.6) treatments. The increased numbers occurred in the medium and large categories of follicles. In addition, the ovulation rates were significantly lower (p<0.05) for control (1.3+/-0.2) and l-carnitine (1.5+/-0.00) than for CSFA (2.5+/-0.3) and CSFA+LC (2.3+/-0.2). Furthermore, serum progesterone concentrations had risen and were significantly higher (p<0.05) for CSFA (2.5+/-0.3 ng/ml) and CSFA+LC (2.7+/-0.1 ng/ml) than for control (1.1+/-0.7 ng/ml) and l-carnitine (1.5+/-0.4 ng/ml). It was concluded that supplementation of the basal diet with l-carnitine alone did not improve performance of ewes or the ovarian response. However, the addition of calcium salts of long chain fatty acids to the basal diet alone or in combination with l-carnitine significantly improved the number and size of ovarian preovulatory follicles, and the ovulation rate of Rahmani ewes. Further evidence was required to study their influence on follicular atresia. PMID:19473790

  8. History of Debris-bearing Basal ice: Comparing Numerical Simulations of Basal Freeze-on to Borehole Video Images and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, P.; Tulaczyk, S.

    2002-12-01

    Debris-bearing basal ice are frequently observed in a variety of glaciers as well as in ice cores drilled to the base of modern ice sheets. A common feature of frozen-on basal ice is an layered structure of debris-rich, dirty ice and clean, transparent ice. The thermodynamic aspects governing the segregation mechanism that separates dirty ice and clean ice are poorly understood and quantitative assessments of basal freeze-on are rarely conducted. We have investigated the response of subglacial sediments to basal freeze-on in a high-resolution numerical model (node spacing: 0.01 m). The model adapts thermodynamics of frost heave (which is a much-studied process in permafrost engineering) to subglacial conditions. In fine-grained sub-ice stream till, in-situ freezing of pore water is inhibited due to surface tension arising from a small characteristic particle size. The till becomes super-cooled by up to -0.35°C from the pressure-melting point and thermally driven pore water flow is induced. This water flow feeds accretion of clean ice onto the ice base while the till dewaters. Our model predictions compare favorably with observations from the Ross sector of the West Antarctic ice sheet. When the ice base is in direct contact with the till, ice stream stoppage is predicted to occur ca. 70 years after basal freeze-on is triggered. Fast ice stream flow may be prolonged if a widespread basal water system is capable of separating the freezing ice base from the till. However, the small thickness of water filled gaps (ca. 1-2 mm) limits the time of enhanced flow prolongation. After the freezing ice base has consumed the water film, the ice stream will shut down due to dewatering of the till. However, the bed remains unfrozen and highly porous for long time periods subsequent to stoppage. We predict that complete freeze-up of a 5 m till layer takes several centuries. This result is supported by radar data showing that Ice Stream C, which stopped ca. 150 years ago, has a largely unfrozen bed, while Siple Ice Stream, which stopped about 300 years earlier, exhibits a partially frozen bed. A self-adjusting upper boundary in our numerical simulation allows the freezing front to move downwards into the till domain. This occurs when the ice-till interface is no longer the thermodynamically most favorable location for freezing. We can thus simulate growth of ice lenses within the till. Our model reproduces basal ice with a layered structure consisting of uniform bands of debris-filled ice and clean segregation ice. Medium-grained till develops thin ice lenses that are closely spaced while fine-grained till develops thick ice lenses with a wider spacing. Comparison of our results to borehole video images of basal ice beneath Ice Stream C and images from laboratory studies of freezing porous media indicates that thermodynamics of basal freeze-on and frost heaving are fundamentally related.

  9. A SEMISYNTHETIC FETAL CALF SERUM-FREE LIQUID MEDIUM FOR IN VITRO CULTIVATION OF LEISHMANIAPROMASTIGOTES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. ATIF ALI; JAVEID IQBAL; BASHIR AHMAD; M. MASOOM

    A semisynthetic, autoclavable, liquid medium that does not require inclusion of fetal calf serum (FCS) for the successful cultivation of Leishmania promastigotes in vitro is described. The parasites were grown in com- mercially available medium 199 supplemented with 10% FCS and 2% mammalian urine and the growth was compared with the same medium without FCS. The growth of the parasites

  10. Supplemental Material (Doan and Rudner 2007) 1 SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL

    E-print Network

    Rudner, David

    Supplemental Material (Doan and Rudner 2007) 1 SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL Perturbations to engulfment do and accumulation of IVB. #12;Supplemental Material (Doan and Rudner 2007) 2 SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURES Figure S1. Full

  11. Cysticercosis lesions in basal ganglia are common but clinically silent.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Carlos; Velez, Miriam; Torres, Luis; Garcia, Hector H

    2002-01-01

    Movement disorders due to basal ganglia involvement by neurocysticercosis are rarely seen. To evaluate the frequency of basal ganglia location of cysticercotic cysts and its clinical manifestations, baseline MRI scans of 120 consecutive patients with active neurocysticercosis were reviewed and the presence and number of active cysticercosis lesions (viable cysts or enhancing lesions) in the basal ganglia were recorded and correlated with demographic and clinical data. Basal ganglia involvement was found in 32 cases (26.7%). The frequency of lesions in basal ganglia was related to the total number of lesions, ranging from 5% of patients with a single cysticerci, to 60% in patients with more than five parasites. Putamen and caudate nuclei were the most frequent sites of lesions. No significant difference between both hemispheres was observed. Basal ganglia localization is common in neurocysticercosis but it is rarely associated with clinical manifestations. PMID:11792479

  12. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  13. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their childhood. Multiple BCCs were seen in 79.3% and 10.3% of patients with history and without history of radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: X-ray radiation is still a major etiologic factor in developing BCC in northern Iran. Patients with positive history for radiotherapy have higher rate of recurrence.

  14. A serum-free medium for the culture of insect cells and production of recombinant proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Hink

    1991-01-01

    Summary  A low protein aqueous lipid supplement (Ex-Cyte VLE), in combination with pluronic polyol, is an effective replacement for\\u000a fetal bovine serum for insect Sf-9 cells. Serum-free medium with lipid supplement and pluronic (SFM-LP) supported higher cell\\u000a viability and maximum cell populations than serum-supplemented medium. No adaptation procedures are required when switching\\u000a cells from serum-containing medium to SFM-LP, and growth rates

  15. Site-Specific Basal Body Duplication in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, Eileen T.; Dutcher, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  16. Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

  17. Tobacco Use Supplement: An Overview

    Cancer.gov

    1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current

  18. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  19. Effects of one-seed juniper on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of feeding one-seed juniper on total intake, VFA profile, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and a basal diet with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or rumen degradable (SBM; RDP 15% CP) or undegradable (FM; RUP 15% CP) protein supplement. Aft...

  20. Long-Term Survival of Leptospira in a Biphasic Culture Medium Containing Charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Donald M.; Varela-Díaz, Victor M.; Siniuk, Alicia A.

    1973-01-01

    A comparison was made of the survival of 28 leptospiral serotypes in Fletcher semisolid medium and in the same medium containing a basal layer of Fletcher medium plus 0.7% of agar and 0.5% of activated animal charcoal. A year after culture, more motile leptospires were observed by microscope examination in the biphasic medium. Two years after culture, 4 serotypes grown in the biphasic medium and 11 in Fletcher medium did not show motile cells. Nineteen of the serotypes maintained in Fletcher medium and 25 in the biphasic medium for 2 years grew on subculture into Fletcher medium. Subcultures from the biphasic medium showed the characteristic leptospiral ring growth earlier during the incubation period. PMID:4735486

  1. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Karaninder S.; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.; Sharma, Anju Lath; Sharma, Vikas; Abhinav, C.; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50?mg) and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750?mg) on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest. PMID:23304569

  2. Phosphate assimilation by Chlorella and adjustment of phosphate concentration in basal medium for its cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Bo Qu; Zheng-Yun Wu; Xian-Ming Shi

    2008-01-01

    Assimilation of phosphate by Chlorella pyrenoidosa was 0.81–8.1 mg PO4-P\\/g dry weight for heterotrophic cultures and 0.81–16.1 mg\\/g for mixotrophic cultures. Optimal carbon:phosphorous (C\\/P) ratios\\u000a were 206:1–2060:1 and 103:1–2060:1 for heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivations, respectively. These requirements for phosphate\\u000a for growth of C. pyrenoidosa under either heterotrophic or mixotrophic conditions are much less (6.25–62.5 or 3.12–62.5-fold at 10 g glucose\\/l) than its\\u000a concentration in

  3. The apical and basal environments of the retinal pigment epithelium regulate the maturation of tight junctions during development.

    PubMed

    Rahner, Christoph; Fukuhara, Masayuki; Peng, Shaomin; Kojima, Shota; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2004-07-01

    A culture model has been established to study the gradual development of tight junctions during the embryogenesis of the chick retinal pigment epithelium. This study asks how closely the culture model reflects normal development and how the composition, structure and function of embryonic tight junctions are affected by the apical and basal environments. The study focused on the expression of claudins, the fine-structure of tight junctional strands and the transepithelial electrical resistance. Between embryonic days 7 and 14, patches of junctional strands gradually expanded and coalesced to form a continuous junction, in vivo. Although there was a corresponding increase in claudin expression, different claudins appeared at different times. In culture, the apical and basal environments acted synergistically to promote a continuous network of tight junctions with higher electrical resistance. Independently, pituitary extract or the secretory products of either embryonic fibroblasts or the retina promoted the formation of tight junctions. In combination, three effects were identified. With basally placed fibroblast conditioned medium, apical retinal medium increased transepithelial electrical resistance by affecting structure alone. With basally placed pituitary extract, apical retinal conditioned medium increased transepithelial electrical resistance by affecting structure and by modulating claudin expression in a manner that was consistent with development in vivo. Although embryonic day 7 and 14 cultures in retinal medium exhibited similar structure, the transepithelial electrical resistance of the embryonic day 14 cultures was higher. This higher transepithelial electrical resistance correlated with differences in claudin expression and localization. Therefore, this experimental model can isolate the effects of retinal secretions on structure and claudin expression, and can help us to determine how claudins affect function when structure is held constant. PMID:15226402

  4. Evaluation of a simple protein free medium that supports high levels of monoclonal antibody production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Qi; P. F. Greenfield; S. Reid

    1996-01-01

    A simple protein free medium was formulated and tested in suspension culture using three hybridoma cell lines. The medium, referred to as CDSS (Chemically Defined Serum Substitutes), consisted of the basal medium DMEM:Ham F12, 1:1, with HEPES (D12H), plus pluronic F68, trace elements, ferric citrate, ascorbic acid, and ethanolamine. No protein or lipid components were added. All three cell lines

  5. Functional changes of the basal ganglia circuitry in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Blandini; Giuseppe Nappi; Cristina Tassorelli; Emilia Martignoni

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia circuitry processes the signals that flow from the cortex, allowing the correct execution of voluntary movements. In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta triggers a cascade of functional changes affecting the whole basal ganglia network. The most relevant alterations affect the output nuclei of the circuit, the medial globus pallidus

  6. Metabotropic glutamate receptors in the basal ganglia motor circuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Battaglia; Michael J. Marino; Ferdinando Nicoletti; P. Jeffrey Conn

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our understanding of the circuitry of the basal ganglia and our ability to predict the behavioural effects of specific cellular changes in this circuit on voluntary movement. These advances, combined with a new understanding of the rich distribution and diverse physiological roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the basal ganglia, indicate

  7. Educational Content of Basal Reading Texts: Implications for Comprehension Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; And Others

    To explore the issue of educational content in basal readers, a study analyzed 34 basal reading textbooks, representing eight of the most commonly used series in American elementary education. Educational content was defined and categorized along three dimensions: subject matter, function, and ethos. The subject matter component covered theories,…

  8. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. J. Solomon; Christine M. Marchetti; Raj K. Krishnan; Frank Gonzalez; John P. Kirwan

    2008-01-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 ± 4 years; mean ± SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 ± 4

  9. Paleoenvironmental analysis of thrombolites in the basal Purbeck Formation

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Mark A.

    Paleoenvironmental analysis of thrombolites in the basal Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic the basal Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic) on the Isle of Portland, southern England, are described upright and for some time after they fell, a period of a few hundred years. This suggests a relatively

  10. Phylogenetic Context and Basal Metazoan Model Systems1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLEN G. COLLINS; S. MCFADDEN; BERND SCHIERWATER

    2005-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. In comparative studies using model organisms, extant taxa are often referred to as basal. The term suggests that such taxa are descendants of lineages that diverged early in the history of some larger taxon. By this usage, the basal metazoans comprise just four phyla (Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Cten- ophora) and the large clade Bilateria. We advise against this

  11. Volcanic Landslide Basal Friction as Measured by Seismic Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Brodsky; E. Gordeev

    2002-01-01

    The long runout of large landslides, and therefore apparently low basal friction, has long been a subject of intense debate. Volcanic landslides have even longer runouts than other avalanches, perhaps due to the importance of hot gases as a driving force or basal lubricant. We invert seismic data from the March 30, 1956 Bezymianny, Russia for an equivalent force source.

  12. Basal Ganglia calcification in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Kopsa, Wolfgang

    2005-09-01

    Though basal ganglia calcification (BGC) has been recognized as a feature of mitochondriopathy, little is known about its frequency in a larger cohort. The aim of this work was to assess the frequency of BGC, type and frequency of clinical and additional imaging central-nervous-system (CNS) abnormalities and of non-CNS abnormalities in mitochondriopathy patients with BGC. Retrospectively reviewed were the records of all mitochondriopathy patients in whom BGC was found on cerebral CT during 10 years. Among those who underwent cerebral CT, thirty-six, 24 women, 12 men, aged 33-93 years, showed BGC. The most frequent clinical CNS manifestations in these patients were epilepsy (n = 9), Parkinson syndrome (n = 9), dementia (n = 7), dysarthria (n = 5), spasticity (n = 4), tremor (n = 4), or stroke (n = 4). Additional cerebral CT-findings were atrophy (n = 10), lacunas (n = 6), leucaraiosis (n = 6), focal gliosis (n = 4), or stroke (n = 1). MR imaging, carried out in 12 patients, confirmed BGC in one. The 36 patients presented with involvement of the CNS (n = 32), endocrine system (n = 29), peripheral nervous system (n = 28), heart (n = 23), inner ear (n = 16), eyes (n = 15), guts (n = 11), blood (n = 9), kidney (n = 2), or dermis (n = 2). BGC occurs in one sixth of non-selected patients with mitochondriopathy and is associated with clinical and imaging CNS abnormalities and multisystem disease in the majority of them. PMID:16167199

  13. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Simon N; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Olafsson, Jon H; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10(-12)), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10(-9)), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10(-12)) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10(-16)). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  14. [Safety of food supplements].

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, A; Przyrembel, H

    2004-09-01

    Food supplements are foodstuffs. Food which is not safe shall not be placed on the market. Adherence to the laws which aim for the safety of food ensures that food supplements are safe. Unfortunately, there are still gaps in the legislation for food supplements. However, even intrinsically safe foods can bear a risk for the consumer if not used appropriately, for example if food supplements are consumed instead of healthy diets or if food supplements are used as substitutes for indicated drugs. PMID:15378168

  15. Pine Island Glacier - local flow mechanisms and basal sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkens, N. M.; Kleiner, T.; Humbert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier is a fast moving outlet glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Several tributaries feeding the central ice stream characterise the flow field structure of this glacier. In the past decades the glacier has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modelling studies. One major challenge encountered when modelling the flow field of Pine Island Glacier is to reproduce the locally varying flow pattern, with its many tributaries. Commonly this difficulty is overcome by inversion for parameters controlling basal sliding. Our study is aimed at connecting basal sliding again to physical parameters. To achieve this we conduct experiments of Pine Island Glacier with the diagnostic 3D full-Stokes model COMice. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. In a first step, the model is used to identify dominant local mechanisms that drive the flow of the different tributaries. We identify connections between the basal topography, the basal temperature, the driving stress and the basal roughness distribution. The thus gained information is used to confine basal sliding. Areas with similar qualitative characteristics are identified, and constant-sliding assumptions made for those. Additionally, the basal roughness distribution is matched onto a basal sliding parameter. This way the sliding law is again brought closer to its original meaning. Our results are important for prognostic model experiments, as we connect basal sliding to locally varying basal properties, which might lead to different responses of the tributaries to altered external forcing.

  16. Supplemental dietary inulin influences expression of iron and inflammation related genes in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown improved hemoglobin repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti, Tienen, Belgium) into a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In the present study, weanling pigs (5 or 6-wk old) were f...

  17. The effects of neonatal basal forebrain lesions oncognition : towards understanding the developmental roleof the cholinergic basal forebrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Berger-Sweeney

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal development of the cholinergic basal forebrain has been implicated innumerous developmental disabilities such as Rett Syndrome and Down Syndrome. This reviewsummarizes recent data using two rodent animal models that involve interrupting cholinergic basalforebrain projections on postnatal day 1 and postnatal day 7 when basal forebrain fibers arebeginning to innervate their neocortical and hippocampal targets, respectively. In one model,electrolytic lesions

  18. Analysis of Basal Plane Bending and Basal Plane Dislocations in 4H-SiC Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Noboru; Katsuno, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Tatsuo; Nakabayashi, Masashi; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Hirokatsu; Aigo, Takashi; Hirano, Hosei; Hoshino, Taizo; Ohashi, Wataru

    2009-06-01

    4H-SiC single crystals were grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) growth method under different thermoelastic stress conditions, and the degree of basal plane bending in the crystals was characterized by the peak shift measurement of X-ray rocking curves. The results indicate that the degree of basal plane bending largely depends on the magnitude of the thermoelastic stresses imposed on the crystals during PVT growth. Quantitative analysis of basal plane bending revealed that the density of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) estimated from basal plane bending is much smaller than that obtained from defect-selective etching. It was also found that the BPD density is correlated with the threading screw dislocation (TSD) density in PVT-grown SiC crystals. These aspects of BPDs were discussed in terms of the BPD multiplication process triggered by the intersection of BPDs with a forest of TSDs extending along the c-axis.

  19. The effect of level and source of dietary selenium supplementation on eggshell quality.

    PubMed

    Pavlovi?, Zoran; Mileti?, Ivanka; Joki?, Zivan; Pavlovski, Zlatica; Skrbi?, Zdenka; Sobaji?, Sladana

    2010-02-01

    A 16-week-long experiment was performed to compare the effect of sodium selenite (SS) and selenium-enriched yeast (SY) supplementation on eggshell quality and also to evaluate breaking force correlation with other parameters of shell quality originating from hens fed with selenium supplementation. One hundred Shaver 579 hens (27 weeks old) with similar body size were randomly divided for five dietary treatments: basal diet without selenium supplementation and basal diets with two levels of selenium supplementation (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) via SS or SY. No adverse effect of Se inclusion in hen's feed, regardless of its source, on shell breaking force, shell deformation, shape index, shell thickness and shell percentage, were observed throughout the current study (P > 0.05). Moderate correlations were found between breaking force and nondestructive shell deformation for all diets (P < 0.05). There was no significant overall correlation between egg breaking force and shell thickness or/and percentage shell in the presence of selenium supplementation (P > 0.05). Shape index in all four selenium-supplemented groups was not related to the breaking force (P > 0.05). Selenium supplementation of up to 0.8 mg/kg, regardless of its source, in the diet of laying hens in their first phase of laying does not adversely affect eggshell quality. PMID:19513591

  20. Effects of Plant Peptones Supplemented Medium on CHO Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbau Jérémie; Michiels Jean-François; Boel Sébastien; Spiros N. Agathos; Schneider Yves-Jacques

    \\u000a A strong tendency is currently emerging to remove not only serum but also any product of animal origin from animal cell culture\\u000a media during production of biopharmaceuticals. Different chromatographic separations have been used to fractionate soy and\\u000a cotton peptones in order to separate bioactive compounds. CHO cells were cultivated in the presence of peptone or fractions\\u000a thereof. Fractions containing bioactive

  1. Charmonium in Hot Medium 

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Xingbo

    2012-02-14

    We investigate charmonium production in the hot medium created by heavy-ion collisions by setting up a framework in which in-medium charmonium properties are constrained by thermal lattice QCD (lQCD) and subsequently implemented into kinetic...

  2. Growth of hybridoma cells in serum-free medium: ethanolamine is an essential component.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, H; Masui, H; Sato, G H; Sueoka, N; Chow, T P; Kano-Sueoka, T

    1982-01-01

    A serum-free medium supplemented with a few growth factors was devised to grow lymphocyte hybridomas. The medium was developed with the hybridoma line MPC11-BL, a fusion product between a mouse plasmacytoma cell line (MPC11TG70na3) and mouse (BALB/c) spleen cells. In the process of developing the medium, ethanolamine was found to be an essential growth factor for the hybridoma. Phosphoethanolamine at 10-fold higher concentration could substitute for ethanolamine. Long-term cultivation of the cells was achieved in the defined medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, ethanolamine, and selenium. The defined medium supported the growth of various other mouse hybridoma cell lines, mostly at a rate comparable to that observed in a serum-containing medium. After one-step ammonium sulfate precipitation of the spent medium, more than 95% of the protein recovered was immunoglobulin as shown by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:7041116

  3. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) for Fine-resolution Basal Ice Sheet Imaging

    E-print Network

    Blake, William Arthur

    2010-08-31

    by the MCRDS radar around the NEEM drill site. Reflectivity maps were generated leading to the possibility of extracting useful basal composition data. Extraction of basal composition information was examined including estimating the roughness of basal...

  4. Intake and digestibility of hay supplemented with Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) by sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Intake and digestibility of hay supplemented with Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) by sheep was to compare the effect of Tagasaste supplementation on intake and digestibility of good, medium and low with rumen, abomasal and ileal cannulae. Partial digestion of organic matter and disappearance of non ammonia

  5. Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's

    E-print Network

    Cosmides, Leda

    Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's hormonal responses these differences. Replicating past research, the present study found that men's salivary testosterone and cortisol receptor gene, and lower baseline cortisol concentrations, each predicted larger testosterone responses

  6. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher H.; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E.; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat which remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. Here we show in mice that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway. Under physiological conditions this short latency pathway is capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition this pathway relays aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  7. Neural Representation of Time in Cortico-basal Ganglia Circuits

    E-print Network

    Jin, Dezhe Z.

    Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia ...

  8. Golf club related basal skull fracture: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hance, Katherine

    2011-10-01

    Basal skull fractures, although rare, do occur and a high index of suspicion for high velocity injuries, should be at the forefront of the clinicians mind, particularly those from a golf club. Head injury in children is a common presentation to any Paediatric Emergency Department. With effective examination skills, recognition of signs of basal skull fracture such as haemotympanum, even in the absence of altered neurological findings, ensures safe and effective practice enabling correct and justifiable clinical decisions to be made. This is vital to ensure not only the correct investigative procedure is requested and performed, but also on discussion with the appropriate specialists, the correct treatment is also prescribed. This case study examines the use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of basal skull fractures and highlights further discussion into the appropriate treatment of children diagnosed with basal skull fractures. PMID:21968414

  9. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    E-print Network

    Gershman, Samuel J.

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still ...

  10. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

  11. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. A case report.

    PubMed

    Piattelli, A

    1991-12-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder and is characterized by a great variety of signs and symptoms. The most important are a characteristic facies, the occurrence of basal cell carcinomas and odontogenic keratocysts. In view of the neoplastic skin change, constant review of the patients is indicated. Any jaw film revealing two or more dentigerous or follicular cysts should alert the clinician to the possibility of this underlying syndrome. PMID:1822063

  12. Reassessing Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a series of interconnected subcortical nuclei. The function and dysfunction of these nuclei has been studied intensively as it pertains to motor control, but more recently our knowledge of these functions has broadened to include prominent roles in cognition and affective control. This review will summarize historical models of basal ganglia function, findings which have supported or conflicted with these models, and emphasize recent work in animals and humans directly testing the hypotheses generated by these models. PMID:25032493

  13. Effects of dietary l -carnitine and chromium picolinate supplementations on performance and some serum parameters in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zehra Selcuk; Serap Ustaoglu Tiril; Fikret Alagil; Volkan Belen; Mustafa Salman; Sena Cenesiz; Omer Hakan Muglali; Feraye Berkay Yagci

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary l-carnitine, chromium picolinate (Cr-Pic) and their combination on growth performance and serum total protein, cholesterol,\\u000a triglyceride and glucose of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total of 276 rainbow trout were randomly allocated to four groups. Fish (average initial body weight = 151 ± 1.69 g)\\u000a were fed a basal diet without supplemental l-carnitine and

  14. The ABC Model and its Applicability to Basal Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Soltis, Douglas E.; Chanderbali, André S.; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Scope and Conclusions Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer ‘fading borders’ as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms. PMID:17616563

  15. MSEIP Documentation Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    The Midwestern States Educational Information Project's "MSEIP Documentation Supplement" is a companion publication to "MSEIP Documentation of Project Development and General System Design; Revised, June 1969." (LI 003275). The supplement starts with an overview of the MSEIP Data Control System which explains many of the techniques used in the…

  16. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  17. Development of a Plating Medium for Selection of Helicobacter pylori from Water Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Degnan; W. C. Sonzogni; J. H. Standridge

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a simple plating medium to allow large-scale screening of water samples for the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Five conventional plating media (brain heart infusion, brucella agar, Columbia blood agar base, campylobacter agar kit Skirrow, and HPSPA medium), each containing a com- mercial antibiotic supplement, were initially evaluated. Eight strains selected as common

  18. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented. Vismodegib should only be proposed to patients in whom basal cell cancer markedly undermines quality of life, and only in the context of clinical research. PMID:25729822

  19. Vitamin C supplementation does not improve hypoxia-induced erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia induces reactive oxygen species production. Supplements with antioxidant mixtures can compensate for the decline in red cell membrane stability following intermittent hypobaric hypoxia by decreasing protein and lipid oxidation. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin C is implicated in the regulation of erythropoiesis and in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and also whether antioxidant supplementation prevents the oxidative stress associated to intermittent hypoxia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: normoxia control (n=6), normoxia + vitamin C (n=6), hypoxia control (12 h pO(2) 12%/12 h pO(2) 21%) (n=6), and hypoxia + vitamin C (n=6). Animals were supplemented with vitamin C at a dose of 250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 21 days. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, and oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde and protein oxidation in plasma were analyzed at two different time points: basal sample (day zero) and final sample (day 21). Similar RBC, Hb, Hct, and Epo increments were observed in both hypoxic groups regardless of the vitamin C supplementation. There was no change on MDA levels after intermittent hypoxic exposure in any experimental group. However, we found an increase in plasma protein oxidation in both hypoxic groups. Vitamin C does not affect erythropoiesis and protein oxidation in rats submitted to intermittent hypoxic exposure. PMID:23270444

  20. Prostatic inflammation enhances basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate cancer with a basal cell origin

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Zhang, Li; Ittmann, Michael M.; Xin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been shown to promote the initiation and progression of diverse malignancies by inducing genetic and epigenetic alterations. In this study, we investigate an alternative mechanism through which inflammation promotes the initiation of prostate cancer. Adult murine prostate epithelia are composed predominantly of basal and luminal cells. Previous studies revealed that the two lineages are largely self-sustained when residing in their native microenvironment. To interrogate whether tissue inflammation alters the differentiation program of basal cells, we conducted lineage tracing of basal cells using a K14-CreER;mTmG model in concert with a murine model of prostatitis induced by infection from the uropathogenic bacteria CP9. We show that acute prostatitis causes tissue damage and creates a tissue microenvironment that induces the differentiation of basal cells into luminal cells, an alteration that rarely occurs under normal physiological conditions. Previously we showed that a mouse model with prostate basal cell-specific deletion of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (K14-CreER;Ptenfl/fl) develops prostate cancer with a long latency, because disease initiation in this model requires and is limited by the differentiation of transformation-resistant basal cells into transformation-competent luminal cells. Here, we show that CP9-induced prostatitis significantly accelerates the initiation of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in this model. Our results demonstrate that inflammation results in a tissue microenvironment that alters the normal prostate epithelial cell differentiation program and that through this cellular process inflammation accelerates the initiation of prostate cancer with a basal cell origin. PMID:24367088

  1. Hadrons in Medium

    E-print Network

    U. Mosel

    2005-05-04

    In these lectures I first give a motivation for investigations of in-medium properties of hadrons. I discuss the relevant symmetries of QCD and how they might affect the observed hadron properties. I then discuss at length the observable consequences of in-medium changes of hadronic properties in reactions with elementary probes, and in particular photons, on nuclei. Here I put an emphasis on new experiments on changes of the sigma and omega mesons in medium.

  2. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed in training before being used in competition. It is recommended that dietary supplements are only used based on the advice of a qualified sports nutrition professional. PMID:16766503

  3. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498

  4. Reasoning in a reading context: Deductive inferences in basal reading series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridget A. Franks; Sharon L. Mulhern; Susan M. Schillinger

    1997-01-01

    This study examined three basal reading programs published by Heath (1989), Silver Burdett Ginn (1993) and Houghton Mifflin (1993), to determine how frequently logically necessary relationships are expressed in text used by basal readers, and whether direct instruction in making logically necessary inferences accompanies such expressions in basal reader series. The complete contents of the basal readers, from grades one

  5. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3. PMID:23484024

  6. Growth and body composition of juvenile red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets containing lecithin and supplemental choline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Craig; Delbert M. Gatlin

    1997-01-01

    Two factorial experiments were conducted for 6 weeks each to determine the effects of supplemental choline and lecithin in the diet of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Four isocaloric diets were formulated utilizing solvent-extracted menhaden fish meal which provided 744 mg choline kg?1 diet. Menhaden oil was added to provide a total of 7% lipid in the basal diet. In

  7. Immunohistochemical study of basal cell adenoma in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hamano, H; Abiko, Y; Hashimoto, S; Inoue, T; Shimono, M; Takagi, T; Noma, H

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland was studied with immunohistochemical methods. We observed cells in the tumor with positive reaction to polyclonal keratin, prekeratin, monoclonal PKK-1, polyclonal S-100 protein, monoclonal S-100 protein (alpha), secretory component, actin and laminin. However, no cells which stained positively with monoclonal KL-1, amylase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or epithelial membrane antigen were recognized. From these immunohistochemical results and our ultrastructural observations reported previously, we conclude that the cells constituting the basal cell adenoma are ductal, myoepithelial, and squamous cells but not secretory ones. It is also suggested that the origins of basal cell ademona as well as those of pleomorphic and clear cell adenoma are undifferentiated cells of intercalated duct. PMID:2133439

  8. Growth of Hybridoma Cells in Serum-Free Medium: Ethanolamine is an Essential Component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Murakami; Hideo Masui; Gordon H. Sato; Noboru Sueoka; Theresa P. Chow; Tamiko Kano-Sueoka

    1982-01-01

    A serum-free medium supplemented with a few growth factors was devised to grow lymphocyte hybridomas. The medium was developed with the hybridoma line MPC11-BL, a fusion product between a mouse plasmacytoma cell line (MPC11TG70na3) and mouse (BALB\\/c) spleen cells. In the process of developing the medium, ethanolamine was found to be an essential growth factor for the hybridoma. Phosphoethanolamine at

  9. Inhibition of lipid oxidation in long-term frozen stored chicken meat by dietary oregano essential oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Botsoglou; D. J. Fletouris; P. Florou-Paneri; E. Christaki; A. B. Spais

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of dietary oregano essential oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on susceptibility of chicken breast and thigh muscle meat to lipid oxidation during frozen storage at ?20 °C for 9 months was examined. Day-old chickens (n=80) were randomly divided into four groups, and fed a basal diet containing 30 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate kg?1 feed as control, or basal diet

  10. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  11. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  12. Fall 2014 Transfer Supplemental

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    will be required to provide informa2on about your overall grade point average (GPA of admission may be withdrawn. Grade Point Average You must maintain the overall college grade point average (GPA) reported on your Supplemental Applica2on

  13. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... focuses specifically on dietary supplements, seeking to strengthen knowledge and understanding of these products by supporting and ... The centers are advancing the scientific base of knowledge about botanicals, making it possible to better evaluate ...

  14. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  15. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  16. Fluoride Treatments and Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    Fluoride Treatments and Supplements What Is It? What It's Used For Preparation How It's Done Follow-Up ... When To Call a Professional What Is It? Fluoride is a naturally occurring element that strengthens teeth. ...

  17. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

  18. SEARCH RESOURCES Mainstream Mediums

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    SEARCH RESOURCES Mainstream Mediums: · Chronicle of Higher Education - www.chronicle.edu · Higher - www.universityjobs.com Diverse Mediums: · Diverse Issues in Higher Education - www Education Jobs - www.higheredjobs.com (Remember higheredjobs.com enables you to place an affirmative action

  19. The effect feeding forage legumes as nitrogen supplement on growth performance of sheep.

    PubMed

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2008-08-01

    The effect of feeding forage legumes, Cowpea, Silverleaf desmodium and Oxley fine stem stylo, as protein supplements to natural pasture (veld) hay on intake, growth rate and nitrogen metabolism in growing lambs was evaluated. Thirty growing lambs were stratified according to body weight and randomly assigned, within a stratum, to five diets in a completely randomised design. The diets were veld hay alone (V), veld hay supplemented with either 10 g/kg of urea (VU), veld hay supplemented with 250 g/kg Cowpea (VC), 250 g/kg Silverleaf desmodium (VS) or 250 g/kg Oxley fine stem stylo (VF) forage legume hays. The V and the VU groups were used as control diets. Animals supplemented with either urea or the forage legume had higher (P < 0.01) total dry matter intake compared with the animals on V. The animals supplemented with the forage legumes had higher (P < 0.01) nitrogen intake and faecal nitrogen output than the non-supplemented group. All animals, across the treatments, lost body weight; lambs on V had higher (P < 0.01) body weight losses than those in the other treatments. The forage legume supplemented groups lost less (P < 0.01) body weight than those on the V and VU diets. Although supplementation with forage legumes enhanced feed intake and reduced weight losses it did not maintain body weights of lambs fed a basal diet of poor quality roughages. PMID:18575974

  20. Basal Ganglia Plus Insula Damage Yields Stronger Disruption of Smoking Addiction Than Basal Ganglia Damage Alone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of the basal ganglia (BG) and insula (INS) for nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. Methods: We used a lesion study examining the effects of BG and INS damage on changes in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time in a prospective manner. We studied whether combined BG and INS damage yields more substantial disruption of smoking and nicotine dependence than damage to the BG alone and compared with damage to other brain regions outside the BG and INS (brain-damaged comparison [BDC] group). We obtained neuroanatomical and behavioral data for 63 neurological patients with stroke at 1 month after onset and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. All patients were smokers at lesion onset. Results: The BG and BG + INS groups had significantly higher and more sustained rates of smoking cessation than patients with damage elsewhere. By 12 months after onset, only 14.3% of the patients in the BDC group were classified as nonsmokers. In the BG group, 37% were not smoking by the 12-month follow-up, and in the BG + INS group, smoking cessation was even more pronounced, as 75% of this group was not smoking at the 12-month epoch. Conclusions: The findings show that damage to the BG alone can cause disruption of smoking addiction, and when BG damage is combined with INS damage, the disruption increases. The latter finding is consistent with the proposal that the INS has a key role in smoking addiction. PMID:24169814

  1. A serum-free medium for use in a cumulus cell co-culture system for bovine embryos derived from in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Lim; A. Rocha; W. Hansel

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a serum-free medium for the co-culture of bovine embryos that would yield a percentage of blastocysts equal to that obtained with fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented medium. Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) matured and inseminated in vitro were cultured in a tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 or in a serum-free medium (bovine embryo culture medium;

  2. Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows 

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Stephen P.; Gill, Ronald J.

    2000-05-03

    to be deficient in some minerals, especially phosphorus and certain trace elements like copper and zinc. In most situations, supple- mentation should include at least year-round provi- sion of salt and a mineral with 8 percent to 12 per- cent phosphorus and a... of high pro- tein feed may be needed.) A thin, dry, mature cow may require 2 pounds to 4 pounds daily, but of a medium-protein, high-energy supplement. After calving, all of these amounts essentially should be doubled. Daily feeding usually...

  3. Basal melt rates beneath Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Beem, Lucas H.; Jezek, Ken C.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.

    2010-08-05

    . Downstream of the onset of shear crevasses, strong basal melt (20–50 mm a?1) is concentrated beneath the relatively narrow shear margins. Farther upstream, melt rates are consistently 3–7 mm a?1 across the width of the ice stream. We show that the transition...

  4. Environmental correlates of tree biomass, basal area, wood specific

    E-print Network

    Slik, Ferry

    density gradients in Borneo's tropical forestsgeb_489 50..60 J. W. F. Slik1 *, Shin-Ichiro Aiba2 , Francis their spatial patterns in an Asian tropical forest. Location Borneo, Southeast Asia. Methods We combined stem density, basal area, community wood density and AGB data from 83 locations in Borneo with an environmental

  5. Aggressive basal cell carcinoma: Presentation, pathogenesis, and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hobart W. Walling; Scott W. Fosko; Pedram A. Geraminejad; Duane C. Whitaker; Christopher J. Arpey

    2004-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cutaneous skin malignancy. BCC generally has a clinical course characterized by slow growth, minimal soft tissue invasiveness, and a high cure rate. Occasionally, however, BCC behaves aggressively with deep invasion, recurrence, and potential regional and distant metastasis. Several factors, including tumor size, duration, histology, and perineural spread, have been postulated as markers

  6. Distribution of Fibronectin and Laminin in Basal Cell Epitheliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Nelson; Charles D. Little; Gary Ballan

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM) in basal cell epithelioma was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence. FN is a glycoprotein which promotes interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix, and is present at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) and throughout the dermis, but absent in the normal epidermis. LM, a noncollagenous basement membrane protein, plays a role in epithelial adhesion

  7. ARCHIVAL REPORT Impaired Prefrontal-Basal Ganglia Functional

    E-print Network

    ARCHIVAL REPORT Impaired Prefrontal-Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity and Substantia Nigra-evoked hyperactivity of the substantia nigra that occurred in association with prefrontal and striatal hypoactivity, substantia nigra T wo cornerstones of our emerging understanding of schizo- phrenia are the role of excess

  8. Short term evolution of the basal magma ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ulvrova; S. Labrosse; N. Coltice; P. J. Tackley

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that the ultra low velocity zones at the base of the mantle are the remnants of the initially thick magma ocean (the basal magma ocean, BMO) that undergoes slow crystallization. The presence of a molten silicate layer between the solid mantle and the core can dramatically change the thermal coupling between them and affect the ability

  9. Reassessment of the phylogenetic interrelationships of basal turtles (Testudinata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérémy Anquetin

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries from the Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic have significantly improved the fossil record of early turtles. These new forms offer a unique opportunity to test the interrelationships of basal turtles. Nineteen fossil species are added to the taxon sample of the most comprehensive morphological phylogenetic analysis of the turtle clade. Among these additional species are recently discovered forms

  10. Wideband measurements of ice sheet attenuation and basal scattering

    E-print Network

    Allen, Christopher Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Paden, J. D.; Jezek, K. C.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Larsen, L. B.

    2005-04-01

    transfer function. Over this frequency range, we observe an increase in total loss of 8 +/- 2.5 dB using a linear regression to the log-scale data. With the ice sheet transfer function and an ice extinction model, we estimate the return loss from the basal...

  11. CREB expression mediates amyloid ?-induced basal BDNF downregulation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elyse; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    In Alzheimer's disease, accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) is associated with loss of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapses, and memory. Previous work demonstrated that A? decreases activity-induced BDNF transcription by regulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. However, the specific mechanism by which A? reduces basal BDNF expression remains unclear. Differentiated, unstimulated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells treated with oligomeric A? exhibited significantly reduced CREB messenger RNA compared with controls. Phosphorylated and total CREB proteins were decreased in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of A?-treated cells. However, neither pCREB129 nor pCREB133 levels were altered relative to total CREB levels. The protein kinase A activator forskolin increased pCREB133 levels and prevented A?-induced basal BDNF loss when administered before A? but did not rescue BDNF expression when administered later. These data demonstrate a new mechanism for A?-induced BDNF downregulation: in the absence of cell stimulation, A? downregulates basal BDNF levels via A?-induced CREB transcriptional downregulation, not changes in CREB phosphorylation. Thus, A? reduces basal and activity-induced BDNF expression by different mechanisms. PMID:26025137

  12. THE DEPICTION OF OLD AGE IN SIX BASAL READERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Kingston; Molly W. Drotter

    1981-01-01

    Six commonly used basal readers were examined to determine how the aged were depicted. The results indicated that although the aged were shown in a positive manner, rarely were they the main characters of the stories and rarely were their personalities fully portrayed. An adjective checklist revealed that the aged typically were shown as active, kind, wise, and hardworking. They

  13. Terahertz Pulse Imaging of ex vivo Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth M Woodward; Vincent P Wallace; Richard J Pye; Bryan E Cole; Donald D Arnone; Edmund H Linfield; Michael Pepper

    2003-01-01

    Terahertz pulse imaging has been used for the first time to study basal cell carcinoma ex vivo, the most common form of skin cancer. This noninvasive technique uses part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0.1–2.7 THz. A total of 21 samples were imaged; the study was performed blind and results were compared to histology. Each image consisted

  14. Diet, phylogeny, and basal metabolic rate in phyllostomid bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto; Theodore Garland; Augusto Shinya Abe

    2006-01-01

    Summary Aside from the pervasive effects of body mass, much controversy exists as to what factors account for interspecific variation i n basal metabolic rates (BMR) of mammals; however, both diet and phylogeny have been strongly implicated. We examined variation in BMR within the New World bat family Phyllostomidae, which shows the largest diversity of food habits among mammalian families,

  15. The BASAL: What Does It Demand of the Beginning Reader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osburn, Bess; Bobruk, Toni

    To determine the general characteristics of beginning reading materials, to establish categories in regard to concepts and the instruction of concepts, and to search for a common framework among concepts, a study surveyed six popular, widely promoted basal series which had been copyrighted within the past 5 years. For each lesson, the stated…

  16. Shear Jamming in Granular Experiments without Basal Friction

    E-print Network

    Hu Zheng; Joshua A. Dijksman; Robert P. Behringer

    2014-08-08

    Jammed states of frictional granular systems can be induced by shear strain at densities below the isostatic jamming density ($\\phi_c$). It remains unclear, however, how much friction affects this so-called shear-jamming. Friction appears in two ways in this type of experiment: friction between particles, and friction between particles and the base on which they rest. Here, we study how particle-bottom friction, or basal friction, affects shear jamming in quasi-two dimensional experiments. In order to study this issue experimentally, we apply simple shear to a disordered packing of photoelastic disks. We can tune the basal friction of the particles by immersing the particles in a density matched liquid, thus removing the normal force, hence the friction, between the particles and base. We record the overall shear stress, and particle motion, and the photoelastic response of the particles. We compare the shear response of dry and immersed samples, which enables us to determine how basal friction affects shear jamming. Our findings indicate that changing the basal friction shifts the point of shear jamming, but it does not change the basic phenomenon of shear jamming.

  17. Is Broca's Area Part of a Basal Ganglia Thalamocortical Circuit?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Ullman

    2006-01-01

    The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized “channels” via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the

  18. Hypersexuality and Stroke: A Role for the Basal Ganglia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Libman; Elzbieta J. Wirkowski

    1996-01-01

    Hyposexuality after stroke has been frequently observed, but hypersexuality as a sequela of stroke has been less commonly documented. Damage to limbic structures, especially in the temporal lobes, has been thought to play a crucial role in this clinical syndrome. The possible importance of the basal ganglia in the production of hypersexuality has been infrequently recognized despite numerous connections with

  19. Surgical vs Nonsurgical Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Aguayo-Leiva; L. Ríos-Buceta; P. Jaén-Olasolo

    2010-01-01

    Numerous therapeutic options are now available for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, few randomized controlled trials with 5-year follow-up have compared the effectiveness of the different treatments. Such a comparison is difficult, probably because efficacy depends on several factors: those related to the tumor, the patient, the technique, and the dermatologist's experience. We first describe the available therapeutic

  20. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000?gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321?±?144?gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454?±?174?gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

  1. Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p?=?0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

  2. Epithelial-derived basal lamina regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Slavkin, H C; Cummings, E; Bringas, P; Honig, L S

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms by which epithelial-mesenchymal interactions result in differentiation are not known. A number of recombinations between vertebrate tissues associated with epidermal organs (e.g. skin, feather, mammary gland, salivary gland, tooth organ) indicate that regional mesenchymal specificity is instructive for determination and differentiation of epithelial phenotypes. In epidermal organs within which mesenchyme becomes determined and differentiates into a unique phenotype, such as during tooth organogenesis and odontoblast differentiation. Does the epithelial-derived basal lamina regulate mesenchymal differentiation into odontoblasts and the expression of dentine extracellular matrix? Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that murine or avian epithelial-derived basal lamina possess information which is instructive for determined dental mesenchyme to differentiate into odontoblasts. The strategy was to examine homologous and heterologous tissue recombinants between Theiler stage 25 C57BL/6 molar tooth organs and Hamburger-Hamilton equivalent stage 22-26 Japanese Pharoah quail mandibular processes. Trypsin-dissociated molar epithelium and mesenchyme, reconstituted, secreted a basal lamina within 8 hours and mesenchyme differentiated into odontoblasts and formed dentine matrix within 3 days. Isolated trypsin-dissociated mesenchyme did not differentiate in vitro, whereas heterologous recombinants between odontogenic mesenchyma and quail epithelia resulted in odontoblasts and dentine production. Mouse tooth or quail mandibular epithelia served to regulate odontogenic mesenchyme differentiation. EDTA-dissociated mouse molar mesenchyme, in the absence of epithelium but with adherent basal lamina, routinely differentiated into odontoblasts. Control tooth organs routinely formed both dentine and enamel extracellular matrices within 7-10 days in our serumless, chemically-defined organ culture system. Regulation of determined mesenchymal cells to differentiate into functional and highly specialized odontoblasts appears to be mediated by epithelial-derived basal lamina and is not species or organ-specific. PMID:7122570

  3. Plant regeneration in Actinidia polygama Miq. by leaf, stem, and petiole culture with zeatin, and from stem-derived calli on low-sucrose medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wataru Takahashi; Fuyuki Sugawara; Noriko Yamamoto; Eriko Bando; Junjo Matsushita; Osamu Tanaka

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effect of zeatin on the formation of shoot buds from explants and callus tissues derived from stem segments of Actinidia polygama Miq. ( matatabi or silver vine). Stem and petiole segments cultured on combined broad-leaved tree medium and woody plant medium (BW medium) supplemented with zeatin for 40 days formed many shoot buds. Callus tissues derived from

  4. Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. II. The place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidium in basal ganglia circuitry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati

    1995-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus and the external pallidum (GPe) are classically viewed as part of the so-called indirect pathway, which acts in concert with the direct pathway. The direct and indirect pathways form the conceptual framework of the anatomical and functional organization of the basal ganglia. A review of recent data regarding the connections of the subthalamic nucleus and the GPe

  5. New plate medium for growth and detection of urease activity of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Cellini, L; Allocati, N; Piccolomini, R; Di Campli, E; Dainelli, B

    1992-01-01

    A new medium for detection of urease activity and isolation of Helicobacter pylori is proposed. This medium, containing Columbia Agar Base, was supplemented with IsoVitaleX, hemin, urea, and phenol red (nonselective medium [NSM]). Both bacterial growth and color change were evaluated and compared with growth in the same medium supplemented with cefsulodin, vancomycin, polymyxin B sulfate, and amphotericin B (selective medium [SM]). Twenty-five recent clinical isolates and antral biopsy specimens from 33 patients who underwent endoscopy were examined. The isolates showed a rapid color change and good growth at 5 days of incubation with NSM and SM. H. pylori-positive biopsies revealed a color change within 36 h, and bacterial growth was better appreciated in NSM, but with more contaminating flora than in SM. PMID:1583148

  6. Charmonium in Hot Medium

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Xingbo

    2012-02-14

    . The momentum dependence of the charmonium dissociation rate is worked out. The dominant process for in-medium charmonium regeneration is found to be a 3-to-2 process. Its corresponding regeneration rates from different input charmquark momentum spectra...

  7. Hyaluronic acid versus albumin in human embryo transfer medium.

    PubMed

    Mahani, I M; Davar, R

    2007-01-01

    We compared the implantation and pregnancy rate through in vitro fertilization (IVF) using hyaluronic acid and albumin as transfer medium in 60 women randomly allocated to 2 groups. In treatment group A (n = 30), embryos were transferred to medium supplemented with hyaluronic acid. In the control group B (n = 30), embryos were transferred to medium containing albumin. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of mean age of the females, mean duration of infertility and mean number of embryos. The pregnancy rate in groups A and B were 81.8% and 71.4% respectively, a non-statistically significant difference. Hyaluronic acid can successfully replace albumin as transfer medium. PMID:17955771

  8. Vitamin C Supplementation Does not Improve Hypoxia-Induced Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Martinez-Bello,Vladimir E., Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Daniel Martinez-Bello, Gloria Olaso-Gonzalez, Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, and Jose Viña. Vitamin C Supplementation Does Not Improve Hypoxia-Induced Erythropoiesis. High Alt Med Biol 13:269–274, 2012.—Hypoxia induces reactive oxygen species production. Supplements with antioxidant mixtures can compensate for the decline in red cell membrane stability following intermittent hypobaric hypoxia by decreasing protein and lipid oxidation. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin C is implicated in the regulation of erythropoiesis and in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and also whether antioxidant supplementation prevents the oxidative stress associated to intermittent hypoxia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: normoxia control (n=6), normoxia + vitamin C (n=6), hypoxia control (12?h pO2 12%/12?h pO2 21%) (n=6), and hypoxia + vitamin C (n=6). Animals were supplemented with vitamin C at a dose of 250?mg·kg?1·day?1 for 21 days. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, and oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde and protein oxidation in plasma were analyzed at two different time points: basal sample (day zero) and final sample (day 21). Similar RBC, Hb, Hct, and Epo increments were observed in both hypoxic groups regardless of the vitamin C supplementation. There was no change on MDA levels after intermittent hypoxic exposure in any experimental group. However, we found an increase in plasma protein oxidation in both hypoxic groups. Vitamin C does not affect erythropoiesis and protein oxidation in rats submitted to intermittent hypoxic exposure. PMID:23270444

  9. Effect of Supplemental Inorganic Zn and Mn and their Interactions on the Performance of Broiler Chicken, Mineral Bioavailability, and Immune Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyam Sunder Gajula; Vijay Kumar Chelasani; Arun K. Panda; V. L. N. Raju Mantena; Rama Rao Savaram

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction and main effects of supplemental Zn and Mn levels on growth,\\u000a tissue mineral uptake, and immune response in broiler chicken. A basal diet of corn–soybean meal was supplemented with Zn\\u000a at 40, 80, or 160 ppm and Mn at 60, 120, or 240 ppm in a factorial pattern to constitute nine experimental

  10. Predominant basal directional release of thromboxane, but not prostacyclin, by placental trophoblasts from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang; Gu, Yang; Lewis, David F.; Wang, Yuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate apical and basal releases of thromboxane (TX) and prostacyclin (PGI2) by trophoblasts (TCs) from normal and preeclamptic (PE) placentas. Methods TCs isolated from normal and PE placentas were incubated in cell culture inserts for 48hrs. Medium from the upper (apical) and the lower (basal) chambers were then collected separately and measured for TX and PGI2 by their stable metabolites of TXB2 and 6-keto PGF1? by ELISA. Apical and basal releases of TX and PGI were also examined with apical exposure of TCs to arachidonic acid (AA)+/-aspirin at different concentrations. Villous tissue expressions for PGI synthase, TX synthase and TX (TP) receptor were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results 1) TXB2, but not 6-keto PGF1?, concentrations were significantly higher in the lower than in the upper chambers with both normal and PE TCs (p<0.01); 2) apical exposure of TCs to AA resulted in a significant increase in TX releases towards both the upper and the lower chambers in normal TCs (p<0.01), but only a significant increase in the upper chamber in PE TCs (p < 0.01); 3) aspirin could attenuate AA-induced TX release both in the upper and the lower chambers in normal, but not in PE, TCs (p<0.01), respectively; 4) there were no differences in 6-keto PGF1? productions both in normal and PE TCs treated with AA +/? aspirin; 5) intense staining of TX synthase and TP receptor was seen in syncytiotrophoblast layer, villous core vessels and stromal cells in preeclamptic placental tissue sections. Conclusion Predominant basal release of TX together with intense staining of TX synthase and TP receptor in trophoblasts, stromal cells and villous core vessels are found in placentas from PE. We speculate if predominant basal release of TX by TCs occurs in vivo as we found in our in vitro culture condition, basal released TX may play a significant role in increased placental vasoconstriction such as in PE. PMID:17936899

  11. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

  12. Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Smitley, D R; Rebek, E J; Royalty, R N; Davis, T W; Newhouse, K F

    2010-02-01

    We conducted field trials at five different locations over a period of 6 yr to investigate the efficacy of imidacloprid applied each spring as a basal soil drench for protection against emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Canopy thinning and emerald ash borer larval density were used to evaluate efficacy for 3-4 yr at each location while treatments continued. Test sites included small urban trees (5-15 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), medium to large (15-65 cm dbh) trees at golf courses, and medium to large street trees. Annual basal drenches with imidacloprid gave complete protection of small ash trees for three years. At three sites where the size of trees ranged from 23 to 37 cm dbh, we successfully protected all ash trees beginning the test with <60% canopy thinning. Regression analysis of data from two sites reveals that tree size explains 46% of the variation in efficacy of imidacloprid drenches. The smallest trees (<30 cm dbh) remained in excellent condition for 3 yr, whereas most of the largest trees (>38 cm dbh) declined to a weakened state and undesirable appearance. The five-fold increase in trunk and branch surface area of ash trees as the tree dbh doubles may account for reduced efficacy on larger trees, and suggests a need to increase treatment rates for larger trees. PMID:20214376

  13. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More When you reach for that ... powder or liquid form. Common supplements include vitamins, minerals and herbal products, also known as botanicals. People ...

  14. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so ...

  15. Neuron, volume 77 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Oertner, Thomas

    -10 min). Neurons were suspended in MEM plus glutamax (Gibco 41090, supplemented with 11% fetal calf serum containing 80% MEM (Gibco 32360), 20% horse serum (Gibco 16050) supplemented with 1mM L-glutamine, 0

  16. Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    McCollum III, Ted

    1997-11-03

    Supplemental nutrients for cattle--as concentrated feeds, harvested forages, or a complementary grazing program--accounts for a significant portion of annual production costs in a cattle operation. The producer should know how a supplement affects...

  17. Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    (Invitrogen) supplemented with penicillin, streptomycin and glutamine at 37 C with 5% CO2 in a humidified, cells were starved over- night in DMEM supplemented with glutamine, penicillin, streptomycin, and 20 m

  18. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePLUS

    Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

  19. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePLUS

    ... indictment charging her with the illegal importation and distribution of more than four million diet pills that ... Human Medical Products [ARCHIVED] Label Claims for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Related Consumer Updates ...

  20. Rat islet culture in serum-free medium containing silk protein sericin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Morikawa; Toshihisa Kimura; Makoto Murakami; Kanji Katayama; Satoshi Terada; Akio Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    Background  The development of islet cultures is desirable for successful clinical islet transplantation. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has\\u000a been used as a supplement in islet culture medium, but it may be an unsuitable supplement due recent animal health problems.\\u000a We have evaluated the use of the silk protein, sericin, derived from Bombyx mori as a replacement for FBS in islet culture

  1. Rumpled graphite basal plane as a model heterogeneous carbon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaev, V. A.

    1995-01-01

    A new model is suggested for the heterogeneous surfaces of nongraphitized carbon adsorbents. It may be called the rumpled graphite basal plane (RGBP). The atomic structure of RGBP can be obtained by squeezing a graphite basal plane in a molecular dynamics computer simulation under a random distribution of initial atomic velocities. The empirical Tersoff potential describes the carbon-carbon interactions. The degree of squeezing is chosen to reproduce the main features of the x-ray interference function of nongraphitized carbon blacks. Grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of the isotherms of adsorption of N2 on RGBP reproduce experimental isotherms on these carbon blacks reasonably well, especially in the BET region of relative pressures.

  2. Infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma: dermoscopic findings and histologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Leal-Osuna, Sergio; Lammoglia-Ordiales, Lorena; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma is a rare variant. It was first described in 1987 and proposed as a new basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtype by Ackerman and Walsh in 1990. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that allows prompt identification of many types of BCC. However, dermoscopic findings for the infundibulocystic variant have not been reported. In our patient the dermoscopic findings were maple leaf-like areas in the periphery of the tumor, multiple scattered blue-gray dots and globules, short, fine telangiectasia and chrysalis or white-shiny streaks. All these structures had an underlying anatomopathological correlation. Conclusion: According to our case report, dermoscopy findings may aid to clearly diagnose this unusual BCC variant with proper histopathological correlation. PMID:25126459

  3. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kiran, N K; Tilak Raj, T N; Mukunda, K S; Rajashekar Reddy, V

    2012-10-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:23633824

  4. Correlation of the basal Cretaceous beds of the Southeastern States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, Wythe

    1926-01-01

    The basal Cretaceous deposits that fringe the inner margin of the Coastal Plain from eastern Alabama to central North Carolina, where they are overlapped by Miocene sands, have been commonly classified as of Lower Cretaceous age and correlated roughly with the Patuxent formation of the Potomac group of Maryland and Virginia. In this paper the evidence on which this early correlation was based is reviewed, later evidence is considered, and the conclusion is reached that all the basal Cretaceous deposits in the area under consideration are of Upper Cretaceous age. Acknowledgments are gratefully made of the helpful criticism of the manuscript by L. W. Stephenson and of his generous assistance in the preparation of the correlation table.

  5. Solute effect on basal and prismatic slip systems of Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moitra, Amitava; Kim, Seong-Gon; Horstemeyer, M. F.

    2014-11-01

    In an effort to design novel magnesium (Mg) alloys with high ductility, we present a first principles data based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT was employed to calculate the generalized stacking fault energy curves, which can be used in the generalized Peierls–Nabarro (PN) model to study the energetics of basal slip and prismatic slip in Mg with and without solutes to calculate continuum scale dislocation core widths, stacking fault widths and Peierls stresses. The generalized stacking fault energy curves for pure Mg agreed well with other DFT calculations. Solute effects on these curves were calculated for nine alloying elements, namely Al, Ca, Ce, Gd, Li, Si, Sn, Zn and Zr, which allowed the strength and ductility to be qualitatively estimated based on the basal dislocation properties. Based on our multiscale methodology, a suggestion has been made to improve Mg formability.

  6. The effect of glycogen phosphorolysis on basal glutaminergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Mozrzymas, Jerzy; Szcz?sny, Tomasz; Rakus, Darek

    2011-01-14

    Astrocytic glycogen metabolism sustains neuronal activity but its impact on basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission is not clear. To address this issue, we have compared the effect of glycogen breakdown inhibition on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in rat hippocampal pure neuronal culture (PNC) and in astrocyte-neuronal co-cultures (ANCC). Amplitudes of mEPSC in ANCC were nearly twice as large as in PNC with no difference in current kinetics. Inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase reduced mEPSC amplitude by roughly 40% in ANCC being ineffective in PNC. Altogether, these data indicate that astrocyte-neuronal interaction enhances basal mEPSCs in ANCC mainly due to astrocytic glycogen metabolism. PMID:21146500

  7. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  8. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms.

  9. Reproductive morphology of Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), a member of basal angiosperms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyuan Zhou; D. Fu

    2008-01-01

    Summary  Recent phylogenetic analyses position Nuphar as the basalmost genus in the Nymphaeaceae, a member of the ANITA grade that is constituted of the three most basal angiosperm\\u000a lineages [Amborella, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales (Austrobaileyaceae, Illiciaceae, Schisandraceae, and Trimeniaceae)]. In Nuphar the anther is tetrasporangiate. The endothecial cells elongate radially and develop fibrous thickenings. The glandular tapetum\\u000a persists up to the two-celled

  10. Novel experimental apparatus for granular experiments on basal friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hu; Dijksman, Joshua A.; Behringer, Robert P.

    2013-06-01

    We have designed a novel experimental apparatus to probe the mechanics of sheared quasi two-dimensional frictional granular materials with tunable friction from the supporting base of the apparatus. The experiment consists of a floating layer of photoelastic disks, which is subject to deformation. Forces on the particles are measured at the particle scale, using their photoelastic properties. This novel setup makes the study of the role of basal friction on sheared granular media possible.

  11. Olfactory Horizontal Basal Cells Demonstrate a Conserved Multipotent Progenitor Phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay A. Carter; Jessica L. MacDonald; A. Jane Roskams

    2004-01-01

    Stem cells of adult regenerative organs share a common goal but few established conserved mechanisms. Within the neural stem cell niche of the mouse olfactory epithelium, we identified a combination of extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors that regulate adhesion and mitosis in non-neural stem cells [intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), 1<\\/SUB>, 4<\\/SUB>, and-1,-3, and-6 integrins] and on horizontal basal cells (HBCs), candidate

  12. Management of Basal Cell Carcinomas With Positive Margins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ríos-Buceta

    2007-01-01

    A common problem in day-to-day practice is the approach to take following resection of basal cell carcinoma with positive margins. In such cases, it is important to decide whether we should take a wait-and-see approach or consider re-excision or radiotherapy. To make this decision, 4 key points need to be clarified: the significance of positive margins; whether positive margins are

  13. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Ornithischia (the ‘bird-hipped’ dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in ornithischians and birds. Craniad migration of the iliofemoralis group muscles in birds correlates with increased leverage and use of medial femoral rotation to counter stance phase adduction moments at the hip. In Lesothosaurus the iliofemoralis group maintains significantly higher moment arms for abduction, consistent with the hip abduction mode of lateral limb support hypothesized for basal dinosaurs. Sensitivity analysis highlights ambiguity in the role of musculature associated with the retroverted pubis (puboischiofemoralis externus group) in ornithischians. However, it seems likely that this musculature may have predominantly functioned similarly to homologous muscles in extant birds, activating during the swing phase to adduct the lower limb through lateral rotation of the femur. Overall the results suggest that locomotor muscle leverage in Lesothosaurus (and by inference basal ornithischians in general) was more similar to that of other non-avian dinosaurs than the ostrich, representing what was probably the basal dinosaur condition. This work thereby contradicts previous hypotheses of ornithischian–bird functional convergence. PMID:22211275

  14. The vestibular-basal ganglia connection: balancing motor control.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Lucy; Smith, Paul F

    2015-02-01

    Connections between the vestibular system and the basal ganglia have been sporadically studied over the last century. Electrophysiological studies of field potentials in animals have shown that most areas of the striatum respond to electrical vestibular stimulation while human studies isolated responses to vestibular stimulation to the putamen of the striatum. Protein studies have shown inconsistent results regarding changes in receptor levels of a number of receptor types. Recent tracer studies identified a pathway between the vestibular nucleus and the striatum via the thalamus, completely bypassing the cortex. Vestibular sensory input is represented in the part of the striatum - the dorsolateral striatum - where fibres from the sensorimotor areas terminate. It is therefore possible that vestibular signals are used together with other sensorimotor inputs in the striatum for body and limb control. The combination of electrophysiological results, changes in protein levels and tracer studies have led to the idea that the dorsolateral striatum is likely to be the main input area for vestibular signals in the basal ganglia and these will have an influence on motor control. This may have clinical implications in the treatment of basal ganglia disorders and other movement disorders. PMID:25498858

  15. Self-Organizing Basal Hydrology for Ice Sheet Flowline Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutt, I. C.; Benn, D.; Cook, S.; Hulton, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Subglacial water pressure is a fundamental control on basal drag and glacier sliding rates. However, it has seldom been included as a variable in glacier flow models, mainly due to the great difficulty in calculating water pressure in a realistic yet tractable way. Here we present preliminary results of a simple basal hydrological model designed for coupling to ice sheet flow models. A key feature of the model is that hydraulic conductivity k evolves in response to water discharge Q (which melts ice and increases the capacity of the system) and effective pressure pi - pw (reducing system capacity through ice creep). The timescales of these processes relative to temporal variations in surface water inputs produces contrasting pressure-discharge relationships as an emergent property of the model. Specifically, pw varies directly with Q over diurnal timescales, whereas pw is inversely proportional to Q on seasonal timescales. In combination with suitable friction laws, the hydrology model provides an adaptive basal boundary condition for flowline models. Despite its simplicity, the model allows a rich variety of behaviour to be simulated, including spring 'speed-up' events and summer 'slowdowns'.

  16. Echogenicity of basal ganglia structures in different Huntington's disease phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Saft, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Strassburger-Krogias, Katrin; Lücke, Thomas; Meves, Saskia H; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Krogias, Christos

    2015-06-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative-inherited disease, chorea as the typical kind of movement disorder is described. Beside chorea, however, all other kinds of movement disturbances, such as bradykinesia, dystonia, tremor or myoclonus can occur. Aim of the current study was to investigate alterations in the echogenicity of basal ganglia structures in different Huntington's disease phenotypes. 47 patients with manifest and genetically confirmed HD were recruited. All participants underwent a thorough neurological examination. According to a previously described method, classification into predominantly choreatic, mixed or bradykinetic-rigid motor phenotypes was performed depending on subscores of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. In addition, findings in juvenile HD were compared to adult HD. Transcranial sonography was performed by investigators blinded to clinical classification. There were no significant differences in basal ganglia echogenicities between the three phenotypes. Size of echogenic area of substantia nigra (SN) correlated positively with CAG repeat and bradykinesia subscore, and negatively with age of onset and chorea subscore. Comparing juvenile and adult HD subtypes, SN hyperechogenicity was significantly more often detectable in the juvenile form (100 vs. 29.3 %, p = 0.002). Regarding echogenicity of caudate or lentiform nuclei, no significant differences were detected. HD patients with the juvenile variant exhibit marked hyperechogenicity of substantia nigra. No significant differences in basal ganglia echogenicities between predominantly choreatic, mixed or bradykinetic-rigid motor phenotypes were detected. PMID:25503829

  17. The Hippo pathway and apico-basal cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Genevet, Alice; Tapon, Nicolas

    2011-06-01

    The establishment and maintenance of apico-basal cell polarity is a pre-requisite for the formation of a functioning epithelial tissue. Many lines of evidence suggest that cell polarity perturbations favour cancer formation, even though the mechanistic basis for this link remains unclear. Studies in Drosophila have uncovered complex interactions between the conserved Hpo (Hippo) tumour suppressor pathway and apico-basal polarity determinants. The Hpo pathway is a crucial growth regulatory network whose inactivation in Drosophila epithelial tissues induces massive overproliferation. Its core consists of a phosphorylation cascade (comprising the kinases Hpo and Warts) that mediates the inactivation of the pro-growth transcriptional co-activator Yki [Yorkie; YAP (Yes-associated protein) in mammals]. Several apically located proteins, such as Merlin, Expanded or Kibra, have been identified as upstream regulators of the Hpo pathway, leading to the notion that an apical multi-molecular complex modulates core kinase activity and promotes Yki/YAP inactivation. In the present review, we explore the links between apico-basal polarity and Hpo signalling. We focus on the regulation of Yki/YAP by apical proteins, but also on how the Hpo pathway might in turn influence apical domain size as part of a regulatory feedback loop. PMID:21568941

  18. Choosing sides – asymmetric centriole and basal body assembly

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Chad G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrioles and basal bodies (CBBs) are microtubule-rich cylindrical structures that nucleate and organize centrosomes and cilia, respectively. Despite their apparent ninefold rotational symmetry, the nine sets of triplet microtubules in CBBs possess asymmetries in their morphology and in the structures that associate with them. These asymmetries define the position of nascent CBB assembly, the orientation of ciliary beating, the orientation of spindle poles and the maintenance of cellular geometry. For some of these functions, the orientation of CBBs is first established during new CBB biogenesis when the daughter structure is positioned adjacent to the mother. The mother CBB organizes the surrounding environment that nascent CBBs are born into, thereby providing a nest for the new CBB to develop. Protists, including ciliates and algae, highlight the importance of this environment with the formation of asymmetrically placed scaffolds onto which new basal bodies assemble and are positioned. Recent studies illuminate the positioning of nascent centrioles relative to a modular pericentriolar material (PCM) environment and suggest that, like ciliates, centrosomes organize an immediate environment surrounding centrioles for their biogenesis and positioning. In this Commentary, I will explore the positioning of nascent CBB assembly as the first event in building cellular asymmetries and describe how the environment surrounding both basal bodies and centrioles may define asymmetric assembly. PMID:24895399

  19. Ancestral Vascular Lumen Formation via Basal Cell Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ku?era, Tomáš; Strili?, Boris; Regener, Kathrin; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent; Lammert, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of bilaterians developed from a common ancestor. However, no endothelial cells exist in invertebrates demonstrating that primitive cardiovascular tubes do not require this vertebrate-specific cell type in order to form. This raises the question of how cardiovascular tubes form in invertebrates? Here we discovered that in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus, the basement membranes of endoderm and mesoderm line the lumen of the major vessels, namely aorta and heart. During amphioxus development a laminin-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) was found to fill the space between the basal cell surfaces of endoderm and mesoderm along their anterior-posterior (A-P) axes. Blood cells appear in this ECM-filled tubular space, coincident with the development of a vascular lumen. To get insight into the underlying cellular mechanism, we induced vessels in vitro with a cell polarity similar to the vessels of amphioxus. We show that basal cell surfaces can form a vascular lumen filled with ECM, and that phagocytotic blood cells can clear this luminal ECM to generate a patent vascular lumen. Therefore, our experiments suggest a mechanism of blood vessel formation via basal cell surfaces in amphioxus and possibly in other invertebrates that do not have any endothelial cells. In addition, a comparison between amphioxus and mouse shows that endothelial cells physically separate the basement membranes from the vascular lumen, suggesting that endothelial cells create cardiovascular tubes with a cell polarity of epithelial tubes in vertebrates and mammals. PMID:19125185

  20. What are the Computations of the Cerebellum, the Basal Gangila, and the Cerebral Cortex?

    E-print Network

    Doya, Kenji

    ganglia participate in 2 #12;Cerebral Cortex Basal Ganglia Cerebellum Thalamus substantia nigra inferior olive Figure 1: Global network linking the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex

  1. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in research and treatment of basal and squamous ... become cancerous. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  2. Migration of lymphocytes through the cutaneous basal lamina in normal skin: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Warfel, K A; Hull, M T

    1984-03-01

    Incubation of skin in 2 N sodium bromide allows separation of dermal and epidermal layers leaving an intact basal lamina covering the dermal portion. Examination of the surface of the dermis by SEM shows cells migrating through the basal lamina. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy, these cells have the characteristics of lymphocytes. The migrating lymphocytes produce a sequence of basal lamina deformations including dome formation, effacement of corrugations, and central fenestrations with hole formation allowing lymphocyte passage. Following passage there is reestablishment of a relatively smooth basal lamina in the crater base, effacement of the crater rim, and finally reformation of basal lamina corrugations. This deformability of the basal lamina supports the hypothesis that basal lamina is thixotropic. This study is the first demonstration in three dimensions of lymphocyte traffic across the basal lamina, an important component of skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT). PMID:6721230

  3. An engineering model of lower thalamo-cortico-basal ganglionic circuit function

    E-print Network

    Lim, Eugene J. (Eugene Jungsud), 1980-

    2003-01-01

    An engineering model of lower thalamo-cortico-basal ganglionic circuit functionality was extended and tested. This model attempts to explain the circuitry of the basal ganglia, examine its functional properties, and integrate ...

  4. Stimulating basal mitochondrial respiration decreases doxorubicin apoptotic signaling in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Deus, Cláudia M; Zehowski, Cheryl; Nordgren, Kendra; Wallace, Kendall B; Skildum, Andrew; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-08-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is currently used in cancer chemotherapy, however, its use often results in adverse effects highlighted by the development of cardiomyopathy and ultimately heart failure. Interestingly, DOX cardiotoxicity is decreased by resveratrol or by physical activity, suggesting that increased mitochondrial activity may be protective. Conversely, recent studies showed that troglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, increases the cytotoxicity of DOX against breast cancer cells by up-regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. The hypothesis for the current investigation was that DOX cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts is decreased when mitochondrial capacity is increased. We focused on several end-points for DOX cytotoxicity, including loss of cell mass, apoptotic signaling and alterations of autophagic-related proteins. Our results show that a galactose-based, modified cell culture medium increased H9c2 basal mitochondrial respiration, protein content, and mtDNA copy number without increasing maximal or spare respiratory capacity. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts cultured in the galactose-modified media showed lower DOX-induced activation of the apoptotic pathway, measured by decreased caspase-3 and -9 activation, and lower p53 expression, although ultimately loss of cells was not prevented. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist troglitazone had no effect on DOX toxicity in this cardiac cell line, which agrees with the fact that troglitazone did not increase mitochondrial DNA content or capacity at the concentrations and duration of exposure used in this investigation. Our results show that mitochondrial remodeling caused by stimulating basal rates of oxidative phosphorylation decreased DOX-induced apoptotic signaling and increased DOX-induced autophagy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The differential effect on cytotoxicity in cardiac versus breast cancer cell lines suggests a possible overall improvement in the clinical efficacy for doxorubicin in treating cancer. PMID:25997894

  5. Creative cognition and the brain: dissociations between frontal, parietal-temporal and basal ganglia groups.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anna; Beudt, Susan; Ott, Derek V M; Yves von Cramon, D

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the study was to investigate creativity in relation to brain function by assessing creative thinking in various neurological populations. Several measures were employed to assess different facets of creative thinking in clinical groups with frontal lobe, basal ganglia or parietal-temporal lesions relative to matched healthy control participants. The frontal group was subdivided into frontolateral, frontopolar and frontal-extensive groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to assess the significance levels associated with the effects after accounting for IQ differences between the groups. Findings were only considered noteworthy if they at least suggested the presence of a strong trend and were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. The parietal-temporal and frontolateral groups revealed poorer overall performance with the former demonstrating problems with fluency related measures, whereas the latter were also less proficient at producing original responses. In contrast, the basal ganglia and frontopolar groups demonstrated superior performance in the ability to overcome the constraints imposed by salient semantic distractors when generating creative responses. In summary, the dissociations in the findings reveal the selective involvement of different brain regions in diverse aspects of creativity. Lesion location posed selective limitations on the ability to generate original responses in different contexts, but not on the ability to generate relevant responses, which was compromised in most patient groups. The noteworthy findings from this exploratory study of enhanced performance in specific aspects of creative cognition following brain damage are discussed with reference to the generic idea that superior creative ability can result from altered brain function. PMID:22982590

  6. Supplemental Information spacer spacer

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    Supplemental Information cas9 repeat spacer spacer dsDNA Transcription DNA scanning CRISPRcas1 cas2 System from S. pyogenes, Related to Figure 1 The system consists of a set of CRISPR-associated (CasRNA) and the host RNase III. After cleavage, one single protein, Cas9, recognizes and binds to the cleaved form

  7. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  8. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Roewe, R. J.; Uhlman, Matthew A.; Bockholt, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision. PMID:25298901

  10. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24?cm by 15.24?cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris?flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4?year monitoring period, 11 debris?flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64?mm. The basal force during these erosive debris?flow events had a large?magnitude (up to 21?kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time?averaged mean force), high?frequency (greater than 1?Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time?averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~?20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time?averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~?5?cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse?grained granular surges and water?rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite differences in appearance and bulk?flow density. These results demonstrate that debris flows can have strong control on rates of steepland evolution and contribute to a foundation needed for modeling debris?flow incision stochastically.

  11. Volcanic Landslide Basal Friction as Measured by Seismic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Gordeev, E.

    2002-12-01

    The long runout of large landslides, and therefore apparently low basal friction, has long been a subject of intense debate. Volcanic landslides have even longer runouts than other avalanches, perhaps due to the importance of hot gases as a driving force or basal lubricant. We invert seismic data from the March 30, 1956 Bezymianny, Russia for an equivalent force source. We then compare the results with the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens, USA eruptions in order to directly measure the basal friction of these landslides that both uncapped juvenile magma. Following previous work on landslides as seismic sources, we assume the Bezymianny landslide generated seismic waves by acting as a subhorizontal single force with the azimuth in the opposite direction (1800) from the landslide runout direction. We also assume a sinusoidal source-time function. We invert a regional record of the surface waves in the 0.01--0.055 Hz bandpass. Preliminary results indicate a single force source azimuth of 2670 from North with an amplitude 4.5*E11N at a source period T=23 s. This azimuth indicates that the landslide runout was due East within 300 of the current major axis of the explosion crater. The amplitude of the basal force is the most robustly determined parameter in the inversion. It is a factor of 15 smaller for Bezymianny than for Mount St. Helens. Bezymianny's low force cannot be explained simply by the smaller mass of its landslide as the ratio of the landslide masses for the two eruptions is only 5. Therefore, the effective coefficient of friction for Bezymianny is 1/3 that of Mount St. Helens. Bezymianny had a higher proportion of blast to landslide material (40--80%) than Mount St. Helens (<10%), which could explain the reduced friction as the hot, expanding magmatic gases released in the blast lubricate the basal layer. Alternatively, the reduced friction could be associated with the larger percentage of water in the landslide from the snow and glaciers at Bezymianny. %%

  12. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  13. Vitamin Supplementation in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Seema

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin supplementation is fairly common among the elderly. Supplements are often used to prevent disease and improve health. In the United States, the use of dietary supplements has continued to increase over the last 30 years, and more than half of adults report using one or more dietary supplements. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables does have a protective effect on health. However, clinical trials on the use of vitamin supplements for promotion of health and prevention of disease have failed to demonstrate the strong associations seen in observational studies. PMID:26195095

  14. A nucleus-basal body connector in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that may function in basal body localization or segregation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBIN L. WRIGHT; JEFFREY SALISBURY

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated a nucleus-basal body complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The complex is strongly immunoreactive to an antibody generated against a major protein constituent of isolated Tetraselmis striata flagellar roots (Salisbury, J. L., A. Baron, B. Surek, and M. Melkonian, J. Cell Biol., 99:962-970). Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analysis indicates that, like the Tetraselmis protein, the Chlamydomonas antigen consists of two

  15. Basal Meningoencephalocele, Anomaly of Optic Disc and Panhypopituitarism in Association with Moyamoya Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Komiyama; Toshihiro Yasui; Hiroaki Sakamoto; Keinosuke Fujita; Toshihiko Sato; Mariko Ota; Masahiko Sugita

    2000-01-01

    Basal meningoencephalocele is frequently associated with midfacial anomaly, optic disc anomaly, brain anomaly, cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, chiasma syndrome, and endocrinologic disturbance. The combination of basal meningoencephalocele and moyamoya disease is extremely rare. A 29-year-old man had basal meningoencephalocele (transsphenoidal type), anomaly of the optic disc (morning glory syndrome), panhypopituitarism and moyamoya disease. The patient was treated by hormone replacement, but

  16. Response of basal epithelial cell surface and Cytoskeleton to solubilized extracellular matrix molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN P. SUGRUE; ELIZABETH D. HAY

    1981-01-01

    Corneal epithelium removed from underlying extracellular matrix (ECM) extends numerous cytoplasmic processes (blebs) from the formerly smooth basal surface . If blebbing epithelia are grown on collagen gels or lens capsules in vitro, the basal surface flattens and takes on the smooth contour typical of epithelium in contact with basal lamina in situ . This study examines the effect of

  17. Glacier surge mechanism based on linked cavity configuration of the basal water conduit system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barclay Kamb

    1987-01-01

    Based on observations of the 1982-1983 surge of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, a model of the surge mechanism is developed in terms of a transition from the normal tunnel configuration of the basal water conduit system to a linked cavity configuration that tends to restrict the flow of water, resulting in increased basal water pressures that cause rapid basal sliding. The

  18. "Using a Howitzer to Kill a Butterfly": Teaching Literature with Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Elizabeth; Goodman, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that while basals have undergone a facelift in recent years, the core of the program remains the same. Analyzes the experiences children would have when reading Jane Yolen's "Grizzle's Grumble," assuming it were taught according to the guidelines provided in the basals. Asks Yolen about the treatment of her story in the basals. (TB)

  19. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  20. Supramaximal cholecystokinin displaces Munc18c from the pancreatic acinar basal surface, redirecting apical exocytosis to the basal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Lutz, Manfred P.; Leser, Juergen; Sheu, Laura; Lynch, Grit; Tang, Lan; Tamori, Yoshikazu; Trimble, William S.; Salapatek, Anne Marie F.

    2001-01-01

    Exocytosis at the apical surface of pancreatic acinar cells occurs in the presence of physiological concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) but is inhibited at high concentrations. Here we show that Munc18c is localized predominantly to the basal membranes of acinar cells. Supramaximal but not submaximal CCK stimulation caused Munc18c to dissociate from the plasma membrane, and this displacement was blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors. Conversely, whereas the CCK analog CCK-OPE alone failed to displace Munc18c from the membrane, this agent caused Munc18c displacement following minimal PKC activation. To determine the physiological significance of this displacement, we used the fluorescent dye FM1-43 to visualize individual exocytosis events in real-time from rat acinar cells in culture. We showed that supramaximal CCK inhibition of secretion resulted from impaired apical secretion and a redirection of exocytic events to restricted basal membrane sites. In contrast, CCK-OPE evoked apical exocytosis and could only induce basolateral exocytosis following activation of PKC. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations of CCK in rats, a treatment that induced tissue changes reminiscent of mild acute pancreatitis, likewise resulted in rapid displacement of Munc18c from the basal membrane in vivo. PMID:11733555

  1. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  2. Effect of dietary supplemental plant extracts on performance, carcass characteristics, digestive system development, intestinal microflora and some blood parameters of broiler chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. TEKEL?; L. ÇEL?K; H. R. KUTLU; M. GÖRGÜLÜ

    The study was conducted to determine whether dietary supplemental plant extracts could have the potential as alternative growth promoters to antibiotics. One hundred and five, 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used in the experiment. The animals were allocated into seven dietary treatments groups in a complete randomized design. The groups were as follow: 1. Control (basal diet), 2.

  3. The Neutral Medium

    E-print Network

    Robert Braun

    2005-01-17

    We consider the physical conditions of the neutral medium within, and in the environments of, galaxies. The basic physical and morphological properties of the neutral medium within galaxy disks are now quite well-constrained. Systematic variations in temperature and phase-balance (of cool versus warm neutral gas) are indicated as a function of both radius and z-height. Interestingly, the cool medium line-widths are observed to be dominated by turbulent energy injection within cells of 10 pc to 1 kpc size. Deep new observations reveal that 5-10% of the neutral medium is associated within an extended halo which rotates more slowly and experiences radial inflow. Much of this component is likely to be associated with a ``galactic fountain'' type of phenomenon. However, compelling evidence is also accumulating for the importance of tidal disruption of satellites as well as continuous accretion (of both diffuse and discrete components) in fueling galaxy halos and disks. Continued fueling is even observed on scales of 100's of kpc in galaxy environments, where the neutral component is likely to be merely a trace constituent of a highly ionized plasma.

  4. M = Medium ABET Criterio

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    context (i) Recognition of the need for, and ability to engage lifelong learning (j) Knowledge context (i) Recognition of the need for, and ability to engage lifelong learning (j) Knowledge H = High M = Medium L = Low ABET Criterio (a) Apply knowle of mathematics, science

  5. M = Medium ABET Criterio

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    , a societal context (i) Recognition of the need for, and ability to engage lifelong learning (j) Knowledge context (i) Recognition of the need for, and ability to engage lifelong learning (j) Knowledge H = High M = Medium L = Low ABET Criterio (a) Apply knowle of mathematics, science

  6. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  7. Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-09-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  8. Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yan, Hai; Lv, Le; Xu, Qianqian; Yin, Chunhua; Zhang, Keyi; Wang, Pei; Hu, Jiye

    2012-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Nine hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups with three replicate pens of 100 broiler chicks. Three treatments were i) control, ii) basal diets supplemented with 1 ml of B. licheniformis for each in feed water per day iii) basal diets supplemented with 2 ml of B. licheniformis per chick in feed water per day. The supplementation of B. licheniformis significantly increased body weight in grower chickens (p<0.05), and significantly improved the feed conversion in 3 to 6 and 0 to 6 wk feeding period compared with the control group (p<0.05). Additionally, the supplement also resulted in increased protein and free amino acid contents, and decreased fat content in chicken breast fillet (p<0.05). Furthermore, improvement in sensory attributes was observed in broilers fed with the probiotic. In conclusion, B. licheniformis treatments resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in broiler productivity based on an index taking into account daily weight gain and feed conversion rate. Meanwhile, the probiotic contributed towards an improvement of the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of breast fillet. Overall, the study indicates that B. licheniformis can be used as a growth promoter and meat quality enhancer in broiler poultry. PMID:25049614

  9. Evaluation of a Novel Medium for Screening Specimens from Hospitalized Patients To Detect Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Blanc; A. Wenger; J. Bille

    2003-01-01

    A novel medium, Oxacillin Resistant Screening Agar (ORSA) medium, was evaluated for the screening of specimens for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital setting. Screening swabs (swabs of the nose, throat, perineum, and infected sites) were inoculated onto the new ORSA medium and into an enrichment broth (Muller-Hinton broth supplemented with NaCl and oxacillin). After 24 h of incubation,

  10. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

  11. Influence of cytokinins, basal media and pH on adventitious shoot regeneration from excised root cultures of Albizia lebbeck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahnaz Perveen; Ankita Varshney; Mohammad Anis; Ibrahim M. Aref

    2011-01-01

    A highly reproducible and efficient in vitro shoot regeneration system was developed in a potential medicinal plant, Albizia lebbeck using root explants. Root explants from 15 day-old-aseptic seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with different concentrations (0.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 ?M) of 6-Benzyladenine (BA), Kinetin (Kn), 2-Isopentenyl adenine\\u000a (2-iP) singly as well as in

  12. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  13. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus. PMID:22355287

  14. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Eckerson

    \\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

  15. Basal Topography of the South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. W.; Murray, B. C.; Byrne, S.

    2004-12-01

    The ice inferred to comprise the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) represents a significant fraction of the total water reservoir of the planet. The basal topography of these deposits is currently unconstrained but may be expected to contain considerable relief based on the heavily cratered nature of the surrounding terrain. In this work we report on our efforts to characterize the overall nature of this basal topography and in so doing better constrain the volume of this important volatile reservoir. Our approach has been to measure elevations at the periphery of the SPLD (defined by [1]) and use various interpolation techniques to estimate the basal topography. We used 1300 control points from the edges and areas surrounding the SPLD and included extensive control points from within the Chasmae and other features to fit a surface beneath the SPLD. No assumptions were made about any lithospheric flexure, nor did the results suggest that possibility. We first tested a variety of surface interpolation routines on a comparable area of cratered terrain immediately adjacent to the SPLD, using the same spatial distribution of 1300 height control points as we used for the SPLD itself, and found that the topography was broadly reproducible (ignoring craters) to within a few hundred meters. The SPLD basal topography we derive can be subtracted from the current spatial topography to produce isopach maps of the layered deposits. All interpolation methods we tested (within the ArcMap 8.3) indicate a lower total SPLD volume than that previous published [Smith et al., 2001]. Our best estimate for the SPLD volume is ~1 million km3, with a formal error in volume of ~5%, corresponding to an average thickness of ~950 meters. In comparison, [2] estimated this volume to be ~1.2-1.7 million km3. The Prometheus impact basin is present as a rimmed depression, consistent with the inference by [3]. More unexpected is the presence of a broad ridge underlying nearly the entire eastern half of the SPLD, which makes those deposits relatively thin. Our isopach maps show the northwestern portion of the Ultimi lobe to be an isolated thick region, in agreement with [1]. [1] Kolb, E. J., and K. L. Tanaka (2001), Icarus, 154, 22-39. [2] Smith, D. E., et al. (2001), J. Geophys. Res., 106(E10), 23,689-23,722. [3] Byrne, S., and A. B. Ivanov (2004), J. Geophys. Res., In press.

  16. Basal cell carcinoma — molecular biology and potential new therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Maria; Jaks, Viljar; Hohl, Daniel; Toftgård, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, the most common malignancy in individuals of mixed European descent, is increasing in incidence due to an aging population and sun exposure habits. The realization that aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling is a pathognomonic feature of BCC development has opened the way for exciting progress toward understanding BCC biology and translation of this knowledge to the clinic. Genetic mouse models closely mimicking human BCCs have provided answers about the tumor cell of origin, and inhibition of Hedgehog signaling is emerging as a potentially useful targeted therapy for patients with advanced or multiple BCCs that have hitherto lacked effective treatment. PMID:22293184

  17. Basal plane dislocation-free epitaxy of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Sudarshan, T. S.

    2005-10-01

    Molten KOH etching was implemented on SiC substrates before growing epilayers on them. It was found that the creation of basal plane dislocation (BPD) etch pits on the substrates can greatly enhance the conversion of BPDs to threading edge dislocations during epitaxy, and thus low BPD density and BPD-free SiC epilayers are obtained by this method. The reason why BPD etch pits can promote the earlier conversion is discussed. The SiC epilayer growth by this method is very promising in overcoming forward voltage drop degradation of SiC PiN diodes.

  18. Basal phosphorylation of mu opioid receptor is agonist modulated and Ca2+-dependent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Arden, J; Sadée, W

    1996-05-27

    The mu opioid receptor was shown to be phosphorylated at a basal rate in the absence of agonist, measured in permeabilized HEK293 cells transfected with an epitope tagged mu receptor (EE-mu) [Arden, J., Segredo, V., Wang, Z., Lameh, J. and Sadee, W. (1995) J. Neurochem. 65, 1636-1645]. In the present study, basal phosphorylation was found to be Ca2+ dependent; however, several inhibitors of protein kinase C and Ca2+-calmodulin dependent kinases failed to affect basal mu receptor phosphorylation. Thus, the basal mu receptor phosphorylating activity differed from the main kinases involved in receptor regulation. The general kinase inhibitor H7 (100 microM) suppressed basal mu receptor phosphorylation. Pretreatment with the agonist morphine, followed by drug removal, resulted in a sustained increase of basal mu receptor phosphorylation. The gradual agonist dependent modulation of basal mu receptor phosphorylation suggests a novel regulatory mechanism which may play a role in narcotic tolerance and dependence. PMID:8654566

  19. A selective medium for the rapid isolation of pseudomonads associated with poultry meat spoilage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Mead; B. W. Adams

    1977-01-01

    1. A new selective medium (CFC) has been developed for the rapid isolation of pigmented and non?pigmented pseudomonads associated with the spoilage of poultry meat held under chill conditions. It comprises Difco Heart Infusion Agar supplemented with 50 ?g cephaloridine, 10 ?g fucidin and 10 ?g cetrimide\\/ml.2. CFC medium was found to be more selective than three other media which

  20. Continuous in vitro cultivation of Babesia caballi in serum-free medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Zweygarth; C. J. van Niekerk; D. T. de Waal

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to develop a serum-free medium for the in vitro cultivation of Babesia caballi, a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis. A modified HL-1 medium supplemented\\u000a with horse serum, L-glutamine, antibiotics, and hypoxanthine was used. B. caballi organisms were continuously cultivated at 37?°C in microaerophilous stationary-phase culture in a humidified atmosphere containing\\u000a 5%

  1. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  2. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan deposition and processing at the basal epithelial surface in branching and beta-D-xyloside-inhibited embryonic salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Spooner, B.S.; Bassett, K.; Stokes, B.

    1985-05-01

    The authors investigated whether the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis and salivary branching morphogenesis by beta-D-xyloside was related to the deposition and processing of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycans at the basal epithelial surface that correlates with normal branching activity. Forty eight-hour cultures of control and 0.5 mM beta-xyloside-treated submandibular rudiments were labeled for 2 hr with (/sup 35/S)sulfate and fixed and processed for autoradiography, immediately or after 2, 4, 6, or 8 hr of postlabeling chase in nonradioactive medium. The data demonstrated that deposition of chondroitin sulfate-rich material at the basal epithelial surface was strikingly reduced in beta-xyloside-treated rudiments, while patterns of label loss during postlabeling chase were not altered.

  3. A basal stress parameterization for modeling landfast ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Jean-François; Tremblay, L. Bruno; Dupont, Frédéric; Plante, Mathieu; Smith, Gregory C.; Dumont, Dany

    2015-04-01

    Current large-scale sea ice models represent very crudely or are unable to simulate the formation, maintenance and decay of coastal landfast ice. We present a simple landfast ice parameterization representing the effect of grounded ice keels. This parameterization is based on bathymetry data and the mean ice thickness in a grid cell. It is easy to implement and can be used for two-thickness and multithickness category models. Two free parameters are used to determine the critical thickness required for large ice keels to reach the bottom and to calculate the basal stress associated with the weight of the ridge above hydrostatic balance. A sensitivity study was conducted and demonstrates that the parameter associated with the critical thickness has the largest influence on the simulated landfast ice area. A 6 year (2001-2007) simulation with a 20 km resolution sea ice model was performed. The simulated landfast ice areas for regions off the coast of Siberia and for the Beaufort Sea were calculated and compared with data from the National Ice Center. With optimal parameters, the basal stress parameterization leads to a slightly shorter landfast ice season but overall provides a realistic seasonal cycle of the landfast ice area in the East Siberian, Laptev and Beaufort Seas. However, in the Kara Sea, where ice arches between islands are key to the stability of the landfast ice, the parameterization consistently leads to an underestimation of the landfast area.

  4. Basal phenotype breast cancer: implications for treatment and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Pazaiti, Anastasia; Fentiman, Ian S

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in females. The origins and biology of breast carcinomas remain unclear. Cellular and molecular heterogeneity results in different distinct groups of tumors with different clinical behavior and prognosis. Gene expression profiling has delineated five molecular subtypes based on similarities in gene expression: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressing, normal-like and basal-like. Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) lacks estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 expression, and comprises myoepithelial cells. Specific features include high proliferative rate, rapid growth, early recurrence and decreased overall survival. BLBC is associated with ductal carcinoma in situ, BRCA1 mutation, brain and lung metastasis, and negative axillary lymph nodes. Currently, chemotherapy is the only therapeutic choice, but demonstrates poor outcomes. There is an overlap in definition between triple-negative breast cancer and BLBC due to the triple-negative profile of BLBC. Despite the molecular and clinical similarities, the two subtypes respond differently to neoadjuvant therapy. Although particular morphologic, genetic and clinical features of BLBC have been identified, a variety of definitions among studies accounts for the contradictory results reported. In this article the molecular morphological and histopathological profile, the clinical behavior and the therapeutic options of BLBC are presented, with emphasis on the discordant findings among studies. PMID:21410345

  5. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dourmishev, Lyubomir A.; Rusinova, Darena; Botev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated. PMID:23439912

  6. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  7. Ca(2+)-dependent heat production under basal and near-basal conditions in the mouse soleus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Chinet, A; Decrouy, A; Even, P C

    1992-01-01

    1. The rate of energy expended for the clearance of sarcoplasmic Ca2+ by sarcoreticular Ca2+ uptake process(es), plus the concomitant metabolic reactions, was evaluated from measurements of resting heat production by mouse soleus muscle before and after indirect inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). 2. Direct inhibition of the Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase of SR membrane in intact muscle preparations exposed to the specific inhibitor 2,5-di(tert-butyl-1,4-benzohydroquinone (tBuBHQ) slowly increased the rate of heat production (E). Indirect inhibition of SR Ca2+ uptake was obtained by reducing sarcoplasmic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i) as a consequence of reducing Ca2+ release from the SR using dantrolene sodium. This promptly decreased E by 12%. Exposure of the preparations to an Mg(2+)-enriched environment (high Mg2+) or to the chemical phosphatase 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), two other procedures aimed at decreasing SR Ca2+ release, also acutely decreased E, by 20 and 24%, respectively. 3. Subthreshold-for-contracture depolarization of the sarcolemma achieved by increasing extracellular K+ concentration to 11.8 mM induced a biphasic increase of E: an initial peak to 290% of basal E, followed by a plateau phase at 140% of basal E during which resting muscle tension was increased by less than 3%. Most, if not all, of the plateau-phase metabolic response was quickly suppressed by dantrolene or high Mg2+ or BDM. Another means of increasing SR Ca2+ cycling was to partially remove the calmodulin-dependent control of SR Ca2+ release using the calmodulin inhibitor W-7. The progressive increase in E with 30 microM-W-7 was largely reduced by dantrolene or high Mg2+ or BDM. 4. In the presence of either dantrolene or BDM to prevent the effect of W-7 on SR Ca2+ release, exposure of the muscle to W-7 acutely suppressed about 3% of E. This and the above results confirm that the plasmalemmal, calmodulin-dependent Ca(2+)-ATPase, although a qualitatively essential part of the Ca2+i homeostatic system of the cell, can only be responsible for a very minor part of the energy expenditure devoted to the homeostasis of Ca2+i. Active Ca2+ uptake by SR which, at least in the submicromolar range of Ca2+i, is expected to be responsible for most of this Ca(2+)-dependent energy expenditure, might dissipate up to 25-40% of total metabolic energy in the intact mouse soleus under basal and near-basal conditions. Images Fig. 3 PMID:1484367

  8. Sorting cells for basal and induced autophagic flux by quantitative ratiometric flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Jacob M; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We detail here a protocol using tandem-tagged mCherry-EGFP-LC3 (C-G-LC3) to quantify autophagic flux in single cells by ratiometric flow cytometry and to isolate subpopulations of cells based on their relative levels of autophagic flux. This robust and sensitive method measures autophagic flux rather than autophagosome number and is an important addition to the autophagy researcher’s array of tools for measuring autophagy. Two crucial steps in this protocol are i) generate cells constitutively expressing C-G-LC3 with low to medium fluorescence and low fluorescence variability, and ii) correctly set up gates and voltage/gain on a properly equipped flow cytometer. We have used this method to measure autophagic flux in a variety of cell types and experimental systems using many different autophagy stimuli. On a sorting flow cytometer, this technique can be used to isolate cells with different levels of basal autophagic flux, or cells with variable induction of flux in response to a given stimulus for further analysis or experimentation. We have also combined quantification of autophagic flux with methods to measure apoptosis and cell surface proteins, demonstrating the usefulness of this protocol in combination with other flow cytometry labels and markers. PMID:24915460

  9. Modified thioglycolate medium: a simple and reliable means for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Poch, F; Levin, D; Levin, S; Dan, M

    1996-01-01

    Despite the declining rate of sexually transmitted diseases in developed countries, trichomoniasis is still one of the most common venereal infections. While diagnosis of this condition is commonly based on the microscopic wet-mount method, culture remains the most accurate single procedure for detecting the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis in clinical samples. In the present study, the efficacy of a modified formula of the commonly available thioglycolate medium was compared with that of the standard Diamond's medium for detection of T. vaginalis in samples from 176 women with vaginal symptoms. Thioglycolate medium supplemented with yeast extract, horse serum, and antimicrobial agents was as reliable as Diamond's medium for detection of T. vaginalis in vaginal fluid samples. Modified thioglycolate medium may be used as a readily available, low-cost substitute for the standard medium for culturing T. vaginalis. PMID:8880540

  10. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries. PMID:26159983

  11. Trop2 identifies a subpopulation of murine and human prostate basal cells with stem cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Andrew S; Lawson, Devon A; Cheng, Donghui; Sun, Wenyi; Garraway, Isla P; Witte, Owen N

    2008-12-30

    The epithelium of the adult prostate contains 3 distinct cell types: basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine. Tissue-regenerative activity has been identified predominantly from the basal cells, isolated by expression of CD49f and stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1). An important question for the field is whether all basal cells have stem cell characteristics. Prostate-specific microarray databases were interrogated to find candidate surface antigens that could subfractionate the basal cell population. Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2/Trop2/M1S1/GA733-1) was identified because it was enriched after castration, in prostate sphere cells and in the basal fraction. In the murine prostate, Trop2 shows progenitor characteristics such as localization to the region of the gland proximal to the urethra and enrichment for sphere-forming and colony-forming cells. Trop2 subfractionates the basal cells into 2 populations, both of which express characteristic basal cell markers by quantitative PCR. However, only the basal cells expressing high levels of Trop2 were able to efficiently form spheres in vitro. In the human prostate, where Sca-1 is not expressed, sphere-forming progenitor cells were also isolated based on high expression of Trop2 and CD49f. Trop2-expressing murine basal cells could regenerate prostatic tubules in vivo, whereas the remaining basal cells had minimal activity. Evidence was found for basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine cells in prostatic tubules regenerated from Trop2(hi) basal cells. In summary, functionally distinct populations of cells exist within the prostate basal compartment and an epithelial progenitor can give rise to neuroendocrine cells in vivo. PMID:19088204

  12. Oxygen reduction reaction in a droplet on graphite: direct evidence that the edge is more active than the basal plane.

    PubMed

    Shen, Anli; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Qiang; Dryfe, Robert A W; Huang, Xiaobing; Dou, Shuo; Dai, Liming; Wang, Shuangyin

    2014-09-26

    Carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium have been extensively investigated with the aim of replacing the commercially available, but precious platinum-based catalysts. For the proper design of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts for the ORR, it would be interesting to identify the active sites of the electrocatalyst. The ORR was now studied with an air-saturated electrolyte solution droplet (diameter ca. 15??m), which was deposited at a specified position either on the edge or on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Electrochemical measurements suggest that the edge carbon atoms are more active than the basal-plane ones for the ORR. This provides a direct way to identify the active sites of carbon materials for the ORR. Ball-milled graphite and carbon nanotubes with more exposed edges were also prepared and showed significantly enhanced ORR activity. DFT calculations elucidated the mechanism by which the charged edge carbon atoms result in the higher ORR activity. PMID:25124986

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Perry; Amie Davies; Lynne A. Butterworth; Andrew L. J. Hopley; Audrey Nicholson; F. Kate Gould

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMerieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the

  14. An Examination of Library World Wide Web Sites at Medium-Sized Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolppanen, Bradley P.; Miller, Joan; Wooden, Martha H.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of Web sites for 133 academic libraries serving medium-sized universities. Suggests that navigational and design aspects need improvement; information should not be included unless it will be accessed and used; and greater use should be made of online tutorials and virtual tours to supplement regular bibliographic…

  15. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  16. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  17. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  18. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  19. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  20. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  1. Many Hospital Patients Not Asked about Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... percent of the supplement users, the researchers found. Documentation of dietary supplement use on medical charts was ... Doctors need to establish a formalized approach to documentation to help prevent adverse reactions from dietary supplement- ...

  2. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  3. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  4. Radio Is an Educational Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duby, Aliza

    This report summarizes information found in a survey of the literature on radio as an educational medium which covered the published literature from many areas of the world. Comments on the literature reviewed are provided throughout the text, which is organized under seven major headings: (1) Radio, Mass Medium; (2) Radio, the Medium (broadening…

  5. Fermion dispersion in axion medium

    E-print Network

    N. V. Mikheev; E. N. Narynskaya

    2008-12-02

    The interaction of a fermion with the dense axion medium is investigated for the purpose of finding an axion medium effect on the fermion dispersion. It is shown that axion medium influence on the fermion dispersion under astrophysical conditions is negligible small if the correct Lagrangian of the axion-fermion interaction is used.

  6. Modification of MCDB 110 medium to support prolonged growth and consistent high cloning efficiency of diploid human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P.A.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1987-10-01

    In preparation for studies on the growth factor requirements of normal and transformed human fibroblasts, we have developed a serum-free medium that supports vigorous long-term serial subculture of diploid human fibroblasts and allows them to form large-sized colonies with high efficiency (40 to 60%) when plated at cloning density. This medium, which is a modification of Ham's MCDB 110 base medium with its serum replacement supplements, is relatively easy to prepare and the cost of the serum replacements is approximately the same as that of fetal bovine serum supplied at 10%. The ingredients of Supplement B of MCDB 110 medium were added in an ethanol solution, rather than in the form of liposomes, and were combined with bovine serum albumin, a lipid carrier. Gelatin and fetuin were included as attachment factors instead of polylysine. Bioassays indicated that none of the ingredients in the medium were contaminated with either epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor. In this modified serum-free medium, which the authors have designated McM + SR{sub 1}, diploid human fibroblasts grew for 21 days at the same rate as in the base medium, McM, supplemented wt 10% FBS. During the next 20 days, they underwent 15 population doublings which was 75% of the rate of cells growing in the medium containing serum.

  7. Effect of Iron Supplementation to Cottonseed Meal Diets on the Growth Performance of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarida M. Barros; Chhorn Lim; Joyce J. Evans; Phillip H. Klesius

    2000-01-01

    Three basal diets containing 0, 27.5, and 55% solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (CSM) as replacements of 0, 50, and 100% of solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) on an equal nitrogen basis were each supplemented with three levels (40, 336, and 671 mg) of iron (Fe) from ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (3×3 factorial experiment). Each diet was fed to juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

  8. Effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on axial and peripheral bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill training exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horaeio Rico; Enriqlieta Paez; Luis Aznar; Emma R. Hernández; Cristina Seco; Luis F. Villa; Juan J. Gervas

    2001-01-01

    We observed the effects of sodium bicarbonate supplement on bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill training. Sixty female\\u000a Wistar rats (93-days-old; mean initial weight 261 ± 16 g) were studied. One group of 15 rats was killed at the beginning of\\u000a the experiments (basal control group), while another group of 15 rats was not manipulated (Exer?NaB?). Another group of

  9. Effect of zinc supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on growth and blood biochemical profi le in crossbred calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Mandal; R. S. Dass; A. K. Garg; V. P. Varshney; A. B. Mondal

    The effect of zinc supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on some physiological and biochemical profi le was investigated in 15 male crossbred calves (age 14-15 months, liveweight 226.0 ± 9.06 kg) randomly divided into three groups of fi ve animals in each. Animals in group I (control) were fed a basal diet comprised of wheat straw and concentrate mixture

  10. Leptospiral Selection, Growth, and Virulence in Synthetic Medium1

    PubMed Central

    Stalheim, O. H. V.

    1966-01-01

    Stalheim, O. H. V. (National Animal Disease Laboratory, Ames, Iowa). Leptospiral selection, growth, and virulence in synthetic medium. J. Bacteriol. 92:946–951. 1966.—The need for protein in leptospiral cultural medium may be circumvented by the use of strains which tolerate the lytic activity of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), a relatively nonlytic source of essential fatty acids. In an otherwise adequate medium, the primary function of a serum protein (bovine albumin fraction V) in the cultivation of Leptospira pomona was detoxification of fatty acids. Treatment to destroy or block end groups (amino, sulfhydryl, or hydroxyl) did not impair this function, but, after treatment with trypsin, albumin was inactive. Synthetic and derived peptides or polyvinylpyrrolidone did not substitute for albumin. L. pomona grew in medium with surface tension values of 44 to 58 dynes/cm2; after growth, the values were increased slightly (5 to 8). The growth responses did not correlate with the surface tension of the medium, but they were in proportion to the concentration of Tween 80. Of six strains of L. pomona, five were transferred from medium containing rabbit serum and were subcultured in Tween synthetic medium (TSM) containing low, nonlytic concentrations (0.002%) of Tween 80. The poor antigenicity of L. pomona in carbon-limited TSM was associated with a deficiency of those carbonaceous cellular components which were extractable with 50% ethyl alcohol. After as few as four subcultures in TSM, L. pomona tolerated higher concentrations of Tween 80 (0.06% was optimal; MTSM). If grown on a shaker, the rate and amount of growth and the antigenicity of L. pomona in MTSM equaled that in medium supplemented with rabbit serum. After cultivation in MTSM, all of the five strains were avirulent when administered to hamsters, guinea pigs, and swine. They were still avirulent after three subcultures in complex media or after two serial passages in hamsters. PMID:5926762

  11. A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Rubidge, Bruce; Li, Jinling

    2010-01-22

    A new well-preserved basal therapsid skull from the Xidagou Formation, Middle Permian of China, is identified as Biseridens qilianicus. The following synapomorphies distinguish Biseridens as an anomodont and not an eotitanosuchian as previously described: short snout; dorsally elevated zygomatic arch and septomaxilla lacking elongated posterodorsal process between nasal and maxilla. The presence of a differentiated tooth row; denticles on vomer, palatine and pterygoid; contact between tabular and opisthotic; lateral process of transverse flange of pterygoid free of posterior ramus and absence of mandibular foramen exclude it from other anomodonts. Our cladistic analysis indicates Biseridens to be the most basal anomodont, highlights separate Laurasian and Gondwanan basal anomodont clades and suggests that dicynodonts had their origins in the Gondwanan clade. The co-occurrence of the most basal anomodont (Biseridens) together with the most basal therapsid (Raranimus), basal anteosaurid dinocephalians, bolosaurids and dissorophids suggests that the earliest therapsid faunas are from China. PMID:19640887

  12. Dishevelled controls apical docking and planar polarization of basal bodies in ciliated epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Joo; Mitchell, Brian J.; Abitua, Philip B.; Kintner, Chris; Wallingford, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling system governs many aspects of polarized cell behavior. Here, we use an in vivo model of vertebrate mucociliary epithelial development to show that Dishevelled (Dvl) is essential for the apical positioning of basal bodies. We find that Dvl and Inturned mediate the activation of the Rho GTPase specifically at basal bodies, and that these three proteins together mediate the docking of basal bodies to the apical plasma membrane. Moreover, we find that the docking involves a Dvl-dependent association of basal bodies with membrane-bound vesicles and with the vesicle-trafficking protein, Sec8. Once docked, Dvl and Rho are once again required for the planar polarization of basal bodies that underlies directional beating of cilia. These results demonstrate novel functions for PCP signaling components and suggest that a common signaling appratus governs both apical docking and planar polarization of basal bodies. PMID:18552847

  13. Motor sequences and the basal ganglia: Kinematics, not habits

    PubMed Central

    Desmurget, Michel; Turner, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a lack of definitive evidence, it is frequently proposed that the Basal Ganglia (BG) motor circuit plays a critical role in the storage and execution of movement sequences (or motor habits). To test this hypothesis directly, we inactivated the sensorimotor territory of the globus pallidus internus (sGPi, the main BG motor output) in two monkeys trained to perform overlearned and random sequences of four out-and-back reaching movements directed to visual targets. Infusion of muscimol (a GABAA agonist) into sGPi caused dysmetria and slowing of individual movements, but these impairments were virtually identical for overlearned and random sequences. The fluid predictive execution of learned sequences and the animals’ tendency to reproduce the sequence pattern in random trials was preserved following pallidal blockade. These results suggest the BG motor circuit contributes to motor execution, but not to motor sequencing or the storage of overlearned serial skills. PMID:20519543

  14. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: tangy@stanford.edu; So, P.-L. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Epstein, Ervin H. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  15. A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alan H; Pol, Diego; Clarke, Julia A; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    Fossil evidence for changes in dinosaurs near the lineage leading to birds and the origin of flight has been sparse. A dinosaur from Mongolia represents the basal divergence within Dromaeosauridae. The taxon's small body size and phylogenetic position imply that extreme miniaturization was ancestral for Paraves (the clade including Avialae, Troodontidae, and Dromaeosauridae), phylogenetically earlier than where flight evolution is strongly inferred. In contrast to the sustained small body sizes among avialans throughout the Cretaceous Period, the two dinosaurian lineages most closely related to birds, dromaeosaurids and troodontids, underwent four independent events of gigantism, and in some lineages size increased by nearly three orders of magnitude. Thus, change in theropod body size leading to flight's origin was not unidirectional. PMID:17823350

  16. Basal-Bolus Insulin Protocols Enter the Computer Age

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nancy J.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes affects approximately one quarter of all hospitalized patients. Poor inpatient glycemic control has been associated with increased risk for multiple adverse events including surgical site infections, prolonged hospital length of stay, and mortality. Inpatient glycemic control protocols based on physiologic basal-bolus insulin regimens have been shown to improve glycemia and clinical outcomes and are recommended by the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the Society of Hospital Medicine for inpatient glycemic management of noncritically ill patients. The 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act will catalyze widespread computerized medication order entry implementation over the next few years. Here, we focus on the noncritical care setting and review the background on inpatient glycemic management as it pertains to computerized order entry, the translation and efficacy of computerizing glycemic control protocols, and the barriers to computerizing glycemic protocols. PMID:22015856

  17. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  18. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  19. Immunohistological and electrophysiological characterization of Globose basal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Avinash; Muniswami, Duraimurugan; Tharion, George; Kanakasabapathy, Indirani

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): In the past few decades, variety of foetal, embryonic and adult stem and progenitor cells have been tried with conflicting outcome for cell therapy of central nervous system injury and diseases. Cellular characteristics and functional plasticity of Globose basal stem cells (GBCs) residing in the olfactory epithelium of rat olfactory mucosa have not been studied in the past by the neuroscientists due to unavailability of specific markers for GBCs. In the present research, we standardized some techniques to isolate GBCs from rat olfactory epithelium in pure form using a highly selective GBC-III antibody passaged through fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). We also characterized these cells immunohistologically using various pluripotent stem cell markers. This work also throws some light on ionic channels present on these stem cells which are responsible for their neuron induction potential. Materials and Methods: Globose basal stem cells were isolated from rat olfactory epithelium using GBC-III antibody and were characterized as multipotent stem cells using various neural progenitor markers. Ionic channels on GBCs were studied with voltage clamping. Results: GBCs could be isolated in pure (99% purity) form and were found to be stained positive for all neural progenitor cell markers. Voltage gated Na+ channels were completely absent, which proves the unexcitable nature of GBCs. Leaky K+ channels were found to be present on the GBC which was of no significance. Conclusion: This research work can be helpful in understanding the nature of these stem cells and utilising them in future as potent candidates for neuro-regenerative therapies. PMID:24904721

  20. Crystallization of pseudo-orthorhombic anorthite on basal sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamaci, M.P.; Carter, C.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1999-01-01

    Anorthite-glass films were grown on basal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates using pulsed-laser deposition. The substrates were cleaned and annealed in air at 1400 C to produce crystallographically flat (0001) terraces. The films were deposited in an oxidizing environment. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the composition of the glass films to be close to that of anorthite (CaO{center_dot}Al{sup 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2SiO{sub 2}). Although anorthite usually has triclinic symmetry, subsequent crystallization of these films in air at 1200 C resulted in the formation of pseudo-orthorhombic CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (o-anorthite), a known metastable form of the mineral. Microstructural characterization was performed using visible-light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The films dewetted the substrate either before or after crystallization to form o-anorthite islands which had strong orientation relationships to the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The epitaxy of the o-anorthite islands was accompanied by a small lattice mismatch parallel to the substrate plane. The formation of three orientational variants is consistent with the symmetry of the basal Al{sup 2}O{sub 3} surface. The dislocation network observed at the o-anorthite/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface indicates that nucleation and growth of the anorthite occurs directly on the substrate surface without an intervening interfacial amorphous layer. The study of anorthite-glass films is important because they are present in liquid-phase-sintered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and may be devitrified by postsintering heat treatments.

  1. Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Methods Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. Results IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. Conclusion FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA in the tumorigenesis of triple negative, basal-like FMAs. The strong similarities in clinical behavior, morphology and IHC phenotype suggest that triple negative, basal-like FMAs may be a suitable spontaneous animal model for studying novel therapeutic approaches against human basal-like TNBC. PMID:24004841

  2. Trichilemmoma in continuity with pigmented basal cell carcinoma; with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology.

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Moayad Al; Kattampallil, Joseph; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2015-04-01

    A case of trichilemmoma in continuity with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma is presented with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. The distinction between the two lesions was evident dermatoscopically and was confirmed dermatopathologically. While trichilemmoma has been reported in association with basal cell carcinoma and dermatoscopy images of four previous cases of trichilemmoma have been published, no previous dermatoscopy image has been published of trichilemmoma associated with basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26114053

  3. Age-Related Changes in Cutaneous Basal Lamin: Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith T. Hull; K. A. Warfel

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of human epidermal-dermal basal lamina demonstrated striking age-related changes. The basal lamina from abdominal skin was exposed in specimens from 26 humans by separation of epidermis and dermis after treatment with sodium bromide solutions. Transmission electron micrographs demonstrated the split to be in the lamina lucida. Scanning electron microscopy of mature epidermal-dermal junction and basal lamina showed

  4. Trichilemmoma in continuity with pigmented basal cell carcinoma; with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kaptan, Moayad Al; Kattampallil, Joseph; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    A case of trichilemmoma in continuity with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma is presented with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. The distinction between the two lesions was evident dermatoscopically and was confirmed dermatopathologically. While trichilemmoma has been reported in association with basal cell carcinoma and dermatoscopy images of four previous cases of trichilemmoma have been published, no previous dermatoscopy image has been published of trichilemmoma associated with basal cell carcinoma.

  5. Protein supplementation for severely undernourished ewes P Kabr, M Petit, H Tournadre

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nutrients (such as amino acids) which promoted microbial activity and fiber digestion. Ortigues I, Smith T the effects of protein supplementation on the digesti- bility of a medium-quality forage and on body weight loss when energy supply was severely restricted. During the first 26 d of the trial, all ewes were fed

  6. Prospect of Stem Cell Conditioned Medium in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pawitan, Jeanne Adiwinata

    2014-01-01

    Background. Stem cell-derived conditioned medium has a promising prospect to be produced as pharmaceuticals for regenerative medicine. Objective. To investigate various methods to obtain stem cell-derived conditioned medium (CM) to get an insight into their prospect of application in various diseases. Methods. Systematic review using keywords “stem cell” and “conditioned medium” or “secretome” and “therapy.” Data concerning treated conditions/diseases, type of cell that was cultured, medium and supplements to culture the cells, culture condition, CM processing, growth factors and other secretions that were analyzed, method of application, and outcome were noted, grouped, tabulated, and analyzed. Results. Most of CM using studies showed good results. However, the various CM, even when they were derived from the same kind of cells, were produced by different condition, that is, from different passage, culture medium, and culture condition. The growth factor yields of the various types of cells were available in some studies, and the cell number that was needed to produce CM for one application could be computed. Conclusion. Various stem cell-derived conditioned media were tested on various diseases and mostly showed good results. However, standardized methods of production and validations of their use need to be conducted. PMID:25530971

  7. Endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients: the effect of exogenous glutamine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Glutamine rate of appearance (Ra) may be used as an estimate of endogenous glutamine production. Recently a technique employing a bolus injection of isotopically labeled glutamine was introduced, with the potential to allow for multiple assessments of the glutamine Ra over time in critically ill patients, who may not be as metabolically stable as healthy individuals. Here the technique was used to evaluate the endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients in the fed state with and without exogenous glutamine supplementation intravenously. Methods Mechanically ventilated patients (n?=?11) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were studied on two consecutive days during continuous parenteral feeding. To allow the patients to be used as their own controls, they were randomized for the reference measurement during basal feeding without supplementation, before or after the supplementation period. Glutamine Ra was determined by a bolus injection of 13C-glutamine followed by a period of frequent sampling to establish the decay-curve for the glutamine tracer. Exogenous glutamine supplementation was given by intravenous infusion of a glutamine containing dipeptide, L-alanyl-L-glutamine, 0.28 g/kg during 20 hours. Results A 14% increase of endogenous glutamine Ra was seen at the end of the intravenous supplementation period as compared to the basal measurements (P?=?0.009). Conclusions The bolus injection technique to measure glutamine Ra to estimate the endogenous production of glutamine in critically ill patients was demonstrated to be useful for repetitive measurements. The hypothesized attenuation of endogenous glutamine production during L-alanyl-L-glutamine infusion given as a part of full nutrition was not seen. PMID:24731231

  8. Dietary supplementation with glutamate precursor ?-ketoglutarate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Li, Yongtang; Ding, Binying; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Hang; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-07-01

    There is growing interest in glutamate as a functional amino acid in nutrition and health. This study was conducted to determine whether glutamate precursor ?-ketoglutarate (AKG) could alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in young pigs. Twenty-four piglets were randomly assigned to the control, LPS, or LPS + AKG group. Piglets in the control and LPS groups were fed a basal diet, whereas piglets in the NAC group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 1 % AKG. On days 10, 12, 14, and 16 of the trial, piglets in the LPS and LPS + AKG groups received intraperitoneal administration of LPS (80 ?g/kg BW), whereas piglets in the control group received the same volume of saline. On day 16 of the trial, blood samples were collected 3 h after LPS or saline injection. Twenty-four hours post-administration of LPS or saline (on day 17 of the trial), piglets were killed to obtain liver for analysis. Dietary AKG supplementation alleviated LPS-induced histomorphological abnormalities and mitigated LPS-induced increases in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and AST/ALT ratio (P < 0.05). Compared with the LPS group, dietary supplementation with AKG decreased plasma glutamate concentration, while increasing hepatic concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, leucine, asparagine, lysine, alanine, serine, threonine, valine, and phenylalanine (P < 0.05). LPS challenge dramatically increased concentrations of malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver. Additionally, LPS challenge enhanced concentrations of AMP and total protein, as well as RNA/DNA and total protein/DNA ratios, while decreasing hepatic ADP concentrations. These adverse effects of LPS challenge were ameliorated by AKG supplementation. Collectively, dietary AKG supplementation provides a new means to ameliorate LPS-induced liver injury by increasing anti-oxidative capacity and improving energy metabolism in young pigs. PMID:25795418

  9. Effects of selenium supplementation on plasma progesterone concentrations in pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Hachiro; Nonaka, Itoko; Takenouchi, Naoki; Amari, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    It is known that selenium (Se) has various functions in animals. Many investigations on the biochemical and physiological effects of Se have been previously reported; however, the detailed function of Se in reproduction is not yet clear. We proposed the possibility that Se plays a notable role in progesterone production. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of Se supplementation on progesterone levels of pregnant Holstein heifers. Eight Holstein heifers (-Se) were fed basal diet (containing 0.022?ppm of Se) throughout the experiment. While a 0.3?ppm diet of Se (sodium selenite) was fed to another seven animals (+Se) with basal diet. Blood sampling was carried out every week. Plasma Se concentrations were higher in Se-supplemented cows compared with controls (-Se) (P?supplementation increased plasma progesterone in the 29-39 weeks of pregnancy from 4.98?±?0.64 to 6.86?±?0.49?ng/mL on average (P?

  10. Effect of a dietary antioxidant supplementation on semen quality in pony stallions.

    PubMed

    Deichsel, K; Palm, F; Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Aurich, C

    2008-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation contributes to the damage of the sperm plasma membrane. In different species, dietary supplementation with antioxidants has been shown to improve semen quality. Therefore, we tested effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidants and l-carnitin on semen quality in Shetland pony stallions (n=6). Semen was collected twice a week over a time period of 16 weeks. From weeks 5 to 12, a special diet for stallions containing a variety of antioxidants (STALLION, Pavo Pferdenahrung GmbH, Goch, Germany; tocopherol 300 mg/day; ascorbic acid 300 mg/day; l-carnitin 4000 mg/day; folic acid 12 mg/day) was added to the basal diet (hay, mineral supplements, water). Ejaculates were evaluated for total sperm count, semen motility (percentage of totally and progressively motile spermatozoa, longevity for 24 h at 5 degrees C) and membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI staining): All values given are means+/-S.E.M. No changes in motility, progressive motility and membrane integrity or semen longevity for 24 h were detected. A slight but significant reduction of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was found (weeks 1-4: 43.7+/-7.1%; weeks 13-16: 39.4+/-7.2%, p<0.05). Results show that a supplementary diet with antioxidants in the given concentration and duration does not result in pronounced effects on semen quality of stallions. It is therefore questionable to support stallions with dietary antioxidants as long as they receive an adequately balanced basal diet. PMID:18358523

  11. The diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Donald P.

    The last 20 years of the efforts to understand the diffuse ISM are reviewed, with recent changes of fundamental aspects being highlighted. Attention is given to the interstellar pressure and its components, the weight of the ISM, the midplane pressure contributions, and pressure contributions at 1 kpc. What velocity dispersions, cosmic ray pressure, and magnetic field pressure that can be expected for a gas in a high magnetic field environment is addressed. The intercloud medium is described, with reference to the work of Cox and Slavin (1989). Various caveats are discussed and a number of areas for future investigation are identified. Steps that could be taken toward a successful phase segregation model are discussed.

  12. Effects of nutrient medium composition on development of Stevia rebaudiana shoots cultivated in the roller bioreactor and their production of steviol glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai Bondarev; Oxana Reshetnyak; Alexander Nosov

    2003-01-01

    Effects of sugars, mineral salts and plant growth regulators on the development of Stevia shoots cultivated in the roller bioreactor and their production of steviol glycosides (SGs) were investigated. In the medium with fructose or glucose, extension of the shoots and development of their root system were much better than in the medium supplemented with sucrose. Under these conditions, however,

  13. In vitro development of third- and fourth-stage larvae of Dirofilaria immitis: comparison of basal culture media, serum levels and possible serum substitutes.

    PubMed

    Lok, J B; Mika-Grieve, M; Grieve, R B; Chin, T K

    1984-06-01

    In vitro development and survival of third-stage larvae of Dirofilaria immitis were compared in four different culture media and in the presence of varying concentrations of four different medium supplements. Motility and the incidence of third- to fourth-stage molting were used as criteria for evaluating different culture conditions. No significant differences in either motility or molting response were detected between larvae cultured in NCTC-135, F12(K), CMRL 1066 or Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. Fetal calf serum enhanced development and survival of the cultured larvae in dose-dependent fashion. Its effects were maximal at a concentration of 20 percent of the total medium volume. Addition of a commercial medium supplement, NuSerum, also gave a dose-related increase in larval development and viability. The activity of NuSerum in this respect was comparable to that of fetal calf serum. The tripeptide glycylhistidyllysine and bovine serum albumin, fraction V both failed to stimulate development of third-stage D. immitis larvae in vitro. PMID:6147986

  14. Similarity of organized patterns in driving and basal stresses of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets beneath extensive areas of basal sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O. V.; Creyts, T. T.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.

    2014-06-01

    The rate of ice transport from the interior of ice sheets to their margins, and hence the rate with which it contributes to sea level, is determined by the balance of driving stress, basal resistance, and ice internal deformation. Using recent high-resolution observations of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, we compute driving stress and ice deformation velocities, inferring basal traction by inverse techniques. The results reveal broad-scale organization in 5-20 km band-like patterns in both the driving and basal shear stresses located in zones with substantial basal sliding. Both ice sheets experience basal sliding over areas substantially larger than previously recognized. The likely cause of the spatial patterns is the development of a band-like structure in the basal shear stress distribution that is the results of pattern-forming instabilities related to subglacial water. The similarity of patterns on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets suggests that the flow of ice sheets is controlled by the same fundamental processes operating at their base, which control ice sheet sliding and are highly variable on relatively short spatial and temporal scales, with poor predictability. This has far-reaching implications for understanding of the current and projection of the future ice sheets' evolution.

  15. Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat. PMID:23747628

  16. Response to dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

  17. Basal phosphorylation of ? opioid receptor is agonist modulated and Ca 2+-dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaijie Wang; James Arden; Wolfgang Sadee

    1996-01-01

    The ? opioid receptor was shown to be phosphorylated at a basal rate in the absence of agonist, measured in permeabilized HEK293 cells transfected with an epitope tagged ? receptor (EE-?) [Arden, J., Segredo, V., Wang, Z., Lameh, J. and Sadée, W. (1995) J. Neurochem. 65, 1636–1645]. In the present study, basal phosphorylation was found to be Ca2+ dependent; however,

  18. Differential requirements for ?-catenin in murine prostate cancer originating from basal versus luminal cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsai-Ling; Chen, Chun-Ming

    2015-07-01

    A driver mutation occurring in different cells of origin may impact cancer progression differently. Previously, we demonstrated higher invasiveness in Pten-deficient prostate cancer (CaP) arising from basal cells compared to that arising from luminal cells in mice. Here, we show higher expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors and stem/progenitor properties in basal-derived CaP compared to luminal-derived CaP. We further explore the requirement for ?-catenin in basal and luminal prostate cells during CaP progression. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ?-catenin specifically suppress basal-derived CaP progression through reduction of stemness and cell proliferation and increased ?H2Ax-associated apoptosis. Lineage tracing revealed that loss of ?-catenin in basal cells impairs basal-to-luminal differentiation; conversely, ?-catenin loss is dispensable for luminal-derived CaP progression. Our findings suggest that ?-catenin is required for basal-derived normal luminal cells and cancer cells, but not for luminal derivatives. Although the cellular origin of CaP in patients cannot be easily determined at present, the results imply that ?-catenin inhibition is a potential therapeutic option for a subset of patients with basal-derived CaP. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25712462

  19. Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Rodriguez; Yoland Smith; Maria C. Rodriguez-Oroz; Stephane Lehericy; Hagai Bergman; Yves Agid; Mahlon R. DeLong; Peter Redgrave; Jose A. Obeso

    2010-01-01

    Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson's disease. Studies in animals and humans have identified spatially segregated functional territories in the basal ganglia for the control of goal-directed and habitual actions. In patients with Parkinson's disease the loss of dopamine is predominantly in the posterior putamen, a region of

  20. THE BASAL GANGLIA: FOCUSED SELECTION AND INHIBITION OF COMPETING MOTOR PROGRAMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONATHAN W MINK

    1996-01-01

    The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement. It is well recognized that people with degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia suffer from rigidly held abnormal body postures, slowing of movement, involuntary movements, or a combination of these abnormalities. However, it has not

  1. Activation of Expression of Hedgehog Target Genes in Basal Cell Carcinomas

    E-print Network

    Chuang, Pao-Tien

    Activation of Expression of Hedgehog Target Genes in Basal Cell Carcinomas Jeannette M. Bonifas, and **Molecular Oncology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Mutations in hedgehog signaling. The study of basal cell carcinoma gene expression not only may eluci- date mechanisms by which hedgehog

  2. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J H Adams; D Doyle; D I Graham; A E Lawrence; D R McLellan

    1986-01-01

    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of

  3. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Mason, Helen D.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined follicles from human ovaries (n = 18) by electron microscopy and found that many follicles had additional layers of basal lamina. Oocytes (n = 222) from bovine follicles with normal or unusual basal laminas were isolated and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst was compared. Healthy bovine follicles with a single layer of basal lamina had oocytes with significantly (P < 0.01) greater developmental competence than healthy follicles with additional layers of follicular basal lamina (65% versus 28%). CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence that the phenotype of the follicular basal lamina is related to oocyte competence. PMID:19095662

  4. Multiple KCNQ Potassium Channel Subtypes Mediate Basal Anion Secretion from the Human Airway Epithelial Cell Line

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    Multiple KCNQ Potassium Channel Subtypes Mediate Basal Anion Secretion from the Human Airway Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Potassium channels play an important role in providing a driving in mediating rates of basal anion secretion across the human airway submucosal gland serous cell model

  5. Retrieving avalanche basal friction law from high rate positioning of avalanches Pulfer G.1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Retrieving avalanche basal friction law from high rate positioning of avalanches Pulfer G.1 : The Voellmy avalanche basal friction parameters are retrieved from high rate positioning of artificially released avalanches. Two dense snow avalanches were triggered at the Lautaret full-scale test site

  6. Activation of Expression of Hedgehog Target Genes in Basal Cell Carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannette M Bonifas; Sally Pennypacker; Pao-Tien Chuang; Andrew P McMahon; Mickey Williams; Arnon Rosenthal; Frederic J de Sauvage; Ervin H Epstein

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in hedgehog signaling pathway genes, especially PTC1 and SMO, are pivotal to the development of basal cell carcinomas. The study of basal cell carcinoma gene expression not only may elucidate mechanisms by which hedgehog signaling abnormalities produce aberrant tumor cell behavior but also can provide data on in vivo hedgehog target gene control in humans. We have found, in

  7. Multiband multistatic synthetic aperture radar for measuring ice sheet basal conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Paden; Shadab Mozaffar; David Dunson; Chris Allen; Sivaprasad Gogineni; Torry Akins

    2004-01-01

    Ice sheet models are necessary to understand ice sheet dynamics and to predict their behavior. Of the primary inputs to these models, basal conditions are the least understood. By observing the forward and backscatter across a wide frequency range (over two octaves) the basal conditions can be established with a high level of confidence. For this purpose, we developed a

  8. Three Approaches to Teaching Reading: Basal, Language Experience, and Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanProoyen, Nancy; Clouse, R. Wilburn

    According to a review of current reading research, components of language experience, whole language, and computer-assisted instruction need to be incorporated into the core basal reading program to make reading meaningful and enjoyable for all students. The basal reading approach continues to be used by the majority of teachers in elementary…

  9. Evidence for basal secretion in the subcommissural organ of the adult rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith E. Kimble; Kjeld Møllgård

    1973-01-01

    Morphological evidence is presented supporting the possibility of basal secretion into hypendymal capillaries of the adult rabbit subcommissural organ (SCO). The synthetic apparatus of the SCO cell is described as well as the heterogeneous granules and vesicles which are concentrated in the basal processes bordering a widened perivascular space. The origin of the electron dense granules, of which two fairly

  10. Reading Teachers' Attitudes toward Basal Reader Use and State Adoption Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud-Silva, Connie; Sadoski, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Elementary school teachers in Texas were surveyed to determine (1) their attitudes toward basal readers; (2) the extent of their use of basal reader programs; and (3) their perceptions of state reading textbook adoption policies. Findings are presented. Issues regarding teachers as decision makers versus technicians are discussed. (Author/MT)

  11. Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Curettage Followed by Imiquimod 3.75% Cream

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita V.; Birge, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. Treatment modalities include both surgical, medical, or combination therapy. In the following case, the authors report the successful treatment of a basal cell carcinoma on the nose with curettage followed by topical imiquimod 3.75% cream. PMID:21607193

  12. Network-level neuroplasticity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways Ann M. Graybiel*

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute in disease states affecting the basal ganglia. q 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Basal ganglia is part of the habit-forming system of the mammalian brain, and that abnormal activation of striatal

  13. Regulation of basal autophagy by transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channel.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Geun; Chun, Yoon Sun; Park, Chul-Seung; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Myoung Kyu; Chung, Sungkwon

    2015-07-17

    Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a catabolic process for the degradation and recycling of cellular components. Autophagy digests intracellular components, recycling material subsequently used for new protein synthesis. The Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-permeable transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channel underlies the constitutive Ca(2+) influx in some cells. Since autophagy is regulated by cytosolic Ca(2+) level, we set out to determine whether Ca(2+) influx through the TRPM7 channel regulates basal autophagy. When TRPM7 channel expression was induced from HEK293 cells in a nutrient-rich condition, LC3-II level increased indicating the increased level of basal autophagy. The effect of TRPM7 channel on basal autophagy was via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ?, and AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. In contrast, the level of basal autophagy was decreased when the endogenous TRPM7 channel in SH-SY5Y cells was down-regulated using short hairpin RNA. Similarly, an inhibitor for TRPM7 channel decreased the level of basal autophagy. In addition, the inhibitory effect of channel inhibitor on basal autophagy was reversed by increasing extracellular Ca(2+)concentration, suggesting that Ca(2+) influx through TRPM7 channel directly links to basal autophagy. Thus, our studies demonstrate the new role of TRPM7 channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry in the regulation of basal autophagy. PMID:25983327

  14. Neural circuits and topographic organization of the basal ganglia and related regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuma Nakano

    2000-01-01

    The present review was attempted to analyze the multiple channels of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connections, and the connections of their related nuclei. The prefrontal and motor areas consist of a number of modules, which seem to provide multiple subloops of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical connections in subhuman primates. There may be a great degree of convergence of the limbic, associative and motor

  15. Usefulness of Context Clues as Determined by an Analysis of Basal Reading Series and Methodology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFeely, Donald C.; Elliott, Joan

    A study was designed to determine if the classifications and definitions of context clues suggested in ten reading methods textbooks were used in three basal reading series. The method textbook analyses provided 27 different context clues. The analysis of the basal reading series--D. C. Heath (1983), Ginn (1984), and Scott, Foresman (1983)--showed…

  16. An autopodial-like pattern of Hox expression in the fins of a basal actinopterygian fish

    E-print Network

    Davis, Marcus C.

    of the autopod in a basal actinopterygian, Polyodon spathula. Polyodon exhibits a late-phase, inverted collinear spathula. Polyodon possesses pectoral fin endoskeletal elements considered homologous to both teleosts- hog (Shh) pathway and HoxA and HoxD cluster genes in a basal actinopterygian, the paddlefish Polyodon

  17. Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae): Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SILVIA MARÍA WOLCAN; LÍA RONCO; GLADYS ALBINA LORI

    Summary: Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae). Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae) The aims of the paper were to determine the causal agents of basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata in Argentina, and to evaluate its possible pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus. Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Phytophthora nicotianae, Rhizoctonia solani, F. graminearum, F. verticilloides, F. equiseti and

  18. The status of Dollodon and other basal iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Lower Cretaceous of Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew T. McDonald

    Dollodon bampingi was recently named based upon a specimen from the Bernissart Quarry that had previously been referred to Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis. The initial diagnosis of Dollodon did not adequately distinguish it from Mantellisaurus or from other basal iguanodonts, necessitating a reassessment of the material. Firsthand examination of the holotypes of the two taxa and numerous other basal iguanodont specimens, as

  19. ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)] [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Bertello, Luca, E-mail: apevtsov@nso.edu, E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu, E-mail: lbertello@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

  20. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga; Savova, Virginia; Krzystanek, Marcin; Li, Lewyn; Marusyk, Andriy; Tabassum, Doris P; Zak, Alexander; Flacker, Mary Jo; Li, Mei; Lin, Jessica J; Sukumar, Saraswati; Suzuki, Hiromu; Long, Henry; Szallasi, Zoltan; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Maruyama, Reo; Polyak, Kornelia

    2015-06-16

    Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin) profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required for luminal-basal fusions, and we identified EN1, TBX18, and TCF4 as candidate transcriptional regulators of the luminal-to-basal switch. Our findings highlight the remarkable epigenetic plasticity of breast cancer cells. PMID:26051943

  1. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Koebele, Stephanie V; Kingston, Melissa L; Tsang, Candy W S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Baxter, Leslie C; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. We evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory as well as basal forebrain cholinergic integrity using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory; tonic delivery of low EE, a dose that corresponds to the most popular doses used in the clinic today, did not impact cognition on any measure. Both medium and high injection doses of EE reduced the number of ChAt-immunoreactive cells in the basal forebrain, and cell population estimates in the vertical/diagonal bands negatively correlated with working memory errors. PMID:25679306

  2. Differential protease expression by cutaneous squamous and basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Sappino, A P; Belin, D; Huarte, J; Hirschel-Scholz, S; Saurat, J H; Vassalli, J D

    1991-01-01

    To assess the postulated role of plasminogen activation in tumor invasion, we have investigated the cellular sites of synthesis for urokinase-type (uPA) and tissue-type (tPA) plasminogen activators and their inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2) in two human cutaneous neoplasia that differ in their metastatic potential. The combined use of zymography on tissue sections and in situ hybridization demonstrates that uPA is produced by malignant cells of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) but not by basal cell carcinomas (BCC), whereas tPA is detected exclusively in nonmalignant dermal tissue. In addition, we show that SCC neoplastic cells simultaneously produce variable amounts of PAI-1, and that PAI-1 production correlates inversely with uPA enzymatic activity. These observations establish that invasive human malignant cells in vivo can activate plasminogen through uPA production during the early phases of tumor growth; they also demonstrate that the proteolytic activity of tumor cells can be modulated by the concomitant production of PAI-1. Because SCC have a higher invasive and metastatic potential than BCC, our findings lend further support to the involvement of plasminogen activation in malignant behavior. Images PMID:1918364

  3. The proteome of mouse brain microvessel membranes and basal lamina

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Hyun Bae; Scott, Michael; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Baird, Andrew; Yates, John; Torbett, Bruce E; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a multicellular vascular structure separating blood from the brain parenchyma that is composed of endothelial cells with tight intercellular junctions, surrounded by a basal lamina, astrocytes, and pericytes. Previous studies have generated detailed databases of the microvessel transcriptome; however, less information is available on the BBB at the protein level. In this study, we specifically focused on characterization of the membrane fraction of cells within the BBB to generate a more complete understanding of membrane transporters, tight junction proteins, and associated extracellular matrix proteins that are functional hallmarks of the BBB. We used Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology to identify a total of 1,143 proteins in mouse brain microvessels, of which 53% were determined to be membrane associated. Analyses of specific classes of BBB-associated proteins in the context of recent transcriptome reports provide a unique database to assess the relative contribution of genes at the level of both RNA and protein in the maintenance of normal BBB integrity. PMID:21792245

  4. Novel basal, fungal lineages from freshwater phytoplankton and lake samples.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Seiji; Nozaki, Daiki; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kagami, Maiko

    2015-06-01

    Zoosporic fungal parasites are known to control the extent and development of blooms of numerous phytoplankton species. Despite the obvious importance of ecological interactions between parasitic fungi and their phytoplanktonic hosts, their diversity remains largely unknown due to methodological limitations. Here, a method to genetically analyse fungi directly from single, infected colonies of the phytoplanktonic host was applied to field samples of large diatom species from mesotrophic Lake Biwa and eutrophic Lake Inba, Japan. Although previous research on interaction between lacustrine fungi and large phytoplankton has mainly focused on the role of parasitic Chytridiomycota, our results revealed that fungi attached to large diatoms included not only members of Chytridiomycota, but also members of Aphelida, Cryptomycota and yeast. The fungi belonging to Chytridiomycota and Aphelida form novel, basal lineages. Environmental clone libraries also support the occurrence of these lineages in Japanese lakes. The presented method enables us to better characterize individual fungal specimens on phytoplankton, and thus facilitate and improve the investigation of ecological relationships between fungi and phytoplankton in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25625632

  5. Basal ganglia calcification in BB/E rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lammie, G A; Kelly, P A T; Baird, J D; Smith, W; Chatterjee, S; Frier, B M; Strachan, M W J

    2005-01-01

    Human diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities in the brain such as cerebral atrophy. The aetiology of these abnormalities is not known. The BB/E rat is a well-established model of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes. A cohort of 34 BB/E rats with diabetes was divided into three sub-groups according to age (and duration of diabetes). Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) was present in the brains of more than 50% of diabetic animals, but not in any of 37 non-diabetic BB/E rats. BGC occurred more commonly in those animals which had the longest duration of diabetes (p=0.001), such that BGC was present in only 8% of animals with diabetes for 20 weeks, but in 100% of animals with diabetes for 60 weeks. There were no other significant light microscopic neuropathologic changes in diabetic animals. It will be important to investigate the mechanism of brain calcification, whether a similar process occurs in humans with diabetes, and its possible relationship to cognitive decline. PMID:15639413

  6. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    PubMed

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  7. Basal Murphy belt and Chilhowee Group -- Sequence stratigraphic comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Aylor, J.G. Jr. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The lower Murphy belt in the central western Blue Ridge is interpreted to be correlative to the Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group of the westernmost Blue Ridge and Appalachian fold and thrust belt. Basal Murphy belt depositional sequence stratigraphy represents a second-order, type-2 transgressive systems tract initiated with deposition of lowstand turbidites of the Dean Formation. These transgressive deposits of the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations are interpreted as middle to outer continental shelf deposits. Cyclic and stacked third-order regressive, coarsening upwards sequences of the Nantahala Formation display an overall increase in feldspar content stratigraphically upsection. These transgressive siliciclastic deposits are interpreted to be conformably overlain by a carbonate highstand systems tract of the Murphy Marble. Palinspastic reconstruction indicates that the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations possibly represent a basinward extension of up to 3 km thick siliciclastic wedge. The wedge tapers to the southwest along the strike of the Murphy belt at 10[degree] and thins northwestward to 2 km in the Tennessee depocenter where it is represented by the Chilhowee Group. The Murphy belt basin is believed to represent a transitional rift-to-drift facies deposited on the lower plate of the southern Blue Ridge rift zone.

  8. Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura A; Behn, Mark D; McGuire, Jeffrey J; Das, Sarah B; Joughin, Ian; Herring, Thomas; Shean, David E; King, Matt A

    2015-06-01

    Water-driven fracture propagation beneath supraglacial lakes rapidly transports large volumes of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet. These drainage events drive transient ice-sheet acceleration and establish conduits for additional surface-to-bed meltwater transport for the remainder of the melt season. Although it is well established that cracks must remain water-filled to propagate to the bed, the precise mechanisms that initiate hydro-fracture events beneath lakes are unknown. Here we show that, for a lake on the western Greenland Ice Sheet, drainage events are preceded by a 6-12 hour period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip. Our observations from a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network allow us to determine the distribution of meltwater at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after three rapid drainages in 2011-2013, each of which generates tensile stresses that promote hydro-fracture beneath the lake. We hypothesize that these precursors are associated with the introduction of meltwater to the bed through neighbouring moulin systems (vertical conduits connecting the surface and base of the ice sheet). Our results imply that as lakes form in less crevassed, interior regions of the ice sheet, where water at the bed is currently less pervasive, the creation of new surface-to-bed conduits caused by lake-draining hydro-fractures may be limited. PMID:26040890

  9. Repeatability of basal metabolism in breeding female kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla

    PubMed Central

    Bech, C.; Langseth, I.; Gabrielsen, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    We studied kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding near Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E) on Svalbard. In 1997, the basal metabolic rates (BMRs) of 17 breeding females were measured during the incubation and chick-rearing periods. The mean body mass of the kittiwakes decreased significantly (by 10%) between the incubation and chick-rearing periods. At the same time, both the whole-body and mass-specific BMRs decreased significantly. There was a positive and significant relationship between the BMR residuals from the incubation period and those from the chick-rearing period. Thus, the BMR of incubating female kittiwakes is a significant predictor of their BMR during the chick-rearing period. New BMR data were collected in 1998 from ten of these females, measured around the chick-hatching date. Repeatability values were calculated using either (i) the data for eight individuals for which three BMR measurements existed, or (ii) all the data from both years, yielding significant repeatabilities of 0.52 and 0.35, respectively. These values indicate that between 48 and 65% of the observed variation in BMR is due to intraindividual variability, while between-individual variability accounts for 35 to 52% of the variation in the BMR. This is the first report of a significant repeatability of the BMR of an endothermic organism across an elapsed time of more than one day.

  10. Sonic hedgehog signaling in Basal cell nevus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Athar, Mohammad; Li, Changzhao; Kim, Arianna L; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Bickers, David R

    2014-09-15

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to be a major signal transduction pathway during embryonic development, but it usually shuts down after birth. Aberrant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) activation during adulthood leads to neoplastic growth. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is driven by this pathway. Here, we summarize information related to the pathogenesis of this neoplasm, discuss pathways that crosstalk with Shh signaling, and the importance of the primary cilium in this neoplastic process. The identification of the basic/translational components of Shh signaling has led to the discovery of potential mechanism-driven druggable targets and subsequent clinical trials have confirmed their remarkable efficacy in treating BCCs, particularly in patients with nevoid BCC syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder in which patients inherit a germline mutation in the tumor-suppressor gene Patched (Ptch). Patients with NBCCS develop dozens to hundreds of BCCs due to derepression of the downstream G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened (SMO). Ptch mutations permit transposition of SMO to the primary cilium followed by enhanced expression of transcription factors Glis that drive cell proliferation and tumor growth. Clinical trials with the SMO inhibitor, vismodegib, showed remarkable efficacy in patients with NBCCS, which finally led to its FDA approval in 2012. PMID:25172843

  11. E-cadherin expression in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, A.; Benito, N.; Navarro, P.; Palacios, J.; Cano, A.; Quintanilla, M.; Contreras, F.; Gamallo, C.

    1994-01-01

    E-cadherin (E-CD) is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule which is expressed in almost all epithelial tissues. E-CD expression is involved in epidermal morphogenesis and is reduced during tumour progression of mouse epidermal carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that E-CD could play a role as an invasion-suppressor molecule. In the present work we have studied the E-CD expression in 31 patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) using an immunohistochemical technique with a monoclonal antibody (HECD-1) specific for human E-CD. E-CD expression was preserved in all specimens of superficial and nodular BCC, and was reduced in 10 of 15 infiltrative BCCs. A heterogeneous distribution of cells with different immunostaining intensity was more frequently observed in specimens of infiltrative BCC. These results suggest that E-CD might be related to the growth pattern and the local aggressive behaviour of BCC, and support the idea that E-CD might play a role as an invasion-suppressor molecule in vivo. Images Figure 1 PMID:8286199

  12. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Soriano, Virtudes; Juberias, Pablo; Saez, Berta; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Grasa, Matilde; Höiom, Veronica; Lindblom, Annika; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; van Rossum, Michelle M; Aben, Katja K H; de Vries, Esther; Santinami, Mario; Di Mauro, Maria G; Maurichi, Andrea; Wendt, Judith; Hochleitner, Pia; Pehamberger, Hubert; Gudmundsson, Julius; Magnusdottir, Droplaug N; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Holm, Hilma; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Frigge, Michael L; Blondal, Thorarinn; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Bjarnason, Hjördis; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Okamoto, Ichiro; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hansson, Johan; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Karagas, Margaret R; Nelson, Heather H; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Olafsson, Jon H; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2010-01-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC)1, we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 × 10?9). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 × 10?9), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 × 10?10). The effect of rs157935[T] is dependent on the parental origin of the risk allele. None of these variants were found to be associated with melanoma or fair-pigmentation traits. A melanoma- and pigmentation-associated variant in the SLC45A2 gene, L374F, is associated with risk of both BCC and squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we report conclusive evidence that rs401681[C] in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus confers susceptibility to BCC but protects against melanoma. PMID:19578363

  13. Basal cell adenoma of nasal septum: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinying; Chen, Haihong; Wang, Shenqing

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is an uncommon benign salivary gland neoplasm, presenting isomorphic basaloid cells with a prominent basal cell layer. Basal cell adenoma arising from the nasal septum is exceptionally rare. Reports on positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-fluorine-18-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG-PET) imaging for basal cell adenoma are limited. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old man who had the symptoms of intermittent repeated bleeding from the left nose for half a year. 18FDG-PET scanning showed increased accumulation of 18FDG with its characteristic benign pathology has a potential to malignancy. After removal of the mass, the patient became symptom free. Pathology showed basal cell adenoma. The evidence of active and growing cells was present in the specimen. PMID:25973122

  14. Injury induces direct lineage segregation of functionally distinct airway basal stem/progenitor cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Law, Brandon M; Tata, Purushothama Rao; Villoria, Jorge; Saez, Borja; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-02-01

    Following injury, stem cells restore normal tissue architecture by producing the proper number and proportions of differentiated cells. Current models of airway epithelial regeneration propose that distinct cytokeratin 8-expressing progenitor cells, arising from p63(+) basal stem cells, subsequently differentiate into secretory and ciliated cell lineages. We now show that immediately following injury, discrete subpopulations of p63(+) airway basal stem/progenitor cells themselves express Notch pathway components associated with either secretory or ciliated cell fate commitment. One basal cell population displays intracellular Notch2 activation and directly generates secretory cells; the other expresses c-myb and directly yields ciliated cells. Furthermore, disrupting Notch ligand activity within the basal cell population at large disrupts the normal pattern of lineage segregation. These non-cell-autonomous effects demonstrate that effective airway epithelial regeneration requires intercellular communication within the broader basal stem/progenitor cell population. These findings have broad implications for understanding epithelial regeneration and stem cell heterogeneity. PMID:25658372

  15. Supplemental Online Materials Cytoskeletal Organization

    E-print Network

    Sibley, David

    bar = 5 microns. #12;Supplemental Online Materials 3 Cryptosporidium Movies depicting gliding motility by Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites were recorded by Dawn Wetzel (Washington University) with assistance from speed. Gliding motility by Cryptosporidium is analogous to that described above in Toxoplasma

  16. Mathematical Preliminaries Medium Access Protocols

    E-print Network

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    Probability Distributions 2 Medium Access Protocols ALOHA Slotted ALOHA CSMA 3 Ethernet CSMA-CD in Ethernet-Free Protocols Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) Local Area Network ALOHA Slotted ALOHA CSMA Three Scenarios Medium access Collision-Free Protocols Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) Local Area Network ALOHA Slotted ALOHA CSMA ALOHA n

  17. Electronic Supplement Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan Electronic Supplement Physical Review Letters

    E-print Network

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan 1 Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Universal behavior of the initial stage of drop impact Evert Klaseboera impact #12;Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan 2 0

  18. An L-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an L-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator (P<0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (P<0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls (P<0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function. PMID:23934161

  19. Improved methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium: Application to studies of lymphoblast proliferation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Brennan; James Mansky; Geraldine Roberts; Marshall A. Lichtman

    1975-01-01

    Summary  We have compared several methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium, with the objective\\u000a of producing selective deficiency effects on the growth of mouse (L5178Y) and human (P1R) lymphoblasts. In experiments in\\u000a which calcium- and magnesium-“free” McCoy’s medium was supplemented with 15% horse or fetal calf serum, enough calcium and\\u000a magnesium was provided by serum to

  20. Autocrine factor-independent growth of mammalian fibroblasts established in fully synthetic medium: No V- onc requirement in establishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Hill; Jana Hillova; Régine Mariage-Samson

    1990-01-01

    Summary  In a previous study Chinese hamster fibroblasts carrying a partially deleted v-src were established in a synthetic medium lacking macromolecular supplements and shown to possess a particular serum-free phenotype\\u000a hereafter designatedsf. In cloning efficiency assays,sf, unlike wild-type, fibroblasts required a threshold cell density to growth from single cells, suggesting autocrine stimulation.\\u000a In the present study a conditioned medium harvested fromsf

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation with fermented ginkgo leaves on antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Sun, Z Y; Cao, F L; Ahmad, H; Yang, X H; Zhao, L G; Wang, T

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with three types of fermented Ginkgo-leaves (FGL) on growth, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks. A total of 300 d-old broilers were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replications of 10 birds each. Birds were fed on basal diets (Control) or basal diets supplemented with 0.5% FGL with Candida utilis (CF group), Aspergillus niger (AF group) or their combined fermentation (CAF group), respectively, for a 42 d feeding trial. AF and CAF supplementation improved body weight gain (BWG) (22-42 d) and feed conversion ratio (22-42 d and 1-42 d). Concentrations of serum ?-tocopherol in CAF group, as well as hepatic ?-tocopherol in the three FGL groups were increased, while hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were greatly decreased in group AF and CAF. Chickens in AF and CAF groups had decreased hepatic protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as jejunal and ileal protein carbonyls. The total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities and glutathione (GSH) of both jejunum and ileum of the CAF group were higher than the other groups. Duodenal and jejunal villous height of birds fed on the AF and CAF diets were increased, while jejunal crypt depth (CD) was decreased. Furthermore, birds fed on AF and CAF supplemented diets had increased ileal lactobacilli populations. Decreased ileal and caecal Escherichia coli and Salmonellas populations was found for the birds fed on CAF supplemented diets. The present study may indicate that the improved feed efficiency and intestinal functions in the group supplemented with AF and CAF are directly connected with the improved antioxidant capacity and intestinal microbial ecology. PMID:25868615

  2. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

  3. Basal glucagon replacement in chronic glucagon deficiency increases insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bajorunas, D R; Dresler, C M; Horowitz, G D; McDermott, K; Jeevanandam, M; Fortner, J G; Brennan, M F

    1986-05-01

    To evaluate the role of glucagon in insulin-mediated glucose metabolism, we studied four men and four women, ranging in age from 30-73 yr (mean +/- SEM, 54 +/- 5) who had undergone complete pancreatic resection for cancer or chronic pancreatitis 16-58 mo previously. The patients had undetectable C-peptide levels and established lack of biologically active 3500 mol wt glucagon. Euglycemic insulin clamp studies were performed with a 40 mU X m-2 X min-1 insulin infusion in the basal, post-absorptive, insulin-withdrawn state, before and during the last 3 h of a 72-h glucagon replacement-dose infusion (1.25 ng X kg-1 X min-1). In four patients, hepatic glucose production was determined by a primed-constant infusion of 3-[3H]glucose. Monocyte insulin-binding studies, pre- and postglucagon, were performed in all patients. The 72-h glucagon infusion, resulting in mean plasma glucagon levels of 124 +/- 7 pg/ml, caused a significant rise in the mean plasma glucose level (249 +/- 8 versus 170 +/- 13 mg/dl preglucagon) and a sixfold increase in mean 24-h glucose excretion. Both with and without glucagon, euglycemic hyperinsulinemia achieved identical and complete suppression of hepatic glucose production. The mean glucose utilization rate (4.70 +/- 0.36 mg X kg-1 X min-1 preglucagon) was significantly decreased by glucagon replacement (3.83 +/- 0.31 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P less than 0.02). Mean glucose clearance was also diminished with glucagon (4.49 +/- 0.32 versus 5.73 +/- 0.45 ml X kg-1 X min-1 preglucagon, P less than 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3514331

  4. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-08-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxidative injury is a prominent cytotoxic mechanism. This effect could be exerted, at least in part, through mechanisms independent of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and involving the control of endogenous antioxidant defences. On the other hand, the activation of CB(2) receptors leads to a slower progression of neurodegeneration in both disorders. This effect would be exerted by limiting the toxicity of microglial cells for neurons and, in particular, by reducing the generation of proinflammatory factors. It is important to mention that CB(2) receptors have been identified in the healthy brain, mainly in glial elements and, to a lesser extent, in certain subpopulations of neurons, and that they are dramatically up-regulated in response to damaging stimuli, which supports the idea that the cannabinoid system behaves as an endogenous neuroprotective system. This CB(2) receptor up-regulation has been found in many neurodegenerative disorders including HD and PD, which supports the beneficial effects found for CB(2) receptor agonists in both disorders. In conclusion, the evidence reported so far supports that those cannabinoids having antioxidant properties and/or capability to activate CB(2) receptors may represent promising therapeutic agents in HD and PD, thus deserving a prompt clinical evaluation. PMID:21545415

  5. Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bendriem, B.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was {minus}0.7 (BG < Background). The RC was also affected by the size and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) used (RC from 0.75 to 0.67 with ROI size from 0.12 to 1.41 cm{sup 2}). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. A prospective study of cigarette smoking and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M C B; Olsen, C M; Williams, G M; Green, A C

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking and primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we analyzed data from a 16 year prospective study among randomly selected adults in Nambour, Queensland, Australia. Participants underwent a skin examination in 1992 and took part in an intervention study and follow-up. Information about complexion type and smoking habits including duration and number of cigarettes smoked per day and sun exposure behavior were collected at baseline in 1992, with updates to end of follow-up in 2007. Newly-diagnosed BCCs were ascertained from regional pathology laboratories. Relative risks (RR) of BCC among former and current smokers were estimated using generalized linear models specifying a Poisson distribution with robust error variance and (log) person-years at-risk as offset, adjusting for BCC risk factors. From 1992 to 2007, 281 BCCs were diagnosed in 1,277 participants with available smoking history and no past BCC. Relative to non-smokers, a non-significant inverse association between current smoking and BCC was seen (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.45-1.05) but not for former smokers (RR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.84-1.31). Amongst current smokers, inverse associations with BCC were found in those who smoked for up to 18 years (RR 0.44) but not more and those who smoked up to 15 cigarettes per day but not more. The associations with both current and former smoking varied by degree of sunburn propensity. The modest inverse association between current smoking and BCC is considered unlikely to be causal given lack of clear relation with duration or intensity of smoking. PMID:25234270

  7. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  8. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  9. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  10. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  11. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  12. Effect of different supplements on eggshell quality, some characteristics of gastrointestinal tract and performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Shalaei, Mosayeb; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Zergani, Emel

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on performance, egg shell quality, pH value of gastrointestinal (GI) tract and small intestinal morphology of laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain (W-36) from 32 to 42 weeks of age, with five treatments, four replicates and eight hens in each replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of: 1-basal diet, 2-basal diet + 150 g per ton antibiotic (oxytetracycline), 3-basal diet + 3 kg per ton mixture of organic acids supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g per ton probiotic (protoxin) and 5-basal diet + 2 kg per ton prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide). During the experimental period, performance characteristics were evaluated. At the end of experiment two birds per replicate was sacrificed for small intestinal morphology. The results showed that organic acid and mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased average egg weight. Also feed conversion ratio significantly improved by mannan oligosaccharide. Eggshell quality was not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Regarding gastrointestinal tract characteristics, pH value of different parts of GI tract were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Villi height in duodenum by probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. Villi width in duodenum by antibiotic and probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. The number of goblet cells in duodenum by addition of antibiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. It was concluded that the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharide could have positive effects on performance of laying hens. PMID:25610579

  13. Measurements of Snow Avalanche Basal Shear to Normal Stress Ratios (S/N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt, P. A.; Platzer, K.

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing problem in snow science is the value of the basal friction coefficient for dense, flowing avalanches. This parameter is defined by the ratio of shear (S) to normal (N) stress and determines the runout distance of snow avalanches. It is therefore the crucial parameter in hazard mitigation studies. In this paper we present measurements of (S/N). The measurements are made on a large snow chute instrumente with shear/normal force plates, velocity and flow height sensors. We find that a Mohr-Coulomb relation of the form S=c+bN accurately describes the measurements. The Coulomb friction coefficient b ranges between 0.22 and 0.55. Wet snow flows exhibit significant cohesion c ? 500 Pa. These quantitative values allow us to probe the relation between the basal work rate, internal dissipation and gravitational potential. We show that basal shearing is the primary frictional mechanism retarding snow flows. This mechanism shows no velocity dependence, contrary to many postulated constitutive relations for basal shearing in snow avalanches. Furthermore, we investigate how the basal work rate controls the injection of fluctuation energy at the basal surface. Thus, our experimental results and theoretical considerations help clarify the relationship between basal shearing and internal dissipation in snow avalanches.

  14. BMP-driven NRF2 activation in esophageal basal cell differentiation and eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Ku, Wei-Yao; Zhou, Zhongren; Dellon, Evan S.; Falk, Gary W.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun; Liu, Kuancan; Wang, Jun; Katzka, David A.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Lan, Xiaopeng; Que, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, especially in tissues that are constantly replenished like the esophagus. Disruption of this balance is associated with pathological conditions, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), in which basal progenitor cells become hyperplastic upon proinflammatory stimulation. However, how basal cells respond to the inflammatory environment at the molecular level remains undetermined. We previously reported that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is critical for epithelial morphogenesis in the embryonic esophagus. Here, we address how this pathway regulates tissue homeostasis and EoE development in the adult esophagus. BMP signaling was specifically activated in differentiated squamous epithelium, but not in basal progenitor cells, which express the BMP antagonist follistatin. Previous reports indicate that increased BMP activity promotes Barrett’s intestinal differentiation; however, in mice, basal progenitor cell–specific expression of constitutively active BMP promoted squamous differentiation. Moreover, BMP activation increased intracellular ROS levels, initiating an NRF2-mediated oxidative response during basal progenitor cell differentiation. In both a mouse EoE model and human biopsies, reduced squamous differentiation was associated with high levels of follistatin and disrupted BMP/NRF2 pathways. We therefore propose a model in which normal squamous differentiation of basal progenitor cells is mediated by BMP-driven NRF2 activation and basal cell hyperplasia is promoted by disruption of BMP signaling in EoE. PMID:25774506

  15. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for voluntary and automatic behaviour to reach rewards.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung F; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-07-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, value processing and decision-making. Many studies have shown that the inputs and outputs of each basal ganglia structure are topographically organized, which suggests that the basal ganglia consist of separate circuits that serve distinct functions. A notable example is the circuits that originate from the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the caudate nucleus, both of which target the superior colliculus. These two caudate regions encode the reward values of visual objects differently: flexible (short-term) values by the caudate head and stable (long-term) values by the caudate tail. These value signals in the caudate guide the orienting of gaze differently: voluntary saccades by the caudate head circuit and automatic saccades by the caudate tail circuit. Moreover, separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate the caudate head and tail and may selectively guide the flexible and stable learning/memory in the caudate regions. Studies focusing on manual handling of objects also suggest that rostrocaudally separated circuits in the basal ganglia control the action differently. These results suggest that the basal ganglia contain parallel circuits for two steps of goal-directed behaviour: finding valuable objects and manipulating the valuable objects. These parallel circuits may underlie voluntary behaviour and automatic skills, enabling animals (including humans) to adapt to both volatile and stable environments. This understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the basal ganglia parallel circuits may inform the differential diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:25981958

  16. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  17. L-citrulline supplementation reverses the impaired airway relaxation in neonatal rats exposed to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperoxia is shown to impair airway relaxation via limiting L-arginine bioavailability to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and reducing NO production as a consequence. L-arginine can also be synthesized by L-citrulline recycling. The role of L-citrulline supplementation was investigated in the reversing of hyperoxia-induced impaired relaxation of rat tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). Methods Electrical field stimulation (EFS, 2–20?V)-induced relaxation was measured under in vitro conditions in preconstricted tracheal preparations obtained from 12?day old rat pups exposed to room air or hyperoxia (>95% oxygen) for 7?days supplemented with L-citrulline or saline (in vitro or in vivo). The role of the L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle under basal conditions was studied by incubation of preparations in the presence of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) inhibitor [?-methyl-D, L-aspartate, 1?mM] or argininosuccinate lyase inhibitor (ASL) succinate (1?mM) and/or NOS inhibitor [N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; 100??M] with respect to the presence or absence of L-citrulline (2?mM). Results Hyperoxia impaired the EFS-induced relaxation of TSM as compared to room air control (p?supplementation did not affect relaxation responses under basal conditions. However, inhibition of NOS significantly reduced relaxation responses (p?supplementation in vivo and in vitro also reversed the hyperoxia-impaired relaxation. The differences were significant (p <0.001; 0.8?±?0.3% at 2?V to 47.1?±?4.1% at 20?V without L-citrulline; 0.9?±?0.3% at 2?V to 68.2?±?4.8% at 20?V with L-citrulline). Inhibition of ASS or ASL prevented this effect of L-citrulline. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of an L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle in the airways of rat pups. L-citrulline recycling does not play a major role under basal conditions in airways, but it has an important role under conditions of substrate limitations to NOS as a source of L-arginine, and L-citrulline supplementation reverses the impaired relaxation of airways under hyperoxic conditions. PMID:22870905

  18. Dietary supplementation with tributyrin alleviates intestinal injury in piglets challenged with intrarectal administration of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qingjing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-05-28

    Tributyrin (TBU) is a good dietary source of butyrate and has beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal intestinal morphology. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary TBU supplementation could alleviate intestinal injury in the acetic acid (ACA)-induced porcine model of colitis. A total of eighteen piglets (25 d old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups (control, ACA and TBU). The control and ACA groups were fed a basal diet and the TBU group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·1 % TBU. On day 15 of the trial, under anaesthesia, a soft catheter was inserted into the rectum of piglets (20-25 cm from the anus), followed by administration of either saline (control group) or ACA (10 ml of 10 % ACA solution for ACA and TBU groups). On day 22 of the trial, after venous blood samples were collected, piglets were killed to obtain mid-ileum and mid-colon mucosae. Compared with the control group, the ACA group exhibited an increase (P< 0·05) in lymphocyte counts, creatinine, PGE2, and malondialdehyde concentrations and diamine oxidase and inducible NO synthase activities in the plasma and lymphocyte density in the colon and a decrease in insulin concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity, ileal villus height:crypt depth ratios and goblet cell numbers in the colon. These adverse effects of ACA were attenuated by TBU supplementation. Moreover, TBU prevented the ACA-induced increase in caspase-3 levels while enhancing claudin-1 protein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0·1 % TBU alleviates ACA-induced intestinal injury possibly by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tight-junction formation and activating EGFR signalling. PMID:24506942

  19. Effects of dietary star anise (Illicium verum?Hook f) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the performance of lactating multiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong Ying; Yang, ChongWu; Yang, Zaibin; Yang, Weiren; Jiang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Guiguo; Guo, Yixuan; Wei, Maolian

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-two sows were allocated to four treatments to evaluate the effect of dietary star anise (SA) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the lactational performance of sows. At 85 days of gestation, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. After farrowing, sows were further allotted to one of two lactation diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. On a weekly basis, body weight (BW) of sows and piglets was measured. Blood and milk samples were obtained from the sows and piglets. Number of days from weaning to estrus, milk yield and feed intake were also recorded. Weight gain of piglets from sows fed the SA-supplemented diet during lactation was greater between days 7 and 14, days 14 and 21 and the overall experimental period compared with control groups. Supplementation of SA during lactation improved weaning weight of piglets, milk yield and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows. The SA diet increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ordinary milk and prolactin (PRL) in serum of sows. In conclusion, this study has indicated the beneficial effects of dietary SA addition in improving the lactation performance of sows. PMID:25438815

  20. Introduction to the supplement.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-06-01

    In July of 2014, a symposium entitled "Enhancing Vaccine Immunity and Value" was held in Siena, Italy. The focus of the symposium was on how to best meet the challenge of developing and implementing vaccines for future disease targets. Vaccination has been responsible for averting estimated 3 billion cases of disease and more than 500 million lives to date through the prevention of infectious diseases. This has largely been responsible for dramatic increases in life span in developed countries. However, with the demographics of the world's population are changing, with many adults now surviving into their 80s, we now face the challenge of protecting the aging and other underserved populations not only against infectious diseases but also against cancer and other chronic conditions that occur in older adults. To face this challenge, we must harness new technologies derived from recent advances in the fields of immunology, structural biology, synthetic biology and genomics that promise a revolution in the vaccine field. Specifically, vaccine adjuvants have the potential to harness the immune system to provide protection against new types of diseases, improve protection in young children and expand this protection to adults and the elderly. However, in order to succeed, we need to overcome the non-technical challenges that could limit the implementation of innovative vaccines, including controversies regarding the safety of adjuvants, increasing regulatory complexity, the inadequate methods used to assess the value of novel vaccines, and the resulting industry alienation from future investment. In this supplement, we have assembled manuscripts from lectures and discussions of the symposium last July that addressed two related questions: how to improve vaccine efficacy using breakthrough technologies and how to capture the full potential of novel vaccines. PMID:26022560

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising on a Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Analia; Aguinaga, Felipe; Marinho, Flauberto; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of basal cell carcinoma that appeared from an epidermal verrucous nevus in a 61-year-old patient. The onset of basal cell carcinoma in sebaceous nevi, basal cell nevi and dysplastic nevi is relatively common, but it is rarely associated with epidermal verrucous nevi. There is no consensus on whether the two lesions have a common cellular origin or whether they merely represent a collision of two distinct tumors. Since this association – as with other malignant tumors – is rare, there is no need for prophylactic removal of epidermal verrucous nevi. PMID:25848348

  2. PD-L1 Expression Is Increased in a Subset of Basal Type Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hatem; Khalil, Farah; Antonia, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor cells express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and is a key immune evasion mechanism. PD-L1 expression in multiple breast cancer cell lines was evaluated to identify intrinsic differences that affect their potential for immune evasion. Methods PD-L1 expression was analyzed in six breast cancer cell lines: AU565&MCF7 (luminal), BT20&HCC1143 (basal A), MDA231&HCC38 (basal B). Surface and intracellular PD-L1 expression +/? interferon ? for 48 hours was measured by flow cytometry. PD-L1 gene expression data for all breast cancer cell lines in the Comprehensive Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) was analyzed. Correlation between PD-L1 levels and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed within Oncomine datasets. A tissue microarray containing 61 invasive breast cancer primary tumor cores was stained for PD-L1 expression and analyzed. Results Basal breast cancer cells constitutively express the highest levels of PD-L1. All cell lines increased PD-L1 expression with interferon ?, but basal B cells (MDA-231 and HCC38) demonstrated the largest increases. There were no differences in protein localization between cell lines. In the CCLE data, basal cell lines demonstrated higher mean PD-L1 expression compared to luminal cell lines. High PD-L1 expressing basal cell lines over-express genes involved in invasion, proliferation, and chemoresistance compared to low PD-L1 basal cell lines. High PD-L1 basal cell lines had lower expression of IRF2BP2 and higher STAT1 levels compared to low PD-L1 expressing cell lines. Within Oncomine datasets PDL1 mRNA levels were higher in basal type tumors. The TMA analysis demonstrated that lymph node positive cases had higher levels of PD-L1 protein expression compared to lymph node negative cases. Conclusions Basal type breast cancer (especially basal B) express greater levels of PD-L1 constitutively and with IFN ?. High PD-L1 basal cells over-express genes involved in invasion, motility, and chemoresistance. Targeting PD-L1 may enhance eradication of aggressive breast cancer cells by the immune system. PMID:24551119

  3. Improved cryopreservation of bovine preimplantation embryos cultured in chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kwang Taek; Jang, Goo; Ko, Kyung Hee; Lee, Won Wou; Park, Hee Jung; Kim, Joung Joo; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2008-01-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of modifications to a standard slow freezing protocol on the viability of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Bovine oocytes were matured, fertilized with frozen-thawed semen, and presumptive zygotes cultured in defined two-step culture media. The standard freezing medium was 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG), 0.1M sucrose, 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (D-PBS). A preliminary trial showed that in vitro produced embryos cryopreserved in this medium had a survival rate of 74.6% at 24h and 53.5% at 48 h post-thaw. Experiment 1 studied the effects of omitting the sucrose supplement or replacing it with 0.1M xylose. In Experiment 2, the effects of partial (0%, 25% or 50%) or total (100%) replacement of sodium chloride with choline chloride in the cryopreservation medium were examined (the medium with 100% replacement was designated CJ1). The effects of replacing the 10% FBS with 0.4% BSA or 0.4% lipid-rich BSA (Albumax I) in CJ1 was studied in Experiment 3. In Experiment 4, pregnancy/calving rates following the post-thaw transfer of in vitro produced embryos cryopreserved in the standard freezing medium were compared with those of in vitro and in vivo produced embryos cryopreserved in the improved medium (Albumax I in CJ1). Supplementation of the cryopreservation medium with 0.1M sucrose resulted in higher post-thaw survival rates at 24 h (71.3% versus 53.5 and 51.7%; P<0.05), 48 h (51.1% versus 45.3 and 40.2%), and 72 h (34.0% versus 24.4 and 23.0%) than 0.1M xylose or no supplement, respectively, in Experiment 1. Experiment 2 showed that embryos cryopreserved in the standard medium had poorer survival rates at 24 h (72.8% versus 86.5%; P<0.05), 48 h (53.1% versus 66.3%) or 72 h (28.4% versus 44.9%) than those frozen in CJ1. The post-thaw survival rate of embryos frozen in medium supplemented with Albumax I was better than that for the FBS or BSA supplements at 24h (92.0% versus 90.7 and 87.3%), 48 h (87.3% versus 76.9 and 70.9%; P<0.05), and 72 h (70.4% versus 49.1 and 46 4%; P<0.05; Experiment 3). In Experiment 4, in vitro produced embryos cryopreserved in CJ1 medium supplemented with Albumax I resulted in higher pregnancy rates at Day 35 (31.9% versus 22.9%) and Day 60 (24.1% versus 14.3%) of gestation, and calving rates (22.6% versus 10.0%; P<0.05) than similar embryos frozen in the standard medium. However, in vivo produced embryos cryopreserved in Albumax I in CJ1 resulted in higher pregnancy rates at Day 35 (50.7%; P<0.05) and Day 60 (45.1%; P<0.05) of gestation, and calving rate (43.7%; P<0.05). It was concluded that modification of the freezing medium by addition of lipid-rich BSA and replacing sodium chloride with choline chloride improves the post-thaw survival of in vitro produced embryos, and their viability post-transfer. PMID:17321080

  4. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics. PMID:24902083

  5. Myogenesis in the basal bilaterian Symsagittifera roscoffensis (Acoela)

    PubMed Central

    Semmler, Henrike; Bailly, Xavier; Wanninger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to increase the weak database concerning the organogenesis of Acoela – a clade regarded by many as the earliest extant offshoot of Bilateria and thus of particular interest for studies concerning the evolution of animal bodyplans – we analyzed the development of the musculature of Symsagittifera roscoffensis using F-actin labelling, confocal laserscanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. Results At 40% of development between egg deposition and hatching short subepidermal fibres form. Muscle fibre development in the anterior body half precedes myogenesis in the posterior half. At 42% of development a grid of outer circular and inner longitudinal muscles is present in the bodywall. New circular muscles either branch off from present fibres or form adjacent to existing ones. The number of circular muscles is higher than that of the longitudinal muscles throughout all life cycle stages. Diagonal, circular and longitudinal muscles are initially rare but their number increases with time. The ventral side bears U-shaped muscles around the mouth, which in addition is surrounded by a sphincter muscle. With the exception of the region of the statocyst, dorsoventral muscles are present along the entire body of juveniles and adults, while adults additionally exhibit radially oriented internal muscles in the anterior tip. Outer diagonal muscles are present at the dorsal anterior tip of the adult. In adult animals, the male gonopore with its associated sexual organs expresses distinct muscles. No specific statocyst muscles were found. The muscle mantles of the needle-shaped sagittocysts are situated along the lateral edges of the animal and in the posterior end close to the male gonopore. In both juveniles and adults, non-muscular filaments, which stain positively for F-actin, are associated with certain sensory cells outside the bodywall musculature. Conclusion Compared to the myoanatomy of other acoel taxa, Symsagittifera roscoffensis shows a very complex musculature. Although data on presumably basal acoel clades are still scarce, the information currently available suggests an elaborated musculature with longitudinal, circular and U-shaped muscles as being part of the ancestral acoel bodyplan, thus increasing the possibility that Urbilateria likewise had a relatively complicated muscular ground pattern. PMID:18803837

  6. The Generic Structure Potential of Science Nonfiction Selections in Four Basal Reading Series, Grades One and Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Angela Beckman

    2009-01-01

    Basal reading series are used in a majority of classrooms in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of fiction and nonfiction genres included in four recently published first and second grade basal reading series and to compare the frequencies to studies of older basal reading series. Based on the work of…

  7. A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis for Its

    E-print Network

    Baker, David

    A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis report the crystal structures of three domains of the prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 basal body, and use) A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis for Its

  8. The Drosophila Myosin VI Jaguar Is Required for Basal Protein Targeting and Correct Spindle Orientation in Mitotic Neuroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Petritsch; Gaia Tavosanis; Christoph W. Turck; Lily Y. Jan; Yuh Nung Jan

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions generate cellular diversity. In Drosophila, embryonic neuroblasts target cell fate determinants basally, rotate their spindles by 90° to align with the apical-basal axis, and divide asymmetrically in a stem cell-like fashion. In this process, apically localized Bazooka recruits Inscuteable and other proteins to form an apical complex, which then specifies spindle orientation and basal localization of the

  9. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-10-01

    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P < 0.001) DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber intake and digestibility. The final BW and daily BW gains were higher (P < 0.001) for the supplemented compared to the control treatment. The study also revealed supplementation improved feed conversion efficiency and profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P < 0.001) nutrient utilization, animal performance, and profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study. PMID:20490664

  10. Optimal production of recombinant protein by the baculovirus-insect cell system in shake-flask culture with medium replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Yamaji; Shin-Ichi Tagai; Hideki Fukuda

    1999-01-01

    Sf9 insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus expressing ?-galactosidase and suspended in fresh medium (TNM-FH supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum) at the time of infection were cultured in shake flasks at various combinations of initial cell density and multiplicity of infection (MOI). The effects of cell density and MOI on ?-galactosidase production were quantitatively analyzed by plotting the

  11. GIARDIA LAMBLIA: STIMULATION OF GROWTH BY HUMAN INTESTINAL MUCUS AND EPITHELIAL CELLS IN SERUMFREE MEDIUM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites specifically colonize the upper human small intestine which is normally serum-free, but grow in vitro only in medium supplemented with serum or serum fractions. Recently, biliary lipids were shown to support the growth of G. lamblia without serum. Now...

  12. An improved holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Solid, linear chain hydrocarbons with molecular weight ranging from about 300 to 2000 can serve as long-lived recording medium in optical memory system. Suitable recording hydrocarbons include microcrystalline waxes and low molecular weight polymers or ethylene.

  13. Effect of zinc supplementation from two sources on growth, nutrient utilization and immune response in male crossbred cattle ( Bos indicus× Bos taurus) bulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Mandal; R. S. Dass; D. P. Isore; A. K. Garg; G. C. Ram

    2007-01-01

    To investigate effects of Zn supplementation on performance, mineral balance and immune response, 15 male crossbred cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) bulls of about 14±0.4 months of age and weighing 226.0±9.1kg were divided in to three groups of five. Bulls in the control group were fed wheat straw and a concentrate mixture (basal diet with 32.5mgZn\\/kg dry matter (DM)), and in

  14. Effects of vitamins A and E supplementation on vitamins A and E status of blood plasma, liver and tail fat of fat-tailed sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Asadian; M. Mézes

    1996-01-01

    Ram lambs of two Iranian fat-tailed genotypes, Shal (4–6 months) and Sanjabi (6–9 months) were used in experiments for 95 days. They were assigned (25 lambs per breed) into five groups for each breed to receive basal diet plus different levels of vitamins A and E supplementation. The vitamin A groups received 50 or 100 IU vitamin A per kg

  15. Effects of Dietary Zinc and l Arginine Supplementation on Total Antioxidants Capacity, Lipid Peroxidation, Nitric Oxide, Egg Weight, and Blood Biochemical Values in Japanase Quails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onur Atakisi; Emine Atakisi; Asim Kart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of dietary zinc and l-arginine supplementation on blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), some blood\\u000a chemistry parameters, and egg weights of laying quails. Three groups of Japanese quails were fed with a diet containing l-arginine (5 mg\\/kg), zinc (60 mg\\/kg), and normal basal diet (control) for 30 days. TAC, lipid

  16. Design of serum-free medium for suspension culture of CHO cells on the basis of general commercial media.

    PubMed

    Miki, Hideo; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2015-08-01

    The design of serum-free media for suspension culture of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using general commercial media as a basis was investigated. Subcultivation using a commercial serum-free medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 with or without FCS necessitated additives other than IGF-1 to compensate for the lack of FCS and improve cell growth. Suspension culture with media containing several combinations of growth factors suggested the effectiveness of addition of both IGF-1 and the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) for promoting cell growth. Subcultivation of CHO cells in suspension culture using the commercial serum-free medium EX-CELL™302, which contained an IGF-1 analog, supplemented with LPA resulted in gradually increasing specific growth rate comparable to the serum-containing medium and in almost the same high antibody production regardless of the number of generations. The culture with EX-CELL™302 supplemented with LPA in a jar fermentor with pH control at 6.9 showed an apparently higher cell growth rate than the cultures without pH control and with pH control at 6.8. The cell growth in the medium supplemented with aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which was much cheaper than IGF-1, in combination with LPA was synergistically promoted similarly to that in the medium supplemented with IGF-1 and LPA. In conclusion, the serum-free medium designed on the basis of general commercial media could support the growth of CHO cells and antibody production comparable to serum-containing medium in suspension culture. Moreover, the possibility of cost reduction by the substitution of IGF-1 with ATA was also shown. PMID:25149286

  17. Forms Supplement page -1 Export Administration Regulations January 2001

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    Forms Supplement page - 1 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 2 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 3 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 4 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12

  18. A differential medium for the enumeration of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii in wine.

    PubMed

    Schuller, D; Côrte-Real, M; Leão, C

    2000-11-01

    A collection of yeasts, isolated mostly from spoiled wines, was used in order to develop a differential medium for Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The 118 selected strains of 21 species differed in their origin and resistance to preservatives and belonged to the genera Pichia, Torulaspora, Dekkera, Debaryomyces, Saccharomycodes, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Kloeckera, Lodderomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. The design of the culture medium was based on the different ability of the various yeast species to grow in a mineral medium with glucose and formic acid (mixed-substrate medium) as the only carbon and energy sources and supplemented with an acid-base indicator. By manipulating the concentration of the acid and the sugar it was possible to select conditions where only Z. bailii strains gave rise to alkalinization, associated with a color change of the medium (positive response). The final composition of the mixed medium was adjusted as a compromise between the percentage of recovery and selectivity for Z. bailii. This was accomplished by the use of pure or mixed cultures of the yeast strains and applying the membrane filtration methodology. The microbiological analysis of two samples of contaminated Vinho Verde showed that the new medium can be considered as a differential medium to distinguish Z. bailii from other contaminating yeasts, having potential application in the microbiological control of wines and probably other beverages and foods. PMID:11079702

  19. Metabolic profiles in the response to supplementation with composite antimicrobial peptides in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H; Wu, M M; Shao, F Y; Tan, B E; Li, T J; Ren, W K; Yin, J; Wang, J; He, Q H; Yin, Y L; Hou, Y Q

    2015-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) causes various toxic effects in human and animals. However, our previous studies have shown that composite antimicrobial peptides (CAP) can have a protective effect in piglets challenged with DON. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the CAP GLAM 180# on the metabolism of piglets challenged with DON using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach. A total of 28 individually housed piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (7 pigs/treatment) based on a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that were fed, respectively, a basal diet (NC), basal diet + 0.4% CAP (basal + CAP), basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON (basal + DON), and basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON + 0.4% CAP (DON + CAP). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 d of treatment. Blood samples were then collected for metabolite analysis by proton NMR (H-NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The combined results of H-NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS/MS showed that DON increased ( < 0.05) the serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein, glycoprotein, urea, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), and lactate as well as those of almost all essential AA and some nonessential AA but decreased the concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), unsaturated lipids, citrate, choline, and fumarate compared with those in NC treatment ( < 0.05). There was a significant interaction effect ( < 0.05) of supplementation with DON and CAP on some metabolites showed that the serum concentrations of HDL, unsaturated lipids, Pro, citrate, and fumarate were greater ( < 0.05) whereas those of glycoprotein, urea, TMAO, Gly, and lactate were lower in the DON + CAP treatment compared with those in the basal + DON treatment ( < 0.05). These findings indicated that DON causes disturbances in AA, lipid, and energy metabolism and that CAP could partially attenuate the above metabolic disturbances induced by DON. PMID:26020888

  20. National nutrition supplementation programmes.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Chaturvedi, S; Nayar, D

    1992-12-01

    Currently major nutrition supplementation programs in India are: 1) Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS); 2) Mid-day meal Programs (MDM); 3) Special Nutrition Programs (SNP); 4) Wheat Based Nutrition Programs (WNP); 5) Applied Nutrition Programs (ANP); 6) Balwadi Nutrition Programs (BNP); 7) National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Program (NNAPP); 8) National Program for Prevention of Blindness due to Vitamin A Deficiency; and 9) National Goiter Control Program (NGCP). The history of the respective programs, their beneficiaries, objectives, activities, organization, and evaluation are detailed. The ICDS beneficiaries are children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers, and women aged 15-44 years, who are provided the following: supplementary nutrition; immunization; health check-ups; referral services; treatment of minor illnesses; pre-school education to children aged 3-6 years. The MDM program's intended beneficiaries are children attending the primary school. Children belonging to backward classes, scheduled caste, and scheduled tribe families are given priority. The SNP is to provide supplementary nutrition and health care services including supply of vitamin A solution and iron and folic acid tablets to pre-school children, and pregnant and lactating mothers of poor groups in urban slums and tribal areas. The ANP strives to make people conscious of their nutritional needs and to provide supplementary nutrition to children aged between 3-6 years and to pregnant and lactating mothers. The beneficiaries of the WNP scheme are children of pre-school age and nursing and expectant mothers in areas with high infant mortality such as urban slums and backward rural areas. The program of BNP aims to supply about one-third of the calorie and half of the protein requirements of pre-school children between the age of 3-5 years to improve the nutritional status. The NNAPP scheme beneficiaries are children in the 1-5 age group and pregnant and nursing mothers, female acceptors of terminal methods of family planning and IUDs. The NGCP aims to supply iodized salt to the entire country by 1992. PMID:1291517

  1. Photoautotrophic and photomixotrophic growth of strawberry plantlets in vitro and changes in nutrient composition of the medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kozai; K. Iwabuchi; K. Watanabe; I. Watanabe

    1991-01-01

    Explants excised from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) plantlets were cultured in vitro for 21 days on half-strength MS (Murashige & Skoog 1962) basal liquid medium with 20 g l-1 sucrose and without sugar in the vessels capped with gas permeable microporous polypropylene film. The experiments were conducted under CO2 nonenriched (350–450 µmol mol-1 in the culture room) and CO2

  2. Cytokine Effects on the Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Function: the Subcortical Source of Inflammatory Malaise

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

  3. A rare case of endobronchial and lung metastasis in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sameer; Sahni, Sonu; Zeb, Shahzad; Esposito, Michael J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, but rarely metastasizes. This article describes diagnosis and treatment of an extremely rare case of BCC metastasizing to the lung and endobronchial tissue. PMID:24361651

  4. Multibranch activity in basal and tuft dendrites during firing of layer 5 cortical neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hill, Daniel N; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Jia, Hongbo; Sakmann, Bert; Konnerth, Arthur

    2013-08-13

    Layer 5 pyramidal neurons process information from multiple cortical layers to provide a major output of cortex. Because of technical limitations it has remained unclear how these cells integrate widespread synaptic inputs located in distantly separated basal and tuft dendrites. Here, we obtained in vivo two-photon calcium imaging recordings from the entire dendritic field of layer 5 motor cortex neurons. We demonstrate that during subthreshold activity, basal and tuft dendrites exhibit spatially localized, small-amplitude calcium transients reflecting afferent synaptic inputs. During action potential firing, calcium signals in basal dendrites are linearly related to spike activity, whereas calcium signals in the tuft occur unreliably. However, in both dendritic compartments, spike-associated calcium signals were uniformly distributed throughout all branches. Thus, our data support a model of widespread, multibranch integration with a direct impact by basal dendrites and only a partial contribution on output signaling by the tuft. PMID:23904480

  5. Clonal Dynamics Reveal Two Distinct Populations of Basal Cells in Slow-Turnover Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Watson, Julie K; Rulands, Steffen; Wilkinson, Adam C; Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Göttgens, Berthold; Blanpain, Cédric; Simons, Benjamin D; Rawlins, Emma L

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial lineages have been studied at cellular resolution in multiple organs that turn over rapidly. However, many epithelia, including those of the lung, liver, pancreas, and prostate, turn over slowly and may be regulated differently. We investigated the mouse tracheal epithelial lineage at homeostasis by using long-term clonal analysis and mathematical modeling. This pseudostratified epithelium contains basal cells and secretory and multiciliated luminal cells. Our analysis revealed that basal cells are heterogeneous, comprising approximately equal numbers of multipotent stem cells and committed precursors, which persist in the basal layer for 11 days before differentiating to luminal fate. We confirmed the molecular and functional differences within the basal population by using single-cell qRT-PCR and further lineage labeling. Additionally, we show that self-renewal of short-lived secretory cells is a feature of homeostasis. We have thus revealed early luminal commitment of cells that are morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells. PMID:26119728

  6. Abnormal microstructures of the basal ganglia in schizophrenia revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Mori, Takeyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Noguchi, Hiroko; Nakabayashi, Tetsuo; Hori, Hiroaki; Harada, Seiichi; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Osamu; Ohnishi, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    There has been a hypothesis that deficits in the basal ganglia-thalamic system may play an important role in the dysfunctional goal-directed behaviour in schizophrenia. By using diffusion tensor imaging, we measured fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the basal ganglia-thalamic system in 42 schizophrenics and 42 matched controls to investigate microstructural tissue alterations in the basal ganglia-thalamic system in schizophrenia. Schizophrenics had significantly lower FA values in the bilateral globus pallidus and left thalamus compared to controls, suggesting that schizophrenics might have microstructural abnormalities in globus pallidus and thalamus. These data support the notion that myelination abnormalities in basal ganglia-thalamic system are related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:19253093

  7. Collective Invasion in Breast Cancer Requires a Conserved Basal Epithelial Program

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin J.; Gabrielson, Edward; Werb, Zena; Ewald, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Carcinomas typically invade as a cohesive multicellular unit, a process termed collective invasion. It remains unclear how different subpopulations of cancer cells contribute to this process. We developed three-dimensional (3D) organoid assays to identify the most invasive cancer cells in primary breast tumors. Collective invasion was led by specialized cancer cells that were defined by their expression of basal epithelial genes, such as cytokeratin-14 (K14) and p63. Furthermore, K14+ cells led collective invasion in the major human breast cancer subtypes. Importantly, luminal cancer cells were observed to convert phenotypically to invasive leaders following induction of basal epithelial genes. Although only a minority of cells within luminal tumors expressed basal epithelial genes, knockdown of either K14 or p63 was sufficient to block collective invasion. Our data reveal that heterotypic interactions between epithelial subpopulations are critical to collective invasion. We suggest that targeting the basal invasive program could limit metastatic progression. PMID:24332913

  8. THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHEMOARCHITECTURE OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN: SPATIALLY SPECIFIC ASSOCIATION OF CHOLINERGIC

    E-print Network

    Zaborszky, Laszlo

    of four major basal forebrain cell popula- tions, the cholinergic, parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin containing various calcium-bind- ing proteins, e.g. calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parv- albumin (PV

  9. ATG12-ATG3 connects basal autophagy and late endosome function.

    PubMed

    Murrow, Lyndsay; Debnath, Jayanta

    2015-06-01

    In addition to supporting cell survival in response to starvation or stress, autophagy promotes basal protein and organelle turnover. Compared to our understanding of stress-induced autophagy, little is known about how basal autophagy is regulated and how its activity is coordinated with other cellular processes. We recently identified a novel interaction between the ATG12-ATG3 conjugate and the ESCRT-associated protein PDCD6IP/Alix that promotes basal autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. Moreover, ATG12-ATG3 is required for diverse PDCD6IP-mediated functions including late endosome distribution, exosome secretion, and viral budding. Our results highlight the importance of late endosomes for basal autophagic flux and reveal distinct roles for the core autophagy proteins ATG12 and ATG3 in controlling late endosome function. PMID:25998418

  10. A spiking neural network based on the basal ganglia functional anatomy.

    PubMed

    Baladron, Javier; Hamker, Fred H

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a spiking neural network of the basal ganglia capable of learning stimulus-action associations. We model learning in the three major basal ganglia pathways, direct, indirect and hyperdirect, by spike time dependent learning and considering the amount of dopamine available (reward). Moreover, we allow to learn a cortico-thalamic pathway that bypasses the basal ganglia. As a result the system develops new functionalities for the different basal ganglia pathways: The direct pathway selects actions by disinhibiting the thalamus, the hyperdirect one suppresses alternatives and the indirect pathway learns to inhibit common mistakes. Numerical experiments show that the system is capable of learning sets of either deterministic or stochastic rules. PMID:25863288

  11. The geology of the basal sandstone-mudstone unit of the Blackhawk Landslide, Lucerne Valley, California

    E-print Network

    Kuzior, Jerry Linn

    1983-01-01

    for thin, localized, basal layers of sandstone, gneiss, and mixed breccia. Within Blackhawk Canyon, Member 2 lies with slickensided, horizontal contact on Old Woman Sandstone and is interpreted to be a landside that occurred prior to, but attained less...

  12. THE JOUKNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 348:481-510 (1994) GABAergic Projection From the Basal

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    1994-01-01

    magnocellularis. Injection of biocytin into the basal forebrain resulted in the anterogradelabeling of a denseband terminals in the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus that were labeled from a biocytin injection

  13. Autism spectrum disorder susceptibility gene TAOK2 affects basal dendrite formation in the neocortex

    E-print Network

    Calderon de Anda, Froylan

    How neurons develop their morphology is an important question in neurobiology. Here we describe a new pathway that specifically affects the formation of basal dendrites and axonal projections in cortical pyramidal neurons. ...

  14. The Transpalatal Approach to Repair of Congenital Basal Skull Base Cephaloceles

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Stephen R.; Edwards, Michael S. B.; Bailey, C. Martin; Koltai, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Basal skull base herniations, including meningoceles and encephaloceles, are rare and may present with characteristic facial and neurologic features. The traditional craniotomy approach has known morbidity, and nasal endoscopy may not allow for control of large posterior basal defects, especially in newborns. We present two cases of successful repair of basal transsphenoidal meningoceles using an oral-transpalatal approach. The first patient with an intact palate presented with respiratory distress, and a palatectomy was performed for access to the skull base. The second patient had a large basal herniation that was reduced through a congenital midline cleft palate, and a calvarial bone graft was used to repair the defect. A literature search revealed 10 previous successful cases using the transpalatal repair, which allows for excellent access, low morbidity, and a team-oriented method to skull base surgery. PMID:25072006

  15. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ? 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be accelerated. PMID:23689111

  16. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

  17. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  18. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  19. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  20. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  1. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  2. Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Supplemental Feeding 

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Bruce B.; Hart, Charles R.

    2001-05-31

    When forage quality and/or quantity is affected by drought, livestock producers usually must decide whether to offer supplemental feed. This publication offers advice on making decisions about supplementation and gives feed management tips....

  3. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  4. Mechanisms of basal and kinase-inducible transcription activation by CREB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick G Quinn

    2002-01-01

    The CAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) stimulates basal transcription of CRE-containing genes and mediates induction of transcription upon phosphorylation by protein kinases. The basal activity of CREB maps to a carboxy-terminal constitutive activation domain (CAD), whereas phosphorylation and inducibility map to a central, kinase-Inducible domain (KID). The CAD interacts with and recruits the promoter recognition factor TFIID through an

  5. Basal ganglia intensity indices and diffusion weighted imaging in manganese-exposed welders

    PubMed Central

    Criswell, Susan R; Perlmutter, Joel S; Huang, John L; Golchin, Nima; Flores, Hubert P; Hobson, Angela; Aschner, Michael; Erikson, Keith M; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Manganese exposure leads to diffuse cerebral metal deposition with the highest concentration in the globus pallidus associated with increased T1-weighted MRI signal. T1 signal intensity in extra-pallidal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) has not been studied in occupationally exposed workers. Diffusion weighted imaging is a non-invasive measure of neuronal damage and may provide a quantification of neurotoxicity associated with welding and manganese exposure. This study investigated extra-pallidal T1 basal ganglia signal intensity as a marker of manganese exposure and basal ganglia diffusion weighted imaging abnormalities as a potential marker of neurotoxicity. Methods A 3T MR case:control imaging study was performed on 18 welders and 18 age- and gender-matched controls. Basal ganglia regions of interest were identified for each subject. T1-weighted intensity indices and apparent diffusion coefficients were generated for each region. Results All regional indices were higher in welders than controls (p?0.05). Combined basal ganglia (?=0.610), caudate (?=0.645), anterior (?=0.595) and posterior putamen (?=0.511) indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal (?=0.484) index. Welder apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower than controls for globus pallidus (p=0.03) and anterior putamen (p=0.004). Conclusions Welders demonstrated elevated T1 indices throughout the basal ganglia. Combined basal ganglia, caudate and putamen indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal index suggesting more inclusive basal ganglia sampling results in better exposure markers. Elevated indices were associated with diffusion weighted abnormalities in the pallidum and anterior putamen suggesting neurotoxicity in these regions. PMID:22447645

  6. Interpretation of Radar Basal Reflectivity in Ice-Sheet Grounding Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, K. A.; Jacobel, R. W.; Horgan, H. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Holland, D. M.; Alley, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Properly mapping bed topography and basal conditions in ice-sheet grounding zones is crucial to understanding ice-sheet evolution. Detailed maps of bed topography are needed to properly assess the impact of bed pinning points in grounding-line retreat scenarios. Other processes, including sediment deposition, till compaction, and infiltration of ocean water upstream of grounding via tidal flexure, may also have important effects on grounding-line stability. Ice-penetrating radar is the most commonly used technique to examine ice-sheet grounding zones because it supplies large amounts of useful data comparatively easily. Although mapping the bed topography is relatively straightforward, more-complete interpretations of radar data incorporating information from basal reflectivity and basal-echo phase remain difficult, even with recent advances in radar technology. Here we present a detailed interpretation of radar basal reflectivity at the grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream, informed using active-source seismic data and dielectric modeling. Our results indicate that basal reflectivity in complex environments must be interpreted with caution, because bed returned power is substantially affected by many possible basal conditions including thin films of various materials (e.g., freshwater, seawater, debris-bearing ice, sediment of varying compaction state), widespread crevasses, and off-nadir reflections. After careful examination of these issues, our data indicate substantial mixing in the shallow water column in a subglacial embayment where several subglacial lakes drain. Basal reflectivity in nearby areas with no subglacial drainage indicates a more abrupt transition along ice flow from ice overlying till to ice overlying seawater. Thus, properly considered, radar basal reflectivity still yields valuable information about grounding-zone conditions, including water properties as the ice begins to float. We conclude by discussing ramifications of this study for interpretation of airborne radar data collected over other grounding zones, including those of Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers.

  7. Immunohistochemical and Clinical Characterization of the Basal Like Subtype of Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten O. Nielsen; Forrest D. Hsu; Kristin Jensen; Maggie Cheang; Gamze Karaca; Zhiyuan Hu; Tina Hernandez-Boussard; Chad Livasy; Dave Cowan; Lynn Dressler; Lars A. Akslen; Joseph Ragaz; Allen M. Gown; C. Blake Gilks; Matt van de Rijn; Charles M. Perou

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Expression profiling studies classified breast carcinomas into estrogen receptor (ER)\\/luminal, normal breast-like, HER2 overexpressing, and basal-like groups, with the latter two associated with poor outcomes. Cur- rently, there exist clinical assays that identify ER\\/luminal and HER2-overexpressing tumors, and we sought to develop a clinical assay for breast basal-like tumors. Experimental Design: To identify an immunohistochem- ical profile for breast

  8. Coupling between water pressure and basal sliding în a linked-cavity hydraulic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil F. Humphrey

    1987-01-01

    Steady-state analysis of water and ice flow over a repeating three-dimensional pattern of bedrock steps, yields basic characteristics of a linked-cavity basal system. A force balance for the ice flow defines a pressure in the basal water system that depends only on the geometry of the bed and ice, and on the gradient of longitudinal stress in the ice. The

  9. The Basal Ganglia within a Cognitive System in Birds and Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Christopher I.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The primate basal ganglia are fundamental to the Ackermann and colleagues’ proposal. However, primates and rodents are models for human cognitive functions involving basal-ganglia circuits and links between striatal function and vocal communication come from songbirds. We suggest that the proposal is better integrated in cognitive and/or motor theories on spoken language origins and with more analogous nonhuman animal models. PMID:25514958

  10. The geology of the basal sandstone-mudstone unit of the Blackhawk Landslide, Lucerne Valley, California 

    E-print Network

    Kuzior, Jerry Linn

    1983-01-01

    THE GEOLOGY OF THE BASAL SANDSTONE-MUDSTONE UNIT OF THE BLACKHAWK LANDSLIDE, LUCERNE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA A Thesis by JERRY LINN KUZIOR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Geology THE GEOLOGY OF THE BASAL SANDSTONE-MUDSTONE UNIT OF THE BLACKHANK LANDSLIDE, LUCERNE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA A Thesis by JERRY LINN KUZIOR Approved as to style and content by: Brann Jo...

  11. High affinity serotonin binding sites in human brain: a comparison of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Cross I; P. Slater

    1989-01-01

    Summary The high-affinity binding of3H-serotonin and3H-DP-AT was studied in membrane preparations and tissue sections of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia of human brain. In tissue sections,3H-serotonin bound to sites present at high density in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia.3HDPAT bound predominantly to the outer layers of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, no significant binding was observed in

  12. Rotating micro-structures in Antarctic cold basal ice: implications for glacier flow and its interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Samyn; Sean J. Fitzsimons; Reginald D. Lorrain

    2010-01-01

    Structural analyses were conducted in the basal zone of an Antarctic glacier. The studied basal ice sequence was retrieved\\u000a from a 20-m-long subglacial tunnel dug at the margin of the glacier and is at the temperature of ?17°C. For the first time,\\u000a rotating clast systems embedded within debris-rich ice were thin-sectioned using specially designed cutting techniques. The\\u000a observed structures reflect

  13. Basal Ganglia Volume and Shape in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Anqi; Crocetti, Deana; Adler, Marcy; Mahone, E. Mark; Denckla, Martha B.; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Volumetric abnormalities of basal ganglia have been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in boys. To specify localization of these abnormalities, large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) was used to examine the effects of ADHD, sex, and their interaction on basal ganglia shapes. Method The basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus) were manually delineated on magnetic resonance imaging from 66 typically developing children (35 boys) and 47 children (27 boys) with ADHD. LDDMM mappings from 35 typically developing children were used to generate basal ganglia templates. Shape variations of each structure relative to the template were modeled for each subject as a random field using Laplace-Beltrami basis functions in the template coordinates. Linear regression was used to examine group differences in volumes and shapes of the basal ganglia. Results Boys with ADHD showed significantly smaller basal ganglia volumes compared with typically developing boys, and LDDMM revealed the groups remarkably differed in basal ganglia shapes. Volume compression was seen bilaterally in the caudate head and body and anterior putamen as well as in the left anterior globus pallidus and right ventral putamen. Volume expansion was most pronounced in the posterior putamen. No volume or shape differences were revealed in girls with ADHD. Conclusions The shape compression pattern of basal ganglia in boys with ADHD suggests that ADHD-associated deviations from typical brain development involve multiple frontal-subcortical control loops, including circuits with premotor, oculomotor, and prefrontal cortices. Further investigations employing brain-behavior analyses will help to discern the task-dependent contributions of these circuits to impaired response control that is characteristic of ADHD. PMID:19015232

  14. Multifocal skin basal cell carcinomata 57 years after topical dry ice treatment.

    PubMed

    Amalaseelan, Julan V; Lukin, Lionel J; McKay, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    We report a rare case of simultaneous multiple basal cell carcinomata occurring on the back of a patient who had received dry ice treatment to this area almost 6 decades previously. This is also one of the longest recorded disease-free intervals between skin trauma and basal cell carcinoma development. We discuss the aetiopathology of multiple skin cancers in our patient and the propensity for destructive skin events to predispose to malignancy. PMID:22458509

  15. Management of the Basal McMurray Watersand During Bitumen and Heavy Oil Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken C. Baxter

    The distribution of bitumen in the McMurray Formation varies with a high degree of heterogeneity relating to facies changes throughout the deposit. Sand near the base of the McMurray tends to be coarse-grained. Locally, this sand forms a basal aquifer where the bitumen content is low. This basal aquifer tends to be thickest within the topographic depressions on the surface

  16. Control of Arabidopsis apical-basal embryo polarity by antagonistic transcription factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachery R. Smith; Jeff A. Long

    2010-01-01

    Plants, similarly to animals, form polarized axes during embryogenesis on which cell differentiation and organ patterning programs are orchestrated. During Arabidopsis embryogenesis, establishment of the shoot and root stem cell populations occurs at opposite ends of an apical-basal axis. Recent work has identified the PLETHORA (PLT) genes as master regulators of basal\\/root fate, whereas the master regulators of apical\\/shoot fate

  17. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi parametric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Thomas; Sapart, Celia Julia; Popp, Trevor; El Amri, Saïda; Tison, Jean-louis

    2015-04-01

    Basal ice is a common expression to describe debris-laden ice layers found close to the ice-bedrock interface under glaciers and ice sheets. The study of basal ice properties provides us with the unique opportunity of improving our understanding of subglacial environments and processes and refine ice sheet behaviour modelling. Here, we present and discuss the results of water stable isotopes (?18O and ?D), ice fabrics, debris weight and gas content of the basal part of the NEEM (North Eemian Ice Drilling Program) ice core. Below 2533.85 m deep, almost 10 m of basal debris-rich material were retrieved from the borehole. The situation at NEEM is different from the previously well-documented GRIP core where the basal ice corresponds to pre ice sheet ice overridden by the growing ice sheet. At NEEM, the basal debris-rich material presents ?18O values from -39.89 to -34.36 permil within the range of the above last 300 m of meteoric ice from -44.86 to -30.59 permil. The sequence is however composed of an alternation of three visually contrasting types of ice : clear ice with specks of particulate inclusions, stratified debris-rich layers, and ice containing dispersed debris. Using water stable isotopes (?18O and ? D) signatures, each of these ice types are discriminated and clues are given for their conditions of formation and transformation processes. The proposed interpretation is then refined in the light of the other available parameters. While clear basal ice with specks corresponds to altered meteoric glacial ice, stratified debris-rich layer and ice containing dispersed debris present a melting/refreezing signature, somewhat blurred by mixing processes. Based on the identified origins of the different ice types, the present study proposes a first interpretative framework for the build-up of the NEEM basal ice sequence.

  18. Dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid modulates growth performance and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Matsushita, K; Takahashi, K; Aoki, M; Fuziwara, J; Miyanari, S; Kamada, T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the immune system, inflammatory response, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The levels of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) mRNA in the spleens of chickens gradually increased with dietary 5-ALA concentration, while the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased. Mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells and blood mononuclear cell phagocytosis in chickens fed 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA-supplemented diets were significantly greater than in chickens fed a basal diet (control). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration gradually increased along with 5-ALA supplement concentration. These results provide the first evidence that the use of dietary 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA supplementation induces the T-cell immune system via mild oxidative stress in chickens. Three hours after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation, the levels of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet were significantly lower than those in chickens exposed to other treatments. The plasma caeruloplasmin concentration in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet was significantly lower than in controls or in chickens fed diets supplemented with other concentrations of 5-ALA 24 h after injection of LPS. In addition, BW at 21 and 50 d of age was significantly higher in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet than in control chickens. The findings suggest that supplementation of diets with 0.001% 5-ALA could prevent the catabolic changes induced by immunological stimulation. These results show that 5-ALA might be useful as an immunomodulator to stimulate T-cells via mild oxidative stress in growing broiler chickens, thereby improving the growth performance. PMID:22700502

  19. Modification and evaluation of Brucella broth based Campylobacter jejuni transport medium.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yao; Cui, Sheng Hui; Xu, Xiao; Li, Feng Qin

    2014-06-01

    Reliable transport of Campylobacter jejuni isolates is critical to microbial epidemiology research, especially in developing countries without a good temperature control mailing system. Various factors, including oxygen, temperature, transport medium composition, could affect the survival of C. jejuni. In this study, the protective effects of different ingredients in C. jejuni transport media at 4 °C and 25 °C and under aerobic condition were quantitatively evaluated respectively. The results showed that enriched medium, supplementation with 5% blood and being kept at 4 °C could improve the viability of different C. jejuni strains during transport. In addition, supplementation with 25 mmol/L L-fucose in Wang's transport medium could significantly improve the survival of C. jejuni at both 4 °C and 25 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the protective effect of L-fucose in enriched C. jejuni transport medium which is feasible in developing countries without an effective cold chain mailing system. These data will be good reference for C. jejuni transport medium improvement in future. PMID:24961857

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Li, L. Y.; Li, J. L.; Zhang, L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211