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1

Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite  

SciTech Connect

The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. (East Texas State Univ., Commerce (USA))

1988-01-01

2

Effect of medium supplementation on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW9595M in whey permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M was studied in whey permeate medium supplemented with different nitrogen sources or with yeast extract and vitamins, salts and amino acids used in the formulation of defined basal minimum medium (BMM). All nitrogen sources tested exhibited very limited or no effect on biomass production using acidification and automated spectrophotometry test. A multilevel-factorial design

M. G. Macedo; C. Lacroix; N. J. Gardner; C. P. Champagne

2002-01-01

3

Interplanetary medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.

King, J. H.

1979-01-01

4

Soy Content of Basal Diets Determines the Effects of Supplemental Selenium in Male Mice123  

PubMed Central

The effects of supplemental Se in rodent models may depend upon composition of the basal diet to which it is added. Wild-type male littermates of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice were fed until 18 wk of age 1 of 2 Se-adequate stock diets high in soy (HS) or low in phytoestrogens (LP) or the same diets supplemented with 3.0 mg Se/kg diet as seleno-methylselenocysteine. Body and abdominal fat pad weights were lower (P < 0.01) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplemental Se reduced fat pad weights in mice receiving the LP diet but increased body and fat pad weights in mice consuming the HS formulation (P-interaction < 0.005). Serum free triiodothyronine concentrations were unaffected by supplemental Se in mice fed the LP diet but were decreased by Se supplementation of mice given the HS feed (P-interaction < 0.02). Free thyroxine concentrations were higher in mice consuming the HS diet regardless of Se intake (P < 0.001). Hepatic mRNA for iodothyronine deiodinase I was lower (P < 0.001) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplementation of Se increased this mRNA (P < 0.001) in both diet groups. Results from this study show a significant interaction between the composition of basal diets and the effects of supplemental Se with respect to body composition. These findings have important implications for future studies in rodent models of the effects of supplemental Se on heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other conditions related to body weight and composition. PMID:22031663

Quiner, Trevor E.; Nakken, Heather L.; Mason, Brock A.; Lephart, Edwin D.; Hancock, Chad R.; Christensen, Merrill J.

2011-01-01

5

Effects of nutrients present in Bold’s basal medium on the green alga Stigeoclonium pascheri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of varying concentrations of nutrients present in Bold’s basal medium on the extent of colony formation from vegetative\\u000a fragments, sporulation and spore germination of the green algaStigeoclonium poscheri were studied. A decrease of colony formation was observed in media deficient in MgSO4, NaNO3, phosphates, and containing a 10-fold increase of H3BO3. Sporulation decreased in the same media. However,

S. C. Agrawal; Y. S. R. K. Sarma

1982-01-01

6

Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985  

SciTech Connect

Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

Couzens, D.A.; King, J.H.

1986-04-01

7

Optimization of the basal medium for improving production and secretion of taxanes from suspension cell culture of Taxus baccata L  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose of the study Taxol is one of the most effective anticancer drugs that isolated from Taxus sp. due to the slow growth of Taxus trees and low concentration of Taxol in the tissues, the biotechnological approaches especially plant cell culture have been considered to produce Taxol in commercial scale. Methods We investigated the effects of basal medium type used in culture media on production of Taxol and other taxane compounds from cell suspension culture of T. baccata L. Briefly, five commonly basal media including Gamborg, Murashige and Skoog, Woody Plant, Schenk and Hildebrandt, and Driver and Kuniyuki medium were used for preparing separate suspension culture media. The intra- and extra-cellular yields of taxanes were analyzed by using HPLC after 21 days period of culturing. Results The yields of taxanes were significantly different for the cultures prepared by different basal media. Moreover, the effects of basal medium on the yield of products differed for varius taxane compounds. Maximum yields of Baccatin III (10.03 mgl-1) and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (4.2 mgl-1) were achieved from the DKW basal media, but the yield of Taxol was maximum (16.58 mgl-1) in the WPM basal media. Furthermore, the secretion of taxanes from the cells into medium was also considerably affected by the type of basal medium. The maximum extra-cellular yield of Taxol (7.81 mgl-1), Baccatin III (5.0 mgl-1), and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (1.45 mgl-1) were also obtained by using DKW basal medium that were significantly higher than those obtained from other culture media. PMID:23352123

2012-01-01

8

Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 4, 1985-1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension is presented of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements which have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1985 to 1988, and 1985 IMF data from the Czechoslovakian Soviet Prognoz 10 spacecraft. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1985 to 1988 data as for the earlier data.

King, Joseph H.

1989-01-01

9

Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 5, 1988-1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication represents an extension of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements that have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1988 through the end of 1993. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1988-1993 data as for the earlier data. Owing to a combination of non-continuity of IMP 8 telemetry acquisition and IMP's being out of the solar wind for about 40 percent of its orbit, the annual solar wind coverage for 1988-1993 is 40 plus or minus 5 percent. The plots and listings of this supplement are in essentially the same format as in previous supplements. Days for which neither IMF nor plasma data were available for any hours are omitted from the listings.

King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.

1994-01-01

10

Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.  

PubMed

Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts. PMID:23390041

Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

2013-06-01

11

Human dental pulp stem cells cultured in serum-free supplemented medium  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence show that human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) could provide a source of adult stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies. In this study, DPSCs were expanded and cultured with a protocol generally used for the culture of neural stem/progenitor cells. Methodology: DPSC cultures were established from third molars. The pulp tissue was enzymatically digested and cultured in serum-supplemented basal medium for 12 h. Adherent (ADH) and non-adherent (non-ADH) cell populations were separated according to their differential adhesion to plastic and then cultured in serum-free defined N2 medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Both ADH and non-ADH populations were analyzed by FACS and/or PCR. Results: FACS analysis of ADH-DPSCs revealed the expression of the mesenchymal cell marker CD90, the neuronal marker CD56, the transferrin receptor CD71, and the chemokine receptor CXCR3, whereas hematopoietic stem cells markers CD45, CD133, and CD34 were not expressed. ADH-DPSCs expressed transcripts coding for the Nestin gene, whereas expression levels of genes coding for the neuronal markers ?-III tubulin and NF-M, and the oligodendrocyte marker PLP-1 were donor dependent. ADH-DPSCs did not express the transcripts for GFAP, an astrocyte marker. Cells of the non-ADH population that grew as spheroids expressed Nestin, ?-III tubulin, NF-M and PLP-1 transcripts. DPSCs that migrated out of the spheroids exhibited an odontoblast-like morphology and expressed a higher level of DSPP and osteocalcin transcripts than ADH-DPSCs. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that human DPSCs can be expanded and cultured in serum-free supplemented medium with EGF and bFGF. ADH-DPSCs and non-ADH populations contained neuronal and/or oligodendrocyte progenitors at different stages of commitment and, interestingly, cells from spheroid structures seem to be more engaged into the odontoblastic lineage than the ADH-DPSCs. PMID:24376422

Bonnamain, Virginie; Thinard, Reynald; Sergent-Tanguy, Solène; Huet, Pascal; Bienvenu, Géraldine; Naveilhan, Philippe; Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte

2013-01-01

12

Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the  

E-print Network

: June 1, 2012 - May 31, 2015 Office of Nuclear Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program1 Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University/University of Surrey masters student each year as part of the Richmond program in electromagnetic nuclear physics

Gilfoyle, Jerry

13

Evaluation of ebselen supplementation on cryopreservation medium in human semen  

PubMed Central

Background: An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. Objective: This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. Results: After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm. PMID:24976819

Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein

2014-01-01

14

Enhancement of Sf-9 cell growth and longevity through supplementation of culture medium with hemolymph.  

PubMed

The benefits of insect cell culture medium supplementation with hemolymph of Lonomia obliqua were investigated. The addition of hemolymph to the medium induced high levels of cell growth, and the viability was maintained for longer periods. The maximum cell yield increased almost 3-fold after hemolymph supplementation. Cultures in their stationary phase were rescued through hemolymph supplementation, also reaching high cell concentrations. These actions were much dependent on the concentration of hemolymph; low hemolymph concentration had a positive effect in cell growth, whereas high hemolymph concentration showed a deleterious effect. Fractionation of hemolymph by gel filtration chromatography showed the presence of three factors with different activity in insect cell culture: an potential anti-apoptotic factor, a growth-promoting factor, and an enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose. Addition of hemolymph to the medium induced high levels of glucose production. The sucrose to glucose conversion was also linearly dependent upon the hemolymph concentration. Therefore, we conclude that cell growth and longevity can be increased by supplementation of the culture medium with hemolymph. PMID:12573007

Maranga, Luis; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z; Bengala, André; Peixoto, Cristina C; Moraes, Roberto H P; Pereira, Carlos A; Carrondo, Manuel J T

2003-01-01

15

Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation  

PubMed Central

Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

2014-01-01

16

Does supplementation of in-vitro culture medium with melatonin improve IVF outcome in PCOS?  

PubMed

Human pre-ovulatory follicular fluid (FF) contains a higher concentration of melatonin than serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin supplementation of culture medium on the clinical outcomes of an in-vitro maturation (IVM) IVF-embryo transfer programme for patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Melatonin concentrations in the culture media of granulosa cells (GC) or cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) were measured and the clinical outcomes after using IVM media with or without melatonin were analysed. In the culture media of GC or COC, melatonin concentrations gradually increased. When human chorionic gonadotrophin priming protocols were used, implantation rates in the melatonin-supplemented group were higher than those of the non-supplemented control group (P<0.05). Pregnancy rates were also higher, although not significantly. The findings suggest that the addition of melatonin to IVM media may improve the cytoplasmic maturation of human immature oocytes and subsequent clinical outcomes. It is speculated that follicular melatonin may be released from luteinizing GC during late folliculogenesis and that melatonin supplementation may be used to improve the clinical outcomes of IVM IVF-embryo transfer. Melatonin is primarily produced by the pineal gland and regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. Interestingly, human pre-ovulatory follicular fluid contains a higher concentration of melatonin than serum. However, in contrast to animal studies, the direct role of melatonin on oocyte maturation in the human system has not yet been investigated. So, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin supplementation of culture medium on the clinical outcome of an in-vitro maturation (IVM) IVF-embryo transfer programme for PCOS patients. The melatonin concentrations in culture medium of granulosa cells (GC) or cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) were measured and the clinical outcomes of IVM IVF-embryo transfer using IVM medium alone or supplemented with melatonin were analysed. In the culture media of GC or COC, the melatonin concentration gradually increased. With human chorionic gonadotrophin priming, the pregnancy and implantation rates in the melatonin-supplemented group were higher than those of the non-supplemented control (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that follicular melatonin is released from luteinizing GC during late folliculogenesis and plays a positive role in oocyte maturation. Therefore, addition of melatonin into IVM medium may improve cytoplasmic maturation of human immature oocytes and subsequent clinical outcomes. PMID:23177415

Kim, Mi Kyoung; Park, Eun A; Kim, Hyung Joon; Choi, Won Yun; Cho, Jung Hyun; Lee, Woo Sik; Cha, Kwang Yul; Kim, You Shin; Lee, Dong Ryul; Yoon, Tae Ki

2013-01-01

17

Adsorption of phenol and 4-nitrophenol on granular activated carbon in basal salt medium: equilibrium and kinetics.  

PubMed

Batch studies were carried out for studying the adsorption behaviour of phenol and 4-nitrophenol on granular activated carbon from a basal salt medium (BSM) at pH approximately 7.1 and temperature approximately 30 degrees C. The literature review was done in order to review the information for comparison purposes on equilibrium models of phenol and 4-nitrophenol adsorption on activated carbon. The units for measurements reported in these models were found to be diverse, thus making the comparison difficult. These units have been converted into similar units for easy reference. In all, six models of Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Radke-Prausnitz, Toth and Fritz-Schlunder as reported in the literature have been fitted to the data of phenol/activated carbon and 4-nitrophenol/activated carbon systems of the present studies using nonlinear regression technique. Based on maximum deviations and correlation coefficients, Langmuir gave the poorest fit for both compounds; Redlich-Peterson, Radke-Prausnitz, and four parameter model of Fritz-Schlunder could represent the data with similar accuracy, i.e. with R2-value of 0.98 and maximum deviation approximately 12%. However, for phenol, two parameter model of Freundlich may be recommended because of ease in its parameter estimation and better accuracy. 4-Nitrophenol was found to be more adsorbed than phenol, which is consistent with the result found in literature. The kinetics of the adsorption was found to be intra-particle diffusion controlled with diffusion coefficient values of the order of 10(-13)m2/s. Three distinct phases of kinetics--rapid, medium, and slow--have been observed in this study. PMID:17276000

Kumar, Arinjay; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra; Gupta, Dharam V

2007-08-17

18

Improvement of Preimplantation Development of In Vitro-Fertilized Bovine Zygotes by Glucose Supplementation to a Chemically Defined Medium  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

SAKAGAMI, Nobutada; NISHINO, Osamu; ADACHI, Satoshi; UMEKI, Hidenobu; UCHIYAMA, Hiroko; ICHIKAWA, Kyoko; TAKESHITA, Kazuhisa; KANEKO, Etsushi; AKIYAMA, Kiyoshi; KOBAYASHI, Shuji; TAMADA, Hiromichi

2014-01-01

19

Improvement of preimplantation development of in vitro-fertilized bovine zygotes by glucose supplementation to a chemically defined medium.  

PubMed

The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

Sakagami, Nobutada; Nishino, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Umeki, Hidenobu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

2014-10-01

20

Amino Acid Supplementation Increases Lean Body Mass, Basal Muscle Protein Synthesis, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Expression in Older Women  

PubMed Central

Context: Inadequate dietary protein intake has been implicated in sarcopenia. Objective and Design: The objectives of this study were to determine whether: 1) chronic essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation improves postabsorptive muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), lean body mass (LBM), and one-repetition maximum muscle strength, and androgen receptor and IGF-I muscle protein expression; and 2) the acute anabolic response to EAA ingestion is preserved after a 3-month supplementation period. Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, older women (68 ± 2 yr) were assigned to receive either placebo (n = 7), or 15 g EAA/d [supplemented treatment group (SUP)] (n = 7) for 3 months. Metabolic outcomes were assessed in association with stable isotope studies conducted at 0 and 3 months. Setting: The study was performed at The University of Texas Medical Branch General Clinical Research Center. Results: Ingestion of 7.5 g EAA acutely stimulated FSR in both groups at 0 months (P < 0.05). Basal FSR at 3 months was increased in SUP only. The magnitude of the acute response to EAA was unaltered after 3 months in SUP. LBM increased in SUP only (P < 0.05). One-repetition maximum strength remained unchanged in both groups. Basal IGF-I protein expression increased in SUP after 3 months (P = 0.05), with no changes in androgen receptor or total and phosphorylated Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, S6 kinase, and 4E-binding protein. Conclusions: EAA improved LBM and basal muscle protein synthesis in older individuals. The acute anabolic response to EAA supplementation is maintained over time and can improve LBM, possibly offsetting the debilitating effects of sarcopenia. PMID:19208731

Dillon, Edgar L.; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Gilkison, Charles; Sanford, Arthur P.; Casperson, Shanon L.; Jiang, Jie; Chinkes, David L.; Urban, Randall J.

2009-01-01

21

Short- and medium-chain fatty acids as a feed supplement for weaning and nursery pigs.  

PubMed

The effect of supplementing piglet diets with acidifiers containing the short-chain fatty acids - SCFA (propionic C3 and formic) together with medium-chain fatty acids -- MCFA (caprylic C8 and capric C10) on performance, nutrient apparent digestibility, intestinal microflora and small intestine structure was investigated. The study was performed on 326 piglets allocated to 5 experimental groups. They were fed a standard diet (Group I - control) or a standard diet supplemented with 0.5% propionic and formic acids (Group II - PF). Group III (PF + C8), group IV (PF + C10) and group V (PF + C8 + C10) received the same mixture as group II with a supplement of 0.2% of caprylic and/or capric acids, respectively. Apparent digestibility of nutrients and microbiological analyses were performed. The structure of jejunum mucosa was also examined. Piglets receiving capric acid (groups IV and V) had the highest body weight gains. Piglets receiving MCFA digested protein and fiber better (P < or = 0.05) than piglets receiving SCFA as acidifier. There was no difference in intestinal microflora except for Clostridium perfringens, the population of which was reduced by SCFA (group II). Villi of the mucosal epithelium were the highest (P < or = 0.05) in piglets receiving SCFA with capric acid (group IV). Under the conditions of this study a mixture of SCFA (propionic and formic) with capric acid significantly improves performance of piglets. PMID:24597298

Hanczakowska, E; Szewczyk, A; Swiatkiewicz, M; Oko?, K

2013-01-01

22

Ex vivo expanded autologous limbal epithelial cells on amniotic membrane using a culture medium with human serum as single supplement.  

PubMed

In patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), transplantation of ex vivo expanded human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) can restore the structural and functional integrity of the corneal surface. However, the protocol for cultivation and transplantation of HLECs differ significantly, and in most protocols growth additives such as cholera toxins, exogenous growth factors, hormones and fetal calf serum are used. In the present article, we compare for the first time human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) cultivated on human amniotic membrane (HAM) in a complex medium (COM) including fetal bovine serum to a medium with human serum as single growth supplement (HSM), and report on our first examinations of HLECs expanded in autologous HSM and used for transplant procedures in patients with LSCD. Expanded HLECs were examined by genome-wide microarray, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and for cell viability, morphology, expression of immunohistochemical markers and colony forming efficiency. Cultivation of HLECs in HSM produced a multilayered epithelium where cells with markers associated with LESCs were detected in the basal layers. There were few transcriptional differences and comparable cell viability between cells cultivated in HSM and COM. The p63 gene associated with LESCs were expressed 3.5 fold more in HSM compared to COM, and Western blotting confirmed a stronger p63? band in HSM cultures. The cornea-specific keratin CK12 was equally found in both culture conditions, while there were significantly more CK3 positive cells in HSM. Cells in epithelial sheets on HAM remaining after transplant surgery of patients with LSCD expressed central epithelial characteristics, and dissociated cells cultured at low density on growth-arrested fibroblasts produced clones containing 21 ± 12% cells positive for p63? (n = 3). In conclusion, a culture medium without growth additives derived from animals or from animal cell cultures and with human serum as single growth supplement may serve as an equivalent replacement for the commonly used complex medium for ex vivo expansion of HLECs on HAM. PMID:22342952

Shahdadfar, Aboulghassem; Haug, Kristiane; Pathak, Meeta; Drolsum, Liv; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Johnsen, Erik O; Petrovski, Goran; Moe, Morten C; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

2012-04-01

23

Use of Glutamic Acid to Supplement Fluid Medium for Cultivation of Bordetella pertussis  

PubMed Central

The amino acid consumption by Bordetella pertussis growing in broth containing casein hydrolysate was examined. Serine, proline, alanine, glycine, aspartate, and glutamate were rapidly consumed, in a manner which suggested that they supplied the energy requirements of the organism; exhaustion of the energy source appeared to be the main factor limiting the yield of cells. There was no correlation between the utilization of individual amino acids and the phase of growth; uptake appeared to depend only upon relative concentrations. Consumption of threonine, phenylalanine, histidine, leucine, and methionine was slight; consumption of valine and lysine was variable, and isoleucine was excreted. The addition of monosodium l-glutamate (3 mg/ml) to the broth in shaken flasks increased the cell yield by an average of 43.5%. It had no detectable adverse effect upon the agglutin-producing capacity, agglutinability in antisera versus smooth and rough growth phases, mouse-lethal toxicity, histamine-sensitizing factor potency, or intracerebral protective potency of the culture. Broth supplemented with monosodium l-glutamate has been used over a 2-year period to prepare experimental vaccines by both batch and continuous cultivation methods at controlled pH; the cell yields obtained from the supplemented broth have been up to 52% higher than those from the basal broth. The use of glutamate to replace a proportion of casein hydrolysate in the broth caused a reduction in the cell yield, an alteration in cell morphology, and reduction in the mouse-lethal toxicity, the histamine-sensitizing factor potency, and the intracerebral protective potency of the cells. Images PMID:4314842

Lane, A. G.

1970-01-01

24

A preliminary search for alternatives to albumin as a medium supplement for the culture of human sperm.  

PubMed

Non-animal macromolecules (Select Phytone™ UF, wheat peptone, dextran 40, hydroxyethyl starch and methyl cellulose) as an alternative medium supplement for human spermatozoa were compared to bovine serum albumin. Select Phytone™ UF and wheat peptone discolored the medium and smelled like broth, making them unlikely to be acceptable for clinical use, whilst the others were colorless and odorless. All supplements were effective in the yield of spermatozoa isolated by swim-up technique, and maintenance of sperm motility. In summary, there are non-animal macromolecules that will support short-term sperm culture. PMID:23153705

Matson, Phillip; Tardif, Steve

2012-11-01

25

The Dopamine D1–D2 Receptor Heteromer in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons: Evidence for a Third Distinct Neuronal Pathway in Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Dopaminergic signaling within the basal ganglia has classically been thought to occur within two distinct neuronal pathways; the direct striatonigral pathway which contains the dopamine D1 receptor and the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN) and substance P, and the indirect striatopallidal pathway which expresses the dopamine D2 receptor and enkephalin (ENK). A number of studies have also shown, however, that D1 and D2 receptors can co-exist within the same medium spiny neuron and emerging evidence indicates that these D1/D2-coexpressing neurons, which also express DYN and ENK, may comprise a third neuronal pathway, with representation in both the striatonigral and striatopallidal projections of the basal ganglia. Furthermore, within these coexpressing neurons it has been shown that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor can form a novel and pharmacologically distinct receptor complex, the dopamine D1–D2 receptor heteromer, with unique signaling properties. This is indicative of a functionally unique role for these neurons in brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence in support of a novel third pathway coexpressing the D1 and D2 receptor, to discuss the potential relevance of this pathway to basal ganglia signaling, and to address its potential value, and that of the dopamine D1–D2 receptor heteromer, in the search for new therapeutic strategies for disorders involving dopamine neurotransmission. PMID:21747759

Perreault, Melissa L.; Hasbi, Ahmed; O’Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

2011-01-01

26

Comparison of Growth of Campylobacteriaceae on Media Supplemented with Organic Acids and on Commercially Available Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to compare the ability of a medium supplemented with organic acids to the ability of commercially available, non-selective media to support growth of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter butzleri. Liquid medium was composed of yeast extract-peptone basal broth (BB) that could be supplemented with an organic acid (OA) mixture of fumaric, lactic, malic, and succinic acids (BB +

2006-01-01

27

Effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake and digestibility by goats.  

PubMed

Two 4 x 4 Latin square design experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, four mature Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, pre-experimental body weight 25.0 +/- 0.6 kg, 22-24 months old, were used to study the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata (EV), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility. Maize stover treated with urea was used as a control diet. E. variegata was higher in crude protein content than LL or GS. The DMI of the urea treated stover diet was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the diets of untreated stover supplemented with forage legumes. The DMI was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the GS diet than in the EV or LL diets. Significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the urea-treated stover and the diets of stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), organic matter (OM) and energy. In experiment 2, four mature goats, pre-experimental body weight 27.0 +/- 0.3 kg, 24-28 months old, were used to measure their response when the urea-treated maize stover and the maize stover and forage legume diets were sprayed with molasses. The intake of the urea-treated stover diet sprayed with molasses was significantly lower (p < 0.05) that that of the maize stover/forage legume diets sprayed with molasses. The DMI of the diets improved with the addition of molasses. The DMI among the goats offered the maize stover/forage legume diets + molasses did not differ significantly. (p > 0.05). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were obtained in this second study between the urea-treated stover and the stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, OM and energy. The stover supplemented with forage legumes had a higher (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. The present studies demonstrated that the use of forage legumes as protein supplements improved the feed quality of maize stover in the diets of mature goats. It is suggested that molasses should be sprayed on fresh leaves of Gliricicia sepium and other forage legumes that are initially rejected, in order to improve acceptance and DMI when fed to ruminant animals in confinement or in a cut-and-carry system of production. PMID:14998316

Aregheore, E M; Perera, D

2004-02-01

28

Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

2014-10-01

29

Effects of supplementation frequency on ruminal fermentation and digestion by steers fed medium-quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.  

PubMed

Reducing the frequency of supplementation to beef cattle would reduce labor and vehicle maintenance costs and could have the potential to increase profits if performance is not negatively affected. Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (362 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplementation frequency (daily or on alternate days) on digestion and ruminal parameters when feeding medium-quality hay and supplementing with a mixture of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum fescue hay (8.8% CP and 34.8% ADF) that was supplemented at 1% of BW daily (SD), supplemented at 2% of BW on alternate days (SA), or not supplemented (NS). The supplement (14.6% CP and 29.8% ADF) contained 47% soybean hull pellets, 47% corn gluten feed pellets, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses (as fed). Each period consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase followed by 6 d of total fecal, urine, and ort collection. All supplement offered was consumed within 2 h. Ruminal fluid was collected every 4 h for 2 d. Hay intake was reduced (P < 0.01) for SD and further reduced (P < 0.01) for SA. Hay intake was 1.54, 1.19, and 1.02% of BW (SEM ± 0.036) for NS, SD, and SA, respectively. There was a treatment (P < 0.01) × day interaction for mean ruminal pH. On the day of supplementation, ruminal pH for SA (6.13) was lower (P < 0.01) than those for both SD (6.29) and NS (6.52). However, on the day the SA treatment did not receive supplement, ruminal pH of SA (6.53) did not differ (P = 0.87) from ruminal pH of NS and was greater (P < 0.01) than that of SD. Ruminal pH of SD was lower (P < 0.01) than that of NS. Diet DM digestibility was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.58) because of frequency. Dry matter digestibility was 57.9, 64.1, and 64.6% (SEM ± 0.65) for NS, SD, and SA, respectively. The amount of N retained did not differ (P = 0.47) because of frequency (24.9 ± 5.61 and 22.0 ± 5.50 g/d for SD and SA, respectively) and was greater (P < 0.01) for the supplemented treatments than for NS (4.2 ± 3.30 g/d). When supplementing a blend of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed, producers can reduce the frequency of supplementation to every other day without reducing digestibility or N retention. PMID:22064733

Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H

2012-03-01

30

Supplementation of insulin-transferrin-selenium to embryo culture medium improves the in vitro development of pig embryos.  

PubMed

Insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) supplementation to oocyte maturation medium improves the post-fertilization embryonic development in pigs. ITS is also commonly used as a supplement for the in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos and stem cells in several mammalian species. However, its use during IVC of pig embryos has not been explored. This study investigated the effect of ITS supplementation to IVC medium on the in vitro development ability of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We observed that ITS had no significant effect on the rate of first cleavage (P > 0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation in ITS-treated PA (45.3 ± 1.9 versus 27.1 ± 2.3%), IVF (31.6 ± 0.6 versus 23.5 ± 0.6%) and SCNT (17.6 ± 2.3 versus 10.7 ± 1.4%) embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-treated controls. Culture of PA embryos in the presence of ITS also enhanced the expansion and hatching ability (29.1 ± 3.0 versus 18.2 ± 3.8%; P < 0.05) of blastocysts and increased the total number of cells per blastocyst (53 ± 2.5 versus 40.9 ± 2.6; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the beneficial effect of ITS on PA embryos was associated with significantly reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (20.0 ± 2.6 versus 46.9 ± 3.0). However, in contrast to PA embryos, ITS had no significant effect on the blastocyst quality of IVF and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of ITS to the IVC medium exerts a beneficial but differential effect on pig embryos that varies with the method of embryo production in vitro. PMID:23506698

Das, Ziban Chandra; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

2014-08-01

31

Rational design of medium supplementation strategy for improved influenza viruses production based on analyzing nutritional requirements of MDCK Cells.  

PubMed

Influenza vaccine production using cell culture technology has become popular nowadays. However, to meet the ever increasing demand of influenza vaccine, it is prerequisite to improve the yield of influenza virus in cells. To achieve this, in the present study, the nutritional requirements of MDCK cells in the virus production process were analyzed and a nutrient-feeding strategy was developed accordingly. Based on the consumption rates and corresponding concentration optimization, glucose and fast metabolized amino acids were supplemented into the maintaining medium at the time of infection. Compared with the non-supplemented culture, the average cell specific death rate during 0-48h post-infection was 0.013h(-1), which was 40.91% lower in the nutrient-supplemented culture. Total virus titer, HA antigen protein concentration and cell-specific virus yield were (1.88±0.23)×10(3)HAunits/50?L, 11.70±0.22?g/mL and (10.06±1.16)×10(3)virions/cell, respectively, which were 84.04±22.50%, 31.46±2.87% and 86.64±25.81% higher than those in the control, respectively. These data showed that the appropriate supplementation of nutrients during virus production process could reduce cell death, and improve cell-specific virus yield and total influenza virus output. This study laid foundation for the development of cell culture technology for influenza vaccine production. PMID:25444832

Huang, Ding; Xia-Hou, Kang; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Luo, Jian; Chen, Ze

2014-11-01

32

Proteomic understanding of intracellular responses of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells cultivated in serum-free medium supplemented with hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the intracellular responses in recombinant CHO (rCHO) cells producing antibody in serum-free medium\\u000a (SFM) supplemented with optimized hydrolysates mixtures, yielding the highest specific growth rate (?, SFM#S1) or the highest\\u000a specific antibody productivity (q\\u000a Ab, SFM#S2), differentially expressed proteins in rCHO cells are measured by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with\\u000a nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF tandem MS. The comparative proteomic

Jee Yon Kim; Yeon-Gu Kim; Young Kue Han; Hyun Soo Choi; Young Hwan Kim; Gyun Min Lee

2011-01-01

33

Basal cell carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

Basal cell skin cancer; Rodent ulcer; Skin cancer - basal cell; Cancer - skin - basal cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer; Basal cell NMSC ... Basal cell cancer starts in the top layer of the skin called the epidermis. Most basal cell cancers occur ...

34

Basal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments A - D Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer often ... skin tissue and bone. Learn more about basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Basal ...

35

Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

Monford, L. G.

1976-01-01

36

Ex vivo expansion of bovine corneal endothelial cells in xeno-free medium supplemented with platelet releasate.  

PubMed

Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml) neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%?10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase ?1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices and regulatory recommendations to limit the use of xenogenic materials. PMID:24945500

Chou, Ming-Li; Burnouf, Thierry; Wang, Tsung-Jen

2014-01-01

37

Ex vivo Expansion of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells in Xeno-Free Medium Supplemented with Platelet Releasate  

PubMed Central

Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml) neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%?10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase ?1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices and regulatory recommendations to limit the use of xenogenic materials. PMID:24945500

Wang, Tsung-Jen

2014-01-01

38

Supplementation of IVF medium with melatonin: effect on sperm functionality and in vitro produced bovine embryos.  

PubMed

Gamete co-incubation generates high free radical levels surrounding growing zygotes which may impair subsequent embryo viability. Melatonin eliminates a wide variety of free radicals; hence, we tried to improve in vitro embryo production by adding melatonin to in vitro fertilisation (IVF) media in high (Exp. 1) and low concentrations (Exp. 2), and we evaluated its effect on bull sperm function during IVF co-incubation time (Exp. 3). In Experiment 1, we supplemented IVF media culture with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mmol of melatonin, along with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 2, melatonin levels were reduced to 10, 100 and 1000 nmol, with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated in IVF media with melatonin (as Exp. 2) and functional parameters were analysed at 0, 4 and 18 h. In Experiment 1, only 1 mmol melatonin showed lesser blastocyst rates than control (C: 23.2 ± 6.7% versus 1 mmol: 2.0 ± 1.7%). In Experiment 2, no statistical differences were found in cleavage percentage, blastocyst percentage and total cell count for any melatonin treatment. In Experiment 3, sperm samples with 1000 nmol melatonin had a significantly higher wobbler (WOB) coefficient, a lower percentage of intact acrosomes, a lower percentage of viable spermatozoa with ROS, greater DNA fragmentation and higher DNA oxidation than controls. Total fluorescence intensity for ROS at 10 nmol melatonin was significantly greater than controls (P < 0.05). IVF media with 1 mmol melatonin is deleterious for embryo development, and in lower concentrations, it modulated sperm functionality, but had no effects on embryo production. PMID:25059349

Cheuquemán, C; Arias, M E; Risopatrón, J; Felmer, R; Alvarez, J; Mogas, T; Sánchez, R

2014-07-25

39

Effect of knockout serum replacement supplementation to culture medium on porcine blastocyst development and piglet production.  

PubMed

We have previously developed chemically defined media suitable for in vitro production (IVP) of porcine embryos and subsequently generated piglets by nonsurgical embryo transfer. In this study, to further improve the culture conditions for IVP of porcine embryos, we evaluated the effect of knockout serum replacement (KSR), a substitute for serum or albumin, on the viability and development of porcine blastocysts. The addition of 5% (v:v) KSR to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) on Day 5 (Day 0 = IVF) significantly increased the survival and hatching rates of blastocysts and the total cell number of Day-7 blastocysts compared with those in cultures without KSR or addition of 10% fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, the number of cells in the trophectoderm of Day-6 blastocysts and the ATP content of Day-7 blastocysts cultured with 5% KSR were significantly higher than those of blastocysts cultured without KSR. The mRNA expression of a rate-limiting enzyme in ?-oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, in Day-6 blastocysts, and a serine proteinase, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in Day-7 blastocysts cultured in 5% KSR-PBM was significantly higher than that of blastocysts cultured in PBM alone. Four of eight recipients (50%), in which Day-5 blastocysts treated with 5% KSR were transferred nonsurgically, became pregnant. However, the efficiency of piglet production (percentage of piglets born based on the number of embryos transferred) was similar to recipients with transferred blastocysts treated without KSR. The present study demonstrated that the addition of KSR to PBM enhanced the in vitro viability of porcine blastocysts. In addition, our data suggest that KSR improved development to the hatching stage and blastocyst quality by increasing ATP content and hatching-related mRNA expression of blastocysts. PMID:25434774

Sakurai, Masahiro; Suzuki, Chie; Yoshioka, Koji

2015-03-01

40

Effects of Acacia nilotica, A. polyacantha and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal supplementation on performance of Small East African goats fed native pasture hay basal forages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal utilisation of tannin-rich browse tree fodders including Acacia spp. foliages as crude protein (CP) supplements to ruminants in the tropics is limited by less available information on their feed nutritive potential. Two studies were conducted to: (1) determine rate and extent of ruminal dry matter (DM) degradability (DMD) and (2) investigate effect of sun-dried Acacia nilotica (NLM), A. polyacantha

C. D. K. Rubanza; M. N. Shem; S. S. Bakengesa; T. Ichinohe; T. Fujihara

2007-01-01

41

Effects of temperature and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) serum supplement on the in vitro multiplication of Cryptobia catostomi in cell-free culture medium.  

PubMed

Cryptobia catostomi, a non-pathogenic haemoflagellate of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) multiplied rapidly in modified TDL-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% heatinactivated white sucker serum (WSS) at 10 degrees C and 18 degrees C. The numbers of C. catostomi counted were significantly higher in cultures incubated at 10 degrees C than in those incubated at 18 degrees C beginning at 3 weeks post-incubation. The culture forms (from the eighth subculture at 9 months after isolation) were morphologically similar to blood forms and were infective to laboratory-raised white suckers. The parasite survived for about 4 weeks in the medium without WSS at 18 degrees C. The present study indicates that WSS supplement supports the in vitro multiplication of C. catostomi and that its multiplication is temperature-dependent. PMID:8801566

Li, S; Woo, P T

1996-01-01

42

Growth of rat mammary tumor line 64-24 in liposome-supplemented defined medium. I. Effect of liposome B components on colony growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An improved serum-free medium has been developed that supports growth of rat mammary tumor line 64–24 with far less protein\\u000a supplementation and with a much smaller inoculum than previously possible. An initial survey showed that MCDB 202 supported\\u000a clonal growth with 1% dialyzed serum. The remaining serum was then replaced with 5 ?g\\/ml insulin, 10 ng\\/ml epidermal growth\\u000a factor (EGF),

Brigitte A. van der Haegen; Richard G. Ham; Tamiko Kano-Sueoka

1989-01-01

43

Enhanced and prolonged production of plantlets regenerated from carrot callus in a viscous additive-supplemented medium.  

PubMed

To reduce the hydrodynamic stress in plant cell culture and enhance the production of regenerated plantlets, a liquid medium containing a viscous additive was newly designed and plantlet production from embryogenic carrot callus cultivated in the medium was examined. Na-alginate or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as the viscous additive. The viscosity of the medium increased with increasing additive content and the number of regenerated plantlets also increased. When carrot calli were cultivated in the medium containing 0.4% CMC, designated as N medium (viscosity, 3 mPa.s), the maximum enhancement of plantlet regeneration, approximately 2.5 times higher than that in the control medium, was obtained. Enlargement of callus size observed in N medium is considered to be the main reason for the enhanced plantlet regeneration. Regeneration enhancement was sufficiently induced after calli were cultivated once in N medium, but this regeneration ability rapidly disappeared after once cultivation in the conventional medium. In repeated batch culture using N medium, plantlet production continued at a high level for 18 batches (250 d) with no significant decrease, while in the control culture without CMC the number of plantlets produced dropped to almost zero by the sixth batch (84 d). PMID:16232990

Nagamori, E; Omote, M; Honda, H; Kobayashi, T

2001-01-01

44

A novel chemical-defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements supports undifferentiated growth in human embryonic stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells or on matrigel with an MEF-conditioned medium (CM), which hampers the clinical applications of hESCs due to the contamination by animal pathogens. Here we report a novel chemical-defined medium using DMEM/F12 supplemented with N2, B27, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [termed NBF]. This medium can support prolonged self-renewal of hESCs. hESCs cultured in NBF maintain an undifferentiated state and normal karyotype, are able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and differentiate into three germ layers and extraembryonic cells. Furthermore, we find that hESCs cultured in NBF possess a low apoptosis rate and a high proliferation rate compared with those cultured in MEF-CM. Our findings provide a novel, simplified chemical-defined culture medium suitable for further therapeutic applications and developmental studies of hESCs.

Liu Yanxia [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Song Zhihua [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Zhao Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Qin Han [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Cai Jun [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhang Hong [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yu Tianxin [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Jiang Siming [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Wang Guangwen [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ding Mingxiao [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Hongkui [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China) and Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China)]. E-mail: hongkui_deng@pku.edu.cn

2006-07-21

45

Effects of type of explant and age, plant growth regulators and medium strength on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration was achieved through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis in Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Callus was induced from mature zygotic embryos and from cotyledon explants collected from 10, 15, 25, and 30-day-old seedlings\\u000a cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).\\u000a Maximum callus induction from mature zygotic embryos was obtained on MS basal

M. G. Prakash; K. Gurumurthi

2010-01-01

46

Growth of anuran oocytes in serum-supplemented medium R. A. WALLACE, Ziva MISULOVIN, H. S. WILEY  

E-print Network

. Appropriately-sized oocytes from Xenopus laevis can be grown in vitro in vitellogenin-containing serum for up than those achieved in the presence of vitellogenin alone. Rana pipiens oocytes grow about twice vitellogenin, the macromolecular precursor to yolk proteins. No serum supplement was used, since we found

Boyer, Edmond

47

Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls.  

PubMed

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional organization. KO contains similar amounts of C12:0 as CO (420 and 458 g/kg FA, respectively), but has a higher proportion of C14:0 (464 v. 205 g/kg FA, respectively). Treatments contained 35 g supplemental fat per kg DM: a control diet with tallow (T); a diet with supplemental CO; and a diet with supplemental KO. A 4th treatment consisted of a diet with similar amounts of MCFA (i.e. C10:0+C12:0+C14:0) from CO and KO. To ensure isolipidic diets, extra tallow was supplied in the latter treatment (KO+T). Eight fistulated bulls (two bulls per treatment), fed a total mixed ration predominantly based on cassava chips, rice straw, tomato pomace, rice bran and soybean meal (1.5% of BW), were used. Both KO and CO increased the rumen volatile fatty acids, in particular propionate and decreased acetate proportions. Protozoal numbers were reduced through the supplementation of an MCFA source (CO, KO and KO+T), with the strongest reduction by KO. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays based on archaeal primers showed a decrease in abundance of Archaea when supplementing with KO and KO+T compared with T and CO. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the rumen archaeal population did not result in a grouping of treatments. Richness indices were calculated from the number of DGGE bands, whereas community organization was assessed from the Pareto-Lorenz evenness curves on the basis of DGGE band intensities. KO supplementation (KO and KO+T treatments) increased richness and evenness within the archaeal community. Further research including methane measurements and productive animals should elucidate whether KO could be used as a dietary methane mitigation strategy. PMID:24237673

Panyakaew, P; Boon, N; Goel, G; Yuangklang, C; Schonewille, J Th; Hendriks, W H; Fievez, V

2013-12-01

48

In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination

L. Reynoso-Cuevas; M. E. Gallegos-Martínez; F. Cruz-Sosa; M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

2008-01-01

49

Development of a serum-free medium for dihydrofolate reductase-deficient chinese hamster ovary cells (DG44) using a statistical design: Beneficial effect of weaning of cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To develop serum-free (SF) medium for dihydrofolate reductase-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells (DG44), a statistical\\u000a optimization approach based on a Plackett-Burman design was adopted. DG44 cells which were normally maintained in 10% serum\\u000a medium were gradually weaned to 0.5% serum medium to increase the probability of successful growth in SF medium. A basal medium\\u000a was prepared by supplementing Dulbecco’s modified

Eun Jung Kim; No Soo Kim; Gyun Min Lee

1999-01-01

50

Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient

S. L. Hammond; R. G. Ham; M. R. Stampfer

1984-01-01

51

Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.  

PubMed

The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis. PMID:22755529

Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

2012-01-01

52

In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination was not affected for any assayed concentration; however, the length of the stems and roots decreased when HCM increased and the survival of the four species also diminished. Except for F. arundinacea, a direct link between hydrocarbon concentration and plant survival was observed. In vitro studies are clean and easy to handle techniques allowing isolation of the plant activity from that derived from associations with microorganisms in non-sterile cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first work towards phytoremediation assisted by in vitro plant cultivation. PMID:18222086

Reynoso-Cuevas, L; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Cruz-Sosa, F; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

2008-09-01

53

Development of a serum-free medium for the production of erythropoietin by suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells using a statistical design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a serum-free (SF) medium for the production of erythropoietin (EPO) by suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells, a statistical optimization approach based on a Plackett–Burman design was adopted. A basal medium was prepared by supplementing Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium (IMDM) with Fe(NO3)39H2O, CuCl2 and ZnSO47H2O which are generally contained in SF medium formulations.

Gyun Min Lee; Eun Jung Kim; No Soo Kim; Sung Kwan Yoon; Yong Ho Ahn; Ji Yong Song

1999-01-01

54

Basal Ganglia and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders.

2009-04-14

55

Tracheal Basal Cells  

PubMed Central

Analysis of lineage relationships in the naphthalene-injured tracheal epithelium demonstrated that two multipotential keratin 14–expressing cells (K14ECs) function as progenitors for Clara and ciliated cells. These K14EC were distinguished by their self-renewal capacity and were hypothesized to reside at the stem and transit amplifying tiers of a tissue-specific stem cell hierarchy. In this study, we used gene expression and histomorphometric analysis of the steady-state and naphthalene-injured trachea to evaluate the predictions of this model. We found that the steady-state tracheal epithelium is maintained by two progenitor cell pools, secretory and basal cells, and the latter progenitor pool is further divided into two subsets, keratin 14–negative and –positive. After naphthalene-mediated depletion of the secretory and ciliated cell types, the two basal cell pools coordinate to restore the epithelium. Both basal cell types up-regulate keratin 14 and generate a broadly distributed, abundant, and highly mitotic cell pool. Furthermore, basal cell proliferation is associated with generation of differentiated Clara and ciliated cells. The uniform distribution of basal cell progenitors and of their differentiated progeny leads us to propose that the hierarchical organization of tracheal reparative cells be revised to include a facultative basal cell progenitor pool. PMID:20522644

Cole, Brook B.; Smith, Russell W.; Jenkins, Kimberly M.; Graham, Brian B.; Reynolds, Paul R.; Reynolds, Susan D.

2010-01-01

56

Supplementing different ratios of short- and medium-chain fatty acids to long-chain fatty acids in dairy cows: changes of milk fat production and milk fatty acids composition.  

PubMed

Milk fat synthesis might be promoted by the dietary addition of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) or short- and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA). This study evaluated unprotected lipid supplementation with different ratios of SMCFA to LCFA, which had equivalent fatty acid (FA) proportions (by weight) to those in milk, on milk fat production and milk FA composition. Thirty-six Holstein cows (183±46 d in milk) were divided into 3 treatments according to a randomized block design. Cows in 3 treatments received supplements of 80 g/d of SMCFA mixture and 320 g/d of LCFA mixture (ratio of SMCFA to LCFA was 20:80); 400 g/d of butterfat (ratio of SMCFA to LCFA was 40:60); or 240 g/d of SMCFA mixture and 160 g/d of LCFA mixture (ratio of SMCFA to LCFA was 60:40). The FA compositions of the SMCFA mixture and the LCFA mixture were similar to the de novo synthesized FA (except C4:0) and preformed FA (except trans FA) found in the butterfat, respectively. Fatty acid supplements and butterfat were consumed by cows daily before the morning feeding during the 8-wk experimental period. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not different among the treatments. The milk fat percentage and total SMCFA concentration in milk fat tended to increase linearly and the proportion of milk total solids increased linearly with increasing ratios of SMCFA to LCFA in the supplements, whereas milk fat yield was not changed. We suggest that increasing ratios of SMCFA to LCFA in diets has the potential to improve milk fat synthesis. PMID:23415518

Sun, Y; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Cui, H; Zhao, X W; Xu, X Y; Sun, P; Zhou, L Y

2013-04-01

57

Basal Septal Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

A significant clinical problem is patients presenting with exercise-limiting dyspnoea, sometimes with associated chest pain, in the absence of detectable left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, coronary artery disease, or lung disease. Often the patients are older, female, and have isolated basal septal hypertrophy (BSH), frequently on a background of mild hypertension. The topic of breathlessness in patients with clinical heart failure, but who have a normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) has attracted significant controversy over the past few years. This review aims to analyse the literature on BSH, identify the possible associations between BSH and HFNEF, and consequently explore possible pathophysiological mechanisms whereby clinical symptoms are experienced.

Kelshiker, Mihir A.; Mayet, Jamil; Unsworth, Beth; Okonko, Darlington O.

2013-01-01

58

Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.  

PubMed

The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production. PMID:23932744

Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

2013-10-01

59

32 allocation of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells of nuclear transfer embryos cultured in medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the additive effects of exogenous growth factors and different macromolecules during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) and sequential embryo culture of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 50mgmL(-1) sodium pyruvate, 1% penicillin/streptomycin (10000UmL(-1) penicillin G, 10000mgmL(-1) streptomycin), 5mgmL(-1) LH, and 0.5mgmL(-1) FSH without growth factors (Treatment 1) or with 50ngmL(-1) epidermal growth factor (EGF; Treatment 2) or with 50ngmL(-1) EGF and 100ngmL(-1) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1; Treatment 3). Cloned bovine embryos were produced by transferring granulosa cells into enucleated meiosis II oocytes. Following activation, reconstructed embryos were cultured in Quinn's Advantage Cleavage Medium (QACM) supplemented with 8mgmL(-1) essentially fatty-acid free (FAF) BSA for 72h. Then, developing embryos from granulosa cells were cultured in Sequential Quinn's Advantage Blastocyst Medium (QABM) supplemented with 4mgmL(-1) essentially FAF-BSA (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA)+5% FCS (Group 1), 4mgmL(-1) BSA+5% FCS+100ngmL(-1) IGF 1 (Group 2), and 4mgmL(-1) BSA+5% FCS+100ngmL(-1) IGF-1+50ngmL(-1) EGF (Group 3) for an additional 5 days under low oxygen tension (5% CO2, 5% O2, 90% N2) at 38.5°C in high humidity conditions. Maturation rates of oocytes matured in the presence of EGF (75.5%) and EGF+IGF-I combination (75.0%) were significantly higher than those of oocytes matured (63.8%) in the presence of only FCS (P<0.05). The developing NT embryos derived from granulosa cells of the Anatolian Grey Cattle showed no significant differences in fusion (53.62%, 53.25%, 57.36%), cleavage (67.98%, 74.20%, 66.80%), or blastocyst rates (32.65%, 29.47%, 41.77%) among culture groups (P>0.05). When 13 to 23 embryos per group were examined by using differential staining, the results showed that the IGF-I alone and combination with EGF in the sequential embryo culture medium (Group 2: 46.61%. and Group 3: 41.37%) significantly increased the number of inner cell mass (ICM)/total blastocyst cell ratio in comparison with Group 1 (29.32%, no IGF-I and EGF; P<0.05). Our results showed that the addition of growth factors to IVM medium and sequential culture medium changed the cell ration of cloned bovine embryos to the advance of ICM without changing total cell number. Supplementation of media with growth factors can alter the allocation of ICM and trophectoderm cells in NT embryos. PMID:25472081

Caputcu, A T; Arat, S; Cevik, M; Akkoc, T; Cetinkaya, G; Bagis, H

2014-12-01

60

Metastasizing basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy worldwide and is characterized by invasive growth and local tissue destruction. Cure rates for BCC exceed 90% with most treatment modalities. Metastasizing BCC (MBCC) is a rare complication of BCC with high morbidity and mortality rates. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with a large ulcerative lesion on the left side of the flank that was histopathologically diagnosed as a BCC. Clinical and imaging evaluations revealed substantial local invasion with regional lymph node, lung, liver, bone marrow, and bone metastasis. The patient died 7 months after the diagnosis was made. Potentially metastasizing BCCs cannot be definitely identified; thus early intervention with adequate treatment of all BCCs is advised. PMID:24343210

Di Lernia, Vito; Ricci, Cinzia; Zalaudek, Iris; Argenziano, Giuseppe

2013-11-01

61

Preparation, quality criteria, and properties of human blood platelet lysate supplements for ex vivo stem cell expansion.  

PubMed

Most clinical applications of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases require a phase of isolation and ex vivo expansion allowing a clinically meaningful cell number to be reached. Conditions used for cell isolation and expansion should meet strict quality and safety requirements. This is particularly true for the growth medium used for MSC isolation and expansion. Basal growth media used for MSC expansion are supplemented with multiple nutrients and growth factors. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has long been the gold standard medium supplement for laboratory-scale MSC culture. However, FBS has a poorly characterized composition and poses risk factors, as it may be a source of xenogenic antigens and zoonotic infections. FBS has therefore become undesirable as a growth medium supplement for isolating and expanding MSCs for human therapy protocols. In recent years, human blood materials, and most particularly lysates and releasates of platelet concentrates have emerged as efficient medium supplements for isolating and expanding MSCs from various origins. This review analyzes the advantages and limits of using human platelet materials as medium supplements for MSC isolation and expansion. We present the modes of production of allogeneic and autologous platelet concentrates, measures taken to ensure optimal pathogen safety profiles, and methods of preparing PLs for MSC expansion. We also discuss the supply of such blood preparations. Produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety, human platelet materials can become the future 'gold standard' supplement for ex vivo production of MSCs for translational medicine and cell therapy applications. PMID:24929129

Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi; Burnouf, Thierry

2015-01-25

62

Differentiation of fetal osteoblasts and formation of mineralized bone nodules by 45S5 Bioglass ® conditioned medium in the absence of osteogenic supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive glasses bond strongly to bone in vivo and their ionic dissolution products have previously been shown to have stimulatory properties on adult and fetal osteoblasts and to induce the differentiation of embryonic stem cells towards the osteoblastic lineage in vitro. In the present study, the effect of 45S5 Bioglass® conditioned medium with two different Si concentrations (15 ?g\\/ml (BGCM\\/15) and

Olga Tsigkou; Julian R. Jones; Julia M. Polak; Molly M. Stevens

2009-01-01

63

Distinct basal ganglia hyperechogenicity in idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

We report a 67-year-old patient with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). He presented with progressive cognitive impairment, frontal lobe dysfunction, mild leg spasticity, and levodopa (L-dopa)-responsive parkinsonism. Transcranial sonography (TCS) revealed marked hyperechogenicity of the basal ganglia and periventricular spaces bilaterally. The detected signal alterations showed a fairly symmetric distribution and corresponded to the hyperintense calcifications depicted on the computer tomography brain scan. The combination of symmetric hyperechogenic areas adjacent to the lateral ventricles and of the basal ganglia may serve as an imaging marker characteristic of IBGC. Hyperechogenicity due to extended basal ganglia calcification as presented here is distinct from the pattern of hyperechogenicity caused by heavy metal accumulation, which is described to be less striking. In addition to atypical parkinsonian syndromes such as progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy, IBGC is thus another differential diagnosis of parkinsonism with basal ganglia hyperechogenicity. PMID:20803519

Brüggemann, Norbert; Schneider, Susanne A; Sander, Thurid; Klein, Christine; Hagenah, Johann

2010-11-15

64

CHAPTER SEVEN Were Basal Primates  

E-print Network

233 CHAPTER SEVEN Were Basal Primates Nocturnal? Evidence from Eye and Orbit Shape Callum F. Ross pattern, Charles-Dominique (1975: 86) suggested that the last common ancestor of primates "had an eye or a strepsirrhine eye. By the late 1970s, the issue of the activity pattern of basal primates was independently

65

Report Card on Basal Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the nature of the modern basal reader, its economics, and use. First, the report provides a history showing how the confluence of business principles, positivistic science, and behavioral psychology led to the transformation of reading textbooks into basal readers. Next, the report examines objectives and subjective factors…

Goodman, Kenneth S.; And Others

66

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... the risk. Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Dietary Supplements: Tips for Women Print and Share (PDF 123KB) ... or 10877-382-4357. To Learn More about Dietary Supplements Using Dietary Supplements Weight Loss Fraud NIH Office ...

67

Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry  

E-print Network

LETTERS Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia of basal ganglia circuitry in vivo, using optogenetic control11­14 of direct- and indirect-pathway medium motor deficits. To obtain selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways in vivo, we

Schnitzer, Mark

68

Polar basal melting on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential importance of basal melting on Mars is illustrated through the discussion of four examples: (1) the origin of the major polar reentrants, (2) the removal and storage of an ancient Martian ice sheet, (3) the mass balance of the polar terrains, and (4) the possibility of basal melting at temperate latitudes. This analysis suggests that the process of basal melting may play a key role in understanding the evolution of the Martian polar terrains and the long-term climatic behavior of water on Mars.

Clifford, S. M.

1987-08-01

69

In vivo formation of bone and haematopoietic territories by transplanted human bone marrow stromal cells generated in medium with and without osteogenic supplements.  

PubMed

Autologous transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has been successfully used for bone reconstruction. However, in order to advance this approach into the mainstream of bone tissue engineering, the conditions for BMSC cultivation and transplantation must be optimized. In a recent report, cultivation with dexamethasone (Dex) significantly increased bone formation by human BMSCs in vivo. Based on this important conclusion, we analysed the data accumulated by our laboratory, where human BMSCs have been routinely generated using media both with and without a combination of two osteogenic supplements: Dex at 10(-8) ?m and ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) at 10(-4) ?m. Our data demonstrate that for 22/24 donors, BMSC strains propagated with and without Dex/AscP formed similar amounts of bone in vivo. Thus, human BMSCs do not appear to need to be induced to osteogenic differentiation ex vivo prior to transplantation. Similarly, for 12/14 donors, BMSC strains cultured with and without Dex/AscP formed haematopoietic territories to a comparable extent. While Dex/AscP did not increase bone formation, they significantly stimulated BMSC in vitro proliferation without affecting the number of BMSC colonies formed by the colony-forming units-fibroblasts. We conclude that for the substantial majority of donors, Dex/AscP have no effect on the ability of BMSCs to form bone and myelosupportive stroma in vivo. However, due to increased BMSC proliferation, the total osteogenic population obtained from a single marrow sample is larger after cultivation with Dex/AscP than without them. Secondary to increased BMSC proliferation, Dex/AscP may stimulate bone formation if BMSCs and/or the transplantation system are less than optimal. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:22052864

Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Mankani, Mahesh H; Robey, Pamela Gehron

2013-03-01

70

Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid.  

PubMed

Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin- HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA?E?cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi; Bu, Yanzhen; Zhao, Yanhui; Zou, Gang; Liu, Zhixue

2014-07-01

71

Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin? HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA-E-cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

LIU, TE; HUANG, YONGYI; BU, YANZHEN; ZHAO, YANHUI; ZOU, GANG; LIU, ZHIXUE

2014-01-01

72

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

73

Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and Lactobacillus species growth in a defined medium simulating vaginal secretions.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus species are commensal with the healthy vaginal environment and inhibit the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the vaginal tract by a variety of mechanisms, such as the production of hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and antimicrobial substances. Simulation of the vaginal environment is crucial for proper investigation of the effects of Lactobacillus species on pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we modified a medium used to simulate vaginal secretions to improve the growth of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains and Lactobacillus species so that interactions between these bacteria may be examined. A medium consisting of basal salts, vitamins, albumin, glycogen, mucin, urea, sodium bicarbonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, and amino acids supported the growth of S. aureus and the production of TSST-1 as determined by Western analysis. Improved growth of the Lactobacillus species was seen when this same medium was supplemented with manganese chloride, sodium acetate, and an increase in glucose concentration. However, growth of S. aureus in the supplemented medium resulted in reduced levels of TSST-1. Production of TSST-1 was not detected in a medium routinely used for the growth of Lactobacillus species although S. aureus growth was not inhibited. The development of an improved genital tract secretion medium provides a more authentic environment in which to study the interactions of Lactobacillus species and vaginal pathogens, such as S. aureus. PMID:25135489

Stingley, Robin L; Liu, Huanli; Mullis, Lisa B; Elkins, Christopher A; Hart, Mark E

2014-11-01

74

Cryptophthalmos syndrome with basal encephaloceles.  

PubMed

A 2,144-g white girl was born with absence of the right ear and eye, cleft lip and palate, two basal encephaloceles, tricuspid atresia, ventricualr and atrial septal defects, detransposition of the great vessels, right aortic arch, and aberrant right subclavian artery. Through an oval defect in the center of the sphenoid bone, soft tissue protruded into the right nasopharynx. The medial portions of the roof of both orbits and the cribriform plate were absent and soft tissue protruded through this bony defect. Basal tomography was required to demonstrate the encephaloceles, which should be suspected in any child with a median cleft syndrome, a flat broad nasal root, and hypertelorism. PMID:168776

Goldhammer, Y; Smith, J L

1975-07-01

75

The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. PMID:21572528

Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

76

Cell Stem Cell, Volume 5 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

, 100 µM -mercaptoethanol, Penicillin/Streptomycin (Invitrogen) supplemented with 50 ng/ml BMP4 (R% nonessential amino acids and penicillin/streptomycin. Heavy MEF-conditioned medium was harvested daily for 7

77

Dietary supplements.  

PubMed

For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

2004-01-01

78

Dietary supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of

RON J. MAUGHAN; DOUG S. KING; Trevor Lea

2004-01-01

79

Basal ganglia echogenicity in tauopathies.  

PubMed

Accumulating data confirm the usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The relevance of basal ganglia abnormalities depicted by TCS in atypical parkinsonian syndromes still needs further assessment. In the present study, 20 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 13 patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) were studied with the use of transcranial sonography. Echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) and lenticular nucleus (LN) were assessed. 0/20 patients with PSP and 8/12 (66.6 %) patients with CBS were characterized with SN hyperechogenicity. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 9/20 patients diagnosed with PSP and 0/11 of CBS patients. The combination of SN isoechogenicity and LN hyperechogenicity reached 100 % sensitivity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of PSP. The results of this study point out that CBS has to be taken into consideration when SN hyperechogenicity is depicted in a patient with parkinsonian syndrome. Normal echogenicity of the SN coexisting with LN hyperechogenicity practically excludes CBS. PMID:25204278

Sadowski, Krzysztof; Serafin-Król, Ma?gorzata; Szlachta, Karol; Friedman, Andrzej

2014-09-10

80

USP Verified Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... Services > USP Verified Dietary Supplements Tweet USP Verified Dietary Supplements USP Verified dietary supplements are products that have ... what it means . Where to Find USP Verified Dietary Supplements View USP Verified products and where they can ...

81

Effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk Fatty Acid composition of lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow's diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows' diets. PMID:25050036

Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

2014-07-01

82

Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows’ diets. PMID:25050036

Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

2014-01-01

83

Heating the warm ionized medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If photoelectric heating by grains within the diffuse ionized component of the interstellar medium is 10 exp -25 ergs/s per H atom, the average value within diffuse H I regions, then grain heating equals or exceeds photoionization heating of the ionized gas. This supplemental heat source would obviate the need for energetic ionizing photons to balance the observed forbidden-line cooling and could be responsible in part for enhanced intensities of some of the forbidden lines.

Reynolds, R. J.; Cox, D. P.

1992-01-01

84

Growth of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium  

SciTech Connect

Astrocytes purified from primary cultures of neonatal rat cerebrum can not be grown in a synthetic medium supplemented with putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, insulin, fibroblast growth factor, and hydrocortisone. These five supplements have a marked synergistic effect on growth when used in combination but have little effect when used individually. Astrocytes grown in the defined medium exhibit dramatic changes in morphological characteristics in comparison to cells grown in serum-free or serum-supplemented medium. In addition, these cells express the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and are estimated by several criteria to be greater than 95% astrocytes.

Morrison, R.S.; De Vellis, J.

1981-11-01

85

Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. PMID:21889598

Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Micha? S; Jefimow, Ma?gorzata

2011-12-01

86

Sports Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... make you any faster or more skillful. Many factors go into your abilities as an athlete — including your diet, how much sleep you get, genetics and heredity, and your training program. But the fact is that using sports supplements may put you at risk for serious ...

87

Influence of plant growth regulators, basal media and carbohydrate levels on the in vitro development of Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. ex Law.) cotyledon explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of in vitro screening techniques for Pinus ponderosa resistance to Peridermium harknessii could be beneficial in a tree breeding program. Plant growth regulators, basal media formula and carbohydrate levels were examined to determine the various effects each would have on excised cotyledon growth and development. Proliferating green callus was initiated from cotyledon explants on SH basal medium containing 4.4

G. A. Tuskan; W. A. Sargent; T. Rensema; J. A. Walla

1990-01-01

88

Antioxidants Supplementation in Elderly Cardiovascular Patients  

PubMed Central

Supplementation with antioxidants and its benefit-risk relationship have been largely discussed in the elderly population. We evaluated whether antioxidants supplementation improved the biochemical profile associated with oxidative metabolism in elderly cardiovascular patients. Patients (n = 112) received daily supplementation with ?-TP 400?mg, beta-carotene 40?mg, and vitamin C 1000?mg for 2 months (treatment). Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (?-TP), ?-carotene (?C), ubiquinol-10 (QH-10), glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined before and after treatment. Response to treatment was dependent on pretreatment ?-TP and ?C levels. Increase in ?-TP and ?C levels was observed only in patients with basal levels <18??M for ?-TP (P < 0.01) and <0.30??M for ?C (P < 0.02). Ubiquinol-10, glutathione, and TBARS were unaffected by treatment: QH-10 (+57%, F1,110 = 3.611, P < 0.06, and N.S.), glutathione (+21%, F1,110 = 2.92, P < 0.09, and N.S.), and TBARS (?29%, F1,110 = 2.26, P < 0.14, and N.S.). Treatment reduced oxidative metabolism: 5.3% versus 14.6% basal value (F1,110 = 9.21, P < 0.0003). Basal TBARS/?-TP ratio was higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers: 0.11 ± 0.02 versus 0.06 ± 0.01 (F32,80 = 1.63, P < 0.04). Response to antioxidant supplementation was dependent on basal plasma levels of ?-TP and ?C. Smoking status was strongly associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and high TBARS/?-TP ratio (lipid peroxidation). PMID:24489984

Vila, Susana; Azzato, F.; Milei, José

2013-01-01

89

Supplemental Lysine for Sows Nursing Large Litters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooperative experiment involving 501 litters was conducted at four stations to assess the effects of supplemental lysine on lactational perfor- mance of sows nursing large litters. Basal diets were formulated to contain .60% lysine from corn or sorghum and soybean meal. Lysine·HCl (78.8% ly- sine) was substituted for grain to achieve dietary lysine levels of .75 and .90%. First-parity

D. A. Knabe; J. H. Brendemuhl; L. I. Chiba; C. R. Dove

2010-01-01

90

The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

Mehler, William R.

1981-01-01

91

Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

2014-01-01

92

Effect of high levels of Cu supplement on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and immune responses in goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of high levels of supplemental Cu (as Cu sulfate) on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and immune responses in goats. Fifteen Boer×Spanish goat kids (BW=21.3±0.7kg) were fed basal diet containing 14ppm Cu and were randomly assigned to three treatments: (1) control (no supplemental Cu); (2) 100mg supplemental Cu\\/day; (3) 200mg supplemental Cu\\/day. Copper

S. G. Solaiman; T CRAIGJR; G. Reddy; C. E. Shoemaker

2007-01-01

93

Genetics Home Reference: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease On this page: Description ... Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2014 What is biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease? Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ...

94

Basal constriction : shaping the vertebrate brain  

E-print Network

Organs are primarily formed from epithelia, polarized sheets of cells with an apical surface facing a lumen and basal surface resting on the underlying extracellular matrix. Cells within a sheet are joined by junctions, ...

Graeden, Ellie Graham

2011-01-01

95

Computer Modeling in Basal Ganglia Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have witnessed an increasing interest in the use of computational modeling and mathematical analysis\\u000a as tools to unravel the complex neural mechanisms and computational algorithms underlying the function of the basal ganglia\\u000a and related structures under normal and neurological conditions (1–3). Computational modeling of basal ganglia disorders has until recently been focused on Parkinson’s disease (PD),

José Luis Contreras-Vidal

96

The growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betanine when growing anaerobically.

Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

1984-01-01

97

A basal water model for ice sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously existing ice sheet model is described. The model accounts for ice deformation, themo-mechanical coupling, isostasy, and simple climatology. After reviewing the current and past literature pertaining to the melt water systems that exist within glaciers and ice sheets, a basal water model for ice sheets is formulated. The model takes the form of a conservation equation for basal water coupled with a relationship for the velocity of basal water and an expression for the potential field experienced by the basal water system. The model also accounts for basal water flowing through a permeable under-layer based on some assumptions about the till that is under ice sheets. The differential equations that arise from formulation of the model are solved numerically with the finite element method. The model is tested for its sensitivity to various physical parameters. A sliding law is formulated in terms of the basal water distribution. The first set of tests is conducted on the Ross Ice Streams of Antarctica. The parameters considered are the interaction with the aquifer and the velocity of the water. The study demonstrates that with a proper sliding law, an accurate reproduction of the positions and the velocities of the Ross Ice Streams is possible. The second sensitivity test considers the glaciation and de-glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. The second test demonstrates a clear advantage of ice sheet models that use a basal water distribution to estimate sliding over models that simply have sliding where ever the bed is thawed. With a basal water model for ice sheets, it is possible to identify sub-glacial lakes from geographic data sets. This is done in Antarctica. The position of the sub-glacial lakes identified from data sets compares favorably with the position of sub-glacial lakes identified in field studies. The set of sub-glacial lakes are analyzed for their stability and potential contribution to a basal water system. It is shown that sub-glacial lakes can play a significant role in maintaining or stagnating ice streams.

Johnson, Jesse Virgil

98

Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

2010-01-01

99

Psychosis revealing familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with auditory hallucinations and delusions responsive to antipsychotic drugs. Computerized tomography scans revealed basal ganglia calcifications in the proband and in her two asymptomatic parents. Extensive etiological clinicobiological assessment allowed us to exclude known causes of brain calcifications and diagnose familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). Neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms are common in IBGC. Nevertheless, purely psychiatric presentations, as demonstrated by the present case, are possible. However, a fortuitous association between asymptomatic IBGC and schizophrenia cannot be ruled out. Only brain imaging, followed by an extensive etiological assessment, allows for diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23122487

Nicolas, Gaël; Guillin, Olivier; Borden, Alaina; Bioux, Sandrine; Lefaucheur, Romain; Hannequin, Didier

2013-01-01

100

Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4?cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10?mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family. PMID:21188232

Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Gücin, Zuhal; Keklik, Bar??; Özyalvaçl?, Gülzade; Ba?aran, Karaca

2011-01-01

101

The basal ganglia Ann M. Graybiel  

E-print Network

of the basal ganglia lead to devastating motor disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington-brain stimulation procedures used to relieve Parkinson's disease. The subthalamic nucleus is a key structure controlling pallidal function, and is an increasingly favored site for deep-brain stimulation in the treatment

Graybiel, Ann M.

102

TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

103

Adapting ECRI to a Basal Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As this report explains, the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI) has developed a reading program that teaches 16 skills involved in reading, spelling, listening, thinking, and writing. Daily records are kept of each child's progress. This report shows how the ECRI program can be adapted for use with a basal text. It provides detailed,…

Purnell, Betty; Hays, Susan

104

Archaefructaceae, a New Basal Angiosperm Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all angiosperms when their

Ge Sun; Qiang Ji; David L. Dilcher; Shaolin Zheng; Kevin C. Nixon; Xinfu Wang

2002-01-01

105

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

106

Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels encourages nutrition professionals to become knowledgeable about all dietary supplements. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1995 (DSHEA) expanded the definition of dietary supplements beyond essential nutrients while distinguishing them from drugs or food additives. In order to give practical advice to consumers and policymakers, dietetics professionals need to understand the implications

KATHY L RADIMER; AMY F SUBAR; FRANCES E THOMPSON

2000-01-01

107

Effect of supplementation of Sesbania sesban to lactating ewes on milk yield and growth rate of lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on the milk yield of ewes and growth rate of their lambs. The experiment was done with animals that had been fed for 16 months on a basal diet of teff straw supplemented with concentrates alone (0% S. sesban) or 95% of supplementary protein provided by S.

A. Mekoya; S. J. Oosting; S. Fernandez-Rivera; S. Tamminga; A. J. Van der Zijpp

2009-01-01

108

Effect of Dietary Anise Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance, Immune Response, Carcass Traits and Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary anise seeds supplementation on growth performance, immune response, some blood parameters and carcass traits of broiler chickens. Two hundred and seventeen Arbor Acre one day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 7 groups (31 per each) of mixed sex. Anise seed was supplemented to the basal

M. A. Soltan; R. S. Shewita; M. I. El-Katcha

2008-01-01

109

Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent findings on different aspects of the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia. Attempts have been made to delineate the anatomical substrate of information processing along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Emphasis has been placed on data obtained with highly sensitive anterograde tract-tracing methods applied to the study of the main axis of the loop,

André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati

1995-01-01

110

A rare association: basal cell carcinoma  

E-print Network

Background Today, no proven significant association was detected between sun-exposed vitiliginous patches and nonmelanotic skin cancers. In fact, the occurrence of a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in vitiliginous patches seems to be extremely rare. Case report We present a case of a 33-year-old female patient suffering from BCC in a vitiliginous patch on the cheek. This is the first report of the occurrence of a sclerodermiform type of BCC in a vitiliginous macula. Conclusion Our case report challenges the long-standing belief that the occurrence of BCC in vitiligo is nearly impossible. However, even if this association is apparently fortuitous, our report contributes to the awareness of the risk of BCC in young patients with vitiligo. Keywords Vitiligo. Basal cell carcinoma. Non-melanotic skin cancer. Split-thickness skin graft

Jan Rustemeyer; Lutz Günther; Linda Deichert; J. Rustemeyer; L. Günther

2010-01-01

111

The telomere repeat motif of basal Metazoa.  

PubMed

In most eukaryotes the telomeres consist of short DNA tandem repeats and associated proteins. Telomeric repeats are added to the chromosome ends by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase. We examined telomerase activity and telomere repeat sequences in representatives of basal metazoan groups. Our results show that the 'vertebrate' telomere motif (TTAGGG)( n ) is present in all basal metazoan groups, i.e. sponges, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Placozoa, and also in the unicellular metazoan sister group, the Choanozoa. Thus it can be considered the ancestral telomere repeat motif of Metazoa. It has been conserved from the metazoan radiation in most animal phylogenetic lineages, and replaced by other motifs-according to our present knowledge-only in two major lineages, Arthropoda and Nematoda. PMID:17385051

Traut, Walther; Szczepanowski, Monika; Vítková, Magda; Opitz, Christian; Marec, Frantisek; Zrzavý, Jan

2007-01-01

112

Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis  

PubMed Central

Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

113

Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis.  

PubMed

Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

Bedir, Recep; Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

2014-07-01

114

Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults.  

PubMed

The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708

Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, El?bieta

2013-05-01

115

Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

1993-01-01

116

Oscillators and Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia.  

PubMed

What is the meaning of an action potential? There must be different answers for neurons that fire spontaneously, even in the absence of synaptic input, and those driven to fire from a resting membrane potential. In spontaneously firing neurons, the occurrence of the next action potential is guaranteed; only variations in its timing can carry the message. In the basal ganglia, the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus consist of neurons firing spontaneously. They each receive thousands of synaptic inputs, but these are not required to maintain their background firing. Instead, synaptic interactions among basal ganglia nuclei comprise a system of coupled oscillators that produces a complex resting pattern of activity. Normally, this pattern is highly irregular and uncorrelated, so that the firing of each cell is statistically independent of the others. This maximizes the potential information that may be transmitted by the basal ganglia to its target structures. In Parkinson's disease, the resting pattern of activity is dominated by a slow oscillation shared by nearly all of the neurons. Treatment with deep brain stimulation may gain its therapeutic value by disrupting this shared pathological oscillation, and restoring independent action by each neuron in the network. PMID:25449134

Wilson, Charles J

2014-12-01

117

Basal cell nevus syndrome - close-up of palm (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... skeletal abnormalities. Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas. This ... close-up of the pits found in the palm of an individual with basal cell nevus syndrome.

118

Improved fetal hair follicle development by maternal supplement of selenium at nano size (Nano-Se)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of maternal and dietary selenium on antioxidant status and hair follicle development in 110-day fetal skin from cashmere goats, eighty selected cashmere goats (n=80) were randomly divided in two groups, C group (fed with the basal diet) and S group (fed with the basal diet with 0.5mg\\/kg Nano-Se). Nano-Se was supplemented from 30days prior to gestation

Xiaoying Wu; Jiguang Yao; Zisheng Yang; Wenbin Yue; Youshe Ren; Chunxiang Zhang; Xiaoni Liu; Huisheng Wang; Xingcai Zhao; Suying Yuan; Qian Wang; Liguang Shi; Lei Shi

2011-01-01

119

368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease  

E-print Network

368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease Ann M. Graybiel As the search for molecular therapies for basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, accelerates, new-9822 The motor symptoms of basal ganglia disorders fall at two extremes. In Parkinson's disease and related

Graybiel, Ann M.

120

Emerging Supplements in Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

2012-01-01

121

Children and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Children and Dietary Supplements September 2012 Research has shown that many children ... disclaimer about external links More About Children and Dietary Supplements What the Science Says Other Clinical Digests Subscriptions ...

122

Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteo- arthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucos- amine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain

Pharm D

123

Universitt Regensburg Diploma Supplement  

E-print Network

Universität Regensburg Diploma Supplement This Diploma Supplement model was developed recognition of qualifications (diplomas, de- grees, certificates, etc.). It is designed to provide(s) of Instruction/Examination German, English #12;Diploma Supplement Universität Regensburg Max Mustermann 2 of 5 3

Schubart, Christoph

124

Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

2014-01-01

125

High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1992-09-01

126

Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss:Fr) Karst used as a dietary supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of Ganoderma lucidum CG 144, a medicinal mushroom cultivated on wet wheat grains by solid-state fermentation, were investigated followed dietary supplementation.\\u000a Basal chow was supplemented with 85, 50, or 10% of G. lucidum CG 144 dried spawn, resulting in G85, G50, and G10 diets, respectively, and fed to normocholesterolemic and induced-hypercholesterolemic\\u000a mice.

Rosália Rubel; Herta S. Dalla Santa; Luiz Cláudio Fernandes; Sandro J. R. Bonatto; Sérgio Bello; Bonald C. Figueiredo; José Hermenio C. Lima Filho; Cid Aimbiré M. Santos; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2011-01-01

127

Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds.  

PubMed

Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori; Goldberg, Jesse H

2015-02-01

128

Hypoglycemia rates with basal insulin analogs.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemia has for the most part been studied inadequately for both of the commonly used long-acting insulin analogs in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Almost all existing trials have been designed to investigate changes in glycemic control and not differences in hypoglycemia events. In this review, we present an overview of the hypoglycemic data available from the randomized controlled trials comparing insulin glargine and insulin detemir with NPH or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The limited head-to-head glargine versus detemir data are also discussed with comments on early results relating to the newer insulin analog, degludec. Basal insulin analogs are associated with reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Most studies have excluded participants with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia or previous severe events, however, and hypoglycemia reporting is variable and inconsistent. This limits interpretation for those with long-duration type 1 diabetes, and particularly impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, or long-duration more insulin-deficient type 2 diabetes. New optimally designed studies are required to elucidate the true impact of basal analogs on hypoglycemia burden in those living with long-term insulin therapy. PMID:21668338

Little, Stuart; Shaw, James; Home, Philip

2011-06-01

129

Effects of the dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in Miichthys miiuy fries*  

PubMed Central

Effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in Miichthys miiuy fries were investigated. Nine hundred Miichthys miiuy fries were divided into 3 groups, each with triplicates. The basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with carnitine groups were considered as the negative and positive controls respectively. Results showed that the nitrogen concentration in excreted feces decreased significantly in fries fed the diet supplementation with 1000×10?6 fructooligosaccharides and 200×10?6 carnitine (P<0.05). The ammonic-nitrogen concentration decreased significantly in the carnitine group only (P<0.05), indicating the decreasing tendency caused by the supplementation with fructooligosaccharides. Supplementation with both did not have significant effects on the concentration of phosphorus in feces of Miichthys miiuy fries. PMID:16052714

Wu, Tian-xing; Song, Zeng-fu; Cai, Li-sheng; Ding, Xue-yan; Yu, Qing-sen

2005-01-01

130

In vitro propagation of Rauwolfia serpentina using liquid medium, assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants, and simultaneous quantitation of reserpine, ajmaline, and ajmalicine.  

PubMed

Rauwolfia serpentina holds an important position in the pharmaceutical world because of its immense anti-hypertensive properties resulting from the presence of reserpine in the oleoresin fraction of the roots. Poor seed viability, low seed germination rate, and enormous genetic variability are the major constraints for the commercial cultivation of R. serpentina through conventional mode. The present optimized protocol offers an impeccable end to end method from the establishment of aseptic cultures to in-vitro plantlet production employing semisolid as well liquid nutrient culture medium and assessment of their genetic fidelity using polymerase chain reaction based rapid amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. In vitro shoots multiplied on Murashige and Skoog basal liquid nutrients supplemented with benzo[a]pyrene (1.0 mg/L) and NAA (0.1 mg/L) and in-vitro rhizogenesis was observed in modified MS basal nutrient containing NAA (1.0 mg/L) and 2% sucrose. In-vitro raised plants exhibited 90-95% survival under glass house/field condition and 85% similarity in the plants regenerated through this protocol. Field established plants were harvested and extraction of indole alkaloid particularly reserpine, ajmaline and ajmalicine and their simultaneous quantitation was performed using monolithic reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:19521832

Goel, M K; Mehrotra, S; Kukreja, A K; Shanker, K; Khanuja, S P S

2009-01-01

131

Development of a Defined Minimal Medium for the Growth of Edwardsiella ictaluri  

PubMed Central

In this report, a complete defined medium and a minimally defined medium are described for Edwardsiella ictaluri. The complete defined medium consists of 46 individual components, including a basal salt solution, glucose, magnesium sulfate, iron sulfate, six trace metals, four nucleotides, 10 vitamins, and 19 amino acids. This medium supports growth in broth and on solid media. Optimal growth at 30(deg)C was obtained at pH 7.0, and at an osmolality of 390 mosmol/kg of H(inf2)O, with a glucose concentration of 4 g/liter. The defined minimal medium reduces the 46 components of the complete medium to eight essential components, including the basal salt solution, glucose, magnesium sulfate, pantothenic acid, and niacinamide. In addition, specific amino acids that depend on the specific requirements of the individual strains of E. ictaluri are added. PMID:16535274

Collins, L. A.; Thune, R. L.

1996-01-01

132

Seismic signals associated with basal processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ice sheet and glacier dynamics is crucial for modeling of ice mass balance and resulting sea level changes. Ice dynamics is strongly influenced by surface melt water accumulating at the glacier base and its effect on basal sliding. The relationship between surface melt and ice flow depends on hydraulic processes in the subglacial drainage system. However, both subglacial and englacial drainage systems are inherently difficult to investigate due to their remoteness, and basal processes to date remain poorly understood. Borrowing concepts from volcano studies, recent glacier studies are employing passive seismology as a supplement to traditional glaciological techniques. When monitoring the seismic activity of a glacier or an ice sheet, several different types of so-called 'icequakes' and some times even 'tremor' may be detected in the seismic records that is dominated by the large number of surficial icequakes. Deep icequakes may provide information about englacial water flow and basal motion in response to hydraulic events over a region whose size is only limited by seismic background noise and the aperture of the monitoring network. Here, we present results from a passive seismic deployment on western Greenland's ablation zone during summer 2011. The high-density seismometer network consisted of 17 three-component stations installed at the ice surface or in boreholes. We recorded a large variety of seismic signals, including thousands of near-surface crevasse events as well as dislocation events deep within the ice sheet and near its bed. We discuss these 'deep icequakes' in view of hydraulic processes and basal motion. Furthermore, the seismic deployment was part of larger field campaign including a deep drilling project and glaciological surface observations. This provides the unique opportunity to interpret the seismic monitoring results within the variety of observations including subglacial water pressures and other borehole measurements.

Röösli, Claudia; Walter, Fabian; Kisslin, Edi; Helmstetter, Agnes; Lüthi, Martin

2014-05-01

133

Phospholipase D in heart: basal activity and stimulation by phorbol esters and aluminum fluoride.  

PubMed

Evidence for a general role of phospholipase D in signal transduction is accumulating. In the present study, the activity of the enzyme was investigated in heart tissue under basal conditions and after addition of phorbol esters or aluminum fluoride (AlF-4; 10 mM NaF plus 10 microM AlCl3). Atria of rats and chickens were incubated with [3H]-myristic acid in order to label preferentially phosphatidylcholine. Under basal conditions, the tissues generated choline and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), the primary catalytic products of phospholipase D. When 0.5 or 2.0% ethanol was present, [3H]-phosphatidylethanol (PETH) was rapidly formed at the expense of [3H]-PtdOH. This transphosphatidylation reaction is specific for phospholipase D activity. The basal formation of PETH was not inhibited by a Ca(2+)-free, EGTA-containing medium. The phorbol ester 4 beta-phorbol-12 beta, 13 alpha-dibutyrate (PDB), which is known to activate protein kinase C, enhanced the net formation of choline, whereas the inactive 4 beta-phorbol-13 alpha-acetate (PAc) was ineffective. PDB (0.2 microM), in contrast to PAc, also increased the formation of [3H]-PtdOH and, in the presence of ethanol, of [3H]-PETH. The PDB-evoked formation of PETH occurred again at the expense of PtdOH. Treshold and maximum effective concentrations of PDB were 10 nM and 0.2-0.6 microM, respectively. The effects of PDB on either choline efflux and generation of PETH showed the same Ca(2+)-dependency, i.e., both effects were blocked by a Ca(2+)-free, EGTA-containing medium, but not by a Ca(2+)-free medium without EGTA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1484561

Lindmar, R; Löffelholz, K

1992-12-01

134

Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). A case-control study, carried out in two towns in Yugoslavia, comprised 200 BCC cases and 399 controls. For statistical analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used. The risk factors found for BCC were: freckling before the age 15, seven or more weeks per year spent at the seaside during holidays (lifetime average), outdoor work during summer-time, occupational exposure to organic and non-organic dissolvents and organophosphatic compounds, use of tar for cosmetic purposes, and previous BCC in personal history. Subjects who tended to burn and not to tan after sun exposure also showed a significantly higher risk for BCC. Brown eyes and history of acne had a protective effect. This study confirmed the role of both constitutional and environmental factors in the development of BCC. PMID:11093369

Vlajinac, H D; Adanja, B J; Lazar, Z F; Bogavac, A N; Bjeki?, M D; Marinkovic, J M; Kocev, N I

2000-01-01

135

Basal Cell Carcinoma Masked in Rhinophyma  

PubMed Central

Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002

De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto

2013-01-01

136

The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

2014-01-01

137

Fast Modulation of Visual Perception by Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons  

PubMed Central

The basal forebrain provides the primary source of cholinergic input to the cortex, and it plays a crucial role in promoting wakefulness and arousal. However, whether rapid changes in basal forebrain neuron spiking in awake animals can dynamically influence sensory perception is unclear. Here we show that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons rapidly regulate cortical activity and visual perception in awake, behaving mice. Optogenetic activation of the cholinergic neurons or their V1 axon terminals improved performance of a visual discrimination task on a trial-by-trial basis. In V1, basal forebrain activation enhanced visual responses and desynchronized neuronal spiking, which could partly account for the behavioral improvement. Conversely, optogenetic basal forebrain inactivation decreased behavioral performance, synchronized cortical activity and impaired visual responses, indicating the importance of cholinergic activity in normal visual processing. These results underscore the causal role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fast, bidirectional modulation of cortical processing and sensory perception. PMID:24162654

Estandian, Daniel; Xu, Min; Kwan, Alex C.; Lee, Seung-Hee; Harrison, Thomas C.; Feng, Guoping; Dan, Yang

2014-01-01

138

A new culture medium for human skin epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A new culture medium, NCTC 168, has been designed for human skin epithelial cells. This medium formulation was developed,\\u000a by combining and testing at various concentrations, components of media NCTC 135 and 163, since a 1?1 mixture of these two\\u000a media with 10% horse serum supplement was found to promote epithelial cell outgrowth from human skin explants. The buffer\\u000a system

Floyd M. Price; Richard F. Camalier; Raymond Gantt; William G. Taylor; Gilbert H. Smith; Katherine K. Sanford

1980-01-01

139

Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

2012-01-01

140

Influence of dietary protein supplements on the formation of bacterial metabolites in the colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the influence of increased dietary protein intake on bacterial colonic metabolism in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Short chain fatty acids, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds in faecal samples, and phenols in the urine of five volunteers were measured after one week of basal nutrient intake and and after one week of a diet supplemented with a protein rich

B Geypens; D Claus; P Evenepoel; M Hiele; B Maes; M Peeters; P Rutgeerts; Y Ghoos

1997-01-01

141

Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome Showing Several Histologic Types of Basal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), or Gorlin Syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by multiple developmental abnormalities and associated with germline mutations in the PTCH gene. Patients show multiple and early onset basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in skin, odontogeniccysts in the jaw, pits on palms and soles, medulloblastoma, hypertelorism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. Clinical features of BCCs in these patients are indistinguishable from ordinary BCCs. However, some patients show variable histologic findings in subtypes of BCCs, and only one case associated with several histologic types of BCCs in the syndrome has been reported in Korea. We present a case of BCNS characterized by multiple BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts, multiple palmar pits, and calcified falx cerebri. Histopathologic findings of BCCs showed several patterns, which were nodular, superficial, and pigmented types. PMID:22028568

Go, Jae Wan; Kim, Shin Han; Yi, Sang Yeop

2011-01-01

142

Clinicopathologic features and related prognosis factors analysis of the basal and non-basal phenotype of triple negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and Her2-negative) can be classified\\u000a into two subtypes: basal and non-basal phenotype. And the basal phenotype is associated with poor outcome. The purpose of\\u000a this study was to figure out the differences of clinicopathological characters and related factors of prognosis between these\\u000a two subtypes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the CK5\\/6, CK17 basal

Lin Sun; Lin Zhang; Shasha Ren; Deding Tao; Yaqun Wu

2010-01-01

143

Supplemental Online Materials Cytoskeletal Organization  

E-print Network

bar = 5 microns. #12;Supplemental Online Materials 3 Cryptosporidium Movies depicting gliding motilitySupplemental Online Materials 1 Cytoskeletal Organization The phylum Apicomplexa (1, 2) is defined C Figure 1 #12;Supplemental Online Materials 2 Gliding Motility Apicomplexan parasites display

Sibley, David

144

Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Beware of Fraudulent ‘Dietary Supplements’ Search the Consumer Updates Section See more fraudulent ... 800-FDA-1088 or online . back to top Dietary Supplements and FDA Dietary supplements, in general, are not ...

145

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder  

E-print Network

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Fay Y. Womer a,n , Lei of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ in neuroimaging studies. & 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Differentiating bipolar

146

A Search For Principles of Basal Ganglia Function  

E-print Network

million neurons in humans. Dierent modes of basal ganglia dysfunction lead to Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which have debilitating motor and cognitive symptoms. However, despite intensive study basal ganglia function, with a focus on signal representation, computation, dynamics, and plasticity

Anderson, Charles H.

147

Interferon-? induces progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

We found that CNS-directed expression of interferon-? (IFN-?) resulted in basal ganglia calcification, reminiscent of human idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), and nigrostriatal degeneration. Our results indicate that IFN-? mediates age-progressive nigrostriatal degeneration in the absence of exogenous stressors. Further study of this model may provide insight into selective nigrostriatal degeneration in human IBGC and other Parkinson syndromes. PMID:21572432

Chakrabarty, Paramita; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Lin, Wen-Lang; Beccard, Amanda; Jansen-West, Karen; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Janus, Christopher; Dickson, Dennis; Das, Pritam; Golde, Todd E

2011-06-01

148

Interferon-? induces progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and basal ganglia calcification  

PubMed Central

We report that CNS directed expression of Interferon (IFN) -? results in basal ganglia calcification, reminiscent of human idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), and nigrostriatal degeneration. Our results show that IFN-? mediates age-progressive nigrostriatal degeneration in the absence of exogenous stressors. Further study of this model may provide unique insight into selective nigrostriatal degeneration in human IBGC and other Parkinson syndromes. PMID:21572432

Chakrabarty, Paramita; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Lin, Wen-Lang; Beccard, Amanda; Jansen-West, Karen; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Janus, Christopher; Dickson, Dennis; Das, Pritam; Golde, Todd E

2013-01-01

149

Basal ganglia calcification and psychosis in Down's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

A case of basal ganglia calcification (diagnosed in vivo) and schizophreniform psychosis occurring in a young adult with Down's syndrome is reported. A stress-vulnerability model is suggested. Because of the relatively high prevalence of basal ganglia calcification to Down's syndrome, this population appears well suited for systematic study of the neuropsychiatric aspects associated with this neurological condition. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6231537

Thase, M. E.

1984-01-01

150

Basal-plane metallography of deformed pyrolytic carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cleavage technique is recommended over the normal polishing technique in preparing pyrolytic carbon for metallographic examination of basal-plane surfaces. After careful removal of torn basal-plane fragments and other cleavage debris with cellulose tape, the true structure is clearly revealed.

Adkins, J. M.; Fischbach, D. B.

1969-01-01

151

Story Structure: A Missing Ingredient in Basal Reader Stories?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working on the assumption that story structure contributes to the reading comprehension of students, a study assessed the comprehension and recall of 12 seventh and eighth grade remedial reading students. Subjects read a basal story revised to conform to a familiar story grammar and the original, unrevised, basal story. The two original stories…

Miller, Joan S.

152

The Place of Career Women in the Basals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

Leondis, Mary T.

153

Anaphora in Basal Reader Selections: How Frequently Do They Occur?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine how frequently various forms of anaphora appear in materials written for children, 1,000-word excerpts were analyzed from the second, fourth, and sixth grade texts of four basal reader series. The basal programs consisted of the "Ginn Reading Program," the "Houghton Mifflin Reading Program,""Scott, Foresman Reading," and "Harcourt…

Baumann, James F.

154

Basal forebrain atrophy correlates with amyloid ? burden in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) have three classical pathological hallmarks: amyloid-beta (A?) plaques, tau tangles, and neurodegeneration, including that of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. However the relationship between A? burden and basal forebrain degeneration has not been extensively studied. To investigate this association, basal forebrain volumes were determined from magnetic resonance images of controls, subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD patients enrolled in the longitudinal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) studies. In the AIBL cohort, these volumes were correlated within groups to neocortical gray matter retention of Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) from positron emission tomography images as a measure of A? load. The basal forebrain volumes of AD and aMCI subjects were significantly reduced compared to those of control subjects. Anterior basal forebrain volume was significantly correlated to neocortical PiB retention in AD subjects and aMCI subjects with high A? burden, whereas posterior basal forebrain volume was significantly correlated to neocortical PiB retention in control subjects with high A? burden. Therefore this study provides new evidence for a correlation between neocortical A? accumulation and basal forebrain degeneration. In addition, cluster analysis showed that subjects with a whole basal forebrain volume below a determined cut-off value had a 7 times higher risk of having a worse diagnosis within ~18 months. PMID:25610772

Kerbler, Georg M; Fripp, Jürgen; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L; Salvado, Olivier; Rose, Stephen; Coulson, Elizabeth J

2014-01-01

155

Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT.

F. Illum

1980-01-01

156

Paleoenvironmental analysis of thrombolites in the basal Purbeck Formation  

E-print Network

Paleoenvironmental analysis of thrombolites in the basal Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic the basal Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic) on the Isle of Portland, southern England, are described upright and for some time after they fell, a period of a few hundred years. This suggests a relatively

Wilson, Mark A.

157

RESEARCH ARTICLES Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast Genome  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLES Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast Genome Phylogenies: Sampling lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional

dePamphilis, Claude

158

Intake and digestibility of hay supplemented with Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) by sheep  

E-print Network

Intake and digestibility of hay supplemented with Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) by sheep was to compare the effect of Tagasaste supplementation on intake and digestibility of good, medium and low with rumen, abomasal and ileal cannulae. Partial digestion of organic matter and disappearance of non ammonia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Constrained inversion for basal and englacial properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When inverting for basal slipperiness and (C retrieval) the rate factor in Glen's flow law (A retrieval) using surface data, the inversion needs to be constrained for the retrieved values to be positive. Some other constraints may also have to be imposed on the retrieved fields. There are various ways of enforcing such constraints. Using an adjoint model of the shallow-ice stream equations, several different algorithms are tested and compared with respect to rate of convergence and cost per iteration. These methods included the projected gradient method, the limited-memory projected BFGS method, the interior-point method, and an incomplete Newton iteration using a barrier function. All these methods perform favourably for small problem sizes (O(1000) unknowns). It is shown that for large-scale optimisation problems the convergence rate for A retrieval is generally lower than for C retrieval. Both projection methods suffer from slow convergence for large problem sizes (O(100 000) unknowns.) Interior-point methods, especially when coupled with an incomplete inner iteration of the Newton system appear to give the best large-scale performance.

Gudmundsson, G. H.

2012-04-01

160

Novel investigational drugs for basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field In the United States, the annual incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is close to 1 million. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the main risk factor; however, the availability of ever more potent sunscreens and education have not prevented the rise in BCC incidence. Therefore, concerted effects to identify novel preventive and therapeutic strategies are necessary. Areas covered in this review This article summarizes our current understanding of the etiology and molecular mechanisms of BCC tumorigenesis and discusses the preclinical and clinical studies to identify agents with anti-BCC efficacy. What the reader will gain The discovery that hyperactive Hh pathway signaling causes several cancers, including BCC, has spawned the development of many pharmacologic inhibitors of Hh signaling. Early clinical testing of the most advanced, GDC-0449, demonstrated impressive efficacy in patients with advanced BCC. Other promising anti-BCC chemopreventive strategies include drugs that are already FDA-approved for treating other diseases. Take home message Preclinical and clinical trials with pre-existing FDA-approved drugs suggest novel uses for BCC chemoprevention and treatment. Also, new chemical entities that inhibit the Hh pathway show promise, and in combination with other drugs may provide a nonsurgical cure for this most common cancer. PMID:20662553

Tang, Jean Y; Epstein, Ervin H

2011-01-01

161

Studies on Intermittent Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lots of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, for 30 days, diets at 10 and 14% protein content. Each lot consisted of 4 groups fed on: (a) a gluten diet; (b) a gluten diet continuously supplemented with casein; (c) a gluten diet on odd days, and a gluten diet supplemented with casein, ad libitum, on even days; (d) a gluten

Anna Ferro-Luzzi; A. Mariani; P. A. Migliaccio

1970-01-01

162

Membranous basal cell adenoma arising in the eyelid  

PubMed Central

Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a specific entity that lacks the myxochondroid stromal component of pleomorphic adenoma. Membranous basal cell adenoma is a rare variant of BCA, which is characteristic by abundant eosinophilicextracellular hyaline material deposited either inside or at the periphery of the epithelial islands. Herin we describe the first case of membranous BCA arising in the upper eyelid in a 38-year-old woman. A well-demarcated nodule arising in the eyelid was composed of isomorphic basaloid cells organized with a prominent basal cell layer and distinct basement membrane-like material. Immunohistochemically, S100 protein and p63 highlighted the basal aspect of the peripheral epithelial cells, while CK7 expressed on the luminal cells. A diagnosis of membranous basal cell adenoma of the eyelid was made. At follow-up for 2 years and 3 months later, there was no evidence of recurrence. Further pathological characteristics of this disease are discussed. PMID:25120843

Huang, Yong; Yang, Min; Ding, Jianhui

2014-01-01

163

Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

164

basal hay and grain diet with 90 g rumen degradable crude protein in the DM, was not significantly related to any increase in nitrogen accretion. Fish meal addition, on the other hand,  

E-print Network

basal hay and grain diet with 90 g rumen degradable crude protein in the DM, was not significantly diet on digestibility and nitrogen balance in the lactating goat R. DACCORD Swiss Federal Research, particularly when hay rations are complemented with fodder beets. Supplementation of such diets with animal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

A Comparative Study of Two Approaches for Teaching Reading: Basal Reader Plus Management System Versus Basal Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the achievement of students instructed by the use of a management system, Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development (WDRSD), for word attack skills in addition to the basal reader approach with the achievement of students instructed by the use of the basal reader approach alone. Two hundred forty-four fourth grade students…

Cox, Janet Elizabeth

166

How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

2009-12-01

167

[Basal bolus therapy in adolescent diabetic patients].  

PubMed

Between April 1986 and December 1987 30 adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes were changed from a conventional twice daily insulin regimen to the basal-bolus system, using pen-injectors. Actually, 26 patients are still using the new system. A comparison was made over a three-year period with a group of 26 patients on conventional therapy matched for age, sex and diabetes duration. A questionnaire was sent to the pen-injectors for subjective evaluation of the new system. The insulin dose remained unchanged. The incidence of hypoglycemic coma in the control group (4.3 per year/26 patients) was similar to the one in the pen-injector group prior to installation of the new system (4.0 per year/26 patients) and increased, but not significantly, on the new system (8.9 per year/26 patients). In both groups, the relative body weight increased significantly, the increase being greater in the pen-injectors (p = 0.001) than in the controls (p = 0.042); however, the difference of weight gain between the two groups was not significant. Fasting plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not change. Glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb-A1 corrected for Hb-F) dropped significantly in the pen-injectors three months after installation of the new system (p = 0.026), but reached the preceding level already after six months. In the controls, the Hb-A1 remained constant over the three years. Greater flexibility in lifestyle, easier handling and better subjective diabetes control were the main advantages mentioned by the patients on the new system. Negative statements were the necessity for multiple injections, the high frequency of blood glucose control and strongly increased problems with weight control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2408179

Steinemann, M A; Zuppinger, K

1990-01-01

168

A clinical comparison of continuous interscalene brachial plexus block with different basal infusion rates of 0.2% ropivacaine for shoulder surgery  

PubMed Central

Background A continuous interscalene brachial plexus block is a highly effective postoperative analgesic modality after shoulder surgery. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal basal infusion rate of ropivacaine for a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block. A prospective, double blind study was performed to compare two different basal rates of 0.2% ropivacaine for a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block after shoulder surgery. Methods Sixty-two patients receiving shoulder surgery under an interscalene brachial plexus block were included. The continuous interscalene brachial plexus block was performed using a modified lateral technique with 30 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine. Surgery was carried out under an interscalene brachial plexus block or general anesthesia. After surgery, the patients were divided randomly into two groups containing 32 each. During the first 48 h after surgery, groups R8 and R6 received a continuous infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine at 8 ml/h and 6 ml/h, respectively. The pain scores at rest and on movement, supplemental analgesia, motor block, adverse events and patient's satisfaction were recorded. Results The pain scores, supplemental analgesia, motor block, adverse events and patient's satisfaction were similar in the two groups. Conclusions When providing continuous interscalene brachial plexus block after shoulder surgery, 0.2% ropivacaine at a basal rate of 8 ml/h or 6 ml/h produces similar clinical efficacy. Therefore, decreasing the basal rate of CISB is more appropriate considering the toxicity of local anesthetics. PMID:20651995

Yang, Chun Woo; Kwon, Hee Uk; Cho, Choon-Kyu; Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Chul Woung; Jung, Jong-Kwon; An, Young Mi

2010-01-01

169

Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC), anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated. PMID:20941324

Redgrave, Peter; Coizet, Veronique; Comoli, Eliane; McHaffie, John G.; Leriche, Mariana; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hayes, Lauren M.; Overton, Paul

2010-01-01

170

BIOSYNTHESIS OF MEDIUM-CHAIN-LENGTH POLY(HYDROXYALKANOATES) FROM SOY MOLASSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas corrugata was selected from a screening process for use in the bioconversion of inexpensive soy molasses into medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHA). We obtained cell-mass yields of 1.5 g cell-dry-weight (CDW)/l culture with growth medium supplemented with 2% soy molasses...

171

[Modification of mitochondria in cultivated hepatocytes as a function of the protein content of the medium].  

PubMed

Embryonic liver cells of chicken have been cultivated in medium more or less supplemented with serum. With a rich medium mitochondria become larger and often ramify. Their fundamental structure remains normal. It is only a hypertrophic condition correlated to an increase of mitochondrial material synthesis, limited to liver mitochondria. PMID:150910

Wyllie, L; Marchi, N; Verne, J

1978-01-01

172

Bilateral basal ganglia calcifications visualised on CT scan.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-eight cases of basal ganglia calcification imaged on computed axial tomography were reviewed. Most cases were felt to represent senescent calcification. The possibility of a vascular aetiology in this group is discussed. A less common group of patients was identified with calcification secondary to abnormalities in calcium metabolism or radiation therapy. Three cases of basal ganglia calcifications were detected in juvenile epileptic patients receiving chronic anticonvulsants. These cases may be related to abnormalities in calcium metabolism and alkaline phosphatase activity. Clinical evidence of basal ganglia abnormality was generally absent demonstrating the preservation of neuronal pathways in most cases. PMID:7420090

Brannan, T S; Burger, A A; Chaudhary, M Y

1980-01-01

173

Supplements to Textbook Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

Holmes, Ken

1994-01-01

174

Iron supplements (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

175

Dietary Supplements for Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

176

Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... European Elder Evening Primrose Oil Vitamin E F Fenugreek Feverfew Fish Oil Flaxseed Folate Frequently Asked Questions G Garlic Ginger Ginkgo Ginseng Glucosamine Goldenseal Grape Seed Extract Green Tea H Hawthorn Herbal Dietary Supplements ...

177

Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

2008-01-15

178

Who Needs Supplements?  

MedlinePLUS

... should be considered. People with deficiency diseases or absorption disorders may need therapeutic doses of nutrients (two ... People taking prescription medications that interfere with the absorption of nutrients may also need higher dose supplements, ...

179

Children and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... months. In addition to herbs and dietary supplements, children use a wide range of complementary health approaches, including spinal manipulation and yoga. Further, a 2001 survey of 745 members of ...

180

Synthetic laser medium  

DOEpatents

A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

Stokowski, S.E.

1987-10-20

181

Synthetic laser medium  

DOEpatents

A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

Stokowski, Stanley E. (Danville, CA)

1989-01-01

182

Plasticity compartments in basal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons.  

PubMed

Synaptic plasticity rules widely determine how cortical networks develop and store information. Using confocal imaging and dual site focal synaptic stimulation, we show that basal dendrites, which receive the majority of synapses innervating neocortical pyramidal neurons, contain two compartments with respect to plasticity rules. Synapses innervating the proximal basal tree are easily modified when paired with the global activity of the neuron. In contrast, synapses innervating the distal basal tree fail to change in response to global suprathreshold activity or local dendritic spikes. These synapses can undergo long-term potentiation under unusual conditions when local NMDA spikes, which evoke large calcium transients, are paired with a "gating molecule," BDNF. Moreover, these synapses use a new temporal plasticity rule, which is an order of magnitude longer than spike timing dependent plasticity and prefers reversed presynaptic/postsynaptic activation order. The newly described plasticity compartmentalization of basal dendrites expands the networks plasticity rules and may support different learning and developmental functions. PMID:17151275

Gordon, Urit; Polsky, Alon; Schiller, Jackie

2006-12-01

183

Familial calcification of the basal ganglia with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.  

PubMed Central

Two related infants with microcephaly, spastic quadriplegia, and profound retardation are reported. Both showed extensive bilateral symmetrical calcification of the basal ganglia with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Images PMID:3712392

Mehta, L; Trounce, J Q; Moore, J R; Young, I D

1986-01-01

184

Neural Representation of Time in Cortico-basal Ganglia Circuits  

E-print Network

Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia ...

Jin, Dezhe Z.

185

Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

2014-12-01

186

Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production  

PubMed Central

In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498

Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

2013-01-01

187

Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acidsodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method. PMID:24326396

Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

188

The effect of dietary supplementation with the natural carotenoids curcumin and lutein on broiler pigmentation and immunity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with 2 carotenoids, curcumin and lutein, on pigmentation and immunity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated broiler chicks. Two hundred forty 1-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatment groups: a basal diet without carotenoid supplementation (control), a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg of curcumin (CRM), or a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg of lutein (LTN) for 42 d. The birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza on d 10. At 16, 18, and 20 d of age, half of the chicks in each group were injected in the abdominal region with either LPS (250 mg/kg of BW) or an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl. The intensity of the shank skin color (Roche color fan score) and the b* (yellow) values of the breasts and thighs were highest in lutein-supplemented broilers, followed by curcumin-supplemented and control broilers, whereas the a* (red) value of the thigh muscle was highest in curcumin-supplemented LPS-induced birds. At 42 d, the relative weight of the abdominal fat was lowest in the CRM-supplemented group, followed by the LTN-supplemented and control groups; the spleen weight was lower in the non-LPS-induced LTN-supplemented group than the LPS-induced control group. The ND and avian influenza titers were significantly higher in the CRM-supplemented group than in the other groups at 20 d; at 30 d, the ND titer was significantly higher in the LPS-induced LTN group. Supplementation with curcumin significantly promoted B and T lymphocyte proliferation in both LPS- and non-LPS-induced birds at 21 d. Curcumin also promoted B lymphocyte proliferation in non-LPS-induced birds at 42 d. Curcumin significantly reduced alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at 42 d in non-LPS-treated birds, whereas lutein significantly increased the activities of these enzymes in LPS-induced birds. Both carotenoids significantly lowered lipid oxidation in the liver of supplemented birds. Thus, in broiler chickens, lutein-supplemented birds exhibited better pigmentation efficiency, whereas curcumin-supplemented birds exhibited improved immune responses. PMID:23571326

Rajput, N; Naeem, M; Ali, S; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L; Wang, T

2013-05-01

189

Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

2014-01-01

190

Update on models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Circuit models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction have undergone significant changes over time. The previous view that the basal ganglia are centers in which massive convergence of cortical information occurred has now been replaced by a view in which these structures process information in a highly specific manner, participating in anatomical and functional modules that also involve cortex and thalamus. In addition, much has been learned about the intrinsic connections of the basal ganglia. While the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry was originally seen almost exclusively in its relationship to the control of movement, these structures are now viewed as essential for higher level behavioral control, for instance in the regulation of habit learning or action selection. Probably the greatest benefit of these models has been that they have motivated a wealth of studies of the pathophysiology of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin, such as Parkinson’s disease. Such studies, in turn, have helped to reshape the existing circuit models. In this paper we review these fascinating changes of our appreciation of the basal ganglia circuitry, and comment on the current state of our knowledge in this field. PMID:20082999

DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

2014-01-01

191

Growth characteristics of canine pathogenic viruses in MDCK cells cultured in RPMI 1640 medium without animal protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were adapted to serum-free RPMI 1640 medium and used for cultivation of canine viruses. RPMI 1640 medium was supplemented with a soybean peptone, l-glutamine and antibiotics, so that the protein concentration was less than 5?g\\/ml (RPMI\\/SP medium). The resulting adapted MDCK-SP cells showed steady growth after the twenty-eighth passage in RPMI\\/SP medium (MDCK-SP cell

Masami Mochizuki

2006-01-01

192

Enhanced somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in leaf explant cultures of Ostericum koreanum on medium of varying pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf explants of Ostericum koreanum were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 5.37 µM NAA and 0.44 µM BA and did not need transfer to growth regulator–free medium for somatic embryogenesis. The pH level of medium dropped after autoclaving and at the beginning of explant culture, then rose back to the normal pH level of medium. The low pH

Duck-Yee Cho; Eun-Kyong Lee; Sukchan Lee; Won-Il Chung; Woong-Young Soh

2003-01-01

193

Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil  

PubMed Central

Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3. PMID:23484024

Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

2013-01-01

194

Performance of rabbits and oxidative stability of muscle tissues as affected by dietary supplementation with Oregano essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on the performance of rabbits, and the susceptibility of the produced raw and thermally treated muscle tissue to lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage, were investigated. A total of 96 weaned rabbits were separated into four equal groups with three subgroups each. One group was given the basal diet and served as

N. A. Botsoglou; P Florou-Paneri; E Christaki; I Giannenas; A. B. Spais

2004-01-01

195

Bone breakage in laying hens as affected by dietary supplements  

E-print Network

the length of the radius averaged 3 ' 23 mm. The mean bone breaking strength of the radii of caged layers one per cage at the end of the fourth period and fed the basal diet was li86 kgb (Table 5) ~ Vitamin D supplemented birds had a bone strength of 2...). ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 Average hen day production and egg character- istics of caged layers housed one bird per cage for 12 (28-day) periods (Experiment I) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ?2 Mean length, diameter and breaking strength of caged layers housed three birds...

Moore, David Joe

1975-01-01

196

Amorphous Medium Language  

E-print Network

Programming reliable behavior on a large mesh network composed of unreliable parts is difficult. Amorphous Medium Language addresses this problem by abstracting robustness and networking issues away from the programmer via ...

Beal, Jacob

197

The inhibitory potential of feed supplementation with rosemary and\\/or ?-tocopheryl acetate on microbial growth and lipid oxidation of turkey breast during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four 12-week-old female turkeys divided into four equal groups were fed a basal diet (CONT) or basal diet supplemented with 300mg ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg (TOC), or 5g rosemary\\/kg (ROS5), or 10g rosemary\\/kg (ROS10), for 4 weeks. Following slaughter, fillets from breast were stored at 4°C in the dark for 12 days, and lipid oxidation was assessed on the basis of the

Alexandros Govaris; Panagiota Florou-Paneri; Evropi Botsoglou; Ilias Giannenas; Ioannis Amvrosiadis; Nikolaos Botsoglou

2007-01-01

198

Influence of a supplement containing conjugated linoleic acid on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and adipose tissue reactivity to lipolytic challenge in mid-lactation goats.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) on milk performance, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, and adipose tissue reactivity in dairy goats fed a high-concentrate diet based on corn silage. Twenty-four multiparous dairy goats in early to mid lactation were used in a 10-wk trial, with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental total mixed ration that contained corn silage (35%, dry matter basis), beet pulp (20%), barley (15%), and a commercial concentrate (30%). Goats were randomly allocated to 2 experimental groups and they were fed 45 g/d of a lipid supplement (either CLA or Ca salts of palm oil added on top of the total mixed ration). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 2, 5, and 6. In the last week of the trial, an isoproterenol challenge was performed for 12 goats before morning feeding. The CLA supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW), milk yield, milk protein content, and lactose yield and content, but it significantly decreased milk fat yield and content by 18 and 15%, respectively. The decrease in milk fat yield was related to a lower secretion of FA synthesized de novo, of the medium-chain FA, and to a lesser extent of the long-chain FA that are taken up from the peripheral circulation. The CLA supplementation decreased the proportion of the sum of C16:0 and C16:1 and the sum of total cis C18:1, and it increased the proportions of the sum of long-chain (C >16) and the sum of iso FA without modification of the total trans C18:1 and the sum of FA synthesized de novo (C <16). During the first 25 min relative to isoproterenol injection, the maximal concentrations, the increases above basal concentration, the changes in area under the curve, and the total area under the curve for glucose and nonesterified FA were not affected by CLA treatment. In conclusion, CLA supplementation associated with a high-concentrate diet based on corn silage resulted in decreased milk fat yield, increased net energy balance, and it did not affect the sensitivity of the adipose tissue to lipolytic challenge in lactating goats. PMID:23063154

Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

2012-12-01

199

Supplements and sports.  

PubMed

Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

2008-11-01

200

DARPP-32 to quantify intracerebral hemorrhage-induced neuronal death in basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Quantification of acute brain injury in basal ganglia is essential for mechanistic and therapeutic studies in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using conventional counting of degenerating cells based on morphological or immunohistochemical criteria, it is hard to define the boundary of the whole lesion area. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in medium-sized spiny neurons of the striatum. We developed new methods for quantifying lesion area by detecting the difference of the DARPP-32 negative area and the hematoma clot, and by measuring DARPP-32 protein level for semi-qualification in rat model of ICH. We found that DARPP-32 negative area around hematoma was present at day-1, peaked at day-3, and decreased at day-14 after ICH, a time course paralleled by DARPP-32 Western blots. The DARPP-32 negative area matched well with the necrotic area determined using propidium iodide. Treatment with an iron chelator, deferoxamine, attenuated the ICH-induced reduction in DARPP-32 protein levels. These results suggest that DARPP-32 is a simple and quantifiable indicator of ICH-induced neuronal death in basal ganglia. PMID:23543809

Jin, Hang; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Wu, Jiang; Hua, Ya

2013-02-01

201

Basal ganglia circuits changes in Parkinson’s disease patients  

PubMed Central

Functional changes in basal ganglia circuitry are responsible for the major clinical features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Current models of basal ganglia circuitry can only partially explain the cardinal symptoms in PD. We used functional MRI to investigate the causal connectivity of basal ganglia networks from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in PD in the movement and resting state. In controls, SNc activity predicted increased activity in the supplementary motor area, the default mode network, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but, in patients, activity predicted decreases in the same structures. The SNc had decreased connectivity with the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, thalamus, supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, default mode network, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and pons in patients compared to controls. Levodopa administration partially normalized the pattern of connectivity. Our findings show how the dopaminergic system exerts influences on widespread brain networks, including motor and cognitive networks. The pattern of basal ganglia network connectivity is abnormal in PD secondary to dopamine depletion, and is more deviant in more severe disease. Use of functional MRI with network analysis appears to be a useful method to demonstrate basal ganglia pathways in vivo in human subjects. PMID:22813979

Wu, Tao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Chaodong; Hallett, Mark; Zang, Yufeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Chan, Piu

2014-01-01

202

Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for: The Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols with Molecular Oxygen Eric M. Ferreira and Brian M., Tweddell, J.; Fu, G. C. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 2794. #12;Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 2

Stoltz, Brian M.

203

Prostatic inflammation enhances basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate cancer with a basal cell origin  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation has been shown to promote the initiation and progression of diverse malignancies by inducing genetic and epigenetic alterations. In this study, we investigate an alternative mechanism through which inflammation promotes the initiation of prostate cancer. Adult murine prostate epithelia are composed predominantly of basal and luminal cells. Previous studies revealed that the two lineages are largely self-sustained when residing in their native microenvironment. To interrogate whether tissue inflammation alters the differentiation program of basal cells, we conducted lineage tracing of basal cells using a K14-CreER;mTmG model in concert with a murine model of prostatitis induced by infection from the uropathogenic bacteria CP9. We show that acute prostatitis causes tissue damage and creates a tissue microenvironment that induces the differentiation of basal cells into luminal cells, an alteration that rarely occurs under normal physiological conditions. Previously we showed that a mouse model with prostate basal cell-specific deletion of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (K14-CreER;Ptenfl/fl) develops prostate cancer with a long latency, because disease initiation in this model requires and is limited by the differentiation of transformation-resistant basal cells into transformation-competent luminal cells. Here, we show that CP9-induced prostatitis significantly accelerates the initiation of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in this model. Our results demonstrate that inflammation results in a tissue microenvironment that alters the normal prostate epithelial cell differentiation program and that through this cellular process inflammation accelerates the initiation of prostate cancer with a basal cell origin. PMID:24367088

Kwon, Oh-Joon; Zhang, Li; Ittmann, Michael M.; Xin, Li

2014-01-01

204

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2010-01-01

205

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2013-01-01

206

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2011-01-01

207

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2014-01-01

208

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2012-01-01

209

Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

(Invitrogen) supplemented with penicillin, streptomycin and glutamine at 37 C with 5% CO2 in a humidified, cells were starved over- night in DMEM supplemented with glutamine, penicillin, streptomycin, and 20 m

Lim, Wendell

210

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

211

Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)  

MedlinePLUS

... information is not an endorsement or guarantee of accuracy by the Office of Dietary Supplements or the ... information is not an endorsement or guarantee of accuracy by the Office of Dietary Supplements or the ...

212

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Administrative Supplements  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SBIR Development Center announces the opportunity for current STTR Phase I and Phase II grantees to seek supplemental project funding via the Administrative Supplement mechanism.

213

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... manage diabetes. Still, more and more people use dietary supplements. And studies show that people with diabetes are ... while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

214

BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

2010-01-01

215

Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

2014-01-01

216

Quarkonium in Hot Medium  

SciTech Connect

I review recent progress in studying quarkonium properties in hot medium as well as possible consequences for quarkonium production in heavy ion collisions. There has been considerable interest in studying quarkonia in hot medium since the publication of the famous Matsui and Satz paper. It has been argued that color screening in a deconfined QCD medium will suppress the existence of quarkonium states, signaling the formation of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in heavy-ion collisions. Although this idea was proposed a long time ago, first principle QCD calculations, which go beyond qualitative arguments, have been performed only recently. Such calculations include lattice QCD determinations of quarkonium correlators; potential model calculations of the quarkonium spectral functions with potentials based on lattice QCD, as well as effective field theory approaches that justify potential models and reveal new medium effects. Spectral properties of heavy quark bound states are important ingredients in modeling of heavy quarkonium production in hot medium as will be discussed later.

Petreczky, P.

2010-08-02

217

Effect of glutamate and somatostatin-14 on basal and cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles, in vitro.  

PubMed

The effects of glutamate and somatostatin-14 (SRIF) on the in vitro basal and cAMP-stimulated steroid production of mid-vitellogenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles were investigated. cAMP-stimulation was achieved by the addition of the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin (FS), or a membrane permeate cAMP agonist, 8-bromo-cAMP (BA), to the incubation medium. Testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) secretion was measured using radioimmunoassay. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to measure the relative formation of unconjugated and conjugated steroids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to examine the steroid metabolites formed from the metabolism of a tritium labelled precursor, pregnenolone (P(5)). The accumulations of T and E(2) in the medium were suppressed in the presence of the glutamate agonists, N-methyl-d,l-aspartate (NMA) or l-glutamic acid (GA), and by the presence of SRIF. The suppression was evident for both basal and cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis except for T concentrations of GA treatments following basal steroidogenesis, when there were no treatment effects. No significant effects of treatment on conjugated:unconjugated steroid ratios were found. For all treatments E(2) was the major end product steroid synthesized from P(5), and the steroid profiles were similar except for trace amounts of radiolabelled androgens in the medium following cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis that were not present following basal steroidogenesis. The findings suggest that glutamate and SRIF reduce end point steroid production, possibly by reducing P(5) production. However, since the inhibitory affect was found for basal and cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis, the response does not appear to be due to the inhibition of cAMP synthesis. PMID:15763520

Leatherland, John F; Lin, Lucy; Renaud, Rick

2005-04-01

218

Original article Dietary antioxidant supplementation  

E-print Network

Original article Dietary antioxidant supplementation did not affect declining sperm function/mg epididymis when compared to young males. Dietary supplementation with low doses of vitamins C and E did or their inhibitory action on steroidogenesis by Leydig and/or Sertoli cells. dietary supplementation / in vitro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

Plant, Geoff

1988-01-01

220

Supplemental Language Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supplemental Language Study Group (SLSG) program at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, Colorado) is described. The program was developed following a student's expression of interest in learning "exotic" languages unavailable in the standard foreign language curriculum at the university. This student-run club offers several weekly…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

221

Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at the scale of the seismic refraction experiment ~100m). In order to interpret the value of the P-wave velocities, we measured in the laboratory the ultrasonic velocities on non-fractured blocks from the field. By, comparing the ultrasonic and the seismic velocities and using an effective medium model, we can estimate a mean crack density and a mean fracture aspect ratio. Finally this allows to estimate the permeability of this fractured aquifer.

Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.

2012-04-01

222

[The demonstration of steady-state Ca2+ influx into the cells of the salivary glands in Chironomus plumosus L. larvae and its role in basal secretion].  

PubMed

Ca2+ content in Chironomus plumosus salivary gland tissue we determined using Ca(2+)-sensitive dye arsenazo III and protein concentration in medium--by Lowry method. It was showed correlation between increasing of Ca2+ content in gland and basal secretion. So, basal secretion is Ca(2+)-dependent process. Owing to adding to medium verapamil, diltiazem and nifedipine (10(-4) M) took place decreasing of Ca2+ content and secretion. Since decreasing of Ca2+ entry in cells owing to blocators action did't exceed 53% (in the case of nifedipine) we assumed that permanent Ca2+ entry formed by potential- and receptor-operated channels. It was established dependence of continuous Ca2+ entry in cells, basal secretion and effectiveness of blockade of Ca(2+)-channels by nifedipine on the [Ca2+]e. Therefore, through the exocrine secretory cells membrane of Chironomus plumosus larvae salivary gland carry out continuous diffuse Ca2+ entry for maintain of basal secretion by cells. This Ca2+ entry provide by population of open Ca(2+)-channels, sensitive to blocators of potential dependent of Ca(2+)-conduction plasmatic membrane. PMID:10474807

Fedirko, N V; Klevets', M Iu

1999-01-01

223

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

224

The interstellar medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and models of interstellar matter in the Milky Way are reviewed. The general structure of the gas layer, high velocity gas, and heavy element depletion patterns are outlined. The IUE survey of Fe and Si abundances, and the correlation of Fe and Si depletions with infrared cirrus are described. Studies of neutral hydrogen may disagree with three-phase models of the interstellar medium, dominated by supernova remnants. The effects of shock waves on interstellar medium structure, the grain population, and refractory element abundances are considered. It appears that the frequency, distribution, energy, and dynamical effects of supernovae in the galaxy may be overestimated.

Shull, J. Michael

1986-01-01

225

Response of broiler chicks to threonine?supplemented diets to 4 weeks of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Two experiments were carried out to determine the response of broiler chicks to threonine?supplemented diets between 10 and 28 d and 7 and 21 d of age, respectively.2. In the first experiment female broiler chicks were fed on 11 experimental diets. Two iso?energetic basal diets (diets 1 and 2) were prepared with 200 and 160 g CP\\/kg and 7·6

J. P. Holsheimer; P. F. G. Vereijken; J. B. Schutte

1994-01-01

226

Bld10/Cep135 stabilizes basal bodies to resist cilia-generated forces  

PubMed Central

Basal bodies nucleate, anchor, and organize cilia. As the anchor for motile cilia, basal bodies must be resistant to the forces directed toward the cell as a consequence of ciliary beating. The molecules and generalized mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of basal bodies remain to be discovered. Bld10/Cep135 is a basal body outer cartwheel domain protein that has established roles in the assembly of nascent basal bodies. We find that Bld10 protein first incorporates stably at basal bodies early during new assembly. Bld10 protein continues to accumulate at basal bodies after assembly, and we hypothesize that the full complement of Bld10 is required to stabilize basal bodies. We identify a novel mechanism for Bld10/Cep135 in basal body maintenance so that basal bodies can withstand the forces produced by motile cilia. Bld10 stabilizes basal bodies by promoting the stability of the A- and C-tubules of the basal body triplet microtubules and by properly positioning the triplet microtubule blades. The forces generated by ciliary beating promote basal body disassembly in bld10? cells. Thus Bld10/Cep135 acts to maintain the structural integrity of basal bodies against the forces of ciliary beating in addition to its separable role in basal body assembly. PMID:23115304

Bayless, Brian A.; Giddings, Thomas H.; Winey, Mark; Pearson, Chad G.

2012-01-01

227

Improved selective medium for isolating Cylindrocladium crotalariae microsclerotia from naturally infested soils.  

PubMed

Reduced development of fusaria and other undesired fungi, and improved recognition of Cylindrocladium crotalariae colonies on soil-dilution plates were accomplished by supplementing a previously used medium (sucrose-TBZ medium) with three quaternary ammonium compounds, replacing peptone with tyrosine, and increasing the concentration of sucrose to yield a water potential of - 10 bars. These changes eliminated the need to treat soil with NaClO to control undesired fungi. The new medium, designated sucrose-QT medium, allowed increased recovery of C. crotalariae microsclerotia from all 16 naturally infested soils tested. PMID:559538

Griffin, G J

1977-06-01

228

Protuberant optical recording medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical recording medium containing a light-absorbing film of a refractary material selected from the group, consisting of boron, borides of carbon, silicon, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tugsten, and zirconium, nitrides of boron, hafnium, tantalum and titanium, oxides of hafnium, cerium, magnesium and thorium, and silicides of niobium, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten less than 60 nm thick and which is

K. N. Maffitt; W. B. Robbins; R. F. Willson

1984-01-01

229

Hypermedia as medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

Dede, Christopher J.

1990-01-01

230

Shear Jamming in Granular Experiments without Basal Friction  

E-print Network

Jammed states of frictional granular systems can be induced by shear strain at densities below the isostatic jamming density ($\\phi_c$). It remains unclear, however, how much friction affects this so-called shear-jamming. Friction appears in two ways in this type of experiment: friction between particles, and friction between particles and the base on which they rest. Here, we study how particle-bottom friction, or basal friction, affects shear jamming in quasi-two dimensional experiments. In order to study this issue experimentally, we apply simple shear to a disordered packing of photoelastic disks. We can tune the basal friction of the particles by immersing the particles in a density matched liquid, thus removing the normal force, hence the friction, between the particles and base. We record the overall shear stress, and particle motion, and the photoelastic response of the particles. We compare the shear response of dry and immersed samples, which enables us to determine how basal friction affects shear jamming. Our findings indicate that changing the basal friction shifts the point of shear jamming, but it does not change the basic phenomenon of shear jamming.

Hu Zheng; Joshua A. Dijksman; Robert P. Behringer

2014-08-08

231

Basal clear cells of the normal human breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ductal system of the human breast consists of two major cell types: epithelial and myoepithelial. In some reports a third cell type, given various names is mentioned. In this study it is called a basal clear cell. The role of this cell, unlike that of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells, remains unclear, although it has been suggested that it

Caroline A. Smith; Paul Monaghan; A. Munro Neville

1984-01-01

232

Terahertz Pulse Imaging of ex vivo Basal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz pulse imaging has been used for the first time to study basal cell carcinoma ex vivo, the most common form of skin cancer. This noninvasive technique uses part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0.1–2.7 THz. A total of 21 samples were imaged; the study was performed blind and results were compared to histology. Each image consisted

Ruth M Woodward; Vincent P Wallace; Richard J Pye; Bryan E Cole; Donald D Arnone; Edmund H Linfield; Michael Pepper

2003-01-01

233

Multidimensional Sequence Learning in Patients with Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parkinson's patients have been found to be impaired in learning movement sequences. In the current study, patients with unilateral basal ganglia lesions due to stroke were tested on a serial reaction time task in which responses were based on the spatial location of each stimulus. The spatial locations either followed a fixed sequence or were…

Shin, J.C.; Aparicio, P.; Ivry, R.B.

2005-01-01

234

Bilateral basal ganglion haemorrhage in diabetic ketoacidotic coma: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report bilateral oedema and haemorrhagic transformation in the basal ganglia of a 59-year old woman with severe diabetic\\u000a ketoacidosis. Lack of cerebral vascular autoregulation, followed by blood-brain barrier disruption due to the so-called breakthrough\\u000a mechanism is presumed to be the cause.

B. Ertl-Wagner; O. Jansen; S. Schwab; K. Sartor

1999-01-01

235

Basal ganglia and thalamic tumours: an imaging approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Among brain tumours, those arising from the deep brain are rare. In many cases they are low-grade astrocytomas. But primitive neuroectodermal tumours, ganglion cell tumours, oligodendrogliomas, lymphomas, and germinal neoplasms can also grow up from the basal ganglia and thalamic region. In other occasions peripheral neoplasms developing in neighbouring structures like the cerebral lobes, the ventricular walls, choroidal plexus,

José M. García-Santos; Silvia Torres del Río; Ana Sánchez; Juan F. Martínez-Lage

2002-01-01

236

Linear Branching Echogenicities in the Basal Ganglia and Thalami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echogenic vasculature in the basal ganglia and thalami of neonatal brain have been associated with congeni- tal infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella, and syphilis, trisomy 13 syndrome, Down syndrome, maternal drug use, neonatal asphyxia, nonimmune hydrops, and fetal alcohol syndrome. This abnormality is believed to result from necrotizing vasculitis with subsequent mineralization. In our study, we encountered 8 small

Han-Hsi Wang; Chih-Hao Chien; Min-Hou Liao; Yu-Nian Wu; Yu-Hsien Su

1998-01-01

237

Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.  

PubMed

Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption. PMID:24678634

German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

2014-08-01

238

Multifocal basal cell carcinoma arising within a linear epidermal nevus  

PubMed Central

Epidermal nevi are usually benign lesions with a lifelong course if left untreated. In rare cases development of basal cell carcinoma in such nevi has been documented. We describe a 32-year-old man with a multifocal malignant transformation within a congenital epidermal nevus. PMID:25657916

Mordovtseva, Veronica V.

2015-01-01

239

Basal body assembly in ciliates: the power of numbers  

PubMed Central

Centrioles perform the dual functions of organizing both centrosomes and cilia. The biogenesis of nascent centrioles is an essential cellular event that is tightly coupled to the cell cycle so that each cell contains only two or four centrioles at any given point in the cell cycle. The assembly of centrioles and their analogs, basal bodies, is well characterized at the ultrastructural level whereby structural modules are built into a functional organelle. Genetic studies in model organisms combined with proteomic, bioinformatic, and identifying ciliary disease gene orthologs have revealed a wealth of molecules requiring further analysis to determine their roles in centriole duplication, assembly, and function. Nonetheless, at this stage our understanding of how molecular components interact to build new centrioles and basal bodies is limited. The ciliates, Tetrahymena and Paramecium, historically have been the subject of cytological and genetic study of basal bodies. Recent advances in the ciliate genetic and molecular toolkit have placed these model organisms in a favorable position to study the molecular mechanisms of centriole and basal body assembly. PMID:19192246

Pearson, Chad G.; Winey, Mark

2009-01-01

240

Linguistic Development of Children and the Syntax of Basals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that while many publishers may simplify the sentence structure in the basal reader to facilitate the process of learning to read, this practice may result in texts with stylistic features and text formats that are unnatural and uncharacteristic of written English or the language development level of the children. (FL)

Brown, David L.; Briggs, L. D.

1986-01-01

241

Characteristics and Distribution of the Mars North Polar Basal Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the characteristics and distribution of the dark, layered basal unit beneath the north PLD. An erosional unconformity marks the contact between the BU and PLD. Both the lower PLD and the BU may be the source for the ubiquitous dunes.

K. E. Fishbaugh; J. W. Head III

2003-01-01

242

Lesch–Nyhan disease and the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to summarize emerging evidence that the neurobehavioral features of Lesch–Nyhan disease (LND), a developmental disorder caused by congenital deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), may be attributable to dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Affected individuals have severe motor disability described by prominent extrapyramidal features that are characteristic of dysfunction of the

J. E Visser; P. R Bär; H. A Jinnah

2000-01-01

243

Reassessment of the phylogenetic interrelationships of basal turtles (Testudinata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discoveries from the Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic have significantly improved the fossil record of early turtles. These new forms offer a unique opportunity to test the interrelationships of basal turtles. Nineteen fossil species are added to the taxon sample of the most comprehensive morphological phylogenetic analysis of the turtle clade. Among these additional species are recently discovered forms

Jérémy Anquetin

2012-01-01

244

Task-phase-specific dynamics of basal forebrain neuronal ensembles  

PubMed Central

Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases. PMID:25309352

Tingley, David; Alexander, Andrew S.; Kolbu, Sean; de Sa, Virginia R.; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.

2014-01-01

245

INTRODUCTION Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed a basal  

E-print Network

Moniliformop- ses, of Kenrick & Crane, 1997), characterized by lateral root origin in the endodermis, usuallyINTRODUCTION Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed a basal dichotomy within vascular plants, separating the lyco- phytes (less than 1% of extant vascular plants) from the euphyllophytes (Fig. 1

Schuettpelz, Eric

246

Basal ganglia morphology links the metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms  

PubMed Central

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors that are often comorbid with depressive symptoms. Individual components of the MetS also covary with the morphology of basal ganglia regions that are altered by depression. However, it remains unknown whether the covariation between the MetS and depressive symptomatology can be accounted for in part by morphological changes in the basal ganglia. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that increased depressive symptoms among individuals with the MetS might be statistically mediated by reduced grey matter volume in basal ganglia regions. The presence of the MetS was determined in 147 middle-aged adults using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Basal ganglia volumes were determined on an a priori basis by automated segmentation of high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Even after controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, having the MetS and meeting more MetS criteria covaried with reduced globus pallidus volume. Meeting more MetS criteria and reduced pallidal volume were also related to depressive symptoms. Moreover, the MetS-depression association was statistically mediated by pallidal volume. In summary, reduced globus pallidus volume is a neural correlate of the MetS that may partly account for its association with depressive symptoms. PMID:24096008

Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Christie, Israel C.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Gianaros, Peter J.

2014-01-01

247

Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p?=?0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

2012-01-01

248

The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

2014-11-01

249

Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.  

PubMed

Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000?gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321?±?144?gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454?±?174?gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

2013-10-01

250

Nutrition and nutritional supplementation  

PubMed Central

Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

Manissier, Patricia

2009-01-01

251

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

252

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

253

Studies on Intermittent Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discontinuous casein supplementationat 24-hour intervals of an only-gluten diet was reported previously to result in an incomplete growth recovery, as well as a delayed liver-cell maturation when the protein level in the diet was 10%. When such a discontinuous supplementation was carried out at 14% protein level, the growth recovery was sufficient to ensure a practically normal terminal body

Anna Ferro-Luzzi; P. A. Migliaccio; Donatella Sorrentino; A. Mariani

1972-01-01

254

Making Sense of Dietary Supplements: The Dietary Supplements Labels Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the Dietary Supplements Labels Database, a new resource from the National Library of Medicine that integrates information from dietary supplement manufacturers, government agencies, and clinical research into an easy-to-use interface. This database contains information on more than 2,000 brands of dietary supplement and more than 800 active ingredients. This resource will greatly assist consumers and health care

Annette M. Healy

2008-01-01

255

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

256

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-13

257

Evaluation of a Novel Medium for Screening Specimens from Hospitalized Patients To Detect Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel medium, Oxacillin Resistant Screening Agar (ORSA) medium, was evaluated for the screening of specimens for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital setting. Screening swabs (swabs of the nose, throat, perineum, and infected sites) were inoculated onto the new ORSA medium and into an enrichment broth (Muller-Hinton broth supplemented with NaCl and oxacillin). After 24 h of incubation,

D. S. Blanc; A. Wenger; J. Bille

2003-01-01

258

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

2014-01-01

259

Creatine supplementation increases glucose oxidation and AMPK phosphorylation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have suggested that creatine supplementation might have a beneficial effect on glucoregulation in skeletal muscle. However, conclusive studies on the direct effects of creatine on glucose uptake and metabolism are lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, glycogen content, glycogen synthesis, lactate production, glucose oxidation and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Four treatment groups were studied: control, insulin (100 nm), creatine (0.5 mm) and creatine + insulin. After 48 h of creatine supplementation the creatine and phosphocreatine contents of L6 myoblasts increased by ?9.3- and ?5.1-fold, respectively, but the ATP content of the cells was not affected. Insulin significantly increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake (?1.9-fold), GLUT4 translocation (?1.8-fold), the incorporation of D-[U-14C]glucose into glycogen (?2.3-fold), lactate production (?1.5-fold) and 14CO2 production (?1.5-fold). Creatine neither altered the glycogen and GLUT4 contents of the cells nor the insulin-stimulated rates of 2-DG uptake, GLUT4 translocation, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation. However, creatine significantly reduced by ?42% the basal rate of lactate production and increased by ?40% the basal rate of 14CO2 production. This is in agreement with the ?35% increase in citrate synthase activity and also with the ?2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of both ?-1 and ?-2 isoforms of AMPK after creatine supplementation. We conclude that 48 h of creatine supplementation does not alter insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glucose metabolism; however, it activates AMPK, shifts basal glucose metabolism towards oxidation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. PMID:14724211

Ceddia, Rolando B; Sweeney, Gary

2004-01-01

260

Simultaneous dietary supplementation of sodium cholate and beta-carotene markedly enhances accumulation of beta-carotene in mice.  

PubMed

This study evaluated whether simultaneous supplementation of sodium cholate and beta-carotene to a diet enhanced the accumulation of beta-carotene in mice. For 2 wk, male ICR mice were fed either a basal diet or a diet containing Dunaliella-bardawil beta-carotene 50 mg/100g that was or was not supplemented with sodium cholate (0.25 g/100 g). The concentrations of beta-carotene in liver and plasma were approximately 5 and 10 times higher, respectively. In the mice fed the beta-carotene diet with sodium cholate than in those fed the beta-carotene diet without sodium cholate. Beta-carotene was not detectable in the liver or plasma of mice fed either basal diet. The concentrations of vitamin E in the plasma and liver of mice fed either beta-carotene diet or the basal diet with sodium cholate were significantly lower than in those fed the basal diet. In a second study, mice were fed a diet containing 50 mg/100 g synthetic beta-carotene supplemented with various concentrations of sodium cholate (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 g/100 g) for 2 wk. The concentrations of beta-carotene and vitamin E in plasma, liver and bone marrow cells were higher in mice fed the beta-carotene diet supplemented with 0.05 g/100 g of sodium cholate than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. These findings show that simultaneous supplementation of sodium cholate and beta-carotene to a diet markedly enhances the accumulation of beta-carotene. This dietary protocol may be useful to introduce a high amount of beta-carotene in the tissue of mice in a short period of time. PMID:7500187

Umegaki, K; Aoshima, M; Hirota, S; Uramoto, H; Esashi, T

1995-12-01

261

Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

2014-09-01

262

Performance and antioxidant status of broiler chickens supplemented with dried mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) in their diet.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the growth performance and antioxidant status of broiler chicken supplemented with the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ninety 1-d-old female broiler chickens randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments were given either a nutritionally balanced basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 10 or 20 g of dried mushroom/kg of feed for 6 wk on an ad libitum basis. Body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio values were monitored weekly. To evaluate the antioxidant status of broiler chicken, refrigerated liver, breast, and thigh tissues were assayed for levels of glutathione, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as malondialdehyde at 6 wk of age. Results showed that dietary mushroom supplementation at both inclusion levels was accepted well by the broiler chicken and improved feed efficiency compared with the control diet. Dietary mushroom inclusion at 20 g/kg improved both growth performance and feed efficiency compared with control diet at 42 d of age. Dietary mushroom at both inclusion levels reduced malondialdehyde production in liver, breast, and thigh tissues and elevated glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase compared with the control treatment, the effects being dose-dependent. These results suggest that A. bisporus mushroom exerts both a growth-promoting and tissue antioxidant-protective activity when supplemented in broiler chicken diets. PMID:20075283

Giannenas, I; Pappas, I S; Mavridis, S; Kontopidis, G; Skoufos, J; Kyriazakis, I

2010-02-01

263

Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

2014-01-01

264

The effect of unidentified factor supplements and trace minerals on the reproductive performance of turkeys and chickens  

E-print Network

of groups 5 ao4 Wx rate of egg production 4eclined in all groups. Egg yroduction of th? basal group was 27. Q for this period. Of the single suyplmsentsx dried brewer~s yeast ua most effective in maintaixLLng egg production Mtb a 'p. @ increase over ths... period (Table 2). Production was increased from 2i3$ to 3. Q above the basal gxoup in five of the groups receiving diets supplemented with un- identified factor souxces or with sine plus molyMenum. The highest egg production (73. 0$) vas obtained...

Whiteside, Charles Hugh

1958-01-01

265

Effects of supplemental rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid or corn oil on lipid content and palatability in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Thirty-six Angus x Hereford heifers were used in a 3 x 2 factorial (3 dietary treatments; 2 supplementation times) to examine the effect of dietary lipid supplementation on lipid oxidation, lipid composition, and palatability of ribeye steaks and ground beef. Lipid was supplied in the diets as corn oil or a partially rumen-protected CLA salt for 2 specific treatment periods of the final 32 or 60 d on feed, corresponding to a total time on feed of 89 or 118 d. After an initial 56-d feeding period (basal diet), the heifers were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments (DM basis): 1) a basal diet containing 88% concentrate and 12% grass hay (CON), 2) the basal diet plus 4% corn oil (OIL), or 3) the basal diet plus 2% partially rumen-protected CLA (RPCLA) containing 31% CLA. Heifers were randomly allotted to dietary treatments at the initiation of the study and fed individually. At 48 h postmortem, the right forequarter of each carcass was fabricated into retail cuts. Steaks (2.54-cm thick) were obtained from the posterior end of the ribeye roll (NAMP 112), and beef trim was ground for all subsequent analyses. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation in ground beef or ribeye steaks. Total trans-octadecenoate fat and trans-10 octadecenoic acid content in ribeye steaks increased (P < 0.05) with RPCLA compared with CON. Total CLA and the cis-9 trans-11 isomer of CLA contents in ribeye steaks were unchanged (P > 0.05) by lipid supplementation. In ground beef, RPCLA supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the amount of trans fat and trans-10 octadecenoic acid compared with CON or OIL; supplementation of RPCLA increased (P < 0.05) the amount of CLA cis-9 trans-11 isomer and total CLA. Lipid supplementation did not alter (P > 0.05) off-flavor ratings in ground beef or ribeye steaks. Supplementation of corn oil increased (P < 0.05) total PUFA content of ribeye steaks compared with CON and RPCLA. Dietary RPCLA supplementation increased the amount of trans fat per serving (85.5 g, broiled) by 110 and 88% in ribeye steak and ground beef, respectively, and CLA cis-9 trans-11 by 58% in ground beef compared with CON. Supplementing OIL or RPCLA resulted in minimal changes in lipid oxidation and sensory attributes of steaks and ground beef. PMID:17339415

Gillis, M H; Duckett, S K; Sackmann, J R

2007-06-01

266

Growth Performance and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed Diets Supplemented with GroBiotic-A and Brewtech Dried Brewers Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response, and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet formulated to contain approximately 32% crude protein and 6% lipid was supplemented with 1% and 2% of

Kunthika Vechklang; Chhorn Lim; Surintorn Boonanuntanasarn; Thomas Welker; Samorn Ponchunchuwong; Phillip H. Klesius; Chokchai Wanapu

2012-01-01

267

A selective medium for the rapid isolation of pseudomonads associated with poultry meat spoilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A new selective medium (CFC) has been developed for the rapid isolation of pigmented and non?pigmented pseudomonads associated with the spoilage of poultry meat held under chill conditions. It comprises Difco Heart Infusion Agar supplemented with 50 ?g cephaloridine, 10 ?g fucidin and 10 ?g cetrimide\\/ml.2. CFC medium was found to be more selective than three other media which

G. C. Mead; B. W. Adams

1977-01-01

268

Chemically defined medium supporting cardiomyocyte differentiation of human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) will require fully defined growth and differentiation conditions including media devoid of fetal calf serum. To identify factors that control lineage differentiation we have analyzed a serum-free (SF) medium conditioned by the cell line END2, which efficiently induces hESCs to form cardiomyocytes. Firstly, we noted that insulin, a commonly used medium supplement,

Xiu Qin Xu; Ralph Graichen; Set Yen Soo; Thavamalar Balakrishnan; Siti Norfiza Bte Rahmat; Shirly Sieh; Su Chin Tham; Christian Freund; Jennifer Moore; Christine Mummery; Alan Colman; Robert Zweigerdt; Bruce P. Davidson

2008-01-01

269

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.  

PubMed

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

2014-01-01

270

Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

2013-01-01

271

Basal Autophagy Is Required for the Efficient Catabolism of Sialyloligosaccharides*  

PubMed Central

Macroautophagy is an essential, homeostatic process involving degradation of a cell's own components; it plays a role in catabolizing cellular components, such as protein or lipids, and damaged or excess organelles. Here, we show that in Atg5?/? cells, sialyloligosaccharides specifically accumulated in the cytosol. Accumulation of these glycans was observed under non-starved conditions, suggesting that non-induced, basal autophagy is essential for their catabolism. Interestingly, once accumulated in the cytosol, sialylglycans cannot be efficiently catabolized by resumption of the autophagic process, suggesting that functional autophagy is important for preventing sialyloligosaccharides from accumulating in the cytosol. Moreover, knockdown of sialin, a lysosomal transporter of sialic acids, resulted in a significant reduction of sialyloligosaccharides, implying that autophagy affects the substrate specificity of this transporter. This study thus provides a surprising link between basal autophagy and catabolism of N-linked glycans. PMID:23880766

Seino, Junichi; Wang, Li; Harada, Yoichiro; Huang, Chengcheng; Ishii, Kumiko; Mizushima, Noboru; Suzuki, Tadashi

2013-01-01

272

Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

2015-01-01

273

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds  

PubMed Central

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

2014-01-01

274

Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings.  

PubMed

The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate the possible infection of young palms through cut frond base surfaces. Ganoderma DNA was detected in frond base material at a greater frequency than would be expected by comparison with current infection levels. Comparisons are made between the height of the frond base infected, the number of frond bases infected, and subsequent development of basal stem rot. The preliminary results suggest that the development of basal stem rot may be more likely to occur when young lower frond bases are infected. PMID:15750744

Panchal, G; Bridge, P D

2005-01-01

275

Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

1984-03-01

276

Infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma: dermoscopic findings and histologic correlation  

PubMed Central

Infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma is a rare variant. It was first described in 1987 and proposed as a new basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtype by Ackerman and Walsh in 1990. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that allows prompt identification of many types of BCC. However, dermoscopic findings for the infundibulocystic variant have not been reported. In our patient the dermoscopic findings were maple leaf-like areas in the periphery of the tumor, multiple scattered blue-gray dots and globules, short, fine telangiectasia and chrysalis or white-shiny streaks. All these structures had an underlying anatomopathological correlation. Conclusion: According to our case report, dermoscopy findings may aid to clearly diagnose this unusual BCC variant with proper histopathological correlation. PMID:25126459

Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Leal-Osuna, Sergio; Lammoglia-Ordiales, Lorena; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia

2014-01-01

277

Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

Farris, Jim

278

FDA Guide to Dietary Supplements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sale and variety of dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbal mixtures, and hormones have expanded tremendously in recent years, accounting for $6.5 billion in sales in 1996 alone. This resource will help users to understand this trend and the health claims made by supplement companies and to make educated decisions regarding their use. This site offers a revised version of an article which originally ran in the September-October 1998 FDA Consumer. The article addresses topics such as the definition of a dietary supplement, safety monitoring, understanding claims, and fraudulent products. An illustration of new requirements for dietary supplement labels and sources for more information are also provided.

Kurtzweil, Paula, 1958-.

1999-01-01

279

Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.  

PubMed

Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk. PMID:24667103

Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

2014-08-01

280

Novel experimental apparatus for granular experiments on basal friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a novel experimental apparatus to probe the mechanics of sheared quasi two-dimensional frictional granular materials with tunable friction from the supporting base of the apparatus. The experiment consists of a floating layer of photoelastic disks, which is subject to deformation. Forces on the particles are measured at the particle scale, using their photoelastic properties. This novel setup makes the study of the role of basal friction on sheared granular media possible.

Zheng, Hu; Dijksman, Joshua A.; Behringer, Robert P.

2013-06-01

281

Early-onset acral basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome.  

PubMed

Two patients are reported in whom early-onset, distal papules with a histopathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma were the first manifestation of Gorlin syndrome (GS). These lesions showed no progression and remained stable through follow-up. Two different PTCH1 gene mutations were detected in the two patients, and thus a phenotype-genotype correlation of this manifestation of GS was not possible. PMID:24837096

Torrelo, A; Vicente, A; Navarro, L; Planaguma, M; Bueno, E; González-Sarmiento, R; Hernández-Martín, A; Noguera-Morel, L; Requena, L; Colmenero, I; Parareda, A; González-Enseñat, M A; Happle, R

2014-11-01

282

A free-choice premium in the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Apparently, the act of free choice confers value: when selecting between an item that you had previously chosen and an identical item that you had been forced to take, the former is often preferred. What could be the neural underpinnings of this free-choice bias in decision making? An elegant study recently published in Neuron suggests that enhanced reward learning in the basal ganglia may be the culprit. PMID:25282675

Niv, Yael; Langdon, Angela; Radulescu, Angela

2015-01-01

283

Hox cluster duplication in the basal teleost Hiodon alosoides (Osteoglossomorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale—even genome-wide—duplications have repeatedly been invoked as an explanation for major radiations. Teleosts, the\\u000a most species-rich vertebrate clade, underwent a “fish-specific genome duplication” (FSGD) that is shared by most ray-finned\\u000a fish lineages. We investigate here the Hox complement of the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a representative of Osteoglossomorpha, the most basal teleostean clade. An extensive PCR survey reveals that goldeye has

Karen E. ChambersRyan; Ryan McDaniell; Jeremy D. Raincrow; Maya Deshmukh; Peter F. Stadler; Chi-hua Chiu

2009-01-01

284

Self-Organizing Basal Hydrology for Ice Sheet Flowline Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial water pressure is a fundamental control on basal drag and glacier sliding rates. However, it has seldom been included as a variable in glacier flow models, mainly due to the great difficulty in calculating water pressure in a realistic yet tractable way. Here we present preliminary results of a simple basal hydrological model designed for coupling to ice sheet flow models. A key feature of the model is that hydraulic conductivity k evolves in response to water discharge Q (which melts ice and increases the capacity of the system) and effective pressure pi - pw (reducing system capacity through ice creep). The timescales of these processes relative to temporal variations in surface water inputs produces contrasting pressure-discharge relationships as an emergent property of the model. Specifically, pw varies directly with Q over diurnal timescales, whereas pw is inversely proportional to Q on seasonal timescales. In combination with suitable friction laws, the hydrology model provides an adaptive basal boundary condition for flowline models. Despite its simplicity, the model allows a rich variety of behaviour to be simulated, including spring 'speed-up' events and summer 'slowdowns'.

Rutt, I. C.; Benn, D.; Cook, S.; Hulton, N. R.

2013-12-01

285

Basal breast cancer: a complex and deadly molecular subtype.  

PubMed

During the last decade, gene expression profiling of breast cancer has revealed the existence of five molecular subtypes and allowed the establishment of a new classification. The basal subtype, which represents 15-25% of cases, is characterized by an expression profile similar to that of myoepithelial normal mammary cells. Basal tumors are frequently assimilated to triple-negative (TN) breast cancers. They display epidemiological and clinico-pathological features distinct from other subtypes. Their pattern of relapse is characterized by frequent and early relapses and visceral locations. Despite a relative sensitivity to chemotherapy, the prognosis is poor. Recent characterization of their molecular features, such as the dysfunction of the BRCA1 pathway or the frequent expression of EGFR, provides opportunities for optimizing the systemic treatment. Several clinical trials dedicated to basal or TN tumors are testing cytotoxic agents and/or molecularly targeted therapies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this aggressive and hard-to-treat subtype of breast cancer. PMID:22082486

Bertucci, F; Finetti, P; Birnbaum, D

2012-01-01

286

Basal Breast Cancer: A Complex and Deadly Molecular Subtype  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, gene expression profiling of breast cancer has revealed the existence of five molecular subtypes and allowed the establishment of a new classification. The basal subtype, which represents 15-25% of cases, is characterized by an expression profile similar to that of myoepithelial normal mammary cells. Basal tumors are frequently assimilated to triple-negative (TN) breast cancers. They display epidemiological and clinico-pathological features distinct from other subtypes. Their pattern of relapse is characterized by frequent and early relapses and visceral locations. Despite a relative sensitivity to chemotherapy, the prognosis is poor. Recent characterization of their molecular features, such as the dysfunction of the BRCA1 pathway or the frequent expression of EGFR, provides opportunities for optimizing the systemic treatment. Several clinical trials dedicated to basal or TN tumors are testing cytotoxic agents and/or molecularly targeted therapies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this aggressive and hard-to-treat subtype of breast cancer. PMID:22082486

Bertucci, F; Finetti, P; Birnbaum, D

2012-01-01

287

Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops  

PubMed Central

The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

2014-01-01

288

Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin  

PubMed Central

Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. PMID:24363554

Brown, Dominique Xavier; Butler, Emma Louise; Evans, Marc

2014-01-01

289

Basal membrane localization of MRP1 in human placental trophoblast.  

PubMed

The placental trophoblast is considered to act as a barrier between mother and fetus, mediating the exchange of various materials across the placenta. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) are expressed in the placenta and function as efflux transport systems for xenobiotics. In the present study, we aimed to determine the localization of MRP1 in the human placenta in comparison with that of P-gp. Western blotting analysis with human placental membrane vesicles indicated that P-gp and MRP1 are localized on the brush-border membranes and basal membranes, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis with human normal full-term placenta showed that anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody F4 stained the brush-border side of the trophoblast cells, whereas anti-MRP1 monoclonal antibody MRPr1 stained the basal side. These results confirm that P-gp and MRP1 are located on the brush-border membranes and basal membranes, respectively, of human full-term placental trophoblast. MRP1 was also detected on the abluminal side of blood vessels in the villi. Accordingly, MRP1 may play a role distinct from that of P-gp, which is considered to restrict the influx of xenobiotics into the fetus. PMID:14580377

Nagashige, M; Ushigome, F; Koyabu, N; Hirata, K; Kawabuchi, M; Hirakawa, T; Satoh, S; Tsukimori, K; Nakano, H; Uchiumi, T; Kuwano, M; Ohtani, H; Sawada, Y

2003-11-01

290

Mathematical Preliminaries Medium Access Protocols  

E-print Network

Mathematical Preliminaries Medium Access Protocols Ethernet Collision-Free Protocols Wireless University, MS February 26, 2013 Ramkumar MAC #12;Mathematical Preliminaries Medium Access Protocols Ethernet Collision-Free Protocols Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) Local Area Network Outline 1 Mathematical Preliminaries

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

291

Special supplement introduction: hallucinations.  

PubMed

This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

2014-07-01

292

Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations  

PubMed Central

This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

2014-01-01

293

Supplements: modern miracles?  

PubMed

Our news editor, Lisa Schnirring, joked not long ago that The Physician and Sportsmedicine should run a "supplement of the month" column. If we did, filling the column wouldn't be a problem-narrowing the choices would be. You might have read this year about SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine), whey protein, glutamine, olive leaf extract, and glyconutrients, to name a few. But the story would tend to follow a standard pattern: Claims of "Great Benefit X" would usually give way to "Inconsistent Evidence of Y" or "Side Effect Z," and the various views would be supported by enthusiastic, cautious, or cautionary statements by proponents and skeptics. PMID:20086716

Hawthorne, S

1999-05-01

294

The role of basal ganglia-forebrain circuitry in the vocal learning of songbirds  

E-print Network

The basal ganglia form the largest sub-cortical structure in the human brain and are implicated in numerous human diseases. In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and ...

Andalman, Aaron Samuel

2009-01-01

295

What Will Happen After Treatment for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... changes to consider during and after treatment What will happen after treatment for basal and squamous cell ... with basal or squamous cell skin cancers, treatment will remove or destroy the cancer. Completing treatment can ...

296

The Local Interstellar Medium  

E-print Network

Substantial progress in the field of the Local Interstellar Medium has been largely due to recent launches of space missions, mostly in the UV and X-ray domains, but also to ground-based observations, mainly in high resolution spectroscopy. However, a clear gap seems to remain between the wealth of new data and the theoretical understanding. This paper gives an overview of some observational aspects, with no attempt of completeness or doing justice to all the people involved in the field. As progress rarely evolves in straight paths, we can expect that our present picture of the solar system surroundings is not definitive.

R. Ferlet

1999-03-17

297

Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision. PMID:25298901

Roewe, R. J.; Uhlman, Matthew A.; Bockholt, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

298

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110? promotes lumen formation through the enhancement of apico-basal polarity and basal membrane organization.  

PubMed

Signalling triggered by adhesion to the extracellular matrix plays a key role in the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and formation of lumens in glandular tissues. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in particular is known to influence the polarization process during epithelial cell morphogenesis. Here, using Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells grown in 3D culture, we show that the p110? isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase co-localizes with focal adhesion proteins at the basal surface of polarized cells. Pharmacological, siRNA- or kinase-dead-mediated inhibition of p110? impair the early stages of lumen formation, resulting in inverted polarized cysts, with no laminin or type IV collagen assembly at cell/extracellular matrix contacts. p110? also regulates the organization of focal adhesions and membrane localization of dystroglycan. Thus, we uncover a previously unrecognized role for p110? in epithelial cells in the orientation of the apico-basal axis and lumen formation. PMID:25583025

Peng, Juan; Awad, Aline; Sar, Sokhavuth; Hamze Komaiha, Ola; Moyano, Romina; Rayal, Amel; Samuel, Didier; Shewan, Annette; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Mostov, Keith; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

2015-01-01

299

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2013-07-01

300

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2012-07-01

301

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2011-07-01

302

37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47 Section 2.47 Patents, Trademarks...Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under...

2010-07-01

303

22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

2014-04-01

304

22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

2012-04-01

305

22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

2013-04-01

306

22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

2011-04-01

307

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2010-07-01

308

The Local Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere --- the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and climate. Since the LISM shares the same volume as practically all known extrasolar planets, the prototypical debris disks systems, and nearby low-mass star-formation sites, it will be important to understand the structures of the LISM and how they may influence planetary atmospheres.

Redfield, S.

2006-09-01

309

DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON  

SciTech Connect

Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

2005-06-30

310

Basal Body Reorientation Mediated by a Ca2+-modulated Contractile Protein  

E-print Network

Basal Body Reorientation Mediated by a Ca2+-modulated Contractile Protein G. I. McFadden,* D the Tetraselmis protein, of two acidic isoforms of 20 kD. We conclude that the distal basal body connecting fiber centrioles/basal bodies are antigenic homologs to a Ca2÷-modulated contractile protein has provoked much

McFadden, Geoff

311

Basal Ganglia Volumes in Patients With Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite strong circumstantial evidence that the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia, inconsistent findings from relatively small in vivo TS imaging studies have supported contradictory conclu- sions concerning the role of abnormal anatomical charac- teristics of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of TS. Methods: Basal ganglia volumes

Bradley S. Peterson; Prakash Thomas; Michael J. Kane; Lawrence Scahill; Heping Zhang; Richard Bronen; Robert A. King; James F. Leckman; Lawrence Staib

2003-01-01

312

A Study of the Relationship between Basal Illustrations and Contextual Meaning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study determined the relationship between basal illustrations and contextual meaning. Five basals were analyzed to determine the percentage of illustration miscues appearing in each story. The basals chosen were from Silver Burdett and Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Scott Foresman, Holt Rinehart and Winston, and D.C. Heath and Company. Results…

Cardone, Janine Lord

313

Glacier surge mechanism based on linked cavity configuration of the basal water conduit system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on observations of the 1982-1983 surge of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, a model of the surge mechanism is developed in terms of a transition from the normal tunnel configuration of the basal water conduit system to a linked cavity configuration that tends to restrict the flow of water, resulting in increased basal water pressures that cause rapid basal sliding. The

Barclay Kamb

1987-01-01

314

Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians  

E-print Network

Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians Kim L. Hoke the existence of a homologue of the mam- malian substantia nigra­basal ganglia circuit in the amphibian brain proposed that homologous basal ganglia circuits may exist in both amphibians and mammals (reviewed

Ryan, Michael J.

315

Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2010-01-01

316

PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF BASAL ANGIOSPERMS BASED ON NINE PLASTID, MITOCHONDRIAL, AND NUCLEAR GENES  

E-print Network

PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF BASAL ANGIOSPERMS BASED ON NINE PLASTID, MITOCHONDRIAL, AND NUCLEAR GENESL; mitochondrial: atp1, matR, mtSSU, and mtLSU; nuclear: 18S and 26S rDNAs) from 100 species of basal angiosperms support the following consensus of relationships among basal angiosperms. First, Amborella, Nymphaeaceae

317

Effect of fish oil supplementation for 2 generations on changes in macrophage function induced by Walker 256 cancer cachexia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of coconut fat (rich in medium saturated fatty acids) or fish oil (rich in -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) supplementation for 2 generations on tumor growth, cancer cachexia, animal survival and macrophage function was investigated in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Female Wistar rats were supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil prior to mating and then throughout pregnancy and

Alessandra Folador; Sandro M. Hirabara; Sandro J. R. Bonatto; Júlia Aikawa; Ricardo K. Yamazaki; Rui Curi; Luiz C. Fernandes

2007-01-01

318

Should You Take Dietary Supplements?  

MedlinePLUS

... managed,” advises Dr. Craig Hopp, an expert in botanicals research at NIH. Dietary supplements are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as foods, not as drugs. The label may claim certain health benefits. But unlike medicines, supplements can’t claim to cure, treat or ...

319

Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMerieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the

John D. Perry; Amie Davies; Lynne A. Butterworth; Andrew L. J. Hopley; Audrey Nicholson; F. Kate Gould

2004-01-01

320

An Examination of Library World Wide Web Sites at Medium-Sized Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a study of Web sites for 133 academic libraries serving medium-sized universities. Suggests that navigational and design aspects need improvement; information should not be included unless it will be accessed and used; and greater use should be made of online tutorials and virtual tours to supplement regular bibliographic…

Tolppanen, Bradley P.; Miller, Joan; Wooden, Martha H.

2000-01-01

321

Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested the utilization of maggots as a feed supplement forenhanced broiler performance. Maggots, which are a major dietary source of protein, appear during the biodegradation of chicken droppings using house flies. The objective ofthe present study was to investigate the effect of maggot supplementation on the meat quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 600 one-day-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross) were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 40 replicates of 3 birds. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% maggots. Overall, broiler chicken performance was influenced by the optimal amino acid profile; high protein (63.99%) and essential amino acid content (29.46%), or high protein digestibility (98.50%) of the maggots. Maggot supplementation caused linear increases in live weight gain but not the feed conversion ratio. The diets of 10 and 15% maggots was the most efficient in terms of average weight gain forthe 4-5 week old broiler chickens (p<0.05). It also significantly increased dressing percentage, breast muscle, and thigh muscle (p<0.05). No differences were observed forliver abdominalfat, or meat color, and the crude protein contents of breast muscle were constant. However, in the maggot-fed broilers, breast muscle lysine and tryptophan levels increased significantly as compared to the birds fed the basal diet (p<0.05). These results indicate that feeding diets containing 10 to 15% maggots in chicken dropping after biodegradation can improve the carcass quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. PMID:20120505

Hwangbo, J; Hong, E C; Jang, A; Kang, H K; Oh, J S; Kim, B W; Park, B S

2009-07-01

322

Efficient transformation of Actinidia arguta by reducing the strength of basal salts in the medium to alleviate callus browning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient transformation system for high-throughput functional genomic studies of kiwifruit has been developed to overcome\\u000a the problem of necrosis in Actinidia arguta explants. The system uses Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the binary vector pART27-10 to inoculate leaf strips. The vector contains neomycin phosphotransferase\\u000a (nptII) and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) (uidA) genes. A range of light intensities and different strengths of

Meili Han; Andrew P. Gleave; Tianchi Wang

2010-01-01

323

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

324

Internalization of macromolecules from the medium in Suctoria  

PubMed Central

Takophrya infusionum like all other Suctoria lacks an oral cavity. Its feeding apparatus consists of tentacles, long narrow tubes through which the contents of the living prey are ingested. For normal growth, reproduction, and longevity of clones, Tokophrya needs supplements deriving from the medium in addition to living prey. Since Tokophrya lacks a mouth, these supplements can reach the cytoplasm only through the complex structure of the cortex, which is composed of a three- membraned pellicle and a dense epiplasm. In addition, external to the cortex, an extraneous coat covers the whole organism. Only the outer pellicular plasma membrane is continuous; the other two and the epiplasm are interrupted by the outer plasma membrane which invaginates at intervals forming the so-called pits. The invaginated plasma membrane dips down into the cytoplasm where it extends to form a saccule. Experiments with cationized ferritin and Thorotrast provide evidence that internalization of these macromolecules takes place through the pits by pinocytosis. The membrane of the saccules of the pits forms invaginations which pinch off giving rise to small, flattened vesicles containing the tracers. The tracers were never found free in the cytoplasm but exclusively in the flat vesicles. These vesicles are thus the vehicles transporting macromolecules from the medium to the cytoplasm. The saccules of the pits are the natural loci of pinocytosis and together with the flattened vesicles perform an important function in Suctoria, supplying the organisms with macromolecules from the medium. PMID:6765951

1980-01-01

325

Modeling Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Basal Aquifer of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge for society. Geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions to decrease carbon emissions. One such deep saline aquifer targeted for industrial-scale CO2 injection is the Basal Aquifer of Prairie Region in Canada and Northern Plains in the US. The aquifer stretches across three provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and three states (Montana, North and South Dakota), and covers approximately 1,320,000 km2 (Figure 1). A large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the foot print of the aquifer, and several CO2 injection projects are in the planning stage. In order for CO2 sequestration to be successful, the injected CO2 needs to stay isolated from the atmosphere for many centuries. Mathematical models are useful tools to assess the fate of both the injected CO2 and the resident brine. These models vary in complexity from fully three-dimensional multi-phase numerical reservoir simulators to simple semi-analytical solutions. In this presentation we compare a cascade of models ranging from single-phase semi-analytic solutions to multi-phase numerical simulators to determine the ability of each of these approaches to predict the pressure response in the injection formation. The majority of the models in this study are based on vertically-integrated governing equations; such models are computationally efficient, allow for reduced data input, and are broadly consistent with the flow physics. The petro-physical parameters and geometries used in this study are based on the geology of the Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer. Approximately ten injection sites are included in the model, with locations and injection rates based on planned injection operations. The predicted areas of review of the injection operations are used as a comparison metric among the different simulation approaches. Areal extent of the Basal Aquifer (*Source: Alberta Innovates Technology Futures)

Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Rebscher, D.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

2012-12-01

326

Basal cell carcinoma — molecular biology and potential new therapies  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, the most common malignancy in individuals of mixed European descent, is increasing in incidence due to an aging population and sun exposure habits. The realization that aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling is a pathognomonic feature of BCC development has opened the way for exciting progress toward understanding BCC biology and translation of this knowledge to the clinic. Genetic mouse models closely mimicking human BCCs have provided answers about the tumor cell of origin, and inhibition of Hedgehog signaling is emerging as a potentially useful targeted therapy for patients with advanced or multiple BCCs that have hitherto lacked effective treatment. PMID:22293184

Kasper, Maria; Jaks, Viljar; Hohl, Daniel; Toftgård, Rune

2012-01-01

327

Basal Topography of the South Polar Layered Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ice inferred to comprise the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) represents a significant fraction of the total water reservoir of the planet. The basal topography of these deposits is currently unconstrained but may be expected to contain considerable relief based on the heavily cratered nature of the surrounding terrain. In this work we report on our efforts to characterize the overall nature of this basal topography and in so doing better constrain the volume of this important volatile reservoir. Our approach has been to measure elevations at the periphery of the SPLD (defined by [1]) and use various interpolation techniques to estimate the basal topography. We used 1300 control points from the edges and areas surrounding the SPLD and included extensive control points from within the Chasmae and other features to fit a surface beneath the SPLD. No assumptions were made about any lithospheric flexure, nor did the results suggest that possibility. We first tested a variety of surface interpolation routines on a comparable area of cratered terrain immediately adjacent to the SPLD, using the same spatial distribution of 1300 height control points as we used for the SPLD itself, and found that the topography was broadly reproducible (ignoring craters) to within a few hundred meters. The SPLD basal topography we derive can be subtracted from the current spatial topography to produce isopach maps of the layered deposits. All interpolation methods we tested (within the ArcMap 8.3) indicate a lower total SPLD volume than that previous published [Smith et al., 2001]. Our best estimate for the SPLD volume is ~1 million km3, with a formal error in volume of ~5%, corresponding to an average thickness of ~950 meters. In comparison, [2] estimated this volume to be ~1.2-1.7 million km3. The Prometheus impact basin is present as a rimmed depression, consistent with the inference by [3]. More unexpected is the presence of a broad ridge underlying nearly the entire eastern half of the SPLD, which makes those deposits relatively thin. Our isopach maps show the northwestern portion of the Ultimi lobe to be an isolated thick region, in agreement with [1]. [1] Kolb, E. J., and K. L. Tanaka (2001), Icarus, 154, 22-39. [2] Smith, D. E., et al. (2001), J. Geophys. Res., 106(E10), 23,689-23,722. [3] Byrne, S., and A. B. Ivanov (2004), J. Geophys. Res., In press.

Davies, C. W.; Murray, B. C.; Byrne, S.

2004-12-01

328

Impairment of semantic memory after basal forebrain and fornix lesion.  

PubMed

Semantic memory impairment is classically associated with lesion of the anterior temporal lobe. We report the case of a patient with severe semantic knowledge impairment and anterograde amnesia after bilateral ischemic lesion of the fornix and of the basal forebrain following surgical clipping of an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed a temporal hypometabolism. Severe semantic impairment is a rare complication after rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and may result from disconnection of the temporal lobe. PMID:24498851

Solcà, Marco; Di Pietro, Marie; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice

2015-04-01

329

Unusual localization of a common cutaneous neoplasm: basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of the skin carcinomas and ultraviolet radiation is the major risk factor in the etiopathogenesis. However, reports of unusual sites for BCC are increased in the literature. Authors draw attention to possibility of other etiological agents for BCC like local trauma, ageing, ionizing radiation, arsenic, chronic inflammation, and immune deficiency. Here, we reported a 74-year-old male patient with nodular BCC on groin. We thought that ageing or local trauma may have a role in its formation. PMID:23113607

Tecimer, Rukiye Selin; Yildiz, Kürsat Demir; Aktürk, Aysun Sikar; Bilen, Nilgün

2013-06-01

330

A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

Dale, Robert H.

1978-01-01

331

Prospect of Stem Cell Conditioned Medium in Regenerative Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background. Stem cell-derived conditioned medium has a promising prospect to be produced as pharmaceuticals for regenerative medicine. Objective. To investigate various methods to obtain stem cell-derived conditioned medium (CM) to get an insight into their prospect of application in various diseases. Methods. Systematic review using keywords “stem cell” and “conditioned medium” or “secretome” and “therapy.” Data concerning treated conditions/diseases, type of cell that was cultured, medium and supplements to culture the cells, culture condition, CM processing, growth factors and other secretions that were analyzed, method of application, and outcome were noted, grouped, tabulated, and analyzed. Results. Most of CM using studies showed good results. However, the various CM, even when they were derived from the same kind of cells, were produced by different condition, that is, from different passage, culture medium, and culture condition. The growth factor yields of the various types of cells were available in some studies, and the cell number that was needed to produce CM for one application could be computed. Conclusion. Various stem cell-derived conditioned media were tested on various diseases and mostly showed good results. However, standardized methods of production and validations of their use need to be conducted. PMID:25530971

Pawitan, Jeanne Adiwinata

2014-01-01

332

Palatability of post-extraction algal residue as a protein supplement for cattle.  

SciTech Connect

Market value of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) is driven by its ability to compete with commonly fed protein sources; for example cottonseed meal (CSM) and dried distillers’ grains (DDG). An initial step in evaluating PEAR (20% CP, 59% OM) is to determine palatability when fed as a protein supplement. Accordingly, we evaluated the palatability of PEAR-containing supplements in cattle consuming a basal diet of Bermudagrass (13% CP, 76% NDF). Twelve steers were used in a 12 × 12 Latin square experiment consisting of 12 4-d periods. Each period included 3-d where steers were fed a test supplement and a 1-d washout where steers were fed DDG. Supplements were formulated with different carrier ingredients (DDG, CSM, or liquid supplement, LS) and different levels of PEAR inclusion (0, 20, 40, and 60% for DDG and CSM and 0, 33, 66, and 100% for LS). Intake and time required for consumption were recorded daily. A significant (P < 0.05) treatment × day interaction for g consumed per min (GPM) was observed. This interaction resulted from changing rates of consumption as cattle adapted to supplements. Supplements containing DDG had the greatest rates of consumption (177 – 187 GPM), followed by CSM supplements (148 – 166 GPM). Blends including PEAR and LS had slower rates of consumption (58 – 93 GPM). Supplement formulation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the amount of supplement consumed and time required for complete consumption. Supplements which contained DDG or CSM were consumed in less than 11 min; complete consumption was observed 92 – 100% of the time. Treatments containing LS required more time for complete consumption (21 – 33 min) and were finished 77 – 96% of the time. Our results suggest PEAR can be blended (up to 60%) with existing ingredients utilized in beef rations to create suitable protein supplements. However, PEAR is not palatable when offered alone (complete consumption of 100% PEAR occurred 77.5% of the time and required 31.5 min) or incorporated into LS. Additional research is necessary to determine the impact of PEAR on nutrient utilization in cattle.

Drewery, M. L. [Texas A& M University; Sawyer, J. E. [Texas A& M University; Wickersham, T. A. [Texas A& M University

2012-12-01

333

Selective medium for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from soil and rhizosphere environments.  

PubMed Central

A selective medium (XMSM) was developed for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from bulk soil and plant rhizosphere environments. The XMSM basal medium contained maltose, tryptone, bromthymol blue, and agar. Antibiotics added to select for X. maltophilia were cycloheximide, nystatin, cephalexin, bacitracin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin sulfate, and tobramycin. A comparison was made between XMSM and 1/10-strength tryptic soy broth agar for recovery of X. maltophilia from sterile and nonsterile soil infested with known X. maltophilia isolates. A recovery rate of 97% or greater for XMSM was demonstrated. XMSM was used to isolate X. maltophilia from a variety of soil and rhizosphere environments. PMID:2930173

Juhnke, M E; des Jardin, E

1989-01-01

334

Distribution and Intrinsic Membrane Properties of Basal Forebrain GABAergic and Parvalbumin Neurons in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

The basal forebrain (BF) strongly regulates cortical activation, sleep homeostasis, and attention. Many BF neurons involved in these processes are GABAergic, including a subpopulation of projection neurons containing the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). However, technical difficulties in identification have prevented a precise mapping of the distribution of GABAergic and GABA/PV+ neurons in the mouse or a determination of their intrinsic membrane properties. Here we used mice expressing fluorescent proteins in GABAergic (GAD67-GFP knock-in mice) or PV+ neurons (PV-Tomato mice) to study these neurons. Immunohistochemical staining for GABA in GAD67-GFP mice confirmed that GFP selectively labeled BF GABAergic neurons. GFP+ neurons and fibers were distributed throughout the BF, with the highest density in the magnocellular preoptic area (MCPO). Immunohistochemistry for PV indicated that the majority of PV+ neurons in the BF were large (>20 ?m) or medium-sized (15–20 ?m) GFP+ neurons. Most medium and large-sized BF GFP+ neurons, including those retrogradely labeled from the neocortex, were fast-firing and spontaneously active in vitro. They exhibited prominent hyperpolarization-activated inward currents and subthreshold “spikelets,” suggestive of electrical coupling. PV+ neurons recorded in PV-Tomato mice had similar properties but had significantly narrower action potentials and a higher maximal firing frequency. Another population of smaller GFP+ neurons had properties similar to striatal projection neurons. The fast firing and electrical coupling of BF GABA/PV+ neurons, together with their projections to cortical interneurons and the thalamic reticular nucleus, suggest a strong and synchronous control of the neocortical fast rhythms typical of wakefulness and REM sleep. PMID:23254904

McKenna, James T.; Yang, Chun; Franciosi, Serena; Winston, Stuart; Abarr, Kathleen K.; Rigby, Matthew S.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; McCarley, Robert W.; Brown, Ritchie E.

2013-01-01

335

Nutritional Supplements in Canine Dermatoses  

PubMed Central

Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880

Ackerman, Lowell

1987-01-01

336

A single medium for the isolation of acetylene-reducing (dinitrogen-fixing) bacteria from soils.  

PubMed

A single medium, containing standard basal salts and three common carbon sources (sucrose, mannitol, and sodium lactate) is proposed to replace nitrogen-free media in common use for isolating dinitrogen-fixing bacteria. Eight commonly isolated genera of dinitrogen-fixing bacterial exhibited growth on this combined carbon medium that equalled or bettered growth on other carbon-containing media. Combined carbon medium also yielded the highest counts of putative dinitrogen-fixing bacteria from three southern Alberta soils. A survey of the bacteria isolated aerobically from the Burdett soil on combined carbon agar indicated that, at higher dilutions, 75% of the isolates exhibited acetylene reduction. These bacteria were identified as Azospirillum spp., Bacillus polymyxa, B. macerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Erwinia herbicola, and Enterobacter cloacae. The inclusion of yeast extract in combined carbon medium is considered essential to supply organic growth factors and may supply "starter" nitrogen that promotes growth without inhibiting acetylene reduction. PMID:7214234

Rennie, R J

1981-01-01

337

Effect of reduced ovarian tissue on cyclicity, basal hormonal levels and follicular development in old rats.  

PubMed

Reduction of the number of growing follicles was proposed to contribute to the decline in reproductive performance with aging (Butcher and Page, 1981). To investigate the effects of a reduced number of follicles, rats which maintained regular estrous cycles at greater than 1 yr of age had either unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) or control surgery. Irregular estrous cycles and periods of constant estrus were more frequent during a period of 90 days after ULO than in controls. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration in plasma collected at 0900-1100 h of the metestrus nearest to 20, 50, and 90 days after surgery was increased by ULO; in both treatment groups, FSH increased between 20 and 90 days. Compensation in ovarian weight and number of corpora lutea had occurred by 90 days after ULO. Estradiol, estrone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations did not change with time or treatment. Numbers of small, medium and large antral follicles per ovary at metestrus were increased by ULO, while the number of follicles per rat was decreased. It was concluded that the reduction in ovarian tissue (which decreased the number of growing follicles) resulted in an elevation of basal FSH followed by irregularity in estrous cycles. PMID:3921071

Butcher, R L

1985-03-01

338

The basal transcription machinery as a target for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

General transcription is required for the growth and survival of all living cells. However, tumor cells require extraordinary levels of transcription, including the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes by RNA polymerase I (RNPI) and mRNA by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). In fact, cancer cells have mutations that directly enhance transcription and are frequently required for cancer transformation. For example, the recent discovery that MYC enhances the transcription of the majority genes in the genome correlates with the fact that several transcription interfering drugs preferentially kill cancer cells. In recent years, advances in the mechanistic studies of the basal transcription machinery and the discovery of drugs that interfere with multiple components of transcription are being used to combat cancer. For example, drugs such as triptolide that targets the general transcription factors TFIIH and JQ1 to inhibit BRD4 are administered to target the high proliferative rate of cancer cells. Given the importance of finding new strategies to preferentially sensitize tumor cells, this review primarily focuses on several transcription inhibitory drugs to demonstrate that the basal transcription machinery constitutes a potential target for the design of novel cancer drugs. We highlight the drugs' mechanisms for interfering with tumor cell survival, their importance in cancer treatment and the challenges of clinical application. PMID:24576043

Villicaña, Claudia; Cruz, Grisel; Zurita, Mario

2014-01-01

339

The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms  

PubMed Central

In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

Endress, Peter K.

2010-01-01

340

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).  

PubMed

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease. PMID:24983277

Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

2014-07-01

341

Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated. PMID:23439912

Dourmishev, Lyubomir A.; Rusinova, Darena; Botev, Ivan

2013-01-01

342

Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated. PMID:23439912

Dourmishev, Lyubomir A; Rusinova, Darena; Botev, Ivan

2013-01-01

343

Hox cluster duplication in the basal teleost Hiodon alosoides (Osteoglossomorpha).  

PubMed

Large-scale--even genome-wide--duplications have repeatedly been invoked as an explanation for major radiations. Teleosts, the most species-rich vertebrate clade, underwent a "fish-specific genome duplication" (FSGD) that is shared by most ray-finned fish lineages. We investigate here the Hox complement of the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a representative of Osteoglossomorpha, the most basal teleostean clade. An extensive PCR survey reveals that goldeye has at least eight Hox clusters, indicating a duplicated genome compared to basal actinopterygians. The possession of duplicated Hox clusters is uncoupled to species richness. The Hox system of the goldeye is substantially different from that of other teleost lineages, having retained several duplicates of Hox genes for which crown teleosts have lost at least one copy. A detailed analysis of the PCR fragments as well as full length sequences of two HoxA13 paralogs, and HoxA10 and HoxC4 genes places the duplication event close in time to the divergence of Osteoglossomorpha and crown teleosts. The data are consistent with-but do not conclusively prove-that Osteoglossomorpha shares the FSGD. PMID:19225820

Chambers, Karen E; McDaniell, Ryan; Raincrow, Jeremy D; Deshmukh, Maya; Stadler, Peter F; Chiu, Chi-hua

2009-05-01

344

The basal transcription machinery as a target for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

General transcription is required for the growth and survival of all living cells. However, tumor cells require extraordinary levels of transcription, including the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes by RNA polymerase I (RNPI) and mRNA by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). In fact, cancer cells have mutations that directly enhance transcription and are frequently required for cancer transformation. For example, the recent discovery that MYC enhances the transcription of the majority genes in the genome correlates with the fact that several transcription interfering drugs preferentially kill cancer cells. In recent years, advances in the mechanistic studies of the basal transcription machinery and the discovery of drugs that interfere with multiple components of transcription are being used to combat cancer. For example, drugs such as triptolide that targets the general transcription factors TFIIH and JQ1 to inhibit BRD4 are administered to target the high proliferative rate of cancer cells. Given the importance of finding new strategies to preferentially sensitize tumor cells, this review primarily focuses on several transcription inhibitory drugs to demonstrate that the basal transcription machinery constitutes a potential target for the design of novel cancer drugs. We highlight the drugs’ mechanisms for interfering with tumor cell survival, their importance in cancer treatment and the challenges of clinical application. PMID:24576043

2014-01-01

345

Patterns of recurrence in the basal and non-basal subtypes of triple-negative breast cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional prognostic markers for breast cancer include estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (ER) and HER2\\/neu.\\u000a Negative staining for these three markers defines the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype. By adding markers for cytokeratin 5\\/6 and\\u000a EGFR, triple-negative breast cancers can be divided into ‘basal-like’ and ‘normal-like’ subgroups. We conducted immuno-staining\\u000a on a panel of 958 patients with breast cancer, using all five markers

Sharon Nofech-Mozes; Maureen Trudeau; Harriet K. Kahn; Rebecca Dent; Ellen Rawlinson; Ping Sun; Steven A. Narod; Wedad M. Hanna

2009-01-01

346

Assessment of the Efficacy of L-Lysine Sulfate vis-à-vis L-Lysine Hydrochloride as Sources of Supplemental Lysine in Broiler Chickens.  

PubMed

In this study the effects of L-lysine hydrochloride (containing 78.8% available lysine as crystalline lysine) and L-lysine sulfate (containing 51% available lysine in bacterial cell mass) as source of supplemental lysine in broiler chickens was assessed. The basal diet was supplemented with either L-lysine hydrochloride or L-lysine sulfate to meet lysine requirement. Lysine supplementation irrespective of source improved (P < .05) live weight and food conversion. Live weight and food conversion ratio of the L-lysine sulfate group was superior (P < .05) to the L-lysine hydrochloride group. Supplementation of lysine to the basal diet improved breast meat yield (P < .05). Meat protein content and protein accretion increased (P < .01) when L-lysine sulfate was supplemented. Nutrient metabolizability, N retention, protein utilization efficiency and live weight gain : lysine intake ratio also improved (P < .01) with L-lysine sulfate. A fasting trial conducted after the completion of the feeding trial indicated that the birds receiving L-lysine sulfate retained more of their live weight than the control and the L-lysine hydrochloride dietary groups (P < .05). It was concluded that due to the retained bacterial cell mass, L-lysine sulfate may be a superior source of supplemental lysine than L-lysine hydrochloride for broiler chickens. PMID:20706643

Bahadur, Vijay; Haldar, Sudipto; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

2010-01-01

347

Assessment of the Efficacy of L-Lysine Sulfate vis-à-vis L-Lysine Hydrochloride as Sources of Supplemental Lysine in Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

In this study the effects of L-lysine hydrochloride (containing 78.8% available lysine as crystalline lysine) and L-lysine sulfate (containing 51% available lysine in bacterial cell mass) as source of supplemental lysine in broiler chickens was assessed. The basal diet was supplemented with either L-lysine hydrochloride or L-lysine sulfate to meet lysine requirement. Lysine supplementation irrespective of source improved (P < .05) live weight and food conversion. Live weight and food conversion ratio of the L-lysine sulfate group was superior (P < .05) to the L-lysine hydrochloride group. Supplementation of lysine to the basal diet improved breast meat yield (P < .05). Meat protein content and protein accretion increased (P < .01) when L-lysine sulfate was supplemented. Nutrient metabolizability, N retention, protein utilization efficiency and live weight gain : lysine intake ratio also improved (P < .01) with L-lysine sulfate. A fasting trial conducted after the completion of the feeding trial indicated that the birds receiving L-lysine sulfate retained more of their live weight than the control and the L-lysine hydrochloride dietary groups (P < .05). It was concluded that due to the retained bacterial cell mass, L-lysine sulfate may be a superior source of supplemental lysine than L-lysine hydrochloride for broiler chickens. PMID:20706643

Bahadur, Vijay; Haldar, Sudipto; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

2010-01-01

348

Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?  

MedlinePLUS

... supplements you are already taking, including herbal or botanicals, to protect yourself against taking too much. Also, tell your doctor about any other medicines you are taking, to see if there could ...

349

Effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts on growth performance and aspects of gastrointestinal health of newly weaned piglets after challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.  

PubMed

In the present study, a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts ( - SWE v. +SWE, n 20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on post-weaning (PW) growth performance, faecal score, faecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) toxin quantification, intestinal histology and cytokine mRNA of unchallenged and ETEC-challenged pigs. Pigs were ETEC challenged on day 9 PW. There was a maternal treatment × challenge (SWE × ETEC) interaction effect on growth performance and faecal score (P< 0.05). Pigs from SWE-supplemented sows and ETEC-challenged (SE) had higher average daily gain (ADG) during 0-13 d PW and reduced faecal score during 0-72 h post-challenge than those from basal-fed sows and ETEC-challenged (BE) (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference between unchallenged pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows (SC) and basal-fed sows (BC) (P>0.10). Pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows had reduced heat-labile enterotoxin gene copy numbers than those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). Maternal SWE supplementation increased the villus height in the ileum of pigs (P< 0.05). There was a SWE × ETEC interaction effect (P< 0.05) on IL-6 mRNA and a SWE × gastrointestinal (GI) region interaction effect (P< 0.05) on transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and TNF-? mRNA. IL-6 mRNA was down-regulated in SC pigs than BC pigs (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in IL-6 mRNA between SE and BE pigs. The mRNA of TGF-?1 and TNF-? was down-regulated in the colon of pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows compared with those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in TGF-?1 and TNF-? mRNA in the ileum between the pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows and basal-fed sows. In conclusion, maternal SWE supplementation improves ADG and the aspects of GI health of weaned pigs following an ETEC challenge. PMID:25345748

Heim, G; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

2014-12-01

350

Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium  

PubMed Central

In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L?1 starch, 30 g L?1 soya bean and 9 g L?1 sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view. PMID:24516462

Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

2013-01-01

351

Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Cardiac Troponin Release in Cyclists: A Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant) on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists. Methods Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg?1·min?1, Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg?1; mean ± SD) were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day), or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (? 120 min). Results The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0–4.2) to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7–6.7), immediately post-exercise (p<0.001). Four weeks of astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased mean basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from non-detectable values to 175±86 µg·kg?1. However, daily astaxanthin supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p?=?0.24), as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde). Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase) were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation. Conclusion Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations, astaxanthin supplementation did not improve antioxidant capacity in well-trained cyclists. Accordingly, exercise-induced cardiac troponin T concentrations were not affected by astaxanthin supplementation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01241877 PMID:24260184

Haenen, Guido R.; Bast, Aalt; van Loon, Luc J. C.; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P.; Meex, Steven J.R.

2013-01-01

352

Plutonium shipments - a supplement  

SciTech Connect

By means of a supplement to the stimulating analysis found in the comprehensive article by Professor Jon Van Dyke on `Sea Shipment of Japanese Plutonium under International Law`, published in Volume 24 of this journal, we feel that the following clarifications and additions are appropriate. Radioactive wastes are not covered by the 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. Fir this reason, the Basel Conference adopted on March 22, 1989, along with the convention, Resolution 5 on Harmonization of Procedures of the Basel Convention and the Code of Practice for International Transactions Involving Nuclear Wastes. In accordance with Resolution 5, the provisions of the Basel Convention were taken into full account during the elaboration of the IAEA code, which ultimately was adopted by Resolution GC(XXXIV)/530 of the General Conference on Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste (TMRW) of September 21, 1990. The IAEA code of practice and the respective regional instruments affirm, with respect to TMRW, the general principles of the Basel Convention, including the critical regime of prior notification and prior informed consent (PIC) that extend the scope of duties of notification, environmental impact assessment, and consultation with respect to transboundary interference as the duties have evolved under existing customary law.

Kwiatkowska, B.; Soons, A. [Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1994-10-01

353

Growth plate chondrocyte maturation is regulated by basal intracellular calcium.  

PubMed

Among the cellular events that are associated with the process of endochondral ossification is an incremental increase in chondrocyte basal intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) from 50 to 100 nM. To determine if this rise in [Ca(2+)](i) functionally participates in the maturational process of growth plate chondrocytes (GPCs), we examined its effect on several markers of hypertrophy, including annexin V, bone morphogenetic protein-6, type X collagen, and indian hedgehog. Expression of these genes was determined under conditions either where the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA was used to deplete extracellular Ca(2+) and lower [Ca(2+)](i) to < 50 nM or where the extracellular addition of 5 mM CaCl(2) was used to elevate [Ca(2+)](i) to > 100 nM. Although no effect on the expression of these genes was observed following treatment with 5 mM CaCl(2), 4 mM EGTA significantly inhibited their expression. This effect was recapitulated in sternal chondrocytes and was reversed following withdrawal of EGTA. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the EGTA-induced suppression of these genes was mediated by a factor whose expression is responsive to changes in basal [Ca(2+)](i). Since EGTA mimicked the effect of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) on GPC maturation, we examined the effect of low [Ca(2+)](i) on PTHrP expression. Suggesting that low [Ca(2+)](i) suppression of hypertrophy was PTHrP-dependent in GPCs, (a) treatment with 4 mM EGTA increased PTHrP expression, (b) the EGTA effect was rescued by blocking PTHrP binding to its receptor with the competitive antagonist TIP(7-39), and (c) EGTA could mimic the PTHrP stimulation of AP-1 binding to DNA. Additionally, PTHrP promoter analysis identified a domain (-1498 to -862, relative to the start codon) involved with conferring Ca(2+) sensitivity to the PTHrP gene. These findings underscore the importance of cellular Ca(2+) in GPC function and suggest that PTHrP action in the growth plate is at least partially regulated by changes in basal [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:12027460

Zuscik, Michael J; D'Souza, Mary; Ionescu, Andreia M; Gunter, Karlene K; Gunter, Thomas E; O'Keefe, Regis J; Schwarz, Edward M; Puzas, J Edward; Rosier, Randy N

2002-06-10

354

Interplanetary medium dust - dusty plasma ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements from spacecraft provide the only opportunity for in-situ studies of cosmic dusty plasmas and the most extended target for measurements is the interplanetary medium filled with cosmic dust and solar wind plasma Though the interplanetary medium does not provide a dusty plasma according to its proper definition dusty plasma conditions may locally apply Moreover dust plasma interactions in the

I. Mann

2006-01-01

355

Apical effect of diosmectite on damage to the intestinal barrier induced by basal tumour necrosis factor-alpha.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In many digestive diseases the intestinal barrier is weakened by the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). AIM: To investigate the protective effect of apical diosmectite on the intestinal dysfunction induced by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF alpha. METHODS: Filter grown monolayers of the intestinal cell line HT29-19A were incubated for 48 hours in basal medium containing 10 ng/ml TNF alpha and 5 U/ml interferon-gamma (IFN gamma). Next, 1, 10, or 100 mg/ml diosmectite was placed in the apical medium for one hour. Intestinal function was then assessed in Ussing chambers by measuring ionic conductance (G) and apicobasal fluxes of 14C-mannitol (Jman), and intact horseradish peroxidase. In control intestinal monolayers, diosmectite did not significantly modify G, Jman, or intact horseradish peroxidase. RESULTS: After incubation with TNF alpha and IFN gamma, intestinal function altered, as shown by the increases compared with control values for G (22.8 (3.7) v (9.6 (0.5) mS/cm2), Jman (33.8 (7.5) v 7.56 (0.67) micrograms/h x cm2), and intact horseradish peroxidase (1.95 (1.12) v 0.14 (0.04) micrograms/h x cm2). G and Jman were closely correlated, suggesting that the increase in permeability was paracellular. Treatment with diosmectite restored al the variables to control values. CONCLUSIONS: Basal TNF alpha disrupts the intestinal barrier through the tight junctions, and apical diosmectite counteracts this disruption. PMID:9135522

Mahraoui, L; Heyman, M; Plique, O; Droy-Lefaix, M T; Desjeux, J F

1997-01-01

356

The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli  

PubMed Central

This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

Zahm, Daniel S.

2011-01-01

357

In vitro basal and metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity of flavonoids.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the basal cytotoxicity and metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity of kaempferol, quercetin and rutin. McCoy cells were exposed to various concentrations of the flavonols with and without the S9 system. The neutral red uptake assay was used to determine viability after 24 h at 35-37 degrees C. Dose-response curves were established for each flavonol in the presence and absence of external metabolizing systems. Kaempferol and quercetin were cytotoxic and provoked a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, without the S9 system. The hepatic S9 microsomal fraction metabolized these compounds to less cytotoxic metabolites. In contrast, rutin at 500 microg/ml failed to produce any overt signs of toxicity in either assay. PMID:16376008

Soares, V C G; Varanda, E A; Raddi, M S G

2006-06-01

358

A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight.  

PubMed

Fossil evidence for changes in dinosaurs near the lineage leading to birds and the origin of flight has been sparse. A dinosaur from Mongolia represents the basal divergence within Dromaeosauridae. The taxon's small body size and phylogenetic position imply that extreme miniaturization was ancestral for Paraves (the clade including Avialae, Troodontidae, and Dromaeosauridae), phylogenetically earlier than where flight evolution is strongly inferred. In contrast to the sustained small body sizes among avialans throughout the Cretaceous Period, the two dinosaurian lineages most closely related to birds, dromaeosaurids and troodontids, underwent four independent events of gigantism, and in some lineages size increased by nearly three orders of magnitude. Thus, change in theropod body size leading to flight's origin was not unidirectional. PMID:17823350

Turner, Alan H; Pol, Diego; Clarke, Julia A; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A

2007-09-01

359

[Specific characteristics of skin basal cell carcinoma invasion].  

PubMed

Histological, electron-microscopic and immunomorphologic studies were made in 30 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin. In the immunomorphological study the antibodies to pankeratin, to keratins of N8, 17 (K N8, K N17) and to laminin were used. Two microscopical types of BCC growth distinguished by their clinical manifestations were revealed: compact-nodulous and diffuse-infiltrative. In BCC with diffuse-infiltrative type of growth the basement membrane was markedly fragmentated or completely absent in some regions. This indicates aggressive character of these tumors. This type of BCC growth was characterized by pronounced expression of K N8. The expression of K N17 was revealed in all BCCs. PMID:10897434

Do?kova, N G; Cherny?, A P; Chipysheva, T A; Gel'shte?n, V I

2000-01-01

360

Basal-bolus insulin protocols enter the computer age.  

PubMed

Diabetes affects approximately one quarter of all hospitalized patients. Poor inpatient glycemic control has been associated with increased risk for multiple adverse events including surgical site infections, prolonged hospital length of stay, and mortality. Inpatient glycemic control protocols based on physiologic basal-bolus insulin regimens have been shown to improve glycemia and clinical outcomes and are recommended by the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the Society of Hospital Medicine for inpatient glycemic management of noncritically ill patients. The 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act will catalyze widespread computerized medication order entry implementation over the next few years. Here, we focus on the noncritical care setting and review the background on inpatient glycemic management as it pertains to computerized order entry, the translation and efficacy of computerizing glycemic control protocols, and the barriers to computerizing glycemic protocols. PMID:22015856

Wei, Nancy J; Wexler, Deborah J

2012-02-01

361

Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

Tang, Jean Y. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: tangy@stanford.edu; So, P.-L. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Epstein, Ervin H. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2007-11-01

362

Changing Views of Basal Ganglia Circuits and Circuit Disorders  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia (BG) have long been considered to play an important role in the control of movement and the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies over the past decades have considerably broadened this view, indicating that the BG participate in multiple, parallel, largely segregated, cortico-subcortical reentrant pathways involving motor, associative and limbic functions. Research has shown that dysfunction within individual circuits is associated not only with movement disorders, but also with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, a number of movement disorders and neuropsychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette’s syndrome are viewed as “circuit disorders.” We here discuss the changes in our current understanding of the anatomic and functional organization of BG circuits and related circuit disorders. PMID:20521487

DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

2014-01-01

363

Basal ganglia output to the thalamus: still a paradox  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia (BG) recipient thalamus controls motor output but it remains unclear how its activity is regulated. Several studies report that thalamic activation occurs via disinhibition during pauses in the firing of inhibitory pallidal inputs from the BG. Other studies indicate that thalamic spiking is triggered by pallidal inputs via post-inhibitory ‘rebound’ calcium spikes. Finally excitatory cortical inputs can drive thalamic activity, which becomes entrained, or time-locked, to pallidal spikes. We present a unifying framework where these seemingly distinct results arise from a continuum of thalamic firing ‘modes’ controlled by excitatory inputs. We provide a mechanistic explanation for paradoxical pallidothalamic coactivations observed during behavior and raise new questions of what information is integrated in the thalamus to control behavior. PMID:24188636

Farries, Michael A.; Fee, Michale S.

2013-01-01

364

Three-dimensional structure of basal body triplet revealed by electron cryo-tomography  

PubMed Central

Basal bodies and centrioles play central roles in microtubule (MT)-organizing centres within many eukaryotes. They share a barrel-shaped cylindrical structure composed of nine MT triplet blades. Here, we report the structure of the basal body triplet at 33 Å resolution obtained by electron cryo-tomography and 3D subtomogram averaging. By fitting the atomic structure of tubulin into the EM density, we built a pseudo-atomic model of the tubulin protofilaments at the core of the triplet. The 3D density map reveals additional densities that represent non-tubulin proteins attached to the triplet, including a large inner circular structure in the basal body lumen, which functions as a scaffold to stabilize the entire basal body barrel. We found clear longitudinal structural variations along the basal body, suggesting a sequential and coordinated assembly mechanism. We propose a model in which ?-tubulin and other components participate in the assembly of the basal body. PMID:22157822

Li, Sam; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus; Marshall, Wallace F; Agard, David A

2012-01-01

365

A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont  

PubMed Central

A new well-preserved basal therapsid skull from the Xidagou Formation, Middle Permian of China, is identified as Biseridens qilianicus. The following synapomorphies distinguish Biseridens as an anomodont and not an eotitanosuchian as previously described: short snout; dorsally elevated zygomatic arch and septomaxilla lacking elongated posterodorsal process between nasal and maxilla. The presence of a differentiated tooth row; denticles on vomer, palatine and pterygoid; contact between tabular and opisthotic; lateral process of transverse flange of pterygoid free of posterior ramus and absence of mandibular foramen exclude it from other anomodonts. Our cladistic analysis indicates Biseridens to be the most basal anomodont, highlights separate Laurasian and Gondwanan basal anomodont clades and suggests that dicynodonts had their origins in the Gondwanan clade. The co-occurrence of the most basal anomodont (Biseridens) together with the most basal therapsid (Raranimus), basal anteosaurid dinocephalians, bolosaurids and dissorophids suggests that the earliest therapsid faunas are from China. PMID:19640887

Liu, Jun; Rubidge, Bruce; Li, Jinling

2010-01-01

366

Immunohistological and electrophysiological characterization of Globose basal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): In the past few decades, variety of foetal, embryonic and adult stem and progenitor cells have been tried with conflicting outcome for cell therapy of central nervous system injury and diseases. Cellular characteristics and functional plasticity of Globose basal stem cells (GBCs) residing in the olfactory epithelium of rat olfactory mucosa have not been studied in the past by the neuroscientists due to unavailability of specific markers for GBCs. In the present research, we standardized some techniques to isolate GBCs from rat olfactory epithelium in pure form using a highly selective GBC-III antibody passaged through fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). We also characterized these cells immunohistologically using various pluripotent stem cell markers. This work also throws some light on ionic channels present on these stem cells which are responsible for their neuron induction potential. Materials and Methods: Globose basal stem cells were isolated from rat olfactory epithelium using GBC-III antibody and were characterized as multipotent stem cells using various neural progenitor markers. Ionic channels on GBCs were studied with voltage clamping. Results: GBCs could be isolated in pure (99% purity) form and were found to be stained positive for all neural progenitor cell markers. Voltage gated Na+ channels were completely absent, which proves the unexcitable nature of GBCs. Leaky K+ channels were found to be present on the GBC which was of no significance. Conclusion: This research work can be helpful in understanding the nature of these stem cells and utilising them in future as potent candidates for neuro-regenerative therapies. PMID:24904721

Thakur, Avinash; Muniswami, Duraimurugan; Tharion, George; Kanakasabapathy, Indirani

2014-01-01

367

The Nervous Systems of Basally Branching Nemertea (Palaeonemertea)  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks. PMID:23785478

Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

2013-01-01

368

The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).  

PubMed

In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks. PMID:23785478

Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

2013-01-01

369

Humanized Foxp2 specifically affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution and influence aspects of speech and language. Recently it was shown that when these substitutions are introduced into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice, they increase dendrite length and long-term depression (LTD) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum.

S. Reimers-Kipping; W. Hevers; S. Pääbo; W. Enard

2011-01-01

370

Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Methods Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. Results IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. Conclusion FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA in the tumorigenesis of triple negative, basal-like FMAs. The strong similarities in clinical behavior, morphology and IHC phenotype suggest that triple negative, basal-like FMAs may be a suitable spontaneous animal model for studying novel therapeutic approaches against human basal-like TNBC. PMID:24004841

2013-01-01

371

Response to dietary supplementation of l-glutamine and l-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

2014-11-01

372

Le mosasauridé basal Halisaurus sternbergii du Crétacé supérieur du Kansas (Amérique du Nord): une révision du spécimen type d'Uppsala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The type specimen of Clidastes sternbergii Wiman, 1920, a basal mosasaurid from the Santonian of Kansas (USA), is reviewed. Its attribution to Halisaurus is confirmed. H. sternbergii is mainly defined on the basis of cranial characters: frontal with a smooth dorsal surface bearing a prominent median ridge; parietal with a triangular table extending far posteriorly and bearing a medium sized circular foramen, which is located at a distance equal to twice its diameter from the frontal-parietal suture. The vertebral column and appendicular skeleton retain many plesiomorphies. H. sternbergii is the oldest species of the genus, also known in the Maastrichtian.

Bardet, Nathalie; Pereda Suberbiola, Xabier

2001-03-01

373

Metastatic basal cell carcinoma to the lungs: Case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer and it rarely metastasizes. The prevalence of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) varies between 0.0028% and 0.55% of all cases. Over 250 MBCC have been reported in the literature. We present a case with large recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the face with radiological and histopathological findings indicating the presence of metastasis to the lungs. PMID:25506559

Nongrum, Henry Benson; Bhuyan, Debomaliya; Royte, Vanlalhuma; Dkhar, Hughbert

2014-01-01

374

Age-Related Changes in Cutaneous Basal Lamin: Scanning Electron Microscopic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron microscopy of human epidermal-dermal basal lamina demonstrated striking age-related changes. The basal lamina from abdominal skin was exposed in specimens from 26 humans by separation of epidermis and dermis after treatment with sodium bromide solutions. Transmission electron micrographs demonstrated the split to be in the lamina lucida. Scanning electron microscopy of mature epidermal-dermal junction and basal lamina showed

Meredith T. Hull; K. A. Warfel

1983-01-01

375

Influence of different amounts and sources of selenium supplementation on performance, some blood parameters, and nutrient digestibility in lambs.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of selenium (Se) on performance, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility in male lambs on a barley-based diet. The first trial lasted for 70 days and consisted of 30 lambs (35.6?±?2.6 kg mean body weight, about 4-5 months of age) which were randomly allotted to five treatments including: (1) basal diet (containing 0.06 mg Se/kg DM; control) without supplementary Se, (2) basal diet?+?0.20 mg/kg Se as sodium selenite (SeS 0.20), (3) basal diet?+?0.40 mg/kg Se as sodium selenite (SeS 0.40), (4) basal diet?+?0.20 mg/kg Se as selenium yeast (SeY 0.20), and (5) basal diet?+?0.40 mg/kg Se as selenium yeast (SeY 0.40). For the second trial, four lambs from each group of experiment 1 were randomly allocated to individual metabolic cages for 14 days to measure the effects of dietary Se on nutrient digestibility. The results revealed that there were no significant differences for average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, hematological parameters (packed cell volume, red blood cell, white blood cell, and hemoglobin values), serum total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase due to supplementation of different amounts and sources of Se in lambs. Dietary Se supplementation significantly improved (P?supplementation. It may be concluded that supplementation of Se in lambs had no significant effect on performance and blood hematology, but increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity and serum T3 amount and decreased serum T4 amount as compared to non-supplemented control lambs. Furthermore, Se yeast improved nutrient digestibility in lambs. PMID:23677850

Alimohamady, Reza; Aliarabi, Hassan; Bahari, Aliasghar; Dezfoulian, Amir Hossein

2013-07-01

376

Biochemical and cytochemical evidence for ATPase activity in basal bodies isolated from oviduct  

PubMed Central

Biochemical and cytochemical techniques were used to determine whether oviduct basal bodies have ATPase activity. All studies were carried out on basal bodies isolated and purified from the chicken oviduct. These preparations contained structurally intact basal bodies with basal feet, rootlet, and alar sheet accessory structures. Whereas the specific activity of the basal body ATPase in 2 mM Ca++ or 2 mM Mg++, 1 mM ATP, pH 8.0, averaged 0.04 mumol Pi/min per mg protein, higher concentrations of either cation inhibited the enzyme activity. Furthermore, the pH optimum for this reaction was pH 8.5. In comparison, the ATPase activity in cilia purified and measured under conditions identical to those for determining the basal body ATPase activity averaged 0.07 mumol Pi/min per mg protein. However, the activity increased at higher concentrations of divalent cation, and the pH optimum was pH 10.0. By cytochemical procedures for localizing ATPase activity, ATP-dependent reaction product in isolated basal bodies was found to be confined to: (a) the cross-striations of the rootlet; (b) the outer portion of the basal foot; (c) the alar sheets; and (d) the triplet microtubules. It is concluded that basal bodiesve an intrinsic ATPase activity that, by a variety of criteria, can be distinguished from the ATPase activity found in cilia. PMID:18479

1977-01-01

377

http://www.tutis.ca/NeuroMD/index.htm 23 March 2013 Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia  

E-print Network

..................................................................................4 Basic Circuit........................................................................................................................4 Parallel and climbing fiber input has a very different effect on Purkinje cells...........................................................................................................................16 The circuit of the basal ganglia

Vilis, Tutis

378

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

Wilborn, Colin

379

Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

2013-01-01

380

Hemolytic Activities of the Candida Species in Liquid Medium  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activities of 107 Candida strains isolated from different clinical samples in liquid medium, and to examine the impact of glucose on this activity. Materials and Methods A total of 107 Candida isolates representing seven species (C. albicans, n=28; C. glabrata, n=23; C. tropicalis, n=17; C. parapsilosis, n=16; C. kefyr, n=14; C. krusei, n=5; C. guilliermondii, n=4) were included in the study. The hemolytic activities of the strains were tested on two different Sabouraud dextrose liquid media (SDB) containing 7% defibrinated human blood, one of which is supplemented with 3% glucose and the other without glucose. Cultures were evaluated at the end of a 48-hour incubation. The hemolysis in the media was detected spectrophotometrically by measuring the amount of released hemoglobin and compared with a standard hemolysate which was prepared prior to testing. The degree of hemolysis (percentage value) by an individual strain was calculated according to the following formula below: (Absorbance of supernatant media at 540 nm / Absorbance of standard hemolysate at 540 nm X 100). Results In the liquid medium without glucose, strains generally produced hemolysis at low levels. The degree of hemolysis produced by all species increased noticeably in the liquid medium with glucose. Strains of C. albicans and C.kefyr had demonstrated significant hemolytic activity, whereas others had lower activity. C. parapsilosis exerted very little hemolytic activity in the medium with glucose and showed no activity in the medium without glucose. Conclusion The hemolytic activities of most Candida species was found to be higher in the human blood-enriched SDB medium containing 3% additive glucose than in the one free from additives. This result indicates that increased blood glucose concentration may contribute to increased hemolytic activity in Candida species, and it suggests a parallel with possible pathogenesis of Candida in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Malcok, Hilal Kuzucu; Aktas, Esin; Ayyildiz, Ahmet; Yigit, Nimet; Yazgi, Halil

2009-01-01

381

Improved methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium: Application to studies of lymphoblast proliferation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have compared several methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium, with the objective\\u000a of producing selective deficiency effects on the growth of mouse (L5178Y) and human (P1R) lymphoblasts. In experiments in\\u000a which calcium- and magnesium-“free” McCoy’s medium was supplemented with 15% horse or fetal calf serum, enough calcium and\\u000a magnesium was provided by serum to

James K. Brennan; James Mansky; Geraldine Roberts; Marshall A. Lichtman

1975-01-01

382

Effects of various dietary supplements acting as unidentified growth factor sources in the chick  

E-print Network

fed the basal diet, diet 9 (1/2X Fermasol) did not affect a significant improvement. The greatest growth response was obtained in the group fed diet 7 (5X fish meal + 2-1/2X dried whey), resulting in an improvement of 110. 13 g; the minimum... response, charccteri. -tic between sexes, was shown. From these observations, it c, . n be concluded that under the conditions of this experiment, 5% I sh meal when supplemented in combination either with 2-1/2% dried whey or 2-1/2% condensed fish...

Castro Gil, Efrain

2012-06-07

383

The use of lysine supplementation in broiler diets containing cottonseed oil meal and sesame oil meal  

E-print Network

was supplemented with fish meal and meat (group ~), which contained 1. 2/4 lysins. Furthermore, when the basal diet was suppleemnted with fish meal, meat ani bone scraps, and 0. 25$ lysins, the body weight was increased 90 grams per bird at 5 weeks. It may..., 6? and 8 contained 0. 25$ added lysins. 2oontributed the following per pound of feed: Vitamin k 2, 270 I. U. , Vitamin D3 681 I. U. , Choline Chloride (255) 114 mg. , Riboflavin 2 mg. , Caloium pantothmnate 5 mg. , Niacin 12. 5 mg. , BU 6...

Simmons, William Kenneth

2012-06-07

384

Performance of rabbits and oxidative stability of muscle tissues as affected by dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on the performance of rabbits, and the susceptibility of the produced raw and thermally treated muscle tissue to lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage, were investigated. A total of 96 weaned rabbits were separated into four equal groups with three subgroups each. One group was given the basal diet and served as control, two groups were administered diets supplemented with oregano essential oil at levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg diet, whereas the remaining group was given a diet supplemented with alpha-tocopheryl acetate at 200 mg/kg. During the 42-day experimental period, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and the feed conversion ratio was calculated. Feeding the experimental diets to rabbits, performance parameters were not affected. Therefore, dietary oregano essential oil exerted no growth-promoting effect on rabbits. With increased supplementation of oregano essential oil, malondialdehyde values decreased in both raw and thermally treated muscles during refrigerated storage. This finding suggests that dietary oregano essential oil exerted a significant antioxidant effect. Dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil at the level of 200 mg/kg was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared with the level of 100 mg/kg, but inferior to dietary supplementation of 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate per kg. This study indirectly provides evidence that antioxidant compounds occurring in oregano essential oil were absorbed by the rabbit and increased the antioxidative capacity of tissues. PMID:15264670

Botsoglou, N A; Florou-Paneri, P; Christaki, E; Giannenas, I; Spais, A B

2004-06-01

385

Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets  

PubMed Central

The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.

2013-01-01

386

Triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastases: a comparison between basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like\\u000a and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive\\u000a analysis of 111 consecutive triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases treated in the years 2003–2009 was\\u000a performed. In 75 patients,

Anna Niwi?ska; Wojciech Olszewski; Magdalena Murawska; Katarzyna Pogoda

2011-01-01

387

Vacuum Variable Medium Temperature Blackbody  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the vacuum variable medium-temperature blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference\\u000a source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the temperature range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10?3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility\\u000a at the PTB in the field of

S. P. Morozova; N. A. Parfentiev; B. E. Lisiansky; U. A. Melenevsky; B. Gutschwager; C. Monte; J. Hollandt

2010-01-01

388

Is Hazardous Waste Injection into Basal Aquifers a Good Idea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent induced M3.8 - M5.5 seismic events across the midcontinent, USA have raised concern regarding regulations for hazardous waste injection. It is also important to note that in the midcontinent region, the Illinois Basin is the main target for storing CO2 up to 1 million metric tons over a 3-year period in the CCS project of DOE. Here we present a hydrogeologic-geomechanical sensitivity study using a hybrid analytic-numerical cross-sectional model to assess a wide variety of possible failure scenarios within crystalline rocks. The hydrostratigraphic framework model we used in this study is based on the geology of the Illinois Basin. The model includes 2.8 km thick Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers and confining units underlain by 4 km of bedrock. We represented injection at 1000 gallons per minute (3785 liters per minute) into a basal sandstone aquifer (Mt. Simon Sandstone) as well as the overlying carbonate and siliciclastic reservoirs (middle aquifer: Knox Dolomite, St. Peter Sandstone, upper Ordovician Carbonates). In some scenarios, we included high/low permeability vertical and sub-horizontal thrust faults. Deviatoric pore pressures from the model were used to estimate failure along critically stressed faults within the bedrock. For a basement permeability between 10-15 m2 to 10-16 m2, injection into the basal aquifer (Mt. Simon sandstone) resulted in a failure envelop within the crystalline basement to depths of about 1.4 - 4 km and extending laterally up to 6 km. Including a transmissive vertical normal fault increased the depth of the failure envelope to 4 km below the base of the sedimentary pile. If a 108 order of magnitude permeability contrast exists between the thrust fault (10-10 m2) and basement rocks (10-18 m2), then pore pressures can propagate along a sub-horizontal fault about 12 km from the injection well. For middle aquifer injection, the presence of a bottom seal (Eau Claire Formation) has a prophylactic effect, preventing downward propagation of deviatoric pressures into the basement as shown in the simulation results in Figure 1.

Zhang, Y.; Person, M. A.; Rupp, J.; Celia, M. A.; Gable, C. W.; Bowen, B. B.; Mozley, P. S.; Evans, J. P.; Dewers, T. A.

2012-12-01

389

Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. PMID:25465558

Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

2015-01-01

390

Dietary supplementation with tributyrin alleviates intestinal injury in piglets challenged with intrarectal administration of acetic acid.  

PubMed

Tributyrin (TBU) is a good dietary source of butyrate and has beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal intestinal morphology. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary TBU supplementation could alleviate intestinal injury in the acetic acid (ACA)-induced porcine model of colitis. A total of eighteen piglets (25 d old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups (control, ACA and TBU). The control and ACA groups were fed a basal diet and the TBU group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·1 % TBU. On day 15 of the trial, under anaesthesia, a soft catheter was inserted into the rectum of piglets (20-25 cm from the anus), followed by administration of either saline (control group) or ACA (10 ml of 10 % ACA solution for ACA and TBU groups). On day 22 of the trial, after venous blood samples were collected, piglets were killed to obtain mid-ileum and mid-colon mucosae. Compared with the control group, the ACA group exhibited an increase (P< 0·05) in lymphocyte counts, creatinine, PGE2, and malondialdehyde concentrations and diamine oxidase and inducible NO synthase activities in the plasma and lymphocyte density in the colon and a decrease in insulin concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity, ileal villus height:crypt depth ratios and goblet cell numbers in the colon. These adverse effects of ACA were attenuated by TBU supplementation. Moreover, TBU prevented the ACA-induced increase in caspase-3 levels while enhancing claudin-1 protein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0·1 % TBU alleviates ACA-induced intestinal injury possibly by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tight-junction formation and activating EGFR signalling. PMID:24506942

Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qingjing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Guoyao

2014-05-28

391

Effect of different supplements on eggshell quality, some characteristics of gastrointestinal tract and performance of laying hens  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to investigate the effects of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on performance, egg shell quality, pH value of gastrointestinal (GI) tract and small intestinal morphology of laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain (W-36) from 32 to 42 weeks of age, with five treatments, four replicates and eight hens in each replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of: 1-basal diet, 2-basal diet + 150 g per ton antibiotic (oxytetracycline), 3-basal diet + 3 kg per ton mixture of organic acids supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g per ton probiotic (protoxin) and 5-basal diet + 2 kg per ton prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide). During the experimental period, performance characteristics were evaluated. At the end of experiment two birds per replicate was sacrificed for small intestinal morphology. The results showed that organic acid and mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased average egg weight. Also feed conversion ratio significantly improved by mannan oligosaccharide. Eggshell quality was not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Regarding gastrointestinal tract characteristics, pH value of different parts of GI tract were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Villi height in duodenum by probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. Villi width in duodenum by antibiotic and probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. The number of goblet cells in duodenum by addition of antibiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. It was concluded that the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharide could have positive effects on performance of laying hens. PMID:25610579

Shalaei, Mosayeb; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Zergani, Emel

2014-01-01

392

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

1984-01-01

393

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

1985-01-01

394

Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

2015-01-01

395

Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

2015-02-01

396

Isolation and characterization of Bacteroides nodosus fimbriae: structural subunit and basal protein antigens.  

PubMed Central

We examined the isolation of fimbriae from Bacteroides nodosus. It was found that the best preparations were obtained from the supernatant of washed cells cultured on solid medium, from which fimbriae could be recovered in high yield and purity by a simple one-step procedure. Analysis of such preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis showed that greater than 98% of the protein consisted of fimbrial structural subunits whose molecular weight was ca. 17,000. These preparations also usually exhibited minor contamination with a polypeptide of ca. 80,000 molecular weight, as well as trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide. Attempts to release additional fimbriae by the traditional means of subjecting the bacterial cells to physical stress, such as shearing or heating, resulted primarily in an increase in the level of contamination, without significant gain in the yield of fimbriae. Removal of the 80,000-dalton component could not be achieved by any of a variety of techniques normally used in fimbriae purification, including isoelectric precipitation, MgCl2 precipitation, and CsCl gradient ultracentrifugation, implying a direct physical association with the fimbrial strand. Electron micrographs of fractions containing this protein show cap-shaped structures attached to the ends of what appeared to be fimbrial stubs. These observations suggest that the 80,000-dalton polypeptide may actually constitute the basal attachment site which anchors the fimbria to the outer membrane, analogous to a similar protein recently described in enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli. In B. nodosus, this 80,000-dalton protein is a major surface antigen, and like the fimbrial subunit, exhibited variation in electrophoretic mobility between serotypically different isolates. Images PMID:6150024

Mattick, J S; Anderson, B J; Mott, M R; Egerton, J R

1984-01-01

397

Basal Ganglia Disorders Associated with Imbalances in the Striatal Striosome and Matrix Compartments  

PubMed Central

The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny striatal projection neurons (MSNs) that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles, and input–output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include (1) those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, (2) those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and (3) those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input–output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia, and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in these disorders. PMID:21941467

Crittenden, Jill R.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2011-01-01

398

42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supplemental policy. 403.205...Supplemental Policies General Provisions...supplemental policy. (a...means a health insurance policy or other...form of health insurance contract that...supplemental policy does not include...health insurance policies or health...

2010-10-01

399

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2013-04-01

400

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2012-04-01

401

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2011-04-01

402

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2014-04-01

403

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2010-04-01

404

National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Office of Dietary Supplements Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of ... Watch a 1-minute animated video about the Office of Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets The ...

405

Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae): Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae). Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae) The aims of the paper were to determine the causal agents of basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata in Argentina, and to evaluate its possible pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus. Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Phytophthora nicotianae, Rhizoctonia solani, F. graminearum, F. verticilloides, F. equiseti and

SILVIA MARÍA WOLCAN; LÍA RONCO; GLADYS ALBINA LORI

406

What are the computations of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical notion that the cerebellum and the basal ganglia are dedicated to motor control is under dispute given increasing evidence of their involvement in non-motor functions. Is it then impossible to characterize the functions of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex in a simplistic manner? This paper presents a novel view that their computational roles can

Kenji Doya

1999-01-01

407

THE BASAL GANGLIA: FOCUSED SELECTION AND INHIBITION OF COMPETING MOTOR PROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement. It is well recognized that people with degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia suffer from rigidly held abnormal body postures, slowing of movement, involuntary movements, or a combination of these abnormalities. However, it has not

JONATHAN W MINK

1996-01-01

408

The role of the monopteros gene in organising the basal body region of the Arabidopsis embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monopteros (mp) gene contributes to apical-basal pattern formation in the Arabidopsis embryo. mp mutant seedlings lack basal body structures such as hypocotyl, radicle and root meristem, and this pattern deletion has been traced back to alterations in the octant-stage embryo. Cells of the embryo proper and the uppermost cell of the suspensor fail to establish division patterns that would

Thomas Berleth; Gerd Jürgens

409

Mutations of the Human Homolog of Drosophila patched in the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), pits of the palms and soles, jaw keratocysts, a variety of other tumors, and developmental abnormalities. NBCCS maps to chromosome 9q22.3. Familial and sporadic BCCs display loss of heterozygosity in this region, consistent with the gene being a tumor suppressor. A

Heidi Hahn; Carol Wicking; Peter G Zaphiropoulos; Mae R Gailani; Susan Shanley; Abirami Chidambaram; Igor Vorechovsky; Erika Holmberg; Anne Birgitte Unden; Susan Gillies; Kylie Negus; Ian Smyth; Carolyn Pressman; David J Leffell; Bernard Gerrard; Alisa M Goldstein; Michael Dean; Rune Toftgard; Georgia Chenevix-Trench; Brandon Wainwright; Allen E Bale

1996-01-01

410

Trail-Following Pheromones in Basal Termites, with Special Reference to Mastotermes darwiniensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of an evolutionary study, trail pheromones have been studied in the most basal extant termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis (Mastotermitidae), and two other basal termites, the Termopsidae Porotermes adamsoni (Porotermitinae) and Stolotermes victoriensis (Stolotermitinae). Although workers of M. darwiniensis do not walk in single file while exploring a new environment under experimental conditions and are unable to follow artificial

David Sillam-Dussès; Etienne Sémon; Michael J. Lacey; Alain Robert; Michael Lenz; Christian Bordereau

2007-01-01

411

Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interestingly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning--the ability to adaptively change a response when…

Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine E.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Sage, Jake; Gluck, Mark A.

2009-01-01

412

Stepping out of the box: information processing in the neural networks of the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Albin-DeLong ‘box and arrow’ model has long been the accepted standard model for the basal ganglia network. However, advances in physiological and anatomical research have enabled a more detailed neural network approach. Recent computational models hold that the basal ganglia use reinforcement signals and local competitive learning rules to reduce the dimensionality of sparse cortical information. These models predict

Izhar Bar-Gad; Hagai Bergman

2001-01-01

413

Information processing, dimensionality reduction and reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of the basal ganglia has played a major role in our understanding of this elusive group of nuclei. Models of the basal ganglia have undergone evolutionary and revolutionary changes over the last 20 years, as new research in the fields of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of these nuclei has yielded new information. Early models dealt with a single pathway

Izhar Bar-Gad; Genela Morris; Hagai Bergman

2003-01-01

414

Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural circuits of the basal ganglia are critical for motor planning and action selection. Two parallel basal ganglia pathways have been described, and have been proposed to exert opposing influences on motor function. According to this classical model, activation of the `direct' pathway facilitates movement and activation of the `indirect' pathway inhibits movement. However, more recent anatomical and functional evidence

Alexxai V. Kravitz; Benjamin S. Freeze; Philip R. L. Parker; Kenneth Kay; Myo T. Thwin; Karl Deisseroth; Anatol C. Kreitzer

2010-01-01

415

The Illusion of Racial Diversity in Contemporary Basal Readers: An Analysis of the Teacher Manuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basal reading programs not only have tremendous impact on children's learning to read, but they subtly influence children's attitudes toward and understanding of racial differences in society. In this study, teacher manuals from four basal reading programs were examined for grades four, five, and six to learn how ideas for discussing racial and…

McDermott, Peter; And Others

416

Do Current Basal Series Use Clear Explanations and Correct Exemplars in Teaching Prefixes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study (replicating a similar 1977 study by S. Stotsky), examined whether current basal series teach prefixion clearly. Teacher's guides, student texts, and workbooks of nine popular basal reader series were examined to ascertain whether they offered a clear definition of the term "prefix" and whether that definition was reinforced by the use of…

Volpe, Myra Elaine

417

Are the Teachers' Manuals in Basal Readers Helpful for Discussing Race in Multicultural Stories?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the usefulness of the instructional recommendations in basal reader program teachers' manuals for discussing race in multicultural stories. Three recently published basal reader series widely used in the Capital District of New York State were used in this analysis: Harcourt Brace (1995), Houghton Mifflin (1993), and MacMillan…

McDermott, Peter; And Others

418

The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or

Chaya; AV Kurpad; HR Nagendra; R Nagarathna

2006-01-01

419

Actor critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor- critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and

Daphna Joel; Yael Niv; Eytan Ruppin

420

Plant basal resistance: genetics, biochemistry, and impacts on plant-biotic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal resistance depends largely on a diverse range of defence mechanisms that become active upon attack by pathogens or insects. These mechanisms range from rapid stomatal closure and production of reactive oxygen species, to callose deposition and defence gene induction. It is commonly assumed that the speed and intensity of these inducible defences determines the effectiveness of basal resistance. The

S. Ahmad

2012-01-01

421

Temporal dynamics of basal ganglia response and connectivity during verbal working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the neural basis of working memory (WM) has generally focused on neocortical regions; comparatively little is known about the role of subcortical structures. There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia are involved in WM, but their contribution to different component processes of WM is poorly understood. We examined the temporal dynamics of basal ganglia response and connectivity

Catherine Chang; Sonia Crottaz-Herbette; Vinod Menonb

422

Evidence for basal secretion in the subcommissural organ of the adult rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological evidence is presented supporting the possibility of basal secretion into hypendymal capillaries of the adult rabbit subcommissural organ (SCO). The synthetic apparatus of the SCO cell is described as well as the heterogeneous granules and vesicles which are concentrated in the basal processes bordering a widened perivascular space. The origin of the electron dense granules, of which two fairly

Judith E. Kimble; Kjeld Møllgård

1973-01-01

423

Retrieving avalanche basal friction law from high rate positioning of avalanches Pulfer G.1  

E-print Network

Retrieving avalanche basal friction law from high rate positioning of avalanches Pulfer G.1 : The Voellmy avalanche basal friction parameters are retrieved from high rate positioning of artificially released avalanches. Two dense snow avalanches were triggered at the Lautaret full-scale test site

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Properties of basal dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons: a direct patch-clamp recording study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal dendrites receive the majority of synapses that contact neocortical pyramidal neurons, yet our knowledge of synaptic processing in these dendrites has been hampered by their inaccessibility for electrical recordings. A new approach to patch-clamp recordings enabled us to characterize the integrative properties of these cells. Despite the short physical length of rat basal dendrites, synaptic inputs were electrotonically remote

Thomas Nevian; Matthew E Larkum; Alon Polsky; Jackie Schiller

2007-01-01

425

Usefulness of Context Clues as Determined by an Analysis of Basal Reading Series and Methodology Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was designed to determine if the classifications and definitions of context clues suggested in ten reading methods textbooks were used in three basal reading series. The method textbook analyses provided 27 different context clues. The analysis of the basal reading series--D. C. Heath (1983), Ginn (1984), and Scott, Foresman (1983)--showed…

McFeely, Donald C.; Elliott, Joan

426

Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma

Raúl González García; Syong H. Nam Ch; Mario F. Muñoz Guerra; C. Gamallo Amat

427

Left common basal pyramid torsion following left upper lobectomy/segmentectomy.  

PubMed

Lobar or segmental lung torsion is a severe complication of lung resection. To the best of our knowledge, common basal pyramid torsion has never been reported. We describe a case of left basal pyramid torsion after left upper lobectomy and superior segmentectomy, which was successfully treated by thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:24948781

Wang, Wei-Li; Cheng, Yen-Po; Cheng, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Bing-Yen

2014-06-19

428

Activation of Expression of Hedgehog Target Genes in Basal Cell Carcinomas  

E-print Network

Activation of Expression of Hedgehog Target Genes in Basal Cell Carcinomas Jeannette M. Bonifas, and **Molecular Oncology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Mutations in hedgehog signaling. The study of basal cell carcinoma gene expression not only may eluci- date mechanisms by which hedgehog

Chuang, Pao-Tien

429

Qiu & al. Basal angiosperm phylogeny55 (4) November 2006: 837856 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Qiu & al. · Basal angiosperm phylogeny55 (4) · November 2006: 837­856 837 INTRODUCTION The basal angiosperms have been subject to some of the most intensive phylogenetic analyses ever conducted on any group + Nymphaeales represent the earliest-diverging lineage of extant angiosperms, fol- lowed by Austrobaileyales

430

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and animal extracts (see box ... or over-the-counter) • Substituting supplements for prescription medicines • Taking too much of some supplements, such as ...

431

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and many other products. Dietary ... harm when people take them instead of prescribed medicines or when people take many supplements in combination. ...

432

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes (see box at right). ... or over-the-counter) Substituting supplements for prescription medicines Taking too much of some supplements, such as ...

433

14 CFR 221.81 - Suspension supplement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension supplement. 221.81 Section 221... ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Suspension of Tariff Provisions by Department § 221.81 Suspension supplement. (a) Suspension...

2010-01-01

434

FDA: Supplements, Meds Can Be Dangerous Mix  

MedlinePLUS

... Dallas Tuesday, November 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Supplements Drug Reactions Medicines TUESDAY, Nov. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Taking vitamins or other dietary supplements along with medication can be dangerous, the U.S. ...

435

Cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy predicts amyloid burden in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

We compared accuracy of hippocampus and basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) atrophy to predict cortical amyloid burden in 179 cognitively normal subjects (CN), 269 subjects with early stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 136 subjects with late stages of MCI, and 86 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia retrieved from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Hippocampus and BFCS volumes were determined from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 Tesla, and cortical amyloid load from AV45 (florbetapir) positron emission tomography scans. In receiver operating characteristics analyses, BFCS volume provided significantly more accurate classification into amyloid-negative and -positive categories than hippocampus volume. In contrast, hippocampus volume more accurately identified the diagnostic categories of AD, late and early MCI, and CN compared with whole and anterior BFCS volume, whereas posterior BFCS and hippocampus volumes yielded similar diagnostic accuracy. In logistic regression analysis, hippocampus and posterior BFCS volumes contributed significantly to discriminate MCI and AD from CN, but only BFCS volume predicted amyloid status. Our findings suggest that BFCS atrophy is more closely associated with cortical amyloid burden than hippocampus atrophy in predementia AD. PMID:24176625

Teipel, Stefan; Heinsen, Helmut; Amaro, Edson; Grinberg, Lea T; Krause, Bernd; Grothe, Michel

2014-03-01

436

Basal Murphy belt and Chilhowee Group -- Sequence stratigraphic comparison  

SciTech Connect

The lower Murphy belt in the central western Blue Ridge is interpreted to be correlative to the Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group of the westernmost Blue Ridge and Appalachian fold and thrust belt. Basal Murphy belt depositional sequence stratigraphy represents a second-order, type-2 transgressive systems tract initiated with deposition of lowstand turbidites of the Dean Formation. These transgressive deposits of the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations are interpreted as middle to outer continental shelf deposits. Cyclic and stacked third-order regressive, coarsening upwards sequences of the Nantahala Formation display an overall increase in feldspar content stratigraphically upsection. These transgressive siliciclastic deposits are interpreted to be conformably overlain by a carbonate highstand systems tract of the Murphy Marble. Palinspastic reconstruction indicates that the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations possibly represent a basinward extension of up to 3 km thick siliciclastic wedge. The wedge tapers to the southwest along the strike of the Murphy belt at 10[degree] and thins northwestward to 2 km in the Tennessee depocenter where it is represented by the Chilhowee Group. The Murphy belt basin is believed to represent a transitional rift-to-drift facies deposited on the lower plate of the southern Blue Ridge rift zone.

Aylor, J.G. Jr. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1994-03-01

437

Horrifying Basal Cell Carcinoma: Cytological, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing and frequently occurring tumor of the eyelids. Among BCC cases, there is a subtype of aggressive cases called horrifying BCC (HBCC). There are also rare BCC cases that show neuroendocrine differentiation. Here, we describe a case of HBCC with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient, a 41-year-old woman, presented with abnormal left eye tearing and left cheek pain. On computed tomography imaging, a tumor that extended to the left orbit was detected in the left cheek. On cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples, the tumor cells were observed as sheet-like clusters and single bare nuclei with a clear background; peripheral palisading was not clearly seen. On examination of the biopsy specimen taken after FNA, the tumor was found to be composed of cancer cell nests with scattered peripheral palisading in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CD56 and were negative for CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Membrane-bound dense-core granules were detected on ultrastructural study. A HBCC case with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been previously reported. The correlation between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in HBCC and patient prognosis should be further studied. PMID:25120472

Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2014-01-01

438

Metformin and erlotinib synergize to inhibit basal breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Basal-like breast cancers (BBCs) are enriched for increased EGFR expression and decreased expression of PTEN. We found that treatment with metformin and erlotinib synergistically induced apoptosis in a subset of BBC cell lines. The drug combination led to enhanced reduction of EGFR, AKT, S6 and 4EBP1 phosphorylation, as well as prevented colony formation and inhibited mammosphere outgrowth. Our data with other compounds suggested that biguanides combined with EGFR inhibitors have the potential to outperform other targeted drug combinations and could be employed in other breast cancer subtypes, as well as other tumor types, with activated EGFR and PI3K signaling. Analysis of BBC cell line alterations led to the hypothesis that loss of PTEN sensitized cells to the drug combination which was confirmed using isogenic cell line models with and without PTEN expression. Combined metformin and erlotinib led to partial regression of PTEN-null and EGFR-amplified xenografted MDA-MB-468 BBC tumors with evidence of significant apoptosis, reduction of EGFR and AKT signaling, and lack of altered plasma insulin levels. Combined treatment also inhibited xenografted PTEN null HCC-70 BBC cells. Measurement of trough plasma drug levels in xenografted mice and a separately performed pharmacokinetics modeling study support possible clinical translation. PMID:25361177

Lau, Ying-Ka Ingar; Du, Xing; Reyannavar, Vinayak; Hopkins, Benjamin; Shaw, Jacquelyn; Bessler, Eliana; Thomas, Tiffany; Pires, Maira M.; Keniry, Megan; Parsons, Ramon E.; Cremers, Serge; Szabolcs, Matthias; Maurer, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

439

Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated human cutaneous basal cell carcinoma ex-vivo samples by combined time resolved two photon intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy. Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between malignant skin and corresponding healthy skin tissues. In comparison with normal healthy skin, cancer tissue showed a different morphology and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution slightly shifted towards higher values. Topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid to the lesion four hours before excision resulted in an enhancement of the fluorescence signal arising from malignant tissue, due to the accumulation of protoporphyrines inside tumor cells. Contrast enhancement was prevalent at tumor borders by both two photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Fluorescence-based images showed a good correlation with conventional histopathological analysis, thereby supporting the diagnostic accuracy of this novel method. Combined morphological and lifetime analysis in the study of ex-vivo skin samples discriminated benign from malignant tissues, thus offering a reliable, non-invasive tool for the in-vivo analysis of inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions.

Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Pavone, F. S.

2007-02-01

440

Basal Forebrain Thermoregulatory Mechanism Modulates Auto-Regulated Sleep  

PubMed Central

Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area (POA), the lateral POA, the ventrolateral POA, the median preoptic nucleus, and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain (BF). When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 27°C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 30°C. Ambient temperature around 27°C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the POA mediate the increase in sleep at 30°C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 27 to 30°C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the BF play a key role in regulating sleep. BF thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated. PMID:22754548

Mallick, Hruda Nanda; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

2012-01-01

441

Role of the basal ganglia in switching a planned response.  

PubMed

The ability to perform an appropriate response in the presence of competing alternatives is a critical facet of human behavioral control. This is especially important if a response is prepared for execution but then has to be changed suddenly. A popular hypothesis of basal ganglia (BG) function suggests that its direct and indirect pathways could provide a neural mechanism to rapidly switch from one planned response to an alternative. However, if one response is more dominant or 'automatic' than the other, the BG might have a different role depending on switch direction. We built upon the pro- and antisaccade tasks, two models of automatic and voluntary behavior, respectively, and investigated whether the BG are important for switching any planned response in general, or if they are more important for switching from a more automatic response to a response that is more difficult to perform. Subjects prepared either a pro- or antisaccade but then had to switch it unexpectedly on a subset of trials. The results revealed increased striatal activation for switching from a pro- to an antisaccade but this did not occur for switching from an anti- to a prosaccade. This activation pattern depended on the relative difficulty in switching, and it was distinct from frontal eye fields, an area shown to be more active for antisaccade trials than for prosaccade trials. This suggests that the BG are important for compensating for differences in response difficulty, facilitating the rapid switching of one response for another. PMID:19508693

Cameron, Ian G M; Coe, Brian C; Watanabe, Masayuki; Stroman, Patrick W; Munoz, Douglas P

2009-06-01

442

ATG7 contributes to plant basal immunity towards fungal infection.  

PubMed

Autophagy has an important function in cellular homeostasis. In recent years autophagy has been implicated in plant basal immunity and assigned negative (“anti-death”) and positive (“pro-death”) regulatory functions in controlling cell death programs that establish sufficient immunity to microbial infection. We recently showed that Arabidopsis mutants lacking the autophagy-associated (ATG) genes ATG5, ATG10 and ATG18a are compromised in their resistance towards infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogens but display an enhanced resistance towards biotrophic bacterial invaders. Thus, the function of autophagy as either being pro-death or anti-death depends critically on the lifestyle and infection strategy of invading microbes. Here we show that ATG7 contributes to resistance to fungal pathogens. Genetic inactivation of ATG7 results in elevated susceptibility towards the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola, with atg7 mutants developing spreading necrosis accompanied by production of reactive oxygen intermediates. Likewise, treatment with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 causes spreading lesion formation in the atg7 mutant. We conclude that ATG7-dependent autophagy constitutes an “anti-death” (“pro-survival”) plant mechanism to control the containment of cell death and immunity to necrophic fungal infection. PMID:21617379

Lenz, Heike D; Vierstra, Richard D; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Gust, Andrea A

2011-07-01

443

The source of haemorrhage in traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage (TBSH) following trauma to the head, face or neck is well-established as a cause of death; however it remains a heavily disputed topic as the site of vascular injury is difficult to identify. Whilst many regions within the vasculature of the head and neck have been proposed as more susceptible to rupture, the vertebral artery remains the focal point of many investigations. We present a retrospective case review of TBSH in our forensic centre at Forensic and Scientific Services in Brisbane, Australia, from 2003 to 2011. Thirteen cases of TBSH were found, one case excluded due to vasculopathy. All decedents were male, the majority of which were involved in an altercation receiving blows to the head, face, or neck and were unconscious at the scene. All victims were under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or a combination thereof. External examination revealed injuries to the head, face, and neck in all cases. Various combinations of further examination techniques were used during the post-mortem examination including brain and/or cervical spine retention, CT imaging, and angiography. Vascular injury was identified in eight of the twelve cases, all of which occurred intracranially, with seven involving the vertebral artery. Histology was most reliable in identifying the rupture site and angiography failed to reveal a rupture site. The added benefits of histology over angiography are the ability to identify the microscopic architecture of the tear and to diagnose vasculopathy that may have rendered the individual more susceptible to TBSH. PMID:25572079

Wong, Brittany; Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan

2015-01-01

444

Basal Ganglia Outputs Map Instantaneous Position Coordinates during Behavior.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

2015-02-11

445

Discovery of alpha-defensins in basal mammals.  

PubMed

Alpha-defensins are essential molecules of the innate immune system that have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and viruses. To date, alpha-defensins have only been identified in the Euarchontoglires branch of the mammals. This has led to speculation that alpha-defensins may be specific to this group, a somewhat surprising finding, given their importance in the immune system. The mammalian genome project provided us with the opportunity to search for alpha-defensins in previously unexamined mammalian superorders. Using hidden Markov model (HMM) profile searching, we report the discovery of alpha-defensins in the African savanna elephant, the lesser hedgehog tenrec, and the nine-banded armadillo genomes representing two of the most basal mammalian superorders, Afrotheria and Xenarthra. Furthermore, we identify an alpha-defensin-like gene in the gray short-tailed opossum, suggesting that alpha-defensins may have evolved much earlier than previously thought, before the divergence of placental mammals and marsupials approximately 130 mya. PMID:17367857

Lynn, David J; Bradley, Daniel G

2007-01-01

446

Antipathetic magnesium-manganese relationship in basal metalliferous sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Basal metalliferous sediments from sites 77B, 80 and 81 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project represent mixtures of pelagic clay, biogenic ooze, and a metalliferous component of hydrothermal origin. The metalliferous end-member of the sediments displays a strong inverse relationship (r = -0.88) between Mg and Mn. Mg is most likely tied up in an X-ray amorphous Mg-silicate ("sepiolite"), whereas Mn occurs almost exclusively in an oxide phase. Precipitation of the Mg-rich phase is favored by high flow rates and limited mixing of the hydrothermal end-member (source of silica) with seawater (source of Mg). Under those conditions much of the hydrothermal Mn2+, with its slow oxidation kinetics, may escape to the free water column. In contrast, in highly-diluted hydrothermal fluids, which provide a source solution for Mn-rich sediments, dissolved silica is diluted below saturation with respect to "sepiolite". The separation of the Mn and Mg phases may be further compounded by hydraulic fractionation. ?? 1981.

Bloch, S.

1981-01-01

447

Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Since its introduction in dermatology in the late 1990s optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to study many skin diseases, in particular non-melanoma skin cancer and it s precursors. Special attention has been paid to superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and a number of smaller observational studies have been published. The diagnostic criteria for BCC of these studies are systematically reviewed. A systemic review of English language studies was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar and Royal Danish Library, to search for primary papers on OCT and BCC. The references of retrieved papers were searched by hand for further relevant papers. A total of 39 papers were identified (search date: 2014-01-15). 22 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria, leaving 17 papers for analysis. In 100 % of the studies, rounded dark structures in the upper dermis surrounded by a hyperreflective halo possibly surrounded by a hyporeflective border and disruption of epidermal layering were described. In 53 % of the reports a hyporeflective lateral tumour border was described. A range of other features were mentioned in a minority of the studies. It is suggested that these diagnostic criteria could be characteristic for identifying BCC lesions using OCT. PMID:25223745

Hussain, Alia Arif; Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst

2015-01-01

448

The interaction of KOH with the basal surface of graphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of in-situ evaporated KOH with the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite was investigated using UPS, AES and LEED from 30 to 600°C and multilayer to submonolayer coverage. The monolayer is more thermally stable than the multilayer. He II UPS results in the monolayer regime show emission from the potassium 3p level and the 3? and 1? levels associated with the hydroxyl. Heating in vacuum decreases the intensity of these features concomitant with decreases in the potassium and oxygen AES signals. A constant oxygen-to-potassium stoichiometry is observed independent of coverage under UHV conditions. These results indicate reversible adsorption of KOH and maintenance of the OH bond in the adsorbed state. Adsorbed KOH causes a uniform shift in initial and final state graphite UPS features, which implies electron transference to the graphite due to the adsorbed salt. The presence of H 2O or O 2 in the residual gas increases the oxygen content in the adsorbed layer and decreases the shifts in graphite UPS features.

Kelemen, S. R.; Mims, C. A.

1983-10-01

449

Protein and nucleotide contamination of bovine liver catalase used in culture medium explains growth of Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

Commercially available bovine liver catalase has been used to supplement chemically defined medium for growth of Trypanosoma cruzi. The protein extract was found to be contaminated with 25 to 30 protein bands as well as DNA and RNA polymers. PMID:2451330

O'Daly, J A; Rodríguez, M B

1987-01-01

450

GIARDIA LAMBLIA: STIMULATION OF GROWTH BY HUMAN INTESTINAL MUCUS AND EPITHELIAL CELLS IN SERUMFREE MEDIUM (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Giardia lamblia trophozoites specifically colonize the upper human small intestine which is normally serum-free, but grow in vitro only in medium supplemented with serum or serum fractions. Recently, biliary lipids were shown to support the growth of G. lamblia without serum. Now...

451

Effects of supplemental rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid or linoleic acid on feedlot performance, carcass quality, and leptin concentrations in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Thirty-six Angus x Hereford heifers (365 kg) were used to determine effects of dietary lipid supplementation from two sources during the final 32 or 60 d of feeding on serum and adipose tissue leptin concentrations, animal performance, and carcass characteristics. Following an initial feeding period of 56 d, heifers were fed one of three diets in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement: 1) basal diet, 2) basal diet plus 4% (DM basis) corn oil, or 3) basal diet plus 2% (DM basis) rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (a mixture of Ca-salts of palm oil fatty acids with 31% conjugated linoleic acid). Jugular blood samples were collected at 28-d intervals (d 28 to 118) and serum subsequently harvested for leptin quantification via RIA. Real-time ultrasound measurements were collected at 28-d intervals across time on feed. At slaughter, samples were obtained from various adipose depots. Data were analyzed with dietary treatment, length of supplementation, adipose depot (when appropriate), and all two- and three-way (when appropriate) interactions in the repeated measures model. Measures of feedlot performance, including ADG, DMI, and gain:feed did not differ (P > 0.23) with dietary treatment or supplementation length. Heifers supplemented with corn oil tended (P < 0.07) to have higher marbling scores following 32 d of treatment than those supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid, with controls intermediate. Quality grade and hot carcass weight did not differ (P > 0.15) with treatment or length of supplementation. Leptin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) from d 57 to 118 on feed than the initial period (d 0 to 56) of dietary adaptation when all animals received the basal diet. Circulating leptin concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. However, leptin concentrations in adipose tissues were greater (P < 0.05) for heifers supplemented with corn oil than either control or rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid diets, which did not differ. Compared with adipose tissues from rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid-supplemented animals, tissues from heifers fed corn oil contained 68% greater leptin concentration. Correlations between performance, carcass traits, and serum leptin concentrations were low. Serum leptin concentrations across time on feed were not associated with carcass and performance data, including ADG, DMI, and gain:feed. Based on these data, concentrations of leptin are not related to indices of feedlot performance and carcass quality in beef cattle. PMID:15032443

Gillis, M H; Duckett, S K; Sackmann, J R; Realini, C E; Keisler, D H; Pringle, T D

2004-03-01

452

Effects of dietary supplementation of fulvic acid on lipid metabolism of finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of fulvic acid on lipid metabolism of finishing pigs. One hundred eighty crossbred barrows (Landrace × Yorkshire, 60 ± 2.5 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments (36 pigs/treatment) and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% fulvic acid for 42 d. Thirty pigs (6 pigs/treatment) were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. Blood samples and adipose tissue were collected for determination of blood parameters and lipid metabolic enzymes. The results showed that compared with the control group, dietary supplementation of 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% fulvic acid significantly reduced mean backfat thickness of pigs (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein, leptin, growth hormone, insulin, and triiodothyronine were significantly increased by adding fulvic acid in diets (P < 0.05). With the raised concentration of dietary fulvic acid, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in adipose tissue. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of fulvic acid reduced the mean backfat thickness of pigs. This change related to the increased activity of HSL and the decreased activity of LPL in adipose tissue. PMID:25349342

Chang, Q; Lu, Z; He, M; Gao, R; Bai, H; Shi, B; Shan, A

2014-11-01

453

Activation of KRAS promotes the mesenchymal features of basal-type breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Basal-type breast cancers are among the most aggressive and deadly breast cancer subtypes, displaying a high metastatic ability associated with mesenchymal features. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes of basal-type breast cancer cells remain obscure. Here, we report that KRAS is a critical regulator for the maintenance of mesenchymal features in basal-type breast cancer cells. KRAS is preferentially activated in basal-type breast cancer cells as compared with luminal type. By loss and gain of KRAS, we found that KRAS is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes and metastatic ability through SLUG expression. Taken together, this study demonstrates that KRAS is a critical regulator for the metastatic behavior associated with mesenchymal features of breast cancer cells, implicating a novel therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer. PMID:25633745

Kim, Rae-Kwon; Suh, Yongjoon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Cui, Yan-Hong; Kim, Hyeonmi; Kim, Min-Jung; Gyu Kim, In; Lee, Su-Jae

2015-01-01

454

Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). Materials and methods: A survey was used to assess sport- related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training

Malinauskas BM; Overton RF; Carraway VG; Cash BC

455

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely Many people take dietary supplements in an effort to be well and  

E-print Network

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely Many people take dietary supplements in an effort to be well and stay healthy. With so many dietary supplements available and so many claims made about their health of dietary supplements, discusses safety considerations, and suggests sources for additional information. Key

Bandettini, Peter A.

456

Using Airborne Radar Stratigraphy to Model Surface Accumulation Anomaly and Basal Control over Deformed Basal Ice in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large deformed ice structures have been imaged at the base of northern Greenland ice sheet by IceBridge airborne radar. Numerous deformed structures lie along the base of both Petermann Glacier and Northeast Ice stream catchments covering 10-13% of the catchment area. These structures may be combinations of basal freeze-on and folded ice that overturns and inverts stratigraphy. In the interior, where the ice velocity is low, the radar imaged height of the deformed structures are frequently a significant fraction of the ice thickness. They are related to basal freeze on and stick-slip at the base of the ice sheet and may be triggered by subglacial water, sediments or local geological conditions. The larger ones (at times up to 700 m thick and 140 km long) perturb the ice stratigraphy and create prominent undulations on the ice surface and modify the local surface mass balance. Here, we investigate the relationship between the deformed structures and surface processes using shallow and deep ice radar stratigraphy. The surface undulations caused by the deformed structures modulate the pattern of local surface snow accumulation. Using normalized differences of several near-surface stratigraphic layers, we have calculated the accumulation anomaly over these deformed structures. The accumulation anomalies can be as high as 20% of the local surface accumulation over some of the larger surface depressions caused by these deformed structures. We observe distinct differences in the phases of the near-surface internal layers on the Petermann and Northeast catchments. These differences indicate that the deformed bodies over Petermann are controlled by conditions at the bed different from the Northeast Ice stream. The distinctly different near-surface stratigraphy over the deformed structures in the Petermann and Northeast catchments have opened up a number of questions including their formation and how they influence the ice dynamics, ice stratigraphy and surface mass balance. In this study we will model the different physical conditions at the bed and ice rheology from their distinct signatures in the near-surface strata. The results will identify the distinct mechanisms that form these bodies and their control over the surface morphology and snow accumulation.

Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Creyts, T. T.; Wolovick, M.

2013-12-01

457

Design of serum-free medium for suspension culture of CHO cells on the basis of general commercial media.  

PubMed

The design of serum-free media for suspension culture of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using general commercial media as a basis was investigated. Subcultivation using a commercial serum-free medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 with or without FCS necessitated additives other than IGF-1 to compensate for the lack of FCS and improve cell growth. Suspension culture with media containing several combinations of growth factors suggested the effectiveness of addition of both IGF-1 and the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) for promoting cell growth. Subcultivation of CHO cells in suspension culture using the commercial serum-free medium EX-CELL™302, which contained an IGF-1 analog, supplemented with LPA resulted in gradually increasing specific growth rate comparable to the serum-containing medium and in almost the same high antibody production regardless of the number of generations. The culture with EX-CELL™302 supplemented with LPA in a jar fermentor with pH control at 6.9 showed an apparently higher cell growth rate than the cultures without pH control and with pH control at 6.8. The cell growth in the medium supplemented with aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which was much cheaper than IGF-1, in combination with LPA was synergistically promoted similarly to that in the medium supplemented with IGF-1 and LPA. In conclusion, the serum-free medium designed on the basis of general commercial media could support the growth of CHO cells and antibody production comparable to serum-containing medium in suspension culture. Moreover, the possibility of cost reduction by the substitution of IGF-1 with ATA was also shown. PMID:25149286

Miki, Hideo; Takagi, Mutsumi

2014-08-23

458

Supplementation of Perkinsus marinus Cultures with Host Plasma or Tissue Homogenate Enhances Their Infectivity  

PubMed Central

The protozoan oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus can be cultured in vitro in a variety of media; however, this has been associated with a rapid attenuation of infectivity. Supplementation of defined media with products of P. marinus-susceptible (Crassostrea virginica) and -tolerant (Crassostrea gigas, Crassostrea ariakensis) oysters alters proliferation and protease expression profiles and induces differentiation into morphological forms typically seen in vivo. It was not known if attenuation could be reversed by host extract supplementation. To investigate correlations among these changes as well as their association with infectivity, the effects of medium supplementation with tissue homogenates from both susceptible and tolerant oyster species were examined. The supplements markedly altered both cell size and proliferation, regardless of species; however, upregulation of low-molecular-weight protease expression was most prominent with susceptible oysters extracts. Increased infectivity occurred with the use of oyster product-supplemented media, but it was not consistently associated with changes in cell size, cell morphology, or protease secretion and was not related to the susceptibility of the oyster species used as the supplement source. PMID:14711671

Earnhart, Christopher G.; Vogelbein, Mary Ann; Brown, Gwynne D.; Reece, Kimberly S.; Kaattari, Stephen L.

2004-01-01

459

Basal lamina fenestrations in the human colon: transmission and scanning electron microscope study.  

PubMed

Basal lamina at the interface between colonic epithelial cells and the lamina propria was exposed by incubating colonic specimens in 1% boric acid solutions. Examination of this epithelial-stromal interface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a smooth, slightly undulating basal lamina covering crypts and luminal surfaces. The basal lamina on the luminal surfaces had numerous round or ovoid fenestrations, most measuring 2.5-4.0 microns. These were continuous with channels in the collagen fiber network of the lamina propria. Except very near the surface, no fenestrations were found in the basal lamina lining the crypts. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of serial thin sections of colonic mucosa without the epithelial cells removed showed only a few actual basal lamina fenestrations. Rarely, epithelial cell processes extended into the lamina propria through the basal lamina. Most of the fenestrations seen by SEM appeared to correspond spatially by TEM to foci of close contact between the basal lamina and underlying fibroblastic cell processes. At these sites the basal lamina and fibroblastic cell process might be removed along with the overlying epithelial cells during processing with boric acid. These data support functional differences in epithelial-stromal interaction between cell populations lining the luminal surface and those making up the crypt lining and pericryptal fibroblast sheath. The TEM findings demonstrate that the human colonic basal lamina is not absolutely continuous and that the development of basal lamina fenestrations and epithelial cell processes extending into the lamina propria is not pathognomonic of neoplastic transformation and stromal invasion. PMID:3348488

Warfel, K A; Hull, M T

1988-01-01

460

Epidermal growth factor receptor activity is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation.  

PubMed

ERB family receptors (EGFR, ERB-B2, ERB-B3, and ERB-B4) regulate epithelial cell function in many tissue types. In the human airway epithelium, changes in ERB receptor expression are associated with epithelial repair defects. However, the specific role(s) played by ERB receptors in repair have not been determined. We aimed to determine whether ERB receptors regulate proliferation of the tracheobronchial progenitor, the basal cell. Receptor tyrosine kinase arrays were used to evaluate ERB activity in normal and naphthalene (NA)-injured mouse trachea and in air-liquid interface cultures. Roles for epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGFR, and ERB-B2 in basal cell proliferation were evaluated in vitro. NA injury and transgenic expression of an EGFR-dominant negative (DN) receptor were used to evaluate roles for EGFR signaling in vivo. EGFR and ERB-B2 were active in normal and NA-injured trachea and were the only active ERB receptors detected in proliferating basal cells in vitro. EGF was necessary for basal cell proliferation in vitro. The EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, decreased proliferation by 99, and the Erb-B2 inhibitor, AG825, decreased proliferation by ?66%. In vivo, EGFR-DN expression in basal cells significantly decreased basal cell proliferation after NA injury. EGF and EGFR are necessary for basal cell proliferation. The EGFR/EGFR homo- and the EGFR/ERB-B2 heterodimer account for ?34 and 66%, respectively, of basal cell proliferation in vitro. Active EGFR is necessary for basal cell proliferation after NA injury. We conclude that EGFR activation is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation and normal epithelial repair. PMID:25217659

Brechbuhl, Heather M; Li, Bilan; Smith, Russell W; Reynolds, Susan D

2014-11-15