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1

Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite  

SciTech Connect

The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. (East Texas State Univ., Commerce (USA))

1988-01-01

2

Interplanetary medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.

King, J. H.

1979-01-01

3

Dicarboxylic aciduria and medium chain triglyceride supplemented milk.  

PubMed Central

Pronounced dicarboxylic aciduria was observed in preterm infants fed a medium chain triglyceride supplemented milk formula. As many special formulas contain a medium chain triglyceride oil attention needs to be drawn to its metabolic effects, regarding the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism and that dicarboxylic acids might be harmful. PMID:3729533

Henderson, M J; Dear, P R

1986-01-01

4

Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

1986-01-01

5

AN IMPROVED CHEMICALLY DEFINED BASAL MEDIUM (CMRL-1415) FOR NEWLY EXPLANTED MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS  

PubMed Central

An improved chemically defined medium, CMRL-1415, has been devised by testing the response of trypsinized, newly explanted mouse embryo cells in stationary cultures to various modifications of an earlier medium, CMRL-1066. The improvements are attributed to changes in amino acid levels, in the vitamin-coenzyme composition, and to an enhanced buffering capacity resulting from the use of free base amino acids, galactose and pyruvate, together with greatly reduced levels of glucose and sodium bicarbonate and the inclusion of both monobasic and dibasic sodium phosphate in the ratio 1:4. When the medium is equilibrated with 5% CO2 in air, an initial pH of 7.2–7.4 is achieved, with excellent buffering capacity. CMRL-1415 contains 50 ingredients (9 fewer than CMRL-1066) and is prepared from six stable stock concentrates. By omitting sodium bicarbonate (to give CMRL-1415-ATM), the medium may be used in unsealed cultures in free gas exchange with air. CMRL-1415 and CMRL-1415-ATM are intended for use with and without serum protein and other supplements; and by preparing them double strength they may be combined with agar or other gelling agents to provide a semi-solid substrate. PMID:5971005

Healy, George M.; Parker, Raymond C.

1966-01-01

6

Effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium on conversion of somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium were studied to produce plants from somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L. There was a significant difference among concentrations of sugar but not among kinds of sugar tested in the present experiment in growth of shoots and roots. When the sucrose concentrations were 10, 30, or 50gl?1, the fresh weight

Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

2000-01-01

7

The effects of decreased glucose concentrations on the in vitro development of the post-blastocyst mouse embryo in a fetal calf serum-or bovine serum albumin-supplemented medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Decreasing the glucose concentration from 1.0 mg\\/ml to 0.25 mg\\/ml has no detrimental effects on postblastocyst embryo development when either dialyzed fetal calf serum (20%) or bovine serum albumin (4.0 mg\\/ml) is used to supplement Eagle's Basal Medium (BME). Development is reduced in both serum-and BSA-supplemented BME devoid of glucose in comparison to glucose controls. Serum-supplemented media support better

J. T. Hendryx; R. J. Wordinger

1979-01-01

8

Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.  

PubMed

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

2013-10-01

9

Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull  

PubMed Central

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

2013-01-01

10

Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University: June 1, 2012 - May 31, 2015 Office of Nuclear Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program/University of Surrey masters student each year as part of the Richmond program in electromagnetic nuclear physics

Gilfoyle, Jerry

11

Maternal choline supplementation differentially alters the basal forebrain cholinergic system of young-adult Ts65Dn and disomic mice.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. Although DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS that displays age-related degeneration of the BFCN system, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation on the BFCN system in adult Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates at 4.3-7.5 months of age. Ts65Dn dams were maintained on a choline-supplemented diet (5.1 g/kg choline chloride) or a control, unsupplemented diet with adequate amounts of choline (1 g/kg choline chloride) from conception until weaning of offspring; post weaning, offspring were fed the control diet. Mice were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde, and brains were sectioned and immunolabeled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ). BFCN number and size, the area of the regions, and the intensity of hippocampal labeling were determined. Ts65Dn-unsupplemented mice displayed region- and immunolabel-dependent increased BFCN number, larger areas, smaller BFCNs, and overall increased hippocampal ChAT intensity compared with 2N unsupplemented mice. These effects were partially normalized by maternal choline supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest a developmental imbalance in the Ts65Dn BFCN system. Early maternal-diet choline supplementation attenuates some of the genotype-dependent alterations in the BFCN system, suggesting this naturally occurring nutrient as a treatment option for pregnant mothers with knowledge that their offspring is trisomy 21. PMID:24178831

Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Strupp, Barbara J; Mufson, Elliott J

2014-04-15

12

Growth of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cell (MDCK) Line in Hormone-Supplemented, Serum-Free Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells can grow in synthetic medium supplemented with five factors-insulin, transferrin, prostaglandin E1, hydrocortisone, and triiodothyronine-as a serum substitute. These five factors permit growth for 1 month in the absence of serum and a growth rate equivalent to that observed in serum-supplemented medium. Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate substitutes for prostaglandin E1 in the medium. Potential applications

Mary Taub; Lorraine Chuman; Milton H. Saier; Gordon Sato

1979-01-01

13

Growth of anuran oocytes in serum-supplemented medium R. A. WALLACE, Ziva MISULOVIN, H. S. WILEY  

E-print Network

Growth of anuran oocytes in serum-supplemented medium R. A. WALLACE, Ziva MISULOVIN, H. S. WILEY and differentiation of Xenopus laevis oocytes in a defined medium (Wallace et al., 1978 ; Wallace and Misulovin, 1978 in our initial explo- rations that it did not seem to be particularly beneficial (Wallace et al., 1978

Boyer, Edmond

14

Pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent as a basal medium and its immobilization by selected materials.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%. PMID:25017863

Asih, Devi Ratna; Alam, Zahangir; Salleh, Noor; Salihu, Aliyu

2014-01-01

15

A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

1985-01-01

16

Modification of the Technical Properties of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 by Supplementing the Growth Medium with Unsaturated Fatty Acids ?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementing growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids on the technical properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, such as heat and acid tolerance, and inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Our results showed that the membrane composition and morphology of L. johnsonii NCC 533 were significantly changed by supplementing a minimal Lactobacillus medium with oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated plus cyclic fatty acids in the bacterial membrane decreased by almost 2-fold when minimal medium was supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids (10 ?g/ml). The subsequent acid and heat tolerance of L. johnsonii decreased by 6- and 20-fold when the strain was grown in the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively, compared with growth in oleic acid (all at 10 ?g/ml). Following acid exposure, significantly higher (P < 0.05) oleic acid content was detected in the membrane when growth medium was supplemented with linoleic or linolenic acid, indicating that saturation of the membrane fatty acids occurred during acid stress. Cell integrity was determined in real time during stressed conditions using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with flow cytometric analysis. Following heat shock (at 62.5°C for 5 min), L. johnsonii was unable to form colonies; however, 60% of the bacteria showed no cell integrity loss, which could indicate that the elevated heat inactivated vital processes within the cell, rendering it incapable of replication. Furthermore, L. johnsonii grown in fatty acid-enriched minimal medium had different adhesion properties and caused a 2-fold decrease in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1-lux invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells compared with bacteria grown in minimal medium alone. This could be related to changes in the hydrophobicity and fluidity of the membrane. Our study shows that technical properties underlying probiotic survivability can be affected by nutrient composition of the growth medium. PMID:21821758

Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Sybesma, W. F. H.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

2011-01-01

17

Peptone Supplementation of Culture Medium Has Variable Effects on the Productivity of CHO Cells  

PubMed Central

The optimization of cell culture conditions for growth and productivity of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is a critical step in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. In the present study, the effects of the timing and amount of peptone feeding of a recombinant CHO cell line grown in a basal medium in serum-free suspension culture were determined for eight peptones of different origin (plant and casein). The amino acid content and the average molecular weight of the peptones chosen were available. In optimized feeding strategies with single peptones, increase 100 % volumetric productivity and 40 % in cell number were achieved. In feeding strategies with two peptones, several combinations stimulated protein productivity more than either peptone alone, depending on the peptone concentration and time of feeding. Some peptones, which did not stimulate productivity when added alone proved to be effective when used in combination. The combined peptones feeding strategies were more effective with peptones of different origin. Our data support the notion that the origin of peptones provides some guidance in identifying the most effective feeding strategies for recombinant CHO cells. PMID:25317401

Davami, Fatemeh; Baldi, Lucia; Rajendra, Yashas; M. Wurm, Florian

2014-01-01

18

Honey Supplementation to Semen-Freezing Medium ImprovesHuman Sperm Parameters Post-Thawing  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of honey supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm motility, concentration, morphology and agglutination. Materials and methods Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1, control) alone, or enriched with 5% honey (G2) or with 10% honey (G3) for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196°C in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post-thawing. Sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post-thawing. Results Results appeared that the percentage of sperm motility for G1 and G2 groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post-thawing when compared to pre-cryopreservation. However, there was no significant difference in the total motility (%) of the post-thaw sperm between the G1 and G2 groups. While there was significant increased (P < 0.05) in the percentage of normal sperm morphology for G1 and G3 groups post-thawing. Post-thawing normal sperm morphology (%) for G3 group was significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared to G1 and G2 groups. In contrast non significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) was seen in the sperm concentration for all groups post-thawing as compared to pre-cryopreservation groups. After thawing the results reveal significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the sperm agglutination (%) for G3 group as compared to G1 and G2 groups. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the supplementation of honey (10%) to cryoprotectant solution results in enhancement of sperm quality post-thawing. PMID:24971130

Alsaadi, Rana A-R.

2014-01-01

19

The role of signaling pathways in the expansion of corneal epithelial cells in serum-free B27 supplemented medium  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the influence of serum-free B27 supplemented culture medium on corneal epithelial cells from limbal explants. Methods Human limbal tissues obtained from cadaveric donor eyes were used in this study. The morphological characteristics of cultivated epithelial cells were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy. Growth kinetics, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling cell proliferation assay, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT–PCR) for limbus and corneal markers were studied in serum-dependent and serum-free B27 supplemented corneal epithelial culture. The signaling pathway genes were analyzed by RT2 qPCR profiler array. Results The corneal epithelial cells morphology and mRNA expression of markers were similar in both the serum-dependent and serum-free B27 supplemented culture. The growth and proliferation of the serum-free B27 supplemented culture was significantly higher than that of the serum-dependent culture. The wnt, hedgehog, survival, NFkB, Jak-Stat, and calcium protein kinase C pathways were highly expressed in the serum-free B27 supplemented corneal epithelial culture. Conclusions Most signaling pathway genes are upfolded by B27 supplementation in the corneal epithelial cell culture; it could be an efficient replacement for serum. PMID:20664695

Lakshmanan, Shruthi; Iyer, Geetha Krishnan; UmaMaheswari, Krishnan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

2010-01-01

20

Effects of intravenous supplementation with ?-tocopherol in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition containing medium- and long-chain triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effects of a lipid emulsion containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and supplemented with ?-tocopherol to a conventional long-chain triglyceride (LCT) emulsion.Design: Randomised double blind study.Setting: Department of Internal Medicine, Antwerp University Hospital.Subjects and interventions: Twenty-four patients with an indication for total parenteral nutrition for a minimum of 10 days were randomly assigned to two groups: group E

B Manuel-y-Keenoy; L Nonneman; H De Bosscher; J Vertommen; S Schrans; K Klütsch; I De Leeuw

2002-01-01

21

Effect of delayed supplementation of fetal calf serum to culture medium on bovine embryo development in vitro and following transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementation of synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) medium plus amino acids and bovine serum albumin (BSA) with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or charcoal-treated FCS (CT-FCS) from Day 5 of development was investigated to determine if either in vitro or post-transfer development was altered. Development to the compact morula stage or beyond was similar for all 3 treatments. However, blastocyst development

J. G Thompson; N. W Allen; L. T McGowan; A. C. S Bell; M. G Lambert; H. R Tervit

1998-01-01

22

Supplementation of the thawing medium with reduced glutathione improves function of frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Sperm cryopreservation represents a useful tool in the management of reproduction in goat production. However, freezing and thawing produce physical and chemical stress on the sperm membrane that reduces their viability and fertilizing ability. In this study, firstly we evaluated the effects of reduced glutathione (GSH, 1 and 5mM) supplementation of the thawing extender on parameters of frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa. We used a set of functional sperm tests that included sperm motility assayed by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), membrane lipid packing disorder, spontaneous acrosome reaction, free radical production (ROS generation) and sperm chromatin condensation. The main findings from this study were that addition of GSH to the thawing medium resulted in: (1) a higher motility and progressive motility; (2) a higher number of non-capacitated viable spermatozoa; (3) higher number of viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome; (4) a reduction in ROS generation and (5) lower chromatin condensation. In a second study, the additions of reduced (GSH, 5mM) or oxidized glutathione (GSSG, 2.5mM) to the thawing media were evaluated. We confirmed the protective effect of GSH on the sperm functionality. The addition of GSSG to the thawing media was less protective to sperm functions compared to GSH. Addition of GSH to the thawing extender could be of significant benefit in improving the function and fertilizing capacity of frozen goat spermatozoa. The information derived from this study suggests the importance of oxidative stress as responsible for cryo-injury to spermatozoa and opens new windows to explore the practical application of antioxidants to improve the quality of post-thaw goat semen. PMID:23522068

Gadea, Joaquín; Gumbao, David; Gómez-Giménez, Belén; Gardón, Juan Carlos

2013-03-01

23

Supplementation of insulin-transferrin-selenium to embryo culture medium improves the in vitro development of pig embryos.  

PubMed

Insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) supplementation to oocyte maturation medium improves the post-fertilization embryonic development in pigs. ITS is also commonly used as a supplement for the in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos and stem cells in several mammalian species. However, its use during IVC of pig embryos has not been explored. This study investigated the effect of ITS supplementation to IVC medium on the in vitro development ability of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We observed that ITS had no significant effect on the rate of first cleavage (P > 0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation in ITS-treated PA (45.3 ± 1.9 versus 27.1 ± 2.3%), IVF (31.6 ± 0.6 versus 23.5 ± 0.6%) and SCNT (17.6 ± 2.3 versus 10.7 ± 1.4%) embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-treated controls. Culture of PA embryos in the presence of ITS also enhanced the expansion and hatching ability (29.1 ± 3.0 versus 18.2 ± 3.8%; P < 0.05) of blastocysts and increased the total number of cells per blastocyst (53 ± 2.5 versus 40.9 ± 2.6; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the beneficial effect of ITS on PA embryos was associated with significantly reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (20.0 ± 2.6 versus 46.9 ± 3.0). However, in contrast to PA embryos, ITS had no significant effect on the blastocyst quality of IVF and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of ITS to the IVC medium exerts a beneficial but differential effect on pig embryos that varies with the method of embryo production in vitro. PMID:23506698

Das, Ziban Chandra; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

2014-08-01

24

Growth and production of laccases by the ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Botryosphaeria rhodina , cultured on basal medium containing the herbicide, Scepter (imazaquin).  

PubMed

The herbicide, Scepter, whose active principle is imazaquin, is commonly used in soybean farming to combat wide-leaf weeds. The basidiomycete, Pleurotus ostreatus , and the ascomycete, Botryosphaeria rhodina , were evaluated for their growth and laccase production when cultured on basal media containing Scepter. Both fungi could grow on the herbicide when cultivated in solid and submerged liquid culture in the presence of Scepter at concentrations of 0-6% (v/v) for P. ostreatus , and up to 0-50% (v/v) for B. rhodina , and in each case produced laccases when assayed against ABTS [2,2(1)-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. P . ostreatus could tolerate up to 6% of Scepter before it became toxic to the fungus, while in the case of B. rhodina , 50% (v/v) Scepter was the highest amount that supported grow, and laccase activity was detectable up to 25% (v/v). An inverse relationship existed between the level of Scepter in the culture medium that supported fungal growth and laccase production. Analysis of the results showed that the fungi studied presented different behaviour towards Scepter in the culture environment. PMID:16304708

Rezende, Maria I; Barbosa, Aneli M; Vasconcelos, Ana-Flora D; Haddad, Renata; Dekker, Robert F H

2005-01-01

25

Supplementation of bovine embryo culture medium with L-arginine improves embryo quality via nitric oxide production.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a cell-signaling molecule that regulates a variety of molecular pathways. We investigated the role of NO during preimplantation embryonic development by blocking its production with an inhibitor or supplementing in vitro bovine embryo cultures with its natural precursor, L-arginine, over different periods. Endpoints evaluated included blastocyst rates, development kinetics, and embryo quality. Supplementation with the NO synthase inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) from Days 1 to 8 of culture decreased blastocyst (P?medium during this culture period positively correlated with the increased embryo hatching rates and quality (P?supplementing the embryo culture medium with L-arginine favors preimplantation development of bovine embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81: 918-927, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25236163

Santana, Priscila Di Paula Bessa; Silva, Thiago Velasco Guimarães; da Costa, Nathália Nogueira; da Silva, Bruno Barauna; Carter, Timothy Frederick; Cordeiro, Marcela da Silva; da Silva, Bruno José Martins; Santos, Simone do Socorro Damasceno; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Adona, Paulo Roberto; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Miranda, Moysés Dos Santos

2014-10-01

26

Shieh medium supplemented with tobramycin for selective isolation of Flavobacterium columnare (Flexibacter columnaris) from diseased fish.  

PubMed Central

Tobramycin was found to be less inhibitory to Flavobacterium columnare (formerly Flexibacter columnaris) than to other fish-associated bacteria. The selective capacity of Shieh medium, an isolation medium described for this species, was markedly enhanced by adding tobramycin at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml. PMID:8968939

Decostere, A; Haesebrouck, F; Devriese, L A

1997-01-01

27

Effect of genistein supplementation of thawing medium on characteristics of frozen human spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

In this study, we evaluated the effects of genistein supplementation of the thawing extender on frozen-thawed human semen parameters. We analyzed the effect of supplementation on sperm motility, capacitation (membrane lipid disorder), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, chromatin condensation and DNA damage. Using this preliminary information, it maybe possible to improve the cryopreservation process and reduce the cellular damage. We have confirmed that the isoflavone genistein (10 ?mol L?1) has antioxidant properties on the frozen-thawed spermatozoa. This results in a decreased ROS production that shows a slight improvement in the sperm motility, and decreases the membrane lipid disorder and DNA damage caused by cryopreservation. These results suggest an effect of genistein on sperm functionality that could be of interest for assisted reproduction treatments using frozen-thawed human spermatozoa, but further studies will be necessary to confirm our findings and to evaluate the possible clinical applications. PMID:20173768

Martinez-Soto, Juan Carlos; de DiosHourcade, Juan; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Landeras, Jose Lorenzo; Gadea, Joaquin

2010-01-01

28

Cytokines produced by blood mononuclear cells stimulated with the streptococcal preparation OK-432: effect on production by supplementing the medium with xenogeneic serum.  

PubMed

Human blood MNC were stimulated for 7 days with a streptococcal preparation, OK-432, in a medium supplemented with either 10% autologous serum (autoserum) or 10% FCS. Cytokines, including IL-2, IL-1, IFN, and TNF in the supernatants, and antitumor cytotoxicity of MNC were analyzed. None of the IL-2 was detectable during the culture in medium with autoserum, although significant enhancement of cytotoxicity was observed at day 1. On the other hand, production of IL-2 and higher cytotoxicity were induced in the medium with FCS. Even a control culture of MNC unstimulated with OK-432 in the medium with FCS, showed a slight but significant amount of IL-2 and considerable cytotoxicity. However, such a culture in the medium with autoserum showed no such IL-2 production or cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity induced in the medium with FCS was significantly inhibited by the addition of anti-IL-2 antibody to the culture as well as by the addition of anti-IFN gamma antibody, whereas the cytotoxicity in the medium with autoserum was not inhibited at all by anti-IL-2 antibody. Therefore, the cytotoxicity induced in the medium with FCS included IL-2-induced killer activity, i.e., LAK activity. Similarly, the levels of IL-1, IFN, and TNF production in the supernatants were variable depending on the serum used to supplement the medium. The nonspecific production of IL-2 and the unexpected induction of cytotoxicity were consistently provoked in the medium using several different lots of FCS, but not in the medium with human allogeneic sera or pooled AB serum nor in that with autoserum. It was revealed that the source of sera used to supplement the medium is an important factor affecting the results of analysis of cytokine production and cytotoxicity of MNC induced by certain stimulants. PMID:2458183

Fujii, M; Abo, T; Kumagai, K

1988-01-01

29

Human Epidermal Cell Cultures: Growth and Differentiation in the Absence of Dermal Components or Medium Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human epidermal cells grew and differentiated in vitro, provided that the pH of the culture medium was at 5.6-5.8, the seeding density was optimal (≈ 2.5 × 105 cells per cm2), and the incubation temperature was maintained at 35-37 degrees C. Under these conditions, epidermal cells from many different skin locations grew to confluency within 15-20 days and formed multi-layered

M. Eisinger; Ji Soo Lee; J. M. Hefton; Z. Darzynkiewicz; J. W. Chiao; E. de Harven

1979-01-01

30

Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

Monford, L. G.

1976-01-01

31

Basal cell carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

Basal cell skin cancer; Rodent ulcer; Skin cancer - basal cell; Cancer - skin - basal cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer; Basal cell NMSC ... Basal cell cancer starts in the top layer of the skin called the epidermis. Most basal cell cancers occur ...

32

Basal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments A - D Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer often ... skin tissue and bone. Learn more about basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Basal ...

33

Supplementation of canine oocyte in vitro maturation medium with progesterone, somatotropin, and epidermal growth factor  

E-print Network

the same family, (i. e. different species of fox). I f LATE, PRO. ANOESTRLIS OESTRUS O EARLY I MIO METDEsTRUE fo * t I g LATE METDEsTRUs, AFIDEE'TRUs l ANDEETRUE &L TESTOSTERONE ANDROSTENEDIONE iPREPRO-OESTRUS t PROGESTEROINE CANINE OVARIAN CYCLE... in canine species. As mentioned previously, addition of high concentrations of steroid hormones to IVM medium such as testosterone in both the pig and mouse, and progesterone, pregnenolone, androstenedione and estradiol in the mouse (Aktas et al...

Willingham-Rocky, Lauri Ann

2012-06-07

34

Biological activity of a standardized freeze-dried platelet derivative to be used as cell culture medium supplement.  

PubMed

Serum of animal origin and in particular fetal bovine serum is the most commonly utilized cell culture medium additive for in vitro cell growth and differentiation. However, several major concerns have been raised by the scientific community regarding the use of animal sera for human cell-based culture applications. Among the possible alternatives to the animal serum, platelet-derived compounds have been proposed since more than 10 years. Nevertheless, the high degree of variability between the different platelet preparations, and the lack of standardized manufacturing and quality control procedures, made difficult to reach a consensus on the applicability of this novel cell culture medium supplement. In this study, we describe the preparation of a standardized platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivative obtained starting from human-certified buffy coat samples with a defined platelet concentration and following protocols including also freeze-drying, gamma irradiation and biological activity testing prior the product release as cell culture medium additive. Biological activity testing of the different preparations was done by determining the capability of the different PRP preparations to sustain human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clone formation and proliferation. Taking advantage of a developed MSC in vitro clonogenicity test, we also determined biological activity and stability of the freeze-dried gamma-sterilized PRP preparations after their storage for different times and at different temperatures. The PRP effects on cell proliferation were determined both on primary cell cultures established from different tissues and on a cell line. Results were compared with those obtained in "traditional" parallel control cultures performed in the presence of bovine serum [10% fetal calf serum (FCS)]. Compared to FCS, the PRP addition to the culture medium increased the MSC colony number and average size. In primary cell cultures and in cell line cultures, the PRP promoted cell proliferation also in conditions where the FCS had not a proliferation stimulating effect due to either the nature of the cells and the tissue of origin (such as human articular chondrocytes from elderly patients) or to the critical low density cell seeding (such as for HeLa cells). In summary, the standardized PRP formulation would provide an "off-the-shelf" product to be used for the selection and expansion of several cell types also in critical cell culture conditions. PMID:23885791

Muraglia, Anita; Ottonello, Chiara; Spanò, Raffaele; Dozin, Beatrice; Strada, Paolo; Grandizio, Michele; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

2014-01-01

35

Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.  

PubMed

Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis. PMID:24778327

Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

2014-06-01

36

Autoinduction activity of a conditioned medium obtained from high density cultures of the green alga Scenedesmus subspicatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture filtrates (conditioned medium, CM) containing exudates obtained from cells of Scenedesmus subspicatus grown in batch culture were tested for their autoinduction activity. Undiluted CM completely inhibited the proliferation\\u000a of cells due to depletion of nitrogen in this medium. When undiluted CM was supplemented with fresh bold basal medium (BBM)\\u000a medium, enhancement of population growth in a dilution-dependent manner was

Krzysztof Grabski; Zbigniew Tukaj

2008-01-01

37

Effects of temperature and white sucker ( Catostomus commersoni ) serum supplement on the in vitro multiplication of Cryptobia catostomi in cell-free culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptobia catostomi, a non-pathogenic haemoflagellate of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) multiplied rapidly in modified TDL-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% heat-inactivated white sucker\\u000a serum (WSS) at 10°C and 18°C. The numbers of C. catostomi counted were significantly higher in cultures incubated at 10°C than in those incubated at 18°C beginning at 3 weeks post-incubation.\\u000a The culture

S. Li; P. T. K. Woo

1996-01-01

38

Lipid peroxidation and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase and glutamine synthetase in hepatoma and glioma cells grown in bovine colostrum-supplemented medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The growth stimulating properties of bovine serum and colostrum were compared in rat hepatoma (HTC) and glioma (C6) cell cultures.\\u000a A colostrum concentration of 2% was optimal for HTc cells, which then reached a terminal density 40% of that in serum-supplemented\\u000a medium. The corresponding figures for C6 cells were 10 and 81%, respectively. After 4 d in culture, levels of

Lena Odland; Stefan Wallin; Erik Walum

1986-01-01

39

A short-acting GLP-1 analog or prandial insulin to supplement basal insulin?--Moving toward personalized management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

New models of health care delivery that emphasize patient-centered care affirm the need for alternatives to add-on prandial insulin therapy when optimized basal insulin fails to maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Regimens that are easy to teach, convenient, and flexible generally improve the outlook for long-term success. Our review reconsiders traditional barriers to insulin intensification in primary care and provides an illustration of how the benefits and drawbacks of > 1 choice of action--specifically, adding rapid-acting insulin or a short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog--can be weighed by the patient and provider together to determine the best next treatment step that balances efficacy, safety, and adherence to therapy. Technological, organizational, and interpersonal strategies for applying personalized management at this often challenging crossroads of diabetes management are also described. PMID:24918799

Hirsch, Irl B; Schneider, Doron; King, Aaron; Polonsky, William H; Reid, Timothy S; Shubrook, Jay; Verderese, Carol A; Wallace, Jeffrey; Riddle, Matthew C

2014-05-01

40

SUPPLEMENTED GROWTH MEDIUM for MYOBLASTS To 425mL of F-10 (HAM) medium (4.5g/L glucose, with sodium pyruvate)  

E-print Network

pyruvate) Add: - 250mg Bovine Serum Albumin ( Sigma A-4503 ) final concentration - 0.5mg/mL - 250mg FetuinmL heat inactivated Fetal Calf Serum per 425mL medium to final concentration of 15%. A commercially

Shoubridge, Eric

41

Effect of Millettia ferruginea (Birbra) foliage supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characterstics of Washera sheep fed natural pasture grass hay basal diet.  

PubMed

Twenty-four yearling male local Washera lambs with an average initial body weight of 18.14?±?1.07 kg were used to assess the nutritional value of Millettia ferruginea. Experimental animals were grouped into six blocks of four animals, and each animal was randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatment feeds. The treatments used were; Sole natural pasture grass hay (T1), and 150, 300, 450 g DM Millettia ferruginea leaf hay with ad libitum natural pasture grass hay assigned for (T2), (T3) and (T4), respectively. The feeding trial was carried out for 80 days followed by a 10 days of digestibility trial. Carcasses of each experimental animal were evaluated at the end of the digestibility experiment. Millettia ferruginea leaf hay had 224.6, 556.6, 360.7and 127.4 g/kg crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), respectively. The average intakes of Millettia ferruginea leaf hay were 0, 133, 263 and 253 g/day for T1, T2, T3 and T4, in that order. The proportions of Millettia ferruginea leaf hay intake from the total dry matter (DM) were 0, 23.5, 44.1, and 43.3% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The total DM intake was not significant but showed a trend of T1?>?T3?>?T4?>?T2. CP intake was higher for T3 and T4 with the least intake for T1. Final body weight measurement was higher for T3 and T1 but lower and negative for T2 and T4. Generally, body weight measurements were not consistent in the supplemented groups throughout the trial period. The weight of heart, spleen, and liver were higher for the supplemented groups compared to the sole grass hay. From the results of the current study, it can be concluded that, Millettia ferruginea had some limiting factors, which prevented the animal from efficiently utilize it. Therefore, this study revealed the indispensable role of animal feeding experiments with target animals to examine such impacts. PMID:24567874

Alemu, Berhanu; Animut, Getachew; Tolera, Adugna

2014-01-01

42

A plant basal in vitro system supporting accurate transcription of both RNA polymerase II- and III-dependent genes: supplement of green leaf component(s) drives accurate transcription of a light-responsive rbcS gene.  

PubMed

An in vitro transcription initiation system has been developed from nuclei of rapidly growing, non-green tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultured (BY-2) cells. Conditions for nuclear extraction and in vitro transcription reaction have been optimized with a tobacco beta-1,3-glucanase gene, a constitutively expressed gene in BY-2 cells. The in vitro system supports accurate transcription of RNA polymerase II-dependent promoters from not only plant genes (tobacco beta-1,3-glucanase gene, cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter) but also animal genes (adenovirus 2 major late promoter, simian virus 40 early major promoter). In addition, this system drives accurate transcription of an RNA polymerase III-dependent Arabidopsis thaliana U6 snRNA gene. As BY-2 cells do not differentiate in response to light or any other stimuli, they would provide a basal transcription system which lacks tissue-specific and light-responsive nuclear signals as well as chloroplast-derived signals. Consequently, the BY-2 cell-free system is unable to transcribe the tomato gene encoding the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcS3C) whose expression is tissue-specific and light-inducible. However, the transcription of rbcS3C was obtained by supplementing the BY-2 system with a nuclear extract of light-grown tomato seedlings. The promoter regions necessary for rbcS transcription was mapped in vitro using a series of 5' deletion mutants. The 351 bp upstream sequence is essential and the further upstream region from -351 to -441 enhances its transcription. The in vitro basal system will be useful to identify specific signals from both the nucleus and chloroplast in green leaves and other organs/tissues. PMID:7889933

Fan, H; Sugiura, M

1995-03-01

43

A novel chemical-defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements supports undifferentiated growth in human embryonic stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells or on matrigel with an MEF-conditioned medium (CM), which hampers the clinical applications of hESCs due to the contamination by animal pathogens. Here we report a novel chemical-defined medium using DMEM/F12 supplemented with N2, B27, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [termed NBF]. This medium can support prolonged self-renewal of hESCs. hESCs cultured in NBF maintain an undifferentiated state and normal karyotype, are able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and differentiate into three germ layers and extraembryonic cells. Furthermore, we find that hESCs cultured in NBF possess a low apoptosis rate and a high proliferation rate compared with those cultured in MEF-CM. Our findings provide a novel, simplified chemical-defined culture medium suitable for further therapeutic applications and developmental studies of hESCs.

Liu Yanxia [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Song Zhihua [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Zhao Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Qin Han [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Cai Jun [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhang Hong [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yu Tianxin [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Jiang Siming [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Wang Guangwen [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ding Mingxiao [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Hongkui [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China) and Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China)]. E-mail: hongkui_deng@pku.edu.cn

2006-07-21

44

Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls.  

PubMed

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional organization. KO contains similar amounts of C12:0 as CO (420 and 458 g/kg FA, respectively), but has a higher proportion of C14:0 (464 v. 205 g/kg FA, respectively). Treatments contained 35 g supplemental fat per kg DM: a control diet with tallow (T); a diet with supplemental CO; and a diet with supplemental KO. A 4th treatment consisted of a diet with similar amounts of MCFA (i.e. C10:0+C12:0+C14:0) from CO and KO. To ensure isolipidic diets, extra tallow was supplied in the latter treatment (KO+T). Eight fistulated bulls (two bulls per treatment), fed a total mixed ration predominantly based on cassava chips, rice straw, tomato pomace, rice bran and soybean meal (1.5% of BW), were used. Both KO and CO increased the rumen volatile fatty acids, in particular propionate and decreased acetate proportions. Protozoal numbers were reduced through the supplementation of an MCFA source (CO, KO and KO+T), with the strongest reduction by KO. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays based on archaeal primers showed a decrease in abundance of Archaea when supplementing with KO and KO+T compared with T and CO. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the rumen archaeal population did not result in a grouping of treatments. Richness indices were calculated from the number of DGGE bands, whereas community organization was assessed from the Pareto-Lorenz evenness curves on the basis of DGGE band intensities. KO supplementation (KO and KO+T treatments) increased richness and evenness within the archaeal community. Further research including methane measurements and productive animals should elucidate whether KO could be used as a dietary methane mitigation strategy. PMID:24237673

Panyakaew, P; Boon, N; Goel, G; Yuangklang, C; Schonewille, J Th; Hendriks, W H; Fievez, V

2013-12-01

45

In vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum: Studies with modified medium supplemented with ALBUMAX II and various animal sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

RPNI, a combination of three commercially available growth media (RPMI-1640, NCTC-135 and IMDM) has been found to support long term continuous cultivation of 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum in the presence of 10% bovine calf serum. During the present study, the suitability of this medium was evaluated for the development of P. falciparum in the presence of horse, goat and

Kumkum Srivastava; Shubhra Singh; Pratibha Singh; S. K. Puri

2007-01-01

46

Using human plasma supplemented medium to cultivate human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell and evaluation of its multiple-lineage potential.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the proliferation and the multiple-lineage differentiation capacity when bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured short-term in autologous serum/plasma instead of fetal calf serum (FCS). The BMSCs from 12 donors were cultivated individually in 10% autogenic plasma or serum, with or without bFGF and EGF growth factors. Cell proliferation was examined by a Tetrazolium assay (MTT) after passages 1, 3, and 5. A medium supplemented with 10% human plasma or serum was sufficient to propagate BMSCs. However, no significant proliferation was shown when bFGF and EGF (20 ng/mL each) were added into the medium with autologous serum/plasma. We examined, inductions of adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrocytogenesis, as capacities of multiple-lineage differentiation of cultivated BMSCs (passages 8). Differentiation was investigated by both RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining (IHC). Qualitative evidence demonstrated the differentiation capacity was preserved in cultivated BMSCs with autologous serum/plasma. PMID:16387155

Lin, H-T; Tarng, Y-W; Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-L; Hsu, C-J; Shyr, Y-M; Ku, H-H; Chiou, S H

2005-12-01

47

Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) Information for adults A A A The nodular form of basal cell carcinoma is usually skin-colored with ... the general health of the patient. Nodular basal cell carcinomas: Freezing (cryosurgery) with liquid nitrogen – Very cold ...

48

In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination was not affected for any assayed concentration; however, the length of the stems and roots decreased when HCM increased and the survival of the four species also diminished. Except for F. arundinacea, a direct link between hydrocarbon concentration and plant survival was observed. In vitro studies are clean and easy to handle techniques allowing isolation of the plant activity from that derived from associations with microorganisms in non-sterile cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first work towards phytoremediation assisted by in vitro plant cultivation. PMID:18222086

Reynoso-Cuevas, L; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Cruz-Sosa, F; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

2008-09-01

49

Effects of supplementing Erythrina brucei leaf as a substitute for cotton seed meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed basal diet of natural grass hay.  

PubMed

The replacement value of dried Erythrina brucei leaf for cotton seed meal (CSM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics was evaluated. Twenty-five yearling buck goats (15.8?±?1.4 kg) were assigned into five treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100% CSM (T2), 67% CSM?+?33% E. brucei (T3), 33% CSM?+?67% E. brucei (T4), and 100% E. brucei (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats consumed more (P?supplemented group, but the intakes were not influenced (P?>?0.05) by the proportion of the supplements. The highest (P?supplemented with CSM alone, whereas the lowest intake was observed in the non-supplemented group. Total CP intake decreased (P?supplement mixture. The supplemented goats gained more (P?supplemented goats than in the non-supplemented ones, but similar (P?>?0.05) among the supplemented group. The digestibility of CP was higher (P?supplemented goats, except in those goats fed E. brucei alone, than the non-supplemented group. Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P?supplemented goats than for the non-supplemented ones. It could be concluded that E. brucei could be used as a substitute to CSM under smallholder production systems. PMID:21735342

Yinnesu, Asmamaw; Nurfeta, Ajebu

2012-03-01

50

Supplementation of conventional freezing medium with a combination of catalase and trehalose results in better protection of surface molecules and functionality of hematopoietic cells.  

PubMed

Our previous studies had shown that a combination of the bio-antioxidant catalase and the membrane stabilizer trehalose in the conventional freezing mixture affords better cryoprotection to hematopoietic cells as judged by clonogenic assays. In the present investigation, we extended these studies using several parameters like responsiveness to growth factors, expression of growth factor receptors, adhesion assays, adhesion molecule expression, and long-term culture-forming ability. Cells were frozen with (test cells) or without additives (control cells) in the conventional medium containing 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Experiments were done on mononuclear cells (MNC) from cord blood/fetal liver hematopoietic cells (CB/FL) and CD34(+) cells isolated from frozen MNC. Our results showed that the responsiveness of test cells to the two early-acting cytokines, viz. interleukin-3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor (SCF) in CFU assays was better than control cells as seen by higher colony formation at limiting concentrations of these cytokines. We, therefore, analyzed the expression of these two growth factor receptors by flow cytometry. We found that in cryopreserved test MNC, as well as CD34(+) cells isolated from them, the expression of both cytokine receptors was two- to three-fold higher than control MNC and CD34(+) cells isolated from them. Adhesion assays carried out with CB/FL-derived CD34(+) cells and KG1a cells showed significantly higher adherence of test cells to M210B4 than respective control cells. Cryopreserved test MNC as well as CD34(+) cells isolated from them showed increased expression of adhesion molecules like CD43, CD44, CD49d, and CD49e. On isolated CD34(+) cells and KG1a cells, there was a two- to three-fold increase in a double-positive population expressing CD34/L-selectin in test cells as compared to control cells. Long-term cultures (LTC) were set up with frozen MNC as well as with CD34(+) cells. Clonogenic cells from LTC were enumerated at the end of the fifth week. There was a significantly increased formation of CFU from test cells than from control cells, indicating better preservation of early progenitors in test cells. Our results suggest that use of a combination of catalase and trehalose as a supplement in the conventional freezing medium results in better protection of growth factor receptors, adhesion molecules, and functionality of hematopoietic cells, yielding a better graft quality. PMID:14594512

Sasnoor, Lalita M; Kale, Vaijayanti P; Limaye, Lalita S

2003-10-01

51

Basal Ganglia and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders.

2009-04-14

52

Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Download PDF Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome This section has been reviewed and ... Editorial Board , 11/2013 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) ...

53

Basal cell carcinoma - diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Weklar, Daria; Danczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

2013-01-01

54

Vulvar basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Although the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy of skin, it is rarely seen in vulva and constitutes 2% to 4% of all vulvar cancers. The cause is unknown but, chronic vulvar irritation is the most important underlying factor. The patients over 60 years are affected more frequently than younger ones. PMID:23455815

Kara, Mustafa; Colgecen, E; Yildirim, Erdogan Nilsen

2012-01-01

55

SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Supplement 1  

E-print Network

1 SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Supplement 1: Details about references, targeted epitopes and cross;286(13):11337-45" DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M111.223503 #12;2 Supplemental 2: Fig. S2. Effect of therapeutic anti-EGFR or -HER2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods 1.1 Description of the Ecosystem Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure 1. Chlorophyll concentrations and chlorophyll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Figure 2. Culture-based example of issue regarding the correct identification

Boss, Emmanuel S.

57

Basal Septal Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

A significant clinical problem is patients presenting with exercise-limiting dyspnoea, sometimes with associated chest pain, in the absence of detectable left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, coronary artery disease, or lung disease. Often the patients are older, female, and have isolated basal septal hypertrophy (BSH), frequently on a background of mild hypertension. The topic of breathlessness in patients with clinical heart failure, but who have a normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) has attracted significant controversy over the past few years. This review aims to analyse the literature on BSH, identify the possible associations between BSH and HFNEF, and consequently explore possible pathophysiological mechanisms whereby clinical symptoms are experienced.

Kelshiker, Mihir A.; Mayet, Jamil; Unsworth, Beth; Okonko, Darlington O.

2013-01-01

58

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... And, are they safe? What Is a Dietary Supplement? Dietary supplements are substances you might use to ... buy dietary supplements. Should I Take a Dietary Supplement? Do you need one? Maybe you do, but ...

59

Basal Twinning of Hematite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When two crystals share a plane, there is a twinning composition plane. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a symmetrical manner. Crystallographers classify twinned crystals by a number of twin laws. These twin laws are specific to the crystal system. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic tool in mineral identification and characterization. Many twin laws cannot be recognized in ordinary optical analysis. So, the advent of diffraction techniques to describe punctual crystallographic orientation facilitated the identification of many twinned crystals in rocks. Samples containing hematite of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by EBSD technique. Crystallographic orientation data were obtained from automatically indexed EBSD patterns collected on a JEOL JSM-5510. EBSD analysis was carried out on thin sections cut perpendicular to the foliation (XZ plane) and parallel to the stretching lineation (X-direction). Thin sections were polished before EBSD analysis. EBSD patterns were indexed using CHANNEL 5 software from HKL Technology, Oxford Instruments. The resulting data are presented in form of pole figures (upper hemisphere, equal angle, stereographic projection) and of colour-coded maps using Coincidence Site Lattice (? 3) and Twin Boundaries Components. Through electron backscatter diffraction analysis of hematite grains was possible to detect twin boundaries similar to Dauphiné twinning in quartz that is not described for hematite. Dauphiné twinning in trigonal ?-quartz consists of a 60° rotation around the c-axis resulting in a reversal of the crystallographic positive and negative forms (Frondel 1962). As both minerals show similar symmetry, the same mechanism can be described for hematite in this analysis. The basal twinning of hematite developed pervasively during the incipient stage of deformation. This paper investigates the relationships between this kind of twinning, deformation conditions and microstructural modifications in hematite grains. The results show that the presence of twins exerts an important role in the distribution of the intracrystalline plastic deformation in hematite, as well as in the activation of different sets of slip systems. We estimate that basal twin bands can be preferred sites for dynamic recrystallization.

Gonçalves, Fábio; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Barbosa, Paola

2013-04-01

60

Giant adenoid basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The giant adenoid basal cell carcinoma is an unusual skin tumor that has aggressive biological behavior and has been reported to exhibit geometric growth, deep invasion, and metastasis. A case of giant adenoid basal cell carcinoma is presented, with recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:8060083

Herring, S M

1994-05-01

61

Preparation, quality criteria, and properties of human blood platelet lysate supplements for ex vivo stem cell expansion.  

PubMed

Most clinical applications of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases require a phase of isolation and ex vivo expansion allowing a clinically meaningful cell number to be reached. Conditions used for cell isolation and expansion should meet strict quality and safety requirements. This is particularly true for the growth medium used for MSC isolation and expansion. Basal growth media used for MSC expansion are supplemented with multiple nutrients and growth factors. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has long been the gold standard medium supplement for laboratory-scale MSC culture. However, FBS has a poorly characterized composition and poses risk factors, as it may be a source of xenogenic antigens and zoonotic infections. FBS has therefore become undesirable as a growth medium supplement for isolating and expanding MSCs for human therapy protocols. In recent years, human blood materials, and most particularly lysates and releasates of platelet concentrates have emerged as efficient medium supplements for isolating and expanding MSCs from various origins. This review analyzes the advantages and limits of using human platelet materials as medium supplements for MSC isolation and expansion. We present the modes of production of allogeneic and autologous platelet concentrates, measures taken to ensure optimal pathogen safety profiles, and methods of preparing PLs for MSC expansion. We also discuss the supply of such blood preparations. Produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety, human platelet materials can become the future 'gold standard' supplement for ex vivo production of MSCs for translational medicine and cell therapy applications. PMID:24929129

Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi; Burnouf, Thierry

2015-01-25

62

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... risk. Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Dietary Supplements: Tips for Women Print and Share (PDF 123KB) ... 10877-382-4357. - To Learn More about Dietary Supplements Using Dietary Supplements Weight Loss Fraud NIH Office ...

63

Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure1  

E-print Network

Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure1 Supplemental Figure 1 Bidirectional state transition;Supplemental Figure 2 The responsiveness to single mossy fiber inputs during UP and DOWN periods A. The firing and UP periods in state IV. The EPSP amplitude in DOWN was also larger than that in UP. #12;Supplemental

Fujisawa, Shigeyoshi

64

In vivo formation of bone and haematopoietic territories by transplanted human bone marrow stromal cells generated in medium with and without osteogenic supplements.  

PubMed

Autologous transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has been successfully used for bone reconstruction. However, in order to advance this approach into the mainstream of bone tissue engineering, the conditions for BMSC cultivation and transplantation must be optimized. In a recent report, cultivation with dexamethasone (Dex) significantly increased bone formation by human BMSCs in vivo. Based on this important conclusion, we analysed the data accumulated by our laboratory, where human BMSCs have been routinely generated using media both with and without a combination of two osteogenic supplements: Dex at 10(-8) ?m and ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) at 10(-4) ?m. Our data demonstrate that for 22/24 donors, BMSC strains propagated with and without Dex/AscP formed similar amounts of bone in vivo. Thus, human BMSCs do not appear to need to be induced to osteogenic differentiation ex vivo prior to transplantation. Similarly, for 12/14 donors, BMSC strains cultured with and without Dex/AscP formed haematopoietic territories to a comparable extent. While Dex/AscP did not increase bone formation, they significantly stimulated BMSC in vitro proliferation without affecting the number of BMSC colonies formed by the colony-forming units-fibroblasts. We conclude that for the substantial majority of donors, Dex/AscP have no effect on the ability of BMSCs to form bone and myelosupportive stroma in vivo. However, due to increased BMSC proliferation, the total osteogenic population obtained from a single marrow sample is larger after cultivation with Dex/AscP than without them. Secondary to increased BMSC proliferation, Dex/AscP may stimulate bone formation if BMSCs and/or the transplantation system are less than optimal. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:22052864

Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Mankani, Mahesh H; Robey, Pamela Gehron

2013-03-01

65

Polar basal melting on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential importance of basal melting on Mars is illustrated through the discussion of four examples: (1) the origin of the major polar reentrants, (2) the removal and storage of an ancient Martian ice sheet, (3) the mass balance of the polar terrains, and (4) the possibility of basal melting at temperate latitudes. This analysis suggests that the process of basal melting may play a key role in understanding the evolution of the Martian polar terrains and the long-term climatic behavior of water on Mars.

Clifford, S. M.

1987-08-01

66

Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends Supp. Fig. 1. Fluorescence images of 3-D clusters) for Integrative Biology This journal is (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009 #12;Supplemental Figures

Tsien, Roger Y.

67

Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid.  

PubMed

Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin- HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA?E?cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi; Bu, Yanzhen; Zhao, Yanhui; Zou, Gang; Liu, Zhixue

2014-07-01

68

Randomized Study Comparing a Basal-Bolus With a Basal Plus Correction Insulin Regimen for the Hospital Management of Medical and Surgical Patients With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Effective and easily implemented insulin regimens are needed to facilitate hospital glycemic control in general medical and surgical patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This multicenter trial randomized 375 patients with T2D treated with diet, oral antidiabetic agents, or low-dose insulin (?0.4 units/kg/day) to receive a basal-bolus regimen with glargine once daily and glulisine before meals, a basal plus regimen with glargine once daily and supplemental doses of glulisine, and sliding scale regular insulin (SSI). RESULTS Improvement in mean daily blood glucose (BG) after the first day of therapy was similar between basal-bolus and basal plus groups (P = 0.16), and both regimens resulted in a lower mean daily BG than did SSI (P = 0.04). In addition, treatment with basal-bolus and basal plus regimens resulted in less treatment failure (defined as >2 consecutive BG >240 mg/dL or a mean daily BG >240 mg/dL) than did treatment with SSI (0 vs. 2 vs. 19%, respectively; P < 0.001). A BG <70 mg/dL occurred in 16% of patients in the basal-bolus group, 13% in the basal plus group, and 3% in the SSI group (P = 0.02). There was no difference among the groups in the frequency of severe hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL; P = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS The use of a basal plus regimen with glargine once daily plus corrective doses with glulisine insulin before meals resulted in glycemic control similar to a standard basal-bolus regimen. The basal plus approach is an effective alternative to the use of a basal-bolus regimen in general medical and surgical patients with T2D. PMID:23435159

Umpierrez, Guillermo E.; Smiley, Dawn; Hermayer, Kathie; Khan, Amna; Olson, Darin E.; Newton, Christopher; Jacobs, Sol; Rizzo, Monica; Peng, Limin; Reyes, David; Pinzon, Ingrid; Fereira, Maria Eugenia; Hunt, Vicky; Gore, Ashwini; Toyoshima, Marcos T.; Fonseca, Vivian A.

2013-01-01

69

Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and Lactobacillus species growth in a defined medium simulating vaginal secretions.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus species are commensal with the healthy vaginal environment and inhibit the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the vaginal tract by a variety of mechanisms, such as the production of hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and antimicrobial substances. Simulation of the vaginal environment is crucial for proper investigation of the effects of Lactobacillus species on pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we modified a medium used to simulate vaginal secretions to improve the growth of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains and Lactobacillus species so that interactions between these bacteria may be examined. A medium consisting of basal salts, vitamins, albumin, glycogen, mucin, urea, sodium bicarbonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, and amino acids supported the growth of S. aureus and the production of TSST-1 as determined by Western analysis. Improved growth of the Lactobacillus species was seen when this same medium was supplemented with manganese chloride, sodium acetate, and an increase in glucose concentration. However, growth of S. aureus in the supplemented medium resulted in reduced levels of TSST-1. Production of TSST-1 was not detected in a medium routinely used for the growth of Lactobacillus species although S. aureus growth was not inhibited. The development of an improved genital tract secretion medium provides a more authentic environment in which to study the interactions of Lactobacillus species and vaginal pathogens, such as S. aureus. PMID:25135489

Stingley, Robin L; Liu, Huanli; Mullis, Lisa B; Elkins, Christopher A; Hart, Mark E

2014-11-01

70

Basal cell nevus syndrome - plantar pits (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas (skin cancers). This ... close-up of the pits found on the sole of the foot of an individual with basal ...

71

Home treatment of basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus is not uncommonly used as a home treatment for warts and basal cell carcinomas. This report documents its successful use on a biopsy-proven basal cell carcinoma. PMID:979751

Weedon, D; Chick, J

1976-06-12

72

The role of legume forages as supplements to low quality roughages — ILRI experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementation of basal diets with multipurpose trees (MPTs) increases essential nutrients available to rumen microbes, increases rate of passage of particulate matter by 23–53% and of liquid matter by 9–43%. Supplementing teff straw with graded levels of cowpea or lablab significantly increased microbial N supply in calves. Supplements of Sesbania and Chamaecytisus sp. promoted higher N retention compared with unsupplemented

Paschal O. Osuji; Agnes A. Odenyo

1997-01-01

73

[Sensory input and basal ganglia].  

PubMed

Non-motor symptoms including sensory signs have recently been stressed in basal ganglia (BG) disorders. Why do sensory symptoms appear in BG disorders? Four closed loops have been shown between cortex and BG, but no sensory cortical-BG loops. I review two points: fiber connections between the somatosensory cortex and BG to explain sensory symptoms, and pain and basal ganglia. Somatosensory system and BG Many animal studies have shown somatosensory cortex- striatum- globus pallidus- motor thalamus connections, but no connections to the sensory thalamus. This indicates that sensory system may modulate four closed loops between the cortices and BG (motor loop, oculomotor loop, prefrontal loop and limbic loop) as an open loop system. Based on the above findings, two possible mechanisms may explain somatosensory symptoms in BG disorders. Motor modulation abnormalities may be considered as sensory symptoms in patients with BG disorders. Some sensory cognition abnormalities due to abnormal modulation of the prefrontal- BG loop may be considered as sensory symptoms. Pain and dopamine Two systems contribute to pain signs in patients with BG disorders. Descending pain modulation system: several brainstem nuclei send descending pain modulation fibers to the spinal cord mediated by serotonin or noradrenalin. These nuclei are facilitated by D2 neurons from the striatum. Striatal dopamine must suppress the pain information input at the spinal cord. Ascending pain relief system D2 neurons from the ventral tegmental area to anterior cingulate cortex, accumbens and amygdala may reduce pain feeling at the association cortices. In summary, dopamine system will reduce pain at the spinal cord and association cortices. Dopamine depletion, therefore, will enhance the pain sensation. PMID:23196445

Ugawa, Yoshikazu

2012-01-01

74

Diabetes and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... and skin reactions following large doses. Top Herbal Supplements There is no strong evidence that herbal supplements ... ODS’s Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium . Top Other Supplements There is no strong evidence that supplements of ...

75

Effects of the composition of the basal diet on the evaluation of mineral phosphorus sources and interactions with phytate hydrolysis in broilers.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the availability of P from mineral phosphate sources by using different basal diets and measurement of P retention and prececal (pc) P digestibility as well as pc myo-inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation in broilers. Semi-synthetic and corn-soybean meal-based basal diets were used in experiment 1, and corn-based and wheat-based basal diets were used in experiment 2. Anhydrous monosodium phosphate (MSPa) or monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPh) was supplemented to increment the P concentration by 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% or by 0.075 and 0.150% in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were pelleted through a 3-mm screen. In experiment 1, retention was measured based on total excreta collection from 20 to 24 d of age using 7 replicated birds per diet. In experiment 2, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected from 22-d-old broilers penned in groups of 19 with 5 replicated pens per diet. The P retention response to supplemented MSPa did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 1. The response in pc P digestibility to MCPh supplements also did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 2, as calculated by linear regression analysis. Hydrolysis of InsP6 measured on both the excreta and pc levels was high in the basal diets without a mineral P supplement. Mineral P supplementation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) InsP6 hydrolysis from the InsP-containing diets in both experiments. Thus, the choice of the basal diet did not affect the evaluation of the supplemented mineral P source. However, calculated values for mineral P sources need to be adjusted for the decline in hydrolysis of InsP contained in the basal diet that results from the P supplement. PMID:25085939

Shastak, Y; Zeller, E; Witzig, M; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

2014-10-01

76

An improved culture medium for mouse blastocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Eagle's basal medium, modified to contain essential amino acids at the concentrations optimal for mouse blastocyst hatching,\\u000a attachment, and outgrowth, supported in vitro development of the mouse blastocyst better than other tissue culture media tested.\\u000a This medium was improved for growth and differentiation of the inner cell mass by doubling the concentration of amino acids\\u000a and glucose and by adding

Akiko Spindle

1980-01-01

77

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

2012-01-01

78

The cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebral cortex is interconnected with two major subcortical structures: the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. How and where cerebellar circuits interact with basal ganglia circuits has been a longstanding question. Using transneuronal transport of rabies virus in macaques, we found that a disynaptic pathway links an output stage of cerebellar processing, the dentate nucleus, with an input stage of

Eiji Hoshi; Léon Tremblay; Jean Féger; Peter L Carras; Peter L Strick

2005-01-01

79

Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

Perkins, Pamela

80

Multiple Output Channels in the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural circuits that link the basal ganglia with the cerebral cortex are critically involved in the generation and control of voluntary movement. Retrograde transneuronal transport or herpes simplex virus type 1 was used to examine the organization of connections in the cebus monkey between an output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi),

John E. Hoover; Peter L. Strick

1993-01-01

81

Local synaptic connections of basal forebrain neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single, biocytin filled neurons in combination with immunocytochemistry and retrograde tracing as well as material with traditional double-immunolabeling were used at the light and electron microscopic levels to study the neural circuitry within the basal forebrain. Cholinergic neurons projecting to the frontal cortex exhibited extensive local collaterals terminating on non-cholinergic, (possible GABAergic) neurons within the basal forebrain. Elaborate axon arbors

Laszlo Zaborszky; Alvaro Duque

2000-01-01

82

Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story.  

PubMed

The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

2014-11-01

83

Supplemental Figure 1 Supplemental Figure 2  

E-print Network

Supplemental Figure 1 #12;Supplemental Figure 2 #12;Supplemental Figure Legends Supplemental Figure 1 The RT-qPCR assay has a broad dynamic range and specifically detects). Finally, to ensure that we can detect splicing inhibition, we examined splicing reactions supplemented

Ares Jr., Manny

84

Development of nalidixic acid amphotericin B vancomycin (NAV) medium for the isolation of Campylobacter ureolyticus from the stools of patients presenting with acute gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Recently, Campylobacter ureolyticus has been detected for the first time in the faeces of patients with acute gastroenteritis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Cultural isolation of C. ureolyticusis is not possible using the established selective methods for the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from faeces. The aim of the current study is to develop a new selective medium capable of isolating C. ureolyticus from faecal samples. The newly-developed medium consists of Anaerobe Basal Agar with 10 g/L additional agar, 2 g/L sodium formate and 3 g/L sodium fumarate dibasic, to which 10 mg/L nalidixic acid, 10 mg/L amphotericin B and 20 mg/L vancomycin (NAV) are added as selective agents. Validation studies have shown that this experimental selective medium completely inhibits growth of Candida spp. and of Enterococcus spp. and permits reduced growth of selected coliforms and Proteus spp. Growth of Campylobacter ureolyticus on NAV medium is optimal in anaerobic and enriched hydrogen atmospheres. Additionally, an overnight enrichment step using Bolton broth to which 2 g/L sodium formate, 3 g/L sodium fumarate dibasic and the NAV supplement are added, in place of the commercial Bolton broth supplement, allows improved recovery of C. ureolyticus from patients' faeces. PMID:24693569

O'Doherty, A; Koziel, M; De Barra, L; Corcoran, D; Bullman, S; Lucey, B; Sleator, R D

2014-01-01

85

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoffoqueC3, supplement au n o4, Tome 41, avri/ 1980, page C3-225 THE CHEMICAL ROLE OF GRAINS I N THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND RELATED PHYSICAL PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoffoqueC3, supplement au n o4, Tome 41, avri/ 1980, page C3-225 THE CHEMICAL Department, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchtzster, Eng land. 1 a s t Hz f o p mation r o u t e to account f o r t h e observed abun- dances. By d e f a u l t , t h e r e

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Optimization of culture medium for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fungusCeratocystis fimbriata is known to produce among others a banana-like aroma. With a fractional factorial experimental design a culture medium was optimized to produce characteristic volatile metabolites of this aroma. HPLC was used to separate and quantify some of the metabolites. This showed the influence of the composition of the basal culture medium. It is not yet possible

Pierre CHRISTEN I; Maurice Raimbault

1991-01-01

87

Fluorogenic Selective and Differential Medium for Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii  

PubMed Central

4-Methylumbelliferyl-?-d-glucoside, the fluorogenic substrate of ?-glucosidase, was used as a selective marker to develop a differential medium for Enterobacter sakazakii. This bacterium showed strong fluorogenic characteristics clearly distinguishable from other microorganisms. On the basis of reducing background noise, an optimum basal medium and nitrogen source were selected. Incubation conditions were optimized. PMID:15345462

Oh, Se-Wook; Kang, Dong-Hyun

2004-01-01

88

Human tracheobronchial basal cells. Normal versus remodeling/repairing phenotypes in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Human tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) basal cells (BCs) function as progenitors in normal tissue. However, mechanistic studies are typically performed in vitro and frequently use BCs recovered from patients who die of nonrespiratory disease. It is not known whether the cadaveric epithelium (1) is undergoing homeostatic remodeling and/or repair, or (2) yields BC clones that represent homeostatic processes identified in tissue. We sought to compare the phenotype of TBE-BCs with that of BCs cultured under optimal clone-forming conditions. TBE pathology was evaluated using quantitative histomorphometry. The cultured BC phenotype was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Clone organization and cell phenotype were determined by immunostaining. The cadaveric TBE is 20% normal. In these regions, BCs are keratin (K)-5(+) and tetraspanin CD151(+), and demonstrate a low mitotic index. In contrast, 80% of the cadaveric TBE exhibits homeostatic remodeling/repair processes. In these regions, BCs are K5(+)/K14(+), and a subset expresses tissue factor (TF). Passage 1 TBE cells are BCs that are K5(+)/TF(+), and half coexpress CD151. Optimal clone formation conditions use an irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblast feeder layer (American Type Culture Collection, Frederick, MD) and serum-supplemented Epicult-B medium (Stemcell Technologies, La Jolla, CA). The TF(+)/CD151(-) BC subpopulation is the most clonogenic BC subtype, and is enriched with K14(+) cells. TF(+)/CD151(-) BCs generate clones containing BCs that are K5(+)/Trp63(+), but K14(-)/CD151(-). TF(+) cells are limited to the clone edge. In conclusion, clonogenic human TBE BCs (1) exhibit a molecular phenotype that is a composite of the normal and remodeling/reparative BC phenotypes observed in tissue, and (2) generate organoid clones that contain phenotypically distinct BC subpopulations. PMID:23927678

Ghosh, Moumita; Ahmad, Shama; Jian, Abhilasha; Li, Bilan; Smith, Russell W; Helm, Karen M; Seibold, Max A; Groshong, Steven D; White, Carl W; Reynolds, Susan D

2013-12-01

89

Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... print | view as pdf | share Create PDF Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | T - Z General Supplement Information Dietary Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: ...

90

Fall 2014 Transfer Supplemental  

E-print Network

Fall 2014 Transfer Supplemental Applica2on Tutorial #12;t Accessing Your Supplemental Applica2on Click here to access your Supplemental Applica2on. The Supplemental Applica2on must be completed by SDSU upper division transfer applicants

Gallo, Linda C.

91

USP Verified Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... USP Verified Dietary Supplements Tweet USP Verified Dietary Supplements USP Verified dietary supplements are products that have ... it means . Where to Find USP Verified Dietary Supplements View USP Verified products and where they can ...

92

Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie; Krag, Christen

2014-01-01

93

Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. PMID:21889598

Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Micha? S; Jefimow, Ma?gorzata

2011-12-01

94

Local synaptic connections of basal forebrain neurons.  

PubMed

Single, biocytin filled neurons in combination with immunocytochemistry and retrograde tracing as well as material with traditional double-immunolabeling were used at the light and electron microscopic levels to study the neural circuitry within the basal forebrain. Cholinergic neurons projecting to the frontal cortex exhibited extensive local collaterals terminating on non-cholinergic, (possible GABAergic) neurons within the basal forebrain. Elaborate axon arbors confined to the basal forebrain region also originated from NPY, somatostatin and other non-cholinergic interneurons. It is proposed that putative interneurons together with local collaterals from projection neurons contribute to regional integrative processing in the basal forebrain that may participate in more selective functions, such as attention and cortical plasticity. PMID:11000417

Zaborszky, L; Duque, A

2000-11-01

95

Astrocytes Are Endogenous Regulators of Basal Transmission  

E-print Network

by adenosine. Our work uncovers an essential role for astrocytes in the regulation of elementary synaptic synapses. In fact, the release of neurotransmitters induced by single action potentials, known as basal

Contractor, Anis

96

Basal constriction : shaping the vertebrate brain  

E-print Network

Organs are primarily formed from epithelia, polarized sheets of cells with an apical surface facing a lumen and basal surface resting on the underlying extracellular matrix. Cells within a sheet are joined by junctions, ...

Graeden, Ellie Graham

2011-01-01

97

Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is ‘processed’ within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical ‘premotor’ regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic integration of functionally diverse information derived from the cortex. It is concluded that the essential concept of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia remains intact but that the role of the indirect pathway is more complex than previously suggested and that neurons of the globus pallidus are in a position to control the activity of virtually the whole of the basal ganglia. PMID:10923985

BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

2000-01-01

98

Jaw mechanics in basal ceratopsia (Ornithischia, Dinosauria).  

PubMed

Ceratopsian dinosaurs were a dominant group of herbivores in Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems. We hypothesize that an understanding of the feeding system will provide important insight into the evolutionary success of these animals. The mandibular mechanics of eight genera of basal ceratopsians was examined to understand the variability in shape of the jaws and the early evolution of the masticatory system in Ceratopsia. Data were collected on lever arms, cranial angles and tooth row lengths. The results indicate that psittacosaurids had higher leverage at the beak and in the rostral part of the tooth row than basal neoceratopsians, but lower leverage in the caudal part of the tooth row. Although the vertebrate mandible is generally considered as a third-class lever, that of basal neoceratopsians acted as a second-class lever at the caudal part of the tooth row, as is also true in ceratopsids. When total input force from the mandibular adductor muscles on both sides of the skull is considered, the largest bite force in basal ceratopsian tooth rows was exerted in the caudal part of the tooth row at the caudal extremity of the zone with near-maximum input force. Medially positioned teeth generate higher leverage than laterally positioned teeth. The largest bite force in all basal ceratopsians is smaller than the maximum input force, a limit imposed by the morphology of the basal ceratopsian masticatory system. In ceratopsids, caudal extension of the tooth row resulted in a much larger bite force, even exceeding the maximum input force. PMID:19711460

Tanoue, Kyo; Grandstaff, Barbara S; You, Hai-Lu; Dodson, Peter

2009-09-01

99

The growth of paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betaine when growing anaerobically.

Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

1983-01-01

100

Callus initiation and plant regeneration from inflorescence primordia of the intergeneric hybrid Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.xBromus inermis Leyss. cv. nanus on a modified nutritive medium.  

PubMed

Plant regeneration from callus of intergeneric hybrid Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. x Bromus inermis Leyss cv. nanus (AGROMUS) was carried out on a new culture medium designated medium-F. Within 21 days of the plating of inflorescence primordia the initiated callus showed globular structures. From the 21st day of culture, one step plant regeneration occurred on the callus without subculture. The new basal medium reported in this work was effective in callus initiation and plant regeneration of the hybrid AGROMUS by (i) the reduction of the total ion strength (2.6 g/l, 22.5 mM) of macroelements compared to MS (4.5 g/l,45.2 mM), (ii) the use of NH4NO3 as the sole N-source, and (iii) the application of KH2PO4 at an 8 times higher concentration (1160 mg/l,8.5 mM) when compared to the Murashige and Skoog medium composition. This medium provided a 2 to 10 fold reduction in the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid supplement needed for the callus initiation and one step plant regeneration after a gibberellic acid (2 mg/l, for 5 days) pretreatment of tillers. The regenerated plantlets were subcultured in multi-shoot culture and potted in soil to grow for further analysis. PMID:24203137

Gyulai, G; Janovszky, J; Kiss, E; Lelik, L; Csillag, A; Heszky, L E

1992-06-01

101

Constraining basal hydrology with model inversions of basal friction using new InSAR surface velocities.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constraining ice flow models for continental ice sheets such as Antarctica or Greenland can be difficult, especially regarding the specification of basal friction at the ice/bed interface. Historically, two approches have been taken: 1) model the basal hydrology of the ice sheet, and relate the resulting basal water pressure to the basal drag coefficient and 2) invert for the basal drag coefficient using InSAR surface velocities, and infer the resulting basal hydrology. Here, we use both approaches within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), the JPL/UCI developed ice flow model, for which we develop a new hydrological model based on Johnson et al 2002. We compare this model against a massive inversion of Antarctica's basal drag coefficient using new InSAR surface velocities from Rignot et al 2011. We discuss the potential for this model to improve constraints on basal friction evolution, and implications for projections of ice flow dynamics in a changing climate. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

Larour, E. Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.

2011-12-01

102

Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma of vulva.  

PubMed

Eleven cases of basal cell carcinoma of the vulvar skin are reported. There was fairly close correlation between the histologic type and the gross appearance of the lesion. The average age of the patients was 59 years, and the presenting complaint was usually that of a nodule with associated irritation or pruritus. All patients were treated surgically and none have had recurrent or metastatic disease; six patients have been followed for 12 to 25 years. The treatment of choice is wide local excision. One tumor was of particular interest in that it represented a carcinomatous change in a pre-existing premalignant fibroepithelial tumor. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin must be distinguished from adenoid cystic (basal cell) carcinoma of vestibular glands, which is a more aggressive neoplasm and which metastasizes by the lymphatic and blood vascular systems. PMID:1192371

Cruz-Jimenez, P R; Abell, M R

1975-11-01

103

Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation  

PubMed Central

Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum- free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE on basal lamina assembly and on myelin formation by Schwann cells cultured with neurons have been examined. Some batches of HPS were unable to promote myelin formation in the absence of EE, as assessed by quantitative evaluation of cultures stained with Sudan black; such HPS also failed to promote basal lamina assembly, as assessed by immunofluorescence using antibodies against laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The addition of EE or L-ascorbic acid with such HPS led to the formation of large quantities of myelin and to the assembly of basal laminae. Pretreatment of EE with ascorbic acid oxidase abolished the EE activity, whereas trypsin did not. Other batches of HPS were found to promote both basal lamina and myelin formation in the absence of either EE or ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid oxidase treatment or dialysis of these batches of HPS abolished their ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation, whereas the subsequent addition of ascorbic acid restored that ability. Ascorbic acid in the absence of serum was relatively ineffective in promoting either basal lamina or myelin formation. Fetal bovine serum was as effective as HPS in allowing ascorbic acid (and several analogs but not other reducing agents) to manifest its ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation. We suggest that ascorbic acid promotes Schwann cell myelin formation by enabling the Schwann cell to assemble a basal lamina, which is required for complete differentiation. PMID:3624305

1987-01-01

104

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely  

MedlinePLUS

... help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Dietary Supplements Dietary supplements were defined in a law passed ... evidence of benefit against the common cold. Dietary Supplement Use in the United States According to the ...

105

Taking iron supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ... ABOUT IRON SUPPLEMENTS Iron supplements may be taken as capsules, tablets, chewable tablets, and liquids. The most common tablet size is ...

106

Dietary Supplements for Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Article Body If you provide your ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

107

Basal reading programs: Development, effectiveness, and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

F rom observing a lot of classrooms, talking with many teachers and school administrators, and reviewing a great deal of the classroom observation literature, we have come to believe that commercially developed basal reading programs account for a great deal of how time is spent during the periods allocated for reading instruction in elementary classrooms. This belief is further substantiated

Jean Osborn; Marcy Stein

1985-01-01

108

TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

109

PORTRAYAL OF THE ELDERLY IN BASAL READERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six children's basal reading series, published between 1976 and 1978, were examined for the frequency and quality of the portrayal of elderly characters, especially those in a central role. The racial\\/ethnic and sex representation of the elderly was examined. The extent of their participation, their personal characteristics, how they were physically described in the text, and how they were illustrated,

Jerilyn K. Ribovich; Ardeth M. Deay

1979-01-01

110

Portrayal of the Elderly in Basal Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that 16 percent of 1,600 selections from six basal reading series contained one or more old people, that six percent presented an elderly person in a central role, that women and minority groups were inadequately represented, that the portrayal of old people was basically positive, and that considerable stereotyping existed in…

Deay, Ardeth M.; Ribovich, Jerilyn K.

1979-01-01

111

Temporal variability in basal isoprene emission factor.  

PubMed

Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (&mgr;g C g(-1) h(-1) or nmol m(-2) s(-1), leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 &mgr;mol m(-2) s(-1)) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Piedmont. Emissions from eight upper-canopy white oak (Quercus alba L.) leaves were measured periodically from the onset of isoprene emission on Day of Year (DOY) 119 (April 29) to leaf senescence in late October (DOY 299). Emissions from four leaves were measured under basal conditions with a controlled-environment cuvette system equipped with 10-ml gas-tight syringes and a reduction gas detector. Emissions from the other four leaves were measured under ambient conditions with the same system. Emission rates from the four leaves measured under ambient conditions were adjusted to basal conditions based on the PAR and leaf temperature algorithms of Guenther et al. (1993). The seasonal onset of isoprene emission was in agreement with previous studies where cumulative degree days from the date of the last spring frost were used to estimate bud break, leaf expansion, and increase in basal emission factor (EF). Between DOY 141 (May 21) and 240 (August 28), mean meteorological conditions 6 to 18 h prior to the EF measurements (ambient PAR and temperature) explained up to 78% of the variability in mean basal EF between measurement periods. Summertime mean isoprene emission potential was reached on DOY 141 (May 21) and was maintained until DOY 240 (August 28), when isoprene emission began to decline monotonically as leaf senescence approached. The mean value for leaves measured under ambient conditions and adjusted to basal conditions for DOY 141-240 was 75.6 &mgr;g C g(-1) h(-1) (74.2-79.1), whereas the mean value for leaves measured under basal conditions was 72.9 &mgr;g C g(-1) h(-1) (64.7-88.9). Between DOY 141 and 240, daily mean isoprene EFs varied from 54 to 96 &mgr;g C g(-1) h(-1) (27 to 49 nmol m(-2) s(-1)). In agreement with previous work at this and other sites, basal isoprene emission rates of fully exposed leaves at the crown apex of this tree were about 20% higher than those of the selected leaves. The length of the period prior to measurement of isoprene emission, during which meteorology was correlated with basal EF, appeared to be related to the timing and periodicity of meteorological change, and probably explains quantitative differences in the length of this period among studies. The empirical equation that we derived for this effect explained variability in midday EFs at the study site, but its general applicability remains to be tested. Strong diurnal changes in EF (as high as a factor of 2) are implied in this study, and should be examined further. PMID:12651500

Geron, Chris; Guenther, Alex; Sharkey, Tom; Arnts, Robert R.

2000-06-01

112

Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent findings on different aspects of the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia. Attempts have been made to delineate the anatomical substrate of information processing along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Emphasis has been placed on data obtained with highly sensitive anterograde tract-tracing methods applied to the study of the main axis of the loop,

André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati

1995-01-01

113

Universitt Regensburg Diploma Supplement  

E-print Network

Universität Regensburg Diploma Supplement This Diploma Supplement model was developed by the European Commission, Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES. The purpose of the supplement is to provide and successfully completed by the individual named on the original qualification to which this supplement

Schubart, Christoph

114

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

115

Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

1993-01-01

116

Genetics Home Reference: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Reviews Clinical summary OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease On this page: ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2014 What is biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease? Biotin-thiamine-responsive ...

117

Use of Browses (Terminalia serecia, Combretum apiculatum or Euclea schimperi) as a Supplement for Growing Tswana Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty yearling male castrated Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals. All the animals were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while lucerne (Medicago sativa) was fed to the control group as supplement. The other three groups were fed either Combretum apiculatum, Terminalia serecia or Euclea schimperi as a supplement.

A. A. Aganga; C. B. Monyatsiwa

1999-01-01

118

ARCHIVAL REPORT Basal Ganglia Shape Abnormalities in the Unaffected  

E-print Network

�11), and motor abnor- malities can occur in neuroleptic-na�ve schizophrenia patients (12). Basal ganglia of schizophrenia patients (25�27), but there have been relatively few studies of basal ganglia structureARCHIVAL REPORT Basal Ganglia Shape Abnormalities in the Unaffected Siblings of Schizophrenia

119

368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease  

E-print Network

368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease Ann M. Graybiel As the search for molecular therapies for basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, accelerates, new-9822 The motor symptoms of basal ganglia disorders fall at two extremes. In Parkinson's disease and related

Graybiel, Ann M.

120

Food habits and the basal rate of metabolism in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation of basal rate of metabolism with various factors is examined in birds. Chief among these is body mass. As in mammals, much of the remaining variation in basal rate among birds is associated with food habits. Birds other than passerines that feed on grass, nectar, flying insects, or vertebrates generally have basal rates that are similar to mammals

Brian K. McNab

1988-01-01

121

Dopamine release in the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action-potential and Ca2+ dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release, by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic mechanism. Even in striatum, axonal release sites are controversial, with evidence for DA varicosities that lack postsynaptic specialization, and largely extrasynaptic DA receptors and transporters. Moreover, DA release is often assumed to reflect a global response to a population of activities in midbrain DA neurons, whether tonic or phasic, with precise timing and specificity of action governed by other basal ganglia circuits. This view has been reinforced by anatomical evidence showing dense axonal DA arbors throughout striatum, and a lattice network formed by DA axons and glutamatergic input from cortex and thalamus. Nonetheless, localized DA transients are seen in vivo using voltammetric methods with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mechanistic studies using similar methods in vitro have revealed local regulation of DA release by other transmitters and modulators, as well as by proteins known to be disrupted in Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. Notably, the actions of most other striatal transmitters on DA release also do not conform to the synaptic doctrine, with the absence of direct synaptic contacts for glutamate, GABA and aceylcholie (ACh) on striatal DA axons. Overall, the findings reviewed here indicate that DA signaling in the basal ganglia is sculpted by cooperation between the timing and pattern of DA input and those of local regulatory factors. PMID:21939738

Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

2011-01-01

122

Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions. PMID:25148280

Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

2014-08-01

123

Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed. PMID:21274437

Lien, Mary H.; Sondak, Vernon K.

2011-01-01

124

Advanced treatment for basal cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Oro, Anthony E

2014-07-01

125

Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements  

SciTech Connect

Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1989-02-09

126

Large scale, analytical method for isolating basal lateral plasma membranes from rat duodenum.  

PubMed

A procedure is described for obtaining large amounts of basal lateral plasma membranes from the rat duodenal epithelium. The yield is approximately 50%, and the purification factor is 18; preparations from 25 rats routinely contain 100 mg of protein. The procedure depends on mild homogenization with a nitrogen cavitation bomb, followed by removal of brush borders by sedimentation in a weak centrifugal field. Basal lateral membranes in the resulting supernatant are partially purified by differential centrifugation in a medium which approximates their equilibrium density, and then further purified by equilibrium density gradient centrifugation in a high capacity zonal rotor. Brush border membranes may be isolated from the 450 x g pellet. Since both brush border and basal lateral membranes may be isolated from the same homogenate, this preparative procedure is suitable for such analytical purposes as determinations of distribution of enzyme activities between the two surfaces of the epithelium. The large scale of the isolation procedure makes it an appropriate starting point for purification of specific basal lateral membrane components. PMID:220601

Mircheff, A K; Hanna, S D; Walling, M W; Wright, E M

1979-01-01

127

Children and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Children and Dietary Supplements September 2012 Research has shown that many children ... about external links More About Children and Dietary Supplements What the Science Says Other Clinical Digests Subscriptions ...

128

Emerging Supplements in Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

2012-01-01

129

High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1992-09-01

130

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer Can botanicals be dietary supplements? To be classified as a dietary supplement , a ... use in capsules or tablets. Are botanical dietary supplements standardized? Standardization is a process that manufacturers may ...

131

Tobacco Use Supplement: An Overview  

Cancer.gov

1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current

132

Relative Bioavailability of Supplemental Inorganic Zinc Sources for Chicks1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to investigate the relative bioavailability of reagent- grade (RG) and feed grade (FG) Zn sources for 1-d-old broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 13 treatments included a basal corn-soybean meal diet (63 ppm Zn) or the basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, or 1,200 ppm Zn from RG sulfate, basic carbonate, oxide, or metal and fed for

M. Sandoval; P. R. Henry; C. B. Ammerman; R. D. Miles; R. C. Littell

133

Antibody production in packed bed reactors using serum-free and protein-free medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work demonstrates the utility of packed bed reactors for the production of monoclonal antibody. We present data from a continuous process run for the production of over 100 grams of antibody, using serum-free medium. An additional pilot run also demonstrates the potential for continued antibody production under protein-free conditions, using a standard basal medium.

R. Bliem; R. Oakley; K. Matsuoka; R. Varecka; V. Taiariol

1990-01-01

134

Long-Term Survival of Leptospira in a Biphasic Culture Medium Containing Charcoal  

PubMed Central

A comparison was made of the survival of 28 leptospiral serotypes in Fletcher semisolid medium and in the same medium containing a basal layer of Fletcher medium plus 0.7% of agar and 0.5% of activated animal charcoal. A year after culture, more motile leptospires were observed by microscope examination in the biphasic medium. Two years after culture, 4 serotypes grown in the biphasic medium and 11 in Fletcher medium did not show motile cells. Nineteen of the serotypes maintained in Fletcher medium and 25 in the biphasic medium for 2 years grew on subculture into Fletcher medium. Subcultures from the biphasic medium showed the characteristic leptospiral ring growth earlier during the incubation period. PMID:4735486

Myers, Donald M.; Varela-Díaz, Victor M.; Siniuk, Alicia A.

1973-01-01

135

Basal Cell Carcinoma Masked in Rhinophyma  

PubMed Central

Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002

De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto

2013-01-01

136

Basal cell carcinoma masked in rhinophyma.  

PubMed

Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002

De Seta, Daniele; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto

2013-01-01

137

The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

2014-01-01

138

[Basal cell carcinoma of the periocular region].  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the periocular region with local aggressive growth and extensive destruction. The histological subtypes of periocular basalioma, the recurrence rates and resection border relationships were analyzed and the results were compared with basaliomas from other body regions. The results of gender and age distribution, histological subtypes, recurrence rates and resection border relationships were evaluated using the ?(2)-test. The results showed a significantly higher recurrence rate (p?

Geszti, F; Hargitai, D; Lukáts, O; Gy?rffy, H; Tóth, J

2013-11-01

139

Fast Modulation of Visual Perception by Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons  

PubMed Central

The basal forebrain provides the primary source of cholinergic input to the cortex, and it plays a crucial role in promoting wakefulness and arousal. However, whether rapid changes in basal forebrain neuron spiking in awake animals can dynamically influence sensory perception is unclear. Here we show that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons rapidly regulate cortical activity and visual perception in awake, behaving mice. Optogenetic activation of the cholinergic neurons or their V1 axon terminals improved performance of a visual discrimination task on a trial-by-trial basis. In V1, basal forebrain activation enhanced visual responses and desynchronized neuronal spiking, which could partly account for the behavioral improvement. Conversely, optogenetic basal forebrain inactivation decreased behavioral performance, synchronized cortical activity and impaired visual responses, indicating the importance of cholinergic activity in normal visual processing. These results underscore the causal role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fast, bidirectional modulation of cortical processing and sensory perception. PMID:24162654

Estandian, Daniel; Xu, Min; Kwan, Alex C.; Lee, Seung-Hee; Harrison, Thomas C.; Feng, Guoping; Dan, Yang

2014-01-01

140

Influence of nutritional supplements on keratinolysis by Amycolatopsis keratinophila.  

PubMed

Keratinolytic potential of A. keratinophila (DSM 44409T), a newly described Amycolatopsis sp. isolated from cultivated soil in Kuwait, was demonstrated using keratinazure as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen as estimated by gel diffusion assay. Effects of 12 various nutritional supplements on the keratinolytic and azocollytic activities were determined. NH4H2PO4 and KNO3 in the medium supported a significantly higher keratinolytic activity than other supplements. However, azocollytic activities in all the supplemented media and the control were same. Best combination of carbon and nitrogen supplements (galactose and NH4H2PO4 respectively) used to evaluate the dynamics of growth and enzymes (keratinase and protease) activities of the isolate revealed a luxuriant growth with optimal keratinolytic activity occurring during the log phase. Other parameters of the fermentation medium, including pH, biomass accumulation, total protein and free amino acid concentrations were also studied. PMID:15248487

Al-Musallam, A A; Al-Zarban, S S; Al-Sarawi, H K; Kroppenstedt, R M; Stackebrandt, E; Fasasi, Y A

2003-08-01

141

A new culture medium for human skin epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A new culture medium, NCTC 168, has been designed for human skin epithelial cells. This medium formulation was developed,\\u000a by combining and testing at various concentrations, components of media NCTC 135 and 163, since a 1?1 mixture of these two\\u000a media with 10% horse serum supplement was found to promote epithelial cell outgrowth from human skin explants. The buffer\\u000a system

Floyd M. Price; Richard F. Camalier; Raymond Gantt; William G. Taylor; Gilbert H. Smith; Katherine K. Sanford

1980-01-01

142

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic therapy and topical chemotherapy. Radiotherapy should be avoided. Vitamin A analogs may play a preventive role against development of new BCCs. Life expectancy in NBCCS is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications can be substantial. Regular follow-up by a multi-specialist team (dermatologist, neurologist and odontologist) should be offered. Patients with NBCCS should strictly avoid an excessive sun exposure. PMID:19032739

Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

2008-01-01

143

Supplemental Information for Graham et al. Supplemental Figures  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental Information for Graham et al. � Supplemental Figures o Supplemental to those shown in Figure 2. o Supplemental Figure 2: Sliding of Spo0J dimers along foci or Spo0J-dependent SMC localization. o Supplemental Figure 3: Larger images

Rudner, David

144

Basal terraces on melting ice shelves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers, and individual glaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on the spatial distribution of melt. The bases of the ice shelves associated with Pine Island Glacier (West Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) have similar geometries, including kilometer-wide, hundreds-of-meter high channels oriented along and across the direction of ice flow. The channels are enhanced by, and constrain, oceanic melt. New meter-scale observations of basal topography reveal peculiar glaciated landscapes. Channel flanks are not smooth, but are instead stepped, with hundreds-of-meters-wide flat terraces separated by 5-50 m high walls. Melting is shown to be modulated by the geometry: constant across each terrace, changing from one terrace to the next, and greatly enhanced on the ~45° inclined walls. Melting is therefore fundamentally heterogeneous and likely associated with stratification in the ice-ocean boundary layer, challenging current models of ice shelf-ocean interactions.

Dutrieux, Pierre; Stewart, Craig; Jenkins, Adrian; Nicholls, Keith W.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Rignot, Eric; Steffen, Konrad

2014-08-01

145

Cognitive deficits in animal models of basal ganglia disorders.  

PubMed

The two most common neurological disorders of the basal ganglia are Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). The most overt symptoms of these diseases are motoric, reflecting the loss of the striatal medium spiny neurons in HD and ascending substantia nigra dopaminergic cells in PD. However, both disease processes induce insidious psychiatric and cognitive syndromes that can manifest well in advance of the onset of motor deficits. These early deficits provide an opportunity for prophylactic therapeutic intervention in order to retard disease progression from the earliest possible point. In order to exploit this opportunity, animal models of HD and PD are being probed for the specific cognitive deficits represented in the disease states. At the neuronal level, these deficits are typically, but not exclusively, mediated by disruption of parallel corticostriatal loops that integrate motor information with sensory and higher order, "executive" cognitive functions. Dysfunction in these systems can be probed with sensitive behavioural tests that selectively probe these cognitive functions in mouse models with focal lesions of striatal or cortical regions, or of specific neurotransmitter systems. Typically these tests were designed and validated in rats. With the advent of genetically modified mouse models of disease, validated tests provide an opportunity to screen mouse models of disease for early onset cognitive deficits. This review seeks to draw together the literature on cognitive deficits in HD and PD, to determine the extent to which these deficits are represented in the current animal models of disease, and to evaluate the viability of selecting cognitive deficits as potential therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Animal Models'. PMID:22588013

Brooks, Simon P; Dunnett, Stephen B

2013-03-01

146

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder  

E-print Network

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Fay Y. Womer a,n , Lei of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using Free

147

Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: motor and cognitive circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are simply involved in the control of movement has been challenged in recent years. One of the pivotal reasons for this reappraisal has been new information about basal ganglia and cerebellar connections with the cerebral cortex. In essence, recent anatomical studies have revealed that these connections are organized into discrete circuits

Frank A Middleton; Peter L Strick

2000-01-01

148

How are Senior Citizens Portrayed in Basal Readers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five commonly used basal readers from grades one through three were studied to determine how they portrayed and represented older adults. It was hypothesized that older adults would be portrayed as active, contributing, and productive members of society and that they would be represented in the basals in proportion to their numbers in the…

Rosen, Doris F.

149

The Place of Career Women in the Basals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

Leondis, Mary T.

150

Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT.

F. Illum

1980-01-01

151

Vertical extension of the subglacial drainage system into basal crevasses.  

PubMed

Water plays a first-order role in basal sliding of glaciers and ice sheets and is often a key constituent of accelerated glacier motion. Subglacial water is known to occupy systems of cavities and conduits at the interface between ice and the underlying bed surface, depending upon the history of water input and the characteristics of the substrate. Full understanding of the extent and configuration of basal water is lacking, however, because direct observation is difficult. This limits our ability to simulate ice dynamics and the subsequent impacts on sea-level rise realistically. Here we show that the subglacial hydrological system can have a large volume of water occupying basal crevasses that extend upward from the bed into the overlying ice. Radar and seismic imaging combined with in situ borehole measurements collected on Bench Glacier, Alaska, reveal numerous water-filled basal crevasses with highly transmissive connections to the bed. Some crevasses extend many tens of metres above the bed and together they hold a volume of water equivalent to at least a decimetre layer covering the bed. Our results demonstrate that the basal hydrologic system can extend high into the overlying ice mass, where basal crevasses increase water-storage capacity and could potentially modulate basal water pressure. Because basal crevasses can form under commonly observed glaciological conditions, our findings have implications for interpreting and modelling subglacial hydrologic processes and related sliding accelerations of glaciers and ice sheets. PMID:20882014

Harper, Joel T; Bradford, John H; Humphrey, Neil F; Meierbachtol, Toby W

2010-09-30

152

CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA  

E-print Network

and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder,8 both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

Berridge, Kent

153

CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA  

E-print Network

and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder8 , both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

Berridge, Kent

154

Sensory and cognitive functions of the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have found that the basal ganglia are involved in diverse behavioral activities and suggest that they have executive functions. Highlights from the past year include anatomical and clinical studies that have used sophisticated, novel methods to confirm a role for the basal ganglia in somatosensory discrimination, visual perception, spatial working memory and habit learning.

Lucy L Brown; Jay S Schneider; Theodore I Lidsky

1997-01-01

155

Sensory and cognitive functions of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Recent studies have found that the basal ganglia are involved in diverse behavioral activities and suggest that they have executive functions. Highlights from the past year include anatomical and clinical studies that have used sophisticated, novel methods to confirm a role for the basal ganglia in somatosensory discrimination, visual perception, spatial working memory and habit learning. PMID:9142758

Brown, L L; Schneider, J S; Lidsky, T I

1997-04-01

156

Paleoenvironmental analysis of thrombolites in the basal Purbeck Formation  

E-print Network

Paleoenvironmental analysis of thrombolites in the basal Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic the basal Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic) on the Isle of Portland, southern England, are described upright and for some time after they fell, a period of a few hundred years. This suggests a relatively

Wilson, Mark A.

157

Basal plate plaque: a novel organising placental thrombotic process.  

PubMed

In contrast to thrombi and haematomas at other body sites, thrombi in the placental intervillous space are not traditionally known to undergo organisation. This report presents 11 examples of a form of organising thrombotic process that develops as a plaque on the foetal aspect of the basal plate. Originally identified in the placenta of a foetus showing severe intrauterine growth restriction, further examples of this lesion, which we term a 'basal plate plaque', show a spectrum of placental involvement. Small lesions appear to occur at points of localised stasis at the basal plate (eg, at edges of anchoring villi or in small basal plate depressions). Large areas of involvement, as seen in the original case, may be pathological markers of more generalised disturbances in placental circulation or of hypercoagulability in the intervillous space. Large basal plate plaques may therefore prove to be diagnostically significant and should be reported. PMID:21252255

Fitzgerald, Brendan; Shannon, Patrick; Kingdom, John; Keating, Sarah

2011-08-01

158

Membranous basal cell adenoma arising in the eyelid  

PubMed Central

Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a specific entity that lacks the myxochondroid stromal component of pleomorphic adenoma. Membranous basal cell adenoma is a rare variant of BCA, which is characteristic by abundant eosinophilicextracellular hyaline material deposited either inside or at the periphery of the epithelial islands. Herin we describe the first case of membranous BCA arising in the upper eyelid in a 38-year-old woman. A well-demarcated nodule arising in the eyelid was composed of isomorphic basaloid cells organized with a prominent basal cell layer and distinct basement membrane-like material. Immunohistochemically, S100 protein and p63 highlighted the basal aspect of the peripheral epithelial cells, while CK7 expressed on the luminal cells. A diagnosis of membranous basal cell adenoma of the eyelid was made. At follow-up for 2 years and 3 months later, there was no evidence of recurrence. Further pathological characteristics of this disease are discussed. PMID:25120843

Huang, Yong; Yang, Min; Ding, Jianhui

2014-01-01

159

Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on urinary eicosanoids in canine chronic renal failure  

E-print Network

protein/phosphorus restricted diets and supplemented with safflower (SFO) and menhaden fish (MFO) oils. Control dogs (n= 1 7) and CRF dogs (n=32) were assigned to one of three diets (WC, LPC, LPD) for basal diet acclimation. A crossover design...

Crocker, Raquel Cristina

2012-06-07

160

Fluoride Treatments and Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

Fluoride Treatments and Supplements What Is It? What It's Used For Preparation How It's Done Follow-Up Risks When To Call a Professional ... water and drinks made from it Prescription fluoride supplements Small amounts of fluoride in food Dental office ...

161

Who Needs Supplements?  

MedlinePLUS

Certain people benefit from taking supplements. Are you one of them? 34069 InteliHealth 2009-02-02 t InteliHealth Medical Content 2011-02-02 If you are on ... you can’t, consider taking a 500-milligram supplement daily. These are inexpensive and easy to take. ...

162

Chromium Nicotinate Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To evaluate differences in body composition, upper and lower body strength, and macronutrient intake in female collegiate athletes consuming a supplement of Cr Nic or a placeboThis study investigated the relationship between chromium nicotinate (Cr Nic) supplementation and strength, body composition, and macronutrient intake in female collegiate athletes participating in off-season strength training. Seventeen collegiate athletes were randomly

D. S. Jennings; P. B. Brevard; J. A. Flohr; J. W. Gloeckner

1997-01-01

163

Dietary supplements for football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplemens. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a

P. Hespel; R. J. Maughan; P. L. Greenhaff

2006-01-01

164

Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?  

MedlinePLUS

Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Feb 26,2014 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so many ...

165

Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol Beware of Fraudulent ‘Dietary Supplements’ Search the Consumer Updates Section See more fraudulent ... FDA-1088 or online . back to top Dietary Supplements and FDA Dietary supplements, in general, are not ...

166

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

167

A Comparative Study of Two Approaches for Teaching Reading: Basal Reader Plus Management System Versus Basal Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the achievement of students instructed by the use of a management system, Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development (WDRSD), for word attack skills in addition to the basal reader approach with the achievement of students instructed by the use of the basal reader approach alone. Two hundred forty-four fourth grade students…

Cox, Janet Elizabeth

168

Supplemental instruction in chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

Lundeberg, Mary A.

169

Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?  

MedlinePLUS

... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

170

The Interstellar Medium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information about the interstellar medium. It discusses what the interstellar medium is, how it has developed, how astronomers know what they know, and interactions with the Solar System. There is both basic and more advanced material. There are also links to other websites with more information.

Group, Unh E.

2004-07-14

171

Use of an industrial grade medium and medium enhancing effects on high cell density CO fermentation by Eubacterium limosum KIST612  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were made on the composition of the growth medium to increase the cell concentration in a cell-recycled continuous\\u000a culture (Eubacterium limosum KIST612) with carbon monoxide as a sole energy source using phosphate-buffered basal medium (PBBM) and modified PBBM. One\\u000a of major limiting factors in PBBM might be nitrogen during the high cell density culture. This limitation could be overcome

In Seop Chang; Daehee Kim; Byung Hong Kim; Robert W. Lovitt

2007-01-01

172

The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

2014-08-01

173

25-Hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation improves growth performance and decreases inflammation during an experimental lipopolysaccharide injection.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to study the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation on BW gain, IL-1?, and 1?-hydroxylase mRNA expression in different organs of broiler chickens following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. In experiment I, birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with either cholecalciferol (3,000 IU/kg) or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (69 µg/kg). At 21 and 35 d of age, birds were injected with LPS. Post-LPS injection, birds supplemented with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol gained approximately 2.5% (P = 0.03) and 3.8% (P < 0.01), respectively, more BW than the birds supplemented with cholecalciferol over the 24-h period. In experiment II, birds were fed basal diets supplemented with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol at 6.25, 25, and 50 µg/kg of feed or cholecalciferol at 250 IU/kg of feed. At 35 d of age, birds were injected with LPS. Birds fed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol at 25 and 50 µg/kg and injected with LPS had approximately 7-fold and 3-fold less (P = 0.010) IL-1? mRNA in the liver compared with those birds fed 6.25 µg/kg of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and the cholecalciferol (250 IU/kg) group. In experiment III, birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with either cholecalciferol (3,000 IU/kg) or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (69 µg/kg). At 28 d of age, birds were fed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and injected with LPS had 1.1-fold less (P < 0.01) IL-1? mRNA in the liver than the cholecalciferol-fed group. After an LPS injection, birds supplemented with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol had increased 1?-hydroxylase mRNA amounts in the liver (P = 0.07). In conclusion, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation at higher doses improved growth performance and decreased inflammatory gene IL-1? mRNA amounts in the liver post-LPS injection. PMID:24931970

Morris, Antrison; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Lilburn, Mike S; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

2014-08-01

174

Supplemental Material for Spessard and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material for Spessard and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for: Progress Toward Mass Spectral Facility. #12;Supplemental Material for Spessard and Stoltz 2 O O Br O O 1. LDA, THF, -78 (EI) m/z calcd for 236.1775, found 236.1776. #12;Supplemental Material for Spessard and Stoltz 3 O O 1

Stoltz, Brian M.

175

Supplements for exotic pets.  

PubMed

The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. PMID:25155668

Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

2014-09-01

176

Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

2014-12-01

177

Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's  

E-print Network

Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's hormonal responses these differences. Replicating past research, the present study found that men's salivary testosterone and cortisol receptor gene, and lower baseline cortisol concentrations, each predicted larger testosterone responses

Cosmides, Leda

178

ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia A group of subcortical nuclei  

E-print Network

;6 Cerebellar dysfunction · Review,Gross anatomy: Cerebellar nuclei · Information passes through these between1 ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia · A group of subcortical nuclei · caudate, putamen, globus pallidus

Sergio, Lauren E.

179

Diabetes and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... conditions. More information about eating and diabetes . Physical Activity The NDEP recommends that people with diabetes set ... et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled ...

180

Supplements to Textbook Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

Holmes, Ken

1994-01-01

181

Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

2008-01-15

182

Herbal Supplements and Anesthesia  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... including all vitamins, herbal supplements and other alternative substances. These products can interfere with anesthesia and potentially ... complications during surgery. Be sure to bring all substances with you, prescription or over-the-counter, when ...

183

Medium design based on stoichiometric analysis of microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense.  

PubMed

A stoichiometric model was developed for the application of medium design in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense. The model avoids dealing with all the metabolic reactions involved by simply lumping them into a single reaction. With the help of measurement results, an analysis of the nutrients' roles, and biochemical knowledge of the microorganism, all stoichiometric coefficients in the model were calculated. These coefficients were used for medium design. With this designed medium, microbial transglutaminase activity was increased fourfold, compared to that in the basal medium. PMID:18626957

Zhu, Y; Rinzema, A; Tramper, J; Bol, J

1996-05-01

184

Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus  

E-print Network

Page i Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus Fifth Edition Version: October, 2003 Jerrold E Answers for the Internet Supplement 107 Practice Final Examination 123 Practice Final Examination Solutions 129 #12;Page iii Preface The Structure of this Supplement. This Internet Supplement is in- tended

Wilkerson, Clarence

185

CAPITAL INSURANCE AGENCY, INC. Supplemental  

E-print Network

CAPITAL INSURANCE AGENCY, INC. Supplemental Hospital Plans For EmployEEs oF thE statE oF Florida-payments and any special fees. Supplemental Hospital coverage is additional coverage designed especially to help. The level of supplemental coverage is based upon the plan you select; it's your choice. Supplemental ho

Fernandez, Eduardo

186

Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus  

E-print Network

Page i Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus Fifth Edition Version: October, 2003 Jerrold E Answers for the Internet Supplement 107 Practice Final Examination 123 Practice Final Examination Solutions 129 #12; Page iii Preface The Structure of this Supplement. This Internet Supplement is in­ tended

Hulshof, Joost

187

Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

2014-01-01

188

Cognitive impairment and dementia in basal ganglia disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an update focusing on research from the past 2 years on cognitive impairment and dementia in basal ganglia disorders,\\u000a including Huntington’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease dementia, and dementia\\u000a with Lewy bodies. In addition to the many recent papers that aim to refine descriptions of the cognitive phenotypes in the\\u000a basal ganglia disorders, the current

Julie C. Stout; Shannon A. Johnson

2005-01-01

189

Parkinsonism caused by cavernoma located in basal ganglion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-seated cavernoma or cavernous angioma is a very rare clinical entity, as is basal ganglia cavernoma presenting with Parkinsonism. The authors demonstrate a 56-year-old man with a cavernoma located in basal ganglion, who subsequently developed Parkinsonism. The patient refused the surgical intervention, and received L-dopa trial; however, no change in the tremor and bradykinesia was observed in spite of high

Sibel Ertan; Gulcin Benbir; Taner Tanriverdi; Ilker Alver; Mustafa Uzan

2005-01-01

190

Amorphous Medium Language  

E-print Network

Programming reliable behavior on a large mesh network composed of unreliable parts is difficult. Amorphous Medium Language addresses this problem by abstracting robustness and networking issues away from the programmer via ...

Beal, Jacob

191

Charmonium in Hot Medium  

E-print Network

. The momentum dependence of the charmonium dissociation rate is worked out. The dominant process for in-medium charmonium regeneration is found to be a 3-to-2 process. Its corresponding regeneration rates from different input charmquark momentum spectra...

Zhao, Xingbo

2012-02-14

192

Undegraded intake protein supplementation: II. Effects on plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations in periparturient beef cows fed low-quality hay during gestation and lactation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereford × Angus cows (n = 36; initial wt 568 ± 59 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of undegradable intake protein (UIP) supplementation on plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations. Treat- ments were control (unsupplemented) or one of three protein supplements. Supplements were fed at 1.3 kg DM\\/d and included UIP at low, medium, or high levels (53, 223,

K. E. Sletmoen-Olson; J. S. Caton; K. C. Olson; D. A. Redmer; J. D. Kirsch; L. P. Reynolds

2010-01-01

193

The ABC Model and its Applicability to Basal Angiosperms  

PubMed Central

Background Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Scope and Conclusions Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer ‘fading borders’ as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms. PMID:17616563

Soltis, Douglas E.; Chanderbali, Andre S.; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S.

2007-01-01

194

Can subglacial processes reset the luminescence of basal sediment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the natural luminescence of basal sediment from Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland (Swift et al., under revision) has revived speculation that erosion and/or sediment transport in the subglacial environment may constitute effective luminescence resetting mechanisms. The plausibility of these resetting mechanisms rests on the presumption that luminescence signals can be reset if sediment grains are exposed to sufficient stress. The ice-bedrock contact zone of active glacial systems and the shear zones of active fault systems have been cited as environments where shearing has the potential to reset luminescence; however, laboratory studies that have investigated the effects of shearing on luminescence have produced conflicting results. We present the first results from a laboratory-based project that aims to determine the efficacy of resetting in the subglacial environment by shearing sediment under conditions representative of the ice-bedrock contact zone of active glacial systems. Preliminary luminescence data will be shown from an initial experiment that aims to quantify the effect of shearing on the luminescence of quartz. Homogenous medium-sand was obtained for the experiment from relict dune systems that possess substantial natural luminescence (we anticipate that glacial sediments with a wider range of grain sizes will be used in later experiments). Shearing was conducted using a state-of-the-art ring-shear apparatus using an imposed normal stress of 50 kPa at a shearing rate of 1 mm per minute for a distance of ~ 1200 mm, with samples for luminescence analyses taken from the shearing zone at pre-defined intervals. It is anticipated that further experiments using a range of imposed normal stresses and further analyses of changes in the luminescence and surface microtexture of grains in specific grain-size fractions will elucidate and quantify the specific nature of the resetting mechanism. Swift, D.A., Sanderson, D.C.W., Nienow, P.W., Bingham, R.G. and Cochrane, I.C. Under Revision. Luminescence investigation of subglacial sediment at Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. Quaternary Geochronology.

Swift, Darrel; Bateman, Mark; Piotrowski, Jan

2010-05-01

195

Detection of Bartonella henselae in defibrinated sheep blood used for culture media supplementation  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae was detected in defibrinated sheep blood employed in supplementing a selective bacteria culture medium by nested PCR. We recommended that highly sensitive technical tests be run to ensure a sterile culture medium for Bartonella spp. isolation, since infected blood samples used in preparation could lead to false-positive results. PMID:24031650

Drummond, Marina Rovani; Pitassi, Luiza H. U.; Lania, Bruno G.; dos Santos, Silvio R. C.; Gilioli, Rovilson; Velho, Paulo E.N.F.

2011-01-01

196

Phylogeny of basal iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): an update.  

PubMed

The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional "Camptosaurus" and "Iguanodon". The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees. PMID:22629328

McDonald, Andrew T

2012-01-01

197

Phylogeny of Basal Iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): An Update  

PubMed Central

The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional “Camptosaurus” and “Iguanodon”. The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees. PMID:22629328

McDonald, Andrew T.

2012-01-01

198

42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section...MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections...mandatory supplemental benefit. (b) Optional supplemental benefits. Except as...

2010-10-01

199

Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.  

PubMed

One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24?mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10?mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

2014-01-01

200

Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail  

PubMed Central

One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24?mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10?mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

Cabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alcicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

2014-01-01

201

[Computer program for contrast medium administration in computerized tomography diagnosis].  

PubMed

Contrast medium administration with the contrast medium injector system XD 5500 has proved to be an ideal supplement to the Somatom Plus. The specially developed programs for specific organ regions and differential diagnosis allow an optimization of the diagnosis. The contrast medium administration is thereby standardized and reproducible at any time. Contrast medium enhancement is constant and homogenous with density values of the aorta definitely over 60 Hounsfield units and in most cases over 100 HU. Operation is simple for the proficient investigator and is performed from outside the examination room. The function of a particle filter and an air bubble detector were convincing and certainly ensure the safety of the patient. As a disadvantage, it must be mentioned that the injector carries out program selected even in the event of a perivascular injection. This only occurred three times during our examinations on a total of approximately 5600 patients, without any lasting harm to the patient. PMID:7918705

Bareiter, T; Oldendorf, M; Zeitler, E

1994-07-01

202

Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil  

PubMed Central

Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3. PMID:23484024

Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

2013-01-01

203

Some causes of medium loss in dense medium plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medium consumption is a significant component of the cost of operating a dense medium plant. This study aimed to identify and quantify many of the factors contributing to overall consumption, through extensive surveys of four widely differing dense medium mineral separation plants, and associated laboratory experiments. Particular attention was given to the effect of operating density on medium loss.It was

T. J Napier-Munn; T Kojovic; I. A Scott; F Shi; J. H Masinja; P. J Baguley

1995-01-01

204

Human glomerular visceral epithelial cells synthesize a basal lamina collagen in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Isolated human glomeruli were digested with purified bacterial collagenase yielding epithelial cells. These cells grew to saturation density and did not become multi-layered. They were identified as visceral glomerular epithelial cells by their morphologic appearance by phase and electron microscopy and by the presence of surface receptors for C3b. Neither Factor VIII antigen nor Fc receptors were observed. The glomerular epithelial cells synthesized a collagenous protein that was antigenically similar to human glomerular basal lamina. Proteins precipitated from visceral epithelial cell medium with affinity purified antibody against noncollagenous glomerular basal lamina antigens yielded a single collagenase labile protein that by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis migrated with an apparent Mr of 168,000 in the presence of reducing agents. Analysis of hydroxyproline isomers yielded a ratio of 3-hydroxyproline to total hydroxyproline of 0.17. Pepsin digestion yielded a disulfide-bonded multimer which, with reduction, migrated with an apparent Mr of 148,000. These data demonstrate that human glomerular visceral epithelial cells can be isolated and propagated in vitro and that they synthesize a collagen similar to that found in vivo. Images PMID:91167

Killen, P D; Striker, G E

1979-01-01

205

Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina.  

PubMed

The distribution of anionic sites on the cell membranes and basal laminae of vascular endothelial cells in the rat sciatic nerve was investigated using cationic ferritin (CF) and cationic colloidal gold (CCG). Nerves fixed by perfusion followed by immersion were chopped into 400 microns thick slices and incubated in CF or embedded in LR White resin for staining with CCG. Using electron microscopy, the distribution of these tracers was investigated. The results indicated that microdomains of various charge densities exist. Diaphragms of caveolae and transendothelial channels, and luminal endothelial processes are highly anionic, the basal laminae of endothelial cells and pericytes and luminal membranes are medium and abluminal membranes least anionic. Inter-endothelial tight junctions were unlabelled and not penetrated by CF. These structures are thought to represent charge and size filters that control permeability of the vasa nervorum. The distribution of these charge-size filters is discussed in terms of the blood-nerve barrier, a physiological property present in the endo- but absent in the peri- and epineurial vessels. PMID:1705854

Bush, M S; Allt, G

1990-12-10

206

Altered functional connectivity of basal ganglia circuitry in dental phobia.  

PubMed

Recent symptom provocation studies that compared patients suffering from dental phobia with healthy controls identified hyperactivation of basal ganglia structures, but none have assessed striatal functional connectivity. We reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study on dental phobia. Patients (20 men, 25 women) and healthy controls (18 men, 23 women) had been exposed to pictures showing dental treatment, and neutral contents. We conducted connectivity analyses via psychophysiological interactions (PPIs). Relative to non-phobic controls, the patients showed decreased connectivity between prefrontal and basal ganglia regions. Moreover, the clinical group was characterized by increased internal basal ganglia connectivity, which was more pronounced in female compared with male patients. This study provides first evidence for an altered information flow within a fronto-striatal network in dentophobic individuals during visual symptom provocation, which can be considered a neuromarker of this disorder. PMID:24084590

Scharmüller, Wilfried; Leutgeb, Verena; Schöngaßner, Florian; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Schienle, Anne

2014-10-01

207

A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unconscious, automatic, and insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. We critically evaluate for each of these how it has been defined, its utility for research in both humans and non-human animals, and the evidence that it serves as an accurate description of basal ganglia function. In conclusion, we propose a multi-faceted approach to habit learning and its relationship to the basal ganglia, emphasizing the need for formal definitions that will provide directions for future research. PMID:21909324

Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

2011-01-01

208

New therapeutic options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common premalignant skin lesion that is frequently treated by cryosurgery. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of man, and early-stage lesions are usually cured via surgery. Advanced basal cell carcinoma may require more extensive surgery resulting in deformity, and many advanced lesions cannot be treated surgically. Several recent developments have improved therapeutic options for both conditions. Cryosurgery is still a mainstay of treatment for AK, but the introduction of effective topical agents, imiquimod cream and ingenol mebutate, has provided alternatives to cryosurgery. For advanced basal cell carcinoma, the small-molecule inhibitor vismodegib has proven to be an effective therapy for lesions that are not amenable to surgery and has demonstrated ability to achieve dramatic improvement in advanced, potentially disfiguring cancer. PMID:25268601

Sligh, James E

2014-06-01

209

Holographic recording medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

1977-01-01

210

Hypermedia as medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

Dede, Christopher J.

1990-01-01

211

The Neutral Medium  

E-print Network

We consider the physical conditions of the neutral medium within, and in the environments of, galaxies. The basic physical and morphological properties of the neutral medium within galaxy disks are now quite well-constrained. Systematic variations in temperature and phase-balance (of cool versus warm neutral gas) are indicated as a function of both radius and z-height. Interestingly, the cool medium line-widths are observed to be dominated by turbulent energy injection within cells of 10 pc to 1 kpc size. Deep new observations reveal that 5-10% of the neutral medium is associated within an extended halo which rotates more slowly and experiences radial inflow. Much of this component is likely to be associated with a ``galactic fountain'' type of phenomenon. However, compelling evidence is also accumulating for the importance of tidal disruption of satellites as well as continuous accretion (of both diffuse and discrete components) in fueling galaxy halos and disks. Continued fueling is even observed on scales of 100's of kpc in galaxy environments, where the neutral component is likely to be merely a trace constituent of a highly ionized plasma.

Robert Braun

2005-01-17

212

New plate medium for growth and detection of urease activity of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

A new medium for detection of urease activity and isolation of Helicobacter pylori is proposed. This medium, containing Columbia Agar Base, was supplemented with IsoVitaleX, hemin, urea, and phenol red (nonselective medium [NSM]). Both bacterial growth and color change were evaluated and compared with growth in the same medium supplemented with cefsulodin, vancomycin, polymyxin B sulfate, and amphotericin B (selective medium [SM]). Twenty-five recent clinical isolates and antral biopsy specimens from 33 patients who underwent endoscopy were examined. The isolates showed a rapid color change and good growth at 5 days of incubation with NSM and SM. H. pylori-positive biopsies revealed a color change within 36 h, and bacterial growth was better appreciated in NSM, but with more contaminating flora than in SM. PMID:1583148

Cellini, L; Allocati, N; Piccolomini, R; Di Campli, E; Dainelli, B

1992-05-01

213

New plate medium for growth and detection of urease activity of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed Central

A new medium for detection of urease activity and isolation of Helicobacter pylori is proposed. This medium, containing Columbia Agar Base, was supplemented with IsoVitaleX, hemin, urea, and phenol red (nonselective medium [NSM]). Both bacterial growth and color change were evaluated and compared with growth in the same medium supplemented with cefsulodin, vancomycin, polymyxin B sulfate, and amphotericin B (selective medium [SM]). Twenty-five recent clinical isolates and antral biopsy specimens from 33 patients who underwent endoscopy were examined. The isolates showed a rapid color change and good growth at 5 days of incubation with NSM and SM. H. pylori-positive biopsies revealed a color change within 36 h, and bacterial growth was better appreciated in NSM, but with more contaminating flora than in SM. PMID:1583148

Cellini, L; Allocati, N; Piccolomini, R; Di Campli, E; Dainelli, B

1992-01-01

214

SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURE LEGENDS SUPPLEMENTAL FIG S1. Lrat-/-  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURE LEGENDS SUPPLEMENTAL FIG S1. Lrat-/- mice at P10 in the VAD diet group show group. The asterisk indicates a difference from all other groups at PSUPPLEMENTAL FIG S2.110.086157 Copyright 2010 by The Society for the Study of Reproduction. #12;Supplemental Figure S1 BOR

Palczewski, Krzysztof

215

The basal ganglia's contributions to perceptual decision making.  

PubMed

Perceptual decision making is a computationally demanding process that requires the brain to interpret incoming sensory information in the context of goals, expectations, preferences, and other factors. These integrative processes engage much of cortex but also require contributions from subcortical structures to affect behavior. Here we summarize recent evidence supporting specific computational roles of the basal ganglia in perceptual decision making. These roles probably share common mechanisms with the basal ganglia's other, more well-established functions in motor control, learning, and other aspects of cognition and thus can provide insights into the general roles of this important subcortical network in higher brain function. PMID:23972593

Ding, Long; Gold, Joshua I

2013-08-21

216

Maternal Supplement Use During Pregnancy  

E-print Network

Background: There is little consensus regarding the need for vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy. The composition and use of supplements among pregnant women varies greatly. Toxicity or inadequacy of nutrients could have health...

Bratton, Mallory Michelle

2012-05-31

217

Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?  

MedlinePLUS

... well as those who are pregnant. Most prenatal supplements contain 600 micrograms per day of folic acid. ... amount recommended for pregnant women from food and supplements combined. For women who are capable of becoming ...

218

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Administrative Supplements  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SBIR Development Center announces the opportunity for current STTR Phase I and Phase II grantees to seek supplemental project funding via the Administrative Supplement mechanism.

219

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

220

Psychology: Teacher Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

Stark, Rebecca

221

Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... as pdf | share Create PDF Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | T - Z General Supplement Information Dietary Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: ...

222

Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at the scale of the seismic refraction experiment ~100m). In order to interpret the value of the P-wave velocities, we measured in the laboratory the ultrasonic velocities on non-fractured blocks from the field. By, comparing the ultrasonic and the seismic velocities and using an effective medium model, we can estimate a mean crack density and a mean fracture aspect ratio. Finally this allows to estimate the permeability of this fractured aquifer.

Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.

2012-04-01

223

Supplemental Adaptive IntraVolume  

E-print Network

Supplemental Scan data � Will be used to generate Z/V/W base products � Will be included in Level II dataWSR88D Supplemental Adaptive IntraVolume LowLevel Scan (SAILS) DQ Decision Brief Joe N Chrisman #12;Supplemental Adaptive IntraVolume LowLevel Scan (SAILS) � Concept � Add a new LowLevel* scan

224

GRAND DANUBE NO SINGLE SUPPLEMENT  

E-print Network

GRAND DANUBE PASSAGE NO SINGLE SUPPLEMENT FOR SOLO TRAVELERS 800-323-7373 www contact us for current pricing and informa- tion. Single supplement waived for solo travelers! (Limited insight into local history and culture. featuring SOFIA & PRAGUE GRAND DANUBE PASSAGE NO SINGLE SUPPLEMENT

225

Supplemental Material Table of Contents  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental Material Table of Contents Text on the multiple individuals per population phylogeny: pg 4 Supplemental Figure 1: Phylogram of U. stansburiana populations from the complete data set that included multiple individuals per population. pg 5 Supplemental Table 1: Population locations and years

Kuchta, Shawn R.

226

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

2008-01-01

227

Supplement use by young athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supple- ment use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the

Jill Anne McDowall

228

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

229

Trichoplax adhaerens, an enigmatic basal metazoan with potential.  

PubMed

Trichoplax adhaerens is an enigmatic basal animal with an extraordinarily simple morphological organization and surprisingly complex behaviors. Basic morphological, molecular and behavioral work is essential to better understand the unique and curious life style of these organisms. We provide basic instructions on how Trichoplax can be cultured and studied in the laboratory emphasizing behavioral and cellular aspects. PMID:24567207

Heyland, Andreas; Croll, Roger; Goodall, Sophie; Kranyak, Jeff; Wyeth, Russell

2014-01-01

230

Environmental correlates of tree biomass, basal area, wood specific  

E-print Network

density gradients in Borneo's tropical forestsgeb_489 50..60 J. W. F. Slik1 *, Shin-Ichiro Aiba2 , Francis their spatial patterns in an Asian tropical forest. Location Borneo, Southeast Asia. Methods We combined stem density, basal area, community wood density and AGB data from 83 locations in Borneo with an environmental

Slik, Ferry

231

Aggressive basal cell carcinoma: Presentation, pathogenesis, and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cutaneous skin malignancy. BCC generally has a clinical course characterized by slow growth, minimal soft tissue invasiveness, and a high cure rate. Occasionally, however, BCC behaves aggressively with deep invasion, recurrence, and potential regional and distant metastasis. Several factors, including tumor size, duration, histology, and perineural spread, have been postulated as markers

Hobart W. Walling; Scott W. Fosko; Pedram A. Geraminejad; Duane C. Whitaker; Christopher J. Arpey

2004-01-01

232

RESEARCH ARTICLES Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast Genome  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLES Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast Genome Phylogenies: Sampling challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea, and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character

dePamphilis, Claude

233

Fgf genes in the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vertebrates, a number of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. However, the molecular relationships of the vertebrate FGFs are not yet completely understood, partly due to the divergence of their amino acid sequences. To solve this problem, we have identified six FGF genes in a basal chordate, the

Yutaka Satou; Kaoru S. Imai; Nori Satoh

2002-01-01

234

Task-phase-specific dynamics of basal forebrain neuronal ensembles  

PubMed Central

Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases. PMID:25309352

Tingley, David; Alexander, Andrew S.; Kolbu, Sean; de Sa, Virginia R.; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.

2014-01-01

235

Shear Jamming in Granular Experiments without Basal Friction  

E-print Network

Jammed states of frictional granular systems can be induced by shear strain at densities below the isostatic jamming density ($\\phi_c$). It remains unclear, however, how much friction affects this so-called shear-jamming. Friction appears in two ways in this type of experiment: friction between particles, and friction between particles and the base on which they rest. Here, we study how particle-bottom friction, or basal friction, affects shear jamming in quasi-two dimensional experiments. In order to study this issue experimentally, we apply simple shear to a disordered packing of photoelastic disks. We can tune the basal friction of the particles by immersing the particles in a density matched liquid, thus removing the normal force, hence the friction, between the particles and base. We record the overall shear stress, and particle motion, and the photoelastic response of the particles. We compare the shear response of dry and immersed samples, which enables us to determine how basal friction affects shear jamming. Our findings indicate that changing the basal friction shifts the point of shear jamming, but it does not change the basic phenomenon of shear jamming.

Hu Zheng; Joshua A. Dijksman; Robert P. Behringer

2014-04-29

236

Digital Image Correlation for Improved Detection of Basal Cell Carcinoma  

E-print Network

is not properly identified, recurrence for this surgery are 26% to 42% after 5 years [3]. Mohs' surgery is much JDigital Image Correlation for Improved Detection of Basal Cell Carcinoma J.D. Krehbiel & J. Lambros concentrates in the tumor during deformation. Here we develop a digital image correlation (DIC) technique

Sottos, Nancy R.

237

Multidimensional Sequence Learning in Patients with Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parkinson's patients have been found to be impaired in learning movement sequences. In the current study, patients with unilateral basal ganglia lesions due to stroke were tested on a serial reaction time task in which responses were based on the spatial location of each stimulus. The spatial locations either followed a fixed sequence or were…

Shin, J.C.; Aparicio, P.; Ivry, R.B.

2005-01-01

238

Ice shelf morphology and the efficiency of basal melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amundsen Sea sector of Antarctica, changes in basal melting have triggered rapid ice shelf thinning; increasing subsurface ocean temperatures may have initiated this process. A scaling law relating melting to ocean temperature will aid the analysis of observed thinning as well as predictions of ice sheet behavior. Yet it is unclear whether relationships found in prior studies are

C. M. Little; A. Gnanadesikan; M. Oppenheimer

2008-01-01

239

Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.  

PubMed

Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption. PMID:24678634

German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

2014-08-01

240

Montanoceratops cerorhynchus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsia) and relationships among basal neoceratopsians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montanoceratops cerorhynchus has been described as the sister group of Ceratopsidae, even though analyses and diagnosis of this taxon have been tentative and incomplete. A second specimen of M. cerorhynchus includes new diagnostic elements, most notably a partial skull including the caudal half of the braincase, pectoral girdle and manus. Results of a cladistic analysis of eight basal neoceratopsians (Protoceratops,

Brenda J. Chinnery; David B. Weishampel

1998-01-01

241

The Human Basal Forebrain Integrates the Old and the New  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition of new learning is challenged by the phenomenon of proactive interference (PI), which occurs when previous learning disrupts later learning. Whereas human neuroimaging studies have focused on the cortical contributions to interference resolution, animal studies demonstrate that efficient resolution of PI depends on cholinergic modulation from basal forebrain (BF). Whether the BF promotes PI resolution in humans is unknown.

Eve De Rosa; John E. Desmond; Adam K. Anderson; Adolf Pfefferbaum; Edith V. Sullivan

2004-01-01

242

Ca segregation to basal surfaces in {alpha}-alumina  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) were used to investigate the structure and chemistry of (0001) {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al interfaces in melt-infiltrated polycrystalline alumina composites. HRTEM revealed an interfacial region different from both Al and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with a structural width of 0.8 {plus_minus} 0.2 nm. AEM of the same interfaces revealed a Ca excess of {Lambda} = 2.5 {plus_minus} 0.5 Ca atoms per nm{sup 2} (Ca/nm{sup 2}). AEM of a basal twin boundary in the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} also revealed a Ca excess ({Lambda} = 1.0 {plus_minus} 0.5 Ca/nm{sup 2}). Since the metal-ceramic interfaces were the free surfaces of pores before melt infiltration, it can be concluded that Ca segregates to the basal surface of alumina, as well as to basal twin boundaries. Furthermore, the Ca at the free surfaces does not reside on only one cation plane, but is spread over 4 {plus_minus} 1 basal cation layers and forms an interfacial phase with a nominal composition of CaO{center_dot}6Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Kaplan, W.D.; Muellejans, H.; Ruehle, M. [Max-Planck Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft; Roedel, J. [TH Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Nichtmetallische Anorganische Werkstoffe; Claussen, N. [TU Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Technische Keramik

1995-10-01

243

Complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse  

PubMed Central

The basal forebrain cholinergic system modulates neuronal excitability and vascular tone throughout the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. This system is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and drug treatment to enhance cholinergic signaling is widely used as symptomatic therapy in AD. Defining the full morphologies of individual basal forebrain cholinergic neurons has, until now, been technically beyond reach due to their large axon arbor sizes. Using genetically-directed sparse labeling, we have characterized the complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse. Individual arbors were observed to span multiple cortical columns, and to have >1000 branch points and total axon lengths up to 50 cm. In an AD model, cholinergic axons were slowly lost and there was an accumulation of axon-derived material in discrete puncta. Calculations based on published morphometric data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in humans have a mean axon length of ?100 meters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02444.001 PMID:24894464

Wu, Hao; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

2014-01-01

244

Measurement of basal forebrain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease using MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the degeneration and loss of cholinergic neurones in the nucleus basalis Meynert, located within the substantia innominata at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. An in vivo measure of morphological changes in the nucleus basalis Meynert would be of high relevance to better under- stand the structural correlate of cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

Stefan J. Teipel; Wilhelm H. Flatz; Helmut Heinsen; Arun L. W. Bokde; Stefan O. Schoenberg; Stephanie Stockel; Olaf Dietrich; Maximilian F. Reiser; Hans-Jurgen Moller; Harald Hampel

2005-01-01

245

Vitamin C Supplementation Does not Improve Hypoxia-Induced Erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Martinez-Bello,Vladimir E., Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Daniel Martinez-Bello, Gloria Olaso-Gonzalez, Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, and Jose Viña. Vitamin C Supplementation Does Not Improve Hypoxia-Induced Erythropoiesis. High Alt Med Biol 13:269–274, 2012.—Hypoxia induces reactive oxygen species production. Supplements with antioxidant mixtures can compensate for the decline in red cell membrane stability following intermittent hypobaric hypoxia by decreasing protein and lipid oxidation. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin C is implicated in the regulation of erythropoiesis and in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and also whether antioxidant supplementation prevents the oxidative stress associated to intermittent hypoxia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: normoxia control (n=6), normoxia + vitamin C (n=6), hypoxia control (12?h pO2 12%/12?h pO2 21%) (n=6), and hypoxia + vitamin C (n=6). Animals were supplemented with vitamin C at a dose of 250?mg·kg?1·day?1 for 21 days. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, and oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde and protein oxidation in plasma were analyzed at two different time points: basal sample (day zero) and final sample (day 21). Similar RBC, Hb, Hct, and Epo increments were observed in both hypoxic groups regardless of the vitamin C supplementation. There was no change on MDA levels after intermittent hypoxic exposure in any experimental group. However, we found an increase in plasma protein oxidation in both hypoxic groups. Vitamin C does not affect erythropoiesis and protein oxidation in rats submitted to intermittent hypoxic exposure. PMID:23270444

Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

2012-01-01

246

Bld10/Cep135 stabilizes basal bodies to resist cilia-generated forces  

PubMed Central

Basal bodies nucleate, anchor, and organize cilia. As the anchor for motile cilia, basal bodies must be resistant to the forces directed toward the cell as a consequence of ciliary beating. The molecules and generalized mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of basal bodies remain to be discovered. Bld10/Cep135 is a basal body outer cartwheel domain protein that has established roles in the assembly of nascent basal bodies. We find that Bld10 protein first incorporates stably at basal bodies early during new assembly. Bld10 protein continues to accumulate at basal bodies after assembly, and we hypothesize that the full complement of Bld10 is required to stabilize basal bodies. We identify a novel mechanism for Bld10/Cep135 in basal body maintenance so that basal bodies can withstand the forces produced by motile cilia. Bld10 stabilizes basal bodies by promoting the stability of the A- and C-tubules of the basal body triplet microtubules and by properly positioning the triplet microtubule blades. The forces generated by ciliary beating promote basal body disassembly in bld10? cells. Thus Bld10/Cep135 acts to maintain the structural integrity of basal bodies against the forces of ciliary beating in addition to its separable role in basal body assembly. PMID:23115304

Bayless, Brian A.; Giddings, Thomas H.; Winey, Mark; Pearson, Chad G.

2012-01-01

247

Evaluation of biotin supplementation on the performance of turkey breeder hens and turkey poults  

E-print Network

. , Texas AAM University Directed by: Dr. R. L. Atkinson Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of biotin supplementation to milo-soybean meal based diets on early poult growth. Crossbred Broad Breasted White male turkey poults of a... supplementation would have any effect on their performance. A low protein starter was fed to 16 groups of 58 poults for 18 days as a stress factor. Two additional groups of 50 birds were started on the Basal II starter mentioned above as a positive control...

Krueger, Kenneth Kay

2012-06-07

248

Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.  

PubMed

The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

2012-01-01

249

The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

2014-11-01

250

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

251

Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2011-01-01

252

Supplementing Corn-Soybean Meal Diets with Microbial Phytase Maximizes Phytate Phosphorus Utilization by Weanling Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted mately 1,200 PU\\/g of BD. Estimated maximum with crossbred weanling pigs to determine the optimal responses of these measures in pigs fed phytase were 2 dietary supplement of AspergiZZus niger phytase ac- 90% compared with MDCaP. Pigs fed 1,250 PUlg of tivity to a low-P, corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD).

X. G. Lei; P. K. Ku; E. R. Millel; M. T. Yokoyama; D. E. Ullrey

2010-01-01

253

Influence of Dietary Protein Level on the Broiler Chicken's Response to Methionine and Betaine Supplements1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to com- pare broiler chicken responses to methionine and betaine supplements when fed diets with low protein and rela- tively high metabolizable energy levels (17%, 3.3 kcal\\/ g) or moderate protein and lower metabolizable energy levels (24%, 3.0 kcal\\/g), resulting in different levels of carcass fat. In Experiment 1, the basal diets were formu- lated with

M. Garcia Neto; G. M. Pesti; R. I. Bakalli

254

Effects of supplementation with two sources and two levels of copper on meat lipid oxidation, meat colour and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in Nellore beef cattle.  

PubMed

In the present study, thirty-five Nellore bulls were used to determine the effects of two levels and two sources (organic and inorganic) of Cu supplementation on the oxidative stability of lipids, measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) test, meat colour and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities. The following treatments were used: (1) control (C) - basal diet without supplementation of Cu (7 mg Cu/kg DM); (2) I10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate (inorganic form); (3) I40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate; (4) O10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate (organic form); (5) O40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate. Lipid oxidation was determined in meat samples exposed to display, modified atmosphere (MA) and vacuum packaging (VC) conditions and in liver samples using the TBARS test. These samples were also evaluated for meat discolouration after exposure to air. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes were determined in liver samples. In display, MA and VC conditions, the TBARS values of samples from animals supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM were lower than those of samples from control animals. There was no effect of treatment on the colour variables (L*, a*, b*). There was also no significant effect of treatment on hepatic TBARS concentrations and GSH-Px activity. Supplementation with Cu at 40 mg/kg, regardless of the source, induced higher hepatic SOD activity compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, Cu supplementation improved the oxidative stability of lipids in samples exposed to display, MA and VC conditions, demonstrating the antioxidant effect of this mineral. PMID:25313573

Correa, Lísia Bertonha; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; de Paiva, Fernanda Alves; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Netto, Arlindo Saran

2014-10-01

255

BRONCHOGRAPHIC CONTRAST MEDIUMS  

PubMed Central

In a study of 102 bronchograms for purposes of comparing the contrast medium Visciodol® (a mixture of iodized peanut oil and powdered sulfanilamide) with Iodochlorol® (an iodized poppyseed oil), it was observed that Visciodol is more readily administered, produces better bronchograms with less alveolar filling and clears from the lungs far more rapidly and completely than does Iodochlorol. Certain even newer highly promising agents are available but specific results with them are not included with this report. Bronchography is a diagnostic procedure that is contraindicated when the information to be gained does not exceed the probable risk. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 2. PMID:18732571

Martin, Howard F.; O'Neil, Lloyd F.

1962-01-01

256

The local interstellar medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the local interstellar medium is reviewed with emphasis on the new observations of the cold neutral component. The properties of the high latitude molecular clouds are discussed as well as their relationship to the 'infrared cirrus' and atomic gas. The molecular clouds are shown to lie preferentially along the loops and filaments of local H I gas, but a detailed examination shows the CO and H I peaks are offset from one another. An expansion velocity of 7 km/s is derived for one of the shells, suggesting an expansion energy of about 8 x 10 to the 47th ergs, which is somewhat smaller than that expected for a supernova explosion. If the pressure in the clumps of the high latitude clouds is in equilibrium with the surrounding gas, the pressure in the shells is 10,000-100,000/cu cm K, an order of magnitude higher than what is generally argued to exist in the interstellar medium.

Blitz, Leo

1987-01-01

257

DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON  

SciTech Connect

Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

2005-06-30

258

Computer to recording medium interface  

SciTech Connect

A central computer is utilized to control a recording medium while a peripheral computer is utilized to supply data to the recording medium for recording on magnetic tape. Method and apparatus is provided whereby an error indication is provided to the central computer if an error occurs in the transfer of data from the peripheral computer to the recording medium.

Lacy, R.H.

1981-03-17

259

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.  

PubMed

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

2014-01-01

260

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds  

PubMed Central

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

2014-01-01

261

Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

2013-01-01

262

Focal Hand Dystonia Secondary to Basal Ganglia Germinoma  

PubMed Central

Descriptions of symptomatic focal dystonia caused by focal lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare in the literature. We report a 9-year-old child who experienced sudden-onset left-hand dystonia for 6 months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion involving the putamen, globus pallidus, head of caudate, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Histopathological and immunocytochemical examinations of the mass revealed features characteristic of malignant germinoma. CNS germinoma in the basal ganglia is very rare. Combining previous reports in the literature with the anatomical and clinical presentation of our case suggests that this phenomenon results from disruption of the pathways within and adjacent to the basal ganglia. PMID:19513283

Kim, Joong-Seok; Han, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Woojun; Kim, Bum-Soo; Kim, Yeong-In

2007-01-01

263

Centrality of striatal cholinergic transmission in Basal Ganglia function.  

PubMed

Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction. Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders. PMID:21344017

Bonsi, Paola; Cuomo, Dario; Martella, Giuseppina; Madeo, Graziella; Schirinzi, Tommaso; Puglisi, Francesca; Ponterio, Giulia; Pisani, Antonio

2011-01-01

264

Solute effect on basal and prismatic slip systems of Mg.  

PubMed

In an effort to design novel magnesium (Mg) alloys with high ductility, we present a first principles data based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT was employed to calculate the generalized stacking fault energy curves, which can be used in the generalized Peierls-Nabarro (PN) model to study the energetics of basal slip and prismatic slip in Mg with and without solutes to calculate continuum scale dislocation core widths, stacking fault widths and Peierls stresses. The generalized stacking fault energy curves for pure Mg agreed well with other DFT calculations. Solute effects on these curves were calculated for nine alloying elements, namely Al, Ca, Ce, Gd, Li, Si, Sn, Zn and Zr, which allowed the strength and ductility to be qualitatively estimated based on the basal dislocation properties. Based on our multiscale methodology, a suggestion has been made to improve Mg formability. PMID:25273695

Moitra, Amitava; Kim, Seong-Gon; Horstemeyer, M F

2014-11-01

265

Solute effect on basal and prismatic slip systems of Mg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to design novel magnesium (Mg) alloys with high ductility, we present a first principles data based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT was employed to calculate the generalized stacking fault energy curves, which can be used in the generalized Peierls–Nabarro (PN) model to study the energetics of basal slip and prismatic slip in Mg with and without solutes to calculate continuum scale dislocation core widths, stacking fault widths and Peierls stresses. The generalized stacking fault energy curves for pure Mg agreed well with other DFT calculations. Solute effects on these curves were calculated for nine alloying elements, namely Al, Ca, Ce, Gd, Li, Si, Sn, Zn and Zr, which allowed the strength and ductility to be qualitatively estimated based on the basal dislocation properties. Based on our multiscale methodology, a suggestion has been made to improve Mg formability.

Moitra, Amitava; Kim, Seong-Gon; Horstemeyer, M. F.

2014-11-01

266

Evaluation of a Novel Medium for Screening Specimens from Hospitalized Patients To Detect Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel medium, Oxacillin Resistant Screening Agar (ORSA) medium, was evaluated for the screening of specimens for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital setting. Screening swabs (swabs of the nose, throat, perineum, and infected sites) were inoculated onto the new ORSA medium and into an enrichment broth (Muller-Hinton broth supplemented with NaCl and oxacillin). After 24 h of incubation,

D. S. Blanc; A. Wenger; J. Bille

2003-01-01

267

Quantitative expression analysis of selected transcription factors in pavement, basal and trichome cells of mature leaves from Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Gene expression levels of several transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that were described previously to be involved in leaf development and trichome formation were analysed in trichome, basal and pavement cells of mature leaves. Single cell samples of these three cells types were collected by glass micro-capillaries. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to analyse expression patterns of the following transcription factors: MYB23, MYB55, AtHB1, FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YABBY1 (YAB1), TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC). A difference in the expression patterns of TRY and CPC was revealed. Contrary to the CPC expression pattern, no transcripts of TRY could be detected in pavement cells. FIL/YAB1 was exclusively expressed in trichome cells. AtHB1 was highly expressed throughout all three cell types. MYB55 was higher expressed in basal cells than in trichome and pavement cells. MYB23 showed a pattern of low expression in pavement cells, medium in basal cells and high expression in trichomes. Expression patterns obtained by single cell sampling and real-time RT-PCR were compared to promoter GUS fusions of the selected transcription factors. Therefore, we regenerated two transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the GUS reporter gene under control of the promoters of MYB55 and YAB1. In conclusion, despite their function in leaf morphogenesis, all six transcription factors were detected in mature leaves. Furthermore, single cell sampling and promoter GUS staining patterns demonstrated the predominant presence of MYB55 in basal cells as compared to pavement cells and trichomes. PMID:20101514

Schliep, Martin; Ebert, Berit; Simon-Rosin, Ulrike; Zoeller, Daniela

2010-01-01

268

Evaluation of Tualang honey as a supplement to fetal bovine serum in cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate Tualang honey as a supplement to fetal bovine serum in cell cultures using MTT assay, chromosome aberration test and gene expression analyses. The MTT assay showed the highest percentage of cell proliferation (105.3% increment than control) of human osteoblast cell line (CRL 1543) in 0.0195% honey in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium supplemented

Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan; Abdulaziz Qaid Ali; Siti Fadilah Abdullah; Azlina Ahmad

2009-01-01

269

Reproductive morphology of Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), a member of basal angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Recent phylogenetic analyses position Nuphar as the basalmost genus in the Nymphaeaceae, a member of the ANITA grade that is constituted of the three most basal angiosperm\\u000a lineages [Amborella, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales (Austrobaileyaceae, Illiciaceae, Schisandraceae, and Trimeniaceae)]. In Nuphar the anther is tetrasporangiate. The endothecial cells elongate radially and develop fibrous thickenings. The glandular tapetum\\u000a persists up to the two-celled

Qingyuan Zhou; D. Fu

2008-01-01

270

Hox cluster duplication in the basal teleost Hiodon alosoides (Osteoglossomorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale—even genome-wide—duplications have repeatedly been invoked as an explanation for major radiations. Teleosts, the\\u000a most species-rich vertebrate clade, underwent a “fish-specific genome duplication” (FSGD) that is shared by most ray-finned\\u000a fish lineages. We investigate here the Hox complement of the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a representative of Osteoglossomorpha, the most basal teleostean clade. An extensive PCR survey reveals that goldeye has

Karen E. ChambersRyan; Ryan McDaniell; Jeremy D. Raincrow; Maya Deshmukh; Peter F. Stadler; Chi-hua Chiu

2009-01-01

271

Mitogenomic data resolve basal relationships among passeriform and passeridan birds.  

PubMed

Passerine birds compose over half of avian species diversity and exhibit an impressive array of phenotypic variation of interest to evolutionary biologists. Although this group has long been the focus of comparative study, many phylogenetic relationships within the group remain unresolved, despite an impressive number of molecular phylogenetic studies. Much of this uncertainty involves "transitional" groups potentially related to the ancestrally Australasian "core Corvoidea" and the primarily extra-Australasian Passerida, as well as basal relationships among Passerida. In this study data from mitochondrial genome sequences (mitogenomes) are brought to bear on higher-level passerine relationships. This paper reports analyses of new mitogenomes from 15 taxa carefully selected to address basal passeridan relationships, along with 110 previously-published passerine mitogenomes (most deriving from two intra-familial studies). These data corroborate many relationships previously established by multilocus nuclear data, as well as resolving several novel clades, including basal relationships of Passerida and relationships of that clade to several "transitional" forms. Although passerine mitogenomes pose significant analytical challenges (most notably substitutional saturation and base compositional heterogeneity), they appear to retain important information that should contribute to current and future understanding of passerine phylogeny. PMID:24973714

Keith Barker, F

2014-10-01

272

Evidence for basal distortion-product otoacoustic emission components  

PubMed Central

Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured with traditional DP-grams and level?phase (L?P) maps in rabbits with either normal cochlear function or unique sound-induced cochlear losses that were characterized as either low-frequency or notched configurations. To demonstrate that emission generators distributed basal to the f2 primary-tone contribute, in general, to DPOAE levels and phases, a high-frequency interference tone (IT) was presented at 1?3 of an octave (oct) above the f2 primary-tone, and DPOAEs were re-measured as “augmented” DP-grams (ADP-grams) and L?P maps. The vector difference between the control and augmented functions was then computed to derive residual DP-grams (RDP-grams) and L?P maps. The resulting RDP-grams and L?P maps, which described the DPOAEs removed by the IT, supported the notion that basal DPOAE components routinely contribute to the generation of standard measures of DPOAEs. Separate experiments demonstrated that these components could not be attributed to the effects of the 1?3-oct IT on f2, or DPOAEs generated by the addition of a third interfering tone. These basal components can “fill in” the lesion estimated by the commonly employed DP-gram. Thus, ADP-grams more accurately reveal the pattern of cochlear damage and may eventually lead to an improved DP-gram procedure. PMID:21117746

Martin, Glen K.; Stagner, Barden B.; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L.

2010-01-01

273

Self-Organizing Basal Hydrology for Ice Sheet Flowline Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial water pressure is a fundamental control on basal drag and glacier sliding rates. However, it has seldom been included as a variable in glacier flow models, mainly due to the great difficulty in calculating water pressure in a realistic yet tractable way. Here we present preliminary results of a simple basal hydrological model designed for coupling to ice sheet flow models. A key feature of the model is that hydraulic conductivity k evolves in response to water discharge Q (which melts ice and increases the capacity of the system) and effective pressure pi - pw (reducing system capacity through ice creep). The timescales of these processes relative to temporal variations in surface water inputs produces contrasting pressure-discharge relationships as an emergent property of the model. Specifically, pw varies directly with Q over diurnal timescales, whereas pw is inversely proportional to Q on seasonal timescales. In combination with suitable friction laws, the hydrology model provides an adaptive basal boundary condition for flowline models. Despite its simplicity, the model allows a rich variety of behaviour to be simulated, including spring 'speed-up' events and summer 'slowdowns'.

Rutt, I. C.; Benn, D.; Cook, S.; Hulton, N. R.

2013-12-01

274

Basal breast cancer: a complex and deadly molecular subtype.  

PubMed

During the last decade, gene expression profiling of breast cancer has revealed the existence of five molecular subtypes and allowed the establishment of a new classification. The basal subtype, which represents 15-25% of cases, is characterized by an expression profile similar to that of myoepithelial normal mammary cells. Basal tumors are frequently assimilated to triple-negative (TN) breast cancers. They display epidemiological and clinico-pathological features distinct from other subtypes. Their pattern of relapse is characterized by frequent and early relapses and visceral locations. Despite a relative sensitivity to chemotherapy, the prognosis is poor. Recent characterization of their molecular features, such as the dysfunction of the BRCA1 pathway or the frequent expression of EGFR, provides opportunities for optimizing the systemic treatment. Several clinical trials dedicated to basal or TN tumors are testing cytotoxic agents and/or molecularly targeted therapies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this aggressive and hard-to-treat subtype of breast cancer. PMID:22082486

Bertucci, F; Finetti, P; Birnbaum, D

2012-01-01

275

A Case of Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip  

PubMed Central

Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of benign salivary gland tumor found most commonly in the parotid gland. We present a rare case of basal cell adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland of the upper lip. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man who visited our department in December 2012 with a chief complaint of a mass in the upper lip, which had increased in size over several years. A mobile, elastic, and relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in the upper lip region. The mucosa of the upper lip covering the mass was normal. Tumor extirpation was performed under local anesthesia. Histologically, the tumor had a capsule and was composed of islands of relatively uniform, monotonous cells. Immunohistochemically, the inner tumor comprised tubuloductal structures that showed strong staining for CK7, while the outer tumor showed weak staining for CK7. The outer tumor cells also stained positively for CD10 and p63. The MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index was extremely low. Basal cell adenoma was diagnosed based on these results. The postoperative course was uneventful 12 months after surgery and there has been no recurrence. PMID:24711821

Harada, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yuriko; Omura, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa

2014-01-01

276

Proactive Selective Response Suppression Is Implemented via the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway. PMID:23946385

Majid, D. S. Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody

2013-01-01

277

Effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 and Enterococcus faecium CECT 4515 in adult healthy dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic preparation consisting of two probiotic strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 and Enterococcus faecium CECT 4515 (each 5 · 10(8) CFU/g feed), on faecal consistency, faecal microbiology and nutrient digestibility in adult healthy dogs. Sixteen beagles (eight males and eight females) were divided into two groups: the Control group (CON), which was fed the basal diet, and the probiotic group (PRO), which received the basal diet supplemented daily with 1 · 10(8) CFU for 39 consecutive days. Faecal score was assessed before (BS) and throughout the supplementation period (SP). Fresh faecal samples were collected before supplementation, before finishing the supplementation period and after 6 days of withdrawal for microbial enumeration and pH measurement. During the supplementation period, a digestibility trial was performed. There were no differences in faecal scores or the digestibility coefficients between groups. Between groups no statistical differences were found in most microbiota analysed or in faecal pH. However, during the supplementation period, pathogenic clostridia dropped significantly in Group PRO (5.64 vs. 2.94 ± 0.53 CFU/g faeces; p < 0.001), when compared with the period BS. The use of the probiotic preparation had no impact on nutrient digestibility by adult healthy dogs; however, it could stabilise faecal microbiota by decreasing pathogenic clostridia. PMID:23952642

González-Ortiz, Gemma; Castillejos, Lorena; Mallo, Juan José; Àngels Calvo-Torras, Ma; Dolores Baucells, Ma

2013-01-01

278

Development of a chemically defined serum-free medium for differentiation of rat adipose precursor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stromal-vascular cells from the epididymal fat pad of 4-week-old rats, when cultured in a medium containing insulin or insulin-like growth factor, IFG-I, triiodothyronine and transferrin, were able to undergo adipose conversion. Over ninety percent of the cells accumulated lipid droplets and this proportion was reduced in serum-supplemented medium. The adipose conversion was assessed by the development of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)

S. Deslex; R. Negrel; G. Ailhaud

1987-01-01

279

Primary cultures of rat pancreatic acinar cells in serum-free medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated and cultured in Ham's F12 medium with 15% bovine calf serum. Caerulein, insulin,\\u000a somatostatin, and dexamethasone (DEX) had no effect on intracellular or secreted amylase in these cultured cells. A serum-free\\u000a medium, using Waymouth's MB 752\\/1 supplemented with albumin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), DEX, and HEPES, was then developed\\u000a to avoid serum factors that

Patsy M. Brannon; Bonnie M. Orrison; Norman Kretchmer

1985-01-01

280

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

281

Creative cognition and the brain: dissociations between frontal, parietal-temporal and basal ganglia groups.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate creativity in relation to brain function by assessing creative thinking in various neurological populations. Several measures were employed to assess different facets of creative thinking in clinical groups with frontal lobe, basal ganglia or parietal-temporal lesions relative to matched healthy control participants. The frontal group was subdivided into frontolateral, frontopolar and frontal-extensive groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to assess the significance levels associated with the effects after accounting for IQ differences between the groups. Findings were only considered noteworthy if they at least suggested the presence of a strong trend and were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. The parietal-temporal and frontolateral groups revealed poorer overall performance with the former demonstrating problems with fluency related measures, whereas the latter were also less proficient at producing original responses. In contrast, the basal ganglia and frontopolar groups demonstrated superior performance in the ability to overcome the constraints imposed by salient semantic distractors when generating creative responses. In summary, the dissociations in the findings reveal the selective involvement of different brain regions in diverse aspects of creativity. Lesion location posed selective limitations on the ability to generate original responses in different contexts, but not on the ability to generate relevant responses, which was compromised in most patient groups. The noteworthy findings from this exploratory study of enhanced performance in specific aspects of creative cognition following brain damage are discussed with reference to the generic idea that superior creative ability can result from altered brain function. PMID:22982590

Abraham, Anna; Beudt, Susan; Ott, Derek V M; Yves von Cramon, D

2012-10-30

282

Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24?cm by 15.24?cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris?flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4?year monitoring period, 11 debris?flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64?mm. The basal force during these erosive debris?flow events had a large?magnitude (up to 21?kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time?averaged mean force), high?frequency (greater than 1?Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time?averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~?20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time?averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~?5?cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse?grained granular surges and water?rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite differences in appearance and bulk?flow density. These results demonstrate that debris flows can have strong control on rates of steepland evolution and contribute to a foundation needed for modeling debris?flow incision stochastically.

McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

2013-01-01

283

Measurement of basal forebrain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease using MRI.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the degeneration and loss of cholinergic neurones in the nucleus basalis Meynert, located within the substantia innominata at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. An in vivo measure of morphological changes in the nucleus basalis Meynert would be of high relevance to better understand the structural correlate of cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we applied a newly developed automated technique of image regression analysis, implemented through code written in Matlab 5.3 (MathWorks, Natick, MA), to the analysis of proton density weighted structural MRI of the basal forebrain from 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (mean age = 77.5 years, SD = 4.4 years, 8 women) and 12 healthy elderly subjects (mean age = 62.3 years, SD = 5.6 years, 6 women). This technique allows searching a large portion of the substantia innominata for signal changes. We used corresponding MRI and histological sections of a post mortem brain to map the locations of basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei into the MRI standard space. Additionally, we used voxel-based morphometry, implemented in SPM2 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, London, UK) to determine correlations between signal changes in the substantia innominata and cortical grey matter atrophy in the patients with Alzheimer's disease. When matching the locations of signal reductions in the in vivo MRI to the template of basal nuclei based on the postmortem brain, signal intensity was decreased in areas corresponding to anterior lateral and anterior medial nucleus basalis Meynert and increased in the third ventricle, the transverse fissure and the optic tract in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. The reduction of the signal intensity in an area corresponding to the anterior lateral nucleus basalis Meynert was significantly correlated with reduced grey matter concentration in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule and cingulate gyrus. Our findings suggest that signal changes occur in patients with Alzheimer's disease in the substantia innominata which may be related to the loss or degeneration of cholinergic neurones and correspond to regional cortical grey matter atrophy. If replicated in an independent sample, our technique may be useful to detect degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurones in vivo. PMID:16014654

Teipel, Stefan J; Flatz, Wilhelm H; Heinsen, Helmut; Bokde, Arun L W; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Stöckel, Stephanie; Dietrich, Olaf; Reiser, Maximilian F; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald

2005-11-01

284

The diffuse interstellar medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last 20 years of the efforts to understand the diffuse ISM are reviewed, with recent changes of fundamental aspects being highlighted. Attention is given to the interstellar pressure and its components, the weight of the ISM, the midplane pressure contributions, and pressure contributions at 1 kpc. What velocity dispersions, cosmic ray pressure, and magnetic field pressure that can be expected for a gas in a high magnetic field environment is addressed. The intercloud medium is described, with reference to the work of Cox and Slavin (1989). Various caveats are discussed and a number of areas for future investigation are identified. Steps that could be taken toward a successful phase segregation model are discussed.

Cox, Donald P.

1990-01-01

285

The circumsolar interstellar medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss several recent results that pertain to the circumsolar InterStellar Medium (ISM). -The detector of the UltraViolet Spectrograph on board Voyager records Galactic Cosmic Rays in the 300 MeV range and can be used as an auxiliary measurement of those particles to follow the evolution of their spectral slope and distribution anisotropy beyond (or at) the heliopause. I will present the latest data and comparisons. -On the other hand, the direction and speed of the interstellar flow at the Sun have been claimed to vary on a 10 years time scale. I will compare the different types of measurements of the helium flow parameters and discuss the claimed variability. -Finally, I will present recent 3D maps of the ISM with a kpc and discuss the potential imprints of past events that may have influenced the circumsolar ISM ionisation, motion, magnetic field and high energy cosmic rays.

Lallement, Rosine

286

Supplementing National Menu Labeling  

PubMed Central

The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

White, Lexi C.

2012-01-01

287

FDA Guide to Dietary Supplements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sale and variety of dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbal mixtures, and hormones have expanded tremendously in recent years, accounting for $6.5 billion in sales in 1996 alone. This resource will help users to understand this trend and the health claims made by supplement companies and to make educated decisions regarding their use. This site offers a revised version of an article which originally ran in the September-October 1998 FDA Consumer. The article addresses topics such as the definition of a dietary supplement, safety monitoring, understanding claims, and fraudulent products. An illustration of new requirements for dietary supplement labels and sources for more information are also provided.

Kurtzweil, Paula, 1958-.

1999-01-01

288

Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.  

PubMed

Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk. PMID:24667103

Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

2014-08-01

289

Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

Farris, Jim

290

A nucleus-basal body connector in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that may function in basal body localization or segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a nucleus-basal body complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The complex is strongly immunoreactive to an antibody generated against a major protein constituent of isolated Tetraselmis striata flagellar roots (Salisbury, J. L., A. Baron, B. Surek, and M. Melkonian, J. Cell Biol., 99:962-970). Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analysis indicates that, like the Tetraselmis protein, the Chlamydomonas antigen consists of two

ROBIN L. WRIGHT; JEFFREY SALISBURY

1985-01-01

291

An engineering model of lower thalamo-cortico-basal ganglionic circuit function  

E-print Network

An engineering model of lower thalamo-cortico-basal ganglionic circuit functionality was extended and tested. This model attempts to explain the circuitry of the basal ganglia, examine its functional properties, and integrate ...

Lim, Eugene J. (Eugene Jungsud), 1980-

2003-01-01

292

Beta1 integrin deletion from the basal compartment of the mammary epithelium affects stem cells  

E-print Network

.Glukhova@curie.fr> MESH Keywords Animals ; Antigens, CD29 ; genetics ; physiology ; Epithelial Cells ; cytology ; Stem Cells ; cytology The mammary epithelium comprises two major cell types, basal and luminal. Basal

293

What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in research and treatment of basal and squamous ... become cancerous. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

294

The role of basal ganglia-forebrain circuitry in the vocal learning of songbirds  

E-print Network

The basal ganglia form the largest sub-cortical structure in the human brain and are implicated in numerous human diseases. In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and ...

Andalman, Aaron Samuel

2009-01-01

295

A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds  

E-print Network

The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia to the cortex and is critical for motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the basal ganglia, ...

Goldberg, Jesse H.

296

Effect of supplementation of ewes with barley or maize during the last week of pregnancy on colostrum production.  

PubMed

The experiment tested the hypothesis that short-term feeding of barley just before lambing would be as effective as maize in stimulating early production of colostrum. Both grains are high in starch, and should provide a substrate for lactose which, in turn, promotes lactogenesis. Thirty-five Corriedale ewes bearing single foetuses and 25 bearing twin-foetuses from a synchronised mating were fed on pasture during most of gestation. Fourteen days before the expected time of lambing the single- and twin-bearing ewes were allocated to three treatments and fed (1) a basal diet of lucerne hay to meet their nutrient requirements, (2) the basal diet plus a supplement of whole barley; or (3) the basal diet plus a supplement of cracked maize. The twin-bearing control ewes accumulated more colostrum than the single-bearing control ewes at birth (292 v. 190 g). However, supplementation with barley or maize increased the colostrum at birth to 360 and 541 g in singles and 648 and 623 g in twins. We conclude that barley is a good alternative to maize to stimulate production of colostrum especially in twin-bearing ewes whose lambs are the most likely to benefit from the supplement. PMID:22444419

Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Vazquez, A; Gigena, F; La Manna, A; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

2007-05-01

297

Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision. PMID:25298901

Roewe, R. J.; Uhlman, Matthew A.; Bockholt, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

298

Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Erika Dantas; de Araujo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, Joao Batista Sousa; Franca, Mardone Cavalcante; das Gracas Almeida, Maria; Brandao-Neto, Jose

2014-01-01

299

Stimulation of the growth and solamargine production by Solanum paludosum multiple shoot cultures using a new culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organogenic callus cultures of Solanum paludosum were obtained from root, hypocotyle and cotyledon explants of plantlets cultured in sterile conditions. These callus cultures developed multiple shoots which proliferated in Murashige and Skoog basal liquid medium. These multiple shoots produced solamargine, the main steroidal glycoalkaloid present in the unripe fruits.

H. Badaoui; P. Morard; M. Henry

1996-01-01

300

Instruction of Research-Based Comprehension Strategies in Basal Reading Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research supports using research-based comprehension strategies; however, comprehension strategy instruction is not highly visible in basal reading programs or classroom instruction, resulting in many students who struggle with comprehension. A content analysis examined which research-based comprehension strategies were presented in five elementary school basal readers and how the basals suggest that the strategies be taught. The analysis found that two

Paola Pilonieta

2010-01-01

301

What are the Computations of the Cerebellum, the Basal Gangila, and the Cerebral Cortex?  

E-print Network

What are the Computations of the Cerebellum, the Basal Gangila, and the Cerebral Cortex? Kenji Doya to characterize the functions of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex in a simplistic manner learning, the basal ganglia are for reinforcement learning, and the cerebral cortex is for unsupervised

Doya, Kenji

302

Basal Meningoencephalocele, Anomaly of Optic Disc and Panhypopituitarism in Association with Moyamoya Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal meningoencephalocele is frequently associated with midfacial anomaly, optic disc anomaly, brain anomaly, cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, chiasma syndrome, and endocrinologic disturbance. The combination of basal meningoencephalocele and moyamoya disease is extremely rare. A 29-year-old man had basal meningoencephalocele (transsphenoidal type), anomaly of the optic disc (morning glory syndrome), panhypopituitarism and moyamoya disease. The patient was treated by hormone replacement, but

Masaki Komiyama; Toshihiro Yasui; Hiroaki Sakamoto; Keinosuke Fujita; Toshihiko Sato; Mariko Ota; Masahiko Sugita

2000-01-01

303

Glacier surge mechanism based on linked cavity configuration of the basal water conduit system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on observations of the 1982-1983 surge of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, a model of the surge mechanism is developed in terms of a transition from the normal tunnel configuration of the basal water conduit system to a linked cavity configuration that tends to restrict the flow of water, resulting in increased basal water pressures that cause rapid basal sliding. The

Barclay Kamb

1987-01-01

304

The Social Endocrinology of Dominance: Basal Testosterone Predicts Cortisol Changes and Behavior Following Victory and Defeat  

E-print Network

The Social Endocrinology of Dominance: Basal Testosterone Predicts Cortisol Changes and Behavior at Austin Past research suggests that individuals high in basal testosterone are motivated to gain high consequences of high and low status as a function of basal testosterone. The outcome of a competition

Josephs, Robert

305

Chronic dietary choline supplementation modulates attentional change in adult rats.  

PubMed

In two experiments adult rats were maintained on a diet enriched with added choline for 12 weeks prior to behavioral testing; control rats remained on the standard diet during this time. In Experiment 1 all rats received training in the Hall-Pearce negative transfer paradigm in which prior training with a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a small reinforcer retards further learning when the size of the reinforcer is increased. This effect, which has been attributed to a loss of associability by the CS, was obtained in control subjects but not in those given the supplement. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of prior nonreinforced exposure of the to-be-CS (latent inhibition). Such exposure retarded subsequent learning in control subjects, but latent inhibition was not obtained in those given the supplement. We conclude that the mechanism that reduces the attention paid to a stimulus that accurately predicts its consequences does not operate effectively after choline supplementation. These results are consistent with a role for the cholinergic system of the basal forebrain in modulation of attention. PMID:23376702

Moreno, Hayarelis; de Brugada, Isabel; Hall, Geoffrey

2013-04-15

306

Data supplement #1 Data supplement 1. Synthetic peptides are internalized into THP-1 cells within 30  

E-print Network

Data supplement #1 Data supplement 1. Synthetic peptides are internalized into THP-1 cells within supplement #2 Data supplement 2. Treatment with either anti-CD300F mAb or TAT-YADL results in a significant compared with LPS-treated samples, *** supplement #3 Data supplement 3. CD300F or TAT

Lee, Won-Ha

307

The Diffuse Interstellar Medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major component of this research is to extend existing models of thermal processes in the local interstellar medium to the inner and outer Galaxy. In completing this goal we have calculated the thermal equilibrium gas temperature of the neutral diffuse gas and constructed phase diagrams (gas pressure versus density) for gas at galactic radii between 3 and 18 kpc. An important ingredient in this computation is the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field in the Galactic disk. This radiation is important since photoelectric heating via FUV radiation on dust grains is expected to be a dominant heating process in the diffuse via gas. As a check of our calculated FUV field, we compared the infrared luminosity predicted by our theory with the observations of the COBE DIRBE space satellite and found the two to be in quite good agreement. Using our phase diagrams we have predicted the thermal pressure in the Galactic plane for which a multiphase equilibrium can be maintained. In addition, by using the maximum thermal pressure allowed by the observations, we have constrained the Galactic radii over which both cold and warm gas must exist, may exist, and cannot exist.

Hollenbach, David; Mundy, Lee; Wolfire, Mark

1997-01-01

308

Newstream: a multi-device, cross-medium, and socially aware approach to news content  

Microsoft Academic Search

News content extends well beyond the scope of a single medium: video, audio, text, interactive experiences, and social sharing all contribute to an individual's understanding and experience of content. While some content that exists across media can supplement other forms, such as an interactive feature accompanying a text-based article, other content might replicate information and therefore be redundant to a

Reed Martin; Henry Holtzman

2010-01-01

309

Development of a serum-free medium using computer-assisted factorial design and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stepwise screening of media supplements using factorial design and analysis was employed in the development of serum-free medium for a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line. The effects (growth and target protein production) of different combinations were measured at two time points to ensure adequate response. The results were analysed by a computer program specialized in factorial analysis. The formulation

Mio-Sam Lao; Calvin Schalla

1996-01-01

310

Modeling Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Basal Aquifer of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge for society. Geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions to decrease carbon emissions. One such deep saline aquifer targeted for industrial-scale CO2 injection is the Basal Aquifer of Prairie Region in Canada and Northern Plains in the US. The aquifer stretches across three provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and three states (Montana, North and South Dakota), and covers approximately 1,320,000 km2 (Figure 1). A large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the foot print of the aquifer, and several CO2 injection projects are in the planning stage. In order for CO2 sequestration to be successful, the injected CO2 needs to stay isolated from the atmosphere for many centuries. Mathematical models are useful tools to assess the fate of both the injected CO2 and the resident brine. These models vary in complexity from fully three-dimensional multi-phase numerical reservoir simulators to simple semi-analytical solutions. In this presentation we compare a cascade of models ranging from single-phase semi-analytic solutions to multi-phase numerical simulators to determine the ability of each of these approaches to predict the pressure response in the injection formation. The majority of the models in this study are based on vertically-integrated governing equations; such models are computationally efficient, allow for reduced data input, and are broadly consistent with the flow physics. The petro-physical parameters and geometries used in this study are based on the geology of the Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer. Approximately ten injection sites are included in the model, with locations and injection rates based on planned injection operations. The predicted areas of review of the injection operations are used as a comparison metric among the different simulation approaches. Areal extent of the Basal Aquifer (*Source: Alberta Innovates Technology Futures)

Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Rebscher, D.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

2012-12-01

311

Pine Island Glacier - basal properties and sliding laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the Antarctic Ice Sheet can be well seen and studied on the behavior of Pine Island Glacier. Despite the long time believe in a slow response of the ice sheet to changing atmospheric and oceanic forcing, Pine Island has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat in the past decades. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope below the glacier. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modeling studies. Plenty of working groups have conducted modeling studies of Pine Island Glacier with varying model complexity and diverse focuses. We want to add to this by conducting model experiments with a diagnostic 3D full-stokes model of Pine Island Glacier. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. The focus of our work lies on the basal properties below the glacier and the connection to sliding behavior. We believe that this is a crucial part, as different basal conditions might cause different responses to ongoing changes in the area. Recent studies presented evidence for the existence of a water saturated sediment basin below the main trunk of the glacier. We conduct a variety a numerical experiments with which we test different approaches of combining information about the basal properties with sliding laws.

Wilkens, Nina; Humbert, Angelika

2013-04-01

312

JANAF thermochemical tables, 1978 supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic tabulations previously published in NSRDS–NBS 37, the 1974 Supplement (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311 (1974), and the 1975 Supplement (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1 (1975) are extended by 131 new and revised tables. The JANAF Thermochemical Tables cover the thermodynamic properties over a wide temperature range with single phase tables for the crystal, liquid,

M. W. Chase; J. L. Curnutt; R. A. McDonald; A. N. Syverud

1978-01-01

313

OMB CIRCULAR A-133 COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENT  

E-print Network

OMB CIRCULAR A-133 COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENT 2008 EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OFFICE.................................................................................... 1-3 Overview of this Supplement for Children (SMP)............................ 4-10.553 10.557 ­ Special Supplemental Nutrition Program

McQuade, D. Tyler

314

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know The majority of adults in the United States take one or more ... like glucosamine, probiotics, and fish oils. The Dietary Supplement Label All products labeled as a dietary supplement ...

315

Keller's operation with basal osteotomy of first metatarsal1  

PubMed Central

A retrospective survey was carried out to assess the results in the middle aged and elderly of an operation for hallux valgus which combined a basal osteotomy of the first metatarsal with a Keller's procedure. Mean follow up in 34 patients (54 feet) was 3.2 years. The correction of both the hallux valgus and the varus angle of the first metatarsal was found to be satisfactory. The advantages and disadvantages of the operation are discussed. ImagesFigure 6. (left)Figure 6. (right) PMID:6827510

Allum, R L; Higginson, D W

1983-01-01

316

Basal cell carcinoma -- molecular biology and potential new therapies  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, the most common malignancy in individuals of mixed European descent, is increasing in incidence due to an aging population and sun exposure habits. The realization that aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling is a pathognomonic feature of BCC development has opened the way for exciting progress toward understanding BCC biology and translation of this knowledge to the clinic. Genetic mouse models closely mimicking human BCCs have provided answers about the tumor cell of origin, and inhibition of Hedgehog signaling is emerging as a potentially useful targeted therapy for patients with advanced or multiple BCCs that have hitherto lacked effective treatment. PMID:22293184

Kasper, Maria; Jaks, Viljar; Hohl, Daniel; Toftgard, Rune

2012-01-01

317

Left ventricular basal region involvement in noncompaction cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A previously healthy 16-year-old woman experienced progressive dyspnea on exertion. The echocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed a significant increase in cardiac chambers, severe biventricular systolic dysfunction, and prominent ventricular trabeculations suggesting noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCC). The patient underwent heart transplantation 5 years after the NCC diagnosis, and the anatomopathological examination evidenced diffuse biventricular hypertrabeculation compromise, including the basal region of the biventricular wall. There is no consensus about the gold-standard diagnostic criteria, which demands a conceptual review and attention to another point: the relation of trabeculation volume and prognosis. PMID:23797018

de Melo, Marcelo Dantas Tavares; Benvenuti, Luiz A; Mady, Charles; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Salemi, Vera M C

2013-01-01

318

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

319

Modification of MCDB 110 medium to support prolonged growth and consistent high cloning efficiency of diploid human fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for studies on the growth factor requirements of normal and transformed human fibroblasts, we have developed a serum-free medium that supports vigorous long-term serial subculture of diploid human fibroblasts and allows them to form large-sized colonies with high efficiency (40 to 60%) when plated at cloning density. This medium, which is a modification of Ham's MCDB 110 base medium with its serum replacement supplements, is relatively easy to prepare and the cost of the serum replacements is approximately the same as that of fetal bovine serum supplied at 10%. The ingredients of Supplement B of MCDB 110 medium were added in an ethanol solution, rather than in the form of liposomes, and were combined with bovine serum albumin, a lipid carrier. Gelatin and fetuin were included as attachment factors instead of polylysine. Bioassays indicated that none of the ingredients in the medium were contaminated with either epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor. In this modified serum-free medium, which the authors have designated McM + SR{sub 1}, diploid human fibroblasts grew for 21 days at the same rate as in the base medium, McM, supplemented wt 10% FBS. During the next 20 days, they underwent 15 population doublings which was 75% of the rate of cells growing in the medium containing serum.

Ryan, P.A.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1987-10-01

320

Reducing medium for the cultivation of Porphyromonas gingivalis.  

PubMed

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a micro-organism frequently associated with human periodontal diseases, is commonly cultured under a reducing atmosphere in enclosed cabinets or glove boxes. This paper reports a modified Wilkins-Chalgren (MWC) medium for the culture of P. gingivalis under atmospheric conditions at 37 degrees C. On the basis of preliminary tests, WC broth was supplemented as follows: 500 mg/l cysteine hydrochloride; 250 mg/l sodium thioglycolate; and 1,000 mg/l sodium bicarbonate. Three P. gingivalis isolates (JKG-I, 33277 and A7436) showed very similar growth over 24 and 48 h periods when cultured both in WC medium in an anaerobic chamber and in the MWC medium. Culture of these isolates both in the anaerobic chamber and in the MWC medium yielded very similar data with respect to trypsin-like activity, total protease activity, and reactivity to monoclonal antibodies specific for P. gingivalis. Growth in the MWC medium varied over a 3- to 4-fold range for seven additional isolates (JKG-7, D86B6, D13B11, D84D2, JKG9, D67D9, D82F5) over 24 and 48 h periods. PMID:9237385

Pederson, E D; Turner, D W; Lamberts, B L; Schade, S Z

1997-01-01

321

Interstellar medium simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we critically assess numerical simulations of the interstellar medium (ISM), and argue that 3D high resolution calculations are the most promising method to determine the structure of the interstellar gas and follow its evolution well into the nonlinear regime. Based on a Riemann solver adaptive mesh refinement code, we present a model, which fulfills the basic requirements of running it sufficiently long in order to erase memory effects of the initial conditions, set up a disk-halo fountain flow cycle, for converging solutions with increasing mesh refinement. We obtain the following results: (i) in a supernova driven ISM, high Reynolds number turbulence generates structures on all scales, (ii) the volume filling factor of the hot gas is substantially reduced due to the fountain flow, (iii) gas clouds are transient shock compressed layers, (iv) more than half of the gas mass resides in thermally unstable regimes, (v) O VI is distributed in patchy mixing layers, with the derived column densities being in agreement with FUSE and Copernicus observations, (vi) the electron density distribution up to distances of 8 kpc in the disk is consistent with pulsar dispersion measure observations, provided that the electron and ionization structure are not in equilibrium, (vii) the interstellar cooling function depends both on space and time (and not only on temperature and metallicity), (viii) the Local Bubble has been produced by 14-20 supernovae about 14 Myr ago, exploding in a moving group on its path through the local ISM, (ix) the nearest supernova explosion to Earth occurred 2.2 {×} 106 yr ago at a distance of {˜} 85 pc, in agreement with measurements of the radionuclide 60Fe found in the ferromanganese crust on the ocean floor.

Breitschwerdt, D.; de Avillez, M. A.; Feige, J.; Dettbarn, C.

2012-06-01

322

A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

Dale, Robert H.

1978-01-01

323

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866

Womer, Fay Y; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Smith, Matthew J; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M; Mamah, Daniel

2014-08-30

324

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).  

PubMed

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease. PMID:24983277

Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

2014-07-01

325

Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated. PMID:23439912

Dourmishev, Lyubomir A.; Rusinova, Darena; Botev, Ivan

2013-01-01

326

Hox cluster duplication in the basal teleost Hiodon alosoides (Osteoglossomorpha).  

PubMed

Large-scale--even genome-wide--duplications have repeatedly been invoked as an explanation for major radiations. Teleosts, the most species-rich vertebrate clade, underwent a "fish-specific genome duplication" (FSGD) that is shared by most ray-finned fish lineages. We investigate here the Hox complement of the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a representative of Osteoglossomorpha, the most basal teleostean clade. An extensive PCR survey reveals that goldeye has at least eight Hox clusters, indicating a duplicated genome compared to basal actinopterygians. The possession of duplicated Hox clusters is uncoupled to species richness. The Hox system of the goldeye is substantially different from that of other teleost lineages, having retained several duplicates of Hox genes for which crown teleosts have lost at least one copy. A detailed analysis of the PCR fragments as well as full length sequences of two HoxA13 paralogs, and HoxA10 and HoxC4 genes places the duplication event close in time to the divergence of Osteoglossomorpha and crown teleosts. The data are consistent with-but do not conclusively prove-that Osteoglossomorpha shares the FSGD. PMID:19225820

Chambers, Karen E; McDaniell, Ryan; Raincrow, Jeremy D; Deshmukh, Maya; Stadler, Peter F; Chiu, Chi-hua

2009-05-01

327

Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles  

PubMed Central

The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, ‘aquatic’ turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P.Martin

2007-01-01

328

Adenosine inhibits glutamatergic input to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons  

PubMed Central

Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A1 receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated. PMID:22357797

Hawryluk, J. M.; Ferrari, L. L.; Keating, S. A.

2012-01-01

329

The morphology of the denuded epidermal basal cell layer of the hairless mouse after different preparation methods. A scanning and transmission electron microscopical study.  

PubMed

The denuded basal cell layer of the hairless mouse epidermis is described in the present scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopical (TEM) study. The suprabasal layers were removed mechanically after trypsinization or by extracellular calcium depletion. Trypsinization before removal of the suprabasal cells caused the basal cells to shrink. Characteristic surface plication and hemi-desmosomal attachment to the basement membrane were generally preserved. SEM revealed partly maintained intercellular bridging, whereas by TEM such contacts were absent because half desmosomes were internalized. Total calcium depletion induced more serious damage to the basal cell surface, which was smooth with apparent perforations. However, cell bridges, and occasional desmosomes were present. The cell interior demonstrated important cellular injury. If the calcium deprived explants were allowed to recover in calcium-containing medium, the cells acquired an activated "regenerative" morphology, without junctions, similar to that observed in wound healing. Epidermal non-keratinocytes were seen only after trypsinization. Control experiments revealed that they adapted poorly to organ culture conditions. By TEM, we observed several interesting aspects of the differences, between dark and clear basal keratinocytes. This was unexpected because fixation studies had shown, that with the present fixation method, typical dark and clear cells do not occur in untreated epidermis. We believe that membrane injury through mechanical stripping of partly adhering epidermal layers induced "clear cells", whereby the neighboring cells appeared darker. This provides additional evidence as to the origin of the two sub-populations, dark and clear basal cells. The clear cells may be injured cells, caused by cell damage, and not by processes of cellular differentiation. The results of the present investigation supports the view that basal keratinocytes have a polygonal shape with numerous free surface extensions and they are anchored to the basement membrane with "foot pads". Our study also shows that SEM of the epidermal basal layer might be feasible. Various artifacts, however, must be considered, depending on the denudation method used. We prefer trypsinization to calcium depletion because it is less time-consuming and results in a cell morphology which in TEM is comparable to that of basal cells in untreated whole epidermis. Extra-cellular calcium depletion, however, might be useful as a method to prepare single cell suspensions for flow cytometry. Restoration of a normal calcium concentration after stripping, provides an opportunity to mimic wound healing in situ, as an alternative t PMID:2570485

Glasø, M; Håskjold, E

1989-01-01

330

Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.  

PubMed

Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

2013-01-01

331

Sulfated glycosaminoglycan deposition and processing at the basal epithelial surface in branching and beta-D-xyloside-inhibited embryonic salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated whether the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis and salivary branching morphogenesis by beta-D-xyloside was related to the deposition and processing of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycans at the basal epithelial surface that correlates with normal branching activity. Forty eight-hour cultures of control and 0.5 mM beta-xyloside-treated submandibular rudiments were labeled for 2 hr with (/sup 35/S)sulfate and fixed and processed for autoradiography, immediately or after 2, 4, 6, or 8 hr of postlabeling chase in nonradioactive medium. The data demonstrated that deposition of chondroitin sulfate-rich material at the basal epithelial surface was strikingly reduced in beta-xyloside-treated rudiments, while patterns of label loss during postlabeling chase were not altered.

Spooner, B.S.; Bassett, K.; Stokes, B.

1985-05-01

332

SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP -1 Rev. 101/20102014  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP - 1 Rev. 101/20102014 SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS January, 20102014 These Supplemental General Conditions are to modify, supplement, void, supersede and amend be deemed to include the Standard General Conditions and the Supplemental General Conditions. INDEXTABLE

Kamat, Vineet R.

333

Rapamycin reverses insulin resistance (IR) in high-glucose medium without causing IR in normoglycemic medium  

PubMed Central

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetic retinopathy. In retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, insulin activates the mTOR pathway, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and HIF-dependent transcription in serum-free minimum essential medium Eagle (MEM). Serendipitously, we found that insulin failed to induce the HIF-1?-dependent response, when RPE cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). Whereas concentration of glucose in MEM corresponds to normal glucose levels in blood (5.5?mM), its concentration in DMEM corresponds to severe diabetic hyperglycemia (25?mM). Addition of glucose to MEM also caused IR. Glucose-mediated IR was characterized by basal activation of mTORC1 and its poor inducibility by insulin. Basal levels of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), S6 and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) S635/639 were high, whereas their inducibilities were decreased. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased and restored by rapamycin and an inhibitor of S6K. IR was associated with de-phosphorylation of IRS1 at S1011, which was reversed by rapamycin. Both short (16–40?h) and chronic (2 weeks) treatment with rapamycin reversed IR. Furthermore, rapamycin did not impair Akt activation in RPE cells cultured in normoglycemic media. In contrast, Torin 1 blocked Akt activation by insulin. We conclude that by activating mTOR/S6K glucose causes feedback IR, preventable by rapamycin. Rapamycin does not cause IR in RPE cells regardless of the duration of treatment. We confirmed that rapamycin also did not impair phosphorylation of Akt at T308 and S473 in normal myoblast C2C12 cells. Our work provides insights in glucose-induced IR and suggests therapeutic approaches to treat patients with IR and severe hyperglycemia and to prevent diabetic complications such as retinopathy. Also our results prompt to reconsider physiological relevance of numerous data and paradigms on IR given that most cell lines are cultured with grossly super-physiological levels of glucose. PMID:24810050

Leontieva, O V; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V

2014-01-01

334

Basal ganglia-cortical interactions in Parkinsonian patients  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a common and debilitating condition, caused by aberrant activity in a complex basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuit. Therapeutic advances rely on characterising interactions in this circuit. However, recording electrophysiological responses over the entire circuit is impractical. Dynamic causal modelling offers large-scale models of predictive value based on a limited or partial sampling of complex networks. Using dynamic causal modelling, we determined the network changes underlying the pathological excess of beta oscillations that characterise the Parkinsonian state. We modelled data from five patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation of more than one target. We found that connections to and from the subthalamic nucleus were strengthened and promoted beta synchrony, in the untreated compared to the treated Parkinsonian state. Dynamic causal modelling was able to replicate the effects of lesioning this nucleus and may provide a new means of directing the search for therapeutic targets. PMID:23153964

Marreiros, Andre C.; Cagnan, Hayriye; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.; Brown, Peter

2013-01-01

335

Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

2005-08-01

336

Genetic skin diseases predisposing to basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer in humans. Predisposing factors reflect common genetic variations and environmental influences in most cases. However, an underlying Mendelian disorder should be suspected in a specific subset of patients, namely those with multiple, early onset lesions. Some specific conditions, including Gorlin, Bazex-Dupré-Christol and Rombo syndromes, and Xeroderma Pigmentosum, show BCC as a prominent feature. In addition, BCC may represent a relatively common, although less specific, finding in many other genodermatoses. These include disorders of DNA replication/repair functions (Bloom, Werner, Rothmund-Thomson and Muir-Torre syndromes), genodermatoses affecting the folliculo-sebaceus unit (Brooke-Spiegler, Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge and Cowden syndromes), immune response (cartilage-hair hypoplasia and epidermodysplasia verruciformis) and melanin biosynthesis (oculocutaneous albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome), and some epidermal nevus syndromes. Further conditions occasionally associated with BCCs exist, but the significance of the association remains to be proven. PMID:22391625

Castori, Marco; Morrone, Aldo; Kanitakis, Jean; Grammatico, Paola

2012-01-01

337

Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

Tang, Jean Y. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: tangy@stanford.edu; So, P.-L. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Epstein, Ervin H. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2007-11-01

338

Influences of the basal ganglia on the medullary reticular formation.  

PubMed

Units were recorded extracellularly in the medullary reticular formation of chloralose-anesthetized cats during electrical stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG). Stimulating portions of the BG (caudate nucleus, entopeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra) evoked unit responses in a considerable proportion of these neurons. The majority of reticular cells that were affected by the BG were also receptive to somatic sensory inputs from the face. These units' sensory properties were influenced by BG stimulation. Cells exclusively responsive to either BG or facial inputs were uncommon. The areas of the reticular formation affected by the BG give rise to portions of the reticulospinal tracts and thereby afford the BG access to the final common path. PMID:3587734

Manetto, C; Lidsky, T I

1987-04-10

339

Ancestral reproductive structure in basal kelp Aureophycus aleuticus  

PubMed Central

Laminarialean species (so-called kelps) are the largest photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments, constituting significant ecological components of coastal ecosystems. The largest kelps such as Macrocystis exhibit differentiation between stipe and blade, as well as buoyancy to maintain the distal portion at the water's surface for photosynthesis, while bearing reproductive structures only near the base on special blades (sporophylls). There is a considerable gap between basic kelps such as Chorda and derived kelps, and the evolution of kelp specialization remains unclear. Here we report novel reproductive adaptations in the recently discovered species Aureophycus aleuticus; unlike any known kelps, A. aleuticus forms zoidangia only on the expanded, disc-shaped holdfast. Molecular phylogeny suggests that A. aleuticus is most basal among derived kelps. Because Aureophycus lacks any of the elaborate anatomical structures found in other derived kelps, we suggest that it exhibits some of the most ancestral morphological features of kelps. PMID:23966101

Kawai, Hiroshi; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Ridgway, L. Michelle; Holser, Karin

2013-01-01

340

Palatability of post-extraction algal residue as a protein supplement for cattle.  

SciTech Connect

Market value of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) is driven by its ability to compete with commonly fed protein sources; for example cottonseed meal (CSM) and dried distillers’ grains (DDG). An initial step in evaluating PEAR (20% CP, 59% OM) is to determine palatability when fed as a protein supplement. Accordingly, we evaluated the palatability of PEAR-containing supplements in cattle consuming a basal diet of Bermudagrass (13% CP, 76% NDF). Twelve steers were used in a 12 × 12 Latin square experiment consisting of 12 4-d periods. Each period included 3-d where steers were fed a test supplement and a 1-d washout where steers were fed DDG. Supplements were formulated with different carrier ingredients (DDG, CSM, or liquid supplement, LS) and different levels of PEAR inclusion (0, 20, 40, and 60% for DDG and CSM and 0, 33, 66, and 100% for LS). Intake and time required for consumption were recorded daily. A significant (P < 0.05) treatment × day interaction for g consumed per min (GPM) was observed. This interaction resulted from changing rates of consumption as cattle adapted to supplements. Supplements containing DDG had the greatest rates of consumption (177 – 187 GPM), followed by CSM supplements (148 – 166 GPM). Blends including PEAR and LS had slower rates of consumption (58 – 93 GPM). Supplement formulation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the amount of supplement consumed and time required for complete consumption. Supplements which contained DDG or CSM were consumed in less than 11 min; complete consumption was observed 92 – 100% of the time. Treatments containing LS required more time for complete consumption (21 – 33 min) and were finished 77 – 96% of the time. Our results suggest PEAR can be blended (up to 60%) with existing ingredients utilized in beef rations to create suitable protein supplements. However, PEAR is not palatable when offered alone (complete consumption of 100% PEAR occurred 77.5% of the time and required 31.5 min) or incorporated into LS. Additional research is necessary to determine the impact of PEAR on nutrient utilization in cattle.

Drewery, M. L. [Texas A& M University; Sawyer, J. E. [Texas A& M University; Wickersham, T. A. [Texas A& M University

2012-12-01

341

Glycerol Supplementation in Dairy Cows and Calves  

E-print Network

Glycerol Supplementation in Dairy Cows and Calves Anna Werner Omazic Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Nordqvist #12;Glycerol Supplementation in Dairy Cows and Calves Abstract The production of biodiesel from-product and a promising feed supplement for farm animals. This thesis provides information about the supplemental feeding

342

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue ODS vitamin D conference Sept 5-6 1 ODS practicum on supplements 1 News for researchers 2 New supplement assessment tool 2 Past and upcoming events prize 7 Publications by ODS staff 8 Office of Dietary Supplements National Institutes of Health 6100

Bandettini, Peter A.

343

Winter 2007 Office of Dietary Supplements  

E-print Network

Winter 2007 Office of Dietary Supplements Update Volume 5, Issue 1 National Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ODS Surveys Dietary Supplement Education in Academia ODS to Conduct Course on Dietary Inside this issue Supplement Education in Academia 1 ODS Offers Course on Supplements

Bandettini, Peter A.

344

Disconnection syndromes of basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebrocerebellar systems  

PubMed Central

Disconnection syndromes were originally conceptualized as a disruption of communication between different cerebral cortical areas. Two developments mandate a re-evaluation of this notion. First, we present a synopsis of our anatomical studies in monkey elucidating principles of organization of cerebral cortex. Efferent fibers emanate from every cortical area, and are directed with topographic precision via association fibers to ipsilateral cortical areas, commissural fibers to contralateral cerebral regions, striatal fibers to basal ganglia, and projection subcortical bundles to thalamus, brainstem and/or pontocerebellar system. We note that cortical areas can be defined by their patterns of subcortical and cortical connections. Second, we consider motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with lesions restricted to basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, and recognize that these lesions mimic deficits resulting from cortical lesions, with qualitative differences between the manifestations of lesions in functionally related areas of cortical and subcortical nodes. We consider these findings on the basis of anatomical observations from tract tracing studies in monkey, viewing them as disconnection syndromes reflecting loss of the contribution of subcortical nodes to the distributed neural circuits. We introduce a new theoretical framework for the distributed neural circuits, based on general, and specific, principles of anatomical organization, and on the architecture of the nodes that comprise these systems. We propose that neural architecture determines function, i.e., each architectonically distinct cortical and subcortical area contributes a unique transform, or computation, to information processing; anatomically precise and segregated connections between nodes define behavior; and association fiber tracts that link cerebral cortical areas with each other enable the cross-modal integration required for evolved complex behaviors. This model enables the formulation and testing of future hypotheses in investigations using evolving magnetic resonance imaging techniques in humans, and in clinical studies in patients with cortical and subcortical lesions. PMID:18614161

Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Pandya, Deepak N.

2013-01-01

345

Effect of fat supplementation on leptin, insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, and insulin in cattle  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of fat supplementation on plasma levels of hormones related to metabolism, with special attention to leptin, in cows in early lactation and in feedlot steers. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows received no fat or else 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum. In experiment 2, part of the corn in the basal concentrate was replaced with 0.7 kg of the same oil such that the diets were isocaloric; 18 cows received the fat-substituted diet and 18 a control diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 75 postpartum. In experiment 3, calcium salts of fatty acids were added to the basal diet of 14 feedlot steers for 80 d; another 14 steers received a control diet. The basal plasma levels of leptin were higher in the cows than in the steers. Dietary fat supplementation did not affect the leptin levels in the lactating cows but lowered the levels in the feedlot steers despite greater energy intake and body fatness (body weight) in the steers receiving the supplement than in those receiving the control diet. The levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin were decreased with dietary fat supplementation in the lactating cows but were unaffected in the steers, suggesting that responses to fat ingestion depend on the physiological state of the animal, including age and sex. Finally, no effects of supplementary fat on the level of growth hormone were demonstrated in any of the models. PMID:17695598

Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Garcia-Tornadu, Isabel; Shroeder, Guillermo; Salado, Eloy E.; Gagliostro, Gerardo; Delavaud, Carole; Chilliard, Yves; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M.

2007-01-01

346

Effect of supplemental protein feeding frequency on ruminal characteristics and microbial N production in sheep fed treated rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four rumen cannulated Suffolk ewes, fed a basal diet of rice straw treated with ammonia or urea-calcium hydroxide were used in a feeding trial to study the effects of supplemental protein, offered in either one meal per day at 08:00h or two meals per day at 17:00 and 01:00h, on feed intake, digestibility, N retention and microbial N yield. The

A. M. A. Fadel Elseed

2005-01-01

347

Effect of vitamin supplements on some aspects of performance, vitamin status, and semen quality in boars.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of dietary supplements of vitamins on vitamin status, libido, and semen characteristics in young boars under normal and intensive semen collection. Sixty Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc boars were allocated randomly from 6 to 10 mo of age to one of the following diets: 1) basal diet (industry level) for minerals and vitamins (Control, n = 15); 2) basal diet supplemented with vitamin C (ASC, n = 15); 3) basal diet supplemented with fat-soluble vitamins (FSV, n = 15); and 4) basal diet supplemented with water-soluble vitamins (WSV, n = 15). After puberty (approximately 12 mo of age), semen was collected at a regular frequency (three times every 2 wk) for 5 wk. Thereafter, all boars were intensively collected (daily during 2 wk). A recovery period (semen collection three times every 2 wk) followed and lasted for 10 wk. Sperm quality (percentage of motile cells and percentage of morphologically normal cells) and quantity (sperm concentration, semen volume, and total sperm number) were recorded as well as direct and hormone related measurements of boar libido. Blood and seminal plasma samples were taken to monitor vitamin status. High concentrations of B6 (P < 0.05) and folic acid (P < 0.05) were observed in the blood plasma of WSV boars, whereas greater concentrations of vitamin E (P < 0.01) were obtained in FSV boars. In the seminal plasma, folic acid concentrations tended to be greater in WSV boars (P < 0.08). During the intensive collection period, there was a tendency (P < 0.06) for semen production to be greater in WSV boars, the effect being less pronounced (P < 0.10) in FSV boars. During the recovery period, the percentage of motile sperm cells was greater in WSV boars (P < 0.03) and, to a lesser extent, in FSV boars (P < 0.10) compared with Control boars. Sperm morphology and libido were not affected by treatments. These results indicate that the transfer of vitamins from blood to seminal plasma is limited and the dietary supplements of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins may increase semen production during intensive semen collection. PMID:14974564

Audet, I; Laforest, J P; Martineau, G P; Matte, J J

2004-02-01

348

Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium.  

PubMed

In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view. PMID:24516462

Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

2013-01-01

349

Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium  

PubMed Central

In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L?1 starch, 30 g L?1 soya bean and 9 g L?1 sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view. PMID:24516462

Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

2013-01-01

350

Supplemental figures and legends, Supplemental table legends, and Methods Lindquist, et al. manuscript  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental figures and legends, Supplemental table legends, and Methods Lindquist, et al. manuscript Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure S1. Confirmed hit status in secondary screens, relative described in the text and Supplemental Methods) is denoted with a line whereas unconfirmed candidate genes

Sabatini, David M.

351

Quantifying the food sources of basal vitamin d input.  

PubMed

Cutaneous synthesis and traditional food sources do not fully account for unsupplemented vitamin D status. Non-traditional food sources may be an undiscovered input. In a cohort of 780 non-supplement-taking adults with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of 33 (±14)ng/ml we assessed the relationship between vitamin D status and selected food sources. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was adjusted for season, UVB exposures, and body size. These adjusted values were then regressed against multiple food items and combinations. Whole milk cottage cheese, eggs, red meat, and total protein were positively associated with total 25(OH)D and/or 25(OH)D3 (P<0.05 for each), whereas fish and milk intake were not. The slope of the relationship was such that for every intake of 1serving/day, serum 25(OH)D rose by about 2ng/ml for eggs and 1ng/ml for meat and total protein. For every weekly serving of whole milk cottage cheese, serum 25(OH)D rose by about 1ng/ml. While some food sources were significant predictors of vitamin D status, their ability to explain inter-individual variability was limited. Supplementation will likely remain essential to improving vitamin D status on a population level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24189540

McDonnell, Sharon L; French, Christine B; Heaney, Robert P

2014-10-01

352

A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont  

PubMed Central

A new well-preserved basal therapsid skull from the Xidagou Formation, Middle Permian of China, is identified as Biseridens qilianicus. The following synapomorphies distinguish Biseridens as an anomodont and not an eotitanosuchian as previously described: short snout; dorsally elevated zygomatic arch and septomaxilla lacking elongated posterodorsal process between nasal and maxilla. The presence of a differentiated tooth row; denticles on vomer, palatine and pterygoid; contact between tabular and opisthotic; lateral process of transverse flange of pterygoid free of posterior ramus and absence of mandibular foramen exclude it from other anomodonts. Our cladistic analysis indicates Biseridens to be the most basal anomodont, highlights separate Laurasian and Gondwanan basal anomodont clades and suggests that dicynodonts had their origins in the Gondwanan clade. The co-occurrence of the most basal anomodont (Biseridens) together with the most basal therapsid (Raranimus), basal anteosaurid dinocephalians, bolosaurids and dissorophids suggests that the earliest therapsid faunas are from China. PMID:19640887

Liu, Jun; Rubidge, Bruce; Li, Jinling

2010-01-01

353

Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue < 0.021) and Huang et al. (Pvalue ? 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

354

Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Methods Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. Results IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. Conclusion FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA in the tumorigenesis of triple negative, basal-like FMAs. The strong similarities in clinical behavior, morphology and IHC phenotype suggest that triple negative, basal-like FMAs may be a suitable spontaneous animal model for studying novel therapeutic approaches against human basal-like TNBC. PMID:24004841

2013-01-01

355

Vocal babbling in songbirds requires the basal ganglia-recipient motor thalamus but not the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Young songbirds produce vocal “babbling,” and the variability of their songs is thought to underlie a process of trial-and-error vocal learning. It is known that this exploratory variability requires the “cortical” component of a basal ganglia (BG) thalamocortical loop, but less understood is the role of the BG and thalamic components in this behavior. We found that large bilateral lesions to the songbird BG homolog Area X had little or no effect on song variability during vocal babbling. In contrast, lesions to the BG-recipient thalamic nucleus DLM (medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamus) largely abolished normal vocal babbling in young birds and caused a dramatic increase in song stereotypy. These findings support the idea that the motor thalamus plays a key role in the expression of exploratory juvenile behaviors during learning. PMID:21430276

Goldberg, Jesse H.

2011-01-01

356

Vocal babbling in songbirds requires the basal ganglia-recipient motor thalamus but not the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Young songbirds produce vocal "babbling," and the variability of their songs is thought to underlie a process of trial-and-error vocal learning. It is known that this exploratory variability requires the "cortical" component of a basal ganglia (BG) thalamocortical loop, but less understood is the role of the BG and thalamic components in this behavior. We found that large bilateral lesions to the songbird BG homolog Area X had little or no effect on song variability during vocal babbling. In contrast, lesions to the BG-recipient thalamic nucleus DLM (medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamus) largely abolished normal vocal babbling in young birds and caused a dramatic increase in song stereotypy. These findings support the idea that the motor thalamus plays a key role in the expression of exploratory juvenile behaviors during learning. PMID:21430276

Goldberg, Jesse H; Fee, Michale S

2011-06-01

357

Invasive giant basal cell carcinoma of the head: case report, reconstruction choice and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unusual to find a giant invasive basal cell carcinoma in the occipital region of the head. We are presenting a case\\u000a of basal cell carcinoma invading and eroding occipital bone, managed with an unusual scalp reconstruction method. A 69-year-old\\u000a female presented with a 16x19 cm diameter tumour in the occipital region. Preoperative biopsy revealed a basal cell carcinoma.

M. Sakalauskaite; K. Vitkus; D. Balciunas; S. Sirsinaitis; S. Rocka

2009-01-01

358

Sox2: a possible driver of the basal-like phenotype in sporadic breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumours arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and sporadic basal-like breast carcinomas have similar phenotypic, immunohistochemical and clinical characteristics. SOX2 is an embryonic transcription factor located at chromosome 3q, a region frequently gained in sporadic basal-like and BRCA1 germline mutated tumours. The aim of the study was to establish whether sox2 expression was related to basal-like sporadic breast tumours. Two hundred

Socorro M Rodriguez-Pinilla; David Sarrio; Gema Moreno-Bueno; Yolanda Rodriguez-Gil; Miguel A Martinez; Lucia Hernandez; David Hardisson; Jorge S Reis-Filho; Jose Palacios

2007-01-01

359

Effects of defined medium, fetal bovine serum, and human serum on growth and chemosensitivities of human breast cancer cells in primary culture: Inference for in vitro assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We compared the effects of defined medium, fetal bovine serum (FBS) and human serum (HuS) on the growth and responses to chemotherapeutic\\u000a agents of human breast cancer cells in primary culture. Normal and tumor tissues were dissociated to small aggregates and\\u000a single cells and seeded onto collagen-gel-coated wells in defined medium or medium supplemented with 5% FBS or 5% HuS.

Joanne T. Emerman; Eveline E. Fiedler; Anthony W. Tolcher; Patricia M. Rebbeck

1987-01-01

360

Biochemical and cytochemical evidence for ATPase activity in basal bodies isolated from oviduct  

PubMed Central

Biochemical and cytochemical techniques were used to determine whether oviduct basal bodies have ATPase activity. All studies were carried out on basal bodies isolated and purified from the chicken oviduct. These preparations contained structurally intact basal bodies with basal feet, rootlet, and alar sheet accessory structures. Whereas the specific activity of the basal body ATPase in 2 mM Ca++ or 2 mM Mg++, 1 mM ATP, pH 8.0, averaged 0.04 mumol Pi/min per mg protein, higher concentrations of either cation inhibited the enzyme activity. Furthermore, the pH optimum for this reaction was pH 8.5. In comparison, the ATPase activity in cilia purified and measured under conditions identical to those for determining the basal body ATPase activity averaged 0.07 mumol Pi/min per mg protein. However, the activity increased at higher concentrations of divalent cation, and the pH optimum was pH 10.0. By cytochemical procedures for localizing ATPase activity, ATP-dependent reaction product in isolated basal bodies was found to be confined to: (a) the cross-striations of the rootlet; (b) the outer portion of the basal foot; (c) the alar sheets; and (d) the triplet microtubules. It is concluded that basal bodiesve an intrinsic ATPase activity that, by a variety of criteria, can be distinguished from the ATPase activity found in cilia. PMID:18479

1977-01-01

361

Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Cardiac Troponin Release in Cyclists: A Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant) on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists. Methods Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg?1·min?1, Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg?1; mean ± SD) were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day), or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (? 120 min). Results The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0–4.2) to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7–6.7), immediately post-exercise (p<0.001). Four weeks of astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased mean basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from non-detectable values to 175±86 µg·kg?1. However, daily astaxanthin supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p?=?0.24), as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde). Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase) were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation. Conclusion Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations, astaxanthin supplementation did not improve antioxidant capacity in well-trained cyclists. Accordingly, exercise-induced cardiac troponin T concentrations were not affected by astaxanthin supplementation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01241877 PMID:24260184

Haenen, Guido R.; Bast, Aalt; van Loon, Luc J. C.; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P.; Meex, Steven J.R.

2013-01-01

362

Basal magnetic flux and the local solar dynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average unsigned magnetic flux density in magnetograms of the quiet Sun is generally dominated by instrumental noise. Due to the entirely different scaling behavior of the noise and the solar magnetic pattern it has been possible to determine the standard deviation of the Gaussian noise distribution and remove the noise contribution from the average unsigned flux density for the whole 15-yr SOHO/MDI data set and for a selection of SDO/HMI magnetograms. There is a very close correlation between the MDI disk-averaged unsigned vertical flux density and the sunspot number, and regression analysis gives a residual level of 2.7 G when the sunspot number is zero. The selected set of HMI magnetograms, which spans the most quiet phase of solar activity, has a lower limit of 3.0 G to the noise-corrected average flux density. These apparently cycle-independent levels may be identified as a basal flux density, which represents an upper limit to the possible flux contribution from a local dynamo, but not evidence for its existence. The 3.0 G HMI level, when scaled to the Hinode spatial resolution, translates to 3.5 G, which means that the much higher average flux densities always found by Hinode in quiet regions do not originate from a local dynamo. The contributions to the average unsigned flux density come almost exclusively from the extended wings of the probability density function, also in the case of HMI magnetograms with only basal-level magnetic flux. These wings represent intermittent magnetic flux. As the global dynamo continually feeds flux into the small scales at a fast rate through turbulent shredding, a hypothetical local dynamo may only be relevant to the Sun if its rate of flux build-up can be competitive. While the global dynamo appears to dominate the magnetic energy spectrum at all the resolved spatial scales, there are indications from the observed Hanle depolarization in atomic lines that the local dynamo may dominate the spectrum at scales of order 1-10 km and below.

Stenflo, J. O.

2012-11-01

363

Is Hazardous Waste Injection into Basal Aquifers a Good Idea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent induced M3.8 - M5.5 seismic events across the midcontinent, USA have raised concern regarding regulations for hazardous waste injection. It is also important to note that in the midcontinent region, the Illinois Basin is the main target for storing CO2 up to 1 million metric tons over a 3-year period in the CCS project of DOE. Here we present a hydrogeologic-geomechanical sensitivity study using a hybrid analytic-numerical cross-sectional model to assess a wide variety of possible failure scenarios within crystalline rocks. The hydrostratigraphic framework model we used in this study is based on the geology of the Illinois Basin. The model includes 2.8 km thick Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers and confining units underlain by 4 km of bedrock. We represented injection at 1000 gallons per minute (3785 liters per minute) into a basal sandstone aquifer (Mt. Simon Sandstone) as well as the overlying carbonate and siliciclastic reservoirs (middle aquifer: Knox Dolomite, St. Peter Sandstone, upper Ordovician Carbonates). In some scenarios, we included high/low permeability vertical and sub-horizontal thrust faults. Deviatoric pore pressures from the model were used to estimate failure along critically stressed faults within the bedrock. For a basement permeability between 10-15 m2 to 10-16 m2, injection into the basal aquifer (Mt. Simon sandstone) resulted in a failure envelop within the crystalline basement to depths of about 1.4 - 4 km and extending laterally up to 6 km. Including a transmissive vertical normal fault increased the depth of the failure envelope to 4 km below the base of the sedimentary pile. If a 108 order of magnitude permeability contrast exists between the thrust fault (10-10 m2) and basement rocks (10-18 m2), then pore pressures can propagate along a sub-horizontal fault about 12 km from the injection well. For middle aquifer injection, the presence of a bottom seal (Eau Claire Formation) has a prophylactic effect, preventing downward propagation of deviatoric pressures into the basement as shown in the simulation results in Figure 1.

Zhang, Y.; Person, M. A.; Rupp, J.; Celia, M. A.; Gable, C. W.; Bowen, B. B.; Mozley, P. S.; Evans, J. P.; Dewers, T. A.

2012-12-01

364

Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat. PMID:23747628

Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L

2013-10-01

365

Improved methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium: Application to studies of lymphoblast proliferation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have compared several methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium, with the objective\\u000a of producing selective deficiency effects on the growth of mouse (L5178Y) and human (P1R) lymphoblasts. In experiments in\\u000a which calcium- and magnesium-“free” McCoy’s medium was supplemented with 15% horse or fetal calf serum, enough calcium and\\u000a magnesium was provided by serum to

James K. Brennan; James Mansky; Geraldine Roberts; Marshall A. Lichtman

1975-01-01

366

In vitro penetration of pig oocytes in a modified Tris-buffered medium: effect of BSA, caffeine and calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of BSA, caffeine and calcium was studied on the penetration of pig oocytes by frozen-thawed spermatozoa in a modified Tris-buffered medium (mTBM) without added bicarbonate. Pig cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were cultured in BSA-free NCSU 23 medium containing porcine follicular fluid (10%), cysteine (0.1 mg\\/ml) and hormonal supplements (eCG and hCG: 10 IU\\/ml each) for 22 h. The COC

L. R. Abeydeera; B. N. Day

1997-01-01

367

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

Wilborn, Colin

368

Dietary supplement use among academic pharmacists  

PubMed Central

United States sales of dietary supplements exceeded $18 billion in 2002, indicating that dietary supplement use is common among the American public. This report describes a survey of academic pharmacists and their use of dietary supplements and herbs. To date, most data comes from retail or community pharmacists, so a survey was developed to collect information regarding dietary supplement and herb usage from academic pharmacists. Academic pharmacists are probably the most knowledgeable group in regards to assessing the clinical value of supplements. Our results showed that 54% of academic pharmacists have used dietary supplements or herbs. However, it is interesting to note that most of the dietary supplements listed were not in the top ten most commonly used supplements. In addition, there was no excessive use of supplements or herbs by this group of pharmacists since the majority of respondents listed multivitamins. PMID:25214915

Murphy, Michael S.; Wertheimer, Albert I.; Mackowiak, Elaine D.

369

Polydatin supplementation ameliorates diet-induced development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in rats.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of non?alcoholic fatty liver disease remains to be elucidated, and the currently available treatments are not entirely effective. Polydatin, a stilbenoid compound derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspi-datum, has previously been demonstrated to possess hepatoprotective effects. The present study aimed to determine the effects of polydatin supplementation on hepatic fat accumulation and injury in rats fed a high?fat diet. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of polydatin were examined. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and received one of four treatment regimes for 12 weeks: Control diet, control diet supplemented with polydatin, high?fat diet, or high?fat diet supplemented with polydatin. Polydatin was supplemented in the drinking water at a concentration of 0.3% (wt/vol). The results of the present study showed that long?term high?fat feeding resulted in fatty liver in rats, which was manifested by excessive hepatic neutral fat accumulation and elevated plasma alanine aminotrans-ferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Polydatin supplementation alleviated the hepatic pathological changes, and attenuated the insulin resistance, as shown by an improved homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance values and a glucose tolerance test. Polydatin supplementation also corrected abnormal leptin and adiponectin levels. Specifically, polydatin supplementation enhanced insulin sensitivity in the liver, as shown by improved insulin receptor substrate 2 expression levels and Akt phosphorylation in the rat liver, following high?fat diet feeding. The results of the present study suggest that polydatin protects rats against high?fat feeding?induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Polydatin may be an effective hepatoprotective agent and a potential candidate for the prevention of fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. PMID:25333896

Zhang, Qi; Tan, Yingying; Zhang, Nan; Yao, Fanrong

2015-01-01

370

Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity. PMID:25049877

Wu, Q. J.; Zhou, Y. M.; Wu, Y. N.; Wang, T.

2013-01-01

371

Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

2013-01-01

372

Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. PMID:22533311

Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C

2013-08-01

373

Similarity of organized patterns in driving and basal stresses of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets beneath extensive areas of basal sliding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of ice transport from the interior of ice sheets to their margins, and hence the rate with which it contributes to sea level, is determined by the balance of driving stress, basal resistance, and ice internal deformation. Using recent high-resolution observations of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, we compute driving stress and ice deformation velocities, inferring basal traction by inverse techniques. The results reveal broad-scale organization in 5-20 km band-like patterns in both the driving and basal shear stresses located in zones with substantial basal sliding. Both ice sheets experience basal sliding over areas substantially larger than previously recognized. The likely cause of the spatial patterns is the development of a band-like structure in the basal shear stress distribution that is the results of pattern-forming instabilities related to subglacial water. The similarity of patterns on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets suggests that the flow of ice sheets is controlled by the same fundamental processes operating at their base, which control ice sheet sliding and are highly variable on relatively short spatial and temporal scales, with poor predictability. This has far-reaching implications for understanding of the current and projection of the future ice sheets' evolution.

Sergienko, O. V.; Creyts, T. T.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.

2014-06-01

374

Influence of divergent exercise contraction mode and whey protein supplementation on atrogin-1, MuRF1, and FOXO1/3A in human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Knowledge from human exercise studies on regulators of muscle atrophy is lacking, but it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms influencing skeletal muscle protein turnover and net protein gain. This study examined the regulation of muscle atrophy-related factors, including atrogin-1 and MuRF1, their upstream transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A and the atrogin-1 substrate eIF3-f, in response to unilateral isolated eccentric (ECC) vs. concentric (CONC) exercise and training. Exercise was performed with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) or isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation. Twenty-four subjects were divided into WPH and CHO groups and completed both single-bout exercise and 12 wk of training. Single-bout ECC exercise decreased atrogin-1 and FOXO3A mRNA compared with basal and CONC exercise, while MuRF1 mRNA was upregulated compared with basal. ECC exercise downregulated FOXO1 and phospho-FOXO1 protein compared with basal, and phospho-FOXO3A was downregulated compared with CONC. CONC single-bout exercise mediated a greater increase in MuRF1 mRNA and increased FOXO1 mRNA compared with basal and ECC. CONC exercise downregulated FOXO1, FOXO3A, and eIF3-f protein compared with basal. Following training, an increase in basal phospho-FOXO1 was observed. While WPH supplementation with ECC and CONC training further increased muscle hypertrophy, it did not have an additional effect on mRNA or protein levels of the targets measured. In conclusion, atrogin-1, MuRF1, FOXO1/3A, and eIF3-f mRNA, and protein levels, are differentially regulated by exercise contraction mode but not WPH supplementation combined with hypertrophy-inducing training. This highlights the complexity in understanding the differing roles these factors play in healthy muscle adaptation to exercise. PMID:24458747

Stefanetti, Renae J; Lamon, Séverine; Rahbek, Stine K; Farup, Jean; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Wallace, Marita A; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

2014-06-01

375

Plasticity of basal cells during postnatal development in the rat epididymis  

PubMed Central

Our previous study has shown that basal cells sense luminal factors by forming a narrow body projection that can cross epithelial tight junctions. As a first step toward characterizing the structural plasticity of basal cells, in this study, we followed their appearance and morphology in the rat epididymis and vas deferens (VD) during postnatal development and examined their modulation by androgens in adulthood. Immunofluorescence labeling for cytokeratin 5 showed that basal cells are absent at birth. They progressively appear in a retrograde manner from the VD and cauda epididymis to the initial segments during the postnatal weeks PNW1–3. At the onset of differentiation, basal cells are in contact with the lumen and their nucleus is located at the same level as that of adjacent epithelial cells. Basal cells then position their nucleus to the base of the epithelium, and while some are still in contact with the lumen, others have a ‘dome-shaped’ appearance. At PNW5–6, basal cells form a loose network at the base of the epithelium, and luminal-reaching basal cells are rarely detected. The arrival of spermatozoa during PNW7–8 did not trigger the development of projections in basal cells. However, cells with a narrow luminal-reaching projection began to reappear between PNW8 and PNW12 in the corpus and the cauda. Treatment with flutamide from PNW10 to PNW12 significantly reduced the number of luminal-reaching basal cell projections. In summary, basal cells exhibit significant structural plasticity during differentiation. Fewer apical-reaching projections were detected after flutamide treatment in adulthood, indicating the role of androgens in the luminal-sensing function of basal cells. PMID:23960170

Shum, Winnie W C; Hill, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie

2014-01-01

376

Basal Forebrain Thermoregulatory Mechanism Modulates Auto-Regulated Sleep  

PubMed Central

Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area (POA), the lateral POA, the ventrolateral POA, the median preoptic nucleus, and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain (BF). When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 27°C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 30°C. Ambient temperature around 27°C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the POA mediate the increase in sleep at 30°C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 27 to 30°C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the BF play a key role in regulating sleep. BF thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated. PMID:22754548

Mallick, Hruda Nanda; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

2012-01-01

377

Antipathetic magnesium-manganese relationship in basal metalliferous sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Basal metalliferous sediments from sites 77B, 80 and 81 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project represent mixtures of pelagic clay, biogenic ooze, and a metalliferous component of hydrothermal origin. The metalliferous end-member of the sediments displays a strong inverse relationship (r = -0.88) between Mg and Mn. Mg is most likely tied up in an X-ray amorphous Mg-silicate ("sepiolite"), whereas Mn occurs almost exclusively in an oxide phase. Precipitation of the Mg-rich phase is favored by high flow rates and limited mixing of the hydrothermal end-member (source of silica) with seawater (source of Mg). Under those conditions much of the hydrothermal Mn2+, with its slow oxidation kinetics, may escape to the free water column. In contrast, in highly-diluted hydrothermal fluids, which provide a source solution for Mn-rich sediments, dissolved silica is diluted below saturation with respect to "sepiolite". The separation of the Mn and Mg phases may be further compounded by hydraulic fractionation. ?? 1981.

Bloch, S.

1981-01-01

378

What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective.  

PubMed

Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including: action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc. In spite of the immense amount of data available today, researchers continue to wonder how a single deep brain circuit performs such a bewildering range of functions. Computational models of BG have focused on individual functions and fail to give an integrative picture of BG function. A major breakthrough in our understanding of BG function is perhaps the insight that activities of mesencephalic dopaminergic cells represent some form of 'reward' to the organism. This insight enabled application of tools from 'reinforcement learning,' a branch of machine learning, in the study of BG function. Nevertheless, in spite of these bright spots, we are far from the goal of arriving at a comprehensive understanding of these 'mysterious nuclei.' A comprehensive knowledge of BG function has the potential to radically alter treatment and management of a variety of BG-related neurological disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, etc.) and neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, etc.) also. In this article, we review the existing modeling literature on BG and hypothesize an integrative picture of the function of these nuclei. PMID:20644953

Chakravarthy, V S; Joseph, Denny; Bapi, Raju S

2010-09-01

379

Sonic hedgehog signaling in Basal cell nevus syndrome.  

PubMed

The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to be a major signal transduction pathway during embryonic development, but it usually shuts down after birth. Aberrant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) activation during adulthood leads to neoplastic growth. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is driven by this pathway. Here, we summarize information related to the pathogenesis of this neoplasm, discuss pathways that crosstalk with Shh signaling, and the importance of the primary cilium in this neoplastic process. The identification of the basic/translational components of Shh signaling has led to the discovery of potential mechanism-driven druggable targets and subsequent clinical trials have confirmed their remarkable efficacy in treating BCCs, particularly in patients with nevoid BCC syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder in which patients inherit a germline mutation in the tumor-suppressor gene Patched (Ptch). Patients with NBCCS develop dozens to hundreds of BCCs due to derepression of the downstream G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened (SMO). Ptch mutations permit transposition of SMO to the primary cilium followed by enhanced expression of transcription factors Glis that drive cell proliferation and tumor growth. Clinical trials with the SMO inhibitor, vismodegib, showed remarkable efficacy in patients with NBCCS, which finally led to its FDA approval in 2012. PMID:25172843

Athar, Mohammad; Li, Changzhao; Kim, Arianna L; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Bickers, David R

2014-09-15

380

Cx26 regulates proliferation of repairing basal airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The recovery of an intact epithelium following injury is critical for restoration of lung homeostasis, a process that may be altered in cystic fibrosis (CF). In response to injury, progenitor cells in the undamaged areas migrate, proliferate and re-differentiate to regenerate an intact airway epithelium. The mechanisms regulating this regenerative response are, however, not well understood. In a model of circular wound injury of well-differentiated human airway epithelial cell (HAEC) cultures, we identified the gap junction protein Cx26 as an important regulator of cell proliferation. We report that induction of Cx26 in repairing HAECs is associated with cell proliferation. We also show that Cx26 is expressed in a population of CK14-positive basal-like cells. Cx26 silencing in immortalized cell lines using siRNA and in primary HAECs using lentiviral-transduced shRNA enhanced Ki67-labeling index and Ki67 mRNA, indicating that Cx26 acts a negative regulator of HAEC proliferation. Cx26 silencing also markedly decreased the transcription of KLF4 in immortalized HAECs. We further show that CF HAECs exhibited deregulated expression of KLF4, Ki67 and Cx26 as well enhanced rate of wound closure in the early response to injury. These results point to an altered repair process of CF HAECs characterized by rapid but desynchronized initiation of HAEC activation and proliferation. PMID:24569117

Crespin, S; Bacchetta, M; Bou Saab, J; Tantilipikorn, P; Bellec, J; Dudez, T; Nguyen, T H; Kwak, B R; Lacroix, J S; Huang, S; Wiszniewski, L; Chanson, M

2014-07-01

381

Horrifying Basal cell carcinoma: cytological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing and frequently occurring tumor of the eyelids. Among BCC cases, there is a subtype of aggressive cases called horrifying BCC (HBCC). There are also rare BCC cases that show neuroendocrine differentiation. Here, we describe a case of HBCC with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient, a 41-year-old woman, presented with abnormal left eye tearing and left cheek pain. On computed tomography imaging, a tumor that extended to the left orbit was detected in the left cheek. On cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples, the tumor cells were observed as sheet-like clusters and single bare nuclei with a clear background; peripheral palisading was not clearly seen. On examination of the biopsy specimen taken after FNA, the tumor was found to be composed of cancer cell nests with scattered peripheral palisading in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CD56 and were negative for CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Membrane-bound dense-core granules were detected on ultrastructural study. A HBCC case with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been previously reported. The correlation between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in HBCC and patient prognosis should be further studied. PMID:25120472

Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2014-05-01

382

Cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy predicts amyloid burden in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

We compared accuracy of hippocampus and basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) atrophy to predict cortical amyloid burden in 179 cognitively normal subjects (CN), 269 subjects with early stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 136 subjects with late stages of MCI, and 86 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia retrieved from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Hippocampus and BFCS volumes were determined from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 Tesla, and cortical amyloid load from AV45 (florbetapir) positron emission tomography scans. In receiver operating characteristics analyses, BFCS volume provided significantly more accurate classification into amyloid-negative and -positive categories than hippocampus volume. In contrast, hippocampus volume more accurately identified the diagnostic categories of AD, late and early MCI, and CN compared with whole and anterior BFCS volume, whereas posterior BFCS and hippocampus volumes yielded similar diagnostic accuracy. In logistic regression analysis, hippocampus and posterior BFCS volumes contributed significantly to discriminate MCI and AD from CN, but only BFCS volume predicted amyloid status. Our findings suggest that BFCS atrophy is more closely associated with cortical amyloid burden than hippocampus atrophy in predementia AD. PMID:24176625

Teipel, Stefan; Heinsen, Helmut; Amaro, Edson; Grinberg, Lea T; Krause, Bernd; Grothe, Michel

2014-03-01

383

Repeatability of basal metabolism in breeding female kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla  

PubMed Central

We studied kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding near Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E) on Svalbard. In 1997, the basal metabolic rates (BMRs) of 17 breeding females were measured during the incubation and chick-rearing periods. The mean body mass of the kittiwakes decreased significantly (by 10%) between the incubation and chick-rearing periods. At the same time, both the whole-body and mass-specific BMRs decreased significantly. There was a positive and significant relationship between the BMR residuals from the incubation period and those from the chick-rearing period. Thus, the BMR of incubating female kittiwakes is a significant predictor of their BMR during the chick-rearing period. New BMR data were collected in 1998 from ten of these females, measured around the chick-hatching date. Repeatability values were calculated using either (i) the data for eight individuals for which three BMR measurements existed, or (ii) all the data from both years, yielding significant repeatabilities of 0.52 and 0.35, respectively. These values indicate that between 48 and 65% of the observed variation in BMR is due to intraindividual variability, while between-individual variability accounts for 35 to 52% of the variation in the BMR. This is the first report of a significant repeatability of the BMR of an endothermic organism across an elapsed time of more than one day.

Bech, C.; Langseth, I.; Gabrielsen, G. W.

1999-01-01

384

Basal forebrain activation controls contrast sensitivity in primary visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Background The basal forebrain (BF) regulates cortical activity by the action of cholinergic projections to the cortex. At the same time, it also sends substantial GABAergic projections to both cortex and thalamus, whose functional role has received far less attention. We used deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the BF, which is thought to activate both types of projections, to investigate the impact of BF activation on V1 neural activity. Results BF stimulation robustly increased V1 single and multi-unit activity, led to moderate decreases in orientation selectivity and a remarkable increase in contrast sensitivity as demonstrated by a reduced semi-saturation contrast. The spontaneous V1 local field potential often exhibited spectral peaks centered at 40 and 70 Hz as well as reliably showed a broad ?-band (30-90 Hz) increase following BF stimulation, whereas effects in a low frequency band (1-10 Hz) were less consistent. The broad ?-band, rather than low frequency activity or spectral peaks was the best predictor of both the firing rate increase and contrast sensitivity increase of V1 unit activity. Conclusions We conclude that BF activation has a strong influence on contrast sensitivity in V1. We suggest that, in addition to cholinergic modulation, the BF GABAergic projections play a crucial role in the impact of BF DBS on cortical activity. PMID:23679191

2013-01-01

385

Phenotypic plasticity in the scaling of avian basal metabolic rate  

PubMed Central

Many birds exhibit short-term, reversible adjustments in basal metabolic rate (BMR), but the overall contribution of phenotypic plasticity to avian metabolic diversity remains unclear. The available BMR data include estimates from birds living in natural environments and captive-raised birds in more homogenous, artificial environments. All previous analyses of interspecific variation in BMR have pooled these data. We hypothesized that phenotypic plasticity is an important contributor to interspecific variation in avian BMR, and that captive-raised populations exhibit general differences in BMR compared to wild-caught populations. We tested this hypothesis by fitting general linear models to BMR data for 231 bird species, using the generalized least-squares approach to correct for phylogenetic relatedness when necessary. The scaling exponent relating BMR to body mass in captive-raised birds (0.670) was significantly shallower than in wild-caught birds (0.744). The differences in metabolic scaling between captive-raised and wild-caught birds persisted when migratory tendency and habitat aridity were controlled for. Our results reveal that phenotypic plasticity is a major contributor to avian interspecific metabolic variation. The finding that metabolic scaling in birds is partly determined by environmental factors provides further support for models that predict variation in scaling exponents, such as the allometric cascade model. PMID:16627278

McKechnie, Andrew E; Freckleton, Robert P; Jetz, Walter

2006-01-01

386

Horrifying Basal Cell Carcinoma: Cytological, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing and frequently occurring tumor of the eyelids. Among BCC cases, there is a subtype of aggressive cases called horrifying BCC (HBCC). There are also rare BCC cases that show neuroendocrine differentiation. Here, we describe a case of HBCC with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient, a 41-year-old woman, presented with abnormal left eye tearing and left cheek pain. On computed tomography imaging, a tumor that extended to the left orbit was detected in the left cheek. On cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples, the tumor cells were observed as sheet-like clusters and single bare nuclei with a clear background; peripheral palisading was not clearly seen. On examination of the biopsy specimen taken after FNA, the tumor was found to be composed of cancer cell nests with scattered peripheral palisading in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CD56 and were negative for CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Membrane-bound dense-core granules were detected on ultrastructural study. A HBCC case with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been previously reported. The correlation between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in HBCC and patient prognosis should be further studied. PMID:25120472

Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2014-01-01

387

Carvedilol analog modulates both basal and stimulated sinoatrial node automaticity.  

PubMed

The membrane voltage clock and calcium (Ca(2+)) clock jointly regulate sinoatrial node (SAN) automaticity. VK-II-36 is a novel carvedilol analog that suppresses sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release but does not block the ?-receptor. The effect of VK-II-36 on SAN function remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether VK-II-36 can influence SAN automaticity by inhibiting the Ca(2+) clock. We simultaneously mapped intracellular Ca(2+) and membrane potential in 24 isolated canine right atriums using previously described criteria of the timing of late diastolic intracellular Ca elevation (LDCAE) relative to the action potential upstroke to detect the Ca(2+) clock. Pharmacological interventions with isoproterenol (ISO), ryanodine, caffeine, and VK-II-36 were performed after baseline recordings. VK-II-36 caused sinus rate downregulation and reduced LDCAE in the pacemaking site under basal conditions (P < 0.01). ISO induced an upward shift of the pacemaking site in SAN and augmented LDCAE in the pacemaking site. ISO also significantly and dose-dependently increased the sinus rate. The treatment of VK-II-36 (30 ?mol/l) abolished both the ISO-induced shift of the pacemaking site and augmentation of LDCAE (P < 0.01), and it suppressed the ISO-induced increase in sinus rate (P = 0.02). Our results suggest that the sinus rate may be partly controlled by the Ca(2+) clock via SR Ca(2+) release during ?-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:23836067

Shinohara, Tetsuji; Kim, Daehyeok; Joung, Boyoung; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Back, Thomas G; Wayne Chen, S R; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Lin, Shien-Fong

2014-05-01

388

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2014-04-01

389

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2013-04-01

390

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2011-04-01

391

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2010-04-01

392

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2012-04-01

393

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2011-01-01

394

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2014-01-01

395

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2012-01-01

396

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2013-01-01

397

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2010-01-01

398

C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(c)XML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.C: XML  

E-print Network

C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(c)XML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.C: XML For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang This supplement covers the following topics: · Creating XML to format and display query results and process database operations in Oracle. 1 #12;C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement

Liang, Y. Daniel

399

C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(d)JavaXML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.D: Java and XML  

E-print Network

C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(d)JavaXML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.D: Java and XML For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang This supplement introduces how to use Java is required for this supplement. To learn XML, please read Supplement VI.C, "XML." 0 Introduction

Liang, Y. Daniel

400

(medium-modified) Fragmentation Functions  

E-print Network

In this short review paper, we discuss some of the recent advances in the field of parton fragmentation processes into hadrons as well as their possible modifications in QCD media. Hadron production data in e+e-, deep inelastic scattering and hadronic collisions are presented, together with global analyses of fragmentation functions into light and heavy hadrons and developments on parton fragmentation in perturbative QCD at small momentum fraction. Motivated by the recent RHIC data indicating a significant suppression of large-pT hadron production in heavy-ion collisions, several recent attempts to model medium-modified fragmentation, e.g. by solving "medium" evolution equations or through Monte Carlo studies, have been proposed and are discussed in detail. Finally we mention the possibility to extract medium-modified fragmentation functions using photon-hadron correlations.

Francois Arleo

2008-10-07

401

Articles Lead in Calcium Supplements  

E-print Network

Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method’s limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 µg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7 % and a 90–100 % lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 µg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 µg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85 % of the antacids and 100 % of the infant formulas). Key words: antacids, bonemeal, calcium supplements, dolomite, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), infant formulas, lead, nutritional supplements, oyster shell, vitamins. Environ Health Perspect 108:309–313 (2000). [Online 21 February 2000

Genine M. Scelfo; A. Russell Flegal

402

Response to dietary supplementation of l-glutamine and l-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

2014-11-01

403

Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial123  

PubMed Central

Background: Loss of muscle mass with aging is a major public health concern. Omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids stimulate protein anabolism in animals and might therefore be useful for the treatment of sarcopenia. However, the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on human protein metabolism is unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults. Design: Sixteen healthy, older adults were randomly assigned to receive either omega-3 fatty acids or corn oil for 8 wk. The rate of muscle protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of key elements of the anabolic signaling pathway were evaluated before and after supplementation during basal, postabsorptive conditions and during a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results: Corn oil supplementation had no effect on the muscle protein synthesis rate and the extent of anabolic signaling element phosphorylation in muscle. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation had no effect on the basal rate of muscle protein synthesis (mean ± SEM: 0.051 ± 0.005%/h compared with 0.053 ± 0.008%/h before and after supplementation, respectively; P = 0.80) but augmented the hyperaminoacidemia-hyperinsulinemia–induced increase in the rate of muscle protein synthesis (from 0.009 ± 0.005%/h above basal values to 0.031 ± 0.003%/h above basal values; P < 0.01), which was accompanied by greater increases in muscle mTORSer2448 (P = 0.08) and p70s6kThr389 (P < 0.01) phosphorylation. Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate muscle protein synthesis in older adults and may be useful for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. This trial was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT00794079. PMID:21159787

Smith, Gordon I; Atherton, Philip; Reeds, Dominic N; Mohammed, B Selma; Rankin, Debbie; Rennie, Michael J; Mittendorfer, Bettina

2011-01-01

404

The expression of aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks with respect to supplemental dietary lysine and methionine levels  

E-print Network

mg; niacin, 55 mg; choline, 661 mg; vitamin B12, 11 mg; folic acid, 1. 1 mg; pyridoxine, 2. 2 mg; biotin, 55 mg. 3 Lysine (HCL-988) and methionine (dl-984) were supplemented to the basal diet at 80, 100, and 120% of the NRC requirement to form... Methionine (-: of NRC) 0 3. 5 3. 00 + . 04 4. 08 + . 11 2. 99 + . 04 4. 27 + . 14 2. 97 + . 04 2. 99 + . 02 4. 08 + . 12 4. 14 + . 07 Mean 3. 53 + . 07 3. 62 + . 09 3. 49 + . 08 Relative Kidney Weight (4) + SEM 0 3. 5 0. 51 + . 01 0. 86 + . 03 0. 50...

Mills, John Salazar

2012-06-07

405

Usefulness of Context Clues as Determined by an Analysis of Basal Reading Series and Methodology Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was designed to determine if the classifications and definitions of context clues suggested in ten reading methods textbooks were used in three basal reading series. The method textbook analyses provided 27 different context clues. The analysis of the basal reading series--D. C. Heath (1983), Ginn (1984), and Scott, Foresman (1983)--showed…

McFeely, Donald C.; Elliott, Joan

406

Intrinsic basal and luminal subtypes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Whole-genome analyses have revealed that muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs) are heterogeneous and can be grouped into basal and luminal subtypes that are highly reminiscent of those found in breast cancer. Basal MIBCs are enriched with squamous and sarcomatoid features and are associated with advanced stage and metastatic disease at presentation. Like basal breast cancers, basal bladder tumours contain a claudin-low subtype that is enriched with biomarkers characteristic of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The stem cell transcription factor ?Np63? controls basal MIBC gene expression, just as it does in basal breast cancers. Luminal MIBCs are enriched with activating FGFR3 and ERBB3 mutations and ERBB2 amplifications, and their gene expression profiles are controlled by peroxisome proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?) and possibly also by oestrogen receptor activation. Luminal bladder cancers can be further subdivided into two subtypes, p53-like and luminal, which can be distinguished from one another by different levels of biomarkers that are characteristic of stromal infiltration, cell cycle progression, and proliferation. Importantly, basal bladder cancers are intrinsically aggressive, but are highly sensitive to cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Although the luminal subtypes are not as intrinsically aggressive as basal cancers, p53-like tumours are resistant to chemotherapy and might, therefore, represent a problem for treated patients. PMID:24960601

Choi, Woonyoung; Czerniak, Bogdan; Ochoa, Andrea; Su, Xiaoping; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David J

2014-07-01

407

The status of Dollodon and other basal iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Lower Cretaceous of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dollodon bampingi was recently named based upon a specimen from the Bernissart Quarry that had previously been referred to Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis. The initial diagnosis of Dollodon did not adequately distinguish it from Mantellisaurus or from other basal iguanodonts, necessitating a reassessment of the material. Firsthand examination of the holotypes of the two taxa and numerous other basal iguanodont specimens, as

Andrew T. McDonald

408

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) for Fine-resolution Basal Ice Sheet Imaging  

E-print Network

This dissertation work was to examine the feasibility of InSAR through the ice sheets to create a fine resolution basal topography map and extraction of basal composition. InSAR was shown to be possible through the ice sheet, using data collected...

Blake, William Arthur

2010-08-31

409

Symbolic Reasoning in Spiking Neurons: A Model of the Cortex/Basal Ganglia/Thalamus Loop  

E-print Network

Symbolic Reasoning in Spiking Neurons: A Model of the Cortex/Basal Ganglia/Thalamus Loop Terrence C of the cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus. The model is a general- purpose neural controller which plays a role for selecting between a set of inferences. When an inference rule is selected, it commands the thalamus

Anderson, Charles H.

410

An autopodial-like pattern of Hox expression in the fins of a basal actinopterygian fish  

E-print Network

of the autopod in a basal actinopterygian, Polyodon spathula. Polyodon exhibits a late-phase, inverted collinear spathula. Polyodon possesses pectoral fin endoskeletal elements considered homologous to both teleosts- hog (Shh) pathway and HoxA and HoxD cluster genes in a basal actinopterygian, the paddlefish Polyodon

Davis, Marcus C.

411

A new basal ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal ornithopods exhibit a very low diversity in Cretaceous deposits of Asia, with only two diagnostic taxa published to date. A new basal ornithopod, Haya griva, gen. et sp. nov., is described here based on several well-preserved specimens from the Late Cretaceous Javkhlant Formation of Mongolia. Haya is diagnosed by a unique combination of characters, some of which are also

Peter J. Makovicky; Brandon M. Kilbourne; Rudyard W. Sadleir; Mark A. Norell

2011-01-01

412

Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae): Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae). Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae) The aims of the paper were to determine the causal agents of basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata in Argentina, and to evaluate its possible pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus. Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Phytophthora nicotianae, Rhizoctonia solani, F. graminearum, F. verticilloides, F. equiseti and

SILVIA MARÍA WOLCAN; LÍA RONCO; GLADYS ALBINA LORI

413

The Evolution of the Terminology of the Basal Ganglia, or are they Nuclei?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal ganglia have been generally used to refer to some subcortical nuclei. However, it is a misnomer since ganglion is a group of nerve cells especially located outside of the brain or spinal cord. We evaluated the terminology of the basal ganglia from historical and terminological points of view.

Levent Sarikcioglu; Ummuhan Altun; Bikem Suzen; Nurettin Oguz

2008-01-01

414

Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interestingly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning--the ability to adaptively change a response when…

Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine E.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Sage, Jake; Gluck, Mark A.

2009-01-01

415

Progesterone Inhibits Basal and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Induction of Luteinizing  

E-print Network

Progesterone Inhibits Basal and Gonadotropin- Releasing Hormone Induction of Luteinizing Hormone of the gonadotropins. We previously demonstrated that progesterone dif- ferentially regulates the expression of the LH immortalized gonadotrope-de- rived L T2 cells. The progesterone suppression of both basal and GnRH-induced LH

Mellon, Pamela L.

416

THE BASAL GANGLIA: FOCUSED SELECTION AND INHIBITION OF COMPETING MOTOR PROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement. It is well recognized that people with degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia suffer from rigidly held abnormal body postures, slowing of movement, involuntary movements, or a combination of these abnormalities. However, it has not

JONATHAN W MINK

1996-01-01

417

Composition of herbage in Pinus roxburghii Sargent stands: basal area and importance value index  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study basal area and Importance Value Index (IVI) attributes of herbage were investigated in chir pine ( Pinus roxburghii Sargent) stands of three different ages and also in open grassland in the sub- tropical region of Himachal Pradesh (India) during growing season (June to September). A higher basal area of the herbage was recorded in open grassland

B. Gupta; B. Dass

418

Task-Set Switching Deficits in Early-Stage Huntington's Disease: Implications for Basal Ganglia Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive functions are likely mediated by interconnected circuits including frontal lobe and basal ganglia structures. We assessed the executive function of task switching in patients with early-stage Huntington' s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease affecting the basal ganglia. In two experiments, the HD patients had greater difficulty when switching than when repeating a task than matched controls, and this was

Adam R. Aron; Laura Watkins; Barbara J. Sahakian; Stephen Monsell; Roger A. Barker; Trevor W. Robbins

2003-01-01

419

An Analysis of Phonological Awareness Instruction in Four Kindergarten Basal Reading Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the kindergarten level of four commercial basal reading programs published in 1991 and 1993 to determine the adequacy of phonological awareness instruction for learners at risk for reading disabilities and delays. Finds that the phonological awareness instructional procedures in the four basal reading programs failed to integrate critical…

Smith, Sylvia B.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Gleason, Mary M.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Sprick, Marilyn; Gunn, Barbara; Thomas, Carrie L.; Chard, David J.; Plasencia-Peinado, Judith; Peinado, Richardo

2001-01-01

420

Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Curettage Followed by Imiquimod 3.75% Cream  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. Treatment modalities include both surgical, medical, or combination therapy. In the following case, the authors report the successful treatment of a basal cell carcinoma on the nose with curettage followed by topical imiquimod 3.75% cream. PMID:21607193

Patel, Rita V.; Birge, Miriam B.

2011-01-01

421

Targeting optimal biopsy location in basal ganglia germinoma using 11C-methionine positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundApproximately 5% to 10% of intracranial germinomas arise from the basal ganglia or thalamus. Diagnosis is usually made by stereotactic biopsy, and precise location of the biopsy target is crucial because germinoma in these sites is potentially curable. We herein describe a case with germinoma in the basal ganglia that showed nonspecific clinical and radiological findings. The usefulness of MET-PET

Nobuyuki Kawai; Keisuke Miyake; Yoshihiro Nishiyama; Yuka Yamamoto; Akihiro Miki; Reiji Haba; Tadashi Imai; Takashi Tamiya; Seigo Nagao

2008-01-01

422

ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)] [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Bertello, Luca, E-mail: apevtsov@nso.edu, E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu, E-mail: lbertello@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2013-04-10

423

Supplemental Instruction Welcome to a new semester of Supplemental Instruction! We would like to take this opportunity  

E-print Network

Supplemental Instruction Welcome to a new semester of Supplemental Instruction! We would like? Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a series of review sessions for students taking historically difficult courses

Faber, Xander

424

A new membrane filtration medium for simultaneous detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms.  

PubMed Central

Recovery of total coliforms and Escherichia coli on a new membrane filtration (MF) medium was evaluated with 25 water samples from seven states. Testing of the new medium, m-ColiBlue24 broth, was conducted according to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol. For comparison, this same protocol was used to measure recovery of total coliforms and E. coli with two standard MF media, m-Endo broth and mTEC broth. E. coli recovery on the new medium was also compared to recovery on nutrient agar supplemented with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide. Comparison of specificity, sensitivity, false positive error, undetected target error, and overall agreement indicated E. coli recovery on m-ColiBlue24 was superior to recovery on mTEC for all five parameters. Recovery of total coliforms on the new medium was comparable to recovery on m-Endo. PMID:9293003

Grant, M A

1997-01-01

425

Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin  

PubMed Central

Summary The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a key regulator of the reward system by driving inhibition onto dopaminergic neurons. However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood. Although the output of the basal ganglia is thought to be primarily inhibitory, here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, activation of this pathway is aversive, consistent with its role as an ‘anti-reward’ signal. Our demonstration of an excitatory projection from the basal ganglia to the LHb explains how LHb-projecting basal ganglia neurons can have similar encoding properties as LHb neurons themselves. Our results also provide a link between ‘anti-reward’ excitatory synapses and serotonin, a neuromodulator implicated in depression. PMID:22578499

Shabel, Steven J.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Trias, Anthony; Murphy, Ryan T.; Malinow, Roberto

2012-01-01

426

Towards a Biopsychological Understanding of Costly Punishment: The Role of Basal Cortisol  

PubMed Central

Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:24416441

Pfattheicher, Stefan; Keller, Johannes

2014-01-01

427

Effect of lemon verbena supplementation on muscular damage markers, proinflammatory cytokines release and neutrophils' oxidative stress in chronic exercise.  

PubMed

Intense exercise is directly related to muscular damage and oxidative stress due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both, plasma and white blood cells. Nevertheless, exercise-derived ROS are essential to regulate cellular adaptation to exercise. Studies on antioxidant supplements have provided controversial results. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate antioxidant supplementation (lemon verbena extract) in healthy male volunteers that followed a 90-min running eccentric exercise protocol for 21 days. Antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress markers were measured in neutrophils. Besides, inflammatory cytokines and muscular damage were determined in whole blood and serum samples, respectively. Intense running exercise for 21 days induced antioxidant response in neutrophils of trained male through the increase of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Supplementation with moderate levels of an antioxidant lemon verbena extract did not block this cellular adaptive response and also reduced exercise-induced oxidative damage of proteins and lipids in neutrophils and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, lemon verbena supplementation maintained or decreased the level of serum transaminases activity indicating a protection of muscular tissue. Exercise induced a decrease of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1? levels after 21 days measured in basal conditions, which was not inhibited by antioxidant supplementation. Therefore, moderate antioxidant supplementation with lemon verbena extract protects neutrophils against oxidative damage, decreases the signs of muscular damage in chronic running exercise without blocking the cellular adaptation to exercise. PMID:20967458

Funes, Lorena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel D; Drobnic, Franchek; Pons, Antoni; Roche, Enrique; Micol, Vicente

2011-04-01

428

Cholinergic neurons excite cortically projecting basal forebrain GABAergic neurons.  

PubMed

The basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in the control of cortical activation and attention. Understanding the modulation of BF neuronal activity is a prerequisite to treat disorders of cortical activation involving BF dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we reveal the interaction between cholinergic neurons and cortically projecting BF GABAergic neurons using immunohistochemistry and whole-cell recordings in vitro. In GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, BF cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase-positive) neurons were intermingled with GABAergic (GFP(+)) neurons. Immunohistochemistry for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter showed that cholinergic fibers apposed putative cortically projecting GABAergic neurons containing parvalbumin (PV). In coronal BF slices from GAD67-GFP knock-in or PV-tdTomato mice, pharmacological activation of cholinergic receptors with bath application of carbachol increased the firing rate of large (>20 ?m diameter) BF GFP(+) and PV (tdTomato+) neurons, which exhibited the intrinsic membrane properties of cortically projecting neurons. The excitatory effect of carbachol was blocked by antagonists of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors in two subpopulations of BF GABAergic neurons [large hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) and small Ih, respectively]. Ion substitution experiments and reversal potential measurements suggested that the carbachol-induced inward current was mediated mainly by sodium-permeable cation channels. Carbachol also increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons/fibers caused a mecamylamine- and atropine-sensitive inward current in putative GABAergic neurons. Thus, cortically projecting, BF GABAergic/PV neurons are excited by neighboring BF and/or brainstem cholinergic neurons. Loss of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease may impair cortical activation, in part, through disfacilitation of BF cortically projecting GABAergic/PV neurons. PMID:24553925

Yang, Chun; McKenna, James T; Zant, Janneke C; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika; Brown, Ritchie E

2014-02-19

429

Short term evolution of the basal magma ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that the ultra low velocity zones at the base of the mantle are the remnants of the initially thick magma ocean (the basal magma ocean, BMO) that undergoes slow crystallization. The presence of a molten silicate layer between the solid mantle and the core can dramatically change the thermal coupling between them and affect the ability of the core to maintain a dynamo. Convection in the BMO can in particular change the way the lateral variation of heat flow at the bottom of the solid mantle are transmitted to the core. We study the coupled problem consisting of convection in the melt layer underlying a solid layer where heat is carried by diffusion, the motion of the boundary corresponding to melting and freezing. Two approaches are used. The open source finite element software ELMER is used to model cases with a finite Prandtl number magma in 2D. The grids are allowed to deform in order to follow the interface. The other approach consists of implementing the enthalpy method within the finite volume code StagYY (Tackley, 2008) to solve 2D and 3D cases with infinite Prandtl number. In this case, the computation domain represents both solid and liquid and a strongly varying viscosity at the melting temperature is used to render the solid effectively stagnant. We focus on determining the heat transfer and the position and shape of the phase change interface for which we propose scaling laws. Two sets of temperature boundary conditions are used for the top surface: uniform or laterally varying on the large scale, to mimic the effect of convection in the overlying solid mantle. We are, in this case, interesting in the spectrum of the lateral variations of the heat flux at the bottom boundary. We can therefore estimate the buffering effect of the BMO on the lateral variations imposed by the solid mantle as seen by the core.

Ulvrova, M.; Labrosse, S.; Coltice, N.; Tackley, P. J.

2010-12-01

430

Laboratory Study of the Frictional Properties of Simulated Basal ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment entrained in ice modifies the shear traction beneath warm-based glaciers. In an attempt to understand how entrained sediment affects the frictional behavior of melting ice against hard, impermeable substrates, we conducted a series of constant-velocity sliding experiments. We simulate basal ice by freezing sediment particles with controlled size distributions and concentrations into ice disks. Our sliding apparatus is driven by a motor coupled to a lead ball screw which displaces a carriage secured by two additional bearing rods. This design increases apparatus stiffness. The normal force was applied with a series of dead weights and the shear force was recorded with a gauge linked to the sliding carriage. The ratio of the measured shear force to the applied normal force produces an effective friction coefficient. Two regimes of frictional behavior are observed. The first, we call slippery, exhibits effective friction coefficients approaching zero and is indistinguishable from the debris free ice used as a control. The second, we call sandy, is indistinguishable from a sand block used as a control, has friction coefficients near 0.3, and high variability. Our results demonstrate that at higher particle loadings, the transition between these regimes occurs when the particle diameter approaches the thickness of the water layer between the ice and sliding surface. The thickness of the water layer is inferred from lubrication theory as a function of the melt rate and normal force, both measured experimental parameters. A similar transition from sandy to slippery with larger particle sizes is observed at low particle concentrations. This effect is likely related to the inability of the fluid above the particle to maintain a pressure gradient sufficient to transmit the imposed normal load to the particles and thus produce high effective friction coefficients.

Emerson, L.; Rempel, A.

2006-12-01

431

Effect of niclosamide on basal-like breast cancers.  

PubMed

Basal-like breast cancers (BLBC) are poorly differentiated and display aggressive clinical behavior. These tumors become resistant to cytotoxic agents, and tumor relapse has been attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). One of the pathways involved in CSC regulation is the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. LRP6, a Wnt ligand receptor, is one of the critical elements of this pathway and could potentially be an excellent therapeutic target. Niclosamide has been shown to inhibit the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway by causing degradation of LRP6. TRA-8, a monoclonal antibody specific to TRAIL death receptor 5, is cytotoxic to BLBC cell lines and their CSC-enriched populations. The goal of this study was to examine whether niclosamide is cytotoxic to BLBCs, specifically the CSC population, and if in combination with TRA-8 could produce increased cytotoxicity. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a known marker of CSCs. By testing BLBC cells for ALDH expression by flow cytometry, we were able to isolate a nonadherent population of cells that have high ALDH expression. Niclosamide showed cytotoxicity against these nonadherent ALDH-expressing cells in addition to adherent cells from four BLBC cell lines: 2LMP, SUM159, HCC1187, and HCC1143. Niclosamide treatment produced reduced levels of LRP6 and ?-catenin, which is a downstream Wnt/?-catenin signaling protein. The combination of TRA-8 and niclosamide produced additive cytotoxicity and a reduction in Wnt/?-catenin activity. Niclosamide in combination with TRA-8 suppressed growth of 2LMP orthotopic tumor xenografts. These results suggest that niclosamide or congeners of this agent may be useful for the treatment of BLBC. PMID:24552774

Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I; Arend, Rebecca C; Aristizabal, Laura; Lu, Wenyan; Samant, Rajeev S; Metge, Brandon J; Hidalgo, Bertha; Grizzle, William E; Conner, Michael; Forero-Torres, Andres; Lobuglio, Albert F; Li, Yonghe; Buchsbaum, Donald J

2014-04-01

432

A prospective study of cigarette smoking and basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between smoking and primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we analyzed data from a 16 year prospective study among randomly selected adults in Nambour, Queensland, Australia. Participants underwent a skin examination in 1992 and took part in an intervention study and follow-up. Information about complexion type and smoking habits including duration and number of cigarettes smoked per day and sun exposure behavior were collected at baseline in 1992, with updates to end of follow-up in 2007. Newly-diagnosed BCCs were ascertained from regional pathology laboratories. Relative risks (RR) of BCC among former and current smokers were estimated using generalized linear models specifying a Poisson distribution with robust error variance and (log) person-years at-risk as offset, adjusting for BCC risk factors. From 1992 to 2007, 281 BCCs were diagnosed in 1,277 participants with available smoking history and no past BCC. Relative to non-smokers, a non-significant inverse association between current smoking and BCC was seen (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.45-1.05) but not for former smokers (RR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.84-1.31). Amongst current smokers, inverse associations with BCC were found in those who smoked for up to 18 years (RR 0.44) but not more and those who smoked up to 15 cigarettes per day but not more. The associations with both current and former smoking varied by degree of sunburn propensity. The modest inverse association between current smoking and BCC is considered unlikely to be causal given lack of clear relation with duration or intensity of smoking. PMID:25234270

Hughes, M C B; Olsen, C M; Williams, G M; Green, A C

2014-11-01

433

Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ???3S to ???70N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual temperature can be considered as BR in empirical models. A strong correlation was found between the mean annual ER and mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Consequently, GPP, which is typically more accurately modeled, can be used to estimate BR. A light use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr -1, with the highest respiration rate over tropical forests and the lowest value in dry and high-latitude areas. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Yuan, W.; Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, T.; Bahn, M.; Black, A.; Desai, A. R.; Cescatti, A.; Marcolla, B.; Jacobs, C.; Chen, J.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gielen, B.; Bohrer, G.; Cook, D. R.; Dragoni, D.; Dunn, A. L.; Gianelle, D.; Grnwald, T.; Ibrom, A.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Lindroth, A.; Liu, H.; Marchesini, L. B.; Montagnani, L.; Pita, G.; Rodeghiero, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Starr, G.; Stoy, P. C.

2011-01-01

434

Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography  

SciTech Connect

The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was {minus}0.7 (BG < Background). The RC was also affected by the size and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) used (RC from 0.75 to 0.67 with ROI size from 0.12 to 1.41 cm{sup 2}). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Bendriem, B.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.D.

1990-01-01

435

Cholinergic Neurons Excite Cortically Projecting Basal Forebrain GABAergic Neurons  

PubMed Central

The basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in the control of cortical activation and attention. Understanding the modulation of BF neuronal activity is a prerequisite to treat disorders of cortical activation involving BF dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we reveal the interaction between cholinergic neurons and cortically projecting BF GABAergic neurons using immunohistochemistry and whole-cell recordings in vitro. In GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, BF cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase-positive) neurons were intermingled with GABAergic (GFP+) neurons. Immunohistochemistry for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter showed that cholinergic fibers apposed putative cortically projecting GABAergic neurons containing parvalbumin (PV). In coronal BF slices from GAD67-GFP knock-in or PV-tdTomato mice, pharmacological activation of cholinergic receptors with bath application of carbachol increased the firing rate of large (>20 ?m diameter) BF GFP+ and PV (tdTomato+) neurons, which exhibited the intrinsic membrane properties of cortically projecting neurons. The excitatory effect of carbachol was blocked by antagonists of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors in two subpopulations of BF GABAergic neurons [large hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) and small Ih, respectively]. Ion substitution experiments and reversal potential measurements suggested that the carbachol-induced inward current was mediated mainly by sodium-permeable cation channels. Carbachol also increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons/fibers caused a mecamylamine- and atropine-sensitive inward current in putative GABAergic neurons. Thus, cortically projecting, BF GABAergic/PV neurons are excited by neighboring BF and/or brainstem cholinergic neurons. Loss of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease may impair cortical activation, in part, through disfacilitation of BF cortically projecting GABAergic/PV neurons. PMID:24553925

Yang, Chun; McKenna, James T.; Zant, Janneke C.; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika

2014-01-01

436

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

1984-01-01

437

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

1985-01-01

438

Glaciohydraulic Supercooling and Basal Ice Formation at Outlet Glaciers of Vatnajökull and Oraefajokull, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrology of glaciers is affected by the subglacial environment and in particular overdeepenings that may result in supercooling of subglacial waters and the entrainment of debris into basal ice. Warm-based outlet glaciers of Vatnajökull and Oraefajökull, Iceland, are often characterized by overdeepenings in their terminal regions and up to 100-m long exposures of meters-thick, debris-laden (4 to 35% by vol.) basal zones. During the period 2002 to 2005, we collected bulk samples (300g) of the basal ice, englacial ice, melt water and frazil ice from a number of these outlet glaciers to evaluate probable origins of the basal zone and thus the role of basal topography and hydrology in its generation. Analyses of the 18O and D content show delta 18O and D values for the basal ice generally plot below the meteoric water line and are less negative then values for englacial ice. The difference between the mean delta 18O values of the basal and englacial ice is approximately 2.41 per mil, while the mean delta D values differ by about 11.12 per mil. The delta 18O and delta D values of frazil ice also generally plot below the meteoric water line and overlap those of the basal ice. Mean delta 18O values of frazil ice and meltwater differ by approximately 1.93 per mil, while the mean deuterium values differ by about 13.16 per mil. Little difference exists between the mean delta 18O and D values of meltwater and englacial ice. Tritium measured in basal ice ranges from 1.9 to 6.1 TU and averages 2.9 TU, whereas in englacial ice it is essentially 0. Both the physical properties and isotopic composition of the basal zone ice and debris in the outlet glaciers sampled is consistent with a glaciohydraulic supercooling origin resulting from subglacial discharge out of overdeepenings.

Lawson, D. E.; Larson, G. J.; Evenson, E. B.; Knudsen, O.

2007-12-01

439

Epidermal growth factor receptor activity is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation.  

PubMed

ERB family receptors (EGFR, ERB-B2, ERB-B3, and ERB-B4) regulate epithelial cell function in many tissue types. In the human airway epithelium, changes in ERB receptor expression are associated with epithelial repair defects. However, the specific role(s) played by ERB receptors in repair have not been determined. We aimed to determine whether ERB receptors regulate proliferation of the tracheobronchial progenitor, the basal cell. Receptor tyrosine kinase arrays were used to evaluate ERB activity in normal and naphthalene (NA)-injured mouse trachea and in air-liquid interface cultures. Roles for epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGFR, and ERB-B2 in basal cell proliferation were evaluated in vitro. NA injury and transgenic expression of an EGFR-dominant negative (DN) receptor were used to evaluate roles for EGFR signaling in vivo. EGFR and ERB-B2 were active in normal and NA-injured trachea and were the only active ERB receptors detected in proliferating basal cells in vitro. EGF was necessary for basal cell proliferation in vitro. The EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, decreased proliferation by 99, and the Erb-B2 inhibitor, AG825, decreased proliferation by ?66%. In vivo, EGFR-DN expression in basal cells significantly decreased basal cell proliferation after NA injury. EGF and EGFR are necessary for basal cell proliferation. The EGFR/EGFR homo- and the EGFR/ERB-B2 heterodimer account for ?34 and 66%, respectively, of basal cell proliferation in vitro. Active EGFR is necessary for basal cell proliferation after NA injury. We conclude that EGFR activation is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation and normal epithelial repair. PMID:25217659

Brechbuhl, Heather M; Li, Bilan; Smith, Russell W; Reynolds, Susan D

2014-11-15

440

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Available in PDF ( ... how much do you really know about dietary supplements? Yes, some can be beneficial to your health — ...

441

43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section...7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a...in Indian religion or culture. (b) Allotted...

2010-10-01

442

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue Multivitamins Conference May 15-17 1.S. Department of Health and Human Services Conference Evaluates the Value of Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

Bandettini, Peter A.

443

16 CFR 1.86 - Supplemental statements.  

...Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.86 Supplemental statements. Except for proposals for legislation, as provided in CEQ Regulation (40 CFR 1502.9(c)), the Commission shall publish supplements to either draft or final environmental...

2014-01-01

444

18 CFR 740.13 - Supplemental instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the...

2010-04-01

445

36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.  

...Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential Libraries? § 1280.96 Supplemental rules. Library directors may establish appropriate supplemental rules governing use of Presidential libraries and adjacent buildings and areas under...

2014-07-01

446

Depleted uranium disposition study -- Supplement, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Weapons and Materials Planning has requested a supplemental study to update the recent Depleted Uranium Disposition report. This supplemental study addresses new disposition alternatives and changes in status.

Becker, G.W.

1993-11-01

447

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics  

MedlinePLUS

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics There are multiple steroid/supplemental treatments for Duchenne although there is little agreement ( ... Deflazacort Albuterol Creatine Anabolic Steroids Calcium blockers Gentamycin Prednisone This is a catabolic steroid that slows the ...

448

Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets  

PubMed Central

The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.

2013-01-01

449

Music as a communicative medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter draws on ethnomusicological, cognitive and neuroscientific evidence in proposing that music is a communicative medium with features that are optimised for the management of situations of social uncertainty, and that music and language constitute complementary components of the human communicative toolkit. It presents a theory of meaning in music, and compares its implications with those of a recent

Ian Cross

450

Glasma Evolution in Partonic Medium  

E-print Network

We examine a scenario of the abelianized Glasma evolution with accounting for back-reaction of partonic medium in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We announce that such a