Children's literature can be used effectively to enrich the reading content of basal reading materials with stories and information by and about ethnic minorities. Developing an ethnic cultural web for a literary selection can stimulate language and enhance the thought processes of students. Using the webbing process, elementary school students…
Florez-Tighe, Viola; And Others
Insulin supplements, predominantly as a constant basal fish insulin infusion, were given to patients with mild diabetes to reduce the overnight fasting glucose level to normal. The basal plasma human insulin levels were reduced to subnormal levels by the infusion, and the insulin response to intravenous glucose was enhanced. The beta-cell in diabetes seems to be in a vicious circle
R C Turner; S T McCarthy; R R Holman; E Harris
Requirements of eliminating animal proteins from cell culture have intensified in recent years, with the pressure of regulatory agencies related to biopharmaceuticals production. In this work, the substitution of fetal bovine serum by yeastolate and a soy hydrolysate (Hy Soy) for the culture of Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 cells transfected for the production of rabies virus G glycoprotein was evaluated. TC100 supplemented with glucose, glutamine, lipid emulsion and Pluronic F68 was employed as basal medium. Results show that yeastolate was more efficient on cell growth stimulation than Hy Soy. Cells adapted in medium formulation supplemented with 3 g/L yeastolate, 1% lipid emulsion, 10 g/L glucose, 3.5 g/L glutamine and 0.1% Pluronic F68 attained a maximum concentration of 10.7 x 10(6) cells/mL, with the expression of 9.4 ng/mL G glycoprotein. PMID:17582824
Galesi, Adriana L L; Pereira, Carlos A; Moraes, Angela M
In this study, optimal basal medium composition for fermentative hydrogen production from cheese whey wastewater was investigated in batch tests. Twenty-five different basal medium formulas was prepared, each containing trace metals concentration (Co, Ni, Zn: 0–5 mg\\/l), macro elements concentration (Mg: 0–200 mg\\/l; Mn: 0–10 mg\\/l, Fe: 0–100 mg\\/l, Ca: 0–1000 mg\\/l), C\\/N ratio of 5–50, and yeast extract and
Nuri Azbar; F. Tuba Çetinkaya Dokgöz; Zerife Peker
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of Plasmanate, a protein preparation containing human serum albumin and mixed globulins to autologous preovulatory maternal serum, as an in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium supplement. Plasmanate was used most often in cases involving unexplained infertility, sperm antibodies, and endometriosis or when serum was unavailable.
Alexis Adler; Adrienne McVicker Reing; J. Michael Bedford; Mina Alikani; Jacques Cohen
Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.
Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.
An extension is presented of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements which have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1985 to 1988, and 1985 IMF data from the Czechoslovakian Soviet Prognoz 10 spacecraft. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1985 to 1988 data as for the earlier data.
King, Joseph H.
This publication represents an extension of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements that have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1988 through the end of 1993. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1988-1993 data as for the earlier data. Owing to a combination of non-continuity of IMP 8 telemetry acquisition and IMP's being out of the solar wind for about 40 percent of its orbit, the annual solar wind coverage for 1988-1993 is 40 plus or minus 5 percent. The plots and listings of this supplement are in essentially the same format as in previous supplements. Days for which neither IMF nor plasma data were available for any hours are omitted from the listings.
King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.
Background The basal medium that supports Isolated Mouse Oviduct (IMO) is important for supporting embryo development and quality. Methods The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes was done in IMO using SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA as basal medium of IMO and in SOFaaBSA alone as control. For preparation of IMO mature inbred strain C57BL/6 female mice were synchronized and mated with vasectomized males. The females with vaginal plug were sacrificed and the zygotes were transferred in to the isolated oviduct at 20 hpi. The oviducts were cultured with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA for 6 days. Another group of zygotes were cultured in SOFaaBSA alone as control. Results Culture of zygotes in the IMO with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA, did not significantly affect the development and quality of embryos (p > 0.05). The hatching rate, total and trophectoderm cells number in IMO groups’ blastocysts were significantly higher than SOFaaBSA alone. The morphological appearance of IMO blastocysts was superior to SOFaaBSA alone. When the quality of oocytes was poor, IMO could better support ovine embryo development either with SOFaaBSA or SOFaaciBSA than SOFaaBSA alone and there was a significant difference in blastocyst formation at day 6 with SOFaaBSA alone. Conclusion The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes in IMO using two highly efficient ruminant embryo culture media not only could support development of ovine embryos similar to the level in non IMO culture system (SOFaaBSA alone) but also could improve the quality of resulting embryos. Additionally, IMO could better support the development of ovine embryos derived from poor quality oocytes compared to the SOFaaBSA alone.
Farahavar, Abbas; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Kohram, Hamid; Shahneh, Ahmad Zareh; Sarvari, Ali; Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Zhandi, Mehdi
OBJECTIVE We compared the effect of insulin lispro protamine suspension (ILPS) with that of insulin glargine and insulin detemir, all given as basal supplementation, in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted an electronic search until February 2012, including online registries of ongoing trials and abstract books. All randomized controlled trials comparing ILPS with insulin glargine or detemir with a duration of ?12 weeks were included. RESULTS We found four trials lasting 24–36 weeks involving 1,336 persons: three studies compared ILPS with glargine, and one trial compared ILPS with detemir. There was no significant difference in change in HbA1c level between ILPS and comparators, in the proportion of patients achieving the HbA1c goals of ?6.5 or <7%, in weight change, or in daily insulin doses. There was no difference in overall hypoglycemia, but nocturnal hypoglycemia occurred significantly more with ILPS than with comparator insulins (mean difference 0.099 events/patient/30 days [95% CI 0.03–0.17]). In a prespecified sensitivity analysis comparing data obtained in patients who remained on their once-daily insulin regimen, not significantly different event rates for nocturnal hypoglycemia were observed between ILPS and comparator insulins (0.063 [?0.007 to 0.13]), and ILPS was associated with lower insulin dose (0.07 units/kg/day [0.05–0.09]). CONCLUSIONS There is no difference between ILPS and insulin glargine or detemir for targeting hyperglycemia, but nocturnal hypoglycemia occurred more frequently with ILPS than with comparator insulins. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was not significantly different in people who injected insulin once daily.
Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Capuano, Annalisa; Petrizzo, Michela; Improta, Maria Rosaria; Giugliano, Dario
Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts. PMID:23390041
Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea
An efficient method of formulating serum-free medium (SFM) for production of therapeutic antibodies by recombinant CHO (rCHO)\\u000a cells was developed using two rCHO cell lines producing a therapeutic antibody. In this method, ten kinds of SFM were prepared\\u000a by supplementing the basal SFM with statistically designed mixtures (total 5 g L?1) of three non-animal-derived hydrolysates: yeastolate, soy hydrolysate, and wheat gluten
Sung Hyun Kim; Gyun Min Lee
Three experiments were carried out using lambs to assess the effect of level of napier hay and urea supplements on the utilization of poor quality natural pasture (veld) hay. In all the experiments the lambs were given graded levels of napier hay as supplements to the basal diet of veld hay. In Experiment 1, the veld hay was not supplemented
B. Manyuchi; F. D. Deb Hovell; L. R. Ndlovu; J. H. Topps; A. Tigere
Growing evidence show that human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) could provide a source of adult stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies. In this study, DPSCs were expanded and cultured with a protocol generally used for the culture of neural stem/progenitor cells. Methodology: DPSC cultures were established from third molars. The pulp tissue was enzymatically digested and cultured in serum-supplemented basal medium for 12 h. Adherent (ADH) and non-adherent (non-ADH) cell populations were separated according to their differential adhesion to plastic and then cultured in serum-free defined N2 medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Both ADH and non-ADH populations were analyzed by FACS and/or PCR. Results: FACS analysis of ADH-DPSCs revealed the expression of the mesenchymal cell marker CD90, the neuronal marker CD56, the transferrin receptor CD71, and the chemokine receptor CXCR3, whereas hematopoietic stem cells markers CD45, CD133, and CD34 were not expressed. ADH-DPSCs expressed transcripts coding for the Nestin gene, whereas expression levels of genes coding for the neuronal markers ?-III tubulin and NF-M, and the oligodendrocyte marker PLP-1 were donor dependent. ADH-DPSCs did not express the transcripts for GFAP, an astrocyte marker. Cells of the non-ADH population that grew as spheroids expressed Nestin, ?-III tubulin, NF-M and PLP-1 transcripts. DPSCs that migrated out of the spheroids exhibited an odontoblast-like morphology and expressed a higher level of DSPP and osteocalcin transcripts than ADH-DPSCs. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that human DPSCs can be expanded and cultured in serum-free supplemented medium with EGF and bFGF. ADH-DPSCs and non-ADH populations contained neuronal and/or oligodendrocyte progenitors at different stages of commitment and, interestingly, cells from spheroid structures seem to be more engaged into the odontoblastic lineage than the ADH-DPSCs.
Bonnamain, Virginie; Thinard, Reynald; Sergent-Tanguy, Solene; Huet, Pascal; Bienvenu, Geraldine; Naveilhan, Philippe; Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte
An in vitro propagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. has been developed. Due to the presence of sennosides, the demand of this plant has increased manyfold in global market. Multiple shoots were induced by culturing nodal explants excised from mature plants on a liquid Murashige and Skoog  medium supplemented with 5-100 ?M of thidiazuron (TDZ) for different treatment duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d). The optimal level of TDZ supplemented to the culture medium was 75 ?M for 12 d induction period followed by subculturing in MS medium devoid of TDZ as it produced maximum regeneration frequency (87%), mean number of shoots (9.6 ± 0.33) and shoot length (4.4 ± 0.46 cm) per explant. A culture period longer than 12 d with TDZ resulted in the formation of fasciated or distorted shoots. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots was dipped in 200 ?M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile soilrite where 85% plantlets grew well and all exhibited normal development. The present findings describe an efficient and rapid plant regeneration protocol that can further be used for genetic transformation studies. PMID:24013898
Siddique, I; Abdullwahab Bukhari, N; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Anis, M
Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length.
Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie
An efficient method of formulating serum-free medium (SFM) for production of therapeutic antibodies by recombinant CHO (rCHO) cells was developed using two rCHO cell lines producing a therapeutic antibody. In this method, ten kinds of SFM were prepared by supplementing the basal SFM with statistically designed mixtures (total 5 g L(-1)) of three non-animal-derived hydrolysates: yeastolate, soy hydrolysate, and wheat gluten hydrolysate. When the two rCHO cell lines were cultivated, the mixtures of soy hydrolysate and wheat gluten hydrolysate showed a positive effect on cell growth. On the other hand, the mixtures including a high portion of yeastolate significantly enhanced specific antibody productivity. To reconstitute the mixture ratios of the three hydrolysates for high growth and antibody production, the effect of each medium was analyzed by the statistical program Design-Expert(R). The resulting medium gave a 1.9-3.3-fold increase in the maximum antibody concentration, compared to the basal SFM. Taken together, the supplementation of hydrolysates to the basal SFM with the help of statistical analysis is an efficient means of developing SFM for therapeutic antibody production by rCHO cells. PMID:19266194
Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Gyun Min
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of potassium simplex optimization medium with amino acids (KSOMaa) as a basal culture medium for caprine intraspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and caprine-bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. The effect of increased glucose as an energy substrate for late stage development of cloned caprine embryos in vitro was also evaluated. Enucleated caprine and bovine in vitro matured oocytes at metaphase II were reconstructed with caprine ear skin fibroblast cells for the SCNT and iSCNT studies. The cloned caprine and parthenogenetic embryos were cultured in either KSOMaa with 0.2 mM glucose for 8 days (Treatment 1) or KSOMaa for 2 days followed by KSOMaa with additional glucose at a final concentration of 2.78 mM for the last 6 days (Treatment 2). There were no significant differences in the cleavage rates of SCNT (80.7%) and iSCNT (78.0%) embryos cultured in KSOMaa medium. Both Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 could support in vitro development of SCNT and iSCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage. However, the blastocyst development rate of SCNT embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Treatment 2 compared to Treatment 1. Increasing glucose for later stage embryo development (8-cell stage onwards) during in vitro culture (IVC) in Treatment 2 also improved both caprine SCNT and iSCNT embryo development to the hatched blastocyst stage. In conclusion, this study shows that cloned caprine embryos derived from SCNT and iSCNT could develop to the blastocyst stage in KSOMaa medium supplemented with additional glucose (2.78 mM, final concentration) and this medium also supported hatching of caprine cloned blastocysts. PMID:22704387
Kwong, P J; Abdullah, R B; Wan Khadijah, W E
Summary The feasibility of developing alternative media to different culture media particularly potato dextrose agar was assessed using local cereal species as the basal media. Three cereal meal extracts – corn, sorghum and millet – were prepared, using them as substitute for the potato in potato dextrose agar. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) was the standard set up with which the
A. O. Adesemoye; C. O. Adedire
This study compared the rates of maturation, fertilization, cleavage and pregnancy among oocytes matured in medium containing either human serum albumin (HSA) or maternal serum. Immature oocytes were obtained from 51 consecutive regularly cycling women <38 years of age. Immature oocytes were aspirated transvaginally on cycle day 8-9 after priming with FSH (Gonal-F 150 IU/day for 3 days, initiated on day 3). Oocytes were matured in Dyrkningsmedie til IVM supplemented with recombinant FSH (rFSH) 0.075 IU/ml and HCG 0.5 IU/ml for 28-30 h. In group I (n = 63 oocytes obtained from the first 23 cycles) the culture medium was supplemented with 2% (w/v) HSA. In group II (n = 74 oocytes obtained from the following 28 cycles) the medium was supplemented with 10% (v/v) heat-inactivated maternal serum. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed on all methaphase II oocytes. Significantly increased rates of maturation 47/74 (63%) vs. 26/63 (41%) (P < 0.05), pregnancy 6/28 (21%) vs. 0/23 (0%) (P < 0.05) and implantation 6/20 (30%) vs. 0/15 (0%) (P < 0.05) were obtained from oocytes matured in culture medium with maternal serum supplementation compared with oocytes matured in medium supplemented with HSA. These results indicate that factors other than albumin in maternal serum play an important role in maturation and subsequent developmental capacity of human oocytes. PMID:12513873
Mikkelsen, A L; Høst, E; Blaabjerg, J; Lindenberg, S
Objectives Recent studies demonstrated that prolactin has beneficial effects on ?-cells for islet transplantation. We examined the effect of human recombinant prolactin (rhPRL) supplementation to the culture media to determine its potential use in the context of clinical islet transplantation. Materials and Methods Each human islet isolated from 14 deceased multi-organ donors was cultured in Miami modified media-1 supplemented with or without rhPRL (500?g/L) for 48 hours. ?-cell survival and proliferation (BrdU and Ki-67) were determined by laser-scanning cytometry. The cytoprotective effects of rhPRL against noxious stimuli were assessed by flow cytometry (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester). Cytokine/chemokine and tissue factor (TF) production were measured in vitro and islet potency was assessed in vivo into diabetic immunodeficient mice. Results ?-cell survival during culture was 37% higher in the rhPRL group than in control (p=0.029). rhPRL protected ?-cells in vitro from cytokines, Nitric Oxide donor and H2O2. The exposure to rhPRL did not affect human beta-cell proliferation with our protocol. rhPRL treatment did not alter cytokine/chemokine and TF production in vitro nor affected human islet functionality in vivo: recipient mice achieved normoglycemia with a comparable tempo, while loss of graft function was observed in 2/7 mice in the control group and in none of the rhPRL group (p=n.s.). Conclusion rhPRL supplementation to islet culture media improved human ?-cell-specific survival without altering islet quality. Addition of rhPRL to cultured islets may grant a more viable ?-cell mass in culture. The development of ?-cell cytoprotective strategies will be of assistance in improving islet transplantation outcomes.
Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Mita, Atsuyoshi; Ricordi, Camillo; Messinger, Shari; Miki, Atsushi; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Timoneri, Francesca; Barker, Scott; Fornoni, Alessia; Molano, R. Damaris; Inverardi, Luca; Pileggi, Antonello; Ichii, Hirohito
Background: An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. Objective: This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. Results: After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm.
Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein
Background: An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. Objective: This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. Results: After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm. PMID:24976819
Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein
Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates.
van Schalkwijk, Daniel B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.
Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells can grow in synthetic medium supplemented with five factors-insulin, transferrin, prostaglandin E1, hydrocortisone, and triiodothyronine-as a serum substitute. These five factors permit growth for 1 month in the absence of serum and a growth rate equivalent to that observed in serum-supplemented medium. Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate substitutes for prostaglandin E1 in the medium. Potential applications
Mary Taub; Lorraine Chuman; Milton H. Saier; Gordon Sato
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess great potential for use in regenerative medicine. However, their clinical application may be limited by the ability to expand their cell numbers in vitro while maintaining their differential potentials and stem cell properties. Thus the aim of this study was to test the effect of a range of medium supplements on MSC self-renewal and differentiation potential. Cells were cultured until confluent and subcultured continuously until reaching senescence. Medium supplementation with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, ascorbic acid (AA), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) both increased proliferation rate and markedly increased number of cell doublings before reaching senescence, with a greater than 1,000-fold increase in total cell numbers for AA, FGF-2, and PDGF-BB compared with control cultures. Long-term culture was associated with loss of osteogenic/adipocytic differentiation potential, particularly with FGF-2 supplementation but also with AA, EGF, and PDGF-BB. In addition FGF-2 resulted in reduction in expression of CD146 and alkaline phosphatase, but this was partially reversible on removal of the supplement. Cells expressed surface markers including CD146, CD105, CD44, CD90, and CD71 by flow cytometry throughout, and expression of these putative stem cell markers persisted even after loss of differentiation potentials. Overall, medium supplementation with FGF-2, AA, EGF, and PDGF-BB greatly enhanced the total in vitro expansion capacity of MSC cultures, although differentiation potentials were lost prior to reaching senescence. Loss of differentiation potential was not reflected by changes in stem cell surface marker expression. PMID:23197689
Gharibi, Borzo; Hughes, Francis J
AIM: To development of an improved p38 MAPK inhibitor-based serum-free medium for embryoid body cardiomyocyte differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. METHODS: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) differentiated to cardiomyocytes (CM) using a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) based serum-free medium (SB media). Nutrient supplements known to increase cell viability were added to SB medium. The ability of these supplements to improve cardiomyogenesis was evaluated by measurements of cell viability, total cell count, and the expression of cardiac markers via flow cytometry. An improved medium containing Soy hydrolysate (HySoy) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) (SupSB media) was developed and tested on 2 additional cell lines (H1 and Siu-hiPSC). Characterization of the cardiomyocytes was done by immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: hESC cell line, HES-3, differentiating in SB medium for 16 d resulted in a cardiomyocyte yield of 0.07 ± 0.03 CM/hESC. A new medium (SupSB media) was developed with the addition of HySoy and BSA to SB medium. This medium resulted in 2.6 fold increase in cardiomyocyte yield (0.21 ± 0.08 CM/hESC). The robustness of SupSB medium was further demonstrated using two additional pluripotent cell lines (H1, hESC and Siu1, hiPSC), showing a 15 and 9 fold increase in cardiomyocyte yield respectively. The age (passage number) of the pluripotent cells did not affect the cardiomyocyte yields. Embryoid body (EB) cardiomyocytes formed in SupSB medium expressed canonical cardiac markers (sarcomeric ?-actinin, myosin heavy chain and troponin-T) and demonstrated all three major phenotypes: nodal-, atrial- and ventricular-like. Electrophysiological characteristics (maximum diastolic potentials and action potential durations) of cardiomyocytes derived from SB and SupSB media were similar. CONCLUSION: The nutrient supplementation (HySoy and BSA) leads to increase in cell viability, cell yield and cardiac marker expression during cardiomyocyte differentiation, translating to an overall increase in cardiomyocyte yield.
Ting, Sherwin; Lecina, Marti; Chan, Yau-Chi; Tse, Hung Fat; Reuveny, Shaul; Oh, Steve KW
Surface-sterilized oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were applied to subconfluent monolayers of human adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cells grown on coverslips in six-well cluster plates. Parasite-infected cultures were then incubated in RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum, 15 mM HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer, and antibiotics at 37 degrees C in a 5% CO2-95% air incubator for 2 h to allow sporozoites to excyst and enter cells. After cultures were washed free of debris, fresh cell culture media containing select supplements were added and cultures were reincubated. Parasite growth was assessed 66 h later by counting the number of parasite developmental stages in 25 random x 100 oil fields by Nomarski interference-contrast microscopy. Four vitamin supplements, calcium pantothenate, L-ascorbic acid, folic acid, and 4-(para)-aminobenzoic acid, each resulted in a significant increase in parasite numbers in vitro. The addition of insulin and the sugars glucose, galactose, and maltose also had a positive effect on parasite growth, although the effect was less pronounced than with any of the vitamins. Using the above information, we developed a supplemental medium formulation consisting of RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum, 15 mM HEPES, 50 mM glucose, and 35 micrograms of ascorbic acid, 1.0 micrograms of folic acid, 4.0 micrograms of 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2.0 micrograms of calcium pantothenate, 0.1 U of insulin, 100 U of penicillin G, 100 micrograms of streptomycin, and 0.25 microgram of amphotericin B (Fungizone) per ml (pH 7.4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Upton, S J; Tilley, M; Brillhart, D B
The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.
Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.
Multiple shoots of Curcuma longa were induced by culture of bud explants for 1?week in Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium supplemented with 72.64?µM thidiazuron (TDZ) prior to culture on MS gelled medium without growth regulator for 8?weeks. The regeneration rate was up to 11.4?±?1.7?shoots\\/explant. Rooting was spontaneous and the regenerated plants were successfully transferred to soil. This protocol can
S. Prathanturarug; N. Soonthornchareonnon; W. Chuakul; Y. Phaidee; P. Saralamp
Objective To evaluate the effect of honey supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm motility, concentration, morphology and agglutination. Materials and methods Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1, control) alone, or enriched with 5% honey (G2) or with 10% honey (G3) for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196°C in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post-thawing. Sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post-thawing. Results Results appeared that the percentage of sperm motility for G1 and G2 groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post-thawing when compared to pre-cryopreservation. However, there was no significant difference in the total motility (%) of the post-thaw sperm between the G1 and G2 groups. While there was significant increased (P < 0.05) in the percentage of normal sperm morphology for G1 and G3 groups post-thawing. Post-thawing normal sperm morphology (%) for G3 group was significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared to G1 and G2 groups. In contrast non significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) was seen in the sperm concentration for all groups post-thawing as compared to pre-cryopreservation groups. After thawing the results reveal significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the sperm agglutination (%) for G3 group as compared to G1 and G2 groups. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the supplementation of honey (10%) to cryoprotectant solution results in enhancement of sperm quality post-thawing.
Alsaadi, Rana A-R.
Two 4 x 4 Latin square design experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, four mature Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, pre-experimental body weight 25.0 +/- 0.6 kg, 22-24 months old, were used to study the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata (EV), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility. Maize stover treated with urea was used as a control diet. E. variegata was higher in crude protein content than LL or GS. The DMI of the urea treated stover diet was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the diets of untreated stover supplemented with forage legumes. The DMI was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the GS diet than in the EV or LL diets. Significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the urea-treated stover and the diets of stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), organic matter (OM) and energy. In experiment 2, four mature goats, pre-experimental body weight 27.0 +/- 0.3 kg, 24-28 months old, were used to measure their response when the urea-treated maize stover and the maize stover and forage legume diets were sprayed with molasses. The intake of the urea-treated stover diet sprayed with molasses was significantly lower (p < 0.05) that that of the maize stover/forage legume diets sprayed with molasses. The DMI of the diets improved with the addition of molasses. The DMI among the goats offered the maize stover/forage legume diets + molasses did not differ significantly. (p > 0.05). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were obtained in this second study between the urea-treated stover and the stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, OM and energy. The stover supplemented with forage legumes had a higher (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. The present studies demonstrated that the use of forage legumes as protein supplements improved the feed quality of maize stover in the diets of mature goats. It is suggested that molasses should be sprayed on fresh leaves of Gliricicia sepium and other forage legumes that are initially rejected, in order to improve acceptance and DMI when fed to ruminant animals in confinement or in a cut-and-carry system of production. PMID:14998316
Aregheore, E M; Perera, D
Summary Insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) supplementation to oocyte maturation medium improves the post-fertilization embryonic development in pigs. ITS is also commonly used as a supplement for the in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos and stem cells in several mammalian species. However, its use during IVC of pig embryos has not been explored. This study investigated the effect of ITS supplementation to IVC medium on the in vitro development ability of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We observed that ITS had no significant effect on the rate of first cleavage (P > 0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation in ITS-treated PA (45.3 ± 1.9 versus 27.1 ± 2.3%), IVF (31.6 ± 0.6 versus 23.5 ± 0.6%) and SCNT (17.6 ± 2.3 versus 10.7 ± 1.4%) embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-treated controls. Culture of PA embryos in the presence of ITS also enhanced the expansion and hatching ability (29.1 ± 3.0 versus 18.2 ± 3.8%; P < 0.05) of blastocysts and increased the total number of cells per blastocyst (53 ± 2.5 versus 40.9 ± 2.6; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the beneficial effect of ITS on PA embryos was associated with significantly reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (20.0 ± 2.6 versus 46.9 ± 3.0). However, in contrast to PA embryos, ITS had no significant effect on the blastocyst quality of IVF and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of ITS to the IVC medium exerts a beneficial but differential effect on pig embryos that varies with the method of embryo production in vitro. PMID:23506698
Das, Ziban Chandra; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek
Two-cell mouse embryos from CFW (Swiss-Webster) mice were cultured to the blastocyst stage in Ham's F10, Whittingham's T6, or human tubal fluid medium. Media were used without any protein supplements or were supplemented with human maternal serum, human fetal cord serum, or human serum albumin. Blastocysts were transferred to modified Eagle's basal medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for
Framila V. Dandekar; Robert H. Glass
The herbicide, Scepter, whose active principle is imazaquin, is commonly used in soybean farming to combat wide-leaf weeds. The basidiomycete, Pleurotus ostreatus , and the ascomycete, Botryosphaeria rhodina , were evaluated for their growth and laccase production when cultured on basal media containing Scepter. Both fungi could grow on the herbicide when cultivated in solid and submerged liquid culture in the presence of Scepter at concentrations of 0-6% (v/v) for P. ostreatus , and up to 0-50% (v/v) for B. rhodina , and in each case produced laccases when assayed against ABTS [2,2(1)-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. P . ostreatus could tolerate up to 6% of Scepter before it became toxic to the fungus, while in the case of B. rhodina , 50% (v/v) Scepter was the highest amount that supported grow, and laccase activity was detectable up to 25% (v/v). An inverse relationship existed between the level of Scepter in the culture medium that supported fungal growth and laccase production. Analysis of the results showed that the fungi studied presented different behaviour towards Scepter in the culture environment. PMID:16304708
Rezende, Maria I; Barbosa, Aneli M; Vasconcelos, Ana-Flora D; Haddad, Renata; Dekker, Robert F H
Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml) neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%?10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase ?1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices and regulatory recommendations to limit the use of xenogenic materials.
Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural adversely affect fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals due to their toxicity on fermenting microbes. To harness the potential of lignocellulose as a cheap source of fermentable sugars, in situ detoxification of furfural and other lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors is essential. To enhance in situ detoxification and tolerance of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, the effect of glycerol on NADH/NADPH generation and ABE production by furfural (4, 5, and 6 g/L)-challenged cultures was investigated in this study. In all instances, beneficial outcomes were observed. For example, the fermentation medium supplemented with glycerol and subjected to 5 g/L furfural elicited up to 1.8- and 3-fold increases, respectively, in NADH and NADPH levels in C. beijerinckii 8052 relative to the control culture. These critical changes are the likely underpinnings for the glycerol-mediated 2.3-fold increase in the rate of detoxification of 5 g/L furfural, substrate consumption, and ABE production compared to the unsupplemented medium. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased intracellular NADH/NADPH in C. beijerinckii 8052 due to glycerol utilization engenders favorable effects on many aspects of cellular metabolism, including enhanced furfural reduction and increased ABE production. PMID:24839212
Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka
Cultures (NCTC-designated) of kidney cells of Cercopithecus aethiops were grown in a chemically defined medium (NCTC-135) and were then examined morphologically and cytochemically. Comparisons were made with cultures of the same cell line in medium supplemented with either 10% fetal-calf or 10% horse sera. The epitheloid cells of the serum-free cultures demonstrated only a slight difference in enzymatic activity when
THOMAS G. HAYES; VIRGINIA J. EVANS
The results of this study show that goat blood as a culture medium supplement is as supportive as horse blood for the isolation and identification of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical material. Care is required in the preparation of goat blood chocolate agar to ensure that a thermolabile growth inhibitor of NAD-dependent Haemophilus species is eliminated. PMID:7852593
Gratten, M; Battistutta, D; Torzillo, P; Dixon, J; Manning, K
The results of this study show that goat blood as a culture medium supplement is as supportive as horse blood for the isolation and identification of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical material. Care is required in the preparation of goat blood chocolate agar to ensure that a thermolabile growth inhibitor of NAD-dependent Haemophilus species is eliminated.
Gratten, M; Battistutta, D; Torzillo, P; Dixon, J; Manning, K
The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150 g), Leucaena (200 or 400 g) or Sesbania (200 or 400 g). The animals
R. J. Kaitho; A. Tegegne; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J Van Bruchem; J. M. Arts
Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis. PMID:24778327
Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H
Serum of animal origin and in particular fetal bovine serum is the most commonly utilized cell culture medium additive for in vitro cell growth and differentiation. However, several major concerns have been raised by the scientific community regarding the use of animal sera for human cell-based culture applications. Among the possible alternatives to the animal serum, platelet-derived compounds have been proposed since more than 10 years. Nevertheless, the high degree of variability between the different platelet preparations, and the lack of standardized manufacturing and quality control procedures, made difficult to reach a consensus on the applicability of this novel cell culture medium supplement. In this study, we describe the preparation of a standardized platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivative obtained starting from human-certified buffy coat samples with a defined platelet concentration and following protocols including also freeze-drying, gamma irradiation and biological activity testing prior the product release as cell culture medium additive. Biological activity testing of the different preparations was done by determining the capability of the different PRP preparations to sustain human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clone formation and proliferation. Taking advantage of a developed MSC in vitro clonogenicity test, we also determined biological activity and stability of the freeze-dried gamma-sterilized PRP preparations after their storage for different times and at different temperatures. The PRP effects on cell proliferation were determined both on primary cell cultures established from different tissues and on a cell line. Results were compared with those obtained in "traditional" parallel control cultures performed in the presence of bovine serum [10% fetal calf serum (FCS)]. Compared to FCS, the PRP addition to the culture medium increased the MSC colony number and average size. In primary cell cultures and in cell line cultures, the PRP promoted cell proliferation also in conditions where the FCS had not a proliferation stimulating effect due to either the nature of the cells and the tissue of origin (such as human articular chondrocytes from elderly patients) or to the critical low density cell seeding (such as for HeLa cells). In summary, the standardized PRP formulation would provide an "off-the-shelf" product to be used for the selection and expansion of several cell types also in critical cell culture conditions. PMID:23885791
Muraglia, Anita; Ottonello, Chiara; Spanò, Raffaele; Dozin, Beatrice; Strada, Paolo; Grandizio, Michele; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena
Culture filtrates (conditioned medium, CM) containing exudates obtained from cells of Scenedesmus subspicatus grown in batch culture were tested for their autoinduction activity. Undiluted CM completely inhibited the proliferation\\u000a of cells due to depletion of nitrogen in this medium. When undiluted CM was supplemented with fresh bold basal medium (BBM)\\u000a medium, enhancement of population growth in a dilution-dependent manner was
Krzysztof Grabski; Zbigniew Tukaj
Summary The growth stimulating properties of bovine serum and colostrum were compared in rat hepatoma (HTC) and glioma (C6) cell cultures.\\u000a A colostrum concentration of 2% was optimal for HTc cells, which then reached a terminal density 40% of that in serum-supplemented\\u000a medium. The corresponding figures for C6 cells were 10 and 81%, respectively. After 4 d in culture, levels of
Lena Odland; Stefan Wallin; Erik Walum
In determining the quality control limits for the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended quality control organisms with tigecycline, a number of inconsistencies in the results were encountered that appeared to be related to the age of the Mueller-Hinton broth II. This study was performed to examine the effect of medium age and supplementation with Oxyrase on the activity of tigecycline using a large number of clinical isolates. PMID:16127070
Petersen, Peter J; Bradford, Patricia A
The growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with organic acids was examined. A Bioscreen C Microbiology Reader was used to measure growth of cultures incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h in a tryptose-yeast extract basal broth medium and in basal broth supplemented with 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mM citric, fumaric, lactic, malic, or succinic acid. Growth of three of six isolates was significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) in media supplemented with 20 to 50 mM citric acid than in nonsupplemented media, growth of five of six isolates was significantly greater in media supplemented with 10 to 50 mM succinic acid than in nonsupplemented media, and growth of six of six isolates was significantly greater in media supplemented with 10 to 50 mM fumaric or malic acid or with 20 to 50 mM lactic acid than in nonsupplemented media. Isolates were also cultured in basal media supplemented with a mixture of 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mM fumaric, malic, lactic, and succinic acids. Results indicated that the growth of all Campylobacter isolates was significantly greater in media supplemented with mixtures containing each of these organic acids at 10 to 40 mM than in nonsupplemented media. These findings indicate that in vitro growth of Campylobacter spp. may be significantly enhancedin media supplemented with organic acids that support the growth of these bacteria. PMID:16416898
Four Local and 4 New Zealand White male rabbits with an initial live weight of 1.75 ± 0.10 kg were fed water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) ad libitum supplemented with broken rice (0, 4, 8 and 12g\\/day) according to a duplicate 4*4 Latin Square design. There were no significant differences for the interaction genotype x diet in any of the indices
Pok Samkol; T R Preston; J Ly
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of enset corm as a supplement to sheep fed Rhodes grass hay. Thirty local yearling rams with a mean (±SD) body weight of 16.97 (±1.13) kg were used. Six sheep were allocated to each of the five treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were hay ad libitum and 129 g dry matter (DM) corm (T1), 188 g DM corm (T2), 248 g DM corm (T3), 100 g DM noug (T4) cake, and hay alone (T5). One hundred grams of noug seedcake was supplemented for all treatments except T5. Total DM and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep in T1, T2, and T3 were the highest (P?0.05) compared with sheep in other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest DM and OM. The total crude protein (CP) intakes of sheep in T3 and T2 were greater (P?0.05) than the other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest CP. The apparent DM and OM digestibility coefficients of T1, T2, and T3 diets were higher (P?0.05) compared with T5. The lowest (P?0.05) CP digestibility was in T5, whereas the digestibility among the supplemented groups was similar (P?>?0.05). The daily body weight gain for T1, T2, and T3 diets was greater (P?0.05) than that of T5. The feed conversion efficiency for T1 and T2 was higher (P?0.05) than T5, while T4 had an intermediate value. The highest (P?0.05) nitrogen retention was in sheep fed T3 diet, while the lowest was in those fed T5. It is concluded that farmers can supplement enset corm at 129 g DM/day as an alternative energy source to improve the productivity of sheep for small-scale farmers under enset-livestock production systems. PMID:24715206
Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars Olav
Traditionally, undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells or on matrigel with an MEF-conditioned medium (CM), which hampers the clinical applications of hESCs due to the contamination by animal pathogens. Here we report a novel chemical-defined medium using DMEM/F12 supplemented with N2, B27, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [termed NBF]. This medium can support prolonged self-renewal of hESCs. hESCs cultured in NBF maintain an undifferentiated state and normal karyotype, are able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and differentiate into three germ layers and extraembryonic cells. Furthermore, we find that hESCs cultured in NBF possess a low apoptosis rate and a high proliferation rate compared with those cultured in MEF-CM. Our findings provide a novel, simplified chemical-defined culture medium suitable for further therapeutic applications and developmental studies of hESCs.
Liu Yanxia [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Song Zhihua [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Zhao Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Qin Han [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Cai Jun [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhang Hong [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yu Tianxin [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Jiang Siming [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Wang Guangwen [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ding Mingxiao [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Hongkui [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China) and Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Shoots of four clones of two Eucalyptushybrids were successfully grown in a liquid medium containing modified MS basal salts supplemented with 0.01 mg l -1 (0.04 µM) BAP and various concentrations of a proprietary anti-hyperhydricity agent (sold commercially as anti-vitrification agent EM2). Shoots of a single clone were also grown using the same medium but with the anti-hyperhydricity agent replaced
Adam B. Whitehouse; Timothy R. Marks; Glyn A. Edwards
The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis. PMID:22755529
Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M
The objective was to determine the effects of adding L-carnitine (an enhancer of lipid metabolism) during IVM, on cryotolerance and developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Oocytes matured in the absence (control) or presence (0.6 mg/mL) of L-carnitine were subjected to IVF and embryo culture after Cryotop vitrification or nonvitrification at the metaphase stage of the second meiotic cell division. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates, and inner cell mass and trophectoderm cell numbers were determined. Also, ATP content in IVM oocytes was measured and intracellular lipid droplets were observed (Nile red staining and confocal microscopy). L-carnitine had no significant effect on the rate of matured oocytes. Vitrification reduced (P < 0.05) mean (±SEM) rates of live oocytes both in control (80.6 ± 1.9%) and L-carnitine groups (82.7 ± 5.1%) compared with nonvitrified oocytes (100%). After IVF, cleavage rates of vitrified control and L-carnitine groups (56.5 ± 3.9% and 62.8 ± 5.1%, respectively) were significantly lower than those in nonvitrified control and L-carnitine groups (83.9 ± 4.2% and 84.3 ± 1.3%). After vitrification, blastocyst formation rate in the L-carnitine group (54.4 ± 5.2%) was significantly higher compared with the control (34.9 ± 4.4%), and did not significantly differ from those in nonvitrified control and L-carnitine groups (52.1 ± 4.2% and 52.8 ± 3.0%). The numbers and ratio of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells in blastocysts did not differ significantly among groups. The ATP content in L-carnitine-treated oocytes tended to be higher compared with the control. Vitrification did not reduce ATP content in oocytes, irrespective of L-carnitine treatment. Treatment with L-carnitine dislocated lipid droplets from the peripheral area to the inner cytoplasm. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation during IVM redistributed lipid droplets in oocytes; if they survived vitrification, their developmental competence was similar to that of nonvitrified oocytes. PMID:23261307
Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Somfai, Tamas; Inaba, Yasushi; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Nagai, Takashi
Sucrose, 5% and 10% (w\\/v), supplemented with between 0 and 5 ppm fluoride (F), was tested for its influence in vitro on plaque-induced experimental in vitro enamel caries and plaque pH. Plaque growth on bovine enamel was initiated from saliva inocula and sustained in a multiple plaque growth system for up to 31 days by means of a basal medium
T. W. Cutress; C. H. Sissons; E. I. F. Pearce; L. Wong; K. Anderssén; B. Angmar-Månsson
The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771
Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne
Summary An optimized basal nutrient medium, MCBD 131, has been developed that supports clonal growth of human microvascular endothelial\\u000a cells (HMVEC) with as little as 0.7% dialyzed fetal bovine serum (dFBS) when also supplemented with 10 ng\\/ml epidermal growth\\u000a factor (EGF) and 1 ?g\\/ml hydrocortisone. An extensive initial survey of available media showed that MCDB 402, a medium optimized\\u000a for low-serum
Ann Knedler; Richard G. Ham
Four groups of six 21 days-old piglets were used to evaluate the effect of a prebiotic or probiotic on the intestinal fermentative activity. In each group, piglets received one of the following diets: basal diet (C); basal diet supplemented with xylo-oligosaccharide (C-XOS); basal diet supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (C-SC); and basal diet supplemented with xylo-oligosaccharide and S. cerevisiae (C-XOS+SC).The short chain
M. C. Marinho; M. M. Lordelo; L. F. Cunha; J. P. B. Freire
Basal cell carcinoma is the commonest malignancy in Caucasians with incidence rates of 300 per 100,000 reported in the USA. Rates are increasing at over 10% per year leading to a lifetime risk of 30%. Although mortality is low, the disease is responsible for considerable morbidity and places a substantial burden on health service provision in the UK. Furthermore, lesions may recur and patients often develop multiple tumours giving major implications for treatment and follow-up. Four main types of basal cell carcinoma are seen: nodulo-ulcerative; pigmented; morpheaform and superficial. Diagnosis is by histological evaluation although many tumours have a characteristic clinical appearance. The differential diagnosis is large. Identified risk factors include male gender, skin type 1, red/blonde hair and increasing age. Patients with basal cell carcinoma are more likely to develop malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma but it is still unclear whether there is a link with internal malignancy. The main treatment modalities are surgery and radiotherapy. Each has advantages and disadvantages. The choice of treatment depends on many factors. Principles of treatment include identification of high-risk patients to enable early detection, complete removal of the lesion, and careful follow-up to detect recurrence or new lesions. Approximately 10% of tumours recur, depending on site, size and treatment modality. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma and the association of ultraviolet radiation to basal cell carcinoma risk are reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
Lear, J. T.; Smith, A. G.
Basal cell carcinoma is the commonest malignancy in Caucasians with incidence rates of 300 per 100,000 reported in the USA. Rates are increasing at over 10% per year leading to a lifetime risk of 30%. Although mortality is low, the disease is responsible for considerable morbidity and places a substantial burden on health service provision in the UK. Furthermore, lesions
J. T. Lear; A. G. Smith
Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…
Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole
Prospective Comparison of a New Chromogenic Medium, MRSASelect, to CHROMagar MRSA and Mannitol-Salt Medium Supplemented with Oxacillin or Cefoxitin for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRSASelect agar was compared to CHROMagar, mannitol-salt agar with oxacillin, and mannitol-salt agar with cefoxitin (MSA-CFOX) for the isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The sensitivities and specificities were 97.3% and 99.8%, 82.9% and 99.1%, 80.2% and 79%, and 99.1% and 84.8%, respectively. MSA-CFOX and MRSASelect had a high sensitivity. MRSASelect, however, was more specific and proved to be a more reliable and rapid medium for the detection of MRSA.
Stoakes, Luba; Reyes, Romina; Daniel, Janis; Lennox, Gwen; John, Michael A.; Lannigan, Robert; Hussain, Zafar
Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins
Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.
Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins. PMID:23776897
Madhu, S V; Velmurugan, M
Background Recombinant monoclonal antibodies have been marketed in last three decades as the major therapeutic proteins against different cancers. However choosing a proper medium and supplements to reach the high expression is a challenging step. Despite of commercial serum free and chemically defined media, there are still numerous researches seeking the optimum media to gain higher expression titer. Selecting the best basal media followed by proper supplementation to increase the cell density and expression titer needs proper and accurate investigation. Methods In this study, we have determined the expression titer of monoclonal antibody against human CD20 using soy extract, Essential Amino Acid, Non-Essential Amino Acid, Panexin NTS, Peptone, Yeast extract, Insulin-transferrin selenite, Human Serum Albumin, Bovine Serum Albumin, Lipid, and two commercially available supplements, Power and Xtreme feed. In each experiment, the expression level was compared with a well defined media, ProCHO5, RPMI 1640 and DMEM-F12. Results It has been shown that supplementing the ProCHO5 basal medium with 10% power feed or combination of 5% PanexinNTS,1.5 g/L yeast and 1.5g/L peptone results in the best production levels with 450 and 425 mg/L of anti CD20 mAb expression level, respectively. Conclusion Panexin NTS, yeast and peptone cane be proper supplement for fed-batch cell culture instead of commercial Power feed supplement which is a cost effective way to increase expression level. And thereby ProCHO5 may be replaced with common media such as RPMI 1640 and DMEM-F12.
Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Abolhassan, Mohammad Reza; Azarpanah, Armita; Aghajani-Lazarjani, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Haskoo, Mohammad Amin; Maleknia, Shaian; Vaziri, Behrouz
Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum-free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE
Charles E Eldridge; Mary Bartlett Bunge; Richard P. Bunge; Patrick M. Wood
In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms. PMID:14602941
Scarmeas, N; Chin, S S; Marder, K
In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms.
Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Chin, Steven S.; Marder, Karen
In vitro culture (IVC) systems are required for many biotechnological and assisted reproductive technologies and the researchers have been modifying in vitro embryo culture conditions to reach the comparable efficiencies provided in vivo. In the present study, the effects of beta-mercaptoethanol (Beta-ME) and amino acids (AA) on the development of mouse embryos obtained in vivo or in vitro at different stages were investigated. Chemically defined potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM) was used as basic culture medium and six experimental groups were established and by supplementation of Beta-ME and AA into KSOM media. The quality of blastocysts was evaluated by counting the cells and determining the ratio of inner cell mass (ICM) to trophoectoderm (TE) cells. In addition, embryo transfer (ET) was performed to investigate the rate of implantation and live fetuses. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that the combined treatment of Beta-ME and AA to 1-cell stage embryos not only enhanced in vitro development to the blastocyst stage but also improved both the number of blastocysts cells and live fetuses. PMID:15278904
Bagis, H; Odaman Mercan, H
Table of Contents: Overheads; Fact Sheet - Medium Priority Lender Program; Medium-Term Priority Lender Program - Instructions to Lenders; Ex-Im Bank MGA, Application for MGA, and MGA Political Risk Supplement Attachment A; Preliminary Commitment and Final...
GSK-3-specific inhibitor-supplemented hESC medium prevents the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in hESCs cultured in feeder-free conditions.
Feeder-free culture induces spontaneous differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), identified as an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The maintenance of pluripotency of hESCs in feeder-free cultures through the activation of the WNT pathway using a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3-specific inhibitor (BIO) was reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of BIO on the EMT process. In contrast with those grown in feeder-free conditions with control medium, hESC colonies cultured with BIO-supplemented hESC medium did not show any fibroblast-like cells at the periphery. Transmission electron microscopy, relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining analyses showed the presence of epithelial features and a diminution of mesenchymal features in the BIO-treated hESCs such as a strong E-cadherin expression, the down-regulation of Vimentin, Snail and Slug expressions and a cytoplasmic beta-catenin expression. An up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-2, MMP-9, MT-1MMP (membrane-type 1 MMP) and EMMPRIN (extracellular MMP inducer) expression was also found associated with the EMT occurring in feeder-free hESCs cultures using mouse embryonic fibroblasts conditioned medium (MEF CM). The presence of BIO clearly down-regulated the expression of these MMPs. This study showed that BIO, a GSK-3-specific inhibitor, prevents the EMT process which is associated with the feeder-free hESC culture. Nevertheless, BIO was not sufficient to expand hESCs in a long-term culture system. PMID:18263607
Ullmann, U; Gilles, C; De Rycke, M; Van de Velde, H; Sermon, K; Liebaers, I
Autologous transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has been successfully used for bone reconstruction. However, in order to advance this approach into the mainstream of bone tissue engineering, the conditions for BMSC cultivation and transplantation must be optimized. In a recent report, cultivation with dexamethasone (Dex) significantly increased bone formation by human BMSCs in vivo. Based on this important conclusion, we analyzed the data accumulated by our laboratory where human BMSCs have been routinely generated using media both with and without a combination of two osteogenic supplements: Dex at 10-8M and ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) at 10-4M. Our data demonstrate that for 22 out of 24 donors, BMSC strains propagated with and without Dex/AscP formed similar amounts of bone in vivo. Thus, human BMSCs do not appear to need to be induced to osteogenic differentiation ex vivo prior to transplantation. Similarly, for 12 of 14 donors, BMSC strains cultured with and without Dex/AscP formed hematopoietic territories to a comparable extent. While Dex/AscP did not increase bone formation, they significantly stimulated BMSC in vitro proliferation without affecting the number of BMSC colonies formed by the Colony Forming Units-Fibroblast. We conclude that for the substantial majority of donors, Dex/AscP have no effect on the ability of BMSCs to form bone and myelosupportive stroma in vivo. However, due to increased BMSC proliferation, the total osteogenic population obtained from a single marrow sample is larger after cultivation with Dex/AscP than without them. Secondary to increased BMSC proliferation, Dex/AscP may stimulate bone formation if BMSCs and/or the transplantation system are less than optimal.
Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Mankani, Mahesh H; Robey, Pamela Gehron
Limitations of conventional human basal insulins like NPH have led to the development of more stable and peak less analogs. However, the first generation of basal analogs like glargine and detemir has certain shortcomings which do not allow them to be termed ideal basal insulin. Degludec, a novel basal insulin analog has the potential to overcome these limitations. This paper reviews the potential advantages of degludec over existing basal insulins and analogs. It discusses the basic and clinical studies performed on degludec so far, and highlights the possible role this molecule can play in the management of diabetes mellitus. In this paper, the recent patents on basal insulin have been reviewed so as to provide an insight into the advances in this field. In this article, we present a review of Degludec, as well as related patents. PMID:22280218
Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P; Niazi, Asfandyar K
Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin- HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA?E?cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191
Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi; Bu, Yanzhen; Zhao, Yanhui; Zou, Gang; Liu, Zhixue
Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin? HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA-E-cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells.
LIU, TE; HUANG, YONGYI; BU, YANZHEN; ZHAO, YANHUI; ZOU, GANG; LIU, ZHIXUE
When two crystals share a plane, there is a twinning composition plane. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a symmetrical manner. Crystallographers classify twinned crystals by a number of twin laws. These twin laws are specific to the crystal system. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic tool in mineral identification and characterization. Many twin laws cannot be recognized in ordinary optical analysis. So, the advent of diffraction techniques to describe punctual crystallographic orientation facilitated the identification of many twinned crystals in rocks. Samples containing hematite of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by EBSD technique. Crystallographic orientation data were obtained from automatically indexed EBSD patterns collected on a JEOL JSM-5510. EBSD analysis was carried out on thin sections cut perpendicular to the foliation (XZ plane) and parallel to the stretching lineation (X-direction). Thin sections were polished before EBSD analysis. EBSD patterns were indexed using CHANNEL 5 software from HKL Technology, Oxford Instruments. The resulting data are presented in form of pole figures (upper hemisphere, equal angle, stereographic projection) and of colour-coded maps using Coincidence Site Lattice (? 3) and Twin Boundaries Components. Through electron backscatter diffraction analysis of hematite grains was possible to detect twin boundaries similar to Dauphiné twinning in quartz that is not described for hematite. Dauphiné twinning in trigonal ?-quartz consists of a 60° rotation around the c-axis resulting in a reversal of the crystallographic positive and negative forms (Frondel 1962). As both minerals show similar symmetry, the same mechanism can be described for hematite in this analysis. The basal twinning of hematite developed pervasively during the incipient stage of deformation. This paper investigates the relationships between this kind of twinning, deformation conditions and microstructural modifications in hematite grains. The results show that the presence of twins exerts an important role in the distribution of the intracrystalline plastic deformation in hematite, as well as in the activation of different sets of slip systems. We estimate that basal twin bands can be preferred sites for dynamic recrystallization.
Gonçalves, Fábio; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Barbosa, Paola
The aim of this study was to test the effect of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) and L-ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation and the hormonal level during in vitro maturation (IVM) of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goat on the blastocyst yield and quality. Concretely, we used four maturation media: conventional IVM medium (CM), growth medium (GM: CM+ITS+AA and low level of hormones), modified CM (mCM: CM with low level of hormones) and modified GM (mGM: CM+ITS+AA and normal level of hormones). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were classified into two categories according to oocyte diameter: <125 ?m and ? 125 ?m. Large oocytes were matured 24 h in CM (Treatment A). Small oocytes were matured randomly in six experimental groups: Treatment B: 24 h in CM; Treatment C: 12 h in GM and 12 h in CM; Treatment D: 24 h in mGM; Treatment E: 12 h in mGM and 12 h in CM; Treatment F: 12 h in mCM and 12 h in CM; and Treatment G: 12 h in GM and 12 h in mGM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized and cultured for 8 days. The blastocyst quality was assessed by the survival following vitrification/warming and the mean cell number. When different maturation media were combined, the blastocyst rate did not improve. The large oocytes produced the highest blastocysts yield. However, the culture of small oocytes in GM (53.3%) enhanced the post-warming survival of blastocysts compared to large oocytes matured in CM (35.7%). In conclusion, IVM of pre-pubertal goat small oocytes in GM would be useful to improve the quality of in vitro-produced blastocysts. PMID:22908901
Hammami, S; Morató, R; Romaguera, R; Roura, M; Catalá, M G; Paramio, M T; Mogas, T; Izquierdo, D
Specific components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems of channel catfish were evaluated after supplementation of culture media with arginine (ARG) and/or glutamine (GLN). Primary cell cultures of head-kidney macrophages (MØ) were used for phagocytic and bactericidal assays against Edwardsiella ictaluri. Additionally, proliferation assays were conducted with naïve peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) exposed to non-specific mitogens. To indirectly assess amino acid utilization of both MØ and PBL, amino acid levels, with emphasis on ARG and GLN, were evaluated in the basal medium before and after activation or mitogenic exposure. After bactericidal and proliferation assays, the sum of the media free amino acid pool significantly (P < 0.05) decreased 23% and 45%, respectively. Glutamine levels in medium decreased by 38% and ARG by 18% during the bactericidal assay. Also, decreases of 52 and 46% from initial values were found after the proliferation assay for GLN and ARG, respectively. Macrophage phagocytosis and killing ability was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by ARG supplementation to culture media regardless of GLN supplementation. Proliferation of naïve T- and B-lymphocytes upon mitogenic exposure was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by supplementing ARG and GLN to the media, but limited synergistic effects were observed. These results suggest that in vitro, ARG and GLN are important substrates and immunomodulators of both innate and adaptive responses in fish leukocytes, and further highlights the potential use of ARG and GLN as immunonutrients in aquafeeds. PMID:22326940
Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Mwangi, Waithaka; Gatlin, Delbert M
Stress cardiomyopathy is a reversible left ventricular dysfunction triggered by emotional stress. We describe a variant of transient left ventricular ballooning in a patient in which basal and midventricular segments are affected. This confirms that there is not just one ventricular dysfunction pattern in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The involvement of only the basal and midventricle segments is an intriguing observation with no clear explanation; furthermore, there are no predictive factors for the differently sited wall motion abnormalities. PMID:20093944
Cacciotti, Luca; Camastra, Giovanni S; Musarò, Salvatore; Proietti, Igino; Semeraro, Raffaella; Martina, Cristina; Lupparelli, Fabrizio; Ansalone, Gerardo
The prebiotic - Mannanoligosac charide (MOS) was extracted from yeast and copra meal and evaluated for their prebiotic potentiality on serum lipid profile and abdominal fat pad. The treatment groups were fed with basal diet (T ). The basal diet was supplemented with extracted MOS from yeast (@ 0.5 g\\/kg 1 (T ); 1 g\\/kg (T )) and from copra
Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations. PMID:16900896
Karthiga, Kannan S; Sivapatha Sundharam, B; Manikandan, R
When thyroid follicles are isolated by collagenase treatment of minced thyroid lobes, the basal lamina around each follicle is removed. The basal lamina does not reform when follicles are cultured in suspension in Coon's modified Ham's F-12 medium containing, in addition, 0.5% calf serum, insulin, transferrin, and thyrotropin. We have added acid soluble collagen and/or laminin to see if they would result in the formation of a basal lamina. An extended basal lamina did not form when follicles were embedded in a gel formed from acid-soluble rat tendon collagen or from calf skin collagen when added at a concentration of 100 micrograms collagen/ml. However, laminin at a concentration of 5.1 micrograms/ml gave rise to short segments of a basal lamina within 30 min. At longer time intervals, the segments lengthened and covered the base of many cells, and were continuous across the gap between cells and across the mouth of a coated pit. Not all basal surfaces were covered, and no exposed apical surfaces with microvilli had a basal lamina. There was no obvious difference in the appearance of the basal lamina if collagen was added in addition to laminin, but collagen, in contact with the plasma membrane when added alone, was lifted off the membrane in the presence of the basal lamina. The basal lamina appeared denser if formed in the presence of 5% serum instead of 0.5%.
5To assess the potential of optical spectroscopy and imaging for improving the detection and evaluation of early skin cancer, we have been studying autofluorescence properties of various skin diseases. In this paper, the autofluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) under 442 nm excitation will be presented. Three different spectroscopy and imaging tools have been used in this study: (1) a portable fiber optic spectrometer for in vivo spectral measurements in an outpatient clinic; (2) a CCD imaging system for cutaneous autofluorescence imaging in vivo; and (3) a fiber optic microspectrophotometer system for frozen tissue section examination of in vitro microscopic fluorophore distribution and spectroscopy. Autofluorescence spectra from 109 BCC lesions characteristically showed decreased fluorescence intensity for BCC as compared to the surrounding normal skin. Of 109 biopsy-proven BCC lesions, 104 showed a decreased fluorescence signal. Decreased autofluorescence in BCC has also been corroborated by in vivo autofluorescence imaging of BCC lesions. Microscopic data from histologic frozen sections mirror the in vivo measurements, with decreased autofluorescence observed within and immediately around basal cell tumor nests. An optical model of basal cell carcinoma is under construction.
Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; MacAulay, Calum E.; Palcic, Branko; Lui, Harvey
When viewed as a whole, these basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits appear to play a modulating role in a wide range of behaviors. At the cortical level, given convergence upon specified regions within the frontal lobes, the behaviors in question would be those dependent upon SMA, premotor, frontal eye fields, dorsolateral, and orbitofrontal outflow targets. Broadly speaking, processes such as the generation, maintenance, switching, and blending of motor, mental, or emotional sets would be involved. Accordingly, in basal ganglia disease, the planning and the execution of the above behavioral domains can be affected. Given the diversity and complexity of activity within the basal ganglia, the consequences of disruption depend largely upon lesion site and the associated interplay of neurochemical factors. For example, in the motor domain, damage to various striatal circuitry levels can result in either hypo- or hyperkinetic disorders of movement. Following this analogy, it might also be said that diverse lesions, depending on site, can result in problems with the development and maintenance of behavioral sets ("hypophrenic") versus problems in relinquishing preferential sets ("hyperphrenic"). These contrasting patterns are best represented in PD and OCD, respectively. In the latter case, however, the "hyperphrenic" pattern would only apply to those behaviors which are part of the obsessional rituals. This suggests that procedural system "overdrive" remains domain-specific as is the case for most operations within the procedural system. To return to the broad principle of habituation, a process first described in the context of the visual system and its connections with the tail of the caudate nucleus, it would be tempting to view PD and OCD as disorders of "under" and "over" habituation to behavioral routines. Unfortunately, the situation has proven to be more complex in view of recent neuropsychological findings (Nicholson et al., in preparation). Using a variety of problem-solving and other cognitive tasks, both PD and OCD patients were found to require more practice and/or the provision of external guidelines to facilitate habit formation. Thus, in both cases, as in other disorders of the basal ganglia, the establishment of useful heuristics by which to direct adaptive behavior suffers. OCD patients therefore appear to have at least two compartmentalized types of basal ganglia dysfunction: the ritualistic compulsions and obsessions as well as the heuristic inefficiency (i.e., poor procedural mobilization). PD patients would also suffer a similar fate as it is known that the degrees of motor versus nonmotor (i.e., procedural) deficit are poorly correlated (42).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7872134
Saint-Cyr, J A; Taylor, A E; Nicholson, K
Basal melting represents a poorly constrained component of the total ice sheet mass balance that may have a significant impact on the contribution of polar ice sheets to sea level changes. The thermal budget in the basal environment depends on coarsely known parameters such as geothermal heat flux, velocity, and basal stress. By utilizing recent data sets, an improved estimate of the current basal mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland can be made, resulting in an increase of basal melt from previous calculations. This translates into a significant fraction of the land ice’s total mass budget. The components of the basal melt are calculated from the vertical conductive loss of heat, the influx of heat from the geothermal heat flux, and shearing. The basal temperature is estimated using a semi-implicit finite difference numerical scheme to solve the 2-D thermodynamic equation, simplified by neglecting horizontal diffusion of heat. Two geothermal heat flux data sets are used in the current investigation, yielding similar annual melt rates and thus basal mass loss. Basal stress is approximated as the driving stress, which, together with balance velocities, are used to approximate the shear heating contribution to the basal heat budget. Other assumptions made in this study neglect unphysical driving stresses and basal temperature solutions. Future work on this project will extend calculations of the basal mass balance through the last glacial maximum by using ice thickness reconstructions.
Hossainzadeh, S.; Tulaczyk, S. M.
BackgroundThe human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem\\/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of
Neil R. Hackett; Renat Shaykhiev; Matthew S. Walters; Rui Wang; Rachel K. Zwick; Barbara Ferris; Bradley Witover; Jacqueline Salit; Ronald G. Crystal; Melanie Koenigshoff
Bench-scale studies with Chlorella pyrenoidosa 7-11-05 were conducted in a 4-liter culture vessel with a used and recycled medium. Algal cultures were maintained for periods of several weeks by supplementing the nutrient medium with minimal amounts of certain salts. An algal strain was maintained for a period of up to 72 days with a supplemented recycled medium. No inhibition was observed as the result of any autotoxic materials. Rather dense cultures were maintained in the presence of high bacterial populations.
Leone, Donald E.
The methods for increasing the production of ergothioneine (ERG) were investigated by using the mycelial culture of several mushroom species, primarily Ganoderma neo-japonicum. We first found that ERG was accumulated at the different levels in mycelia and fruiting bodies, respectively, depending on the mushroom species. As a result of adding various amino acids to the mycelial culture medium, methionine (Met) was shown to be the most effective additive. The most preferable condition of the additive was the combination of 4 mM Met and 1 g/l of yeast extract, and the maximum ERG production reached approximately 1.7 mg/l, which corresponds to 2.4 times (0.7 mg/l) that in the basal medium without Met. Although the supplementation of Met enhanced the ERG production, the mycelial growth was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the analysis of amino acids in the culture medium revealed that the Met additive reduced the consumption rates of most amino acids tested, probably due to the decrease in mycelial growth. Taking these results into consideration, we suggest that the addition of Met to the mycelial culture medium is an efficient way to enhance the ERG production in economically important mushroom species. PMID:18688580
Lee, Wi Young; Park, Eung-Jun; Ahn, Jin Kwon
Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC.
Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal; Lear, John T.
The development of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) was compared on rearing on used-diet (the medium remaining after larval use) with no added supplements versus used-diet supplemented with vitamins, choline chloride and the heat sensiti...
S. N. Chiravathanapong
We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), a lignan precursor isolated from flaxseed, on experimental metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL\\/6 mice. Four diets were compared: a basal diet (control group) and the basal diet supplemented with SDG at 73, 147 or 293 ?mol\\/kg (equivalent to SDG provided in the 2.5, 5 or 10%
Donghua Li; John A Yee; Lilian U Thompson; Lin Yan
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean protein isolate (SPI) on experimental metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL\\/6 mice. Four groups of mice were fed a basal AIN?93G diet or the basal diet supplemented with 10%, 15%, or 20% SPI for two weeks before and after the intravenous injection
Lin Yan; John A. Yee; Michael H. McGuire; George L. Graef
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of selenite on experimental pulmonary metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL\\/6 mice by means of an intravenous injection model. Three groups of mice were fed a basal AIN?93G diet containing 0.1 ppm selenium (control group) or the basal diet supplemented with 2 or 4
Lin Yan; John A. Yee; Michael H. McGuire; George L. Graef
The present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, the richest source of lignans, on experimental metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL\\/6 mice. Mice were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2.5, 5 or 10% flaxseed for 2 weeks before and after the intravenous injection of 0.75×105 melanoma cells. At necropsy, the
Lin Yan; John A Yee; Donghua Li; Michael H McGuire; Lilian U Thompson
The "basal ganglia" refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379
Lanciego, José L; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A
The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function.
Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.
An animal protein-free medium was developed for Drosophila melanogaster S2 (S2AcGPV2) cells genetically modified to produce the rabies virus G glycoprotein (GPV). IPL-41, used as a basal medium, was supplemented with yeastolate, carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids aiming initially to reduce and further to eliminate the need of fetal bovine serum. The S2AcGPV2 cells were fully capable of growing in serum-free supplemented IPL-41 medium containing 6 g L(-1) yeastolate ultrafiltrate, 10 g L(-1) glucose, 3.5 g L(-1) glutamine, 0.5 g L(-1) fructose, 2 g L(-1) lactose, 0.6 g L(-1) tyrosine, 1.48 g L(-1) methionine and 1% (v/v) lipid emulsion, reaching 19 x 10(6) cells mL(-1). Maximum specific growth rate and cell productivity were 0.025 h(-1) and 0.57 x 10(5) cells mL(-1) h(-1), respectively. Glucose and lactose were consumed during cell culture, but not fructose. Lactate concentration generally decreased during cell culture, while ammonium concentration reached 167 mg L(-1), however, without noticeable deleterious effects on cell growth. GPV concentration values achieved were, however, modest in the proposed medium formulation. PMID:19003168
Batista, Fabiana R X; Pereira, Carlos A; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z; Moraes, Angela M
An animal protein-free medium was developed for Drosophila melanogaster S2 (S2AcGPV2) cells genetically modified to produce the rabies virus G glycoprotein (GPV). IPL-41, used as a basal medium, was supplemented with yeastolate, carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids aiming initially to reduce and further to eliminate the need of fetal bovine serum. The S2AcGPV2 cells were fully capable of growing in serum-free supplemented IPL-41 medium containing 6 g L?1 yeastolate ultrafiltrate, 10 g L?1 glucose, 3.5 g L?1 glutamine, 0.5 g L?1 fructose, 2 g L?1 lactose, 0.6 g L?1 tyrosine, 1.48 g L?1 methionine and 1% (v/v) lipid emulsion, reaching 19 × 106 cells mL?1. Maximum specific growth rate and cell productivity were 0.025 h?1 and 0.57 × 105 cells mL?1 h?1, respectively. Glucose and lactose were consumed during cell culture, but not fructose. Lactate concentration generally decreased during cell culture, while ammonium concentration reached 167 mg L?1, however, without noticeable deleterious effects on cell growth. GPV concentration values achieved were, however, modest in the proposed medium formulation.
Batista, Fabiana R. X.; Pereira, Carlos A.; Mendonca, Ronaldo Z.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows’ diets.
Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn
Basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, along with numerous other documented clinical features. Acrochordons (or skin tags) are common benign neoplasms that are appropriately left untreated in most patients. We describe two patients with known BCNS who were found to have multiple BCCs that clinically resembled acrochordons. Our findings support the biopsy of acrochordon-like growths in patients with basal cell nevus syndrome to rule out basal cell carcinoma. PMID:17498440
Lortscher, David N; Sengelmann, Roberta D; Allen, Shawn B
All patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus need insulin treatment permanently, and many patients with type 2 diabetes will require insulin therapy. Basal insulin analogs are increasingly used in the treatment of diabetes, with the aim of offering a better replication of the pattern of basal endogenous secretion of insulin. Their flatter pharmacodynamic profile, with a much lower peak of action, their slow and continuous absorption into the systemic circulation, and prolonged duration, more closely duplicate the endogenous insulin secretion leading to physiological basal glycemic control and affording more flexible treatment with fewer hypoglycemia episodes. The basal analogs represent the most significant advances in ‘basal insulin’ supplementation, and can be used in different insulin regimens achieving the same clinical effectiveness over conventional insulins, with benefits in terms of hypoglycemia and less weight gain, and may be an option for patients with problematic hypoglycemia despite optimization of conventional insulin therapy. At present, there are no data on micro- or macrovascular endpoints, and indeed it is unlikely that these will become available, at least in the foreseeable future. The evidence for basal insulin analogs affecting the risk of cancer is limited, and overriding diabetes indications rather than putative cancer concerns should remain the principal consideration when selecting therapy in patients with diabetes.
Mavrogiannaki, Anastasia N.
SUMMARY The objective of the trial was to determine the impact of supplementation with Mucuna bean (Mucuna spp.) on milk production of goats during a 28-day period. Experimental goats were in their third and fourth month of lactation and on average weighed 36.00 ± 5.15 kg. Supplements offered were ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) or Mucuna bean. Basal diet was chopped Napier
H. Mendoza-Castillo; J. B. Castillo-Caamal; A. Ayala-Burgos
Pregnancies following human blastocyst transfers were established using a protein supplemented modified potassium simplex optimized medium containing amino acids (KSOMAA). Zygotes were first cultured for 2 days in protein supplemented human tubal fluid medium. Resulting embryos (day 3) were subsequently cultured in protein supplemented KSOMAA until day 5 of development. Pregnancy and implantation rates were noted after culture and transfer
Klaus E Wiemer; Anthony R Anderson; Melissa L Kyslinger; Margaret L Weikert
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 but not BMP-2 and BMP-4 improves maintenance of primitive peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with early acting cytokines.
BMPs regulate the developmental program of hematopoiesis. We demonstrate an increased expression of the BMP receptors Ia and II on cultured CD34+ cells and examine the impact of BMP-2, -4 and -7 on postnatal HPC cultured with stem cell factor, flt3-ligand and interleukin-3 (SF3). The addition of BMP-2 at 5, 25 and 50 ng/m to serum-free medium with SF3 yielded a 1.4- to 1.2-fold increase of CD34+ cells after seven days, but no effect on CFC or LTC-IC was observed. BMP-4 at 25 ng/ml induced a 2.9-fold expansion of colony-forming cells (CFC) within 1 week followed by a decrease to pre-culture values on day 14. The number of long-term culture initiating cells (LTC-IC) decreased by the factor 40 from day 0 to day 14. BMP-7 at 5-50 ng/ml had not effect on the expansion of CD34+ cells and CFC, but improved at 5 ng/ml the survival of LTC-IC significantly as compared to SF3 alone. In summary, BMP-2, -4 and -7 have no effect on the proliferation of CD34+ cells and CFC cultured with serum-free medium and SF3. However, BMP-7 but not BMP-2 and BMP-4 prevents the loss of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells cultured in SFM plus SF3. PMID:18029192
Grassinger, Jochen; Simon, Michaela; Mueller, Gunnar; Drewel, Diana; Andreesen, Reinhard; Hennemann, Burkhard
Basal bodies are modified centrioles that give rise to cilia and flagella. The basal body is a complex structure that can form through at least two distinct pathways depending on the cell type. Corresponding to this structural complexity, the basal body proteome contains a large number of proteins, many of which correspond to cilia-related disease genes, especially genes involved in nephronophthisis and cone-rod dystrophy. Basal bodies appear to play several roles in the cell. First, they provide a ninefold symmetric template on which the ninefold symmetry axonemal structure of the cilium can be built. Second, they dictate the position and orientation of the cilium, which is especially critical for ensuring that cilia-driven fluid flows move in the correct direction. Third, they are the point at which entry of proteins into the cilium is regulated. Finally, recent evidence suggests that basal body position may be involved in coupling planar cell polarity cues with the axis of cell division. Defects in any of these functions could lead to disease symptoms. Current studies of basal body biology include both proteomic and genetic approaches, relying on ciliated cell culture lines as well as genetically tractable systems such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The "parts list" of basal body proteins and genes is rapidly being completed, opening the way to more mechanistic studies in the future. PMID:19147000
Marshall, Wallace F
A 3 years old boy was admitted due to recurrent attacks of tetany and carpopedal spasm since one and a half years of age. The tetany lasting for 1-2 minutes in each episode was often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection and occurred 2-3 times a month. Both birth and family history were unremarkable. Physical findings showed mild psychomotor retardation with positive Chvostek sign. Laboratory examination revealed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and low serum parathyroid hormone level. EEG showed abnormal tracing with increased slow waves. Head CT Scan demonstrated symmetrical calcification in the basal ganglia region. The clinical features and laboratory findings were consistent with hypoparathyroidism. The mechanism of calcium deposit in the basal ganglia still remains unclear. Tetany, muscle cramping and seizures secondary to hypocalcemia are the most common neurologic signs which respond quickly to calcium replacement. Subsequent supplemental therapy resolved movement disorders and mental retardation. If early treatment prior to the tetanic episodes is instituted in a patient with hypoparathyroidism, it may prevent the development of complications such as intracranial calcifications, cataract and permanent retardation. PMID:2637591
Chow, K S; Lu, D N
The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen
A. Hermelee; M. Beller; J. DAcierno
A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betanine when growing anaerobically.
Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.
Basal bodies organize cilia that are responsible for both mechanical beating and sensation. Nascent basal body assembly follows a series of well characterized morphological events; however, the proteins and their assembly dynamics for new basal body formation and function are not well understood. High-resolution light and electron microscopy studies were performed in Tetrahymena thermophila to determine how proteins assemble into the structure. We identify unique dynamics at basal bodies for each of the four proteins analyzed (?-tubulin, Spag6, centrin, and Sas6a). ?-Tubulin incorporates only during new basal body assembly, Spag6 continuously exchanges at basal bodies, and centrin and Sas6a exhibit both of these patterns. Centrin loads and exchanges at the basal body distal end and stably incorporates during new basal body assembly at the nascent site of assembly and the microtubule cylinder. Conversely, both dynamic and stable populations of Sas6a are found only at a single site, the cartwheel. The bimodal dynamics found for centrin and Sas6a reveal unique protein assembly mechanisms at basal bodies that may reflect novel functions for these important basal body and centriolar proteins.
Giddings, Thomas H.; Winey, Mark
The ability to control the speed of movement is compromised in neurological disorders involving the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical cerebral nuclei that receive prominent dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. For example, bradykinesia, slowness of movement, is a major symptom of Parkinson's disease, whereas rapid tics are observed in patients with Tourette syndrome. Recent experimental work has also implicated dopamine (DA) and the basal ganglia in action timing. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the basal ganglia control the rate of change in kinaesthetic perceptual variables. In particular, the sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia network implements a feedback circuit for the control of movement velocity. By modulating activity in this network, DA can change the gain of velocity reference signals. The lack of DA thus reduces the output of the velocity control system which specifies the rate of change in body configurations, slowing the transition from one body configuration to another. PMID:24446506
Yin, Henry H
This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.
Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti
Ceratopsian dinosaurs were a dominant group of herbivores in Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems. We hypothesize that an understanding of the feeding system will provide important insight into the evolutionary success of these animals. The mandibular mechanics of eight genera of basal ceratopsians was examined to understand the variability in shape of the jaws and the early evolution of the masticatory system in Ceratopsia. Data were collected on lever arms, cranial angles and tooth row lengths. The results indicate that psittacosaurids had higher leverage at the beak and in the rostral part of the tooth row than basal neoceratopsians, but lower leverage in the caudal part of the tooth row. Although the vertebrate mandible is generally considered as a third-class lever, that of basal neoceratopsians acted as a second-class lever at the caudal part of the tooth row, as is also true in ceratopsids. When total input force from the mandibular adductor muscles on both sides of the skull is considered, the largest bite force in basal ceratopsian tooth rows was exerted in the caudal part of the tooth row at the caudal extremity of the zone with near-maximum input force. Medially positioned teeth generate higher leverage than laterally positioned teeth. The largest bite force in all basal ceratopsians is smaller than the maximum input force, a limit imposed by the morphology of the basal ceratopsian masticatory system. In ceratopsids, caudal extension of the tooth row resulted in a much larger bite force, even exceeding the maximum input force. PMID:19711460
Tanoue, Kyo; Grandstaff, Barbara S; You, Hai-Lu; Dodson, Peter
The effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Miichthys miiuy weighing approximately 200?260 g were divided into five groups and reared in 15 tanks with closed circuiting culture system.\\u000a The animals were fed 5 diets: basal diet only (control) or supplemented of the basal
Zeng-fu Song; Tian-xing Wu; Li-sheng Cai; Li-jing Zhang; Xiao-dong Zheng
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of dietary chromium supplementation on performance,\\u000a carcass traits, blood chemistry, and tissue distribution of chromium (Cr3+) in quails. Two hundred forty 1-d-old Japanese quails were divided into five groups with four replicates and were fed a basal\\u000a diet or the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 80, or 100
F. Uyanik; M. Eren; B. Kocao?lu Güçlü; N. ?ahin
Plant regeneration from callus of intergeneric hybrid Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. x Bromus inermis Leyss cv. nanus (AGROMUS) was carried out on a new culture medium designated medium-F. Within 21 days of the plating of inflorescence primordia the initiated callus showed globular structures. From the 21st day of culture, one step plant regeneration occurred on the callus without subculture. The new basal medium reported in this work was effective in callus initiation and plant regeneration of the hybrid AGROMUS by (i) the reduction of the total ion strength (2.6 g/l, 22.5 mM) of macroelements compared to MS (4.5 g/l,45.2 mM), (ii) the use of NH4NO3 as the sole N-source, and (iii) the application of KH2PO4 at an 8 times higher concentration (1160 mg/l,8.5 mM) when compared to the Murashige and Skoog medium composition. This medium provided a 2 to 10 fold reduction in the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid supplement needed for the callus initiation and one step plant regeneration after a gibberellic acid (2 mg/l, for 5 days) pretreatment of tillers. The regenerated plantlets were subcultured in multi-shoot culture and potted in soil to grow for further analysis. PMID:24203137
Gyulai, G; Janovszky, J; Kiss, E; Lelik, L; Csillag, A; Heszky, L E
The objectives of this study were to determine if mouse zygotes from outbred mice can develop in simple culture medium in the absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), and if taurine can be used as a medium supplement to improve development. Zygotes from 2 stocks of outbred mice (CD-1 and CF-1) were cultured in simple embryo culture medium (TE medium)
Seventeen volunteer male professional cyclists were randomly assigned to control or supplemented (6 g L-citrulline-malate) groups and participated in a cycling stage. Blood samples were taken in basal conditions, after the race and 3 h post-race. Citrulline supplementation significantly increased plasma concentration of both arginine and citrulline after the stage only in the supplemented group. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from controls responded to exercise with a progressive decrease in ROS production. Supplemented PMNs significantly increased ROS production after exercise compared to basal values and diminished to values lower than basal at recovery. PMN nitrite concentration was significantly higher after exercise and recovery only in the supplemented group. Markers of oxidative damage-CK, LDH, malondialdehyde-and DNA damage remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, oral L-citrulline administration previous to a cycling stage increases plasma arginine availability for NO synthesis and PMNs priming for oxidative burst without oxidative damage. PMID:19585317
Sureda, Antoni; Cordova, Alfredo; Ferrer, Miguel D; Tauler, Pedro; Perez, Gerardo; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni
The Dietary Supplements Task Force was charged with examining the issues regarding dietary supplements and developing a regulatory framework for these products. To facilitate the orderly development of regulatory strategies, the Task Force divided the uni...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cognitive and behavioral impairments such as poor attention, learning, memory and planning ability and uncontrolled crying that can be more persistent problems than the physical disabilities. Cognitive enhancers have been shown to improve cognitive and behavioral impairments in patients with hemorrhagic basal ganglia lesions as well as other forms of TBI. There is little research about the use of cognitive enhancers after hemorrhagic basal ganglia damage. We present a case of a 38 year old male who made significant recovery with the use of cognitive enhancers. PMID:22795553
Al Owesie, Rafat Mohammed; Morton, Catherine Saino
During two 5-year growth periods following thinning of planted slash pine on medium to poor cutover sites, periodic annual cubic-foot volume and basal area growth were directly related to residual basal area per acre and site index, and inversely related ...
D. P. Feduccia
1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current
This study was performed to investigate the bioavailability of carnitine supplements and their effects on the carnitine status of pigs. Seven groups of young pigs with an average body weight of 10 kg were fed a basal diet or the same diets supplemented with 25, 50, 100, 200, 500 or 1000 mg of L-carnitine per kg for 20 days. Absorption rate of
Maren Fischer; Juliane Varady; Frank Hirche; Holger Kluge; Klaus Eder
Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.
Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))
Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on extending the basal is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…
Collins, Norma; Smith, Carl, Comp.
Basal textbooks are rather popular for social studies teachers to use in the classroom setting. There are selected reasons for this occurring. They do provide beginning and new teachers a framework for ongoing lessons and units of study. The accompanying Manual provides suggestions for learning activities for learners to pursue. Evaluation…
We describe a distinct type of heteromorphic basal frond element in four species of the seed-fern foliage Dicroidium, based principally on a survey of plant-fossil collections from the Triassic of Antarctica. The modified foliar elements are conspicuously enlarged, and arise at wide angles and obliquely to the frond plane. Those of D. elongatum and D. crassinerve arise more or less
Benjamin Bomfleur; Ignacio H. Escapa; Edith L. Taylor; Thomas N. Taylor
As this report explains, the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI) has developed a reading program that teaches 16 skills involved in reading, spelling, listening, thinking, and writing. Daily records are kept of each child's progress. This report shows how the ECRI program can be adapted for use with a basal text. It provides detailed,…
Purnell, Betty; Hays, Susan
Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...
The BTI-Tn5B1-4 insect cell line, commercially available as the High Five cell line (Invitrogen), supports higher levels of recombinant protein production compared to existing insect cell lines. Proprietary serum-free media such as ExCell 405 (JRH Biosciences), Express Five (Life Technologies), IS BAC (Irvine Scientific), and CCM3 (HyClone) are available which were developed specifically for a suspension culture of High Five cells. While these media are highly optimized, a lower cost alternative is desirable for large-scale protein production which is also serum-free and supports good cell growth (>5 x 10(6) cells/mL) and recombinant protein production (>50 mg/L of secreted protein). The amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism of the Tn5B1-4 cells was first examined. It was found that asparagine was nearly depleted during batch growth in Ex-Cell 405, without limitations in glutamine, other amino acids, or glucose. Alanine also accumulated to about 35 mM during growth. We then extended the formulation techniques for medium development used for Spodoptera cell lines to the Tn5B1-4 cell line. A medium based on IPL-41 basal medium, Hy-Soy protein hydrolysate (Quest, International), yeastolate ultrafiltrate, a lipid-sterol emulsion, and Pluronic F-68 was developed. Dextran sulfate (100 microg/mL) was used to induce a single cell suspension culture. This medium is denoted as ISYL and performs best when supplemented with a 2.5% lipid-Pluronic F-68 mixture. Supplementation with additional aspargine in a 1.5% lipid-Pluronic F-68 mixture did not improve growth, suggesting that a lipid was growth-limiting and not an amino acid. Ex-Cell 405 and ISYL with 2.5% lipid-Pluronic F-68 supplement supported virtually identical growth rates, extent of growth (ca. 6.0 x 10(6) cells/mL) in an 80% oxygen atmosphere, and supported production of SEAP (secreted human alkaline phosphatase) at a volumetric level of about 65-70 mg/L. Thus, the less expensive ISYL medium can deliver acceptable performance and may be suitable for large-scale insect cell cultures. PMID:9694678
Donaldson, M S; Shuler, M L
This paper reviews some of the recent findings on different aspects of the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia. Attempts have been made to delineate the anatomical substrate of information processing along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Emphasis has been placed on data obtained with highly sensitive anterograde tract-tracing methods applied to the study of the main axis of the loop,
André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati
The updating of the hourly resolution, near-Earth solar wind data compilation is discussed. Data plots and listings are then presented. In the text, the time shifting of ISEE 3 fine-scale magnetic field and and plasma data, using corotation delay, and the normalization of IMP-MIT and ISEE densities and temperatures to equivalent IMP-LANL values, are discussed in detail. The levels of arbitrariness in combining data sets, and of random differences between data sets, are elucidated.
Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.
The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708
Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, El?bieta
Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.
Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay
We used electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to study the macular regions of nine enucleated elderly human eyes and to document the various abnormalities present in the so-called basal linear deposit. These changes include bush-like strands of electron-dense material, which project from the basement membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, deposition of wide-banded collagen, vesiculoid elements, membrane-bound structures and occasional melanin
K. U. Loffler; W. R. Lee
The aim of the study was to investigate the extent and determinants of vitamin supplementation in early pregnancy. Some 246 women were recruited in the antenatal clinics of a major teaching hospital and asked to complete a brief questionnaire relating to sources of advice and details of diet and vitamin supplementation during the index pregnancy. Further information was abstracted from routine antenatal records. A total of fifty-seven women (23%) took some form of vitamin supplement during the index pregnancy. Factors which affected supplementation included advice received from diverse sources and whether or not the women took iron supplements. Somewhat surprisingly, supplementation was not affected by age, social class or reproductive history. PMID:2500521
Best, A; Little, J; MacPherson, M
Among the most intriguing questions about sulfur mustard (di(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) is why basal cells are the primary targets of its vesicating lesions. To investigate this problem, replicate cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) were grown from normal skin and exposed to 400 microM sulfur mustard (HD) for 5 min. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated antibodies, confocal laser microscopy and image analyses, we found that in early passages, sham-treated HEK maintained in a 0.15 mM Ca2+ medium continued to express keratins K5 and K14 as well as alpha6beta4-integrin. Both K5 and K14 are intermediate filaments characteristic of basal cells and linked with attachment mechanisms effecting epidermolysis bullosa simplex, a family of blistering skin diseases. Acute exposure to HD caused a statistically significant (P < 0.01) 30.74% decrease in K14 fluorescence within 1 h of exposure. Within 2 h of exposure, K14 fluorescence decreased to near-zero values. The loss in expression of K14 was progressive and occurred well before the expected appearance of in vivo blisters, which have a dose-dependent, clinical latent phase of 8-24 h. Acute exposure to HD also caused a statistically significant (P < 0.002) decrease in expression of beta4, an integrin which has been associated with junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). Disruption of K14 and alpha6beta4-integrin may be early events in the HD injury pathway; however, they had no immediate or obvious effect on cell to substrate attachment. PMID:11428621
Werrlein, R J; Madren-Whalley, J S
3 Abstract: Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary Poultry Fat (PF) on the blood characteristics of commercial layers between 24 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk of age and dietary treatments (Basal Control Diets (BC) and basal control
E. D. Peebles; M. R. Burnham; S. L. Branton; S. K. Womack
Basal cell hyperplasia in the prostate is often viewed as a transition zone proliferation, related to usual, nodular glandular, and stromal hyperplasia. Basal cell hyperplasia in the prostatic peripheral zone, the most common site for development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma, has not been previously characterized. We characterized the incidence and histomorphological attributes of basal cell hyperplasia in a
Phataraporn Thorson; Paul E. Swanson; Robin T. Vollmer; Peter A. Humphrey
Studies of the medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems have recently been extended towards understanding the neural systems contributing to category learning. The basal ganglia, in particular, have been linked to probabilistic category learning in humans. A separate parallel literature in systems neuroscience has emerged, indicating a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in reward
D. Shohamy; C. E. Myers; J. Kalanithi; M. A. Gluck
The correlation of basal rate of metabolism with various factors is examined in birds. Chief among these is body mass. As in mammals, much of the remaining variation in basal rate among birds is associated with food habits. Birds other than passerines that feed on grass, nectar, flying insects, or vertebrates generally have basal rates that are similar to mammals
Brian K. McNab
The striatum, the largest input nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives massive inputs from the neocortex and thalamus, and gives rise to the direct, indirect and striosomal pathways of the basal ganglia. Here, the view is developed that the striatum is a major site for adaptive plasticity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, affecting in the normal state a broad range of
Ann M. Graybiel
This paper summarises the results of some of our recent tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical studies of the dopaminergic innervation of the human basal ganglia. It also reports new findings on the presence of TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the striatum. Our data show the existence of nigrostriatal TH-ir axons that provide collaterals arborizing in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. These thin and varicose collaterals emerge from thick and smooth axons that course along the main output pathways of the basal ganglia, including the ansa lenticularis, the lenticular fasciculus and Wilson's pencils. We postulate that this extrastriatal innervation, which allows nigral dopaminergic neurons to directly affect the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus, plays a critical role in the functional organisation of human basal ganglia. The TH-ir fibres that reach the striatum arborize according to a highly heterogeneous pattern. At rostral striatal levels, numerous small TH-poor zones embedded in a TH-rich matrix correspond to calbindin-poor striosomes and calbindin-rich extrastriosomal matrix, respectively. At caudal striatal levels, in contrast, striosomes display a TH immunostaining that is more intense than that of the matrix. A significant number of small, oval, aspiny TH-ir neurons scattered throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the caudate nucleus and putamen, together with a few larger, multipolar, spiny TH-ir neurons lying principally within the ventral portion of the putamen, were disclosed in human. This potential source of intrinsic striatal dopamine might play an important role in the functional organisation of the human striatum, particularly in case of Parkinson's disease. PMID:11207419
Prensa, L; Cossette, M; Parent, A
1 NCI Guidelines for Administrative Supplements for a Community Health Educator (CHE) for Outreach, Education, Coordination, and Evaluation Supplement Title: Administrative Supplements for a Community Health Educator (CHE) for Outreach, Education,
Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all angiosperms when their characters are included in a combined three-gene molecular and morphological analysis. Their reproductive axes lack petals and sepals and bear stamens in pairs below conduplicate carpels. PMID:11988572
Sun, Ge; Ji, Qiang; Dilcher, David L; Zheng, Shaolin; Nixon, Kevin C; Wang, Xinfu
The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.
Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru
Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal\\u000a growth factor receptor 2-positive\\/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based,\\u000a case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive\\u000a and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared
Robert C. Millikan; Beth Newman; Chiu-Kit Tse; Patricia G. Moorman; Kathleen Conway; Lisa V. Smith; Miriam H. Labbok; Joseph Geradts; Jeannette T. Bensen; Susan Jackson; Sarah Nyante; Chad Livasy; Lisa Carey; H. Shelton Earp; Charles M. Perou
Mitochondrial diseases are due to impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A plausible pathogenic mechanism leading\\u000a to cellular dysfunction and phenotypic expression is oxidative stress, but there are surprisingly few clinical studies on\\u000a this subject. Glutathione (GSH) deficiency has been reported in mitochondrial diseases, and the biosynthesis of glutathione\\u000a depends on cysteine availability. We have examined oxidative stress biomarkers [advanced
Michelangelo Mancuso; Daniele Orsucci; Annalisa LoGerfo; Anna Rocchi; Lucia Petrozzi; Claudia Nesti; Fabio Galetta; Gino Santoro; Luigi Murri; Gabriele Siciliano
Most naked basal bodies visualized in protargol stains on the surface of Tetrahymena are new basal bodies which have not yet developed cilia. The rarity of short cilia is explained by the rapid development of the ciliary shaft once it begins to grow. The high frequency of naked basal bodies (about 50 percent) in log cultures indicates that the interval between assembly of the basal body and the initiation of the cilium is long, approximately a full cell cycle. Naked basal bodies are more frequent in the mid and posterior parts of the cell and two or more naked basal bodies may be associated with one ciliated basal body in these regions. Daughter cells produced at division are apparently asymmetric with respect to their endowment of new and old organelles.
Dominant mutations in TUBB2B have been reported in patients with polymicrogyria. We further explore the phenotype associated with mutations in TUBB2B. Twenty patients with polymicrogyria (five unilateral) were tested for mutations in TUBB2B by Sanger sequencing. We identified two novel de novo mutations, c.743C>T (p.Ala248Val) and c.1139G>T (p.Arg380Leu) in exon 4 of TUBB2B in three unrelated families. Brain magnetic resonance images showed polymicrogyria involving predominantly the perisylvian regions. In addition, there was a dysmorphic appearance of the basal ganglia, thin corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, thinning of the white matter and hypoplasia of pons and cerebellar vermis. This combination of associated features was absent in all 17 patients with polymicrogyria in whom no mutation was identified. This report underlines that the association of polymicrogyria with thin or absent corpus callosum, dysmorphic basal ganglia, brainstem and vermis hypoplasia is highly likely to result from mutations in TUBB2B and provides further insight in how mutations in TUBB2B affect protein function. PMID:23495813
Amrom, D; Tanyalçin, I; Verhelst, H; Deconinck, N; Brouhard, Gj; Décarie, J-C; Vanderhasselt, T; Das, S; Hamdan, Ff; Lissens, W; Michaud, Jl; Jansen, Ac
Study Objectives: We investigated basal metabolic rate (BMR) and energy expenditure (EE) in narcoleptic patients and in BMI- and age-matched controls in order to explore the hypothesis that a reduced BMR or EE plays a role in narcolepsy-associated obesity. Design: Control group design with comparison of EE and BMR. EE was determined by indirect calorimetry using the Deltatrac Metabolic Monitor system. BMR was calculated from the oxygen consumption (VO2) and the carbon dioxide consumption (VCO2) measurements after 12 hours of fasting in the morning. Participants: 13 narcoleptic patients and 30 controls. Results: BMR and EE were not significantly reduced when all subjects were included into the analysis. Subgroup analysis revealed that only non-obese narcoleptics, but not obese narcoleptics had reduced BMRs in comparison to the BMI matched controls. Conclusion: Our study suggests that EE plays a role in narcolepsy associated obesity. We propose that narcolepsy may lead to a shift of individual BMI set points. Citation: Dahmen N; Tonn P; Messroghli L; Ghezel-Ahmadi D; Engel A. Basal metabolic rate in narcoleptic patients. SLEEP 2009;32(7):962-964.
Dahmen, Norbert; Tonn, Peter; Messroghli, Leila; Ghezel-Ahmadi, David; Engel, Alice
Six growing female Nubian goats (average BW=34.8+/-0.55kg, 7-8 months of age) were randomly assigned to either a basal diet (BD, 10-15ppm Cu/DM), or to medium Cu (MC, BD+50mgCu), or to high Cu (HC, BD+100mgCu) diets for 9 weeks. This level would cause Cu toxicity in sheep, but none occurred in the goats. Therefore, Cu supplementation was then increased to 150 and 300mg per head per day, for the following 14 weeks; to 300 and 600mg per head per day, for the next 8 weeks; and to 600 and 1200mg per head per day, for an additional 4 weeks, in the MC and HC group, respectively. Body weight and vital signs were recorded and blood samples collected at different time intervals. Hematological parameters, plasma Cu, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were determined. At the termination of the study, tissue Cu concentration in different organs was also determined. During first 23 weeks (<300mgCu per day) of the study there were no apparent signs of Cu toxicity. Cu supplementation at 600mg per head per day in young Nubian does, had no effect on respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and decreased (P<0.05) rectal temperature (RT) in the HC group only. Leukocyte counts were positively correlated with Cu supplementation (r=+0.296, P<0.02) and negatively correlated (r=-0.254, P<0.05) with RT in the HC group. Plasma SDH increased (P<0.05) when Cu supplementation was >/=300mg per head per day, thus, SDH may serve as an early indicator of Cu toxicosis in goats. Increases (P<0.05) in GOT were noted when Cu intake was >/=600mg per head per day. Contrary to the results observed for SDH and GOT, feeding goats 50mgCu per day or more, resulted in an increased plasma GGT as compared to BD goats. Levels of SDH, GOT and GGT of the BD goats were within normal range. Plasma Cu was not indicative of Cu status of animals. Copper improved ADG by 28% at the 100-150ppm level in diet. No relationship between Cu intake and hair Cu was found in the present study. Highest concentration of Cu was found in liver, followed by duodenum, rumen and brain. Results of this study indicate that goats are more resistant to Cu toxicity than sheep. This is one of the first reports documenting significant differences in Cu requirements and tolerance between goats and sheep. PMID:11445421
Solaiman, S G.; Maloney, M A.; Qureshi, M A.; Davis, G; D'Andrea, G
Zinc is an important micronutrient for humans, and zinc deficiency among schoolchildren is deleterious to growth and development, immune competence, and cognitive function. However, the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive function remains poorly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months) on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) using a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We studied 36 schoolchildren aged 6 to 9 years (7.8 ± 1.1) using a nonprobability sampling method. The baseline serum zinc concentrations increased significantly after zinc supplementation (p < 0.0001), with no difference between sexes. Tests were administered under basal conditions before and after zinc supplementation, and there was no difference in FSIQ according to gender or age. The results demonstrated that zinc improved the VIQ only in the Information Subtest (p = 0.009), although the supplementation effects were more significant in relation to the PIQ, as these scores improved for the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly Subtests (p = 0.0001, for all subtests). In conclusion, zinc supplementation improved specific cognitive abilities, thereby positively influencing the academic performance of schoolchildren, even those without marginal zinc deficiency. PMID:23892699
de Moura, José Edson; de Moura, Edna Nubia Oliveira; Alves, Camila Xavier; Vale, Sancha Helena de Lima; Dantas, Márcia Marília Gomes; Silva, Alfredo de Araújo; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Brandão-Neto, José
Summary A new culture medium, NCTC 168, has been designed for human skin epithelial cells. This medium formulation was developed,\\u000a by combining and testing at various concentrations, components of media NCTC 135 and 163, since a 1?1 mixture of these two\\u000a media with 10% horse serum supplement was found to promote epithelial cell outgrowth from human skin explants. The buffer\\u000a system
Floyd M. Price; Richard F. Camalier; Raymond Gantt; William G. Taylor; Gilbert H. Smith; Katherine K. Sanford
Forty eight 21 days old piglets were used to compare the effect of prebiotic or probiotic supplementation and ileo rectal anastomosis on the morphology of the small intestine. Half of the piglets were maintained intact and the other half was subjected to an ileo rectal anastomosis (IRA). Each group of piglets received one of the following diets: 1) basal diet (C),
M. C. Marinho; M. A. Pinho; R. D. Mascarenhas; F. C. Silva; M. M. Lordelo; L. F. Cunha; J. P. B. Freire
In a program of studies of disuse osteoporosis, fluoride balances were determined in healthy men during ambulation and then during bed rest for 6 to 17 wk. Control subjects ingested basal diets containing 0.4 mg fluoride per day, whereas experimental subjects received 10- mg fluoride supplements in divided doses with meals. Fluoride and calcium were measured in diets, urine, and
Usha R. Maheshwari; Victor S. Schneider; Janet T. McDonald; J. Brunetti; Leonid Leybin; Harold Hodge
A study was conducted to assess the effect of dietary garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens using a total of 300 day old Shaver Starbo chicks allotted at 10 birds per replicate and 6 replicates per treatment over a period of 7 weeks. The basal starter and finisher diets contained 228.61 and 201.42
Gbenga E. Onibi; Oluwatoyin E. Adebisi; Adebowale N. Fajemisin; Ayodeji V. Adetunji
Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)
Dietary supplement compositions containing one or more compounds such as arginine, selenium, calcium, calcium sources, morphine precursors (e.g., reticuline), morphine, and morphine-6.beta.-glucuronide are provided.
G. B. Stefano K. J. Mantione P. Cadet W. Zhu
Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985
Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y
Rauwolfia serpentina holds an important position in the pharmaceutical world because of its immense anti-hypertensive properties resulting from the presence of reserpine in the oleoresin fraction of the roots. Poor seed viability, low seed germination rate, and enormous genetic variability are the major constraints for the commercial cultivation of R. serpentina through conventional mode. The present optimized protocol offers an impeccable end to end method from the establishment of aseptic cultures to in-vitro plantlet production employing semisolid as well liquid nutrient culture medium and assessment of their genetic fidelity using polymerase chain reaction based rapid amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. In vitro shoots multiplied on Murashige and Skoog basal liquid nutrients supplemented with benzo[a]pyrene (1.0 mg/L) and NAA (0.1 mg/L) and in-vitro rhizogenesis was observed in modified MS basal nutrient containing NAA (1.0 mg/L) and 2% sucrose. In-vitro raised plants exhibited 90-95% survival under glass house/field condition and 85% similarity in the plants regenerated through this protocol. Field established plants were harvested and extraction of indole alkaloid particularly reserpine, ajmaline and ajmalicine and their simultaneous quantitation was performed using monolithic reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:19521832
Goel, M K; Mehrotra, S; Kukreja, A K; Shanker, K; Khanuja, S P S
Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively.
De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto
Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002
De Seta, Daniele; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto
Many children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) use nutritional therapies (supplements and elimination\\u000a diets) as a treatment strategy. This article reviews the use of supplements in ADHD. Several nutrients have known roles in\\u000a the support of brain function. Nutrient sufficiency during brain development is critical. Because 1) data indicate that many\\u000a American schoolchildren do not meet nutritional recommendations, 2) the prefrontal
Marianne M. Glanzman
A simple protein free medium was formulated and tested in suspension culture using three hybridoma cell lines. The medium, referred to as CDSS (Chemically Defined Serum Substitutes), consisted of the basal medium DMEM:Ham F12, 1:1, with HEPES (D12H), plus pluronic F68, trace elements, ferric citrate, ascorbic acid, and ethanolamine. No protein or lipid components were added. All three cell lines
Y. M. Qi; P. F. Greenfield; S. Reid
The skeletal ontogeny of the Micrabaciidae, one of two modern basal scleractinian lineages, is herein reconstructed based on serial micro-computed tomography sections and scanning electron micrographs. Similar to other scleractinians, skeletal growth of micrabaciids starts from the simultaneous formation of six primary septa. New septa of consecutive cycles arise between septa of the preceding cycles from unique wedge-shaped invaginations of the wall. The invagination of wall and formation of septa are accompanied by development of costae alternating in position with septa. During corallite growth, deepening invagination of the wall results in elevation of septa above the level of a horizontal base. The corallite wall is regularly perforated thus invaginated regions consist of pillars inclined downwardly and outwardly from the lower septal margins. Shortly after formation of septa (S2 and higher cycles) their upper margins bend and fuse with the neighboring members of a previous cycle, resulting in a unique septal pattern, formerly misinterpreted as "septal bifurcation." Septa as in other Scleractinia are hexamerally arranged in cycles. However, starting from the quaternaries, septa within single cycles do not appear simultaneously but are inserted in pairs and successively flank the members of a preceding cycle, invariably starting from those in the outermost parts of the septal system. In each pair, the septum adjacent to older septa arises first (e.g., the quinaries between S2 and S4 before quinaries between S3 and S4). Unique features of micrabaciid skeletal ontogeny are congruent with their basal position in scleractinian phylogeny, which was previously supported by microstructural and molecular data. PMID:23065665
Janiszewska, Katarzyna; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Stolarski, Jaros?aw
Understanding ice sheet and glacier dynamics is crucial for modeling of ice mass balance and resulting sea level changes. Ice dynamics is strongly influenced by surface melt water accumulating at the glacier base and its effect on basal sliding. The relationship between surface melt and ice flow depends on hydraulic processes in the subglacial drainage system. However, both subglacial and englacial drainage systems are inherently difficult to investigate due to their remoteness, and basal processes to date remain poorly understood. Borrowing concepts from volcano studies, recent glacier studies are employing passive seismology as a supplement to traditional glaciological techniques. When monitoring the seismic activity of a glacier or an ice sheet, several different types of so-called 'icequakes' and some times even 'tremor' may be detected in the seismic records that is dominated by the large number of surficial icequakes. Deep icequakes may provide information about englacial water flow and basal motion in response to hydraulic events over a region whose size is only limited by seismic background noise and the aperture of the monitoring network. Here, we present results from a passive seismic deployment on western Greenland's ablation zone during summer 2011. The high-density seismometer network consisted of 17 three-component stations installed at the ice surface or in boreholes. We recorded a large variety of seismic signals, including thousands of near-surface crevasse events as well as dislocation events deep within the ice sheet and near its bed. We discuss these 'deep icequakes' in view of hydraulic processes and basal motion. Furthermore, the seismic deployment was part of larger field campaign including a deep drilling project and glaciological surface observations. This provides the unique opportunity to interpret the seismic monitoring results within the variety of observations including subglacial water pressures and other borehole measurements.
Röösli, Claudia; Walter, Fabian; Kisslin, Edi; Helmstetter, Agnes; Lüthi, Martin
The objective of this study was to investigate whether zinc, along with pyridoxine, is effective in improving performance\\u000a and egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and twenty, 28-week-old Hy-Line laying hens were assigned to four treatment groups,\\u000a 30 hens each. The birds were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 30 mg of zinc\\/kg of diet,
O. Kucuk; A. Kahraman; I. Kurt; N. Yildiz; A. C. Onmaz
Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC, Fahr disease) is an inherited neurologic condition characterized by basal ganglia and extra-basal ganglia brain calcifications, parkinsonism, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The authors examined six families for linkage to the previously identified genetic locus (IBGC1) located on chromosome 14q. The authors found evidence against linkage to IBGC1 in five of the six families supporting previous preliminary studies demonstrating genetic heterogeneity in familial IBGC. PMID:15596772
Oliveira, J R M; Spiteri, E; Sobrido, M J; Hopfer, S; Klepper, J; Voit, T; Gilbert, J; Wszolek, Z K; Calne, D B; Stoessl, A J; Hutton, M; Manyam, B V; Boller, F; Baquero, M; Geschwind, D H
Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation.
O'Toole, Eileen T.; Dutcher, Susan K.
The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for nonmotile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that, in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7-days-postfertilization (dpf) larvae; basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982
Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D
We report the case of a 43-year-old man with history of nonsurgical partial epilepsy who previously failed multiple trials of antiepileptic drugs. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were added to his regular diet in the form of pure oil. Subsequently, his seizure frequency was markedly reduced from multiple daily seizures to one seizure every four days. His seizures recurred after transient discontinuation of MCT over a period of ten days. His seizure improvement was achieved at a dose of four tablespoons of MCT twice daily with no reported side effects. He developed significant diarrhea and flatulence at higher doses. We conclude that MCT oil supplementation to regular diet may provide better seizure control in some patients. MCT oil supplementation may be a more tolerable alternative to the standard ketogenic diet.
Azar, Nabil J.
Cleavage cracking of titanium alloys has been reported to occur under conditions of stress corrosion cracking and sustained\\u000a load cracking and, in such cases, the cleavage plane has often been reported as being near-basal, typically 14 to 16 deg from\\u000a (000I)? However, the indices of this cleavage plane have not yet been definitely established, nor has the reason for its
Ian Wavell Hall
Cleavage cracking of titanium alloys has been reported to occur under conditions of stress corrosion cracking and sustained load cracking and, in such cases, the cleavage plane has often been reported as being near-basal, typically 14 to 16 deg from (000I)alpha However, the indices of this cleavage plane have not yet been definitely established, nor has the reason for its
Ian Wavell Hall
The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5
Nasrallah, Sami N.; Reynolds, L. Raymond
The effect of dietary ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on the uptake of ?-tocopherol in ewe plasma, lamb plasma, milk, organs and muscles was investigated. The oxidative stability and colour in fresh M. longissimus dorsi and frozen M. longissimus dorsi, M. psoas major and M. gluteus medius were also investigated. Ewes (n = 12) were selected and scanned to assess pregnancy. They were divided into two groups (n = 6). The control group was fed a diet containing 20 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed/day and the supplemented group fed a diet containing 1000 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed/day, for 9 weeks ante-parturition and 3 weeks post-parturition. The lambs were weaned at 3 weeks and fed supplemented or basal feed for 10 weeks before slaughter. Plasma ?-tocopherol increased significantly (p < 0.01) in ewes in the 9 weeks ante-parturition, and lamb plasma taken just before slaughter was significantly (p < 0.01) higher for the supplemented group than the basal group, following 13 weeks of supplementation. Milk ?-tocopherol levels were significantly (p < 0.01) higher from ewes fed the supplemented diet at parturition and for the three weeks of supplementation post-parturition (p < 0.05). Supplementation increased the ?-tocopherol levels in all tissues sampled. The ?-tocopherol concentrations in M. longissimus dorsi and M. psoas major were also determined after frozen storage at -20 °C for 34 weeks. Frozen storage resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in mean ?-tocopherol levels for M. longissimus dorsi but not M. psoas major. Dietary supplementation with ?-tocopheryl acetate significantly (p < 0.05) increased the oxidative stability of lamb muscle. Surface colour (Hunter L, a, b) was found to be negatively correlated with metmyoglobin content. Supplementation reduced surface discolouration in refrigerated display under fluorescent light over a 6-7 day storage period. The effect was more pronounced in frozen displayed muscles than in freshly displayed samples. PMID:22061135
Guidera, J; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J; Lynch, P B; Morrissey, P A
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic therapy and topical chemotherapy. Radiotherapy should be avoided. Vitamin A analogs may play a preventive role against development of new BCCs. Life expectancy in NBCCS is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications can be substantial. Regular follow-up by a multi-specialist team (dermatologist, neurologist and odontologist) should be offered. Patients with NBCCS should strictly avoid an excessive sun exposure.
Lo Muzio, Lorenzo
Caffeine supplementation during oocyte IVM has been reported to improve preimplantation embryo development and the quality of in vitro-produced blastocysts in a range of species; but no studies have been done in camels. The present study investigated the effect of caffeine supplementation during dromedary camel oocyte IVM on nuclear maturation rates, IVF events, and subsequent preimplantation development. Cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained at slaughter were matured in vitro in caffeine supplemented medium either for 30 hours (caffeine 30 hours) or in the medium without caffeine supplement for 24 hours and then transferred to freshly prepared IVM medium supplemented with 10 mM caffeine for another 6 hours (caffeine 6 hours). Cumulus-oocyte complexes matured for 30 hours in the medium without caffeine supplement were used as a control. Matured oocytes were fertilized in vitro by epididymal spermatozoa of mature male camels collected from a local slaughterhouse. Eighteen hours after insemination, presumptive zygotes were cultured in modified KSOMaa medium for 7 days. Maturation and fertilization rates were significantly higher in the caffeine 6-hour group compared with the control group (P < 0.05), whereas IVM of oocytes in caffeine-supplemented medium for 30 hours did not affect these parameters (P > 0.05). Interestingly, IVM of oocytes in caffeine supplemented medium for 6 hours significantly (P < 0.05) increased the frequencies of blastocyst development by more than two-fold when compared with control (27.78% vs. 11.76%). In conclusion, culturing dromedary camel oocytes in maturation medium without caffeine for 24 hours and then in the medium supplemented with 10 mM caffeine for 6 hours during 30-hour IVM can significantly improve frequencies of nuclear maturation, fertilization rate, and subsequent preimplantation development. PMID:24630529
Fathi, Mohamed; Seida, Adel A; Sobhy, Refaat R; Darwish, Gamal M; Badr, Magdy R; Moawad, Adel R
SUMMARY The addition of 1% (w\\/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the F12 medium utilized for the growth of the B16 mela noma cells significantly stimulated the growth of this cell line. The synthesis of mucopolysaccharides and sialogly- copeptides in this medium is identical with that in Eagle's minimal essential medium with Earle's balanced salt solu tion supplemented with 2
John R. Banks; V. P. Bhavanandan; E. A. Davidson
D-Glucose uptake in isolated rabbit enterocytes was studied using confocal microscopy and 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NDBG), a D-glucose fluorescent analogue, by analysing the fluorescence of apical and basal enterocyte zones. Under normal conditions, apical fluorescence was always higher than basal, presumably due to the location of the Na+-D-glucose cotransporter in the brush-border membrane. After blocking this transporter with phlorizin, apical and basal fluorescence values were similar. This suggests that both brush-border and basolateral membranes participate in phlorizin-insensitive D-glucose transport, since transport across only one membrane cannot explain the uniform overall fluorescence observed. Similarly, after inhibiting the Na+-D-glucose cotransporter by incubating the enterocytes in a medium containing 0.5 mM Na+, neither apical nor basal fluorescence predominated. In contrast, with 130.5 mM extracellular Na+, apical fluorescence was clearly higher than basal fluorescence. These results suggest that phlorizin-insensitive, Na+-independent 2-NDBG uptake occurred through both brush-border and basolateral membranes, probably via the glucose uniporters GLUT2 and GLUT5, suggesting that the latter is a D-glucose transporter. PMID:11713649
Román, Y; Alfonso, A; Louzao, M C; Vieytes, M R; Botana, L M
When inverting for basal slipperiness and (C retrieval) the rate factor in Glen's flow law (A retrieval) using surface data, the inversion needs to be constrained for the retrieved values to be positive. Some other constraints may also have to be imposed on the retrieved fields. There are various ways of enforcing such constraints. Using an adjoint model of the shallow-ice stream equations, several different algorithms are tested and compared with respect to rate of convergence and cost per iteration. These methods included the projected gradient method, the limited-memory projected BFGS method, the interior-point method, and an incomplete Newton iteration using a barrier function. All these methods perform favourably for small problem sizes (O(1000) unknowns). It is shown that for large-scale optimisation problems the convergence rate for A retrieval is generally lower than for C retrieval. Both projection methods suffer from slow convergence for large problem sizes (O(100 000) unknowns.) Interior-point methods, especially when coupled with an incomplete inner iteration of the Newton system appear to give the best large-scale performance.
Gudmundsson, G. H.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer, and its incidence continues to rise. Current management options are numerous and focus on tumour eradication while maximising cosmetic and functional capacity. Although surgery continues to be considered the main treatment modality, new pharmacological agents, such as immunomodulators, topical chemotherapeutic agents and photodynamic therapy, have emerged and show promising results. Pharmacological agents offer the potential for lower morbidity and improved tissue preservation compared with surgery and radiotherapy. However, pharmacological treatments possess higher failure rates when compared with surgery, and most studies have investigated only low-risk lesions. Several prospective, randomised, double-blind, vehicle-controlled studies have established the efficacy of imiquimod for superficial BCC. This review summarises the evidence regarding the mechanism, efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents based on the literature from the past 10 years. Experimental treatments that have been successfully utilised in the treatment of BCC are also discussed. Treatment of BCC with other agents, such as tazarotene, glycoalkaloid (BEC-5) cream, cidofovir and calcium dobesilate have been reported, but further studies are needed to ascertain the efficacy and adverse-effect profiles of these treatments. PMID:17428108
Lee, Seongmu; Selva, Dinesh; Huilgol, Shyamala C; Goldberg, Robert A; Leibovitch, Igal
Importance of the field In the United States, the annual incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is close to 1 million. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the main risk factor; however, the availability of ever more potent sunscreens and education have not prevented the rise in BCC incidence. Therefore, concerted effects to identify novel preventive and therapeutic strategies are necessary. Areas covered in this review This article summarizes our current understanding of the etiology and molecular mechanisms of BCC tumorigenesis and discusses the preclinical and clinical studies to identify agents with anti-BCC efficacy. What the reader will gain The discovery that hyperactive Hh pathway signaling causes several cancers, including BCC, has spawned the development of many pharmacologic inhibitors of Hh signaling. Early clinical testing of the most advanced, GDC-0449, demonstrated impressive efficacy in patients with advanced BCC. Other promising anti-BCC chemopreventive strategies include drugs that are already FDA-approved for treating other diseases. Take home message Preclinical and clinical trials with pre-existing FDA-approved drugs suggest novel uses for BCC chemoprevention and treatment. Also, new chemical entities that inhibit the Hh pathway show promise, and in combination with other drugs may provide a nonsurgical cure for this most common cancer.
Tang, Jean Y; Epstein, Ervin H
Non-melanoma skin cancer most commonly affects Caucasians, and only rarely affects darker-skinned individuals. However, skin cancer in these groups is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Ultraviolet radiation is the major etiologic factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and likely plays a pivotal role in the development of other forms of skin cancer. Yet it is commonly thought among patients as well as physicians that darker pigmentation inherently affords complete protection from skin cancer development. This low index of suspicion results in delayed diagnoses and poorer outcomes. This review follows a detailed computer search that cross-matched the diagnosis of BCC with skin color type in a large commercial dermatopathology facility. The reported skin types, all Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI, and histories were confirmed. A predominance of pigmented BCCs was found in sun-exposed areas of these older individuals. Although less common in darker-skinned ethnic groups, BCC does occur and can pose significant morbidity. Thus, it is essential that dermatologists are familiar with the epidemiology and clinical presentation of all cutaneous malignancies in darker skin so that these patients are fully aware of risks as well as prevention of the disease. PMID:22453586
Ahluwalia, Jesleen; Hadjicharalambous, Elena; Mehregan, Darius
The FTO gene variants are the most important genetic determinants of body weight and BMI known so far, but the mechanism of the effect remains unclear. We have analyzed FTO rs17817449 variant (G>T in first intron) in 6,024 adults aged 45-69 years. Dietary intake was calculated from 140-items food frequency questionnaire, physical activity has been assessed using questions on the number of hours spent during a typical week by sport, walking and other activities out of work requiring heavy and medium physical activity and basal metabolic rate was calculated. The FTO variant was significantly associated with basal metabolic rate (Kcal per day and kg of body weight) in females (P = 0.006; GG = 19.3 ± 2.2, GT = 19.5 ± 2.2, TT = 19.7 ± 2.2), but not in males (P = 0.42, GG = 20.9 ± 1.9, GT = 21.0 ± 1.8, TT = 21.1 ± 1.8). Total energy intake, total energy intake in fat, in carbohydrates, in proteins and in alcohol, and performed physical activity were not associated with FTO genotype either in males or females. We conclude that effect of the FTO rs17817449 variant on BMI values in adults is not mediated through the association with energy intake or physical activity, but rather through the effect on basal metabolic rate, and that this effect is more pronounced in females.
HUBACEK, J. A.; PIKHART, H.; PEASEY, A.; BOBAK, M.
The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus
Ming Chen; Ming Zou; Lei Yang; Shunping He
Water plays a first-order role in basal sliding of glaciers and ice sheets and is often a key constituent of accelerated glacier motion. Subglacial water is known to occupy systems of cavities and conduits at the interface between ice and the underlying bed surface, depending upon the history of water input and the characteristics of the substrate. Full understanding of the extent and configuration of basal water is lacking, however, because direct observation is difficult. This limits our ability to simulate ice dynamics and the subsequent impacts on sea-level rise realistically. Here we show that the subglacial hydrological system can have a large volume of water occupying basal crevasses that extend upward from the bed into the overlying ice. Radar and seismic imaging combined with in situ borehole measurements collected on Bench Glacier, Alaska, reveal numerous water-filled basal crevasses with highly transmissive connections to the bed. Some crevasses extend many tens of metres above the bed and together they hold a volume of water equivalent to at least a decimetre layer covering the bed. Our results demonstrate that the basal hydrologic system can extend high into the overlying ice mass, where basal crevasses increase water-storage capacity and could potentially modulate basal water pressure. Because basal crevasses can form under commonly observed glaciological conditions, our findings have implications for interpreting and modelling subglacial hydrologic processes and related sliding accelerations of glaciers and ice sheets. PMID:20882014
Harper, Joel T; Bradford, John H; Humphrey, Neil F; Meierbachtol, Toby W
Five commonly used basal readers from grades one through three were studied to determine how they portrayed and represented older adults. It was hypothesized that older adults would be portrayed as active, contributing, and productive members of society and that they would be represented in the basals in proportion to their numbers in the…
Rosen, Doris F.
Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.
Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.
Background. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or NBCCS, is a hereditary condition characterized by basal cell car- cinomas, or BCCs; odontogenic keratocysts, or OKCs; and skele- tal abnormalities. The authors conducted this study to determine the early signs of NBCCS. Methods. The authors reviewed files from two Italian den- tal schools from January 1980 to January 1995 to determine the
LORENZO LO MUZIO; PIERFRANCESCO NOCINI; PAOLO BUCCI; GIUSEPPE PANNONE; UGO CONSOLO; MAURIZIO PROCACCINI
Presents a brief outline ofthe evolution of the basal reader and notes the predominant role it p plays in today's reading instruction. Comments on the impact reading research has had and is likely to have on the basal reading program in the future. Includes a pro-reaction and a con-reaction paper. Bibliography
Staiger, Ralph C.
Broiler diets are frequently fortified with vitamin D (D3) above the recommended levels in an attempt to prevent commonly occurring leg problems. Since the basal levels of dietary D3 are rarely known, there is a risk of over-supplementation. Over-supplementation of D3 has been shown to have detrimental effects on the heart. Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is a condition commonly observed
S. Nain; B. Laarveld; C. Wojnarowicz; A. A. Olkowski
The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We review literature from different areas of human and animal work that converges to build a case for basal ganglia involvement in the control of precision gripping. Following on from literature showing anatomical connectivity between the basal ganglia nuclei and key nodes in the cortical grasping network, we suggest a conceptual framework for how the basal ganglia could function within the grasping network, particularly as it relates to the control of precision grip force.
Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.
The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review, we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We review literature from different areas of human and animal work that converges to build a case for basal ganglia involvement in the control of precision gripping. Following on from literature showing anatomical connectivity between the basal ganglia nuclei and key nodes in the cortical grasping network, we suggest a conceptual framework for how the basal ganglia could function within the grasping network, particularly as it relates to the control of precision grip force. PMID:19428499
Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E
A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.
A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.
Stokowski, Stanley E. (Danville, CA)
Diet supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids could influence the oxidative equilibrium, enhancing a pro-oxidant status. The aim was to determine the effects of diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), training, and acute exercise on oxidative balance in neutrophils. Fifteen volunteer male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or experimental group. The placebo group was supplemented with an almond-based beverage whereas the experimental group was supplemented with the same beverage enriched with DHA, in addition to their Mediterranean-type diet. Three blood samples were taken: in basal conditions at the beginning of the nutritional intervention and after 8 weeks of training season in basal and postexercise conditions. The training season significantly increased the antioxidant defenses of neutrophils, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzyme activities; and decreased oxidative damage markers such as malondialdehyde, carbonyl and nitrotyrosine indexes. Oxidative damage markers decreased in neutrophils after acute exercise, which primed neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) after immune stimulation with zymosan or phorbol myristate acetate in trained footballers. DHA supplementation resulted in no significant effects on oxidative stress balance in neutrophils. In conclusion, DHA supplementation did not modify the adaptive response of the antioxidant system of neutrophils to training or the production of RONS induced by immune stimulation after acute exercise. PMID:24669986
Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni
While a basal ganglia with striatal and pallidal subdivisions is 1 clearly present in many extant anamniote species, this basal ganglia is cell sparse and receives only a relatively modest tegmental dopaminergic input and little if any cortical input. The major basal ganglia influence on motor functions in anamniotes appears to be exerted via output circuits to the tectum. In contrast, in modern mammals, birds, and reptiles (i.e., modern amniotes), the striatal and pallidal parts of the basal ganglia are very neuron-rich, both consist of the same basic populations of neurons in all amniotes, and the striatum receives abundant tegmental dopaminergic and cortical input. The functional circuitry of the basal ganglia also seems very similar in all amniotes, since the major basal ganglia influences on motor functions appear to be exerted via output circuits to both cerebral cortex and tectum in sauropsids (i.e., birds and reptiles) and mammals. The basal ganglia, output circuits to the cortex, however, appear to be considerably more developed in mammals than in birds and reptiles. The basal ganglia, thus, appears to have undergone a major elaboration during the evolutionary transition from amphibians to reptiles. This elaboration may have enabled amniotes to learn and/or execute a more sophisticated repertoire of behaviors and movements, and this ability may have been an important element of the successful adaptation of amniotes to a fully terrestrial habitat. The mammalian lineage appears, however, to have diverged somewhat from the sauropsid lineage with respect to the emergence of the cerebral cortex as the major target of the basal ganglia circuitry devoted to executing the basal ganglia-mediated control of movement. PMID:9858740
Reiner, A; Medina, L; Veenman, C L
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant human neoplasm characterized by slow growth and virtual absence of metastases. Recently, it has become evident that along with genetic mutations epigenetic alterations play a key role in the pathogenesis of human cancer. We searched for promoter methylation of hMLH1, RASSF1A, DAPK, APC, DCR1 and DCR2 genes and BRAF mutations in BCCs in association with the clinicopathological parameters and the histological subtypes of the tumours. Fifty-two BCCs, 17 FFPE along with 35 fresh tissue samples with matching normal tissues for 26 cases were analyzed by methylation-specific PCR to assess the methylation status of hMLH1, RASSF1A, DAPK, APC, DCR1 and DCR2 genes after sodium bisulfite treatment of the tumour and normal DNA. hMLH1 and DCR1 gene expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. BRAF mutations were studied by high resolution melting analysis. Methylation was detected at a variable frequency of 44, 33, 32.5, 32 and 14 % of DCR2, APC, DCR1, RASSF1 and DAPK promoters, respectively, whereas methylation of hMLH1 promoter was absent. No BRAF mutations were found. There was no correlation between the frequency of the promoter methylation of the above-mentioned genes and the clinicopathological features or the histological subtypes of the tumours. The relatively high frequency of RASSF1A, DCR1, DCR2 and APC promoter methylation may imply that methylation constitutes an important pathway in the tumourigenesis of BCC that could provide new opportunities in developing epigenetic therapies for BCC patients. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to establish the above-mentioned hypothesis. PMID:24573469
Stamatelli, Angeliki; Vlachou, Christina; Aroni, Kiriaki; Papassideri, Issidora; Patsouris, Efstratios; Saetta, Angelica A
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry
Joan M. Eckerson
Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…
Background: The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is a rare dermatological disease inherited according to an autosomal dominant pattern. From the dermatological point of view, the most evident characteristic of the syndrome is the early onset of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). An ideal treatment of BCCs of the NBCCS does not exist. Objective:
Massimo Caccialanza; Serena Percivalle; Roberta Piccinno
NCI Guidelines for Administrative Supplements to Promote Re-Entry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers Title: Administrative Supplements to Promote Re-Entry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers Announcement Number: NOT-OD-09-056
Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...
NCI Guidance for Administrative Supplements for NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer Grants and Cooperative Agreements Title: NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer Administrative Supplements to support efforts in the use of nanomaterials,
We have isolated a nucleus-basal body complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The complex is strongly immunoreactive to an antibody generated against a major protein constituent of isolated Tetraselmis striata flagellar roots (Salisbury, J. L., A. Baron, B. Surek, and M. Melkonian, J. Cell Biol., 99:962-970). Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analysis indicates that, like the Tetraselmis protein, the Chlamydomonas antigen consists of two acidic isoforms of approximately 20 kD. Indirect immunofluorescent staining of nucleus-basal body complexes reveals two major fibers in the connector region, one between each basal body and the nucleus. The nucleus is also strongly immunoreactive, with staining radiating around much of the nucleus from a region of greatest concentration at the connector pole. Calcium treatment causes shortening of the connector fibers and also movement of nuclear DNA towards the connector pole. Electron microscopic observation of negatively stained nucleus-basal body complexes reveals a cluster of approximately 6-nm filaments, suspected to represent the connector, between the basal bodies and nuclei. A mutant with a variable number of flagella, vfl-2-220, is defective with respect to the nucleus-basal body association. This observation encourages us to speculate that the nucleus-basal body union is important for accurate basal body localization within the cell and/or for accurate segregation of parental and daughter basal bodies at cell division. A physical association between nuclei and basal bodies or centrioles has been observed in a variety of algal, protozoan, and metazoan cells, although the nature of the association, in terms of both structure and function, has been obscure. We believe it likely that fibrous connectors homologous to those described here for Chlamydomonas are general features of centriole-bearing eucaryotic cells. PMID:4055898
Wright, R L; Salisbury, J; Jarvik, J W
We have isolated a nucleus-basal body complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The complex is strongly immunoreactive to an antibody generated against a major protein constituent of isolated Tetraselmis striata flagellar roots (Salisbury, J. L., A. Baron, B. Surek, and M. Melkonian, J. Cell Biol., 99:962-970). Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analysis indicates that, like the Tetraselmis protein, the Chlamydomonas antigen consists of two acidic isoforms of approximately 20 kD. Indirect immunofluorescent staining of nucleus- basal body complexes reveals two major fibers in the connector region, one between each basal body and the nucleus. The nucleus is also strongly immunoreactive, with staining radiating around much of the nucleus from a region of greatest concentration at the connector pole. Calcium treatment causes shortening of the connector fibers and also movement of nuclear DNA towards the connector pole. Electron microscopic observation of negatively stained nucleus-basal body complexes reveals a cluster of approximately 6-nm filaments, suspected to represent the connector, between the basal bodies and nuclei. A mutant with a variable number of flagella, vfl-2-220, is defective with respect to the nucleus-basal body association. This observation encourages us to speculate that the nucleus-basal body union is important for accurate basal body localization within the cell and/or for accurate segregation of parental and daughter basal bodies at cell division. A physical association between nuclei and basal bodies or centrioles has been observed in a variety of algal, protozoan, and metazoan cells, although the nature of the association, in terms of both structure and function, has been obscure. We believe it likely that fibrous connectors homologous to those described here for Chlamydomonas are general features of centriole-bearing eucaryotic cells.
This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supple- ment use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the
Jill Anne McDowall
Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance
Christopher J. Rasmussen
... Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals from the foods you eat. In fact, research has not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) help to manage diabetes. Still, more and more people use dietary supplements. ...
The diagnostic value of ventriculography (VGR) as a supplement to computed tomography (CT) is evaluated in 42 patients. CT was slightly superior for diagnosing expanding lesions and could tell more about the size and nature of the processes in this selected material which includes only lesions adjacent to the ventricular system. VGR yielded more information about the attachment of a tumor to the wall, floor, or roof of the ventricles. Stenosis or occlusion of the Sylvian aqueduct, communicating hydrocephalus, and basal adhesive arachnoiditis were diagnosed by VGR, while the correct diagnosis could be suggested only by CT in these cases. PMID:6979004
Nakstad, P; Sortland, O; Hovind, K
One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24?mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10?mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.
Cabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alcicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet
One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24?mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10?mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729
Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet
In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498
Oliveira, Adriano H; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C; de Macedo, André C; Santana, Maria Helena A; Gonçalves, Luciana R B
In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer.
Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, Andre C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Goncalves, Luciana R.B.
The invention relates to an image support medium for creation of an aesthetic image that is an work or object for display. This support medium includes a polymer in an amount sufficient to enable the image to have at least one aesthetic element. In different embodiments, the image support medium is an image support stabilizer, the polymer is a synthetic absorbent or conductive polymer, or the polymer is a transparent or synthetic translucent polymer and a property of this transparent or translucent polymer is enhanced to facilitate the creation or preservation of the image by at least one stabilizer. The invention also relates to a method for preparing this image support medium. The method includes forming a reaction mixture comprising a monomer in an amount sufficient to provide or enable the image to have an aesthetic element, and processing the reaction mixture into a 2- or 3-dimensional shape.
The technological aspects of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), proposed as a candidate core instrument for the European Polar Platform scheduled for launch in 1997, are described. The instrument has a spectral range of 400 to 1050 nm, a ...
M. A. Cutter D. R. Lobb
This patent describes an improved liquid suspension medium for particulate solids. The suspension medium having been formed by admixing an organophilic clay wherein the clay is selected from the group consisting of bentonite, attapulgite, sepiolite and hectorite and admixtures thereof present in the quantity of about 0.5-8 weight percent with a liquid hydrocarbon present in the quantity of about 99-70 weight percent and at least one activator selected from the group consisting of phenyl hydroxyalkyl ethers.
Dixon, G.G.; Parlman, R.M.; Stewart, W.
Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3.
Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, Jose; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, Antonio J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.
Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.
Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.
A serum free medium was developed, that could be used for the large scale propagation of various cell lines in bioreactors. The medium is based on a 1:1 mixture of Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium and Ham's Medium F12, supplemented with transferrin, insulin and a BSA\\/oleic acid complex. Several myelomas, hybridomas derived from different myelomas and spleen cells, and other lymphoid
Volker Jäger; Jiargen Lehmann; Peter Friedl
\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry
Joan M. Eckerson
Basal insulin analog therapy is the most common method of introducing insulin replacement therapy for the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Long-acting insulin analogs provide relatively peakless and more physiologic insulin replacement therapy than neutral protaminated Hagedorn insulin. Recently 2 new basal insulin analogs have been developed with superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties; insulin degludec and a pegylated insulin lispro. These agents are generally well tolerated and have been evaluated in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this article we review the results of clinical trials assessing the efficacy, safety and tolerability of these newer longer-acting insulin analogs. In general rates of hypoglycaemia in these trials were low, glucose control was comparable to currently available basal insulin analogs, and rates of nocturnal hypoglycaemia were significantly and substantially lower. While further study will be required, advances in basal insulin replacement may offer important advantages over existing options for starting insulin strategies. PMID:23448197
A primary intracranial yolk sac tumor (YST) is a type of germ cell tumor (GCT) and usually involves the pineal or suprasellar regions, as do other GCTs. Primary YST in the basal ganglia is not common, and bilateral basal ganglia involvement is even rarer. Early diagnosis is often difficult because of minimal or subtle findings without space-occupying lesions shown on neuroimaging during the early course of the disease. We report a case of primary intracranial YST encountered in the basal ganglia bilaterally and describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic problem, imaging characteristics, histopathologic features, and prognosis of the tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third reported case of primary YST confined to the basal ganglia in the literature. PMID:20728859
Wang, Chung-Hao; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Tzu-Ying; Wong, Tai-Tong; Chang, Feng-Chi; Ho, Donald Ming-Tak; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ping
Introduction Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), also known as Gorlin–Goltz syndrome, comprises five main pathological features: nevoid basal\\u000a cell carcinomas, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, congenital skeletal anomalies, calcification of the falx cerebri, and point skin depressions on the palms and\\/or soles. The disease exhibits a dominant autosomal hereditary trait, with implication\\u000a of the human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity Patched (PTCH)
José A. García de Marcos; Alicia Dean-Ferrer; Susana Arroyo Rodríguez; Javier Calderón-Polanco; Francisco J. Alamillos Granados; Enrique Poblet
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises of a number of abnormalities such as multiple\\u000a nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Diagnosis may be difficult\\u000a because of the variability of expressivity and different ages of onset for different traits of this disorder. The dental clinician\\u000a may be the first to encounter
S. Bala Subramanyam; D. Naga Sujata; K. Sridhar; M. Pushpanjali
A 35-year-old man presented with simultaneous multiple intracranial hematomas in the right cerebellar dentate nucleus and left basal ganglia. The hematomas were visible by computed tomography performed within two hours of the patient's arrival. The initial computed tomography showed acute hemorrhage in the left basal ganglia and dentate nucleus in cerebellum. The patient then experienced a change of consciousness due to newly developed hydrocephalus, and emergent extra-ventricular drainage was performed. By discharge, fortunately, the patient was fully recovered.
Yi, Ho Jun; Hwang, Hyung Sik
Spontaneous leiomyomas of the oviduct are common tumors of the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), which makes it a good animal model for screening potential agents for testing in the prevention and treatment of human myoma uteri. We have previously reported a decreased incidence of leiomyomas in the oviduct of Japanese quail with lycopene supplementation. Although the major carotenoid in tomatoes is lycopene, tomatoes also contain other compounds, which may contribute to their health benefit. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of tomato powder supplementation on the development of leiomyomas in the oviduct of Japanese quail. We also measured serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), carotenoids, and vitamins C, E, and A. A total of 150 quails (3 mo old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups consisting of 5 replicates of 10 birds in each group. Birds were fed either a basal diet (control group) or the basal diet supplemented with 25 g (Treatment I) or 50 g (Treatment II) of tomato powder (0.8 mg lycopene per g of tomato powder) per kg of diet. The animals were sacrificed after 365 days, and the tumors were identified. Tomato powder supplementation significantly decreased the number of leiomyomas as compared to control birds (P < 0.01). The tumors in tomato powder fed birds were smaller than those found in control birds (P < 0.01). Serum lycopene, lutein, zeaxantin, and vitamins C, E, and A increased (P = 0.01), whereas MDA concentrations decreased (P = 0.01) with tomato powder supplementation. No measurable lycopene could be detected in the serum of control birds, whereas a dose-dependent increase was observed in the serum of birds supplemented with tomato powder. The results indicate that dietary supplementation with tomato powder reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring leiomyoma of the oviduct in the Japanese quail. Clinical trials should be conducted to investigate the efficacy of tomato powder supplementation in the prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma in humans. PMID:17927504
Sahin, Kazim; Ozercan, Resat; Onderci, Muhittin; Sahin, Nurhan; Khachik, Frederick; Seren, Soley; Kucuk, Omer
Summary Introduction Estrogen receptor expression is lower in breast carcinoma of women ?45 years compared to women ?65 years of age, which may imply a higher frequency of basal-like breast carcinomas in younger women. This study evaluated whether there is any difference in the frequency of basal-like phenotype and estrogen receptor (ER)?/HER2? invasive breast carcinomas between women of these 2 different age groups. Patients and Methods A total of 151 women aged ?45 years or ?65 years with invasive breast carcinomas were evaluated using tissue microarray, and classified into the following phenotypes: luminal A (ER+/HER2?), luminal B (ER+/HER2+), HER2 overexpression (ER?/HER2+), and basal-like (ER?/HER2? and expressing at least 1 of the basal markers p63, CK5 and/or P-cadherin). Results ER?/HER2? carcinomas were twice as frequent in women aged ?45 years (p = 0.0247). However, when the basal-like phenotype was compared with all the other phenotypes grouped together, no statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.0854). Conclusions ER?/HER2? carcinomas were more frequent in younger women compared to all the other phenotypes grouped together. An international consensus will be necessary to establish which markers should be used to define basal-like phenotype.
Polidoro, Aline Schmitt; Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Daniella S. Couto; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Schmitt, Fernando
By mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin, the ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa play a key role in the control of the parietal cells and hence of gastric acid secretion. General anaesthesia suppresses basal and gastrin- and histamine-stimulated acid secretion. The present study examines if the effect of anaesthesia on basal and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion is associated with suppressed ECL-cell histamine secretion.A microdialysis probe was implanted in the submucosa of the ventral aspect of the acid-producing part of the stomach (32 rats). Three days later, ECL-cell histamine mobilization was monitored 2?h before and 4?h after the start of intravenous infusion of gastrin (5?nmol?kg?1?h?1). The rats were either conscious or anaesthetized. Four commonly used anaesthetic agents were given 1?h before the start of the experiments by intraperitoneal injection: chloral hydrate (300?mg?kg?1), pentobarbitone (40?mg?kg?1), urethane (1.5?g?kg?1) and a mixture of fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam (15/0.5/7.5?mg?kg?1).In a parallel series of experiments, basal- and gastrin-induced acid secretion was monitored in six conscious and 25 anaesthetized (see above) chronic gastric fistula rats. All anaesthetic agents lowered gastrin-stimulated acid secretion; also the basal acid output was reduced (fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam was an exception).Anaesthesia reduced gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release by 55–80%. The reduction in gastrin-induced acid response (70–95%) was strongly correlated to the reduction in gastrin-induced histamine mobilization. The correlation is in line with the view that the reduced acid response to gastrin reflects impaired histamine mobilization.Rat stomach ECL cells were purified by counter-flow elutriation. Gastrin-evoked histamine mobilization from the isolated ECL cells was determined in the absence or presence of anaesthetic agents in the medium. With the exception of urethane, they inhibited gastrin-evoked histamine secretion dose-dependently, indicating a direct effect on the ECL cells.Anaesthetized rats are widely used to study acid secretion and ECL-cell histamine release. The present results illustrate the short-comings of such an approach in that a number of anaesthetic agents were found to impair not only acid secretion but also the secretion of ECL-cell histamine – some acting in a direct manner.
Norlen, P; Kitano, M; Lindstrom, E; Hakanson, R
The antioxidative effect of dietary oregano essential oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on susceptibility of chicken breast and thigh muscle meat to lipid oxidation during frozen storage at ?20 °C for 9 months was examined. Day-old chickens (n=80) were randomly divided into four groups, and fed a basal diet containing 30 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate kg?1 feed as control, or basal diet
N. A. Botsoglou; D. J. Fletouris; P. Florou-Paneri; E. Christaki; A. B. Spais
Twenty-four 12-week-old female turkeys divided into four equal groups were fed a basal diet (CONT) or basal diet supplemented with 300mg ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg (TOC), or 5g rosemary\\/kg (ROS5), or 10g rosemary\\/kg (ROS10), for 4 weeks. Following slaughter, fillets from breast were stored at 4°C in the dark for 12 days, and lipid oxidation was assessed on the basis of the
Alexandros Govaris; Panagiota Florou-Paneri; Evropi Botsoglou; Ilias Giannenas; Ioannis Amvrosiadis; Nikolaos Botsoglou
4 Abstract: Twenty four 12-week-old turkeys were divided into four equal groups. One of the groups was given a basal diet containing 30 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg feed (CONT), whereas the other groups the basal diet further supplemented with 100 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg (TOC), or 100 mg oregano essential oil\\/kg (OR), or 100 mg oregano essential oil plus 100 mg ?-tocopheryl
Prolonged in vitro maintenance of human bone marrow progenitor cells was achieved using a serum-free (SF) liquid culture system. Culture medium was based on Iscove's medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, human transferrin, bovine insulin, soybean lecithin, cholesterol, hydrocortisone and alpha-thioglycerol. Under these standardized culture conditions, CFU-GM were maintained for up to 4 weeks, as is the case when using conventional serum-dependent medium. Erythropoiesis exhibited a slower decline than that found using serum containing medium. Development of normal haematopoiesis was effective in spite of poor stromal cell development--a confluent adherent layer as classically described in serum conditions was never achieved. Our newly defined system provides a reliable technique for studying human haematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro; it allows for rational utilization of currently available purified recombinant growth factors. It may be a promising tool in the clinical use of cultured haematopoietic stem cells. PMID:2818936
Drouet, X; Douay, L; Giarratana, M C; Baillou, C; Gorin, N C; Salmon, C; Najman, A
Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.
Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.
A new medium for detection of urease activity and isolation of Helicobacter pylori is proposed. This medium, containing Columbia Agar Base, was supplemented with IsoVitaleX, hemin, urea, and phenol red (nonselective medium [NSM]). Both bacterial growth and color change were evaluated and compared with growth in the same medium supplemented with cefsulodin, vancomycin, polymyxin B sulfate, and amphotericin B (selective medium [SM]). Twenty-five recent clinical isolates and antral biopsy specimens from 33 patients who underwent endoscopy were examined. The isolates showed a rapid color change and good growth at 5 days of incubation with NSM and SM. H. pylori-positive biopsies revealed a color change within 36 h, and bacterial growth was better appreciated in NSM, but with more contaminating flora than in SM.
Cellini, L; Allocati, N; Piccolomini, R; Di Campli, E; Dainelli, B
This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079
Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie
The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has examined the scientific literature to evaluate the performance and health-related aspects of consuming dietary supplements in the context of physical activity. Certain nutritional supplements such as creatine and caffeine have documented ergogenic effects in specific situations. However, for the moderately physically active adult and healthy individual, who already consumes an energy- and nutrient balanced diet, consuming any currently legal dietary supplement does not seem to confer additional benefits on performance or health. PMID:19732518
Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Harald S; Hansen, Mette; Kiens, Bente; Kvorning, Thue; Nielsen, Lars N; Rasmussen, Lone B; Aagaard, Peter G
\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance
Christopher J. Rasmussen
A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.
Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)
The invention describes a cellulosic medium for growing mushrooms. A liquid mixture containing sources of soluble carbon and nitrogen is fermented and mixed with cellulosic material. The so-treated cellulosic material is held at a temperature and for a ti...
R. H. Kurtzman
This invention is related to and has among its objects the provision of novel mushroom-growing media and novel methods of making the same. A cellulosic medium for growing mushrooms is disclosed. A liquid mixture containing sources of soluble carbon and ni...
R. H. Kurtzman
Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.
Dede, Christopher J.
We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B(12) on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64-72 weeks). Four levels of folate (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin B(12) (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4 x 3 factorial completely randomized design study. No significant physiological interaction between folate and vitamin B(12) was evident under our experimental conditions. There was no effect of vitamins supplementation on egg production or feed intake. Supplementation with folate significantly elevated serum (p < 0.01) and yolk (p < 0.05) folate levels. Supplementation with vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect serum or egg yolk vitamin B(12) levels. Supplementation with folate or vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect triglyceride or total phospholipid levels in serum or egg yolk although a positive relationship was observed between dietary folate supplementation and total serum phospholipid (r(2) = 0.68, p < 0.05). The study showed that it is possible to produce folate-enriched eggs. An increase in serum total phospholipids due to dietary supplementation with folate may provide physiological benefits to hens, although we did not observe any strong effects of these vitamins on lipid composition. PMID:19396565
Bunchasak, Chaiyapoom; Kachana, Sompong
Forty-eight lactating Holstein cows were fed low-Cu diets with 500 mg of supplemental Fe\\/kg of dry matter (DM), a Cu antagonist, for a 30-d Cu-depletion period. After depletion, two Fe treatments (0 and 500 mg of Fe\\/kg of dietary DM) and five Cu treatments (2 × 5 factorial arrangement) were compared over 83 d. The Cu treatments were control (basal
C. R. Chase; D. K. Beede; H. H. Van Horn; J. K. Shearer; C. J. Wilcox; G. A. Donovan
An experiment of 150 days was conducted on 42 male Nellore lambs (28.3?±?0.64 kg) to determine the effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation\\u000a (0,15, 30 and 45 ppm) in diet from inorganic (ZnSO4) and organic (Zn proteinate) sources on immune response and antioxidant enzyme activities by allotting them randomly to 7\\u000a groups in completely randomized design. The basal diet (BD) contained 29.28 ppm Zn. The
D. Nagalakshmi; K. Dhanalakshmi; D. Himabindu
~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted mately 1,200 PU\\/g of BD. Estimated maximum with crossbred weanling pigs to determine the optimal responses of these measures in pigs fed phytase were 2 dietary supplement of AspergiZZus niger phytase ac- 90% compared with MDCaP. Pigs fed 1,250 PUlg of tivity to a low-P, corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD).
X. G. Lei; P. K. Ku; E. R. Millel; M. T. Yokoyama; D. E. Ullrey
In a two?factorial experiment, 420 1?day?old male commercial broiler chickens were randomly divided and fed a basal diet with or without vitamin C (500 parts\\/10). Half of the birds within each group receiving the same kind of feed were fed a T3 supplemented diet from day 1, in order to increase the ascites incidence. Weekly body weight and feed intake
M. Hassanzadeh Ladmakhi; Nadine Buys; Erna Dewil; G. Rahimi; E. Decuypere
In permafrost areas, the extent of former glaciations can be inferred from the occurrence of buried glacier ice (Murton et al. 2005). Buried basal glacier ice can only be distinguished from other type of massive ice if the properties and structure of contemporary basal ice are well-known. Several classifications of basal ice have been developed based on the geological facies analysis (Lawson 1979, Knight 1994, Hubbard and Sharp 1995). However, none of them have addressed basal ice descriptions in terms of cryostructures. We used conventional field descriptions and microcomputed tomodensitometry to evaluate structure and properties of sediments including basal ice. The scan images were processed using a thresholding technique which assigns gray scale values to the components of basal ice based on their density. These values were used to determine the volumetric content of each component (ice, sediment, gas). We have used the Mathworks MATLAB R2007a software to produce three-dimensional images of basal ice cryostructures. The main advantage of these is to obtain in a non-destructive manner precise average ice and sediment contents for a given volume of a particular cryostructure. These models allow for a detailed 3D visualization of the cryostructures which is a powerful tool to study their architecture and the geometric relations between ice and sediments. The technical details of these operations have been presented by Dillon et al. (2008). Our cryostructures classification of basal glacier ice and sediments includes seven types of cryostructures observed in the basal ice of the Matanuska Glacier: (1) Porous; (2) Crustal; (3) Reticulate; (4) Lenticular; (5) Layered; (6) Suspended (includes four sub-types: Suspended dispersed, Micro-suspended, Suspended- intergranular, Suspended inter-crystalline); (7) Massive ice. The classification is illustrated by detailed photographs, sketches and bi-dimensional (2D) scan images of the various cryostructures along with their typical volumetric water contents and sedimentological properties. The 2D scan images are useful for permafrost studies because they can be compared to traditional detailed exposure descriptions.
Fortier, D.; Kanevskiy, M.; Dillon, M.; Stephani, E.; Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, T. M.
Triple-negative (TN) and basal-like (BL) breast cancer definitions have been used interchangeably to identify breast cancers that lack expression of the hormone receptors and overexpression and/or amplification of HER2. However, both classifications show substantial discordance rates when compared to each other. Here, we molecularly characterize TN tumors and BL tumors, comparing and contrasting the results in terms of common patterns and distinct patterns for each. In total, when testing 412 TN and 473 BL tumors, 21.4% and 31.5% were identified as non-BL and non-TN, respectively. TN tumors identified as luminal or HER2-enriched (HER2E) showed undistinguishable overall gene expression profiles when compared versus luminal or HER2E tumors that were not TN. Similar findings were observed within BL tumors regardless of their TN status, which suggests that molecular subtype is preserved regardless of individual marker results. Interestingly, most TN tumors identified as HER2E showed low HER2 expression and lacked HER2 amplification, despite the similar overall gene expression profiles to HER2E tumors that were clinically HER2-positive. Lastly, additional genomic classifications were examined within TN and BL cancers, most of which were highly concordant with tumor intrinsic subtype. These results suggest that future clinical trials focused on TN disease should consider stratifying patients based upon BL versus non-BL gene expression profiles, which appears to be the main biological difference seen in patients with TN breast cancer.
Prat, Aleix; Adamo, Barbara; Cheang, Maggie C.U.; Anders, Carey K.; Carey, Lisa A.
The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional “Camptosaurus” and “Iguanodon”. The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees.
McDonald, Andrew T.
Through analysis of laser altimetry data from NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (2003-2009) on the Amery Ice Shelf, we have identified deep surface channels near the grounding zone (GZ). These channels are aligned with major ice shelf flowlines, which correspond to suture zones between ice streams that merge in the confluence zone, just upstream of the 2.5 km deep GZ. The channels are approximately 10 km apart, 3 km wide, and create 300-500 m deep basal channels inferred from hydrostatic equilibrium. These channels at the base of the ice shelf may have an influence on sub-shelf ocean circulation. While the inflow of ocean water likely follows the troughs on the seafloor of the continental shelf, the basal channels in the ice shelf may direct the outflow of basal meltwater plumes. Basal melting may also be enhanced in the channels. Farther downstream near Jetty Peninsula, where the plumes start to supercool, marine ice can accrete in the basal channels and fill them in.
Li, L.; Fricker, H. A.
Increases in the total volume of basal ganglia structures have been reported in schizophrenia. However, patterns of basal ganglia shape change, which can reveal localized changes in substructure volumes, have not been investigated. In this study, the total volume and shape of several basal ganglia structures were compared in subjects with and without schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans were collected in 54 schizophrenia and 70 comparison subjects. High-dimensional (large-deformation) brain mapping was used to assess the shape and volume of several basal ganglia structures. The relationships of shape and volume measures with psychopathology, cognition and motor function were also assessed. Left and right volumes of the caudate and putamen, as well as the right globus pallidus volume, were significantly increased in subjects with schizophrenia as compared to comparison subjects after total brain volume was included as a covariate. Significant differences in shape accompanied these volume changes in the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus, after their total volumes were included as covariates. There were few significant correlations between volume or shape measures and either cognitive function or clinical symptoms, other than a positive correlation between an attention/vigilance cognitive dimension and the volume of the caudate and putamen, and a negative correlation between nucleus accumbens volume and delusions. In conclusion, basal ganglia volumes relative to total brain volume were larger in schizophrenia subjects than healthy comparison subjects. Specific patterns of shape change accompanied these volume differences.
Mamah, Daniel; Wang, Lei; de Erausquin, Deanna Barch Gabriel A.; Gado, Mokhtar; Csernansky, John G.
The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional "Camptosaurus" and "Iguanodon". The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees. PMID:22629328
McDonald, Andrew T
...9(c), proposed actions may require review of existing NEPA documentation. If...same way as an original EA or EIS. No new scoping is required for a supplemental EIS filed...the filing of the original ROD. If the review indicates no need for a supplement,...
Quantification of acute brain injury in basal ganglia is essential for mechanistic and therapeutic studies in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using conventional counting of degenerating cells based on morphological or immunohistochemical criteria, it is hard to define the boundary of the whole lesion area. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in medium-sized spiny neurons of the striatum. We developed new methods for quantifying lesion area by detecting the difference of the DARPP-32 negative area and the hematoma clot, and by measuring DARPP-32 protein level for semi-qualification in rat model of ICH. We found that DARPP-32 negative area around hematoma was present at day-1, peaked at day-3, and decreased at day-14 after ICH, a time course paralleled by DARPP-32 Western blots. The DARPP-32 negative area matched well with the necrotic area determined using propidium iodide. Treatment with an iron chelator, deferoxamine, attenuated the ICH-induced reduction in DARPP-32 protein levels. These results suggest that DARPP-32 is a simple and quantifiable indicator of ICH-induced neuronal death in basal ganglia.
Jin, Hang; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F.; Wu, Jiang; Hua, Ya
The goal of this study was to identify the cells from the rat tracheal epithelium which attach and proliferate in primary culture. When cells isolated from tracheas by enzymatic digestion were held in suspension at 37C for several hours most of the differentiated cells dies. The kinetics of this selective cell death were not dependent on the constituents of the holding medium. With time in suspension, the colony forming efficiency of the surviving cells increased two- to threefold. Comparison of the growth curves of cells held or plated directly showed no difference in the number of cells in the proliferating populations. Using two lectins, it was possible to monitor the loss of specific populations in suspension. BS1-B4 is a marker for basal cells and UEA-1 is a secretory cell marker. Only those cells that were BS1-B4 positive survived in suspension. Further, the colonies that formed in primary culture were positive for this marker. Single cell suspensions of cells were sorted by flow cytometry and a fivefold increase in the colony forming efficiency of BS1-B4 positive cells compared to that of the negative cells was observed. These findings suggest that the cells that survived in suspension and proliferated in culture originated from the basal cells of the trachea.
Ford, J.R.; Terzaghi-Howe, M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge (United States) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
...Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...is not limited to patents and printed publications or to subject matter that has been...
Growth of Legionella spp. on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with 3-(n-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 3-(n-morpholino)-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO), or n-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer was similar. With three exceptions, growth was no different in buffered yeast extract broth supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with MOPS or ACES buffer. PMID:8308131
Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A
Leiomyomas (fibroids) are benign tumors of the uterus affecting millions of women. Spontaneous leiomyomas of the oviduct are common tumors of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), which makes it a good animal model for screening potential agents for testing in the prevention and treatment of human myoma uteri. Because dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of a variety of human cancers, we investigated the effects of lycopene supplementation on the development of leiomyomas in the oviduct of Japanese quail. We also measured serum levels of oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and homocysteine], lycopene, vitamins C, E, and A, and tissue biomarkers Bcl-2 and Bax expression. One hundred twenty quails (6 mo old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups consisting of 4 replicates of 10 birds in each group. Birds were fed either a basal diet (group C) or the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg (group L1) or 200 mg (group L2) of lycopene per kilogram of diet. The animals were sacrificed after 285 days and the tumors were identified. Lycopene supplementation decreased the number of leiomyomas compared with control subjects (P=0.056). The tumors in lycopene-fed birds were smaller than those found in control birds (P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the expression of tissue Bcl-2 and Bax among the study groups. Serum vitamins C, E, and A increased (P=0.01), whereas MDA and homocysteine concentrations decreased (P=0.01) with lycopene supplementation. No measurable lycopene could be detected in the serum of control birds, whereas a dose-dependent increase was observed in the serum of lycopene-supplemented birds. The results indicate that dietary supplementation with lycopene reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring leiomyoma of the oviduct in the Japanese quail. Clinical trials should be conducted to investigate the efficacy of lycopene supplementation in the prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma in humans. PMID:15623465
Sahin, Kazim; Ozercan, Resat; Onderci, Muhittin; Sahin, Nurhan; Gursu, Mehmet F; Khachik, Frederick; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Munkarah, Adnan; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Kmak, David; Kucuk, Omer
Eight castrated male Angora goats were used in a repeated, simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin square designed experiment to evaluate metabolic and mohair responses of Angora goats to sulfate supplementation. Goats had ad libitum access to isonitrogenous diets containing a .16 (basal), .23, .29, or .34% S (DM basis), which yielded N:S ratios of 12.7, 8.3, 6.8, or 5.5:1. Feed intakes were not affected (P greater than .20) by dietary S level. Quadratic increases (P less than .05) to S supplementation were observed in grease and clean mohair production, grease and clean staple strength, and staple length. Mohair diameter, med fiber, kemp fiber, S, and cysteine contents were not affected (P greater than .05) by supplemental S. Averaged across the prefeeding, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandial sampling times, ruminal pH, ammonia N, total S, organic S, protein S, and plasma urea N and organic S concentrations were quadratically increased (P less than .05) by supplemental S. Ruminal sulfate S, total sulfide S, and plasma sulfate S were linearly increased (P less than .05) by supplemental S. Retention of N and mohair S yield exhibited quadratic increases (P less than .05), but S retention exhibited a linear increase (P less than .001) with increased S intake. Calculated by regression, the optimum dietary S concentration for maximum clean mohair production was .267% of dietary DM for a N:S ratio of 7.2:1, suggesting that the National Research Council N:S ratio of 10:1 is inadequate for Angora goats. The optimum level of digestible S was calculated to be .18% of the diet DM. PMID:1399900
Qi, K; Lu, C D; Owens, F N; Lupton, C J
Oscillations form a ubiquitous feature of the central nervous system. Evidence is accruing from cortical and sub-cortical recordings that these rhythms may be functionally important, although the precise details of their roles remain unclear. The basal ganglia share this predilection for rhythmic activity which, as we see in Parkinson's disease, becomes further enhanced in the dopamine depleted state. While certain cortical rhythms appear to penetrate the basal ganglia, others are transformed or blocked. Here, we discuss the functional association of oscillations in the basal ganglia and their relationship with cortical activity. We further explore the neural underpinnings of such oscillatory activity, including the important balance to be struck between facilitating information transmission and limiting information coding capacity. Finally, we introduce the notion that synchronised oscillatory activity can be broadly categorised as immutability promoting rhythms that reinforce incumbent processes, and mutability promoting rhythms that favour novel processing. PMID:23711535
Brittain, John-Stuart; Brown, Peter
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis.
Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.
Malignant tumor originated from external auditory canal (EAC) is very rare with an annual incidence of around 1 per million. Pathologically, squamous cell carcinoma is incidentally most common, and adenoid cystic carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma follow in decreasing order. Due to the rarity of malignant tumor of EAC, there is no widely accepted treatment modality yet. But basal cell carcinoma, known to be less aggressive tumor, can be removed with a minimal safety margin and have better treatment results. Recently we experienced a case of basal cell carcinoma in the EAC, confined in the cartilaginous portion of EAC, presenting with intermittent otorrhea for several years. The patient was treated with a sleeve resection of the EAC with a safety margin reconstructed with a split-thickness skin graft. No tumor recurrence or complication was noted in the first postoperative year.
Lee, Beom-Jun; Bae, Seong-Cheon; Lee, Jae-Hong
Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing-the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138
Gershman, Samuel J; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ludvig, Elliot A
The realization that medications used to treat movement disorders and psychiatric conditions of basal ganglia origin have significant shortcomings, as well as advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the brain, has led to a renaissance in functional neurosurgery, and particularly the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorders are now routinely being treated with DBS of ‘motor’ portions of the basal ganglia output nuclei, specifically the subthalamic nucleus and the internal pallidal segment. These procedures are highly effective and generally safe. Use of DBS is also being explored in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with targeting of the ‘limbic’ basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. The results of these procedures are also encouraging, but many unanswered questions remain in this emerging field. This review summarizes the scientific rationale and practical aspects of using DBS for neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R.
Background Basal breast cancers (BCs) represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES). Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS) in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73). This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518) sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test). Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.
Two cryopreservation procedures using aluminium cryo-plates, termed V-Cryo-plate and D-Cryo-plate, were successfully developed for in vitro mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds. Multiple stems induced in liquid MS medium containing 8.9 ?M BA by roller culture were cut into small clumps, plated on solid MS medium and cultured for 1 week at 25 degree C. Clumps that had produced many buds were cold-hardened at 5 degree C for 1-2 months. The buds with basal stems were dissected from small clumps and precultured overnight at 25 degree C on solid MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose. Precultured buds were placed on aluminium cryo-plates and embedded in calcium alginate gel. Osmoprotection was performed by immersing the cryo-plates for 30 min at 25 degree C in loading solution (2 M glycerol + 1.0 M sucrose). In the D-Cryo-plate procedure, the buds were dehydrated to 27-25% moisture content (fresh weight) by placing the cryo-plates in the air current of a laminar flow cabinet for 2 to 3 h. In the V-Cryo-plate procedure, buds were dehydrated by immersing the cryo-plates in PVS2 vitrification solution for 40 min at 25 degree C. In both procedures, cooling was performed by placing the cryo-plates in uncapped cryotubes, which were immersed in liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, cryo-plates were immersed in medium with 1.0 M sucrose for 20 min at room temperature. Regrowth of cryopreserved buds of line 'Kitakei 2' using D-Cryo-plate and V-Cryo-plate procedures, was 90% and 80%, respectively. The two procedures were applied to 20 additional mat rush lines. Using the V-Cryo-plate procedure resulted in regrowth ranging between 13.3 and 86.7%, with an average of 52.5%. The D-Cryo-plate led to regrowth ranging between 73.3 and 96.7%, with an average of 86.3%. The D-Cryo-plate procedure will facilitate cryostorage of mat rush germplasm. PMID:24441366
Niino, T; Yamamoto, S I; Fukui, K; Castillo Martinez, C R; Arizaga, M V; Matsumoto, T; Engelmann, F
A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.
Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.
A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.
Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)
In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutations on an unusual linkage group, the uni linkage group (ULG), affect structure and function of basal bodies. The ULG shows Mendelian segregation, but its genetic map is circular. Molecular cloning of fragments of the ULG was accomplished by taking advantage of restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by crosses to Chlamydomonas smithii. These clones were used as probes to determine the size and form of the ULG chromosome; it is a 6-9 megabase linear molecule. Use of the probes for in situ DNA hybridization in cells localized the ULG chromosome to basal bodies. PMID:2571418
Hall, J L; Ramanis, Z; Luck, D J
The incidence of primary skin cancers of the foot is exceedingly low; conversely, problems associated with a hallux valgus are common. A nonhealing ulcer overlying a hallux valgus managed conservatively with ointments and orthotic adjustments, and even with skin grafts, did not resolve over a period of 10 years. Ultimately, a shave biopsy revealed that the lesion was a basal cell carcinoma. Wide local excision and another skin graft resulted in tumour eradication and, finally, healing. Basal cell carcinoma associated with a hallux valgus has not been previously reported, and this reinforces the concept that malignant degeneration as the cause of any chronic ulceration should not be overlooked.
Hallock, Geoffrey G; Bulatao, Imelda S
The application of a unit gravity sedimentation procedure to monodispersed rabbit tracheal cells resulted in the isolation of enriched (2-fold to 2.5-fold) basal and mucous cell populations. Cellular integrity was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion index of 93%, (3H) leucine incorporation, and ultrastructural analysis. Unit gravity sedimentation is an affective and rapid procedure for obtaining viable, homogeneous preparations of basal and mucous cells that may be used for in vitro studies of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and glycoprotein biosynthesis in respiratory mucous epithelia.
Chilton, B.S.; Kennedy, J.R.; Nicosia, S.V.
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. The major criteria for the diagnosis are multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw, palmar and plantar pits, and skeletal abnormalities. Here, we report an unusual case of NBCCS in a 68-year-old woman with late onset of clinical signs and symptoms and with an associated ameloblastoma. Only 4 other cases of this unusual association have been reported. PMID:18417377
Eslami, Behnam; Lorente, Carol; Kieff, David; Caruso, Paul A; Faquin, William C
Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.
Rasmussen, Christopher J.
The phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (1-(6-((17beta-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione) spontaneously forms conjugates with common components of cell culture medium.
Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is a key enzyme in the regulation of Ca(2+) release from inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-sensitive stores. U73122 (1-(6-((17beta-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione) has been extensively used as a pharmacological inhibitor of PLC to elucidate the importance of this enzyme family in signal transduction pathways. U73122 has an electrophilic maleimide group, which readily reacts with nucleophiles such as thiols and amines. In the current study the conjugation of U73122 to common components of cell culture medium, namely l-glutamine, glutathione, and bovine serum albumin (BSA), was demonstrated. The half-life of U73122 on incubation with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Hanks' buffered saline solution (with 2 mM glutamine), optimized basal nutrient medium (MCDB131, without BSA), complete medium, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (with 2 mM l-glutamine) was approximately 150, 60, 32, 30, and 18 min, respectively. However, U73122 was not recoverable from medium supplemented with 0.5% BSA. U73122 underwent hydrolysis of the maleimide group when incubated with PBS. Glutamine conjugates of U73122 were identified in cell culture medium. Furthermore, the inhibition of epidermal growth factor-stimulated Ca(2+) release in a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431) by U73122 was substantially reduced by the presence of BSA in a time-dependent manner. In complex cellular assays, the availability of U73122 to inhibit PLC may be limited by its chemical reactivity and lead to the misinterpretation of results in pharmacological assays. PMID:17403917
Wilsher, Nicola E; Court, Will J; Ruddle, Ruth; Newbatt, Yvette M; Aherne, Wynne; Sheldrake, Peter W; Jones, Neil P; Katan, Matilda; Eccles, Suzanne A; Raynaud, Florence I
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A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Nine hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups with three replicate pens of 100 broiler chicks. Three treatments were i) control, ii) basal diets supplemented with 1 ml of B. licheniformis for each in feed water per day iii) basal diets supplemented with 2 ml of B. licheniformis per chick in feed water per day. The supplementation of B. licheniformis significantly increased body weight in grower chickens (p<0.05), and significantly improved the feed conversion in 3 to 6 and 0 to 6 wk feeding period compared with the control group (p<0.05). Additionally, the supplement also resulted in increased protein and free amino acid contents, and decreased fat content in chicken breast fillet (p<0.05). Furthermore, improvement in sensory attributes was observed in broilers fed with the probiotic. In conclusion, B. licheniformis treatments resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in broiler productivity based on an index taking into account daily weight gain and feed conversion rate. Meanwhile, the probiotic contributed towards an improvement of the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of breast fillet. Overall, the study indicates that B. licheniformis can be used as a growth promoter and meat quality enhancer in broiler poultry. PMID:25049614
Liu, Xiaolu; Yan, Hai; Lv, Le; Xu, Qianqian; Yin, Chunhua; Zhang, Keyi; Wang, Pei; Hu, Jiye
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Nine hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups with three replicate pens of 100 broiler chicks. Three treatments were i) control, ii) basal diets supplemented with 1 ml of B. licheniformis for each in feed water per day iii) basal diets supplemented with 2 ml of B. licheniformis per chick in feed water per day. The supplementation of B. licheniformis significantly increased body weight in grower chickens (p<0.05), and significantly improved the feed conversion in 3 to 6 and 0 to 6 wk feeding period compared with the control group (p<0.05). Additionally, the supplement also resulted in increased protein and free amino acid contents, and decreased fat content in chicken breast fillet (p<0.05). Furthermore, improvement in sensory attributes was observed in broilers fed with the probiotic. In conclusion, B. licheniformis treatments resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in broiler productivity based on an index taking into account daily weight gain and feed conversion rate. Meanwhile, the probiotic contributed towards an improvement of the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of breast fillet. Overall, the study indicates that B. licheniformis can be used as a growth promoter and meat quality enhancer in broiler poultry.
Liu, Xiaolu; Yan, Hai; Lv, Le; Xu, Qianqian; Yin, Chunhua; Zhang, Keyi; Wang, Pei; Hu, Jiye
Magnesium (Mg) supplements have been shown to significantly improve functional recovery in various neurological disorders. The essential benefits of Mg supplementation in peripheral nerve disorders have not been elucidated yet. The effect and mechanism of Mg supplementation on a sciatic nerve crush injury model was investigated. Sciatic nerve injury was induced in mice by crushing the left sciatic nerve. Mice were randomly divided into three groups with low-, basal- or high-Mg diets (corresponding to 10, 100 or 200% Mg of the basal diet). Neurobehavioral, electrophysiological and regeneration marker studies were conducted to explore nerve regeneration. First, a high Mg diet significantly increased plasma and nerve tissue Mg concentrations. In addition, Mg supplementation improved neurobehavioral, electrophysiological functions, enhanced regeneration marker, and reduced deposits of inflammatory cells as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, reduced Schwann cell apoptosis was in line with the significant expression of bcl-2, bcl-X(L) and down-regulated expression of active caspase-3 and cytochrome C. In summary, improved neurological function recovery and enhanced nerve regeneration were found in mice with a sciatic nerve injury that were fed a high- Mg diet, and Schwann cells may have been rescued from apoptosis by the suppression of inflammatory responses. PMID:21609904
Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yang, Dar-Yu; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Cheng, Fu-Chou
The basal salt shear model involves an initial salt sheet emplacement stage with salt extruding or intruding near the sea floor. Subsequent sediment loading upon the sheet drives salt withdrawal and suprasalt sediment deformation. Salt withdrawal occurs via pure sheer within the salt sheet. As sediments thicken over the salt sheet, overpressures develop in a subsalt transition zone. These anomalously
R. D. Baud; J. L. Haglund
It has been proposed that the ultra low velocity zones at the base of the mantle are the remnants of the initially thick magma ocean (the basal magma ocean, BMO) that undergoes slow crystallization. The presence of a molten silicate layer between the solid mantle and the core can dramatically change the thermal coupling between them and affect the ability
M. Ulvrova; S. Labrosse; N. Coltice; P. J. Tackley
The basal forebrain cholinergic system modulates neuronal excitability and vascular tone throughout the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. This system is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and drug treatment to enhance cholinergic signaling is widely used as symptomatic therapy in AD. Defining the full morphologies of individual basal forebrain cholinergic neurons has, until now, been technically beyond reach due to their large axon arbor sizes. Using genetically-directed sparse labeling, we have characterized the complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse. Individual arbors were observed to span multiple cortical columns, and to have >1000 branch points and total axon lengths up to 50 cm. In an AD model, cholinergic axons were slowly lost and there was an accumulation of axon-derived material in discrete puncta. Calculations based on published morphometric data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in humans have a mean axon length of ?100 meters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02444.001
Wu, Hao; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy
Insulin degludec may provide dosing options for patients who, because of their lifestyle, require some flexibility in adhering to an insulin regimen, and it may also reduce the risk of hypoglycemia compared with the basal insulins that are currently available. PMID:22444163
Wakil, Ammar; Atkin, Stephen L
The discovery of two oil fields, Kellerville and Siloam, in shallow (600--675 ft deep) basal Silurian carbonates in 1958 and 1959 respectively, was the first new production in western Illinois since the discovery of the Devonian Hoing sandstone at Colmar-Plymouth field in 1914. A second, and more major, drilling boom in western Illinois resulted from official recognition in 1982 of
S. T. Whitaker; R. H. Howard
In contrast to thrombi and haematomas at other body sites, thrombi in the placental intervillous space are not traditionally known to undergo organisation. This report presents 11 examples of a form of organising thrombotic process that develops as a plaque on the foetal aspect of the basal plate. Originally identified in the placenta of a foetus showing severe intrauterine growth
Brendan Fitzgerald; Patrick Shannon; John Kingdom; Sarah Keating
A well ordered grid structure is described in the basal lamina of the Aedes aegypti midgut epithelium. In sections parallel to the epithelial base, the grid structure is a series of dense lines intersecting at approximately right angles to one another. Th...
J. A. Terzakis
Breast cancer is a highly diverse group of cancers and consists of at least 5 different subgroups. Furthermore, patients with Intra-tumor heterogeneity due to the presence of cancer cells with variable phenotypes such as different degrees of basal-like an...
The roles of the chemokine CCL5 and its receptor CCR5 in breast cancer progression remain unclear. Here, we conducted microarray analysis on 2,254 human breast cancer specimens and found increased expression of CCL5 and its receptor CCR5, but not CCR3, in the basal and HER-2 genetic subtypes. The subpopulation of human breast cancer cell lines found to express CCR5 displayed a functional response to CCL5. In addition, oncogene transformation induced CCR5 expression, and the subpopulation of cells that expressed functional CCR5 also displayed increased invasiveness. The CCR5 antagonists maraviroc or vicriviroc, developed to block CCR5 HIV coreceptor function, reduced in vitro invasion of basal breast cancer cells without affecting cell proliferation or viability, and maraviroc decreased pulmonary metastasis in a preclinical mouse model of breast cancer. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the key role of CCL5/CCR5 in the invasiveness of basal breast cancer cells and suggest that CCR5 antagonists may be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce the risk of metastasis in patients with the basal breast cancer subtype. PMID:22637726
Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Jiao, Xuanmao; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Timothy G; Ertel, Adam; Lisanti, Michael P; Pestell, Richard G
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cutaneous skin malignancy. BCC generally has a clinical course characterized by slow growth, minimal soft tissue invasiveness, and a high cure rate. Occasionally, however, BCC behaves aggressively with deep invasion, recurrence, and potential regional and distant metastasis. Several factors, including tumor size, duration, histology, and perineural spread, have been postulated as markers
Hobart W. Walling; Scott W. Fosko; Pedram A. Geraminejad; Duane C. Whitaker; Christopher J. Arpey
Our capacity to store information in working memory might be determined by the degree to which only relevant information is remembered. The question remains as to how this selection of relevant items to be remembered is accomplished. Here we show that activity in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia preceded the filtering of irrelevant information and that activity, particularly in
Fiona McNab; Torkel Klingberg
Background: Pentane in exhaled gas is often used as an index of lipoperoxidation, but today, there is no standardization for its measurement. In this study, with our technical experience, we determined basal production of pentane in healthy subjects, and we evaluated variability of pentane flow 1 month later. Methods: 18 subjects inhaled hydrocarbon-free air (HCFA) in order to realize a
Marie-Nadia Loiseaux-Meunier; Mario Bedu; Claude Gentou; Denise Pepin; Jean Coudert; Denis Caillaud
Montanoceratops cerorhynchus has been described as the sister group of Ceratopsidae, even though analyses and diagnosis of this taxon have been tentative and incomplete. A second specimen of M. cerorhynchus includes new diagnostic elements, most notably a partial skull including the caudal half of the braincase, pectoral girdle and manus. Results of a cladistic analysis of eight basal neoceratopsians (Protoceratops,
Brenda J. Chinnery; David B. Weishampel
We have localized a fraction of the enzyme, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), to the centrioles and basal bodies of mammalian, avian, and protozoan cells . Two completely independent methods were used, one based on the ultrastructural cytochemistry of the enzyme activity and one based on immunofluorescence microscopy using an antibody raised in rabbit against purified human PNP. PNP catalyzes the
JANET M. OLIVER; WILLIAM R. A. OSBORNE; JANET R. PFEIFFER; FRANK M. CHILD; RICHARD D. BERLIN
Adenosine A2A receptors are highly enriched in the basal ganglia system. They are predominantly expressed in enkephalin-expressing GABAergic striatopallidal neurons and therefore are highly relevant to the function of the indirect efferent pathway of the basal ganglia system. In these GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons, the A2A receptor tightly interacts structurally and functionally with the dopamine D2 receptor. Both by forming receptor heteromers and by targeting common intracellular signaling cascades, A2A and D2 receptors exhibit reciprocal antagonistic interactions that are central to the function of the indirect pathway and hence to basal ganglia control of movement, motor learning, motivation and reward. Consequently, this A2A / D2 receptors antagonistic interaction is also central to basal ganglia dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. However, recent evidence demonstrates that, in addition to this postsynaptic site of action, striatal A2A receptors are also expressed and have physiological relevance on presynaptic glutamatergic terminals of the cortico-limbic-striatal and thalamo-striatal pathways, where they form heteromeric receptor complexes with adenosine A1 receptors. Therefore, A2A receptors play an important fine-tuning role, boosting the efficiency of glutamatergic information flow in the indirect pathway by exerting control, either pre- and/or post-synaptically, over other key modulators of glutamatergic synapses, including D2 receptors, group I metabotropic mGlu5 glutamate receptors and cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and by triggering the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling cascade.
Schiffmann, S.N.; Fisone, G.; Moresco, R.; Cunha, R.A.; Ferre, S.
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis is tested that both adenomyotic and endometriotic lesions are derived from basal endometrium. METHODS: Normal uteri and uteri with adenomyosis obtained by hysterectomy, excised endometriotic lesions and menstrual blood of women with and without endometriosis were used. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), progesterone receptor B isoform (PRB) and P450 aromatase (P450A) immunohisto- chemistry was performed with
G. Leyendecker; M. Herbertz; G. Kunz; G. Mall
Centrioles perform the dual functions of organizing both centrosomes and cilia. The biogenesis of nascent centrioles is an essential cellular event that is tightly coupled to the cell cycle so that each cell contains only two or four centrioles at any given point in the cell cycle. The assembly of centrioles and their analogs, basal bodies, is well characterized at the ultrastructural level whereby structural modules are built into a functional organelle. Genetic studies in model organisms combined with proteomic, bioinformatic, and identifying ciliary disease gene orthologs have revealed a wealth of molecules requiring further analysis to determine their roles in centriole duplication, assembly, and function. Nonetheless, at this stage our understanding of how molecular components interact to build new centrioles and basal bodies is limited. The ciliates, Tetrahymena and Paramecium, historically have been the subject of cytological and genetic study of basal bodies. Recent advances in the ciliate genetic and molecular toolkit have placed these model organisms in a favorable position to study the molecular mechanisms of centriole and basal body assembly.
Pearson, Chad G.; Winey, Mark
A statistical relation between 408 MHz galactic continuum background temperature (T408) and dispersion measure, position, radio-luminosity of 325 pulsars (PSR) was obtained by means of multiple stepwise regression analysis. This relation shows that PSR may be considered as probes of the galactic places where the observed T408 and the electron density (ne) of the interstellar medium (ISM), derived by large-scale models, are correlated. The ne of this relation is that of all the electrons of the ISM which contribute to T408 with thermal and non-thermal emissions. Also a contribution from the intrinsic luminosity of PSR to T408 cannot be excluded.
Fracassini, M.; Pasinetti, L. E.; Antonello, E.
A heat storage medium contains (A) a sodium hydroxide in concentration from 60% by weight up to and including the stoichiometric concentration in sodium hydroxide monohydrate, (B) water in concentration from 40% by weight down to and including the said stoichiometric concentration, and (C) 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of tellurium dioxide, all percentages being expressed as percentages by weight of the total weight of sodium hydroxide and water. The tellurium dioxide reduces the tendency of the sodium hydroxide water system to supercool.
Ehlers, J.; Haukelt, H.
The basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop is an important neural circuit that regulates motor control. A key parameter that the nervous system regulates is the level of force to exert against an object during tasks such as grasping. Previous studies indicate that the basal ganglia do not exhibit increased activity with increasing amplitude of force, although these conclusions are based mainly on the putamen. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which regions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and motor cortex display increased activity when producing pinch-grip contractions of increasing force amplitude. We found that the internal portion of the globus pallidus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) had a positive increase in percent signal change with increasing force, whereas the external portion of the globus pallidus, anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and caudate did not. In the thalamus we found that the ventral thalamic regions increase in percent signal change and activation volume with increasing force amplitude. The contralateral and ipsilateral primary motor/somatosensory (M1/S1) cortices had a positive increase in percent signal change and activation volume with increasing force amplitude, and the contralateral M1/S1 had a greater increase in percent signal change and activation volume than the ipsilateral side. We also found that deactivation did not change across force in the motor cortex and basal ganglia, but that the ipsilateral M1/S1 had greater deactivation than the contralateral M1/S1. Our findings provide direct evidence that GPi and STN regulate the amplitude of force output. These findings emphasize the heterogeneous role of individual nuclei of the basal ganglia in regulating specific parameters of motor output.
Spraker, Matthew B.; Yu, Hong; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.
Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000?gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321?±?144?gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454?±?174?gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377
Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G
Spontaneous discharge of basal ganglia neurons is often analyzed with time- or frequency-domain methods. However, it has been shown that sequences of inter-spike interval series are not fully described by such linear procedures. We therefore carried out a characterization of the nonlinear features of spontaneous discharge of neurons in the primate basal ganglia. We studied the spontaneous activity of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (22 cells), as well as neurons in the external and internal pallidal segments (53 and 39 cells, respectively), recorded with standard extracellular recording methods in two awake Rhesus monkeys. As a measure of the statistical irregularity of neuronal discharge, we compared the approximate entropy of inter-spike interval sequences with that of shuffled representations of the same data. In all three basal ganglia structures, approximately 95% of the original data showed lower approximate entropy values than the shuffled data, suggesting a temporal organization in the original sequence. Fano factor analysis confirmed the presence of a temporal organization of inter-spike interval sequences, and indicated the presence of self-similarity in the great majority of them. In addition, Hurst exponent analysis showed that the inter-spike interval series are persistent. Hurst exponents often differ between short and long scaling ranges. Subsequent principal component analyses allowed us to identify three distinct patterns of the temporal evolution of inter-spike interval sequences in the phase space. These types were found in varying distributions in all three nuclei. Our analyses demonstrate that the discharge of most neurons in the basal ganglia of awake monkeys has nonlinear features that may be important for information coding in the basal ganglia. PMID:16989784
Darbin, Olivier; Soares, Jesus; Wichmann, Thomas
Recent observations have suggested that creatine supplementation might have a beneficial effect on glucoregulation in skeletal muscle. However, conclusive studies on the direct effects of creatine on glucose uptake and metabolism are lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, glycogen content, glycogen synthesis, lactate production, glucose oxidation and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Four treatment groups were studied: control, insulin (100 nM), creatine (0.5 mM) and creatine + insulin. After 48 h of creatine supplementation the creatine and phosphocreatine contents of L6 myoblasts increased by approximately 9.3- and approximately 5.1-fold, respectively, but the ATP content of the cells was not affected. Insulin significantly increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake ( approximately 1.9-fold), GLUT4 translocation ( approximately 1.8-fold), the incorporation of D-[U-(14)C]glucose into glycogen ( approximately 2.3-fold), lactate production ( approximately 1.5-fold) and (14)CO(2) production ( approximately 1.5-fold). Creatine neither altered the glycogen and GLUT4 contents of the cells nor the insulin-stimulated rates of 2-DG uptake, GLUT4 translocation, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation. However, creatine significantly reduced by approximately 42% the basal rate of lactate production and increased by approximately 40% the basal rate of (14)CO(2) production. This is in agreement with the approximately 35% increase in citrate synthase activity and also with the approximately 2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of both alpha-1 and alpha-2 isoforms of AMPK after creatine supplementation. We conclude that 48 h of creatine supplementation does not alter insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glucose metabolism; however, it activates AMPK, shifts basal glucose metabolism towards oxidation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. PMID:14724211
Ceddia, Rolando B; Sweeney, Gary
Recent observations have suggested that creatine supplementation might have a beneficial effect on glucoregulation in skeletal muscle. However, conclusive studies on the direct effects of creatine on glucose uptake and metabolism are lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, glycogen content, glycogen synthesis, lactate production, glucose oxidation and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Four treatment groups were studied: control, insulin (100 nm), creatine (0.5 mm) and creatine + insulin. After 48 h of creatine supplementation the creatine and phosphocreatine contents of L6 myoblasts increased by ?9.3- and ?5.1-fold, respectively, but the ATP content of the cells was not affected. Insulin significantly increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake (?1.9-fold), GLUT4 translocation (?1.8-fold), the incorporation of D-[U-14C]glucose into glycogen (?2.3-fold), lactate production (?1.5-fold) and 14CO2 production (?1.5-fold). Creatine neither altered the glycogen and GLUT4 contents of the cells nor the insulin-stimulated rates of 2-DG uptake, GLUT4 translocation, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation. However, creatine significantly reduced by ?42% the basal rate of lactate production and increased by ?40% the basal rate of 14CO2 production. This is in agreement with the ?35% increase in citrate synthase activity and also with the ?2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of both ?-1 and ?-2 isoforms of AMPK after creatine supplementation. We conclude that 48 h of creatine supplementation does not alter insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glucose metabolism; however, it activates AMPK, shifts basal glucose metabolism towards oxidation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells.
Ceddia, Rolando B; Sweeney, Gary
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of choline supplementation on corn-soy-meat-based grower and laying hen diets. Diets contained 2.5% and 3% meat and bone meal in the growing and laying diets, respectively, and on chemical analysis contained 1005 and 1041 ppm of choline respectively. In the first experiment, 1000 ppm of choline were added to the basal growing and laying diets, and in the second experiment the laying diet was supplemented with 550 ppm or 1000 ppm of choline. In both trials, choline supplementation did not increase gains or feed efficiency for pullets from 8 to 20 weeks. However, choline supplementation during the laying period resulted in a statistically significant improvement of egg production and egg size. Supplementation of choline in the growing phase did not affect the laying performance. Laying performance was not improved by 2 micrograms/kg of supplementary vitamin B12 in a 1000 ppm choline supplement diet (78% vs. 76% hen-day production). In the second trial, added levels of choline (0, 500, and 1000 ppm) resulted in egg production from 24 to 64 weeks of 73, 76, and 76% hen-day production, respectively. Egg weights were 59, 61, and 61 g, respectively. This suggests that the total choline requirement of laying hens on a corn-soy-meat diet, and in absence of supplementary methionine, is greater than 1000 ppm but no more than 1500 ppm. PMID:7177996
Tsiagbe, V K; Kang, C W; Sunde, M L
There has been no culture system that supports the growth of bovine oocytes for more than 2 weeks. In the present study, bovine secondary follicles were cultured for 4 weeks, and the effects of supplemented protein components and FSH in the culture medium on the growth of the oocytes were examined. The effect of vitrification of secondary follicles on the subsequent oocyte growth was also examined. Secondary follicles (150 to 200 µm in diameter) containing growing oocytes (approximately 60 µm in diameter) were dissected from ovaries and cultured in a medium supplemented with FSH (0, 25 or 50 ng/ml) and one of the following four kinds of protein components: bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine plasma (BPL), fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine follicular fluid (BFF). In BSA- and BPL-supplemented media with 0 or 25 ng/ml FSH, more than 50% of follicles showed no degenerative signs during culture, and oocytes significantly increased in size after 4 weeks (P<0.05). Higher percentages of granulosa cell-enclosed oocytes were recovered from the follicles cultured in BPL-supplemented media with 0 and 25 ng/ml FSH, and the oocytes grew to 90 µm or more in diameter. In FCS- and BFF-supplemented media, FSH increased the numbers of degenerating follicles. Next, vitrified-warmed secondary follicles were cultured in BPL-supplemented medium. One third of the follicles showed no degenerative signs, and the oocytes increased in diameter to 88.8 ± 3.1 µm after 4 weeks of culture. These results suggest that a BPL-supplemented medium supports oocyte growth in bovine secondary follicles for 4 weeks, even after vitrification and warming of the follicles. PMID:20962458
Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Takajo, Asuka; Bao, Rong-Mei; Hamawaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Motoichi; Miyano, Takashi
A central computer is utilized to control a recording medium while a peripheral computer is utilized to supply data to the recording medium for recording on magnetic tape. Method and apparatus is provided whereby an error indication is provided to the central computer if an error occurs in the transfer of data from the peripheral computer to the recording medium.
The subthalamic nucleus and the external pallidum (GPe) are classically viewed as part of the so-called indirect pathway, which acts in concert with the direct pathway. The direct and indirect pathways form the conceptual framework of the anatomical and functional organization of the basal ganglia. A review of recent data regarding the connections of the subthalamic nucleus and the GPe
André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati
A regeneration protocol ensuring a high frequency rooting of micro-shoots derived from apical and axillary buds of suckers of banana cv. Sagar was achieved by using liquid medium. When the explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg\\/l each of BA, Kn and NAA, a large number of shoots developed. With the progression of the number of subcultures,
M. Atique Akbar; Shyamal K. Roy
Six sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines (GWI-248, SPB-11, MonoHy 55, SMS-1, EL45 and FC607) were tested for regeneration. Shoot cultures were initiated in vitro from naked, sterilized embryos obtained from mature seed. Excised petioles from cultured shoots were plated on Gamborg's B5 medium and four modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) media. A medium containing MS inorganic salts supplemented with 0.4
A. H. Freytag; S. C. Anand; A. P. Rao-Arelli; L. D. Owens
1. A new selective medium (CFC) has been developed for the rapid isolation of pigmented and non?pigmented pseudomonads associated with the spoilage of poultry meat held under chill conditions. It comprises Difco Heart Infusion Agar supplemented with 50 ?g cephaloridine, 10 ?g fucidin and 10 ?g cetrimide\\/ml.2. CFC medium was found to be more selective than three other media which
G. C. Mead; B. W. Adams
A strain of Clostridium bifermentans isolated from a munitions-supplemented anaerobic digester is known to degrade 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in rich media such as Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth. In order to make this biodegradation process commercially feasible, a new growth medium was developed. Corn steep liquor and molasses were selected as possible nitrogen and carbon sources. A medium containing 2.4% corn
Wudneh Admassu; Anand V. Sethuraman; Ronald Crawford; Roger A. Korus
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response, and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet formulated to contain approximately 32% crude protein and 6% lipid was supplemented with 1% and 2% of
Kunthika Vechklang; Chhorn Lim; Surintorn Boonanuntanasarn; Thomas Welker; Samorn Ponchunchuwong; Phillip H. Klesius; Chokchai Wanapu
The present study investigated the changes in levels of parasitaemia, live body weight, degree of anaemia and response to treatment with diminazene aceturate in Small East African goats infected with Trypanosoma congolense, fed either a basal ration of 500 g of fresh Napier grass only, or supplemented with 300 g of cotton seed cake per day. It was observed that
E Katunguka-Rwakishaya; M Murray; P. H Holmes
This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)
Curriculum Review, 1979
\\u000a For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on\\u000a training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two\\u000a nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have\\u000a positive
Dietary supplements and so-called "functional foods" are advertised for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies available that show that these products reduce "hard cardiovascular outcomes" such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Moreover, some studies have shown that dietary supplementation might do more harm than good. Therefore, prior to a general recommendation more data on safety and effectiveness are necessary. PMID:24937080
Weingärtner, N; Elsässer, A; Weingärtner, O
The effects of initial xylose concentration and nutritional supplementation of brewer's spent grain hydrolysate on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii were evaluated using experimental design methodology. The hydrolysate containing 55, 75 or 95g\\/l xylose, supplemented or not with nutrients (calcium chloride, ammonium sulfate and rice bran extract), was used as fermentation medium. The increase in xylitol yield and productivity was
Solange I. Mussatto; Inês C. Roberto
The effect of coconut fat (rich in medium saturated fatty acids) or fish oil (rich in -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) supplementation for 2 generations on tumor growth, cancer cachexia, animal survival and macrophage function was investigated in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Female Wistar rats were supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil prior to mating and then throughout pregnancy and
Alessandra Folador; Sandro M. Hirabara; Sandro J. R. Bonatto; Júlia Aikawa; Ricardo K. Yamazaki; Rui Curi; Luiz C. Fernandes
The consumption of micronutrient-supplements by the general public has become widespread; between 25 and more than 40% of individuals questioned in western developed nations confirm to regularly consume such products. In principle, there are two product categories for micronutrient-supplements - medicinal products (drugs) and foodstuffs. The latter are marketed as food supplements (FS) and dietary foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes (FSMP). FS serve the general supplementation of any consumer whilst foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses are directed at consumers with special dietary requirements; FSMP are intended for the dietary management of patients. There are clearly defined legal frameworks for those product categories. Independently of their legal product status, six areas of application can be characterised for micronutrient-supplements: general and special supplementation, primary prevention, compensation of disease-related deficits, therapeutic function and containment of diseases or avoidance of subsequent damages (secondary and tertiary function). Gauged with the mean-intake, micro nutrient supply in Germany is sufficient (exception: folic acid and vitamin D; partially also iodine). However, the intake of vitamins E, C, B1 and B2 as well as the minerals calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine could be improved in 20-50% of the general public. Micro nutrient preparations in physiological dose could contribute to closing this gap in supply. PMID:23758028
Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas
Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)
Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a malignant neoplasm derived from nonkeratinizing cells that originate from the basal layer of the epidermis and is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation as an important risk factor. BCC occurs most frequently at sun-exposed sites, with the head and neck being common areas. Tumors can be classified as nodular, superficial, morpheaform, infiltrating, metatypic, and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. Several treatment options such as surgical excision and nonsurgical procedures are available. The choice of treatment should be determined based on the histological subtype of a lesion, cost, its size and location, patient age, medical condition of the patient, treatment availability, and the patient's wishes. The aim of any therapy selected for BCC treatment involving the head and neck is to ensure complete removal, the preservation of function, and a good cosmetic outcome.
Nakayama, Masahiro; Tabuchi, Keiji; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hara, Akira
The discovery of mutations that activate hedgehog (Hh) signaling in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and other cancers has spurred the development of small molecule inhibitors that target the Hh pathway. High-throughput screens have identified a number of drug candidates that antagonize smoothened (SMO), an essential protein in the Hh signaling pathway. Clinical studies of the oral SMO inhibitor vismodegib (GDC-0449) in patients with inoperable or metastatic BCC have led to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration. This review aims to give the clinician an overview of vismodegib and other Hh pathway inhibitors in the treatment of patients with advanced BCC and basal cell nevus syndrome. Issues of drug mechanism, efficacy, safety, tolerability, and tumor resistance are addressed. PMID:23652945
Geeraert, Pieter; Williams, Jonathan S; Brownell, Isaac
The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia.
Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.
Basal cell carcinoma displays a myriad of histopathologic variants, some of which are related to the different lines of differentiation, vis-a-vis, squamous, pilar, eccrine, or sebaceous. We herein report an example of a rare signet-ring, clear-cell variant. Our diagnosis is primarily based on the histopathologic features of the tumor, namely, the dermal nests of tumor cells with peripheral palisading and focally retracted fibroblastic stroma. Several nests are folliculocentric. The tumor cells are glycogen-rich, mucin-negative, pankeratin-positive, cytokeratin-negative, S100 protein-negative, and carcinoembryonic antigen-negative. Based on the histopathology and the results of the special stains we propose that the signet-ring clear-cell variant of basal cell carcinoma is differentiating in the direction of the outer root sheath cells of the pilar structure. PMID:2456318
Cohen, R E; Zaim, M T
Although current basal insulin analogues offer substantial improvements over previous therapies, they are not yet ideal. Issues such as fear of hypoglycaemia and the complexity and rigidity of dosing regimens are significant barriers to the initiation and intensification of insulin therapy. Fear of hypoglycaemia in particular has been proven to affect negatively adherence and health-related quality of life for people with diabetes. Insulin degludec (IDeg), a new basal insulin analogue with a longer duration of action and lower variability than insulin glargine (IGlar), was granted marketing authority by the European Medicines Agency in January 2013 and launched in the UK in March 2013. Clinical data show comparable efficacy to previous insulin analogues but with a reduced risk of hypoglycaemia and greater opportunity for flexible dosing. These improvements make IDeg a viable option for insulin therapy in people with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:24406491
Salient cues can prompt the rapid interruption of planned actions. It has been proposed that fast, reactive behavioral inhibition involves specific basal ganglia pathways, and we tested this by comparing activity in multiple rat basal ganglia structures during performance of a stop-signal task. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons showed low-latency responses to Stop cues, irrespective of whether actions were successfully canceled or not. By contrast, neurons downstream in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) responded to Stop cues only in trials with successful cancellation. Recordings and simulations together indicate that this sensorimotor gating arises from the relative timing of two distinct inputs to neurons in the SNr dorsolateral “core” subregion: cue-related excitation from STN and movement-related inhibition from striatum. Our results support race models of action cancellation, with successful stopping requiring Stop cue information to be transmitted from STN to SNr before increased striatal input creates a point of no return.
Schmidt, Robert; Leventhal, Daniel K.; Mallet, Nicolas; Chen, Fujun; Berke, Joshua D.
This article presents a case with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) and an elongated styloid process. Basal cell carcinoma syndrome, also known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome manifested by multiple defects involving the skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine system, and bones. Elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament cause craniofacial or cervical pain. The actual cause of elongation of the styloid process or the calcification of the stylohyoid ligament is unclear. The cause of elongation of styloid process in this case may be the calcification induced by NBCCS. This report is the first case presentation of NBCCS with elongated styloid process. Elongated styloid process might be described as an anomaly of an NBCCS. PMID:22067864
Uysal, Ismail Önder; Atalar, Mehmet H; Ko?ar, Mehmet Ilkay; Durmu?, Kasim
Macroautophagy is an essential, homeostatic process involving degradation of a cell's own components; it plays a role in catabolizing cellular components, such as protein or lipids, and damaged or excess organelles. Here, we show that in Atg5(-/-) cells, sialyloligosaccharides specifically accumulated in the cytosol. Accumulation of these glycans was observed under non-starved conditions, suggesting that non-induced, basal autophagy is essential for their catabolism. Interestingly, once accumulated in the cytosol, sialylglycans cannot be efficiently catabolized by resumption of the autophagic process, suggesting that functional autophagy is important for preventing sialyloligosaccharides from accumulating in the cytosol. Moreover, knockdown of sialin, a lysosomal transporter of sialic acids, resulted in a significant reduction of sialyloligosaccharides, implying that autophagy affects the substrate specificity of this transporter. This study thus provides a surprising link between basal autophagy and catabolism of N-linked glycans. PMID:23880766
Seino, Junichi; Wang, Li; Harada, Yoichiro; Huang, Chengcheng; Ishii, Kumiko; Mizushima, Noboru; Suzuki, Tadashi
Astrocytic glycogen metabolism sustains neuronal activity but its impact on basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission is not clear. To address this issue, we have compared the effect of glycogen breakdown inhibition on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in rat hippocampal pure neuronal culture (PNC) and in astrocyte-neuronal co-cultures (ANCC). Amplitudes of mEPSC in ANCC were nearly twice as large as in PNC with no difference in current kinetics. Inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase reduced mEPSC amplitude by roughly 40% in ANCC being ineffective in PNC. Altogether, these data indicate that astrocyte-neuronal interaction enhances basal mEPSCs in ANCC mainly due to astrocytic glycogen metabolism. PMID:21146500
Mozrzymas, Jerzy; Szcz?sny, Tomasz; Rakus, Darek
The basal Cretaceous deposits that fringe the inner margin of the Coastal Plain from eastern Alabama to central North Carolina, where they are overlapped by Miocene sands, have been commonly classified as of Lower Cretaceous age and correlated roughly with the Patuxent formation of the Potomac group of Maryland and Virginia. In this paper the evidence on which this early correlation was based is reviewed, later evidence is considered, and the conclusion is reached that all the basal Cretaceous deposits in the area under consideration are of Upper Cretaceous age. Acknowledgments are gratefully made of the helpful criticism of the manuscript by L. W. Stephenson and of his generous assistance in the preparation of the correlation table.
Anorthite-glass films were grown on basal AlâOâ substrates using pulsed-laser deposition. The substrates were cleaned and annealed in air at 1400 C to produce crystallographically flat (0001) terraces. The films were deposited in an oxidizing environment. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the composition of the glass films to be close to that of anorthite (CaOÂ·AlÂ²OâÂ·2SiOâ). Although anorthite usually has triclinic symmetry, subsequent
M. P. Mallamaci; C. B. Carter
Stem cells of adult regenerative organs share a common goal but few established conserved mechanisms. Within the neural stem cell niche of the mouse olfactory epithelium, we identified a combination of extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors that regulate adhesion and mitosis in non-neural stem cells [intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), 1<\\/SUB>, 4<\\/SUB>, and-1,-3, and-6 integrins] and on horizontal basal cells (HBCs), candidate
Lindsay A. Carter; Jessica L. MacDonald; A. Jane Roskams
Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in nine children with Sydenham chorea (SC) and compared to nine controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet, and synaptosomal preparations from adult and pediatric postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ELISA optical density (OD) values were higher in SC patients than
Harvey S Singer; Christopher R Loiselle; Olivia Lee; Marjorie A Garvey; Franz H Grus
SV2C is an isoform of the synaptic vesicle 2 protein family that exhibits a particular pattern of brain expression with enriched expression in several basal ganglia nuclei. In the present study, we have investigated SV2C implication in both normal and pathological basal ganglia functioning with a peculiar attention to dopamine neuron containing regions. In SV2C-/- mice, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in midbrain dopaminergic neurons was largely and significantly increased and enkephalin mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the caudate-putamen and accumbens nucleus. The expression of SV2C was studied in two models of dopaminergic denervation (6-OHDA- and MPTP-induced lesions). In dopamine-depleted animals, SV2C mRNA expression was significant increased in the striatum. In order to further understand the role of SV2C, we performed behavioral experiments on SV2C-/- mice and on knock-down mice receiving an injection of adeno-associated virus expressing SV2C miRNA specifically in the ventral midbrain. These modifications of SV2C expression had little or no impact on behavior in open field and elevated plus maze. However, even if complete loss of SV2C had no impact on conditioned place preference induced by cocaine, the specific knock-down of SV2C expression in the dopaminergic neurons completely abolished the development of a CPP while the reaction to an acute drug injection remains similar in these mice compared to control mice. These results showed that SV2C, a poorly functionally characterized protein is strongly involved in normal operation of the basal ganglia network and could be also involved in system adaptation in basal ganglia pathological conditions. PMID:23458503
Dardou, D; Monlezun, S; Foerch, P; Courade, J P; Cuvelier, L; De Ryck, M; Schiffmann, S N
Border detection is a critical aspect during removal of a basal cell carcinoma tumor. Since the tumor is only 3% to 50% as\\u000a stiff as the healthy skin surrounding it, strain concentrates in the tumor during deformation. Here we develop a digital image\\u000a correlation (DIC) technique for improved lateral border detection based upon the strain concentrations associated with the\\u000a stiffness
J. D. Krehbiel; J. Lambros; J. A. Viator; N. R. Sottos
Blood samples (4 ml) for plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) measurements were obtained at 3- to 4-hour intervals under basal conditions for 1–2 days from 5 date-bred ewes with chronic maternal and fetal vascular catheters. In addition, 6 chronically catheterized ewes were infused with 2 liters of 0.45% NaCl over 30 min. Fetal and maternal blood samples were obtained before and
Rosemary D. Leake; Gore Ervin; Michael G. Ross; Hendrik Stegner; Delbert A. Fisher
Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in ornithischians and birds. Craniad migration of the iliofemoralis group muscles in birds correlates with increased leverage and use of medial femoral rotation to counter stance phase adduction moments at the hip. In Lesothosaurus the iliofemoralis group maintains significantly higher moment arms for abduction, consistent with the hip abduction mode of lateral limb support hypothesized for basal dinosaurs. Sensitivity analysis highlights ambiguity in the role of musculature associated with the retroverted pubis (puboischiofemoralis externus group) in ornithischians. However, it seems likely that this musculature may have predominantly functioned similarly to homologous muscles in extant birds, activating during the swing phase to adduct the lower limb through lateral rotation of the femur. Overall the results suggest that locomotor muscle leverage in Lesothosaurus (and by inference basal ornithischians in general) was more similar to that of other non-avian dinosaurs than the ostrich, representing what was probably the basal dinosaur condition. This work thereby contradicts previous hypotheses of ornithischian-bird functional convergence. PMID:22211275
Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M
The 21st century has seen the arrival of several insulin analogue products and the refinement of insulin regimens, with widespread advocacy of continuous titration algorithms and earlier initiation of supplementary insulin therapy (predominantly using basal insulins) in type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, many insulin-treated diabetes patients remain in poor glycaemic control. This might reflect insufficient titration effort or lax adherence, but these issues could in some cases result from concerns about hypoglycaemia. Certainly there is scope for improving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile of basal insulin, and three new products offer this prospect. Insulin degludec, now in clinical use, and PEGylated insulin lispro, in development, have greatly extended action profiles that result from two very different, but unique, mechanisms. With once-daily dosing, these insulins produce stable PK/PD profiles at steady state, associated with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia. The feasibility of varied daily dose timing has also been confirmed with insulin degludec. High strength formulations of insulin glargine and insulin degludec offer the prospect of a reduced injection number/volume in high dose users, and in the case of glargine, the PK/PD profile might also be favourably modified. This review considers critically the clinical evidence and expectations we should have for these new basal insulins. PMID:24118819
Garber, A J
The discovery of two oil fields, Kellerville and Siloam, in shallow (600--675 ft deep) basal Silurian carbonates in 1958 and 1959 respectively, was the first new production in western Illinois since the discovery of the Devonian Hoing sandstone at Colmar-Plymouth field in 1914. A second, and more major, drilling boom in western Illinois resulted from official recognition in 1982 of a significant oil discovery in basal Silurian rocks at Buckhorn East oil field, later Buckhorn Consolidated. Within a relatively short time, numerous rigs were moving into western Illinois in the hopes of repeating the successes experienced at Buckhorn East. Unfortunately, there was no adequate geologic model that explained the oil accumulations in western Illinois. Basal Silurian reservoirs in western Illinois developed due to dolomitization of carbonate that filled shallow valleys incised in the underlying Maquoketa shale. Exploration for these reservoirs should utilize all of the clues that are presented here. It will be critical to continue gathering data from the area via quality wireline logs, cores, samples, and geophysical studies. It is unlikely that the Buckhorn-Siloam-Kellerville complex is unique in western Illinois.
Whitaker, S.T.; Howard, R.H. [IBEX Geological Consultants Inc., Champaign, IL (United States)
The necessity of tendon interposition for the maintenance of joint space after basal joint resection arthroplasty with ligament reconstruction has not been established. A prospective, randomized study was performed. In Group I (nine patients), ligament reconstruction was performed to suspend the first metacarpal in addition to placement of a rolled tendon interposition to fill the void created by resection of the trapezium. In Group II (11 patients), ligament reconstruction alone was performed, with use of a Mitek suture anchor. No tendon interposition was performed. This allowed use of a more limited incision and shorter length of tendon graft. Average followup was 23 months. There was no difference between the two groups in range of motion of the thumb, grip strength, lateral pinch strength, the ability to perform activities of daily living, or subjective satisfaction with the procedure. Two- and three-point pinch strength was statistically significantly greater in Group II. Lateral radiographs of the basal joint at followup, at rest and with pinch, showed maintenance of the joint space, and no difference between the two groups. Tendon interposition is not necessary for maintenance of joint space after basal joint resection arthroplasty if ligament reconstruction is performed. PMID:9308523
Gerwin, M; Griffith, A; Weiland, A J; Hotchkiss, R N; McCormack, R R
During the last decade, gene expression profiling of breast cancer has revealed the existence of five molecular subtypes and allowed the establishment of a new classification. The basal subtype, which represents 15-25% of cases, is characterized by an expression profile similar to that of myoepithelial normal mammary cells. Basal tumors are frequently assimilated to triple-negative (TN) breast cancers. They display epidemiological and clinico-pathological features distinct from other subtypes. Their pattern of relapse is characterized by frequent and early relapses and visceral locations. Despite a relative sensitivity to chemotherapy, the prognosis is poor. Recent characterization of their molecular features, such as the dysfunction of the BRCA1 pathway or the frequent expression of EGFR, provides opportunities for optimizing the systemic treatment. Several clinical trials dedicated to basal or TN tumors are testing cytotoxic agents and/or molecularly targeted therapies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this aggressive and hard-to-treat subtype of breast cancer.
Bertucci, F; Finetti, P; Birnbaum, D
Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured with traditional DP-grams and level?phase (L?P) maps in rabbits with either normal cochlear function or unique sound-induced cochlear losses that were characterized as either low-frequency or notched configurations. To demonstrate that emission generators distributed basal to the f2 primary-tone contribute, in general, to DPOAE levels and phases, a high-frequency interference tone (IT) was presented at 1?3 of an octave (oct) above the f2 primary-tone, and DPOAEs were re-measured as “augmented” DP-grams (ADP-grams) and L?P maps. The vector difference between the control and augmented functions was then computed to derive residual DP-grams (RDP-grams) and L?P maps. The resulting RDP-grams and L?P maps, which described the DPOAEs removed by the IT, supported the notion that basal DPOAE components routinely contribute to the generation of standard measures of DPOAEs. Separate experiments demonstrated that these components could not be attributed to the effects of the 1?3-oct IT on f2, or DPOAEs generated by the addition of a third interfering tone. These basal components can “fill in” the lesion estimated by the commonly employed DP-gram. Thus, ADP-grams more accurately reveal the pattern of cochlear damage and may eventually lead to an improved DP-gram procedure.
Martin, Glen K.; Stagner, Barden B.; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L.
Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability.
Brown, Dominique Xavier; Butler, Emma Louise; Evans, Marc
We report our experience with basal ganglia AVM embolization and clinical outcomes after embolization. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive 15 patients with AVMs in the basal ganglia with respect to the endovascular treatment of these lesions. Treatment consisted of embolization and radiosurgery in combination. The angiographic follow-up after the last management was 24-36 months (mean 27 months). Clinical follow-up monitoring (range, 24-120 months, mean 76 months) was measured by the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The 15 patients studied had a mean age of 25.1 years at diagnosis, and 33.3% were male. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) was the event leading to clinical detection in eight patients (53.3%), and 85.5% of these patients were left with hemiparesis. At presentation, eight (53.3%) patients bled a total of 11 times. Twenty-four embolization procedures (16 pedicles embolized) were performed in 15 patients with embolization as the adjunct to radiosurgery. There were three clinically significant complications. Excellent or good outcomes (mRS?2) were observed in 13 (86.7%) patients. Unfavorable outcomes (mRS?2) were 13.3% at follow-up, without mortality. Seven (46.7%) patients had complete AVM obliteration at follow-up. The risk of incurring a neurological deficit with basal ganglia AVM is high. Treatment of these patients is endovascular embolization with a combination of radiosurgery to prevent neurological injury from a spontaneous ICH. PMID:24148599
Sun, Y; Lv, X; Li, Y; Jiang, C; Wu, Z; Li, A M
The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.
N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoit
Centrioles and basal bodies (CBBs) are microtubule-rich cylindrical structures that nucleate and organize centrosomes and cilia, respectively. Despite their apparent ninefold rotational symmetry, the nine sets of triplet microtubules in CBBs possess asymmetries in their morphology and in the structures that associate with them. These asymmetries define the position of nascent CBB assembly, the orientation of ciliary beating, the orientation of spindle poles and the maintenance of cellular geometry. For some of these functions, the orientation of CBBs is first established during new CBB biogenesis when the daughter structure is positioned adjacent to the mother. The mother CBB organizes the surrounding environment that nascent CBBs are born into, thereby providing a nest for the new CBB to develop. Protists, including ciliates and algae, highlight the importance of this environment with the formation of asymmetrically placed scaffolds onto which new basal bodies assemble and are positioned. Recent studies illuminate the positioning of nascent centrioles relative to a modular pericentriolar material (PCM) environment and suggest that, like ciliates, centrosomes organize an immediate environment surrounding centrioles for their biogenesis and positioning. In this Commentary, I will explore the positioning of nascent CBB assembly as the first event in building cellular asymmetries and describe how the environment surrounding both basal bodies and centrioles may define asymmetric assembly. PMID:24895399
Pearson, Chad G
Zfp191 represses differentiation and keeps various cells in the stem/progenitor stage. Here, we report that a Zfp191 homolog protein, ZNF396, is expressed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and possibly represses the expression of a Notch system effector molecule, Hes1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1), and prevents BCC cells from undergoing Notch-mediated squamous cell differentiation. ZNF396 immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus of 35 of 38 cutaneous BCC and 4 of 74 squamous cell carcinoma tissue specimens. In non-tumorous epidermal tissues, ZNF396 immunoreactivity was restricted in basal cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 induced the expression of Notch2, Hes1, and involucrin in cultured BCC cells. Finally, we found that siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 gene inhibited the proliferation of TE354.T basal cell carcinoma cells. ZNF396 might repress Notch-Hes1 signaling axis and prevent tumor cells from undergoing squamous differentiation in BCC. PMID:24445935
Bai, Juncheng; Kito, Yusuke; Okubo, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu
Subglacial water pressure is a fundamental control on basal drag and glacier sliding rates. However, it has seldom been included as a variable in glacier flow models, mainly due to the great difficulty in calculating water pressure in a realistic yet tractable way. Here we present preliminary results of a simple basal hydrological model designed for coupling to ice sheet flow models. A key feature of the model is that hydraulic conductivity k evolves in response to water discharge Q (which melts ice and increases the capacity of the system) and effective pressure pi - pw (reducing system capacity through ice creep). The timescales of these processes relative to temporal variations in surface water inputs produces contrasting pressure-discharge relationships as an emergent property of the model. Specifically, pw varies directly with Q over diurnal timescales, whereas pw is inversely proportional to Q on seasonal timescales. In combination with suitable friction laws, the hydrology model provides an adaptive basal boundary condition for flowline models. Despite its simplicity, the model allows a rich variety of behaviour to be simulated, including spring 'speed-up' events and summer 'slowdowns'.
Rutt, I. C.; Benn, D.; Cook, S.; Hulton, N. R.
Background. Basal cell carcinoma comprises the vast majority of skin cancers. It predominantly affects fair-skinned individuals, and its incidence is rising rapidly. Etiology may be multifactorial, but sun exposure appears to play a critical role. When detected early, the prognosis is excellent. Thus appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance are of utmost importance. Methods. From January 1994 to May 2012, 518 basal cell carcinomas were excised in our clinic. Data were collected retrospectively. Results. During 18-year period, 518 BCCs were excised from 486 patients. Most of the patients were males with a median age of 65.6 years. Most of the basal cell carcinomas were located in the head region. Nodular histological subtype dominated our series. Six percent of the excised lesions required reexcision because of involved margins. Our recurrence rate was 6.94% with the nose and the periauricular and periocular regions being the most common sites of occurrence. Conclusion. Although there is relatively low attributable mortality, the morbidity and cost of treatment are significant. A large body of information serves as a foundation for oncologic principles, diagnosis methods, surgical excisions, follow-up protocols, and reconstructive methodologies that are currently in use. Surgical ablation remains the mainstay of treatment.
Governments and trade associations have often intervened in credit markets to guarantee loans made by financial institutions to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The most active loan guarantee program in the world is the Japanese Credit Supplementation System yet the level of entrepreneurial activity in Japan is extremely low. This paradox suggests that lack of available capital may not be
Miwako Nitani; Allan Riding
BACKGROUND: Commercial medium (Pharmamedia) was investigated for the production of surfactin by Bacillus subtilis MZ-7. Different media (defined, semi-defined, and complex media) were compared for the production of surfactin after fixing the least influential variables in standardized fermentation conditions. Carbohydrate and nitrogen supplements were also tried to improve production in Pharmamedia. RESULTS: Surfactin production was confirmed using PCR along with
Muaaz Mutaz Al-Ajlani; Muhammad Abid Sheikh; Zeeshan Ahmad; Shahida Hasnain
MOST cell cultures require the addition of serum to synthetic media for their maintenance and growth, and we believe that the primary role of the serum is to provide hormones1. We have been led to this hypothesis by a series of experiments showing that serum depleted of certain hormones no longer supports growth of cells, unless the medium is supplemented
Izumi Hayashi; Gordon H. Sato
Market value of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) is driven by its ability to compete with commonly fed protein sources; for example cottonseed meal (CSM) and dried distillers’ grains (DDG). An initial step in evaluating PEAR (20% CP, 59% OM) is to determine palatability when fed as a protein supplement. Accordingly, we evaluated the palatability of PEAR-containing supplements in cattle consuming a basal diet of Bermudagrass (13% CP, 76% NDF). Twelve steers were used in a 12 × 12 Latin square experiment consisting of 12 4-d periods. Each period included 3-d where steers were fed a test supplement and a 1-d washout where steers were fed DDG. Supplements were formulated with different carrier ingredients (DDG, CSM, or liquid supplement, LS) and different levels of PEAR inclusion (0, 20, 40, and 60% for DDG and CSM and 0, 33, 66, and 100% for LS). Intake and time required for consumption were recorded daily. A significant (P < 0.05) treatment × day interaction for g consumed per min (GPM) was observed. This interaction resulted from changing rates of consumption as cattle adapted to supplements. Supplements containing DDG had the greatest rates of consumption (177 – 187 GPM), followed by CSM supplements (148 – 166 GPM). Blends including PEAR and LS had slower rates of consumption (58 – 93 GPM). Supplement formulation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the amount of supplement consumed and time required for complete consumption. Supplements which contained DDG or CSM were consumed in less than 11 min; complete consumption was observed 92 – 100% of the time. Treatments containing LS required more time for complete consumption (21 – 33 min) and were finished 77 – 96% of the time. Our results suggest PEAR can be blended (up to 60%) with existing ingredients utilized in beef rations to create suitable protein supplements. However, PEAR is not palatable when offered alone (complete consumption of 100% PEAR occurred 77.5% of the time and required 31.5 min) or incorporated into LS. Additional research is necessary to determine the impact of PEAR on nutrient utilization in cattle.
Drewery, M. L. [Texas A& M University; Sawyer, J. E. [Texas A& M University; Wickersham, T. A. [Texas A& M University
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the degeneration and loss of cholinergic neurones in the nucleus basalis Meynert, located within the substantia innominata at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. An in vivo measure of morphological changes in the nucleus basalis Meynert would be of high relevance to better understand the structural correlate of cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we applied a newly developed automated technique of image regression analysis, implemented through code written in Matlab 5.3 (MathWorks, Natick, MA), to the analysis of proton density weighted structural MRI of the basal forebrain from 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (mean age = 77.5 years, SD = 4.4 years, 8 women) and 12 healthy elderly subjects (mean age = 62.3 years, SD = 5.6 years, 6 women). This technique allows searching a large portion of the substantia innominata for signal changes. We used corresponding MRI and histological sections of a post mortem brain to map the locations of basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei into the MRI standard space. Additionally, we used voxel-based morphometry, implemented in SPM2 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, London, UK) to determine correlations between signal changes in the substantia innominata and cortical grey matter atrophy in the patients with Alzheimer's disease. When matching the locations of signal reductions in the in vivo MRI to the template of basal nuclei based on the postmortem brain, signal intensity was decreased in areas corresponding to anterior lateral and anterior medial nucleus basalis Meynert and increased in the third ventricle, the transverse fissure and the optic tract in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. The reduction of the signal intensity in an area corresponding to the anterior lateral nucleus basalis Meynert was significantly correlated with reduced grey matter concentration in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule and cingulate gyrus. Our findings suggest that signal changes occur in patients with Alzheimer's disease in the substantia innominata which may be related to the loss or degeneration of cholinergic neurones and correspond to regional cortical grey matter atrophy. If replicated in an independent sample, our technique may be useful to detect degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurones in vivo. PMID:16014654
Teipel, Stefan J; Flatz, Wilhelm H; Heinsen, Helmut; Bokde, Arun L W; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Stöckel, Stephanie; Dietrich, Olaf; Reiser, Maximilian F; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald
The striatum is a major entry structure of the basal ganglia. Its role in information processing in close interaction with the cerebral cortex and thalamus has various behavioral consequences depending on the regions concerned, including control of body movements and motivation. A general feature of striatal information processing is the control by reward-related dopamine signals of glutamatergic striatal inputs and of their plasticity. This relies on specific sets of receptors and signaling proteins in medium-sized spiny neurons which belong to two groups, striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Some signaling pathways are activated only by dopamine or glutamate, but many provide multiple levels of interactions. For example, the cAMP pathway is mostly regulated by dopamine D1 receptors in striatonigral neurons, whereas the ERK pathway detects a combination of glutamate and dopamine signals and is essential for long-lasting modifications. These adaptations require changes in gene expression, and the signaling pathways linking synaptic activity to nuclear function and epigenetic changes are beginning to be deciphered. Their alteration underlies many aspects of striatal dysfunction in pathological conditions which include a decrease or an increase in dopamine transmission, as encountered in Parkinson's disease or exposure to addictive drugs, respectively. PMID:22351066
... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in research and treatment of basal and squamous ... become cancerous. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...
Exocytosis at the apical surface of pancreatic acinar cells occurs in the presence of physiological concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) but is inhibited at high concentrations. Here we show that Munc18c is localized predominantly to the basal membranes of acinar cells. Supramaximal but not submaximal CCK stimulation caused Munc18c to dissociate from the plasma membrane, and this displacement was blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors. Conversely, whereas the CCK analog CCK-OPE alone failed to displace Munc18c from the membrane, this agent caused Munc18c displacement following minimal PKC activation. To determine the physiological significance of this displacement, we used the fluorescent dye FM1-43 to visualize individual exocytosis events in real-time from rat acinar cells in culture. We showed that supramaximal CCK inhibition of secretion resulted from impaired apical secretion and a redirection of exocytic events to restricted basal membrane sites. In contrast, CCK-OPE evoked apical exocytosis and could only induce basolateral exocytosis following activation of PKC. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations of CCK in rats, a treatment that induced tissue changes reminiscent of mild acute pancreatitis, likewise resulted in rapid displacement of Munc18c from the basal membrane in vivo.
Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Lutz, Manfred P.; Leser, Juergen; Sheu, Laura; Lynch, Grit; Tang, Lan; Tamori, Yoshikazu; Trimble, William S.; Salapatek, Anne Marie F.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of dietary supplements of vitamins on vitamin status, libido, and semen characteristics in young boars under normal and intensive semen collection. Sixty Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc boars were allocated randomly from 6 to 10 mo of age to one of the following diets: 1) basal diet (industry level) for minerals and vitamins (Control, n = 15); 2) basal diet supplemented with vitamin C (ASC, n = 15); 3) basal diet supplemented with fat-soluble vitamins (FSV, n = 15); and 4) basal diet supplemented with water-soluble vitamins (WSV, n = 15). After puberty (approximately 12 mo of age), semen was collected at a regular frequency (three times every 2 wk) for 5 wk. Thereafter, all boars were intensively collected (daily during 2 wk). A recovery period (semen collection three times every 2 wk) followed and lasted for 10 wk. Sperm quality (percentage of motile cells and percentage of morphologically normal cells) and quantity (sperm concentration, semen volume, and total sperm number) were recorded as well as direct and hormone related measurements of boar libido. Blood and seminal plasma samples were taken to monitor vitamin status. High concentrations of B6 (P < 0.05) and folic acid (P < 0.05) were observed in the blood plasma of WSV boars, whereas greater concentrations of vitamin E (P < 0.01) were obtained in FSV boars. In the seminal plasma, folic acid concentrations tended to be greater in WSV boars (P < 0.08). During the intensive collection period, there was a tendency (P < 0.06) for semen production to be greater in WSV boars, the effect being less pronounced (P < 0.10) in FSV boars. During the recovery period, the percentage of motile sperm cells was greater in WSV boars (P < 0.03) and, to a lesser extent, in FSV boars (P < 0.10) compared with Control boars. Sperm morphology and libido were not affected by treatments. These results indicate that the transfer of vitamins from blood to seminal plasma is limited and the dietary supplements of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins may increase semen production during intensive semen collection. PMID:14974564
Audet, I; Laforest, J P; Martineau, G P; Matte, J J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) supplementation composed of Panax ginseng, Dioscoreaceae opposite, Atractylodes macrocephala, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujube and Platycodon grandiflorum, on the performance, intestinal tract morphology and immune activity in weanling pigs. Two hundred and forty weaned pigs were assigned randomly to four dietary groups including the negative control (basal diet), 0.1% CMH, 0.3% CMH and 0.114% antibiotic (Chlortetracycline calcium Complex, Sulfathiazole and Procaine Penicillin G) supplementation groups for a 28-day feeding trial. Results indicated that both CMH supplementation groups had a better gain and feed/gain than control group (CT) during the first 2 weeks of the experimental period. The 0.3% CMH had a significant decrease in the diarrhoea score in first 10 days of experimental period when compared with other groups. The CMH supplementation groups had a higher villous height, increased lactobacilli counts in digesta of ileum and decreased coliform counts in colon compared with CT. The immune activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), including the respiratory burst and Salmonella-killing ability, were significantly enhanced in CMH supplementation groups at day 7 of experiment period. The CMH and antibiotic supplementations increased the nutrient digestibility such as dietary dry matter, crude protein and gross energy in weanling pigs. In conclusion, the dietary CMH supplementation improved intestinal morphology and immune activities of PMNs, thus giving rise to nutrient digestibility and reduce diarrhoea frequency in weanling pigs. PMID:21535231
Huang, C W; Lee, T T; Shih, Y C; Yu, B
Gene-expression profiling classified breast cancer to intrinsic subtypes, including luminal A and B, HER2 positive, normal-breast-like,\\u000a and basal-like tumors. Of these, basal-like tumors that express basal cytokeratins and that are negative for estrogen receptor\\u000a ?, progesterone receptor, and HER2 show the most aggressive phenotype with a poor prognosis. Analyses of clinical samples\\u000a and basic research indicate that basal-like breast cancer
Tomohiko Ohta; Wenwen Wu; Ayaka Koike; Hideki Asakawa; Hirotaka Koizumi; Mamoru Fukuda
We investigated the effect of fat supplementation on plasma levels of hormones related to metabolism, with special attention to leptin, in cows in early lactation and in feedlot steers. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows received no fat or else 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum. In experiment 2, part of the corn in the basal concentrate was replaced with 0.7 kg of the same oil such that the diets were isocaloric; 18 cows received the fat-substituted diet and 18 a control diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 75 postpartum. In experiment 3, calcium salts of fatty acids were added to the basal diet of 14 feedlot steers for 80 d; another 14 steers received a control diet. The basal plasma levels of leptin were higher in the cows than in the steers. Dietary fat supplementation did not affect the leptin levels in the lactating cows but lowered the levels in the feedlot steers despite greater energy intake and body fatness (body weight) in the steers receiving the supplement than in those receiving the control diet. The levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin were decreased with dietary fat supplementation in the lactating cows but were unaffected in the steers, suggesting that responses to fat ingestion depend on the physiological state of the animal, including age and sex. Finally, no effects of supplementary fat on the level of growth hormone were demonstrated in any of the models.
Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Garcia-Tornadu, Isabel; Shroeder, Guillermo; Salado, Eloy E.; Gagliostro, Gerardo; Delavaud, Carole; Chilliard, Yves; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M.
We investigated the effect of fat supplementation on plasma levels of hormones related to metabolism, with special attention to leptin, in cows in early lactation and in feedlot steers. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows received no fat or else 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum. In experiment 2, part of the corn in the basal concentrate was replaced with 0.7 kg of the same oil such that the diets were isocaloric; 18 cows received the fat-substituted diet and 18 a control diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 75 postpartum. In experiment 3, calcium salts of fatty acids were added to the basal diet of 14 feedlot steers for 80 d; another 14 steers received a control diet. The basal plasma levels of leptin were higher in the cows than in the steers. Dietary fat supplementation did not affect the leptin levels in the lactating cows but lowered the levels in the feedlot steers despite greater energy intake and body fatness (body weight) in the steers receiving the supplement than in those receiving the control diet. The levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin were decreased with dietary fat supplementation in the lactating cows but were unaffected in the steers, suggesting that responses to fat ingestion depend on the physiological state of the animal, including age and sex. Finally, no effects of supplementary fat on the level of growth hormone were demonstrated in any of the models. PMID:17695598
Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; García-Tornadú, Isabel; Shroeder, Guillermo; Salado, Eloy E; Gagliostro, Gerardo; Delavaud, Carole; Chilliard, Yves; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M
An experiment was conducted on 30 male Nellore lambs with average body weight (BW) of 15.45?±?0.06 kg to determine the level\\u000a of the copper (Cu) supplementation in diet from inorganic and organic sources required for optimum immunity and its effect\\u000a on copper dependent enzymes by allotting them randomly to five groups in completely randomized design. The dietary treatments\\u000a were viz., basal
P. Senthilkumar; D. Nagalakshmi; Y. Ramana Reddy; K. Sudhakar
We observed the effects of sodium bicarbonate supplement on bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill training. Sixty female\\u000a Wistar rats (93-days-old; mean initial weight 261 ± 16 g) were studied. One group of 15 rats was killed at the beginning of\\u000a the experiments (basal control group), while another group of 15 rats was not manipulated (Exer?NaB?). Another group of
Horaeio Rico; Enriqlieta Paez; Luis Aznar; Emma R. Hernández; Cristina Seco; Luis F. Villa; Juan J. Gervas
The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24?±?1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P?0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P?0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams. PMID:24823899
Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew
Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.
Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements.
Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.
Introduction Glutamine rate of appearance (Ra) may be used as an estimate of endogenous glutamine production. Recently a technique employing a bolus injection of isotopically labeled glutamine was introduced, with the potential to allow for multiple assessments of the glutamine Ra over time in critically ill patients, who may not be as metabolically stable as healthy individuals. Here the technique was used to evaluate the endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients in the fed state with and without exogenous glutamine supplementation intravenously. Methods Mechanically ventilated patients (n?=?11) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were studied on two consecutive days during continuous parenteral feeding. To allow the patients to be used as their own controls, they were randomized for the reference measurement during basal feeding without supplementation, before or after the supplementation period. Glutamine Ra was determined by a bolus injection of 13C-glutamine followed by a period of frequent sampling to establish the decay-curve for the glutamine tracer. Exogenous glutamine supplementation was given by intravenous infusion of a glutamine containing dipeptide, L-alanyl-L-glutamine, 0.28 g/kg during 20 hours. Results A 14% increase of endogenous glutamine Ra was seen at the end of the intravenous supplementation period as compared to the basal measurements (P?=?0.009). Conclusions The bolus injection technique to measure glutamine Ra to estimate the endogenous production of glutamine in critically ill patients was demonstrated to be useful for repetitive measurements. The hypothesized attenuation of endogenous glutamine production during L-alanyl-L-glutamine infusion given as a part of full nutrition was not seen.
Describes how published basal reading programs can be adapted to provide guided reading instruction in K-2 classrooms where large numbers of books are not available but basal stories are accessible. Describes and presents results from a project to assign levels of difficulty to stories in five nationally published basal reading programs. (SR)
Fawson, Parker C.; Reutzel, D. Ray
Background: Despite strong circumstantial evidence that the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia, inconsistent findings from relatively small in vivo TS imaging studies have supported contradictory conclu- sions concerning the role of abnormal anatomical charac- teristics of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of TS. Methods: Basal ganglia volumes
Bradley S. Peterson; Prakash Thomas; Michael J. Kane; Lawrence Scahill; Heping Zhang; Richard Bronen; Robert A. King; James F. Leckman; Lawrence Staib
Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…
Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Basal meningoencephalocele is frequently associated with midfacial anomaly, optic disc anomaly, brain anomaly, cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, chiasma syndrome, and endocrinologic disturbance. The combination of basal meningoencephalocele and moyamoya disease is extremely rare. A 29-year-old man had basal meningoencephalocele (transsphenoidal type), anomaly of the optic disc (morning glory syndrome), panhypopituitarism and moyamoya disease. The patient was treated by hormone replacement, but
Masaki Komiyama; Toshihiro Yasui; Hiroaki Sakamoto; Keinosuke Fujita; Toshihiko Sato; Mariko Ota; Masahiko Sugita
Basal cell proliferation is a common finding in a benign hyperplastic prostate gland. Occasionally, basal cell hyperplasia is so florid that it can be mistaken for prostatic adenocarcinoma. We characterized histological, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of florid basal cell hyperplasia from transurethral resections (n = 11) and prostatectomy specimens (n = 4). Fifteen cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma were used as
Ximing J Yang; Maria S Tretiakova; Elizabeth Sengupta; Can Gong; Zhong Jiang
It is with great pride that we present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on endovascular neurosurgery. We were privileged to view a multitude of outstanding quality videos demonstrating the current state-of-the-art in endovascular neurosurgery. Careful and critical review was required to narrow down the videos to a workable volume for this supplement, though there were many more that we would have liked to have included. This issue consists of several videos that represent modern neuroendovascular techniques for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. The videos demonstrate the cutting-edge as well as standard endovascular therapies, which will be valuable to both the novice and the expert endovascular neurosurgeons. We are greatly honored to be involved with this project, and are very proud of its content and expert authors. We confidently believe you will enjoy the video content of this supplement. PMID:24983734
Hoh, Brian; Lanzino, Giuseppe
A dietary supplement which is formulated for medical patients, particularly cancer patients undergoing a chemotherapy treatment regimen. The ingredients are formulated in a form which is easiest for the patient to digest, with consideration of the damage that chemotherapy causes to the digestive system. The dietary supplement provides an ample and well-balanced source of essential and non-essential amino acids, as well as vitamins and minerals. The amino acids are preferably provided in the form of free amino acids, which can be directly absorbed into the bloodstream without digestion. The supplement is formulated in such a manner that it can be used as the sole nutritional source for substantial periods of time.
Vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations of flat iron steaks and petite tenders from steers fed finishing rations containing 0% and 40% corn wet distiller's grains and solubles (WDGS) with and without supplemental vitamin E were determined. Feeding treatment groups were: 0% WDGS with basal vitamin E, 0% WDGS with supplemental vitamin E (500 IU daily), 40% WDGS with basal vitamin E, and 40% WDGS and supplemental vitamin E. Cattle can be fed 40% WDGS diets more economically than corn diets. The incorporation of 40% WDGS, with and without vitamin E, was hypothesized to have little effect on the vitamin concentrations of these value meat cuts. Flat iron steaks and petite tenders were broiled and/or grilled to 70 degrees C internal temperature. Mean cooking yields ranged from 68.7% to 78.2%. The majority of the vitamin concentrations of broiled and of grilled meat were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of raw meat. Vitamin E concentrations of raw and cooked meat from steers that received supplemental vitamin E were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those fed basal vitamin E. Significant differences in thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations in raw flat iron steaks and in vitamin B(6) in raw petite tenders were observed by WDGS. Thiamin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations of broiled flat iron steaks were significantly different (P < 0.05) than grilled. A few differences in vitamin concentrations of the flat iron steaks and petite tenders were observed by WDGS, vitamin E supplementation, and cooking treatments, but most of the vitamin concentrations were statistically similar. PMID:20492221
Kim, Y N; Giraud, D W; Masrizal, M A; Hamouz, F L; Watanabe, K; Schnepf, M I; de Mello, A S; Erickson, G E; Calkins, C R; Driskell, J A
Quality and safety of food and herbal supplements are the result of a whole of different elements as good manufacturing practice and process control. The process control must be active and able to individuate and correct all possible hazards. The main and most utilized instrument is the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system the correct application of which can guarantee the safety of the product. Herbal supplements need, in addition to standard quality control, a set of checks to assure the harmlessness and safety of the plants used. PMID:16037649
One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set developed here provides conclusive support for odonates as the most basal winged insect order (Chiastomyaria hypothesis). Data quality assessment indicates that proteins involved in cellular processes and signaling harbor the most informative phylogenetic signal. PMID:19713325
Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike
Background The tumor suppressor p53 has become one of most investigated genes. Once activated by stress, p53 leads to cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops. We found that protein distribution of p53 under nonstressed condition is highly skewed with a fraction of cells showing high p53 levels comparable to those observed under stressed conditions. Under nonstressed conditions, asynchronous and spontaneous p53 pulses are triggered by basal DNA double strand breaks produced during normal cell cycle progression. The first peaking times show a predominant G1 distribution while the second ones are more widely distributed. The spontaneous pulses are triggered by an excitable mechanism. Once initiated, the amplitude and duration of pulses remain unchanged. Furthermore, the spontaneous pulses are filtered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein mediated posttranslational modifications and do not result in substantial p21 transcription. If challenged by externally severe DNA damage, cells generate synchronous p53 pulses and induce significantly high levels of p21. The high expression of p21 can also be partially induced by lowering the deacetylation rate. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions is initiated by an excitable mechanism and cells become fully responsive only when cells are confronted with severe damage. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism of p53 pulses and unlock many opportunities to p53-based therapy.
Sun, Tingzhe; Shen, Pingping
Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing untreated or phytase-treated soybean meal and corn gluten meal with or without 50 mg supplemental zinc kg-1 to determine if dietary phytate caused a zinc (Zn) deficiency. Fish fed diets containing untreated soybean meal and corn gluten meal without supplemental Zn (basal diet) showed no signs of a Zn deficiency after 170 d of
L. Ramseyer; D. Garling; G. Hill; J. Link
Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Performance Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum
The effects of dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the per- formance characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum were assessed. Experimental layer diets, which included a basal control diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.025% phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol,
E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; M. R. Burnham; S. K. Whitmarsh; P. D. Gerard
The stress waves induced by the tectonic activity along the fault line during an earthquake are propagated in the soil medium in all directions. These stress waves undergo severe changes depending on the material properties of the soil medium through whic...
R. S. Steedman S. P. G. Madabhushi
... Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Office of Dietary Supplements Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements Vitamin D Initiative ODS is advancing scientific understanding ...
Malignant neoplasms in lateral cervical cysts and fistulae have been frequently described in the literature. In the following case, a tumor is reported which was found in the unusual localization of a preauricular fistula. The histologic diagnosis was basal cell carcinoma. In this 41-year-old male patient the tumor led to local recurrent inflammatory symptoms. Therapy consisted first of excision of the fistula. After final diagnosis was made, total parotidectomy and an additional excision of the skin were carried out. PMID:651483
Mees, K; Löhrs, U
It has been proposed that gene expression profiles will revolutionize the classification of breast cancer, eventually replacing histopathology with a more reproducible technology. These new approaches, combined with a better understanding of the cellular origins of breast cancer, should enable us to identify patient subgroups for more effective therapy. However, in such a rapidly advancing field it is essential that initial and thought-provoking results do not become established as 'facts' without question. This Opinion addresses some of the negatives and positives generated by the term 'basal-like' breast cancer, and questions its existence as an entity. PMID:19132008
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of the skin carcinomas and ultraviolet radiation is the major risk factor in the etiopathogenesis. However, reports of unusual sites for BCC are increased in the literature. Authors draw attention to possibility of other etiological agents for BCC like local trauma, ageing, ionizing radiation, arsenic, chronic inflammation, and immune deficiency. Here, we reported a 74-year-old male patient with nodular BCC on groin. We thought that ageing or local trauma may have a role in its formation. PMID:23113607
Tecimer, Rukiye Selin; Yildiz, Kürsat Demir; Aktürk, Aysun Sikar; Bilen, Nilgün
A selective medium (XMSM) was developed for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from bulk soil and plant rhizosphere environments. The XMSM basal medium contained maltose, tryptone, bromthymol blue, and agar. Antibiotics added to select for X. maltophilia were cycloheximide, nystatin, cephalexin, bacitracin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin sulfate, and tobramycin. A comparison was made between XMSM and 1/10-strength tryptic soy broth agar for recovery of X. maltophilia from sterile and nonsterile soil infested with known X. maltophilia isolates. A recovery rate of 97% or greater for XMSM was demonstrated. XMSM was used to isolate X. maltophilia from a variety of soil and rhizosphere environments.
Juhnke, M E; des Jardin, E
The antioxidant effect of dietary beta-carotene supplementation on the peroxidation potential of plasma was investigated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Twelve healthy women (62-80 y) supplemented their usual daily diet with 90 mg of beta-carotene (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6) capsules for 3 wk. Plasma concentrations of beta-carotene, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, ascorbate, urate, bilirubin and in vitro production of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PC-OOH) and utilization of plasma antioxidants in the presence of 50 mmol/L 2,2'-azobis (2-aminopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH), a free radical generator, at 37 degrees C were measured before and after dietary treatment. Plasma beta-carotene increased from 0.76 +/- 0.16 to 6.45 +/- 1.16 micromol/L (P < 0.05) in supplemented but not placebo-treated subjects. The plasma concentrations of other antioxidants did not change significantly in either group. beta-Carotene supplementation did not affect basal levels of plasma PC-OOH as measured by HPLC post-column chemiluminescence but did affect AAPH-induced production of PC-OOH. Before supplementation, the induction period of plasma PC-OOH production was 2.4 +/- 0.4 h, with levels reaching 5.39 +/- 1.50 micromol/L after 6 h of incubation. After supplementation, the induction period increased significantly to 4.2 +/- 0.4 h (P < 0.01), with a lower PC-OOH production of 2.16 +/- 0.90 micromol/L after 6 h (P < 0.05). In this system, plasma ascorbate concentrations were depleted first, followed by loss of bilirubin and alpha-tocopherol and then by the sequential loss of gamma-tocopherol, urate and beta-carotene. These results indicate that beta-carotene supplementation increases the plasma antioxidant capacity of older women. PMID:16856320
Meydani, M; Martin, A; Ribaya-Mercado, J D; Gong, J; Blumberg, J B; Russell, R M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.
Wu, Q. J.; Zhou, Y. M.; Wu, Y. N.; Wang, T.
The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat. PMID:23747628
Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L
Effects of sugars, mineral salts and plant growth regulators on the development of Stevia shoots cultivated in the roller bioreactor and their production of steviol glycosides (SGs) were investigated. In the medium with fructose or glucose, extension of the shoots and development of their root system were much better than in the medium supplemented with sucrose. Under these conditions, however,
Nikolai Bondarev; Oxana Reshetnyak; Alexander Nosov
The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.
The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether ?-catenin regulates basal cell fate determination in the mouse trachea. Analysis of TOPGal transgene reporter activity and Wnt/?-catenin pathway gene expression suggested a role for ?-catenin in basal cell proliferation and differentiation after naphthalene-mediated Clara-like and ciliated cell depletion. However, these basal cell activities occurred simultaneously, limiting precise determination of the role(s) played by ?-catenin. This issue was overcome by analysis of ?-catenin signaling in tracheal air-liquid interface cultures. The cultures could be divided into two phases: basal cell proliferation and basal cell differentiation. A role for ?-catenin in basal cell proliferation was indicated by activation of the TOPGal transgene on proliferation days 3 to 5 and by transient expression of Myc (alias c-myc). Another peak of TOPGal transgene activity was detected on differentiation days 2 to 10 and was associated with the expression of Axin 2. These results suggest a role for ?-catenin in basal to ciliated and basal to Clara-like cell differentiation. Genetic stabilization of ?-catenin in basal cells shortened the period of basal cell proliferation but had a minor effect on this process. Persistent ?-catenin signaling regulated basal cell fate by driving the generation of ciliated cells and preventing the production of Clara-like cells.
Brechbuhl, Heather M.; Ghosh, Moumita; Smith, Mary Kathryn; Smith, Russell W.; Li, Bilan; Hicks, Douglas A.; Cole, Brook B.; Reynolds, Paul R.; Reynolds, Susan D.
This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…
Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.
Aerospell is a supplemental spell check file that can be used as a resource for researchers, writers, editors, students, and others who compose scientific and technical texts. The file extends the general spell check dictionaries of word processors by adding more than 13,000 words used in a broad range of aerospace and related disciplines.
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetic retinopathy. In retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, insulin activates the mTOR pathway, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and HIF-dependent transcription in serum-free minimum essential medium Eagle (MEM). Serendipitously, we found that insulin failed to induce the HIF-1?-dependent response, when RPE cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). Whereas concentration of glucose in MEM corresponds to normal glucose levels in blood (5.5?mM), its concentration in DMEM corresponds to severe diabetic hyperglycemia (25?mM). Addition of glucose to MEM also caused IR. Glucose-mediated IR was characterized by basal activation of mTORC1 and its poor inducibility by insulin. Basal levels of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), S6 and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) S635/639 were high, whereas their inducibilities were decreased. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased and restored by rapamycin and an inhibitor of S6K. IR was associated with de-phosphorylation of IRS1 at S1011, which was reversed by rapamycin. Both short (16-40?h) and chronic (2 weeks) treatment with rapamycin reversed IR. Furthermore, rapamycin did not impair Akt activation in RPE cells cultured in normoglycemic media. In contrast, Torin 1 blocked Akt activation by insulin. We conclude that by activating mTOR/S6K glucose causes feedback IR, preventable by rapamycin. Rapamycin does not cause IR in RPE cells regardless of the duration of treatment. We confirmed that rapamycin also did not impair phosphorylation of Akt at T308 and S473 in normal myoblast C2C12 cells. Our work provides insights in glucose-induced IR and suggests therapeutic approaches to treat patients with IR and severe hyperglycemia and to prevent diabetic complications such as retinopathy. Also our results prompt to reconsider physiological relevance of numerous data and paradigms on IR given that most cell lines are cultured with grossly super-physiological levels of glucose. PMID:24810050
Leontieva, O V; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetic retinopathy. In retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, insulin activates the mTOR pathway, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and HIF-dependent transcription in serum-free minimum essential medium Eagle (MEM). Serendipitously, we found that insulin failed to induce the HIF-1?-dependent response, when RPE cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). Whereas concentration of glucose in MEM corresponds to normal glucose levels in blood (5.5?mM), its concentration in DMEM corresponds to severe diabetic hyperglycemia (25?mM). Addition of glucose to MEM also caused IR. Glucose-mediated IR was characterized by basal activation of mTORC1 and its poor inducibility by insulin. Basal levels of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), S6 and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) S635/639 were high, whereas their inducibilities were decreased. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased and restored by rapamycin and an inhibitor of S6K. IR was associated with de-phosphorylation of IRS1 at S1011, which was reversed by rapamycin. Both short (16–40?h) and chronic (2 weeks) treatment with rapamycin reversed IR. Furthermore, rapamycin did not impair Akt activation in RPE cells cultured in normoglycemic media. In contrast, Torin 1 blocked Akt activation by insulin. We conclude that by activating mTOR/S6K glucose causes feedback IR, preventable by rapamycin. Rapamycin does not cause IR in RPE cells regardless of the duration of treatment. We confirmed that rapamycin also did not impair phosphorylation of Akt at T308 and S473 in normal myoblast C2C12 cells. Our work provides insights in glucose-induced IR and suggests therapeutic approaches to treat patients with IR and severe hyperglycemia and to prevent diabetic complications such as retinopathy. Also our results prompt to reconsider physiological relevance of numerous data and paradigms on IR given that most cell lines are cultured with grossly super-physiological levels of glucose.
Leontieva, O V; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in females. The origins and biology of breast carcinomas remain unclear. Cellular and molecular heterogeneity results in different distinct groups of tumors with different clinical behavior and prognosis. Gene expression profiling has delineated five molecular subtypes based on similarities in gene expression: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressing, normal-like and basal-like. Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) lacks estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 expression, and comprises myoepithelial cells. Specific features include high proliferative rate, rapid growth, early recurrence and decreased overall survival. BLBC is associated with ductal carcinoma in situ, BRCA1 mutation, brain and lung metastasis, and negative axillary lymph nodes. Currently, chemotherapy is the only therapeutic choice, but demonstrates poor outcomes. There is an overlap in definition between triple-negative breast cancer and BLBC due to the triple-negative profile of BLBC. Despite the molecular and clinical similarities, the two subtypes respond differently to neoadjuvant therapy. Although particular morphologic, genetic and clinical features of BLBC have been identified, a variety of definitions among studies accounts for the contradictory results reported. In this article the molecular morphological and histopathological profile, the clinical behavior and the therapeutic options of BLBC are presented, with emphasis on the discordant findings among studies. PMID:21410345
Pazaiti, Anastasia; Fentiman, Ian S
General transcription is required for the growth and survival of all living cells. However, tumor cells require extraordinary levels of transcription, including the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes by RNA polymerase I (RNPI) and mRNA by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). In fact, cancer cells have mutations that directly enhance transcription and are frequently required for cancer transformation. For example, the recent discovery that MYC enhances the transcription of the majority genes in the genome correlates with the fact that several transcription interfering drugs preferentially kill cancer cells. In recent years, advances in the mechanistic studies of the basal transcription machinery and the discovery of drugs that interfere with multiple components of transcription are being used to combat cancer. For example, drugs such as triptolide that targets the general transcription factors TFIIH and JQ1 to inhibit BRD4 are administered to target the high proliferative rate of cancer cells. Given the importance of finding new strategies to preferentially sensitize tumor cells, this review primarily focuses on several transcription inhibitory drugs to demonstrate that the basal transcription machinery constitutes a potential target for the design of novel cancer drugs. We highlight the drugs' mechanisms for interfering with tumor cell survival, their importance in cancer treatment and the challenges of clinical application. PMID:24576043
Villicaña, Claudia; Cruz, Grisel; Zurita, Mario
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology. PMID:23599819
Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, S R; Ion, R M; Popescu, S M; Giurcaneanu, C
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology.
Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, SR; Ion, RM; Popescu, SM; Giurcaneanu, C
A laboratory device is proposed to assess the basal shear stresses generated by debris-flow mixtures during their runout phase. The device consists of an inclinable box with a gate facing a deposition plane. The box is filled with a selected debris-flow mixture, and after sudden opening of the gate, the features of the dam-break deposit can be measured. Based on some simplified assumptions of the energy balance, a methodology is proposed to assess basal shear stresses. The device has been tested using sediment samples from debris-flow deposits generated by two catchments of the Dolomites (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Belluno, Italy) by carrying out runout tests for different sediment concentrations by volume. The results show how the static Coulomb friction law is valid in the runout phase, with friction angles on the order of the angle of repose of the same material in dry conditions. The data elaboration also yields an innovative constitutive equation for shear stresses. This relation merges the Coulomb mixture approach with the concept of a one-phase flow with a certain rheology. This integration offers a useful insight into the weaknesses of the rheological approach if it is not properly scaled up to the ambient pressure of interest.
D'Agostino, V.; Bettella, F.; Cesca, M.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.
Dourmishev, Lyubomir A.; Rusinova, Darena; Botev, Ivan
Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A1 receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated.
Hawryluk, J. M.; Ferrari, L. L.; Keating, S. A.
In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866
Womer, Fay Y; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Smith, Matthew J; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M; Mamah, Daniel
Proteins associated with primary cilia and basal bodies mediate numerous signaling pathways, but little is known about their role in Notch signaling. Here, we report that loss of the Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins BBS1 or BBS4 produces increased Notch-directed transcription in a zebrafish reporter line and in human cell lines. Pathway overactivation is accompanied by reduced localization of Notch receptor at both the plasma membrane and the cilium. In Drosophila mutants, overactivation of Notch can result from receptor accumulation in endosomes, and recent studies implicate ciliary proteins in endosomal trafficking, suggesting a possible mechanism by which overactivation occurs in BBS mutants. Consistent with this, we observe genetic interaction of BBS1 and BBS4 with the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) gene TSG101 and accumulation of receptor in late endosomes, reduced endosomal recycling and reduced receptor degradation in lysosomes. We observe similar defects with disruption of BBS3. Loss of another basal body protein, ALMS1, also enhances Notch activation and the accumulation of receptor in late endosomes, but does not disrupt recycling. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in the regulation of Notch through endosomal trafficking of the receptor. PMID:24681783
Leitch, Carmen C; Lodh, Sukanya; Prieto-Echagüe, Victoria; Badano, Jose L; Zaghloul, Norann A
Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease. PMID:24983277
Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A
In the normal brain beta band oscillatory activity has been associated with retaining of ongoing motor activities. In Parkinson's disease, enhanced beta band oscillatory activity is displayed across the cortico-basal ganglia pathway and is one of the prominent neurophysiological phenomena associated with the disorder. Intraoperative and postoperative recordings of neural activity in patients undergoing stereotactic neurosurgery combined with studies in animal models of parkinsonism have led to the accumulation of complementary data regarding these oscillations. In this review we address some of the key issues facing researchers in the field. These issues encompass existing agreements as well as open debates in modern studies of beta band oscillations, including their defining characteristics, links to clinical symptoms and the functional properties of their formation and effects on behavior. We address these questions by comparing and contrasting the results of neurophysiological observations in human patients, MPTP primate model and 6-OHDA rat model with conceptual and computational models of the normal and parkinsonian basal ganglia. Defining a unifying scheme of beta band oscillations and their relation to neurophysiological, functional and clinical phenomena will enable future targeting of these oscillations for both diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:22921537
Stein, Edward; Bar-Gad, Izhar
... minerals, and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes (see box at right). Dietary supplements are also marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, and gelcaps. While some dietary supplements ...
... or occasionally. Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and many other products. Dietary supplements come in a variety of forms: traditional tablets, capsules, and powders, as well as drinks and ...
... minerals, and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and animal extracts (see box at right). Dietary supplements are also mareketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, and gelcaps. While some dietary supplements ...
1. The rate of energy expended for the clearance of sarcoplasmic Ca2+ by sarcoreticular Ca2+ uptake process(es), plus the concomitant metabolic reactions, was evaluated from measurements of resting heat production by mouse soleus muscle before and after indirect inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). 2. Direct inhibition of the Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase of SR membrane in intact muscle preparations exposed to the specific inhibitor 2,5-di(tert-butyl-1,4-benzohydroquinone (tBuBHQ) slowly increased the rate of heat production (E). Indirect inhibition of SR Ca2+ uptake was obtained by reducing sarcoplasmic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i) as a consequence of reducing Ca2+ release from the SR using dantrolene sodium. This promptly decreased E by 12%. Exposure of the preparations to an Mg(2+)-enriched environment (high Mg2+) or to the chemical phosphatase 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), two other procedures aimed at decreasing SR Ca2+ release, also acutely decreased E, by 20 and 24%, respectively. 3. Subthreshold-for-contracture depolarization of the sarcolemma achieved by increasing extracellular K+ concentration to 11.8 mM induced a biphasic increase of E: an initial peak to 290% of basal E, followed by a plateau phase at 140% of basal E during which resting muscle tension was increased by less than 3%. Most, if not all, of the plateau-phase metabolic response was quickly suppressed by dantrolene or high Mg2+ or BDM. Another means of increasing SR Ca2+ cycling was to partially remove the calmodulin-dependent control of SR Ca2+ release using the calmodulin inhibitor W-7. The progressive increase in E with 30 microM-W-7 was largely reduced by dantrolene or high Mg2+ or BDM. 4. In the presence of either dantrolene or BDM to prevent the effect of W-7 on SR Ca2+ release, exposure of the muscle to W-7 acutely suppressed about 3% of E. This and the above results confirm that the plasmalemmal, calmodulin-dependent Ca(2+)-ATPase, although a qualitatively essential part of the Ca2+i homeostatic system of the cell, can only be responsible for a very minor part of the energy expenditure devoted to the homeostasis of Ca2+i. Active Ca2+ uptake by SR which, at least in the submicromolar range of Ca2+i, is expected to be responsible for most of this Ca(2+)-dependent energy expenditure, might dissipate up to 25-40% of total metabolic energy in the intact mouse soleus under basal and near-basal conditions. Images Fig. 3
Chinet, A; Decrouy, A; Even, P C
In the present report, we review the clinical features and biophysiological roles, including gene expression, of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) in Japanese cases. The frequency of clinical findings of Japanese cases (n=186) was reported in NBCCS including keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs). The syndromes resulted from mutation in the patched (PTCH1) gene in both neoplastic lesion basal cell carcinoma
Toshiro Yamamoto; Hiroaki Ichioka; Kenta Yamamoto; Narisato Kanamura; Shinichiro Sumitomo; Michio Shikimori; Masahiko Mori
The digestibility and heat production values for three fats of different origin were determined. Four pony geldings (225 kg) were used in a study consisting of four successive digestion trials utilizing a 4 X 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were basal alone and supplemented with 15% corn oil, blended fat or inedible tallow. The blended fat was composed of a mixture of animal and vegetable fats. A 7-d preliminary period preceded a 7-d total fecal collection period for each trial. Heat production values were obtained by indirect calorimetry and calculated from oxygen consumption data. Fat supplementation increased (P less than .05) dietary metabolizable energy from a basal value of 3,224 kcal.kg intake-1.d-1 to a mean value of 3,984 kcal.kg intake-1.d-1 for the three fat diets. No difference in heat production was observed among the diets, averaging 2,883 kcal.kg intake-1.d-1. Fats increased (P less than .05) the energy balance (metabolizable energy-heat production) approximately 88% over the basal. Corn oil and blended fat produced the greatest energy balance of the fats. Utilization of energy in fats, calculated by difference, was not different, but tended to be highest in blended fat and lowest in the corn oil. Apparent fatty acid digestibility increased (P less than .05) with the addition of fat to the basal, partially due to the dilution of endogenous fecal fat, but digestion coefficients were not different (P greater than .40) among the high fat diets. PMID:3667448
McCann, J S; Meacham, T N; Fontenot, J P
We argue that the results for the vacuum forces on a slab and on an atom embedded in a magnetodielectric medium near a mirror, obtained using a recently suggested Lorentz-force approach to the Casimir effect, are equivalent to the corresponding results obtained in a traditional way. We also derive a general expression for the atom-atom force in a medium and extend a few classical results concerning this force in vacuum and dielectrics to magnetodielectric systems. This, for example, reveals that the (repulsive) interaction between atoms of different polarizability type is at small distances unaffected by a (weakly polarizable) medium.
Tomas, M. S.
The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. PMID:22533311
Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C
The authors investigated whether the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis and salivary branching morphogenesis by beta-D-xyloside was related to the deposition and processing of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycans at the basal epithelial surface that correlates with normal branching activity. Forty eight-hour cultures of control and 0.5 mM beta-xyloside-treated submandibular rudiments were labeled for 2 hr with (/sup 35/S)sulfate and fixed and processed for autoradiography, immediately or after 2, 4, 6, or 8 hr of postlabeling chase in nonradioactive medium. The data demonstrated that deposition of chondroitin sulfate-rich material at the basal epithelial surface was strikingly reduced in beta-xyloside-treated rudiments, while patterns of label loss during postlabeling chase were not altered.
Spooner, B.S.; Bassett, K.; Stokes, B.
We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64–72 weeks). Four levels of folate\\u000a (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg\\/kg) and three levels of vitamin B12 (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg\\/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4?×?3 factorial completely
Chaiyapoom Bunchasak; Sompong Kachana
In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view. PMID:24516462
Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil
Among the cellular events that are associated with the process of endochondral ossification is an incremental increase in chondrocyte basal intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) from 50 to 100 nM. To determine if this rise in [Ca(2+)](i) functionally participates in the maturational process of growth plate chondrocytes (GPCs), we examined its effect on several markers of hypertrophy, including annexin V, bone morphogenetic protein-6, type X collagen, and indian hedgehog. Expression of these genes was determined under conditions either where the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA was used to deplete extracellular Ca(2+) and lower [Ca(2+)](i) to < 50 nM or where the extracellular addition of 5 mM CaCl(2) was used to elevate [Ca(2+)](i) to > 100 nM. Although no effect on the expression of these genes was observed following treatment with 5 mM CaCl(2), 4 mM EGTA significantly inhibited their expression. This effect was recapitulated in sternal chondrocytes and was reversed following withdrawal of EGTA. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the EGTA-induced suppression of these genes was mediated by a factor whose expression is responsive to changes in basal [Ca(2+)](i). Since EGTA mimicked the effect of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) on GPC maturation, we examined the effect of low [Ca(2+)](i) on PTHrP expression. Suggesting that low [Ca(2+)](i) suppression of hypertrophy was PTHrP-dependent in GPCs, (a) treatment with 4 mM EGTA increased PTHrP expression, (b) the EGTA effect was rescued by blocking PTHrP binding to its receptor with the competitive antagonist TIP(7-39), and (c) EGTA could mimic the PTHrP stimulation of AP-1 binding to DNA. Additionally, PTHrP promoter analysis identified a domain (-1498 to -862, relative to the start codon) involved with conferring Ca(2+) sensitivity to the PTHrP gene. These findings underscore the importance of cellular Ca(2+) in GPC function and suggest that PTHrP action in the growth plate is at least partially regulated by changes in basal [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:12027460
Zuscik, Michael J; D'Souza, Mary; Ionescu, Andreia M; Gunter, Karlene K; Gunter, Thomas E; O'Keefe, Regis J; Schwarz, Edward M; Puzas, J Edward; Rosier, Randy N
Diamond's trypticase-yeast extract-serum-gastric mucin (TYSGM-9) medium was studied for its suitability to support the xenic growth of the oral protozoan Entamoeba gingivalis. Amoebic growth was found to be best when the inoculum for transfer was 0.1 ml, the incubation temperature was 35 degrees C, and the interval between transfers was 48 h. These parameters were also useful for controlling the growth of accompanying bacteria. In addition, bacterial growth in xenic stock cultures, which had a direct effect on the activity of E. gingivalis trophozoites, was kept to a minimum by addition of the antibiotics piperacillin, erythromycin, neomycin, and penicillin. Varying substitutions and selected supplementations of TYSGM-9 medium led to the development of an improved medium for E. gingivalis. Supplements most beneficial for the growth of E. gingivalis trophozoites were ascorbic acid, ferric ammonium citrate, and special NCTC 107 vitamin mixture. As compared with TYSGM-9 medium (6-10 E. gingivalis trophozoites observed per field), the new E. gingivalis medium supported excellent growth (16-20 E. gingivalis trophozoites observed per field during optimal growth) of the oral protozoan. The medium is suitable for clinical isolation of E. gingivalis. PMID:2251238
Gannon, J T; Linke, H A
An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an uc(l)-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator (P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls (P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG