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Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite  

SciTech Connect

The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. (East Texas State Univ., Commerce (USA))



BAM Media M44: Decarboxylase Basal Medium (Arginine ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M44: Decarboxylase Basal Medium (Arginine, Lysine, Ornithine). January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. ... More results from


Comparative growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis strains in a defined basal medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porphyromonas gingivalisis an asaccharolytic bacterium whose metabolism is dependent on the uptake of small peptides and amino acids. The aim of this work was to study the growth ofP. gingivalisin a defined basal medium (DBM) supplemented with various sources of proteins. The strain 49417 as well as other virulent isolates could grow in DBM containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Annie Leduc; Daniel Grenier; Denis Mayrand



Improvement of carcinogen detection in the BALB\\/3T3 cell transformation assay by using a rich basal medium supplemented with low concentration of serum and some growth factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the detection sensitivity and reproducibility of the transformation assay using BALB\\/3T3 cells, we scrutinized a new assay method in which the cells were replated in a medium containing a low concentration of serum after carcinogen treatment. Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium plus Ham F12 (DME·F12) supplemented with a mixture of insulin, transferrin, ethanolamine and sodium selenite (ITES) and a

Yoshitsugu Kajiwara; Syozo Ajimi; Asami Hosokawa; Kazuyuki Maekawa



In vitro tuberisation of Gloriosa superba L. on basal medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suitable protocol for in vitro tuber production using non-dormant tubers of Gloriosa superba L. on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium without addition of plant growth regulators is reported in the present study. Among the different basal media tested MS medium was found to be suitable for induction and development of secondary tubers; one in vitro tuber per explant was

Seemanti Ghosh; Biswajit Ghosh; Sumita Jha



Improved basal medium for Y-1 mouse adrenal cortex tumor cells in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An improved basal medium is presented that requires only minimal supplementation with dialyzed fetal bovine serum or bovine\\u000a serum albumin and fetuin to be comparable to Ham's F-10, which requires 15% horse serum (HS) and 2.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS)\\u000a for the growth and function of Y-1, mouse adrenal cortex tumor, cells. Cell monolayers maintained for up to 2 weeks

Lucian J. Cuprak; Carol J. Lammi; Janet I. Crane



Effect of medium supplementation on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW9595M in whey permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M was studied in whey permeate medium supplemented with different nitrogen sources or with yeast extract and vitamins, salts and amino acids used in the formulation of defined basal minimum medium (BMM). All nitrogen sources tested exhibited very limited or no effect on biomass production using acidification and automated spectrophotometry test. A multilevel-factorial design

M. G. Macedo; C. Lacroix; N. J. Gardner; C. P. Champagne



Culture medium pH is influenced by basal medium, carbohydrate source, gelling agent, activated charcoal, and medium storage method  

Microsoft Academic Search

When four carbohydrates were tested against six commonly cited inorganic basal media, post-autoclave pH was highest for carbohydrate-free and sucrose containing media, and progressively lower for maltoseglucose and fructose-containing media, respectively. Post-autoclave pH for these media without carbohydrates was related to medium buffering capacity. Addition of gelling agents (10 of 11 tested) increased the postautoclave pH of MS medium containing

Henry R. Owen; Donna Wengerd; A. Raymond Miller



An examination and correction of plant tissue culture basal medium formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inorganic formulations of fourteen common plant tissue culture basal media were examined from the primary literature. Inaccuracies and errors were found for molecular formulae, chemical hydrations, and molar equivalences for iron\\/EDTA complexation. A comparison with published basal medium formulations from six commercial suppliers uncovered additional inaccuracies, modifications, and errors, thereby emphasizing the need for investigators to examine and describe

Henry R. Owen; A. Raymond Miller



Protoheme, a dispensable growth factor for Bacteroides fragilis grown by batch and continuous culture in a basal medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth yields of 10 strains ofBacteroides fragilis isolated from a variety of clinical sites were determined in (a) basal medium, (b) basal medium plus heme, and (c) basal medium plus heme and menadione. The molar growth yield values, expressed as a function of glucose (YG) and ATP produced (YATP) for 24 h and 48 h were used for a

Tala A. R. Al-Jalili; Haroun N. Shah



Optimization of Basal Medium for Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Cheese Whey Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, optimal basal medium composition for fermentative hydrogen production from cheese whey wastewater was investigated in batch tests. Twenty-five different basal medium formulas was prepared, each containing trace metals concentration (Co, Ni, Zn: 0–5 mg\\/l), macro elements concentration (Mg: 0–200 mg\\/l; Mn: 0–10 mg\\/l, Fe: 0–100 mg\\/l, Ca: 0–1000 mg\\/l), C\\/N ratio of 5–50, and yeast extract and

Nuri Azbar; F. Tuba Çetinkaya Dokgöz; Zerife Peker



Production of glucuronan oligosaccharides using the waste of beer fermentation broth as a basal medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste of beer fermentation broth was evaluated as a basal medium for the production of water-soluble oligosaccharides (WSOS) by Gluconacetobacter hansenii PJK. The broth was tested at various dilution ratios in a flask culture and the undiluted broth was determined to be the best for the WSOS production. The undiluted waste of beer fermentation broth was subsequently used in

Taous Khan; Seung Hoon Hyun; Joong Kon Park



Soy Content of Basal Diets Determines the Effects of Supplemental Selenium in Male Mice123  

PubMed Central

The effects of supplemental Se in rodent models may depend upon composition of the basal diet to which it is added. Wild-type male littermates of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice were fed until 18 wk of age 1 of 2 Se-adequate stock diets high in soy (HS) or low in phytoestrogens (LP) or the same diets supplemented with 3.0 mg Se/kg diet as seleno-methylselenocysteine. Body and abdominal fat pad weights were lower (P < 0.01) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplemental Se reduced fat pad weights in mice receiving the LP diet but increased body and fat pad weights in mice consuming the HS formulation (P-interaction < 0.005). Serum free triiodothyronine concentrations were unaffected by supplemental Se in mice fed the LP diet but were decreased by Se supplementation of mice given the HS feed (P-interaction < 0.02). Free thyroxine concentrations were higher in mice consuming the HS diet regardless of Se intake (P < 0.001). Hepatic mRNA for iodothyronine deiodinase I was lower (P < 0.001) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplementation of Se increased this mRNA (P < 0.001) in both diet groups. Results from this study show a significant interaction between the composition of basal diets and the effects of supplemental Se with respect to body composition. These findings have important implications for future studies in rodent models of the effects of supplemental Se on heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other conditions related to body weight and composition.

Quiner, Trevor E.; Nakken, Heather L.; Mason, Brock A.; Lephart, Edwin D.; Hancock, Chad R.; Christensen, Merrill J.



Effects of nutrients present in Bold’s basal medium on the green alga Stigeoclonium pascheri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of varying concentrations of nutrients present in Bold’s basal medium on the extent of colony formation from vegetative\\u000a fragments, sporulation and spore germination of the green algaStigeoclonium poscheri were studied. A decrease of colony formation was observed in media deficient in MgSO4, NaNO3, phosphates, and containing a 10-fold increase of H3BO3. Sporulation decreased in the same media. However,

S. C. Agrawal; Y. S. R. K. Sarma




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of Mucuna bean as a supplement for growing Pelibuey sheep fed with a basal diet of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Twenty males averaging 19.9 ± 2.19 kg LW were divided in four treatment groups and fed Napier grass ad libitum. The Mucuna bean supplementation consisted of Mucuna bean grain and husks that had been

A. M. Castillo-Caamal; J. B. Castillo-Caamal; A. J. Ayala-Burgos



Optimization of the basal medium for improving production and secretion of taxanes from suspension cell culture of Taxus baccata L  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose of the study Taxol is one of the most effective anticancer drugs that isolated from Taxus sp. due to the slow growth of Taxus trees and low concentration of Taxol in the tissues, the biotechnological approaches especially plant cell culture have been considered to produce Taxol in commercial scale. Methods We investigated the effects of basal medium type used in culture media on production of Taxol and other taxane compounds from cell suspension culture of T. baccata L. Briefly, five commonly basal media including Gamborg, Murashige and Skoog, Woody Plant, Schenk and Hildebrandt, and Driver and Kuniyuki medium were used for preparing separate suspension culture media. The intra- and extra-cellular yields of taxanes were analyzed by using HPLC after 21 days period of culturing. Results The yields of taxanes were significantly different for the cultures prepared by different basal media. Moreover, the effects of basal medium on the yield of products differed for varius taxane compounds. Maximum yields of Baccatin III (10.03 mgl-1) and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (4.2 mgl-1) were achieved from the DKW basal media, but the yield of Taxol was maximum (16.58 mgl-1) in the WPM basal media. Furthermore, the secretion of taxanes from the cells into medium was also considerably affected by the type of basal medium. The maximum extra-cellular yield of Taxol (7.81 mgl-1), Baccatin III (5.0 mgl-1), and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (1.45 mgl-1) were also obtained by using DKW basal medium that were significantly higher than those obtained from other culture media.



Evidence for an interaction between basal medium and plant growth regulatiors during adventitious or axillary shoot formation of cauliflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Leafy shoots of cauliflower were produced from hypocotyl segments, curd branches (debarassed of existing meristems) and intact\\u000a curd pieces submitted to various basal media. Adventitious shoot production and axillary bud break exhibited very different\\u000a nutritive requirements. In each case, an interaction between the plant growth regulators and the composition of the basal\\u000a medium was discovered. Propagation from curd pieces was

J. L. Vandemoortele; J. P. Billard; J. Boucaud; T. Gaspar



Using Comic Books as an Alternative Supplement to the Basal Reading Program at Albert Sidney Johnston Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This practicum sought to improve reading vocabulary and comprehension in fourth-grade students by using comic books 30 minutes per day as a supplement to the regular basal reading program. High-interest comic books were used by a class section of 18 students in the experimental group, for a period of four months. Another class section of 20…

Campbell, Richard W.


Effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium on conversion of somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium were studied to produce plants from somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L. There was a significant difference among concentrations of sugar but not among kinds of sugar tested in the present experiment in growth of shoots and roots. When the sucrose concentrations were 10, 30, or 50gl?1, the fresh weight

Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto



Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.  


Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts. PMID:23390041

Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea



Effect of basal medium, growth regulators and Phytagel concentration on initiation of embryogenic cultures from immature zygotic embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low initiation frequency is one of the main barriers in applying somatic embryogenesis to the clonal production of Pinus species. Factors affecting initiation, including basal medium, plant growth regulators, and Phytagel concentration, have\\u000a been investigated in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). BM1 basal medium proved superior to DCR1 and LP (LP basal salts plus BM1 organic nutrients). No extrusion from

X. Y. Li; F. H. Huang; E. E. Gbur Jr.



Pre-culturing of nodal explants in thidiazuron supplemented liquid medium improves in vitro shoot multiplication of Cassia angustifolia.  


An in vitro propagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. has been developed. Due to the presence of sennosides, the demand of this plant has increased manyfold in global market. Multiple shoots were induced by culturing nodal explants excised from mature plants on a liquid Murashige and Skoog [8] medium supplemented with 5-100 ?M of thidiazuron (TDZ) for different treatment duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d). The optimal level of TDZ supplemented to the culture medium was 75 ?M for 12 d induction period followed by subculturing in MS medium devoid of TDZ as it produced maximum regeneration frequency (87%), mean number of shoots (9.6 ± 0.33) and shoot length (4.4 ± 0.46 cm) per explant. A culture period longer than 12 d with TDZ resulted in the formation of fasciated or distorted shoots. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots was dipped in 200 ?M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile soilrite where 85% plantlets grew well and all exhibited normal development. The present findings describe an efficient and rapid plant regeneration protocol that can further be used for genetic transformation studies. PMID:24013898

Siddique, I; Abdullwahab Bukhari, N; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Anis, M



Adsorption of phenol and 4-nitrophenol on granular activated carbon in basal salt medium: Equilibrium and kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch studies were carried out for studying the adsorption behaviour of phenol and 4-nitrophenol on granular activated carbon from a basal salt medium (BSM) at pH ?7.1 and temperature ?30°C. The literature review was done in order to review the information for comparison purposes on equilibrium models of phenol and 4-nitrophenol adsorption on activated carbon. The units for measurements reported

Arinjay Kumar; Shashi Kumar; Surendra Kumar; Dharam V. Gupta



Efficacy and safety of insulin lispro protamine suspension as basal supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

The three currently marketed long-acting insulin analogs, glargine, detemir and insulin lispro protamine suspension (ILPS), represent the most significant advances in basal insulin supplementation since the 1940s and 1950s and the introduction of the intermediate-acting NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) insulin. As injection of NPH insulin lacks chronic maintenance of a steady-state low-level basal insulin during fasting periods, which can also expose patients to unpredictable nocturnal hypoglycemia, long-acting insulin analogs have been developed to overcome this important limitation of NPH insulin. ILPS is a protamine-based, intermediate-acting insulin formulation of the short-acting analog insulin lispro: its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics are quite similar to the other basal insulin analogs glargine and detemir. In recent head-to-head randomized controlled trials of insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes, ILPS achieved similar glycemic control compared with glargine or detemir. ILPS administered once daily is an effective and safe way to maintain a steady-state low-level basal insulin during night time, not dissimilar from that currently obtained with a one-day glargine or detemir administration.

Esposito, Katherine



Basal medium development for serum-free culture: a historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of basal synthetic formulations to support mammalian cell culture applications has been facilitated by the contributions of many investigators. Definition of minimally-required nutrient categories by Harry Eagle in the 1950's spawned an iterative process of continuous modification and refinement of the exogenous environment to cultivate new cell types and to support emerging applications of cultured mammalian cells. Key

David Jayme; Toshio Watanabe; Toshiaki Shimada



Advanced technique for long term culture of epithelia in a continuous luminal–basal medium gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of epithelia in our organism perform barrier functions on being exposed to different fluids at the luminal and basal sides. To simulate this natural situation under in vitro conditions for biomaterial testing and tissue engineering the epithelia have to withstand mechanical and fluid stress over a prolonged period of time. Leakage, edge damage and pressure differences in the

Karl Schumacher; Raimund Strehl; Uwe de Vries; Will W. Minuth



Use of cereals as basal medium for the formulation of alternative culture media for fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The feasibility of developing alternative media to different culture media particularly potato dextrose agar was assessed using local cereal species as the basal media. Three cereal meal extracts – corn, sorghum and millet – were prepared, using them as substitute for the potato in potato dextrose agar. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) was the standard set up with which the

A. O. Adesemoye; C. O. Adedire



21 CFR 866.2450 - Supplement for culture media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...866.2450 Supplement for culture media. (a) Identification. A supplement for culture media is a device, such as a vitamin or sugar...mixture, that is added to a solid or liquid basal culture medium to produce a desired...



21 CFR 866.2450 - Supplement for culture media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...866.2450 Supplement for culture media. (a) Identification. A supplement for culture media is a device, such as a vitamin or sugar...mixture, that is added to a solid or liquid basal culture medium to produce a desired...



Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.  


The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9?±?0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P?Supplementation also improved (P?supplementation of E. coracana straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs. PMID:20661642

Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y



Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis induction in Eucalyptus globulus Labill.: basal medium and anti-browning agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low induction rates of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Eucalyptus\\u000a globulus hamper scaling up the process for commercialization. We analyzed the effectiveness of several media (MS, 1\\/2MS, B5, WPM,\\u000a DKW and JADS) during SE induction and expression. MS and B5 were the best media for SE induction and embling regeneration.\\u000a In general, MS was the best medium for expression, independently

Gloria Pinto; Sónia Silva; Yill-Sung Park; Lucinda Neves; Clara Araújo; Conceição Santos



Improving development of cloned goat embryos by supplementing ?-lipoic acid to oocyte in vitro maturation medium.  


?-Lipoic acid (LA) is a powerful antioxidant for clinical therapy of some metabolic diseases, but there are few reports about the effect of LA on animal occyte in vitro maturation (IVM). The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of supplementing LA to IVM medium on subsequently developmental competence of goat cloning embryos after somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT). Twenty-five micromolars LA significantly increased 12% oocyte maturation rate from control 57.8% to treated group 69.8% (P < 0.05). The reconstructed rate of cloning embryos in LA supplement group (67.3%) was significantly higher than control (56.5%, P < 0.05). Although the SCNT embryo cleavage rates did not have significant difference between the two groups (42.0% vs. 47.9%, P > 0.05), LA supplement group had significantly higher blastocyst formation rate and hatched rate than control (24.0% vs. 18.4% and 37.0% vs. 30.9%, respectively, P < 0.05). In addition, supplementing LA significantly reduced the cellular apoptosis rate of nucleus transfer blastocysts by inhibiting the expression of apoptotic activators, such as Bax, Bad, Caspase-3, and CytC genes and promoting cumulus-oocyte complexes to synthesize glutathione (GSH) and express antioxidant enzymes such as GPX4 and SOD genes. In conclusion, supplement of LA to oocyte IVM medium could improve the maturation rate and antioxidant ability of oocytes and increase the developmental competence of oocytes after SCNT. PMID:23743066

Zhang, Hengde; Wu, Bin; Liu, Hongliang; Qiu, Mingning; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Quan, Fusheng



Chicken egg yolk-supplemented medium and the serum-free growth of normal mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Supplementation of tissue culture medium with chicken egg yolk can support the proliferation of low density bovine vascular\\u000a and corneal endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells maintained on basement lamina-coated dishes. The optimal growth-promoting\\u000a effect was observed at concentrations of 7.5 to 10% egg yolk (vol\\/vol). The average doubling time of bovinn vascular endothelial\\u000a cells during their logarithmic growth

D. K. Fujii; D. Gospodarowicz



Increased survival of rat EGF-generated CNS precursor cells using B27 supplemented medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that a population of precursor cells from the developing and adult mouse striatum can be expanded in culture using serum-free, N2-supplemented medium and mitogenic factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF). Here we show that EGF-responsive precursor cells from embryonic rat striatum and mesencephalon can also be expanded in culture, incorporate bromodeoxy uridine (BrDU) and develop into

C. N. Svendsen; J. W. Fawcett; C. Bentlage; S. B. Dunnett



Supplementation of islet culture medium with insulin may have a beneficial effect on islet secretory function.  


Recent reports suggest that apoptosis resulting from the disruption of the normal cell-matrix relationship (anoikis) during islet isolation could lead to a loss of islet tissue in culture. Insulin is known to have a role in cell growth and survival, and this study was undertaken to assess any beneficial effect on islets by supplementing the islet culture medium with insulin. Human and porcine islets were cultured in medium supplemented with 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng x mL(-1) insulin. Secretory function was assessed by perifusion at days 1 and 8. The results demonstrated a significant variation in stimulation index between isolations for human islets, but there was no effect relating to the concentration of insulin in the medium or time in culture. For porcine islets, there was a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in secretory function for islets cultured in 10 and 100 ng x mL(-1) insulin, relative to 0 and 1,000 ng x mL(-1) insulin. There was no interisolation variation or effect of time in culture. In conclusion, the secretory function of porcine islets benefited from the addition of 10 to 100 ng x mL(-1) insulin to the culture medium, but interisolation variation in human islet secretory function did not allow any specific effect of the insulin to be determined. PMID:11138975

Clayton, H; Turner, J; Swift, S; James, R; Bell, P



Survival, morphology and adhesion properties of cerebellar interneurones cultured in chemically defined and serum-supplemented medium.  


Cultures obtained from early postnatal rat cerebellum, grown in either chemically defined or in serum-supplemented medium containing 25 mM K+, contained predominantly (greater than 90%) small interneurones, mostly granule cells, with good and comparable viability (assessed by the retention of preloaded 51Cr). Neuronal survival was prolonged in the chemically defined medium, nerve cells living up to two weeks longer than in serum-supplemented medium, although the proportion of non-neuronal cells was not greatly increased. In the serum-supplemented medium neurones became organised into clumps connected by thick, fasciculated bundles of neurites by about one week in vitro. In comparison, in the chemically defined medium aggregation of neurones and fasciculation of neurites was markedly reduced even after 4 weeks in culture. The possible relationship between the organisation of neurones and the nature of the substratum, chemical factors in the medium as well as the surface properties of the cells is discussed. PMID:3986585

Kingsbury, A E; Gallo, V; Woodhams, P L; Balazs, R



Vergleichende autoradiographische in vitro-untersuchungen zur zellproliferation normaler und psoriatischer epidermis bei inkubation in autologem plasma und in eagles basal medium mit 10% fetalem Kälberserum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normal human epidermis and in psoriasis we examined the cytokinetics under in vitro-conditions. We found a continuity of DNA-synthesis during the first 2 hrs of incubations. There were no significant differences between the data obtained by incubation in autologous plasma or in Eagles Basal Medium with 10% fetal calf serum.

H. Pullmann; H. Schumacher




Microsoft Academic Search

When clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12h cells were cultured in a hormone-supplemented serum-free medium, the carbamylcholine-elicited catecholamine release from cells cultured in serum- free medium was completely abolished. On the other hand, the high potassium-induced catechol- amine release was not changed, even in PC12h cells cultured in serum-free medium. The lack of carbamylcholine sensitivity was confirmed directly by measuring carbamylcholine-induced 22Na




A preliminary search for alternatives to albumin as a medium supplement for the culture of human sperm.  


Non-animal macromolecules (Select Phytone™ UF, wheat peptone, dextran 40, hydroxyethyl starch and methyl cellulose) as an alternative medium supplement for human spermatozoa were compared to bovine serum albumin. Select Phytone™ UF and wheat peptone discolored the medium and smelled like broth, making them unlikely to be acceptable for clinical use, whilst the others were colorless and odorless. All supplements were effective in the yield of spermatozoa isolated by swim-up technique, and maintenance of sperm motility. In summary, there are non-animal macromolecules that will support short-term sperm culture. PMID:23153705

Matson, Phillip; Tardif, Steve



Rapid micropropagation of Curcuma longa using bud explants pre-cultured in thidiazuron-supplemented liquid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots of Curcuma longa were induced by culture of bud explants for 1?week in Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium supplemented with 72.64?µM thidiazuron (TDZ) prior to culture on MS gelled medium without growth regulator for 8?weeks. The regeneration rate was up to 11.4?±?1.7?shoots\\/explant. Rooting was spontaneous and the regenerated plants were successfully transferred to soil. This protocol can

S. Prathanturarug; N. Soonthornchareonnon; W. Chuakul; Y. Phaidee; P. Saralamp



Modification of the Technical Properties of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 by Supplementing the Growth Medium with Unsaturated Fatty Acids ?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementing growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids on the technical properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, such as heat and acid tolerance, and inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Our results showed that the membrane composition and morphology of L. johnsonii NCC 533 were significantly changed by supplementing a minimal Lactobacillus medium with oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated plus cyclic fatty acids in the bacterial membrane decreased by almost 2-fold when minimal medium was supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids (10 ?g/ml). The subsequent acid and heat tolerance of L. johnsonii decreased by 6- and 20-fold when the strain was grown in the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively, compared with growth in oleic acid (all at 10 ?g/ml). Following acid exposure, significantly higher (P < 0.05) oleic acid content was detected in the membrane when growth medium was supplemented with linoleic or linolenic acid, indicating that saturation of the membrane fatty acids occurred during acid stress. Cell integrity was determined in real time during stressed conditions using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with flow cytometric analysis. Following heat shock (at 62.5°C for 5 min), L. johnsonii was unable to form colonies; however, 60% of the bacteria showed no cell integrity loss, which could indicate that the elevated heat inactivated vital processes within the cell, rendering it incapable of replication. Furthermore, L. johnsonii grown in fatty acid-enriched minimal medium had different adhesion properties and caused a 2-fold decrease in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1-lux invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells compared with bacteria grown in minimal medium alone. This could be related to changes in the hydrophobicity and fluidity of the membrane. Our study shows that technical properties underlying probiotic survivability can be affected by nutrient composition of the growth medium.

Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Sybesma, W. F. H.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.



The Dopamine D1-D2 Receptor Heteromer in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons: Evidence for a Third Distinct Neuronal Pathway in Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Dopaminergic signaling within the basal ganglia has classically been thought to occur within two distinct neuronal pathways; the direct striatonigral pathway which contains the dopamine D1 receptor and the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN) and substance P, and the indirect striatopallidal pathway which expresses the dopamine D2 receptor and enkephalin (ENK). A number of studies have also shown, however, that D1 and D2 receptors can co-exist within the same medium spiny neuron and emerging evidence indicates that these D1/D2-coexpressing neurons, which also express DYN and ENK, may comprise a third neuronal pathway, with representation in both the striatonigral and striatopallidal projections of the basal ganglia. Furthermore, within these coexpressing neurons it has been shown that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor can form a novel and pharmacologically distinct receptor complex, the dopamine D1–D2 receptor heteromer, with unique signaling properties. This is indicative of a functionally unique role for these neurons in brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence in support of a novel third pathway coexpressing the D1 and D2 receptor, to discuss the potential relevance of this pathway to basal ganglia signaling, and to address its potential value, and that of the dopamine D1–D2 receptor heteromer, in the search for new therapeutic strategies for disorders involving dopamine neurotransmission.

Perreault, Melissa L.; Hasbi, Ahmed; O'Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.




Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplements are used either to increase the intake of dietary nutrients, such as vitamins, or to provide nutrients\\u000a that are not usually found in foods, e.g. in the form of herbal extracts. Supplements in the form of vitamin pills have been known for decades. Supplements of non-essential\\u000a nutrients are also widely available. The use of dietary supplements has become

Alan Mortensen


Synthesis of an iron-oxidizing system during growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on sulfur-basal salts medium  

SciTech Connect

It was found that the de novo synthesis of not only sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase (ferric ion-reducing system) but also iron oxidase was absolutely required when Thiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3 was grown on sulfur-salts medium. The results strongly suggest that iron oxidase is involved in sulfur oxidation. This bacterium could not grown on sulfur-salts medium under anaerobic conditions with FE/sup 3 +/ as a terminal electron acceptor, suggesting that energy conservation by electron transfer between elemental sulfur and Fe/sup 3 +/ is not available for this bacterium.

Sugio, T.; Wada, K.; Mori, M.; Inagaki, K.; Tano, T.



Fatty acid uptake by cultured human keratinocytes grown in medium deficient in or supplemented with essential fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract Epidermal linoleic acid, i.e. essential fatty acid (EFA), is essential for cutaneous barrier function. Cultured human keratinocytes,\\u000a routinely used for studies of lipid metabolism, are grown in a keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM), under conditions that\\u000a reveal EFA-deficient cells. Here, fatty acid (FA) uptake was analysed in human adult keratinocytes grown either under EFA-deficient\\u000a conditions [KSFM supplemented with 10% FCS

Nanna Y. Schürer; Frank Rippke; Kathrin Vogelsang; Viola Schliep; Thomas Ruzicka



Effects of nitrogen supplementation on yeast (Candida utilis) biomass production by using pineapple (Ananas comosus) waste extracted medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple waste medium was used to cultivate yeast, Candida utilis. It served as the sole carbon and energy source for the yeast growth. However, pineapple waste media contain very little nitrogen (0.003-0.015% w\\/v). Various nitrogen sources were incorporate and their effects on biomass, yield and productivity were studied. Significant (p<0.05) increment on biomass production was observed when nitrogen supplement (commercial

A. Rosma


Diet supplementation with vitamin E, vitamin C and ß-carotene cocktail enhances basal neutrophil antioxidant enzymes in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise increases oxygen consumption and causes a disturbance of intracellular pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Few data are available as to the cumulative effects of exercise on the antioxidant defenses of the neutrophil. We studied the effects of 90 days' supplementation with placebo or an antioxidant cocktail of vitamin E (500 mg\\/day) and #-carotene (30 mg\\/day) and the last 15 days also with

P. Tauler; A. Aguiló; E. Fuentespina; J. A. Tur; A. Pons



Exogenous ?-glutamyl cycle compounds supplemented to in vitro maturation medium influence in vitro fertilization, culture, and viability parameters of porcine oocytes and embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of intracellular glutathione (GSH) enhance in vitro production of porcine embryos. Objectives were: (1) to determine the effects of ?-glutamyl cycle compound supplements to the IVM medium on IVF and IVC; and (2) to evaluate embryo viability. Porcine oocytes were matured in NCSU 23 medium supplemented with either l-cysteine (3.3mM), l-cysteamine (150?M), l-cysteine and l-cystemaine, l-glycine (1, 2.5,

Brian D Whitaker; James W Knight



Intake and Nutrient Utilization of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Mango (Mangifera indica), Ficus (Ficus thionningii), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) Foliages and Concentrates as Supplements to Basal Diet of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Twelve West African dwarf goats balanced for sex and weight were fed Mangifera indica (MI), Gliricidia sepium (GS), Ficus thionningii (FT) foliages and concentrate as supplement to basal diet of Panicum maximum (PM) to evaluate their intake, growth rate, digestibility and nitrogen balance. Goats were assigned to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with four animals per

D. A. Ajayi; J. A. Adeneye; F. T. Ajayi


Effect of genistein supplementation of thawing medium on characteristics of frozen human spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the effects of genistein supplementation of\\u000a the thawing extender on frozen-thawed human semen parameters. We\\u000a analyzed the effect of supplementation on sperm motility, capacitation\\u000a (membrane lipid disorder), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation,\\u000a chromatin condensation and DNA damage. Using this preliminary\\u000a information, it maybe possible to improve the cryopreservation process\\u000a and reduce the cellular damage. We

Juan Carlos Martinez-Soto; Juan de DiosHourcade; Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan; Jose Lorenzo Landeras; Joaquin Gadea



Supplemented ?MEM/F12-based medium enables the survival and growth of primary ovarian follicles encapsulated in alginate hydrogels.  


Hydrogel-encapsulating culture systems for ovarian follicles support the in vitro growth of secondary follicles from various species including mouse, non-primate human, and human; however, the growth of early stage follicles (primary and primordial) has been limited. While encapsulation maintains the structure of early stage follicles, feeder cell populations, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), are required to stimulate growth and development. Hence, in this report, we investigated feeder-free culture environments for early stage follicle development. Mouse ovarian follicles were encapsulated within alginate hydrogels and cultured in various growth medium formulations. Initial studies employed embryonic stem cell medium formulations as a tool to identify factors that influence the survival, growth, and meiotic competence of early stage follicles. The medium formulation that maximized survival and growth was identified as ?MEM/F12 supplemented with fetuin, insulin, transferrin, selenium, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This medium stimulated the growth of late primary (average initial diameter of 80?µm) and early secondary (average initial diameter of 90?µm) follicles, which developed antral cavities and increased to terminal diameters exceeding 300?µm in 14 days. Survival ranged from 18% for 80?µm follicles to 36% for 90?µm follicles. Furthermore, 80% of the oocytes from surviving follicles with an initial diameter of 90-100?µm underwent germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and the percentage of metaphase II (MII) eggs was 50%. Follicle/oocyte growth and GVBD/MII rates were not significantly different from MEF co-culture. Survival was reduced relative to MEF co-culture, yet substantially increased relative to the control medium that had been previously used for secondary follicles. Continued development of culture medium could enable mechanistic studies of early stage folliculogenesis and emerging strategies for fertility preservation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;110: 3258-3268. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23801027

Tagler, David; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Anderson, Nicholas R; Woodruff, Teresa K; Shea, Lonnie D



Effect of genistein supplementation of thawing medium on characteristics of frozen human spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

In this study, we evaluated the effects of genistein supplementation of the thawing extender on frozen-thawed human semen parameters. We analyzed the effect of supplementation on sperm motility, capacitation (membrane lipid disorder), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, chromatin condensation and DNA damage. Using this preliminary information, it maybe possible to improve the cryopreservation process and reduce the cellular damage. We have confirmed that the isoflavone genistein (10 ?mol L?1) has antioxidant properties on the frozen-thawed spermatozoa. This results in a decreased ROS production that shows a slight improvement in the sperm motility, and decreases the membrane lipid disorder and DNA damage caused by cryopreservation. These results suggest an effect of genistein on sperm functionality that could be of interest for assisted reproduction treatments using frozen-thawed human spermatozoa, but further studies will be necessary to confirm our findings and to evaluate the possible clinical applications.

Martinez-Soto, Juan Carlos; de DiosHourcade, Juan; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Landeras, Jose Lorenzo; Gadea, Joaquin



Response of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to practical diets supplemented with medium chain triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT), mostly C6–C12, are physiologically active compounds which are readily absorbed, transported and appear to be preferentially utilized as an energy source but are not deposited in lipid stores in a variety of terrestrial animals. Consequently, the incorporation of MCT in feeds may allow the utilization of higher levels of lipids, possibly increasing protein sparing, without affecting

D. A. Davis; J. P. Lazo; C. R. Arnold



Maternal serum supplementation in culture medium benefits maturation of immature human oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the rates of maturation, fertilization, cleavage and pregnancy among oocytes matured in medium containing either human serum albumin (HSA) or maternal serum. Immature oocytes were obtained from 51 consecutive regularly cycling women <38 years of age. Immature oocytes were aspirated transvaginally on cycle day 8–9 after priming with FSH (Gonal-F 150 IU\\/day for 3 days, initiated on

AL Mikkelsen; E Høst; J Blaabjerg; S Lindenberg



Influence of phytohormones, carbohydrates, aminoacids, growth supplements and antibiotics on somatic embryogenesis and plant differentiation in finger millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured caryopses of finger millet (Eleusine coracana GAERTN) produced callus from shoot apices or mesocotyls depending upon the concentration of picloram and combination of cytokinins in MS basal medium. On subsequent subcultures, numerous somatic embryos differentiated from the callus on MS medium supplemented with picloram and kinetin. The embryos germinated into complete plants on medium devoid of phytohormones. When different

Susan Eapen; Leela George



Nutrient supplementation protects cultured chicken embryo skeletomyocytes from cytotoxicity of moniliformin and oxythiamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal Medium 199 supplemented with 100 ?M of pyruvate, ?-ketoglutarate, thiamine or thiamine pyrophosphate (substrates and cofactor of ?-ketoacid dehydrogenases) or 10 mM of glucose or fructose were tested for the nutrient's ability to protect cultured primary chicken embryo skeletomyocytes from the cytotoxicity of moniliformin (a mycotoxin) and oxythiamine (a thiamine antagonist) after 48 hr exposure. Supplemented thiamine or its

Weidong Wu; Ronald F. Vesonder




Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 48 neonatal pigs were used to determine whether intubation with colostrum or medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) would enhance glucose homeostasis and survival. Pigs were removed from the sow prior to nursing and allotted to three treatment groups. Fasted pigs received only water for 30 h, whereas those allotted to supplemented groups received either 30 ml of colostrum or

Allan J. Lepine; R. Dean Boyd; Janet A. Welch; Karl R. Roneker


Alterations in the relative abundance of gene transcripts in preimplantation bovine embryos cultured in medium supplemented with either serum or PVA.  


In preimplantation bovine embryos, the relative abundance of various developmentally important gene transcripts was determined by a semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay to analyze the effects of two medium supplements, serum or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Development to morula, blastocyst, and hatched blastocyst stages was higher (P < or = 0.05) in medium supplemented with serum than in medium supplemented with PVA. Connexin43 mRNA expression virtually disappeared from the 8-16 cell stage onward, but reappeared in the hatched blastocyst in serum-supplemented medium, whereas it was detected in PVA-derived embryos throughout development. No differences were found for plakophilin mRNA between both culture groups. Desmocollin II mRNA showed a sharp increase at the blastocyst stage in both groups with a higher transcription level in PVA-generated embryos. A significant difference in desmocollin III transcripts was detectable at the 8-16-cell stage between serum- and PVA-derived embryos. Transcripts for desmoglein 1 and desmocollin I were not detected at any preimplantation stage, irrespective of medium supplementation. The relative abundance of glucose-transporter-1 mRNA was significantly increased at the 8-16-cell stage in embryos produced in medium supplemented with PVA, but not serum. Heat shock protein and poly(A)polymerase mRNA were continuously expressed during preimplantation development in both culture groups. Although poly(A)polymerase mRNA was significantly elevated in PVA- over serum-derived embryos, heat shock protein mRNA expression was significantly enhanced in serum-generated embryos over PVA-derived embryos. Interferon tau mRNA showed a significant increase at the hatched blastocyst stage only in PVA-supplemented medium. These data suggest that alterations in mRNA expression are associated with culture environment. Timing and magnitude of the alterations varied among the different transcripts and were significantly affected by the presence of exogenous protein in a stage-specific manner, predominantly at critical developmental time points. PMID:10230812

Wrenzycki, C; Herrmann, D; Carnwath, J W; Niemann, H



Genotype and medium affect shoot regeneration of melon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of basal media, growth regulators and gelling agents on the morphogenetic response of eleven Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus and inodorus genotypes were examined. Regeneration was achieved from cultured cotyledons of all genotypes and the morphogenic response was affected by the genetic background. Among the combination of factors tested, MS basal medium supplemented with 2.8 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA)

N. Ficcadenti; G. L. Rotino



Cysteamine supplementation of in vitro maturation medium, in vitro culture medium or both media promotes in vitro development of buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC) or both IVM and IVC media with cysteamine on the yield, hatching rate (HR) and total cell number (TCN) of buffalo blastocysts were examined. Oocytes obtained from slaughterhouse buffalo ovaries were subjected to IVM and IVF. The IVM or IVC media were supplemented with 0, 50,

T. AnandA; D. KumarA; M. S. ChauhanA; R. S. ManikA; P. PaltaA



Selective growth in serum-free hormone-supplemented medium of tumor cells obtained by biopsy from patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen tumor-containing specimens were obtained directly from patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung and tested for their ability to grow in serum-supplemented medium and in serum-free medium supplemented with hydrocortisone, insulin, transferrin, estrogen, and selenium (HITES). The tumor cells replicated in 14 of 15 cases (93%) in the HITES medium and in 10 of 15 cases (67%) in the serum-supplemented medium. The neoplastic origin of the cells growing in the HITES medium was confirmed by standard cytologic criteria, by DNA content analysis using flow cytometry, and by their ability to form colonies in agarose and tumors in athymic nude mice. While the tumor cells had very similar morphologies in both media, the serum-free medium did not support the growth of nonmalignant stromal cells, and essentially pure cultures of replicating tumor cells were obtained 7-10 days after plating. The selectivity of the HITES medium was demonstrated by the failure of cells to grow in 20 specimens cytologically negative for small cell carcinoma and in 9 of 10 specimens containing other tumor types (including other types of lung cancer). The results demonstrate that a chemically defined medium, determined by work on tissue culture-adapted human tumor lines, can support the selective growth of tumor specimens obtained directly from patients. Such selective formulas are probably specific for different tumor types and thus could be used for diagnosis, drug sensitivity testing in vitro, and identification of factors regulating tumor growth. All of these have direct application to patient treatment. Images

Carney, D N; Bunn, P A; Gazdar, A F; Pagan, J A; Minna, J D



Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: metabolic effects and therapeutic efficacy of long-term L-carnitine supplementation.  


Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is a recently described inborn error of metabolism characterized by episodes of coma and hypoketotic hypoglycaemia in response to prolonged fasting. Secondary carnitine deficiency has been documented in these patients as well as the excretion in the urine of medium-chain-length acyl carnitine esters, such as octanoylcarnitine. Based on the potential toxicity of medium-chain fatty acid metabolites and the beneficial responses of patients with other inborn errors of metabolism and secondary carnitine deficiency, oral carnitine has been proposed as treatment for children with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. We report the results of carefully monitored fasting challenges of an infant with this deficiency both before and after 3 months of oral carnitine therapy. Carnitine supplementation failed to prevent lethargy, vomiting, hypoglycaemia and accumulation of free fatty acids in response to fasting despite normalization of plasma carnitine levels and a marked increase in urinary excretion of acyl-carnitine esters. Potentially toxic medium-chain fatty acids accumulated in the plasma in spite of therapy. Based on this study of one patient, we stress that avoidance of fasting and prompt institution of glucose supplementation in situations when oral intake is interrupted remain the mainstays of therapy for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient patients. PMID:2502671

Treem, W R; Stanley, C A; Goodman, S I



Comparison of high fibre diets, basal insulin supplements, and flexible insulin treatment for non-insulin dependent (type II) diabetics poorly controlled with sulphonylureas.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare high fibre diet, basal insulin supplements and a regimen of insulin four times daily in non-insulin dependent (type II) diabetic patients who were poorly controlled with sulphonylureas. DESIGN--Run in period lasting 2-3 months during which self monitoring of glucose concentration was taught, followed by six months on a high fibre diet, followed by six months' treatment with insulin in those patients who did not respond to the high fibre diet. SETTING--Teaching hospital diabetic clinics. PATIENTS--33 patients who had had diabetes for at least two years and had haemoglobin A1 concentrations over 10% despite receiving nearly maximum doses of oral hypoglycaemic agents. No absolute indications for treatment with insulin. INTERVENTIONS--During the high fibre diet daily fibre intake was increased by a mean of 16 g (95% confidence interval 12 to 20 g.) Twenty five patients were then started on once daily insulin. After three months 14 patients were started on four injections of insulin daily. ENDPOINT--Control of diabetes (haemoglobin A1 concentration less than or equal to 10% and fasting plasma glucose concentration less than or equal to 6 mmol/l) or completion of six months on insulin treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS-- No change in weight, diet, or concentrations of fasting glucose or haemoglobin A1 occurred during run in period. During high fibre diet there were no changes in haemoglobin A1 concentrations, but mean fasting glucose concentrations rose by 1.7 mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 2.5, p less than 0.01). With once daily insulin mean concentrations of fasting plasma glucose fell from 12.6 to 7.6 mmol/l (p less than 0.001) and haemoglobin A1 from 14.6% to 11.2% (p less than 0.001). With insulin four times daily concentrations of haemoglobin A1 fell from 11.5% to 9.6% (p less than 0.02). Lipid concentrations were unchanged by high fibre diet. In patients receiving insulin the mean cholesterol concentrations fell from 7.1 to 6.4 mmol/l (p less than 0.0001), high density lipoprotein concentrations rose from 1.1 to 1.29 mmol/l (p less than 0.01), and triglyceride concentrations fell from 2.67 to 1.86 mmol/l (p less than 0.05). Patients taking insulin gained weight and those taking it four times daily gained an average of 4.2 kg. CONCLUSIONS--High fibre diets worsen control of diabetes in patients who are poorly controlled with oral hypoglycaemic agents. Maximum improvements in control of diabetes were achieved by taking insulin four times daily.

Scott, A. R.; Attenborough, Y.; Peacock, I.; Fletcher, E.; Jeffcoate, W. J.; Tattersall, R. B.



Enhanced production of prodigiosin-like pigment from Serratia marcescens SMdeltaR by medium improvement and oil-supplementation strategies.  


Serratia marcescens SMdeltaR, an SpnR-defective isogenic mutant of S. marcescens SS-1, was used to produce a prodigiosin-like pigment (PLP). Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, frequently used for prodigiosin biosynthesis with S. marcescens strains, was modified by increasing the concentrations of tryptone and yeast extract while completely removing NaCl from the medium. The resulting modified LB (MLB) medium achieved an almost 3.0-fold increase in PLP yield (152 mg l(-1)) when compared with the original LB broth. The addition of vegetable oils (2-6% [v/v]) to the fermentation broth markedly enhanced PLP production. PLP yields of 525, 579, and 790 mg l(-1) were obtained when the MLB medium was supplemented with 4% soybean oil, 4% olive oil and 6% sunflower oil, respectively. PLP production was found to be positively correlated with extracellular surface emulsification activity, suggesting a link between the PLP production and the presence of biosurfactant. This work shows that the optimal medium for PLP yield was sunflower oil (6%)-supplemented MLB medium, which resulted in an approximately 14-fold higher PLP yield than that in LB broth. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis indicated that the PLP product is a prodigiosin derivative, called undecylprodigiosin. PMID:16233840

Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan



Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The basal ganglia are a group of closely connected cell masses, forming a continuum, extending from the telencephalon to the\\u000a midbrain tegmentum (Sect. 11.2). This complex comprises the striatum (the nucleus caudatus and the putamen, largely separated\\u000a by the internal capsule), the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra. The output of the basal ganglia\\u000a is aimed at

Hans J. Donkelaar; Bart Warrenburg; Michèl Willemsen; Benno Küsters; Yoshio Hashizume; Akira Hori


Influence of type of explant, plant growth regulators, salt composition of basal medium, and light on callogenesis and regeneration in Passiflora suberosa L. (Passifloraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passiflora suberosa is used in popular medicine, improvement programs, and as an ornamental plant. The goal of this study was to establish efficient\\u000a protocols for plant regeneration and callus induction from nodal, internodal and leaf segments excised from in vitro-grown\\u000a plants. The different morphogenetic responses were modulated by the type and concentration of plant growth regulators, according\\u000a to the basal

Renata Garcia; Georgia Pacheco; Erica Falcão; Gabriela Borges; Elisabeth Mansur



Effects of Acacia nilotica, A. polyacantha and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal supplementation on performance of Small East African goats fed native pasture hay basal forages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal utilisation of tannin-rich browse tree fodders including Acacia spp. foliages as crude protein (CP) supplements to ruminants in the tropics is limited by less available information on their feed nutritive potential. Two studies were conducted to: (1) determine rate and extent of ruminal dry matter (DM) degradability (DMD) and (2) investigate effect of sun-dried Acacia nilotica (NLM), A. polyacantha

C. D. K. Rubanza; M. N. Shem; S. S. Bakengesa; T. Ichinohe; T. Fujihara



Evaluation of Clitoria, Gliricidia and Mucuna as nitrogen supplements to Napier grass basal diet in relation to the performance of lactating Jersey cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Mtwapa in Coastal lowland Kenya to evaluate the effects of supplementing Napier grass variety Bana (Pennisetum purpureum) with Clitoria ternatea (Clitoria), Gliricidia sepium (Gliricidia) and Mucuna pruriens (Mucuna) on feed intake, diet digestibility and milk yield of lactating Jersey cows. Clitoria and Mucuna were compared with Gliricidia; a widely

H. K. Juma; S. A. Abdulrazak; R. W. Muinga; M. K. Ambula



Impact of a basal diet of hay and fodder beet supplemented with rapeseed, linseed and sunflowerseed on the fatty acid composition of milk fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of fatty acids (FAs) in milk from cows fed a control diet comprised of hay ad libitum and 15kg fodder beet, supplemented with either 1kg ground rapeseed (RAP1), 1 or 1.4kg ground linseed (LIN1 or LIN1.4), or 1 or 1.4kg ground sunflowerseed (SUN1 or SUN1.4), was determined using high resolution gas chromatography. The concentration of saturated fatty acids

Marius Collomb; Heinz Sollberger; Ueli Bütikofer; Robert Sieber; Walter Stoll; Walter Schaeren



A novel chemical-defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements supports undifferentiated growth in human embryonic stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells or on matrigel with an MEF-conditioned medium (CM), which hampers the clinical applications of hESCs due to the contamination by animal pathogens. Here we report a novel chemical-defined medium using DMEM/F12 supplemented with N2, B27, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [termed NBF]. This medium can support prolonged self-renewal of hESCs. hESCs cultured in NBF maintain an undifferentiated state and normal karyotype, are able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and differentiate into three germ layers and extraembryonic cells. Furthermore, we find that hESCs cultured in NBF possess a low apoptosis rate and a high proliferation rate compared with those cultured in MEF-CM. Our findings provide a novel, simplified chemical-defined culture medium suitable for further therapeutic applications and developmental studies of hESCs.

Liu Yanxia [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Song Zhihua [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Zhao Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Qin Han [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Cai Jun [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhang Hong [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yu Tianxin [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Jiang Siming [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Wang Guangwen [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ding Mingxiao [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Hongkui [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China) and Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China)]. E-mail:



Strategies for reducing supplemental medium cost in bioethanol production from waste house wood hydrolysate by ethanologenic Escherichia coli: inoculum size increase and coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


In this paper, we report a simultaneous realization of both efficient ethanol production and saving medium nutrient (corn steep liquor [CSL]) during bioethanol fermentation of overliming-treated hydrolysate of waste house wood (WHW) using ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11. In cultivation using WHW hydrolysate supplemented with 4% (v/v) CSL and 0.2 g-dry cell weight (DCW)/l E. coli KO11 cells, the overall ethanol yield reached 84% of the theoretical value at 61 h. When we conducted the cultivation with 1% CSL to reduce the supplemental medium cost, the overall ethanol yield remained in the range of 66-72% even at 90 h. We proposed two alternative methods for increasing the overall yield even with 1% CSL. The first method involved increasing the inoculum size of E. coli KO11 up to 0.8 g-DCW/l, where 83% of the overall yield was attained at 60 h of cultivation. The second method involved the coculture of 0.2 g-DCW/l E. coli KO11 together with 0.02 g-DCW/l of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ1, and the overall yield reached 81% at 47 h of cultivation. PMID:18343333

Okuda, Naoyuki; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki



Effect of oxygen and lipid supplementation on the volatile composition of chemically defined medium and Chardonnay wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


Oxygen or lipids are required to complete stressful alcoholic fermentation. Lack of these nutrients can inhibit sugar uptake and growth, which leads to incomplete or 'stuck' fermentation. Oxygen or lipids supplementation not only restores yeast fermentative activity and also affects formation of yeast volatile metabolites. To clarify the effect of oxygen and lipid supplementation on the formation of flavour active metabolites during wine fermentation, we evaluated the addition of these two nutrients to chemically defined grape juice and filter clarified Chardonnay must. Lipid addition increased the concentration of esters, higher alcohols and volatile acids, whereas oxygen increased the concentration of higher alcohols and altered the proportion of acetate to ethyl esters and the proportion of branch-chain acids to medium-chain fatty acids. Combined addition of lipids and oxygen showed an additive effect on concentration of higher alcohols whereas oxygen suppressed the enhancing effect of lipids on formation of esters and volatile acids. Our results demonstrate the potential of lipid and oxygen supplementation for the manipulation of wine aroma in white wine fermentation. PMID:22980883

Varela, C; Torrea, D; Schmidt, S A; Ancin-Azpilicueta, C; Henschke, P A



Rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells developed in a medium supplemented with the autologous versus bovine serum.  


The controversial effect of autologous serum (AS) on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was studied in rat MSC culture. Rat bone marrow cells were plated in a medium containing either FBS (fetal bovine serum) or AS were cultured to passage 3, during which the population doubling number (PDN) of both cultures were measured and compared statistically. The number of viable cells, the cell colonogic activity, and cell growth rate were also compared. In addition, mineralization in the osteogenic cultures from each system was measured. Our data indicated that AS enriched medium provided a microenvironment in which growth rate as well as bone differentiation of the isolated MSCs were significantly higher than in FBS enriched medium. PMID:19286467

Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Rouhi, Leila; Arabnajafi, Mahmood; Baharvand, Hossein



Bilayered constructs aimed at osteochondral strategies: the influence of medium supplements in the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.  


The development of osteochondral tissue engineered interfaces would be a novel treatment for traumatic injuries and aging associated diseases that affect joints. This study reports the development of a bilayered scaffold, which consists of both bone and cartilage regions. On the other hand, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) could be differentiated into either osteogenic or chondrogenic cells, respectively. In this study we have developed a bilayered scaffolding system, which includes a starch/polycaprolactone (SPCL) scaffold for osteogenesis and an agarose hydrogel for chondrogenesis. AFSC-seeded scaffolds were cultured for 1 or 2 weeks in an osteochondral-defined culture medium containing both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation factors. Additionally, the effect of the presence or absence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the culture medium was assessed. Cell viability and phenotypic expression were assessed within the constructs in order to determine the influence of the osteochondral differentiation medium. The results indicated that, after osteogenic differentiation, AFSCs that had been seeded onto SPCL scaffolds did not require osteochondral medium to maintain their phenotype, and they produced a protein-rich, mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) for up to 2 weeks. However, AFSCs differentiated into chondrocyte-like cells appeared to require osteochondral medium, but not IGF-1, to synthesize ECM proteins and maintain the chondrogenic phenotype. Thus, although IGF-1 was not essential for creating osteochondral constructs with AFSCs in this study, the osteochondral supplements used appear to be important to generate cartilage in long-term tissue engineering approaches for osteochondral interfaces. In addition, constructs generated from agarose-SPCL bilayered scaffolds containing pre-differentiated AFSCs may be useful for potential applications in regeneration strategies for damaged or diseased joints. PMID:22510402

Rodrigues, Márcia T; Lee, Sang Jin; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J



In vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum: Studies with modified medium supplemented with ALBUMAX II and various animal sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

RPNI, a combination of three commercially available growth media (RPMI-1640, NCTC-135 and IMDM) has been found to support long term continuous cultivation of 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum in the presence of 10% bovine calf serum. During the present study, the suitability of this medium was evaluated for the development of P. falciparum in the presence of horse, goat and

Kumkum Srivastava; Shubhra Singh; Pratibha Singh; S. K. Puri



Egg yolk lipoprotein, a new supplement for the growth of mammalian cells in serum-free medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg yolk lipoprotein promoted growth of a wide variety of mammalian cell lines, including plasma-cytomas and epithelial cell lines, in serum-free medium. The lipoprotein was active for cell growth when used with insulin, transferrin, ethanolamine and selenite. The most active lipoprotein fraction (YLP-pI7.5) was purified to give a single peak by chromatofocusing and gel filtration, and was homogeneous on a

Hiroki Murakami; Yuichi Okazaki; Koji Yamada; Hirohisa Omura



Effect of Agar, MS Medium Strength, Sucrose and Polyamines on in vitro Rooting of Syzygium Alternifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effect of agar, MS basal medium strength, sucrose and polyamines on the in vitro rooting of Syzygium\\u000a alternifolium realized by a two step procedure involving root initiation (RI) and root elongation (RE). RI was carried out\\u000a on solidified MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg dm?3 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 3 weeks, and RE following transfer to

P. S. Sha Valli Khan; J. F. Hausman; K. R. Rao



Supplementation of maturation medium with L-carnitine improves cryo-tolerance of bovine in vitro matured oocytes.  


The objective was to determine the effects of adding L-carnitine (an enhancer of lipid metabolism) during IVM, on cryotolerance and developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Oocytes matured in the absence (control) or presence (0.6 mg/mL) of L-carnitine were subjected to IVF and embryo culture after Cryotop vitrification or nonvitrification at the metaphase stage of the second meiotic cell division. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates, and inner cell mass and trophectoderm cell numbers were determined. Also, ATP content in IVM oocytes was measured and intracellular lipid droplets were observed (Nile red staining and confocal microscopy). L-carnitine had no significant effect on the rate of matured oocytes. Vitrification reduced (P < 0.05) mean (±SEM) rates of live oocytes both in control (80.6 ± 1.9%) and L-carnitine groups (82.7 ± 5.1%) compared with nonvitrified oocytes (100%). After IVF, cleavage rates of vitrified control and L-carnitine groups (56.5 ± 3.9% and 62.8 ± 5.1%, respectively) were significantly lower than those in nonvitrified control and L-carnitine groups (83.9 ± 4.2% and 84.3 ± 1.3%). After vitrification, blastocyst formation rate in the L-carnitine group (54.4 ± 5.2%) was significantly higher compared with the control (34.9 ± 4.4%), and did not significantly differ from those in nonvitrified control and L-carnitine groups (52.1 ± 4.2% and 52.8 ± 3.0%). The numbers and ratio of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells in blastocysts did not differ significantly among groups. The ATP content in L-carnitine-treated oocytes tended to be higher compared with the control. Vitrification did not reduce ATP content in oocytes, irrespective of L-carnitine treatment. Treatment with L-carnitine dislocated lipid droplets from the peripheral area to the inner cytoplasm. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation during IVM redistributed lipid droplets in oocytes; if they survived vitrification, their developmental competence was similar to that of nonvitrified oocytes. PMID:23261307

Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Somfai, Tamas; Inaba, Yasushi; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Nagai, Takashi



Improved growth and taxol yield in developing calli of Taxus cuspidata by medium composition modification.  


Cell culture of Taxus spp. represents a potential alternative source of taxol and related taxanes used in cancer chemotherapy. We have analyzed the effect of different culture media components on growth and production of taxol in developing callus cultures of T. cuspidata. Several sequential modifications were made to the basal B5 medium, which included addition and/or variation in the concentration of sucrose, B5 organic supplements, gibberellic acid, 36 combinations of 2,4-D/kinetin ratios, media salts and organic supplements, phenylalanine, casein hydrolysate and medium pH. The experiments were conducted during a 55 day-growth period followed by taxane extraction and analysis. Significant increases in taxol yield and growth over basal medium grown calli were observed with some of the modified media. PMID:7765304

Fett-Neto, A G; Melanson, S J; Sakata, K; DiCosmo, F



Effects of type of explant and age, plant growth regulators and medium strength on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration was achieved through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis in Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Callus was induced from mature zygotic embryos and from cotyledon explants collected from 10, 15, 25, and 30-day-old seedlings\\u000a cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).\\u000a Maximum callus induction from mature zygotic embryos was obtained on MS basal

M. G. Prakash; K. Gurumurthi



Supplementation of the dilution medium after thawing with reduced glutathione improves function and the in vitro fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa.  


In this study, we evaluated the effects of glutathione (l-gamma-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine; GSH) supplementation of the thawing extender on bull semen parameters to compensate for the decrease in GSH content observed during sperm freezing. To address these questions fully, we used a set of functional sperm tests. These included tests of sperm motility assayed by computer-assisted semen analysis, membrane lipid packing disorder, spontaneous acrosome reaction, free radical production [reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation], sperm chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling and acridine orange staining measured by flow cytometry. Finally, the in vitro penetrability of in vitro matured oocytes and the in vitro production of embryos were evaluated. The main findings emerging from this study were that addition of GSH to the thawing medium resulted in: (i) a higher number of non-capacitated viable spermatozoa; (ii) a reduction in ROS generation; (iii) lower chromatin condensation; (iv) lower DNA fragmentation; (v) higher oocyte penetration rate in vitro and (vi) higher in vitro embryo production compared with control group. Nevertheless, GSH had no significant effect on motion parameters or the occurrence of the spontaneous acrosome reaction. Addition of GSH to the thawing extender could be of significant benefit in improving the function and fertilizing capacity of frozen bull spermatozoa. PMID:18190425

Gadea, Joaquín; Gumbao, David; Cánovas, Sebastián; García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Grullón, Luis Alberto; Gardón, Juan Carlos



Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)  


... technique is particularly useful for basal cell carcinomas located on the nose, the ears, and the lips. ... technique is particularly useful for basal cell carcinomas located on the nose, the ears, and the lips. ...


Growth Basal Area Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth basal area (GBA) is that basal area at which dominant trees grow at 1.0 inch in diameter per decade at age 100. Diameter growth rate of 1.0 inch per decade is a constant used to compare sites; basal area is a variable used to express stockability. ...

F. C. Hall



Effects of Supplementing a Basal Diet of Chloris gayana Hay with One of Three Protein-rich Legume Hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum Forage on Some Nutritional Parameters in Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing East African type goats offered Chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119–128 g CP\\/kg DM) legume hays, Cassia rotundifolia (cassia), Lablab purpureus (lablab) or Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Goats in the supplemented groups had

J. F. Mupangwa; N. T. Ngongoni; J. H. Topps; H. Hamudikuwanda



Development of a serum-free medium for the production of erythropoietin by suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells using a statistical design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a serum-free (SF) medium for the production of erythropoietin (EPO) by suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells, a statistical optimization approach based on a Plackett–Burman design was adopted. A basal medium was prepared by supplementing Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium (IMDM) with Fe(NO3)39H2O, CuCl2 and ZnSO47H2O which are generally contained in SF medium formulations.

Gyun Min Lee; Eun Jung Kim; No Soo Kim; Sung Kwan Yoon; Yong Ho Ahn; Ji Yong Song



Effects of supplementing a basal diet of Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats.  


Growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing East African type goats offered Chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119-128 g CP/kg DM) legume hays, Cassia rotundifolia (cassia), Lablab purpureus (lablab) or Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Goats in the supplemented groups had higher total dry matter and nitrogen intakes and higher N retention and body mass gains than unsupplemented counterparts. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were increased by protein supplementation. Animals on supplemented diets had higher fractional outflow rates of particulate matter from the rumen. The production of protein by ruminal microbes and the efficiency of microbial N production were increased by supplementation. It was concluded that a mixture of low-quality grass hay (61.9 CP/kg DM) and either cassia, lablab or siratro hay, and maize grain can provide a productive balanced diet for growing goats. PMID:11020947

Mupangwa, J F; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Hamudikuwanda, H



Evaluation of medium supplemented with insulin-transferrin-selenium for culture of primary bovine calf chondrocytes in three-dimensional hydrogel scaffolds.  


Insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) was investigated as a complete or partial replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) during in vitro culture of bovine calf chondrocytes in hydrogel scaffolds. Chondrocyte-seeded agarose and self-assembling peptide hydrogels were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium plus 10% FBS, 1% ITS plus 0.2% FBS, or 1% ITS and evaluated for biosynthesis, cell division, and surface outgrowth of fibroblastic-like cells and fibrous capsule formation over several weeks of culture. In peptide hydrogels, cells cultured in ITS plus 0.2% FBS medium exhibited high rates of biosynthesis and showed similar cell division trends as seen in 10% FBS cultures. ITS medium alone did not support glycosaminoglycan accumulation beyond 5 days of culture, and cell division was less than that in both serum-containing cultures. Extensive cellular outgrowth and fibrous capsule formation were observed in 10% FBS medium, whereas little outgrowth was observed in ITS plus 0.2% FBS and none was seen in ITS medium alone. In agarose hydrogels, chondrocyte biosynthesis and cell division in ITS medium were similar to that in 10% serum culture over 5 weeks, and cellular outgrowth was eliminated. Taken together, ITS was suitable as a partial (peptide) or complete (agarose) substitute for serum, and also provided the benefit of reducing or eliminating cell outgrowth and fibrous capsule formation on the hydrogel surface. PMID:15738669

Kisiday, John D; Kurz, Bodo; DiMicco, Michael A; Grodzinsky, Alan J


Development of porcine embryos produced by IVM/IVF in a medium with or without protein supplementation: effects of extracellular glutathione.  


This study was designed to examine the effects of extracellular reduced glutathione on development of pig embryos, produced by in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF), in a chemically defined North Carolina State University (NCSU) 23 medium or in NCSU 23 medium with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Microfilament distribution, as a marker of embryo quality, was also examined by immunocytochemical staining and confocal microscopy. When the inseminated oocytes were cultured in the defined medium containing 0-0.5 mM glutathione, blastocyst formation as observed only in the media with glutathione (8.5-16.0%). Increased numbers of blastomeres were observed in the blastocysts as the concentration of glutathione was increased (18.8 +/- 7.2 to 31.0 +/- 8.6). In NCSU 23 medium with 4 mg BSA/ml, addition of glutathione at concentrations of 0.125-0.5 mM significantly increased the proportions of oocytes that developed to blastocysts (39.2-52.5%) compared with the control (29.5%). However, no difference was observed in the average cell number in the blastocysts (41.9 +/- 15.6 to 49.1 +/- 15.5). There were no significant differences in the microfilament distribution in the embryos produced in the defined medium and in the BSA-containing medium. These results indicate that pig embryos produced by IVM/IVF can develop to the blastocyst stage in a defined medium. BSA and glutathione have a synergistic effect on pig embryo development. PMID:12056450

Wang, Wei-Hua; Day, Billy N



Basal Cell Carcinoma  


... forms on skin that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common ... skin cancer usually develops on skin that gets sun exposure, such as on the head, neck, and back ...


Basal Ganglia and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders.



Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.  


The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production. PMID:23932744

Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar



Supplementing different ratios of short- and medium-chain fatty acids to long-chain fatty acids in dairy cows: changes of milk fat production and milk fatty acids composition.  


Milk fat synthesis might be promoted by the dietary addition of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) or short- and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA). This study evaluated unprotected lipid supplementation with different ratios of SMCFA to LCFA, which had equivalent fatty acid (FA) proportions (by weight) to those in milk, on milk fat production and milk FA composition. Thirty-six Holstein cows (183±46 d in milk) were divided into 3 treatments according to a randomized block design. Cows in 3 treatments received supplements of 80 g/d of SMCFA mixture and 320 g/d of LCFA mixture (ratio of SMCFA to LCFA was 20:80); 400 g/d of butterfat (ratio of SMCFA to LCFA was 40:60); or 240 g/d of SMCFA mixture and 160 g/d of LCFA mixture (ratio of SMCFA to LCFA was 60:40). The FA compositions of the SMCFA mixture and the LCFA mixture were similar to the de novo synthesized FA (except C4:0) and preformed FA (except trans FA) found in the butterfat, respectively. Fatty acid supplements and butterfat were consumed by cows daily before the morning feeding during the 8-wk experimental period. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not different among the treatments. The milk fat percentage and total SMCFA concentration in milk fat tended to increase linearly and the proportion of milk total solids increased linearly with increasing ratios of SMCFA to LCFA in the supplements, whereas milk fat yield was not changed. We suggest that increasing ratios of SMCFA to LCFA in diets has the potential to improve milk fat synthesis. PMID:23415518

Sun, Y; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Cui, H; Zhao, X W; Xu, X Y; Sun, P; Zhou, L Y



In vitro growth and organogenesis of Prosopis farcta plantlets (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) in culture medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca++ and Na+.  


The objective of this study was to vary the mineral composition of the culture medium of Prosopis farcta seedlings per addition of Na+ and Ca++ ions with the aim to identify the culture media which support the growth and/or the expression of the in vitro plant organogenesis. The Na+ and Ca++ ions were added in the culture medium in various concentrations by taking the Gamborg medium, in which macroelements were diluted 10 times, as the basic one. After two months of culture, parameters relating to the vegetative development of plant seedlings and to the various expressions of organogenesis were measured. Weak concentrations in sodium and calcium ions as well as a weak concentration in Ca++ (0.1 mM) with 50 mM in Na+ support the best vegetative development of the plantlets. The most important percentage of plant seedlings presenting a bud initiation was obtained on a medium containing 0.1 mM of Na+ and 50 mM of Ca++. Our study defined several media likely to support in vitro development of Prosopis farcta plantlets allowing the selection of salt tolerant plants or cellular lines. Some other media were chosen for improving micropropagation of the species without adding growth substances. PMID:22453804

Stambouli, S; Bouzid, S; Dutuit, P; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia



Supplementation of the dilution medium after thawing with reduced glutathione improves function and the in vitro fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the effects of glutathione\\u000a (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine; GSH) supplementation of the\\u000a thawing extender on bull semen parameters to compensate for the\\u000a decrease in GSH content observed during sperm freezing. To address\\u000a these questions fully, we used a set of functional sperm tests. These\\u000a included tests of sperm motility assayed by computer-assisted semen\\u000a analysis, membrane lipid packing disorder,

Joaquin Gadea; David Gumbao; Sebastian Canovas; Francisco Alberto Garcia-Vazquez; Luis Alberto Grullon; Juan Carlos Gardon



Development of a serum-free medium for the production of humanized antibody from chinese hamster ovary cells using a statistical design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To develop serum-free (SF) media for the production of humanized antibody from recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells,\\u000a a statistical optimization approach based on a Plackett-Burman design was adopted. A basal medium was prepared by supplementing\\u000a ?-minimal essential medium (?-MEM) with Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, CuCl2, ZnSO4·7H2O, and Na2SeO3 which are generally contained in SF medium formulations. Insulin, transferrin, and ethanolamine were also

Eun Jung Kim; No Soo Kim; Gyun Min Lee



21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that consists primarily...The device consists of a relatively simple basal medium enriched by the addition of such...



21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that consists primarily...The device consists of a relatively simple basal medium enriched by the addition of such...



Improved maintenance of adult rat hepatocytes in a new serum-free medium in the presence or absence of barbiturates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  For serum-free primary culture of adult rat hepatocytes, a synthetic medium DM-160 and rat-tail collagen were selected for\\u000a the basal medium and for the culture substratum, respectively. Barbiturates, such as phenobarbital and 1-ethyl-5-isobutylbarbiturate,\\u000a efficiently supported survival of hepatocytes and maintained their morphologic features at lower concentrations under the\\u000a serum-free conditions than under the serum-supplemented conditions. However, the hepatocyte survival rates

Masahiro Miyazaki; Yasunori Suzuki; Munehiro Oda; Akira Kawai; Liyan Bai; Jiro Sato



[Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage].  


Massive subarachnoid hemorrhage may occur on a traumatic basis. The injury is most often sustained by a blow with a clenched fist against the posterolateral part of the cranial basis, but the injury may also occur in relation to an accident. The condition is rare, most often occurring in alcohol intoxicated men. The victim typically collapses immediately and usually dies within a few minutes. The origin of the bleeding may be the vertebral artery on the neck or the intercranial basal brain arteries. In some cases the origin of the bleeding cannot be located. The pathogenetic mechanisms have been a subject of discussion. The damage to the artery may occur in relation to a fracture of the transverse process of the atlas or in relation to subluxations in the cervical vertebral column. The arterial rupture may occur in both normal and abnormal arteries. In many of the cases the trauma may be very slight. This has, of course, important legal implications. PMID:12772392

Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil



Degludec: A Novel Basal Insulin.  


Limitations of conventional human basal insulins like NPH have led to the development of more stable and peak less analogs. However, the first generation of basal analogs like glargine and detemir has certain shortcomings which do not allow them to be termed ideal basal insulin. Degludec, a novel basal insulin analog has the potential to overcome these limitations. This paper reviews the potential advantages of degludec over existing basal insulins and analogs. It discusses the basic and clinical studies performed on degludec so far, and highlights the possible role this molecule can play in the management of diabetes mellitus. In this paper, the recent patents on basal insulin have been reviewed so as to provide an insight into the advances in this field. In this article, we present a review of Degludec, as well as related patents. PMID:22280218

Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P; Niazi, Asfandyar K



Dietary Supplements  


Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...


Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are important links between parts of the brain that have classically been considered to be related to emotional functioning and brain regions previously considered to have largely motor functions. The basal ganglia have a role in the development and integration of psychomotor behaviours, involving motor functions, memory and attentional mechanisms, and reward processes.

Ring, H; Serra-Mestres, J



Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances in vitro skeletal muscle cell growth via a COX-2-dependent pathway.  


Arachidonic acid (AA) is the metabolic precursor to a diverse range of downstream bioactive lipid mediators. A positive or negative influence of individual eicosanoid species [e.g., prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids] has been implicated in skeletal muscle cell growth and development. The collective role of AA-derived metabolites in physiological states of skeletal muscle growth/atrophy remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the direct effect of free AA supplementation and subsequent eicosanoid biosynthesis on skeletal myocyte growth in vitro. C2C12 (mouse) skeletal myocytes induced to differentiate with supplemental AA exhibited dose-dependent increases in the size, myonuclear content, and protein accretion of developing myotubes, independent of changes in cell density or the rate/extent of myogenic differentiation. Nonselective (indomethacin) or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)-selective (NS-398) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs blunted basal myogenesis, an effect that was amplified in the presence of supplemental free AA substrate. The stimulatory effects of AA persisted in preexisting myotubes via a COX-2-dependent (NS-389-sensitive) pathway, specifically implying dependency on downstream PG biosynthesis. AA-stimulated growth was associated with markedly increased secretion of PGF(2?) and PGE(2); however, incubation of myocytes with PG-rich conditioned medium failed to mimic the effects of direct AA supplementation. In vitro AA supplementation stimulates PG release and skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via a COX-2-dependent pathway. PMID:23076795

Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David



Polar basal melting on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential importance of basal melting on Mars is illustrated through the discussion of four examples: (1) the origin of the major polar reentrants, (2) the removal and storage of an ancient Martian ice sheet, (3) the mass balance of the polar terrains, and (4) the possibility of basal melting at temperate latitudes. This analysis suggests that the process of basal melting may play a key role in understanding the evolution of the Martian polar terrains and the long-term climatic behavior of water on Mars.

Clifford, S. M.



Chromium supplements: differences in utilization by humans  

SciTech Connect

Chromium (Cr) in the +3 oxidation state has been widely administered to subjects to examine the effects of Cr supplementation. The objective of the current project was to compare the differences in utilization of 2 Cr supplements in adult Midwestern women. Each woman serving as her own control randomly received the basal diet alone, basal diet + brewer's yeast and basal diet + chelated Cr containing 42, 242 and 242 Cr daily, respectively. Treated urine and blood serum samples were analyzed in duplicate for Cr content using a Varian Techtron Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model 1275 equipped with a graphite furnace attachment. Mean urinary Cr excretion was similar for subjects consuming the basal diet alone or with the brewer's yeast supplement (0.16 Use of chelated Cr supplementation led to significantly higher urinary Cr excretion (0.317, P<0.03). This suggests that Cr supplied by chelated Cr was better than that supplied by yeast, although both supplements were apparently poorly absorbed in comparison to the Cr supplied by the diet. Blood serum Cr concentrations were not significantly altered by the experimental treatments.

Bizem, H.R.; Kies, C.; Fox, H.M.



[Anti-basal ganglia antibody].  


Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

Hayashi, Masaharu



Dietary supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of




Dietary supplements.  


For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor



Indicator medium for isolation of Campylobacter pylori.  

PubMed Central

The use of a new indicator culture medium, Belo Horizonte medium, is proposed for better colony recognition and a presumptive identification of Campylobacter pylori. This medium, containing brain heart infusion sheep blood agar, was supplemented with 40 mg of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride per liter in addition to vancomycin, nalidixic acid, and amphotericin B. On Belo Horizonte medium, Campylobacter pylori present unique golden colonies.

Queiroz, D M; Mendes, E N; Rocha, G A



Growth of Paracoccus Halodenitrificans in a Defined Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when...

L. I. Hochstein G. A. Tomlinson



Massive basal cell carcinoma of the scalp: successful management by cooperation of chemosurgeon and reconstructive surgeon.  


No single modality is appropriate for treatment of the huge invasive basal cell carcinoma. Mohs' chemosurgery is perhaps the most efficacious ablative method, but it must be supplemented by a reconstructive procedure in nearly all sizable lesions. A case history is presented of a patient with massive basal cell carcinoma involving the entire posterior scalp and deep tissues in which chemosurgical ablation and major staged reconstruction proceeded concurrently to a successful conclusion. The advantages of this approach are discussed. PMID:365064

Bakamjian, V Y; Morain, W D; Phelan, J T



Sports Supplements  


... supplements. Instead, try these tips for getting better game: Make downtime a priority. Studies show that teens ... Meditating or visualizing your success during the next game may improve your performance; sitting quietly and focusing ...


Calcium supplements  


... the word "purified" or the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) symbol. Watch out for supplements made from unrefined ... meal, or dolomite that don't have the USP symbol. They may have high levels of lead ...


Dietary Supplements  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... The manufacturers and distributors of dietary supplements are responsible for making sure their products are safe BEFORE they go to market. ... More results from


Colostrum supplement  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A consumable supplement contains a colostrum component composed of processed bovine colostrum, magnesium peroxide as a source of active oxygen, a vitamin such as vitamin C, magnesium succinate and a bioflavonoid. This colostrum component can be taken separately or admixed with other minerals, vitamins and the like. In one form, the colostrum component is used as an outer shell for a composite pill, tablet or capsule which includes an inner core containing one or more vitamins, minerals, enzymes or omega acids in the event that the components of the inner core are incompatible with one or more materials of the colostrum component. In this way, a wide variety of supplements may be provided offering the advantages of colostrum and active oxygen and the advantages of other materials which may be taken as a single pill or capsule. Various supplements and formulations are described as well as various amounts of the varius components of the supplement.



Dietary Supplements  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... So, be sure to inform your health-care provider, including your pharmacist, about any supplements you are taking — especially before surgery. ... More results from


Creatine supplementation.  


Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days, followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g·kg·d most commonly for 4 to 6 wk. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is the most studied; other forms such as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits. Creatine is a relatively safe supplement with few adverse effects reported. The most common adverse effect is transient water retention in the early stages of supplementation. When combined with other supplements or taken at higher than recommended doses for several months, there have been cases of liver and renal complications with creatine. Further studies are needed to evaluate the remote and potential future adverse effects from prolonged creatine supplementation. PMID:23851411

Hall, Matthew; Trojian, Thomas H


Basal norepinephrine in depersonalization disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the noradrenergic dysregulation described in PTSD, little is known regarding noradrenergic function in dissociative disorders. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate basal norepinephrine in depersonalization disorder (DPD). Nine subjects with DSM-IV DPD, without lifetime PTSD, were compared to nine healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Norepinephrine was measured via 24-h urine collection and three serial plasma

Daphne Simeon; Orna Guralnik; Margaret Knutelska; Rachel Yehuda; James Schmeidler



Intraoperative Basal Temporal Language Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports two cases using a procedure which revealed a basal temporal language area (BTLA) in fusiform gyrus of language dominant hemisphere (L) by employing electrical stimu- lation and recording of the cortex, with grid electrodes, during computerized speech and object naming tasks. The procedure reduced the time necessary to map the inferior temporal, fusiform, and parahippocampal gyri by

John P. Brockway; Ronald L. Follmer; Kristin A. Solsrud; Anthony L. Asher; M. D. Carolina; Michael D. Heafner


Calcium-binding proteins in primate basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the distribution of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin-D28k, parvalbumin and calretinin in primate basal ganglia. The data derive from immunocytochemical studies undertaken in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and in normal human individuals. In the striatum, calbindin labels medium-sized spiny projection neurons whereas parvalbumin and calretinin mark two separate classes of aspiny interneurons. The striatal matrix compartment is markedly

A. Parent; M. Fortin; P.-Y. Côté; F. Cicchetti



Basal lamina formation on thyroid epithelia in separated follicles in suspension culture  

PubMed Central

When thyroid follicles are isolated by collagenase treatment of minced thyroid lobes, the basal lamina around each follicle is removed. The basal lamina does not reform when follicles are cultured in suspension in Coon's modified Ham's F-12 medium containing, in addition, 0.5% calf serum, insulin, transferrin, and thyrotropin. We have added acid soluble collagen and/or laminin to see if they would result in the formation of a basal lamina. An extended basal lamina did not form when follicles were embedded in a gel formed from acid-soluble rat tendon collagen or from calf skin collagen when added at a concentration of 100 micrograms collagen/ml. However, laminin at a concentration of 5.1 micrograms/ml gave rise to short segments of a basal lamina within 30 min. At longer time intervals, the segments lengthened and covered the base of many cells, and were continuous across the gap between cells and across the mouth of a coated pit. Not all basal surfaces were covered, and no exposed apical surfaces with microvilli had a basal lamina. There was no obvious difference in the appearance of the basal lamina if collagen was added in addition to laminin, but collagen, in contact with the plasma membrane when added alone, was lifted off the membrane in the presence of the basal lamina. The basal lamina appeared denser if formed in the presence of 5% serum instead of 0.5%.



?-Alanine supplementation.  


?-Alanine is rapidly developing as one of the most popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes worldwide. The popularity of ?-alanine stems from its unique ability to enhance intramuscular buffering capacity and thereby attenuating fatigue. This review will provide an overview of the physiology that underlies the mechanisms of action behind ?-alanine, examine dosing schemes, and examine the studies that have been conducted on the efficacy of this supplement. In addition, the effect that ?-alanine has on body mass changes or whether it can stimulate changes in aerobic capacity also will be discussed. The review also will begin to explore the potential health benefits that ?-alanine may have on older adult populations. Discussion will examine the potential adverse effects associated with this supplement as well as the added benefits of combining ?-alanine with creatine. PMID:22777329

Hoffman, Jay R; Emerson, Nadia S; Stout, Jeffrey R


Interstellar Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interstellar Medium (ISM) forms an integral part of the lifecycle of stars and the galaxy. Stars are formed by gravitational contraction of interstellar clouds. Over their life, stars return much of their mass to the ISM through winds and supernova ex...

A. G. G. M. Tielens



Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

Murphy, Sharon


Morning glory syndrome and basal encephalocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Morning glory syndrome (MGS) is a congenital optic disc dysplasia often associated with craniofacial anomalies, especially basal encephalocele. Clinical presentations are varied and often occult. Case report We describe a case of bilateral MGS associated with basal encephalocele that was detected by chance when treatment was sought for respiratory distress. Conclusions MGS and basal encephalocele should always be suspected

Celia S. Chen; David David; Ahmed Hanieh



Basal insulin: physiology, pharmacology, and clinical implications.  


Primary goals in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) include lowering blood glucose levels sufficiently to prevent micro- and macrovascular complications while limiting side effects, such as hypoglycemia and excessive weight gain. Patients with T2DM are typically treated initially with oral antidiabetes agents; however, as the disease progresses, most will require insulin to maintain glycemic control. Often insulin therapy is initiated with basal insulin, and the objective of this article is to present the conceptual aspects of basal insulin therapy and use these concepts to illustrate important clinical aspects. This will be accomplished within a broader contextual discussion of the normal physiologic patterns of insulin secretion, which consist of sustained levels of basal insulin production throughout the day, superimposed with bursts of insulin secretion following a meal (termed bolus or prandial insulin secretion) that slowly decay over 1 to 3 hours. Long-acting basal insulin analogs form a key component of basal-bolus therapy and provide basal support for patients with T2DM. Insulin therapy is often initiated with basal insulin, and newer long-acting analogs, such as insulin glargine and insulin detemir, provide steady, reliable basal insulin coverage in addition to significant advantages over traditional long-acting insulins. This article will integrate conceptual aspects of basal insulin therapy in the context of physiology, molecular pharmacology, and clinical implications of modern basal insulin analogs to provide a foundational understanding of basal insulin biology and physiology. PMID:21680985

Niswender, Kevin D



Improvement in ethanol production from beet molasses by soy flour supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ethanol concentration and the rate of ethanol production were substantially increased when soy flour was added to the inoculum medium, which saved 95% added soy flour compared to supplementing fermentation medium. 11.7% ethanol was obtained by supplementing inoculum medium with soy flour and the fermentation time was reduced by more than 15%.

Xianzhen Li



Growth of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium  

SciTech Connect

Astrocytes purified from primary cultures of neonatal rat cerebrum can not be grown in a synthetic medium supplemented with putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, insulin, fibroblast growth factor, and hydrocortisone. These five supplements have a marked synergistic effect on growth when used in combination but have little effect when used individually. Astrocytes grown in the defined medium exhibit dramatic changes in morphological characteristics in comparison to cells grown in serum-free or serum-supplemented medium. In addition, these cells express the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and are estimated by several criteria to be greater than 95% astrocytes.

Morrison, R.S.; De Vellis, J.



Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract  

SciTech Connect

A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient medium, (MCDB 170, supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, and bovine pituitary extract. Replacement of pituitary extract with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and ovine prolactin yields a defined medium that supports rapid clonal growth and serial subculture for three of four passages. Cultures initiated in these media from normal reduction mammoplasty tissue remain diploid and maintain normal epithelia morphology, distribution of cell-associated fibronectin, expression of keratin fibrils, and a low level of expression of milk fat globule antigen. Large cell populations can now be generated and stored frozen, permitting multiple experiments over a period of time with cells from a single donor. These media greatly extend the range of experiments that can be performed both conveniently and reproducibly with cultured normal and tumor-derived human mammary epithelial cells. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

Hammond, S.L.; Ham, R.G.; Stampfer, M.R.



Effects of Dietary Vitamin E Supplementation and Packaging on the Quality of Minced Beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friesian cattle, aged 26–27 months, were fed a diet supplemented with 2000IU ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg feed\\/day and another group was fed a basal diet (20IU\\/kg feed\\/day) for approximately 50 days prior to slaughter. Following frozen storage (?20°C for 8 weeks) semimembranosus muscles from basal and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplemented cattle were minced and vacuum packaged, aerobically packaged or packaged under modified atmospheres

Z Formanek; J. P Kerry; D. J Buckley; P. A Morrissey; J Farkas



Dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) reduces experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), a lignan precursor isolated from flaxseed, on experimental metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL\\/6 mice. Four diets were compared: a basal diet (control group) and the basal diet supplemented with SDG at 73, 147 or 293 ?mol\\/kg (equivalent to SDG provided in the 2.5, 5 or 10%

Donghua Li; John A Yee; Lilian U Thompson; Lin Yan



Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia.  


The "basal ganglia" refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

Lanciego, José L; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A



NMDA receptors in the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia consist of several interconnected nuclei located in the telecephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon that are involved in a variety of motor and non-motor behavioural functions. Glutamate receptors play a major role in neurotransmission within the basal ganglia and are present in all nuclei of the basal ganglia. This review focuses on the contribution of the NMDA class of glutamatergic receptors to various movement disorders whose primary pathology lies within the basal ganglia and discusses how pharmacological manipulation of such receptors may be therapeutically useful.




Development of a new medium useful for the recovery of dermatophytes from clinical specimens by minimizing the carryover effect of antifungal agents.  


Two surface-active compounds, egg lecithin and polysorbate 80, usually used as the deactivators of various preservatives were tested whether they also counteract either or all of the three major topical antifungal drugs, bifonazole (BFZ), lanoconazole (LCZ) and terbinafine (TBF). Both egg lecithin and polysorbate 80, when added to culture media up to final concentrations of 1.0 and 0.7%, respectively, antagonized the anti-dermatophytic activity of the three drugs in a concentration-dependent manner. A greater extent of antagonistic action was exerted when the two deactivators combined at their maximal levels tested were added; MIC's of BFZ were increased more than 30-fold and those of LCZ and TBF more than 200-fold compared with the values obtained in the absence of the deactivators. Using the agar medium supplemented with the combined deactivators, culture studies were carried out with skin tissues specimens taken from guinea pigs whose feet were infected with dermatophytes and subsequently treated with 1% topical preparations of the three antifungal drugs. The experimental data from this animal study demonstrated that the combined deactivators-supplemented medium yielded increased numbers of fungi compared with the basal medium. It looks, therefore, likely that the fungal recovery on the former medium more correctly reflects to actual fungal burden in the infected lesions than the latter. All these results suggest that the combined deactivators-supplemented medium is more useful for mycological evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of imidazole and allylamine drugs against dermatophytoses in both preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:11939582

Nakashima, Takuji; Nozawa, Akira; Ito, Takao; Majima, Toshiro; Yamaguchi, Hideyo



Dietary Supplements for Toddlers  


... Nutrition > Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Article Body If you provide your ... foods, consult your pediatrician about adding an iron supplement to her diet. In the meantime, decrease her milk intake and ...


Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.  


The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves. PMID:22075559

Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi



sine oculis in basal Metazoa.  


We report the recovery of homologs of Six1/2/sine oculis (so), a homeodomain-containing member of the Six-gene family, from a diverse set of basal Metazoa, including representatives of the poriferan classes Demospongia, Calcarea and Hexactinellida, the cnidarian classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa, as well as a ctenophore. so sequences were also recovered from a platyhelminth, an echiurid and two bivalve molluscs, members of the super-phyletic group Lophotrochozoa. In the case of the platyhelminth, multiple distinct so sequences were recovered, as well as a member of the related group Six4/5/D-Six4. Extended sequences of the so gene were recovered from the demosponge, Haliclona sp., and the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita via PCR, and 3' RACE. The affinities of all recovered sequences were assessed using a parsimony analysis based on both nucleic and amino acid sequence and using successive character weighting. Our results indicate that so is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Preliminary expression data for Aurelia reveal that transcripts of the so homolog are present in the manubrium as well as in the rhopalia, which contain the statocyst and eyes, in the free-swimming ephyra and juvenile stages of these jellyfish. PMID:15221378

Bebenek, Ilona G; Gates, Ruth D; Morris, Joshua; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K



Multiple Output Channels in the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural circuits that link the basal ganglia with the cerebral cortex are critically involved in the generation and control of voluntary movement. Retrograde transneuronal transport or herpes simplex virus type 1 was used to examine the organization of connections in the cebus monkey between an output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi),

John E. Hoover; Peter L. Strick




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if analogical reasoning was included in basal reading materials as a component skill and if so, to examine the nature of that instruction. Three of the four basal series examined directly taught analogical reasoning. The nature and extent of the instructional recommendations in the three series varied widely. Two of the series

Nancy Bacharach



Basal Body Components Exhibit Differential Protein Dynamics during Nascent Basal Body Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Basal bodies ,organize ,cilia that are responsible ,for both mechanical ,beating and sensation. Nascent basal body assembly ,follows a series of well ,characterized morphological events, however, the proteins and their assembly dynamics for new basal body formation and function are not well understood. High resolution light and electron microscopy studies were performed,in Tetrahymena thermophila to determine ,how ,proteins assemble

Chad G. Pearson; Thomas H. Giddings Jr; Mark Winey



Lesions of the basal forebrain impair reversal learning but not shifting of attentional set in rats.  


The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, which project to cortex, the thalamic reticular nucleus and the amygdala, are implicated in many aspects of attentional function, while the intrinsic neurons of the basal forebrain are implicated in learning and memory. This study compared the effects of lesions of the basal forebrain made with either the immunotoxin 192-IgG-saporin (which selectively destroys cholinergic neurons), or the non-selective excitotoxin, ibotenic acid (which destroys both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons) on a task which measure the acquisition and shifting of attentional set as well as the ability to learn reversals of specific stimulus-reward pairings. Rats learned to obtain food reward by digging in small bowls containing distinctive digging media that were differentially scented with distinct odours. They performed a series of two-choice discriminations, with the bait associated with either the odour or the digging medium. Rats with 192-IgG-saporin lesions of the basal forebrain were not impaired relative to control rats at any stage of the task. Rats with ibotenic acid lesions of the basal forebrain were impaired the first time stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed. They were not impaired in acquisition of new discriminations, even when an attentional-shift was required. These data are consistent with data from marmosets and so highlight the functional similarity of monkey and rodent basal forebrain. They also confirm the likely involvement of non-cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain in reversal learning. PMID:17920704

Tait, David Scott; Brown, Verity J



Medium optimization and proteome analysis of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol production by Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 12321.  


Paenibacillus polymyxa can produce the (R,R)-stereoisomer of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDL) which is industrially very useful. Two important factors affecting (R,R)-BDL production by P. polymyxa ATCC 12321, medium composition, and addition of acetic acid to the culture were investigated in this study with accompanying comparative proteomic analysis. For this purpose, a simple control strategy of O(2) supply was applied on the basis of an optimized basal medium: after a short period of batch cultivation with relatively high O(2) supply, the culture is switched into strong O(2) limitation, thereby promoting BDL formation. Three parallel fed-batch cultures starting from the same batch culture in an early stationary phase were then comparatively studied: the first one was running as control with the only change of O(2) supply; the second was, in addition, supplemented with 0.5 g/L yeast extract; and the third one was further added with 6 g/L acetate. Proteomic analyses of the three fed-batch cultures identified more than 86 proteins involved primarily in the central carbon metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress responses. The examination of expression patterns of selected proteins, especially combined with fermentation data, gave valuable insights into the metabolic regulation of P. polymyxa under the different given conditions. Based on the proteomic analysis and further medium optimization studies, methionine was identified as one major growth-limiting factor in the basal medium and explains well the effect of yeast extract. Acetic acid was found to trigger the so far less studied acetone biosynthesis pathway in this organism. The latter is suggested in turn to enhance the switch from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. Thus, these findings extended our knowledge about BDL formation in P. polymyxa and provided useful information for further strain and process optimization. PMID:22865001

Li, Jinshan; Wang, Wei; Ma, Yanhe; Zeng, An-Ping



Distribution of ?-tocopherol in beef muscles following dietary ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on the distribution and concentration of ?-tocopherol in beef muscles. Crossbred cattle (n=8) were selected and divided into two groups and fed diets containing 20 (basal) and 3000 mg (supplemented) ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/head\\/day for 135 days prior to slaughter. Carcasses were split centrally and chilled at

A Lynch; J. P Kerry; M. G O'Sullivan; J. B. P Lawlor; D. J Buckley; P. A Morrissey



Microarray analysis of gene expression in boars supplemented with organic selenium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare gene expression in boars fed diets supplemented with selenium from either organic or inorganic sources. Crossbred boars (n = 15) had ad libitum access to one of three diets since weaning at 28d of age, I) a basal diet with no supplemental selenium (control...


Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte


Systems analysis of hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen

A. Hermelee; M. Beller; J. DAcierno



Transmucosal fentanyl vs intravenous morphine in doses proportional to basal opioid regimen for episodic-breakthrough pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of supplemental doses of opioids is commonly suggested to manage breakthrough pain. A comparative study of intravenous morphine (IV-MO) and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) given in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen was performed in 25 cancer patients receiving stable opioid doses. For each episode, when it occurred and 15 and 30 min after the treatment,

S Mercadante; P Villari; P Ferrera; A Casuccio; S Mangione; G Intravaia



Cortical stimulation evokes abnormal responses in the dopamine-depleted rat basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The motor cortex (MC) sends massive projections to the basal ganglia. Motor disabilities in patients and animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) may be caused by dopamine (DA)-depleted basal ganglia that abnormally process the information originating from MC. To study how DA depletion alters signal transfer in the basal ganglia, MC stimulation-induced (MC-induced) unitary responses were recorded from the basal ganglia of control and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated hemi-parkinsonian rats anaesthetized with isoflurane. This report describes new findings about how DA depletion alters MC-induced responses. MC stimulation evokes an excitation in normally quiescent striatal (Str) neurons projecting to the globus pallidus external segment (GPe). After DA-depletion, the spontaneous firing of Str-GPe neurons increases, and MC stimulation evokes a shorter latency excitation followed by a long lasting inhibition that was invisible under normal conditions. The increased firing activity and the newly exposed long inhibition generate tonic inhibition and a disfacilitation in GPe. The disfacilitation in GPe is then amplified in basal ganglia circuitry and generates a powerful, long inhibition in the basal ganglia output nucleus, the globus pallidus internal segment (GPi). Intra-Str injections of a behaviorally effective dose of DA precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine effectively reversed these changes. These newly observed mechanisms also support the generation of pauses and burst activity commonly observed in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian subjects. These results suggest that the generation of abnormal response sequences in the basal ganglia contributes to the development of motor disabilities in PD and that intra-Str DA supplements effectively suppress abnormal signal transfer.

Kita, Hitoshi; Kita, Takako



Influence of plant growth regulators, basal media and carbohydrate levels on the in vitro development of Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. ex Law.) cotyledon explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of in vitro screening techniques for Pinus ponderosa resistance to Peridermium harknessii could be beneficial in a tree breeding program. Plant growth regulators, basal media formula and carbohydrate levels were examined to determine the various effects each would have on excised cotyledon growth and development. Proliferating green callus was initiated from cotyledon explants on SH basal medium containing 4.4

G. A. Tuskan; W. A. Sargent; T. Rensema; J. A. Walla



? oscillations in the human basal ganglia.  


Interest in beta activity in the basal ganglia has mushroomed since it was first identified in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease in Jonathan Dostrovsky's landmark paper (Levy et al., 2000). Here we consider a less explored phenomenon; namely gamma frequency synchronisation of neurons in the basal ganglia. Gamma oscillations have been reported in a distributed network involving the basal ganglia, thalamus and motor cortex, and have been described in a wide range of diseases as well as during increased arousal and voluntary movement. In Parkinson's disease, gamma activity is promoted by dopaminergic therapy. These features suggest that its elevation may be involved in the production of movement and this hypothesis is supported by the correlation between the amplitude of gamma activity and limb kinematics. Here we review these data, discuss the functional anatomy of gamma activity in basal ganglia and question how closely it relates to the coding of movement parameters. PMID:22841500

Jenkinson, Ned; Kühn, Andrea A; Brown, Peter



Basal cell adenoma of the breast  

PubMed Central

Salivary gland-like neoplasms of the breast are a known entity. A single novel case of basal cell adenoma of the breast is presented, and the presentation, treatment, and morphologic features of this case are discussed.

Mir, Mariam; Herlihy, William



Anatomic landmarks for Basal joint injections.  


Objective: Basal joint arthritis is a common cause of pain and disability, particularly in elderly women. Corticosteroid injection with splinting provides a reliable long-term relief for patients with mild arthritis. Proper location of the basal joint with anatomic landmarks can facilitate diagnosis and treatment of basal joint arthritis while avoiding inadvertent injury to local structures. The purpose of this study is to identify bony anatomic landmarks for basal joint injections and aid clinicians in avoiding inadvertent injury to surrounding structures on the radial side of the wrist. Methods: Twenty fresh cadaveric wrists were dissected with the aid of loupe magnification. The distal edge of the radial styloid and the palpable dorsal aspect of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint were used as bony anatomic landmarks for the identification of the basal joint along a longitudinal vector. Measurements of the distance from our anatomic landmarks to the basal joint space were recorded. The locations of the radial artery and the superficial branch of the radial nerve were noted in relation to the borders of the anatomic snuffbox at the basal joint level. Results: The basal joint of the thumb is located 2.44 ± 0.34 cm distal to the distal edge of the radial styloid, and 4.47 ± 0.29 cm proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint. At the level of the basal joint, the radial artery is found 0.76 ± 0.12 cm dorsal to the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. The first branch of the superficial branch of the radial nerve is volar to the abductor pollicis longus tendon in 84% of the specimens and courses over the abductor pollicis longus tendon in 16%. Conclusion: The basal joint of the thumb is approximately 2.4 cm distal to the radial styloid and 4.5 cm proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint. Placement of a needle in the basal joint space immediately dorsal to extensor pollicis brevis tendon while applying longitudinal traction on the thumb is more likely to avoid damage to the radial artery and the superficial branch of the radial nerve. PMID:22276223

Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J; Elston, Josh; Wilhelmi, Bradon J



Dynamics of Action Potential Backpropagation in Basal Dendrites of Prefrontal Cortical Pyramidal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Basal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons are relatively short and directly attached to the cell body. This allows electrical signals arising in basal dendrites to strongly influence the neuronal output. Likewise, somatic action potentials (APs) should readily propagate back into the basilar dendritic tree to influence synaptic plasticity. Two recent studies, however, determined that sodium APs are severely attenuated in basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells, so that they completely fail in distal dendritic segments. Here we used the latest improvements in voltage-sensitive dye imaging technique (Zhou et al., 2007) to study AP backpropagation in basal dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat prefrontal cortex. With signal-to-noise ratio greater than 15, and minimal temporal averaging (only 4 sweeps) we were able to sample AP waveforms from the very last segments of individual dendritic branches (dendritic tips). We found that in short (<150 µm) and medium range basal dendrites (150 – 200 µm in length) APs backpropagate with modest change in AP half-width or AP rise-time. The lack of substantial change in AP shape and dynamics of rise is inconsistent with the AP failure model. The lack of substantial amplitude boosting of the 3rd AP in the high-frequency burst, also suggests that in short and medium range basal dendrites backpropagating APs are not severely attenuated. Our results show that the AP failure concept does not apply in all basal dendrites of the rat prefrontal cortex. The majority of synaptic contacts in the basilar dendritic tree, actually, receive significant AP-associated electrical and calcium transients.

Zhou, Wen-Liang; Yan, Ping; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Antic, Srdjan D.



Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenesis gene expression and CpG methylation of lipoprotein lipase gene in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on mRNA expression levels of lipogenesis genes\\u000a and CpG methylation of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) in broilers. From 22 days of age, 78 broilers were feed basal diet without betaine and basal diet supplemented with 0.1%\\u000a betaine, respectively, and at 56 and 66 days of age, the traits of 15 chickens (7

Jinyi XingLi; Li Kang; Yunliang Jiang



Herbal Products and Supplements  


... minerals, and dietary supplements follow the U.S. Pharmacopeial (USP) Convention quality standards. These supplement manufacturers volunteer to ... additional quality credentials on their labels, such as “USP Verified” or “ Approved Quality.” Choose your ...


Dietary Supplements Task Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Dietary Supplements Task Force was charged with examining the issues regarding dietary supplements and developing a regulatory framework for these products. To facilitate the orderly development of regulatory strategies, the Task Force divided the uni...



Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteo- arthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucos- amine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain

Pharm D


Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.  


Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other. PMID:23079102

Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H



In vitro propagation of the herbal spice Eryngium foetidum L. on sucrose-added and sucrose-free medium without growth regulators and CO 2 enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantlet regeneration of Eryngium foetidum L. was established using leaf, stem-disc, and root explants derived from in vitro-grown shoots on sucrose-free medium without growth regulators and CO2 enrichment. Effectiveness of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium with or without sucrose, and medium containing only MS macro- and micronutrients were compared. Numbers of shoots and roots developed on MS basal medium

K. P. Martin



Basal cell adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland.  


Basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) is a recently described rare salivary gland tumor. They are locally invasive and destructive tumors with rare incidence of metastasis. BCAC most commonly occur in the parotid gland followed by the submandibular and other minor salivary glands. The primary management of these tumors is surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. Lacrimal gland is a very rare location of BCAC; only one case has been reported in English literature. We report a case of recurrent basal cell adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland in a 75-year-old female. She had past history of local excision of a tumor in the lacrimal gland of same side 10 years back, details of which were not available with the patient. We discuss about the case and review the literature about treatment modality in basal cell adenocarcinoma. PMID:22132848

Muduly, Dillip K; Deo, S V S; Shukla, Nootan Kumar; Yadav, Rajni; Kallianpur, Ashwin A; Samantara, Subrat



Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation  

PubMed Central

Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum- free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE on basal lamina assembly and on myelin formation by Schwann cells cultured with neurons have been examined. Some batches of HPS were unable to promote myelin formation in the absence of EE, as assessed by quantitative evaluation of cultures stained with Sudan black; such HPS also failed to promote basal lamina assembly, as assessed by immunofluorescence using antibodies against laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The addition of EE or L-ascorbic acid with such HPS led to the formation of large quantities of myelin and to the assembly of basal laminae. Pretreatment of EE with ascorbic acid oxidase abolished the EE activity, whereas trypsin did not. Other batches of HPS were found to promote both basal lamina and myelin formation in the absence of either EE or ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid oxidase treatment or dialysis of these batches of HPS abolished their ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation, whereas the subsequent addition of ascorbic acid restored that ability. Ascorbic acid in the absence of serum was relatively ineffective in promoting either basal lamina or myelin formation. Fetal bovine serum was as effective as HPS in allowing ascorbic acid (and several analogs but not other reducing agents) to manifest its ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation. We suggest that ascorbic acid promotes Schwann cell myelin formation by enabling the Schwann cell to assemble a basal lamina, which is required for complete differentiation.



Psychosis revealing familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  


We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with auditory hallucinations and delusions responsive to antipsychotic drugs. Computerized tomography scans revealed basal ganglia calcifications in the proband and in her two asymptomatic parents. Extensive etiological clinicobiological assessment allowed us to exclude known causes of brain calcifications and diagnose familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). Neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms are common in IBGC. Nevertheless, purely psychiatric presentations, as demonstrated by the present case, are possible. However, a fortuitous association between asymptomatic IBGC and schizophrenia cannot be ruled out. Only brain imaging, followed by an extensive etiological assessment, allows for diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23122487

Nicolas, Gaël; Guillin, Olivier; Borden, Alaina; Bioux, Sandrine; Lefaucheur, Romain; Hannequin, Didier



Structural and functional evolution of the basal ganglia in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a basal ganglia with striatal and pallidal subdivisions is1Although by its structure the word basal ganglia is plural, the basal ganglia is typically regarded as a single entity. Thus, in the same sense that the structurally plural `United States' is treated as a singular noun, we here treat basal ganglia as a singular noun.1 clearly present in many extant

Anton Reiner; Loreta Medina; C. Leo Veenman



Birdbrains could teach basal ganglia research a new song  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in anatomical, physiological and histochemical characterization of avian basal ganglia neurons and circuitry have revealed remarkable simi- larities to mammalian basal ganglia. A modern revision of the avian anatomical nomenclature has now provided a common language for studying the function of the cortical-basal-ganglia-cortical loop, enabling neuros- cientists to take advantage of the specialization of basal ganglia areas in

Allison J. Doupe; David J. Perkel; Anton Reiner; Edward A. Stern



Effects of diets supplemented with zinc and manganese on performance and related parameters in laying hens.  


Iron is often found to be of excessive concentrations in laying hens' diets, which may cause antagonistic interactions with other minerals. This study was conducted to investigate how to supplement Zn and Mn in the diets without Fe supplementation. In experiment 1, 420 18-week Lohmann Brown layers were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 30-0, 65-30 and 100-60 mg/kg of Zn and Mn, respectively. In experiment 2, 360 40-week Lohmann Brown layers were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 15-0, 35-0 and 55-15 mg/kg of Mn and Zn, respectively. Minerals were supplemented in the form of sulfate. Egg production was improved by supplementing 30 mg/kg Zn or 65 mg/kg Zn in combination with 30 mg/kg Mn in experiment one. In experiment two, a significant reduction of egg performance occurred with 35 mg/kg Mn supplementation. Mn and/or Zn supplementation increased eggshell thickness in experiment one, and decreased yolk cholesterol in both experiments. Mn and/or Zn supplementation increased Zn and Mn excretion in both experiments. Serum growth hormone (GH), thyroxine (T(4) ), and insulin levels, or alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity were not affected by treatments; serum estrogen (E(2) ) and triiodothyronine (T(3) ) were different but there was no consistency by dietary treatments. This study demonstrates that 30 mg/kg supplemental Zn is necessary to obtain maximal egg production, and there seems to be no need to supply Mn in this type of diet. PMID:22694331

Yang, Xiaojun; Zhong, Lelun; An, Xiaofang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Limin; Han, Jincheng; Yao, Junhu; Cote, Charron; Sun, Yajing



Optimizing rooting of jojoba stem cuttings: Effects of basal wounding, rooting medium and depth of insertion in medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling populations of jojoba are extremely heterogeneous; about 50% of the plants are nonproducing males, and many of the\\u000a females are low-yielding or are otherwise undesirable. Asexual propagation methods allow the increase and use of only desirable\\u000a plants. Rooting of stem cuttings is the most commonly used asexual method; however, unsatisfactory results sometimes still\\u000a occur when using this method, so

David A. Palzkill; William R. Feldman



Effects of supplemental soybean oil and vitamin E on carcass quality and fatty acid profiles of meat in Huzhou lamb  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental soybean oil (SBO) and vitamin E (VE) on carcass characteristics, serum metabolites, and fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus muscle in Huzhou lambs. Totally, 24 male lambs were allocated to three dietary treatments: basal, 3% SBO, and 3% SBO plus 500 mg\\/kg VE supplemented diet (SOE). No differences were observed

X. J. Chen; H. L. Mao; J. Lin; J. X. Liu



Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...


Optimization of culture medium for novel cell-associated tannase production from Bacillus massiliensis using response surface methodology.  


Naturally immobilized tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase, E.C. has many advantages, as it avoids the expensive and laborious operation of isolation, purification, and immobilization, plus it is highly stable in adverse pH and temperature. However, in the case of cell-associated enzymes, since the enzyme is associated with the biomass, separation of the pure biomass is necessary. However, tannic acid, a known inducer of tannase, forms insoluble complexes with media proteins, making it difficult to separate pure biomass. Therefore, this study optimizes the production of cell-associated tannase using a "protein-tannin complex" free media. An exploratory study was first conducted in shake-flasks to select the inducer, carbon source, and nitrogen sources. As a result it was found that gallic acid induces tannase synthesis, a tryptose broth gives higher biomass, and lactose supplementation is beneficial. The medium was then optimized using response surface methodology based on the full factorial central composite design in a 3 l bioreactor. A 2(3) factorial design augmented by 7 axial points (alpha = 1.682) and 2 replicates at the center point was implemented in 17 experiments. A mathematical model was also developed to show the effect of each medium component and their interactions on the production of cell-associated tannase. The validity of the proposed model was verified, and the optimized medium was shown to produce maximum cell-associated tannase activity of 9.65 U/l, which is 93.8% higher than the activity in the basal medium, after 12 h at pH 5.0, 30 degrees C. The optimum medium consists of 38 g/l lactose, 50 g/l tryptose, and 2.8 g/l gallic acid. PMID:22370349

Belur, Prasanna D; Goud, Rakesh; Goudar, Dinesh C



Basal calcium entry in vascular smooth muscle.  


Basal calcium leak into smooth muscle was identified 30 years ago yet remains poorly understood. We characterized this leak measuring 45Ca2+ uptake into cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Wash solution (0 degrees C) containing lanthanum (3 mM) removed extracellular tracer and increased cellular 45Ca2+ retention more effectively than EGTA (0.2 mM). Basal Ca2+ entry was 1.45 x 10(9) Ca2+ x cell(-1) x min(-1). This translated to approximately 250 micromol(-1) x min(-1) given cell volumes of 4-15 pl as determined by 3-D image reconstruction. Gadolinium (100 microM) blocked 80% of the leak and exhibited a biphasic concentration-response relation (IC50s=1 microM and 2 mM). Organic ion channel blockers also inhibited approximately 80% of the leak; 45% by nifedipine (10 microM), 7% was exclusively blocked by SKF 96365 (1-[b-[3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole) (50 microM) and 23% was exclusively sensitive to 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB, 75 microM). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed TrpC1, 4 and 6 mRNA, and we propose that 2-APB may selectively block TrpC4-containing channels. We conclude that basal Ca2+ entry is mainly due to a basal open probability of excitable Ca2+ -channels. PMID:15556133

Poburko, Damon; Lhote, Philippe; Szado, Tania; Behra, Tasneim; Rahimian, Roshanak; McManus, Bruce; van Breemen, Cornelis; Ruegg, Urs T



Basal Textbooks and the Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Basal textbooks are rather popular for social studies teachers to use in the classroom setting. There are selected reasons for this occurring. They do provide beginning and new teachers a framework for ongoing lessons and units of study. The accompanying Manual provides suggestions for learning activities for learners to pursue. Evaluation…

Ediger, Marlow



Actions, Policies, Values, and the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia are widely believed to be involved in the learned selection of actions. Building on this idea, reinforcement learning (RL) theories of optimal control have had some success in explaining the responses of their key dopaminergic afferents. While these model-free RL theories offer a compelling account of a range of neurophysiological and behavioural data, they offer only an

Nathaniel D. Daw; Yael Niv; Peter Dayan


Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master social…

Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.



Extrastriatal dopaminergic innervation of human basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemical analysis of the brains of normal human individuals has revealed nigrostriatal axons providing collaterals that arborize in the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus. These thin and varicose collaterals emerge from thick and smooth axons that course backward along the main output pathways of the basal ganglia, including the ansa lenticularis, the lenticular fasciculus and Wilson’s pencils. Many of

Martine Cossette; Martin Lévesque; André Parent



Dopamine release in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action potential- and Ca2+ -dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic, mechanism. Even

M. E. Rice; J. C. Patel; S. J. Cragg


Empowering Teachers To Break the Basal Habit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certain events between the late sixties and the eighties were major influences in empowering Australian reading teachers to break the basal habit. During the late sixties a growing number of elementary classroom teachers and principals were showing an interest in classroom practices that focused on children's individual progression. During the…

Martin, Rodney D.


Humanized Foxp2 specifically affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits.  


It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution and influence aspects of speech and language. Recently it was shown that when these substitutions are introduced into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice, they increase dendrite length and long-term depression (LTD) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we investigated if these effects are found in other brain regions. We found that neurons in the cerebral cortex, the thalamus and the striatum have increased dendrite lengths in the humanized mice whereas neurons in the amygdala and the cerebellum do not. In agreement with previous work we found increased LTD in medium spiny neurons, but did not detect alterations of synaptic plasticity in Purkinje cells. We conclude that although Foxp2 is expressed in many brain regions and has multiple roles during mammalian development, the evolutionary changes that occurred in the protein in human ancestors specifically affect brain regions that are connected via cortico-basal ganglia circuits. PMID:21111790

Reimers-Kipping, S; Hevers, W; Pääbo, S; Enard, W



Supplements and athletes.  


Supplements have become a staple with athletes. Athletes take supplements to enhance their performance through replenishment of real and perceived deficiencies, anabolic action of stimulants, increased energy and alertness, and for weight control. Physicians who deal with athletes should be aware of the supplements being utilized by athletes, the athletes' desired effects and the efficacy of the supplement, the adverse effects, and whether the supplement is banned by leagues or organizations in which the athletes are competing. For those athletes who are regularly drug tested for performance enhancers, it is important to remember that one cannot be 100% sure that any supplement will not result in a positive drug test, because there is no independent agency certifying purity. PMID:15455977

Lombardo, John A



Calcium supplements: Practical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preferable source of calcium is a balanced diet, but medicinal supplements are sometimes necessary if patients are to reach desired intakes. A divided dose regimen (4×\\/d; i.e., with meals and at bedtime) results in substantially greater absorption of a supplement than does l×\\/d dosing. However, differences in chemical solubility between supplement preparations are of little importance, with calcium carbonate

R. P. Heaney



Influence of nutritional supplements on keratinolysis by Amycolatopsis keratinophila.  


Keratinolytic potential of A. keratinophila (DSM 44409T), a newly described Amycolatopsis sp. isolated from cultivated soil in Kuwait, was demonstrated using keratinazure as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen as estimated by gel diffusion assay. Effects of 12 various nutritional supplements on the keratinolytic and azocollytic activities were determined. NH4H2PO4 and KNO3 in the medium supported a significantly higher keratinolytic activity than other supplements. However, azocollytic activities in all the supplemented media and the control were same. Best combination of carbon and nitrogen supplements (galactose and NH4H2PO4 respectively) used to evaluate the dynamics of growth and enzymes (keratinase and protease) activities of the isolate revealed a luxuriant growth with optimal keratinolytic activity occurring during the log phase. Other parameters of the fermentation medium, including pH, biomass accumulation, total protein and free amino acid concentrations were also studied. PMID:15248487

Al-Musallam, A A; Al-Zarban, S S; Al-Sarawi, H K; Kroppenstedt, R M; Stackebrandt, E; Fasasi, Y A



Improved Motility Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A motility medium is described consisting of gelatin, 3%; agar, 0.1%; Heart Infusion broth, 2.5%; K2HPO4, 0.2%; KNO3, 0.2%; and 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), 0.01%. This medium was compared with Difco motility test medium, Difco GI motility ...

R. J. Ball W. Sellers



Neurochemical oscillations in the basal ganglia.  


This work represents an attempt to elucidate the neurochemical processes in the basal ganglia by mathematical modelling. The correlation between neurochemistry and electrophysiology has been used to construct a dynamical system based on the basal ganglia's network structure. Mathematical models were constructed for different physical scales to reformulate the neurochemical and electrophysiological behaviour from synapses up to multi-compartment systems. Transformation functions have been developed to transit between the different scales. We show through numerical simulations that this network produces oscillations in the electrical potentials as well as in neurotransmitter concentrations. In agreement with pharmacological experiments, a parameter sensitivity analysis reveals temporary changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological systems after single exposure to antipsychotic drugs. This behaviour states the structural stability of the system. The correlation between the neurochemical dynamics and drug-induced behaviour provides the perspective for novel neurobiological hypotheses. PMID:19588207

Noori, Hamid Reza; Jäger, Willi



Cartwheel architecture of Trichonympha basal body.  


Centrioles and basal bodies are essential for the formation of cilia, flagella, and centrosomes. They exhibit a characteristic ninefold symmetry imparted by a cartwheel thought to contain rings of SAS-6 proteins. We used cryoelectron tomography to investigate the architecture of the exceptionally long cartwheel of the flagellate Trichonympha. We found that the cartwheel is a stack of central rings that exhibit a vertical periodicity of 8.5 nanometers and is able to accommodate nine SAS-6 homodimers. The spokes that emanate from two such rings associate into a layer, with a vertical periodicity of 17 nanometers on the cartwheel margin. Thus, by using the power of biodiversity, we unveiled the architecture of the cartwheel at the root of the ninefold symmetry of centrioles and basal bodies. PMID:22798403

Guichard, Paul; Desfosses, Ambroise; Maheshwari, Aditi; Hachet, Virginie; Dietrich, Carsten; Brune, Andreas; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sachse, Carsten; Gönczy, Pierre



Adenoid Basal Cell Carcinoma and its Mimics  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80%) is head and neck. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Tumors with a similar histopathological picture are cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma and primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, along with clinical findings, acts as an adjunct in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Here, we present an interesting case of adenoid BCC in a 55-year-old man.

Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S; Rana, Safia; Talikoti, Majid A



Basal linear deposit in the human macula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to study the macular regions of nine enucleated elderly human eyes and to document the various abnormalities present in the so-called basal linear deposit. These changes include bush-like strands of electron-dense material, which project from the basement membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, deposition of wide-banded collagen, vesiculoid elements, membrane-bound structures and occasional melanin

K. U. Loffler; W. R. Lee



New basal media for half-anther culture of Anthurium andreanum Linden ex André cv. Tropical  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful protocol for high frequency callus induction and plant regeneration from Anthurium andreanum Linden ex André cv. Tropical half-anthers is described. Different variables using Winarto and Teixeira and Murashige and\\u000a Skoog basal media supplemented with several plant growth regulators [2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.1–1.0 mg\\/l), ?-naphthalene\\u000a acetic acid (0.01–0.2 mg\\/l), thidiazuron (0.5–2.0 mg\\/l), 6-benzylaminopurine (0.5–1.0 mg\\/l), and kinetin (0.5–1.0 mg\\/l)] were\\u000a tested for their ability

Budi Winarto; F. Rachmawati


Fragile Sites on Human Chromosomes: Demonstration of Their Dependence on the Type of Tissue Culture Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation of heritable fragile sites on human chromosomes prepared from lymphocyte cultures has been shown to depend on the type of tissue culture medium in which the lymphocytes are grown. The sites are observed at a much greater frequency when medium 199 is used than when RPMI 1640, Ham's F10, Eagle's (basal), and CMRL 1969 are used. One site

Grant R. Sutherland



The Intergalactic Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intergalactic medium has contained, and still does, most of the matter in the universe. Galaxies form out of matter that originates from the intergalactic medium. The radiation from stars in galaxies plays an essential role in writing the ionization and thermal histories of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies return matter back to the intergalactic medium in the form of galactic winds powered by stellar winds and supernova explosions that in addition transport energy and metals. The various forms of feedback exerted on the intergalactic medium by galaxies have profound effects on subsequent galaxy formation. This two-way interaction between galaxies and the intergalactic medium is the primary driver of the formation and evolution of both. This chapter synthesizes our current knowledge of this interaction, focusing mainly on the evolution of the intergalactic medium. While it covers the entire redshift range from z = 1,100 to z = 0, the content is heavily skewed toward lower redshift, reflecting the current state of knowledge.

Cen, Renyue


Extrapyramidal symptoms in a BMT recipient with hyperintense basal ganglia and elevated manganese.  


Neurologic syndromes attributed to conditioning or medications have been reported in BMT recipients. A patient is presented who developed extrapyramidal symptoms on day +56 after allogeneic BMT. Brain magnetic resonance images of this patient demonstrated hyperintense basal ganglia, which has been associated with manganese (Mn) toxicity. The patient had received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with standard trace element supplementation and had been cholestatic. Serum Mn was elevated, and continued to be so 5 months after BMT, long after discontinuation of TPN. Cholestatic patients and those on long-term TPN have been found to have high blood or serum levels of Mn, but generally are asymptomatic. When other cholestatic BMT patients were reviewed, all had elevated serum Mn. Manganese supplementation in TPN requires evaluation for BMT recipients. PMID:7581103

Fredstrom, S; Rogosheske, J; Gupta, P; Burns, L J



Phosphate assimilation by Chlorella and adjustment of phosphate concentration in basal medium for its cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assimilation of phosphate by Chlorella pyrenoidosa was 0.81–8.1 mg PO4-P\\/g dry weight for heterotrophic cultures and 0.81–16.1 mg\\/g for mixotrophic cultures. Optimal carbon:phosphorous (C\\/P) ratios\\u000a were 206:1–2060:1 and 103:1–2060:1 for heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivations, respectively. These requirements for phosphate\\u000a for growth of C. pyrenoidosa under either heterotrophic or mixotrophic conditions are much less (6.25–62.5 or 3.12–62.5-fold at 10 g glucose\\/l) than its\\u000a concentration in

Chun-Bo Qu; Zheng-Yun Wu; Xian-Ming Shi



NASA Thesaurus Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every six months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (...



Dietary supplements for football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplemens. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a

P. Hespel; R. J. Maughan; P. L. Greenhaff



Determinants of supplement usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As the use of supplements is growing, this study examines the determinants of vitamin and herbal supplement usage. Instead of treating these as all-encompassing categories, they are broken into specific vitamins and herbs and compared to see if users are different. A measure of frequency of vitamin use is also created.Methods: Logistic and ordinal logistic regressions are run on

Dana Fennell




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The experimental objectives were to evaluate the influence of supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds on fatty acid concentrations in plasma, medial basal hypothalamus, uterine tissues, and serum 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2' metabolite (PGFM) in primiparous beef cows during early lactation. Begin...


Calcium supplementation: cardiovascular risk?  


Adequate dietary calcium intake and appropriate sunlight exposure ensuring adequate vitamin D availability are basic measures for the prevention of osteoporosis. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases bone density. Vitamin D plus calcium supplementation prevents hip fractures and other nonvertebral fractures in institutionalised persons 70 years of age or older. A meta-analysis of clinical trials showed an increase in myocardial infarction in patients taking calcium supplementation alone, with a relative risk of about 1.3. Epidemiological studies have not shown an increase in the cardiovascular risk. Conflicting results have also been reported in postmenopausal women taking both calcium and vitamin D. In an epidemiological study, hypercalcaemia was associated with increased mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality. In practice, caution dictates that not all patients should routinely take calcium and vitamin D supplements. When calcium supplements are nonetheless used, the dose should be adjusted to dietary intake in order to avoid hypercalcaemia. PMID:23866352



Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prevalence and mortality rate of triple negative/basal breast cancer is increased young African American women compared to young Caucasian women. We hypothesize that pregnancy and involution without lactation promotes triple negative/basal breast canc...

T. Russell



How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?  


... cancers staged? How are basal and squamous cell skin cancers diagnosed? Most skin cancers are brought to ... Signs and symptoms of basal and squamous cell skin cancers Skin cancers rarely cause bothersome symptoms until ...


Influence of Dietary Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and Corn Supplemented with Methionine on CutUp Pieces Weights of Broiler Carcass and Quality Properties of Breast and Drumsticks Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was carried out to determine the effects of sorghum (BS = basal diets containing 30% sorghum), corn (BC = basal diets containing corn) and supplemental methionine (BSM = diet BS plus 0.69% methionine, BCM = diet BC plus 0.69% methionine) in broiler diets on the cold carcass weight and cut-up pieces weight of broilers and some chemical, physical

M. Karao?lu



A new culture medium for human skin epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A new culture medium, NCTC 168, has been designed for human skin epithelial cells. This medium formulation was developed,\\u000a by combining and testing at various concentrations, components of media NCTC 135 and 163, since a 1?1 mixture of these two\\u000a media with 10% horse serum supplement was found to promote epithelial cell outgrowth from human skin explants. The buffer\\u000a system

Floyd M. Price; Richard F. Camalier; Raymond Gantt; William G. Taylor; Gilbert H. Smith; Katherine K. Sanford



Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  


... Treatment & Care > Medication > Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines Listen Today, more and ... adapted from The American Diabetes Association Guide to Herbs & Nutritional Supplements , written by Laura Shane-McWhorter, PharmD, ...


Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss:Fr) Karst used as a dietary supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of Ganoderma lucidum CG 144, a medicinal mushroom cultivated on wet wheat grains by solid-state fermentation, were investigated followed dietary supplementation.\\u000a Basal chow was supplemented with 85, 50, or 10% of G. lucidum CG 144 dried spawn, resulting in G85, G50, and G10 diets, respectively, and fed to normocholesterolemic and induced-hypercholesterolemic\\u000a mice.

Rosália Rubel; Herta S. Dalla Santa; Luiz Cláudio Fernandes; Sandro J. R. Bonatto; Sérgio Bello; Bonald C. Figueiredo; José Hermenio C. Lima Filho; Cid Aimbiré M. Santos; Carlos Ricardo Soccol



Cerebral energetic effects of creatine supplementation in humans.  


There has been considerable interest in the use of creatine (Cr) supplementation to treat neurological disorders. However, in contrast to muscle physiology, there are relatively few studies of creatine supplementation in the brain. In this report, we use high-field MR (31)P and (1)H spectroscopic imaging of human brain with a 7-day protocol of oral Cr supplementation to examine its effects on cerebral energetics (phosphocreatine, PCr; ATP) and mitochondrial metabolism (N-acetyl aspartate, NAA; and Cr). We find an increased ratio of PCr/ATP (day 0, 0.80 +/- 0.10; day 7, 0.85 +/- 09), with this change largely due to decreased ATP, from 2.7 +/- 0.3 mM to 2.5 +/- 0.3 mM. The ratio of NAA/Cr also decreased (day 0, 1.32 +/- 0.17; day 7 1.18 +/- 0.13), primarily from increased Cr (9.6 +/- 1.9 to 10.1 +/- 2.0 mM). The Cr-induced changes significantly correlated with the basal state, with the fractional increase in PCr/ATP negatively correlating with the basal PCr/ATP value (R = -0.74, P < 0.001). As NAA is a measure of mitochondrial function, there was also a significant negative correlation between basal NAA concentrations with the fractional change in PCr and ATP. Thus healthy human brain energetics is malleable and shifts with 7 days of Cr supplementation, with the regions of initially low PCr showing the largest increments in PCr. Overall, Cr supplementation appears to improve high-energy phosphate turnover in healthy brain and can result in either a decrease or an increase in high-energy phosphate concentrations. PMID:17185404

Pan, J W; Takahashi, K



Development of a Defined Minimal Medium for the Growth of Edwardsiella ictaluri  

PubMed Central

In this report, a complete defined medium and a minimally defined medium are described for Edwardsiella ictaluri. The complete defined medium consists of 46 individual components, including a basal salt solution, glucose, magnesium sulfate, iron sulfate, six trace metals, four nucleotides, 10 vitamins, and 19 amino acids. This medium supports growth in broth and on solid media. Optimal growth at 30(deg)C was obtained at pH 7.0, and at an osmolality of 390 mosmol/kg of H(inf2)O, with a glucose concentration of 4 g/liter. The defined minimal medium reduces the 46 components of the complete medium to eight essential components, including the basal salt solution, glucose, magnesium sulfate, pantothenic acid, and niacinamide. In addition, specific amino acids that depend on the specific requirements of the individual strains of E. ictaluri are added.

Collins, L. A.; Thune, R. L.



Aiding and Abetting the Basalization of Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that children's literature scholars have aided in the basalization of children's literature by being naive about what basals are. Argues that basals cannot be improved except as a means for helping children become more controlled readers. Argues that scholars must offer teachers alternate visions of education and how literature fits in…

Hade, Daniel D.



Network-level neuroplasticity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The striatum, the largest input nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives massive inputs from the neocortex and thalamus, and gives rise to the direct, indirect and striosomal pathways of the basal ganglia. Here, the view is developed that the striatum is a major site for adaptive plasticity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, affecting in the normal state a broad range of

Ann M. Graybiel



Food habits and the basal rate of metabolism in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation of basal rate of metabolism with various factors is examined in birds. Chief among these is body mass. As in mammals, much of the remaining variation in basal rate among birds is associated with food habits. Birds other than passerines that feed on grass, nectar, flying insects, or vertebrates generally have basal rates that are similar to mammals

Brian K. McNab



Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases.  


Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman



Oxidative stress biomarkers in mitochondrial myopathies, basally and after cysteine donor supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial diseases are due to impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A plausible pathogenic mechanism leading\\u000a to cellular dysfunction and phenotypic expression is oxidative stress, but there are surprisingly few clinical studies on\\u000a this subject. Glutathione (GSH) deficiency has been reported in mitochondrial diseases, and the biosynthesis of glutathione\\u000a depends on cysteine availability. We have examined oxidative stress biomarkers [advanced

Michelangelo Mancuso; Daniele Orsucci; Annalisa LoGerfo; Anna Rocchi; Lucia Petrozzi; Claudia Nesti; Fabio Galetta; Gino Santoro; Luigi Murri; Gabriele Siciliano



Maintenance of Zinc-Dependent Hepatic Functions in Rat Hepatocytes Cultured in Medium Without Added Zinc1 j  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocytes were cultured with Way- mouth's media containing zinc at concentrations of 1 (the endogenous zinc concentration of basal medium), 16 and 48 umol Zn\\/L to examine the effects of extra cellular zinc on a variety of zinc-related functions. The zinc concentrations were chosen with the intention of simulating zinc-deficient, adequate and excess extra cellular conditions. Basal medium had no



Dopamine release in the basal ganglia.  


Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action potential- and Ca²?-dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic, mechanism. Even in striatum, axonal release sites are controversial, with evidence for DA varicosities that lack postsynaptic specialization, and largely extrasynaptic DA receptors and transporters. Moreover, DA release is often assumed to reflect a global response to a population of activities in midbrain DA neurons, whether tonic or phasic, with precise timing and specificity of action governed by other basal ganglia circuits. This view has been reinforced by anatomical evidence showing dense axonal DA arbors throughout striatum, and a lattice network formed by DA axons and glutamatergic input from cortex and thalamus. Nonetheless, localized DA transients are seen in vivo using voltammetric methods with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mechanistic studies using similar methods in vitro have revealed local regulation of DA release by other transmitters and modulators, as well as by proteins known to be disrupted in Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. Notably, the actions of most other striatal transmitters on DA release also do not conform to the synaptic doctrine, with the absence of direct synaptic contacts for glutamate, GABA, and acetylcholine (ACh) on striatal DA axons. Overall, the findings reviewed here indicate that DA signaling in the basal ganglia is sculpted by cooperation between the timing and pattern of DA input and those of local regulatory factors. PMID:21939738

Rice, M E; Patel, J C; Cragg, S J



Testosterone prohormone supplements.  


Testosterone prohormones such as androstenedione, androstenediol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have been heavily marketed as testosterone-enhancing and muscle-building nutritional supplements for the past decade. Concerns over the safety of prohormone supplement use prompted the United States Food and Drug Administration to call for a ban on androstenedione sales, and Congress passed the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004, which classifies androstenedione and 17 other steroids as controlled substances. As of January 2005, these substances cannot be sold without prescription. Here, we summarize the current scientific knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of prohormone supplementation in humans. We focus primarily on androstenedione, but we also discuss DHEA, androstenediol, 19-nor androstenedione, and 19-nor androstenediol supplements. Contrary to marketing claims, research to date indicates that the use of prohormone nutritional supplements (DHEA, androstenedione, androstenediol, and other steroid hormone supplements) does not produce either anabolic or ergogenic effects in men. Moreover, the use of prohormone nutritional supplements may raise the risk for negative health consequences. PMID:16888459

Brown, Gregory A; Vukovich, Matthew; King, Douglas S



The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru



Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal\\u000a growth factor receptor 2-positive\\/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based,\\u000a case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive\\u000a and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared

Robert C. Millikan; Beth Newman; Chiu-Kit Tse; Patricia G. Moorman; Kathleen Conway; Lisa V. Smith; Miriam H. Labbok; Joseph Geradts; Jeannette T. Bensen; Susan Jackson; Sarah Nyante; Chad Livasy; Lisa Carey; H. Shelton Earp; Charles M. Perou



Effects of high copper supplements on performance, health, plasma copper and enzymes in goats.  


Six growing female Nubian goats (average BW=34.8+/-0.55kg, 7-8 months of age) were randomly assigned to either a basal diet (BD, 10-15ppm Cu/DM), or to medium Cu (MC, BD+50mgCu), or to high Cu (HC, BD+100mgCu) diets for 9 weeks. This level would cause Cu toxicity in sheep, but none occurred in the goats. Therefore, Cu supplementation was then increased to 150 and 300mg per head per day, for the following 14 weeks; to 300 and 600mg per head per day, for the next 8 weeks; and to 600 and 1200mg per head per day, for an additional 4 weeks, in the MC and HC group, respectively. Body weight and vital signs were recorded and blood samples collected at different time intervals. Hematological parameters, plasma Cu, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were determined. At the termination of the study, tissue Cu concentration in different organs was also determined. During first 23 weeks (<300mgCu per day) of the study there were no apparent signs of Cu toxicity. Cu supplementation at 600mg per head per day in young Nubian does, had no effect on respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and decreased (P<0.05) rectal temperature (RT) in the HC group only. Leukocyte counts were positively correlated with Cu supplementation (r=+0.296, P<0.02) and negatively correlated (r=-0.254, P<0.05) with RT in the HC group. Plasma SDH increased (P<0.05) when Cu supplementation was >/=300mg per head per day, thus, SDH may serve as an early indicator of Cu toxicosis in goats. Increases (P<0.05) in GOT were noted when Cu intake was >/=600mg per head per day. Contrary to the results observed for SDH and GOT, feeding goats 50mgCu per day or more, resulted in an increased plasma GGT as compared to BD goats. Levels of SDH, GOT and GGT of the BD goats were within normal range. Plasma Cu was not indicative of Cu status of animals. Copper improved ADG by 28% at the 100-150ppm level in diet. No relationship between Cu intake and hair Cu was found in the present study. Highest concentration of Cu was found in liver, followed by duodenum, rumen and brain. Results of this study indicate that goats are more resistant to Cu toxicity than sheep. This is one of the first reports documenting significant differences in Cu requirements and tolerance between goats and sheep. PMID:11445421

Solaiman, S G.; Maloney, M A.; Qureshi, M A.; Davis, G; D'Andrea, G



Hypoglycemia rates with basal insulin analogs.  


Hypoglycemia has for the most part been studied inadequately for both of the commonly used long-acting insulin analogs in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Almost all existing trials have been designed to investigate changes in glycemic control and not differences in hypoglycemia events. In this review, we present an overview of the hypoglycemic data available from the randomized controlled trials comparing insulin glargine and insulin detemir with NPH or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The limited head-to-head glargine versus detemir data are also discussed with comments on early results relating to the newer insulin analog, degludec. Basal insulin analogs are associated with reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Most studies have excluded participants with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia or previous severe events, however, and hypoglycemia reporting is variable and inconsistent. This limits interpretation for those with long-duration type 1 diabetes, and particularly impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, or long-duration more insulin-deficient type 2 diabetes. New optimally designed studies are required to elucidate the true impact of basal analogs on hypoglycemia burden in those living with long-term insulin therapy. PMID:21668338

Little, Stuart; Shaw, James; Home, Philip



Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-?m thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph port of the microscope to collect light from a specific micro area of the sample. The collected light is transmitted via the fiber to a disperserve type CCD spectrometer for spectral analysis. Results. The measurement results showed significant spectral differences between normal and cancerous tissues. For normal tissue regions, the spectral results agreed with our previous findings on autofluorescence of normal skin sections. For the cancerous regions, the epidermis showed very weak fluorescence signal, while the stratum corneum exhibited fluorescence emissions peaking at about 510 nm. In the dermis, the basal cell island and a band of surrounding areas showed very weak fluorescence signal, while distal dermis above and below the basal cell island showed greater fluorescence signal but with different spectral shapes. The very weak autofluorescence from the basal cell island and its surrounding area may be attributed to their degenerative properties that limited the production of collagens. Conclusions. The obtained microscopic results very well explain the in vivo fluorescence properties of BCC lesions in that they have decreased fluorescence intensity compared to the surrounding normal skin. The intrinsic spectra of various microstructures and the microscopic fluorescence images (corresponding fluorophore distribution in tissue) obtained in this study will be used for further theoretical modeling of in vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of skin cancers.

He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan



Microbial Experiments on Basal Ice from John Evans Glacier, Eastern Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research on permanent-ice associated microorganisms has focused on surficial ice environments. We present evidence that, to the authors' knowledge, is the first example that aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be cultured at 4C from sediment-rich basal ice from a large polythermal Arctic glacier (John Evans Glacier). This builds on previous work in which we demonstrated that both aerobic and anaerobic microbes exist in viable populations in subglacial meltwaters at the same glacier, and that the populations increase with sediment concentration. This high Arctic glacier (at 80N) may be a reasonable terrestrial analog for martian polar environments, and hence the findings of this study may be important in assisting sampling program development for microbiology in the martian polar regions. Sterile samples of both debris-rich basal ice and debris-poor (clean) glacier ice were taken aseptically from the glacier margin in the spring of 1997 prior to the onset of the melt season to examine whether any observed microbial activity was linked to sediment concentration. The samples were melted slowly in a sterile environment and then incubated at 4C under nutrient-amended and nutrient-unamended conditions for three months. Parallel sterile and poisoned controls were included to account for abiotic processes. In all cases microbiological activity was recorded in the sediment-rich samples amended with growth medium. This indicates that viable anaerobic and aerobic bacteria were present in the debris-rich basal ice. The dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations and sigma-13-C DOC of unamended ice samples were also analyzed. DOC concentrations in the basal ice were 4x higher than in the clean ice. Furthermore, the sigma-13-C values of the DOC suggested different sources for the DOC in the two types of ice. The higher DOC values in the unamended basal ice samples suggest that there is in situ microbial activity in the subglacial sediments. This is supported by the presence of viable microbial populations in the basal sediments. Hence, in situ oxidation/fermentation of organic C in basal sediments beneath the ice is a tenable process in high Arctic subglacial environments. This work shows that bacteria can function in anaerobic conditions at temperatures close to freezing. Similar conditions may exist or may have existed in the basal sediments and ice at the base or margins of the martian polar ice caps. Such environments should therefore be examined for evidence of life on Mars.

Skidmore, M.; Foght, J.; Sharp. M.



High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))




NCI Guidelines for Administrative Supplements in Support of Expanding the Childhood Cancer TARGET Initiative Title: Childhood Cancer TARGET Initiative Expansion – Tissue Collections and Characterization Announcement Number: NOT-OD-09-056 NIH Announces


Nutrition and dietary supplements.  


Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y



Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation  


... able to synthesize additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin ... a vitamin supplement or from adequate exposure to sunlight. A number of factors decrease the amount of ...


Dietary Supplement Labeling Guide  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of ... These regulations also required the unit-dose ... we published a final regulation that amended ... More results from


Children and Dietary Supplements  


... Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals (Endocrine Practice) [945KB PDF] Probiotics and Children (Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition) [ ... Two Studies Explore the Potential Health Benefits of Probiotics (07/04/08) Traditional Chinese Herbs May Benefit ...


Who Needs Supplements?  


... are getting adequate intake of necessary vitamins and minerals. To avoid indigestion, take the multivitamin with food. ... menstruation may need to take a multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains iron to meet the daily ...


Habituation: Supplemental Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliographic survey of habituation literature compiled earlier by the author (Psychonomic Monograph Supplements, 1972, 4, 189-217) is updated. Eight-hundred and fifty references to articles dealing with habituatory phenomena, two-thirds of which have...

B. C. Leibrecht



DMAA in Dietary Supplements  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... are illegal and FDA is doing everything within its ... How does FDA regulate ingredients in dietary ... Unlike drugs, dietary supplements do not have pre ... More results from


Supplements to Textbook Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)|

Holmes, Ken



The Interstellar Medium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information about the interstellar medium. It discusses what the interstellar medium is, how it has developed, how astronomers know what they know, and interactions with the Solar System. There is both basic and more advanced material. There are also links to other websites with more information.

Group, Unh E.



CBI: Systems or Medium?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses one area of conflict in decisionmaking in computer-based instruction (CBI) research: the relationship between the researcher's definition of CBI either as a medium or as an integrated system and the design of meaningful research questions. (A medium is defined here as a device for the delivery of instruction, while an…

Higginbotham-Wheat, Nancy L.


CBI: Systems or Medium?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper addresses one area of conflict in decisionmaking in computer-based instruction (CBI) research: the relationship between the researcher's definition of CBI either as a medium or as an integrated system and the design of meaningful research questions. (A medium is defined here as a device for the delivery of instruction, while an…

Higginbotham-Wheat, Nancy L.


ADHD and nutritional supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) use nutritional therapies (supplements and elimination\\u000a diets) as a treatment strategy. This article reviews the use of supplements in ADHD. Several nutrients have known roles in\\u000a the support of brain function. Nutrient sufficiency during brain development is critical. Because 1) data indicate that many\\u000a American schoolchildren do not meet nutritional recommendations, 2) the prefrontal

Marianne M. Glanzman



Perineuronal nets in the rhesus monkey and human basal forebrain including basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perineuronal nets of extracellular matrix have been shown to characterize the microenvironment of individual neurons and the chemoarchitecture of brain regions such as basal forebrain nuclei. Previous work has also demonstrated that neurons in the human cerebral cortex ensheathed by perineuronal nets rarely undergo cytoskeletal changes in Alzheimer’s disease, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of extracellular matrix components. It is not

I Adams; K Brauer; C Arélin; W Härtig; A Fine; M Mäder; T Arendt; G Brückner



Distillers Grains, Brewers Grains, and Urea as Protein Supplements for Dairy Rations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two lactation experiments were conducted with 20 Holstein cows each, fed coneen- trate mixtures containing corn distillers dried grains, brewers dried grains, and urea as crude protein (nitrogen) supplements to a low-protein concentrate lnixturo. The protein- deficient basal ration resulted in weight loss, lower milk yields, and lower fat percentages than the other mixtures, and these changes were observed

J. K. Loosli; R. G. Warner



Influence of dietary protein supplements on the formation of bacterial metabolites in the colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the influence of increased dietary protein intake on bacterial colonic metabolism in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Short chain fatty acids, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds in faecal samples, and phenols in the urine of five volunteers were measured after one week of basal nutrient intake and and after one week of a diet supplemented with a protein rich

B Geypens; D Claus; P Evenepoel; M Hiele; B Maes; M Peeters; P Rutgeerts; Y Ghoos



Influence of vitamin C diet supplementation on endogenous antioxidant defences during exhaustive exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and on plasma antioxidants during athletic competition and short-term recovery. Blood samples were taken from 16 volunteer endurance athletes, participating in a duathlon competition, under basal conditions and both immediately and 1 h after the competition. The results were analysed taking into account the individual vitamin C intake

Pedro Tauler; Antoni Aguiló; Isabel Gimeno; Emilia Fuentespina; Josep A. Tur; Antoni Pons



Basal Ganglia Beta Oscillations Accompany Cue Utilization  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Beta oscillations in cortical-basal ganglia (BG) circuits have been implicated in normal movement suppression and motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease. To dissect the functional correlates of these rhythms we compared neural activity during four distinct variants of a cued choice task in rats. Brief beta (~20 Hz) oscillations occurred simultaneously throughout the cortical-BG network, both spontaneously and at precise moments of task performance. Beta phase was rapidly reset in response to salient cues, yet increases in beta power were not rigidly linked to cues, movements, or movement suppression. Rather, beta power was enhanced after cues were used to determine motor output. We suggest that beta oscillations reflect a postdecision stabilized state of cortical-BG networks, which normally reduces interference from alternative potential actions. The abnormally strong beta seen in Parkinson’s Disease may reflect overstabilization of these networks, producing pathological persistence of the current motor state.

Leventhal, Daniel K.; Gage, Gregory J.; Schmidt, Robert; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Case, Alaina C.; Berke, Joshua D.



A basal carbon concentrating mechanism in plants?  


Many photosynthetic organisms have developed inorganic carbon (Ci) concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) that increase the CO? concentration within the vicinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Several CCMs, such as four carbon (C4) and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), bicarbonate accumulation systems and capsular structures around RubisCO have been described in great detail. These systems are believed to have evolved several times as mechanisms that acclimate organisms to unfavourable growth conditions. Based on recent experimental evidence we propose the occurrence of another more general CCM system present in all plants. This basal CCM (bCCM) is supposed to be composed of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases (a ?-type carbonic anhydrase and the ?-type carbonic anhydrase domain of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex) and probably further unknown components. The bCCM is proposed to reduce leakage of CO? from plant cells and allow efficient recycling of mitochondrial CO? for carbon fixation in chloroplasts. PMID:22404837

Zabaleta, Eduardo; Martin, M Victoria; Braun, Hans-Peter



Basal cell carcinoma with osteosarcomatous component.  


Sarcomatoid carcinoma or carcinosarcomas of the skin are rare. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with osteosarcomatous differentiation is the second most common sarcomatoid carcinoma of the skin, following squamous cell carcinoma with heterologous mesenchymal differentiation. There are only 11 cases of BCC with osteosarcomatous component reported in the literature, with limited documented molecular analyses. The authors report the clinical and histological features of 2 cases with molecular analyses for recurrent mutations in 17 cancer genes. In both cases, the epithelial or BCC component was positive for BerEP4 and high-molecular weight cytokeratin, whereas the sarcomatous component was negative for both markers. Mutational analyses revealed TP53 mutation in 1 case with p53 expression noted in both components. The other case was negative for both p53 expression and TP53 mutation. PMID:23221485

Tse, Julie Y; Pawlak, Amanda C; Boussahmain, Chakib; Routhier, Caitlin Ann; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Kalomiris, Dimitrios; Hoang, Mai P



All-source basal vitamin D inputs are greater than previously thought and cutaneous inputs are smaller.  


The magnitude of vitamin D inputs in individuals not taking supplements is unknown; however, there is a great deal of information on quantitative response to varying supplement doses. We reanalyzed individual 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration data from 8 studies involving cholecalciferol supplementation (total sample size = 3000). We extrapolated individual study dose-response curves to zero concentration values for serum 25(OH)D by using both linear and curvilinear approaches and measured seasonal oscillation in the serum 25(OH)D concentration. The total basal input (food plus solar) was calculated to range from a low of 778 iu/d in patients with end-stage renal disease to a high of 2667 iu/d in healthy Caucasian adults. Consistent with expectations, obese individuals had lower baseline, unsupplemented 25(OH)D concentrations and a smaller response to supplements. Similarly, African Americans had both lower baseline concentrations and lower calculated basal, all-source inputs. Seasonal oscillation in 4 studies ranged from 5.20 to 11.4 nmol/L, reflecting a mean cutaneous synthesis of cholecalciferol ranging from 209 to 651 iu/d at the summer peak. We conclude that: 1) all-source, basal vitamin D inputs are approximately an order of magnitude higher than can be explained by traditional food sources; 2) cutaneous, solar input in these cohorts accounts for only 10-25% of unsupplemented input at the summer peak; and 3) the remainder must come from undocumented food sources, possibly in part as preformed 25(OH)D. PMID:23514768

Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G; French, Christine



Hologram recording medium  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a hologram recording medium which can attain high refractive index change, flexibility, high sensitivity, low scattering, environment resistance, durability, low dimension change (low shrinkage) and high multiplicity in holographic memory record using a blue laser. A hologram recording medium (11) comprising at least a hologram recording material layer, wherein the hologram recording material layer (21) comprises at least a metal oxide and a photopolymerizable compound; and said hologram recording medium has a light transmittance of 50% or more at a wavelength of 405 nm, or a light reflectance of 25% or more at a wavelength of 405 nm.

Yoshinari; Jiro (Tokyo, JP); Kosuda; Atsuko (Tokyo, JP); Hayashida; Naoki (Tokyo, JP)



History of Debris-bearing Basal ice: Comparing Numerical Simulations of Basal Freeze-on to Borehole Video Images and Laboratory Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris-bearing basal ice are frequently observed in a variety of glaciers as well as in ice cores drilled to the base of modern ice sheets. A common feature of frozen-on basal ice is an layered structure of debris-rich, dirty ice and clean, transparent ice. The thermodynamic aspects governing the segregation mechanism that separates dirty ice and clean ice are poorly understood and quantitative assessments of basal freeze-on are rarely conducted. We have investigated the response of subglacial sediments to basal freeze-on in a high-resolution numerical model (node spacing: 0.01 m). The model adapts thermodynamics of frost heave (which is a much-studied process in permafrost engineering) to subglacial conditions. In fine-grained sub-ice stream till, in-situ freezing of pore water is inhibited due to surface tension arising from a small characteristic particle size. The till becomes super-cooled by up to -0.35°C from the pressure-melting point and thermally driven pore water flow is induced. This water flow feeds accretion of clean ice onto the ice base while the till dewaters. Our model predictions compare favorably with observations from the Ross sector of the West Antarctic ice sheet. When the ice base is in direct contact with the till, ice stream stoppage is predicted to occur ca. 70 years after basal freeze-on is triggered. Fast ice stream flow may be prolonged if a widespread basal water system is capable of separating the freezing ice base from the till. However, the small thickness of water filled gaps (ca. 1-2 mm) limits the time of enhanced flow prolongation. After the freezing ice base has consumed the water film, the ice stream will shut down due to dewatering of the till. However, the bed remains unfrozen and highly porous for long time periods subsequent to stoppage. We predict that complete freeze-up of a 5 m till layer takes several centuries. This result is supported by radar data showing that Ice Stream C, which stopped ca. 150 years ago, has a largely unfrozen bed, while Siple Ice Stream, which stopped about 300 years earlier, exhibits a partially frozen bed. A self-adjusting upper boundary in our numerical simulation allows the freezing front to move downwards into the till domain. This occurs when the ice-till interface is no longer the thermodynamically most favorable location for freezing. We can thus simulate growth of ice lenses within the till. Our model reproduces basal ice with a layered structure consisting of uniform bands of debris-filled ice and clean segregation ice. Medium-grained till develops thin ice lenses that are closely spaced while fine-grained till develops thick ice lenses with a wider spacing. Comparison of our results to borehole video images of basal ice beneath Ice Stream C and images from laboratory studies of freezing porous media indicates that thermodynamics of basal freeze-on and frost heaving are fundamentally related.

Christoffersen, P.; Tulaczyk, S.



The Effect of Dietary L-Carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, and Composition of Edible Meat in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary L-carnitine atdifferentlevelsongrowthperformance,carcasstraits,andcompositionofediblemeatinJapanese quail. One hundred sixty-eight 1-d-old Japanese quail chicks were fed the same basal diet that was supplemented with 0 (control), 30, 40, or 50 mg L-carnitine\\/kg of diet. The effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation at different levels on body weight gain, cumulative feed intake, and

S. Sarica; M. Corduk; K. Kilinc


[A highly efficient system for induction of female flowers in derooted seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. grown on the medium].  


This paper reported the synergistic effect of KT and IAA, and the effects of age of seedlings, length of hypocotyls, nitrogen contents and NH(+)(4)-N/TN ratio on the induction of female flowers in derooted seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. for the establishment of an efficient system for the induction of female flowers. When cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with KT 3.0 mg/L and IAA 0.01 mg/L, an induction rate of 28% was obtained for the 7-day-old derooted seedlings with 1/2 hypocotyl, 12% and 26% higher than when cultured with KT 3.0 mg/L alone and IAA 0.01 mg/L alone, respectively, while no female flowers was formed on the control medium, which indicates that KT and IAA have an evident synergistic effect on the induction of female flowers. Experiment was done with N concentration of 60-90 mmol/L or with NH(+)(4)-N/TN ratio of 12.5%-50% (total N kept at 80 mmol/L), with lengths of hypocotyls of 0-4/4, and with different ages of seedlings of 5-8-day-old, the highest induction rate of 40%, 48% and 57% for female flowers was achieved on medium of N 80 mmol/L (NH(+)(4)-N/TN 37.5%), from seedlings with 1/4 hypocotyl and from the treatment using 6-day-old seedlings respectively. PMID:17452802

Huang, Zuo-Xi; Duan, Hui-Guo; Qing, Dong-Hong; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lan



Image making medium  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to an image support medium for creation of an aesthetic image that is an work or object for display. This support medium includes a polymer in an amount sufficient to enable the image to have at least one aesthetic element. In different embodiments, the image support medium is an image support stabilizer, the polymer is a synthetic absorbent or conductive polymer, or the polymer is a transparent or synthetic translucent polymer and a property of this transparent or translucent polymer is enhanced to facilitate the creation or preservation of the image by at least one stabilizer. The invention also relates to a method for preparing this image support medium. The method includes forming a reaction mixture comprising a monomer in an amount sufficient to provide or enable the image to have an aesthetic element, and processing the reaction mixture into a 2- or 3-dimensional shape.

Hyman; Sydney (New York, NY)



Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozoal population in rumen of lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) inclusion on rumen fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozoal population in high concentrate-fed lambs were studied. Twenty-four weaner (90 days old) Malpura lambs divided into four equal groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4) were fed basal (25:75 roughage and concentrate) diet (G1) or basal diet supplemented with 0.75% (G2), 1.50% (G3) and 2.25% (G4) sodium bicarbonate

A Santra; O. H Chaturvedi; M. K Tripathi; R Kumar; S. A Karim



Organophilic clay suspension medium  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved liquid suspension medium for particulate solids. The suspension medium having been formed by admixing an organophilic clay wherein the clay is selected from the group consisting of bentonite, attapulgite, sepiolite and hectorite and admixtures thereof present in the quantity of about 0.5-8 weight percent with a liquid hydrocarbon present in the quantity of about 99-70 weight percent and at least one activator selected from the group consisting of phenyl hydroxyalkyl ethers.

Dixon, G.G.; Parlman, R.M.; Stewart, W.



Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow  

PubMed Central

Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk



Prognostic Relevance of Basal Cytokeratin Expression in Operable Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We investigated whether basal cytokeratin (CK5\\/6 or CK17) expression had an impact on survival in patients with operable breast cancer. Methods: Expression of CK5\\/6 or CK17 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 195 women with breast cancer. Results: In total, 72 (37%) tumor samples were regarded as being positive for CK5\\/6 or CK17. The basal-like phenotype as defined by basal

Piotr Potemski; Renata Kusinska; Cezary Watala; Elzbieta Pluciennik; Andrzej K. Bednarek; Radzislaw Kordek



Growth of functional primary cultures of kidney epithelial cells in defined medium.  


Primary cultures of baby mouse kidney epithelial cells can grow without fibroblast overgrowth in a hormone-supplemented serum-free medium (Medium K-1) designed for an established kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK. The five supplements in Medium K-1 are insulin, transferrin, PGE1, T3, and hydrocortisone. Medium K-1 also supports the growth of kidney epithelial cell cultures from a number of animals, including man, without fibroblast overgrowth. Outgrowth of kidney epithelial cells from kidney explants was also observed with Medium K-1. Thus, the medium appears to be selective for epithelial cell growth. The physiological properties of primary cultures of baby mouse kidney epithelial cells were studied in detail. Baby mouse kidney epithelial cells grew at equal rates (0.5 doublings/day) in Medium K-1 and serum-supplemented medium. Medium K-1 also supported the formation of baby mouse kidney epithelial colonies at low cell densities. The dependence of baby mouse kidney epithelial colony formation upon the five factors in Medium K-1 was examined. These studies indicated that the formation of baby mouse kidney epithelial colonies in defined medium depended upon all the five supplements in Medium K-1, in a manner similar, although not identical, to MDCK colonies. Primary cultures of baby mouse kidney epithelial cells grown in Medium K-1 retained kidney cell-associated properties, including the ability to form multicellular domes, a phenomenon associated with transepithelial salt transport. Amiloride-sensitive Na+ uptake and the mucosal surface enzyme leucine aminopeptidase were also observed in baby mouse kidney cultures. Similar functions were observed in MDCK monolayers. PMID:6257734

Taub, M; Sato, G



Supplements and sports.  


Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J



[Methods of the study of basal lacrimal secretion].  


The authors propose a nontraditional method for the study of basal lacrimal secretion, based on biometry of the height of the lacrimal flow meniscus during common biomicroscopy. The advantages of this method are shown: it is noninvasive, contact-free, available, and informative for assessing basal lacrimal secretion. The authors defined the normal value of lacrimal meniscus height in health and detected noticeable changes of basal secretion in secondary dry syndrome. Basal lacrimal secretion is suppressed in patients with pathologic changes of the anterior segment of the eye (relapsing erosions, pterygium, chronic conjunctivitis in contact correction, etc.). Prospects for practical use of the method are outlined. PMID:8659061

Kugoeva, E E; Sokolovski?, G A


Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors.  


The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for nonmotile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that, in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7-days-postfertilization (dpf) larvae; basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D



Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50?mg) and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750?mg) on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

Mehta, Karaninder S.; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.; Sharma, Anju Lath; Sharma, Vikas; Abhinav, C.; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder



Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic therapy and topical chemotherapy. Radiotherapy should be avoided. Vitamin A analogs may play a preventive role against development of new BCCs. Life expectancy in NBCCS is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications can be substantial. Regular follow-up by a multi-specialist team (dermatologist, neurologist and odontologist) should be offered. Patients with NBCCS should strictly avoid an excessive sun exposure.

Lo Muzio, Lorenzo



Relating inverse-derived basal sliding coefficients beneath ice sheets to basal water supply and other large-scale variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in basal conditions that determine basal sliding are important boundary conditions for large-scale ice-sheet models, but remain largely uncertain below modern ice sheets. Previous modeling studies have used relatively sophisticated inverse control methods to deduce patterns of basal stress or roughness, fitting to observed velocities. Here a much simpler method is used, running the model forward in time and periodically increasing or decreasing the basal sliding coefficient locally depending on whether the model ice elevation is higher or lower than observed. In contrast to our earlier application, the method is applied to Antarctica without any constraints of basal temperature or water availability. Then the deduced pattern of sliding coefficients is related to distributions of basal temperature, water supply, sub-grid-scale topography and other variables, with the goal of deriving an empirical parameterization of sliding coefficients for continental-scale models. ~

Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert



Conditionally ablated Pten in prostate basal cells promotes basal-to-luminal differentiation and causes invasive prostate cancer in mice.  


Prostate glands comprise two major epithelial cell types: luminal and basal. Luminal cells have long been considered the cellular origin of prostate cancer (CaP). However, recent evidence from a prostate regeneration assay suggests that prostate basal cells can also give rise to CaP. Here, we characterize Pten-deficient prostate lesions arising from keratin 5-expressing basal cells in a temporally controlled system in mice. Pten-deficient prostate lesions arising from basal cells exhibited luminal phenotypes with higher invasiveness, and the cell fate of Pten-deficient basal cells was traced to neoplastic luminal cells. After temporally ablating Pten in keratin 8-expressing luminal cells, luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate tumors exhibited slower disease progression, compared with basal-derived tumors, within 13 weeks after Pten ablation. Cellular proliferation was significantly increased in basal-derived versus luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate lesions. Increased tumor invasion into the smooth muscle layer and aberrantly regulated aggressive signatures (Smad4 and Spp1) were identified exclusively in basal-derived Pten-deficient lesions. Interestingly, p63-expressing cells, which represent basal stem and progenitor cells of basal-derived Pten-deficient prostate lesions, were significantly increased, relative to cells of the luminal-derived prostate lesion. Furthermore, castration did not suppress cellular proliferation of either basal-derived or luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that, although prostate malignancy can originate from both basal and luminal populations, these two populations differ in aggressive potential. PMID:23313138

Lu, Tsai-Ling; Huang, Yi-Fen; You, Li-Ru; Chao, Nai-Chen; Su, Fang-Yi; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Chun-Ming



NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Thesaurus Supplement. Supplement 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The four part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1985 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, Part 3, NASA Thesaurus Definitions, and Part 4, Changes. The semiannual supplement gives complet...



Constrained inversion for basal and englacial properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When inverting for basal slipperiness and (C retrieval) the rate factor in Glen's flow law (A retrieval) using surface data, the inversion needs to be constrained for the retrieved values to be positive. Some other constraints may also have to be imposed on the retrieved fields. There are various ways of enforcing such constraints. Using an adjoint model of the shallow-ice stream equations, several different algorithms are tested and compared with respect to rate of convergence and cost per iteration. These methods included the projected gradient method, the limited-memory projected BFGS method, the interior-point method, and an incomplete Newton iteration using a barrier function. All these methods perform favourably for small problem sizes (O(1000) unknowns). It is shown that for large-scale optimisation problems the convergence rate for A retrieval is generally lower than for C retrieval. Both projection methods suffer from slow convergence for large problem sizes (O(100 000) unknowns.) Interior-point methods, especially when coupled with an incomplete inner iteration of the Newton system appear to give the best large-scale performance.

Gudmundsson, G. H.



Targeting basal-like breast cancers.  


Basal-like breast tumors and triple negative breast tumors are high-risk breast cancers that typically carry the poorest prognoses compared with HR (Hormone Receptor)-positive tumors and HER2 (Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2)-amplified tumors for known therapies. These subsets of breast cancers exhibit aggressive clinical behavior, pushing margins of invasion, poor clinical outcome, and derive limited benefit from current therapy. This clinical situation is contributed and further aggravated by their less known biology, lack of obvious molecular targets, absence of favorable biomarkers, and their limited response to single-drug therapy. In 2010, Oakman et al., remarked that current therapy fails to curtail the innate aggressive behavior of TNBC (Triple Negative Breast Cancer) in the majority of patients. The poor prognosis coupled with a lack of targeted use of therapies is responsible for the high mortality in this subtype. The present review will examine the existing literature and scrutinize the difficulties that have, to date, limited the understanding of the biology of these tumor cells, and provide a rationale for the development of the concept of combining subtype-specific and pathway-specific drug targets for the therapeutic intervention of the disease. PMID:22974394

Dey, Nandini; Smith, Brian R; Leyland-Jones, B



Metatypical basal cell carcinoma: a clinical review  

PubMed Central

Background Metatypical cell carcinoma can be considered as a new entity of skin cancer, being an intermediate typology between basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The behaviour of the metatypical cell carcinoma lies between these two varieties of skin cancer. It is difficult to perform a differential diagnosis based on morphological and clinical features – therefore it is only possible by accurate histology. Methods The authors have retrospectively analysed clinical records of 240 patients who were affected by metatypical skin cancer and who were treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Results MTC affected more males than females (62.5% vs 37.5%) than males. The most affected site was the cervicofacial area, 71.7%; then the trunk, 10%; the limbs, 9.6%; the scalp 3.7%; and other regions 5%. A recurrence occurred in 24 cases (10%), mainly in head and neck area. Conclusion In this manuscript, the authors have emphasised the importance of conducting a differential diagnosis, and the importance of the specific treatment for metatypical skin cancer, even though more clinical studies and long-term follow-ups are required before establishing specific guidelines.

Tarallo, Mauro; Cigna, Emanuele; Frati, Riccardo; Delfino, Sergio; Innocenzi, Daniele; Fama, Umberto; Corbianco, Annamaria; Scuderi, Nicolo



Prompt Review of Priority Efficacy Supplements  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Standards for the Prompt Review of Efficacy Supplements, Including Priority Efficacy Supplements ... Efficacy Supplements, Including ... More results from


Cognitive deficits in animal models of basal ganglia disorders.  


The two most common neurological disorders of the basal ganglia are Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). The most overt symptoms of these diseases are motoric, reflecting the loss of the striatal medium spiny neurons in HD and ascending substantia nigra dopaminergic cells in PD. However, both disease processes induce insidious psychiatric and cognitive syndromes that can manifest well in advance of the onset of motor deficits. These early deficits provide an opportunity for prophylactic therapeutic intervention in order to retard disease progression from the earliest possible point. In order to exploit this opportunity, animal models of HD and PD are being probed for the specific cognitive deficits represented in the disease states. At the neuronal level, these deficits are typically, but not exclusively, mediated by disruption of parallel corticostriatal loops that integrate motor information with sensory and higher order, "executive" cognitive functions. Dysfunction in these systems can be probed with sensitive behavioural tests that selectively probe these cognitive functions in mouse models with focal lesions of striatal or cortical regions, or of specific neurotransmitter systems. Typically these tests were designed and validated in rats. With the advent of genetically modified mouse models of disease, validated tests provide an opportunity to screen mouse models of disease for early onset cognitive deficits. This review seeks to draw together the literature on cognitive deficits in HD and PD, to determine the extent to which these deficits are represented in the current animal models of disease, and to evaluate the viability of selecting cognitive deficits as potential therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Animal Models'. PMID:22588013

Brooks, Simon P; Dunnett, Stephen B



Quarkonium in Hot Medium  

SciTech Connect

I review recent progress in studying quarkonium properties in hot medium as well as possible consequences for quarkonium production in heavy ion collisions. There has been considerable interest in studying quarkonia in hot medium since the publication of the famous Matsui and Satz paper. It has been argued that color screening in a deconfined QCD medium will suppress the existence of quarkonium states, signaling the formation of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in heavy-ion collisions. Although this idea was proposed a long time ago, first principle QCD calculations, which go beyond qualitative arguments, have been performed only recently. Such calculations include lattice QCD determinations of quarkonium correlators; potential model calculations of the quarkonium spectral functions with potentials based on lattice QCD, as well as effective field theory approaches that justify potential models and reveal new medium effects. Spectral properties of heavy quark bound states are important ingredients in modeling of heavy quarkonium production in hot medium as will be discussed later.

Petreczky, P.



Supplement use by Young Athletes  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role in athletic performance, and how they are best obtained from the diet therefore further education for adolescent athletes and athletes in general is needed.

McDowall, Jill Anne



Selective Medium for Bacillus Anthracis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A selective medium was developed that allows for growth of Bacillus anthracis while inhibiting common contaminants and closely related sporeformers (e.g., B. cereus). This medium (PLET medium)contains the following ingredients added to Difco Heart Infusio...

R. F. Knisely



Combat Ocular Problems. Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a supplement to Proceedings of Conference conducted October 20-21, 1980. Contents include: (1) Ocular Effects of Relatively 'Eye Safe' Lasers; (2) Bioeffects Concerning the Safe Use of GaAs Laser Training Devices; (3) Laser Flash Effects; (...

E. S. Beatrice



Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

Plant, Geoff



Ethnic Heritage: Supplemental Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These supplemental readings are part of a total packet of learning materials on the heritage of Southern agrarians. The readings are prefaced by a story of Southern life told in pictures. The primary source readings cover the following topics: (1) Farmers Unions, (2) Farm Tenancy, (3) Recovery Programs of the Roosevelt Administration, (4) Cotton…

Powell, Roberta


Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson



Psychology: Teacher Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

Stark, Rebecca


Supplements containing banned substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past years, NMI has been monitoring and determining compounds contained in so called ‘supplements’, which are or can be classified as banned within the definitions of the WADA Prohibited List. The items studied have been chosen for investigation because the advertised content declarations show that major ingredients may fall into this banned category. It is clear that many

Rymantas Kazlauskas



Basal leptin regulates amino acid uptake in polarized Caco-2 cells.  


Leptin is secreted by gastric mucosa and is able to reach the intestinal lumen where its receptors are located in the apical membrane of the enterocytes. We have previously demonstrated that apical leptin inhibits sugar and amino acids uptake in vitro and glucose absorption in vivo. Since leptin receptors are also expressed in the basolateral membrane of the enterocytes, the aim of the present work was to investigate whether leptin acting from the basolateral side could also regulate amino acid uptake. Tritiated Gln and ?-Ala were used to measure uptake into Caco-2 cells grown on filters, in the presence of basal leptin at short incubation times (5 and 30 min) and after 6 h of preincubation with the hormone. In order to compare apical and basal leptin effect, Gln and ?-Ala uptake was measured in the presence of leptin acting from the apical membrane also in cells grown on filters. Basal leptin (8 mM) inhibited by ~15-30% the uptake of 0.1 mM Gln and 1 mM ?-Ala quickly, after 5 min exposure, and the effect was maintained after long preincubation periods. Apical leptin had the same effect. Moreover, the inhibition was rapidly and completely reversed when leptin was removed from the apical or basolateral medium. These results extend our previous findings and contribute to the vision of leptin as an important hormonal signal for the regulation of intestinal absorption of nutrients. PMID:23359137

Fanjul, Carmen; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Lostao, María Pilar



Comparative effect of bis-(beta-chloroethyl)-sulfide on basal and differential keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

Bis-({beta}-Chloroethyl)sulfide (BCES), is a potent alkylating agent and vesicant for human skin. The effect of BCES on basal and differentiated keratinocytes was studied using an epidermal culture and whole rat epidermis. A procedure was developed to expose the epidermal culture and the epidermis topically to various doses of BCES. It was verified autoradiographically that upon application of BCES to the surface of the culture, no spillage into the medium occurred. DNA was determined to be the primary target of BCES by studying the incorporation of {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 3}H-uridine and {sup 14}C-leucine after epidermal cultures were exposed to doses of BCES ranging from 10 to 50 nmoles/cm{sup 2}. Hence a parameter related to DNA damage was utilized in determining the sensitivity of the two epidermal cell populations to BCES. This parameter was the nucleoid sedimentation assay, which detects DNA single-strand breaks. The assay indicated that the basal cells are more susceptible to BCES than the differentiated cells. This higher susceptibility was determined to be a consequence of a higher level of alkylation of the basal cell DNA compared to the differentiated cell DNA following exposure to BCES. The level of DNA alkylation was measured using a CsCl density gradient to isolate the DNA.

Scavarelli-Karantsavelos, R.M.



Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on the colour and lipid stability of fresh, frozen and vacuum-packaged beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on tissue ?-tocopherol (?-Toc) levels and on the susceptibility of fresh, frozen and vacuum-packaged beef to lipid oxidation and colour deterioration were investigated. Friesian cattle were fed diets containing 20 (basal, n=5) or 2000 (supplemented, n=5) IU (?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg feed\\/day for approximately 50 days prior to slaughter. ?-Toc levels were higher (p<0.05) in

M. P. Lynch; J. P. Kerry; D. J. Buckley; C. Faustman; P. A. Morrissey



Reduced nitrite levels and dietary ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation: effects on the colour and oxidative stability of cooked hams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation and reduced nitrite levels on the colour stability of cooked hams. Large white × Landrace pigs (male n=6, female n=6) were each subdivided into two groups (n=3) and fed an ?-tocopheryl acetate supplemented diet (1000 mg\\/kg feed) and a basal diet (10 mg\\/kg feed)

N. M. Dineen; J. P. Kerry; P. B. Lynch; D. J. Buckley; P. A. Morrissey; E. K. Arendt



Premarket Approval (PMA) Manual Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a supplement to the 'Premarket Approval (PMA) Manual' that describes the required arrangement and content of a premarket approval application (PMA). The purpose of the supplement is to provide additional PMA guidance and policy that has...

N. Lowe



Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?  


... Hoax? Updated:Jun 20,2013 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so ...


Should You Take Dietary Supplements?  


... You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More When you reach for that ... powder or liquid form. Common supplements include vitamins, minerals and herbal products, also known as botanicals. People ...


Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: motor and cognitive circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are simply involved in the control of movement has been challenged in recent years. One of the pivotal reasons for this reappraisal has been new information about basal ganglia and cerebellar connections with the cerebral cortex. In essence, recent anatomical studies have revealed that these connections are organized into discrete circuits

Frank A Middleton; Peter L Strick



Germ cell tumors of the thalamus and the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the basal ganglia are presented and 40 previously reported cases are reviewed. The incidence of GCTs of the basal ganglia and thalamus was estimated as less than 14% of all intracranial GCTs. All patients except for two (95%) were male, aged 7–19 years. The clinical course was usually slow. The major symptoms

Norihiko Tamaki; Tingkai Lin; Kunio Shirataki; Kohkichi Hosoda; Hiromitsu Kurata; Satoshi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Ito




Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Although the mammalian,basal ganglia have long been implicated in motor behavior, it is generally recognized that the behavioral functions of this subcor- tical group of structures are not exclusively motoric in nature. Extensive evidence now indicates a role for the basal ganglia, in particular the dorsal striatum, in learning and memory. One prominent,hypothesis is that this brain region

Mark G. Packard; Barbara J. Knowlton



Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus

Ming Chen; Ming Zou; Lei Yang; Shunping He



Vertical extension of the subglacial drainage system into basal crevasses.  


Water plays a first-order role in basal sliding of glaciers and ice sheets and is often a key constituent of accelerated glacier motion. Subglacial water is known to occupy systems of cavities and conduits at the interface between ice and the underlying bed surface, depending upon the history of water input and the characteristics of the substrate. Full understanding of the extent and configuration of basal water is lacking, however, because direct observation is difficult. This limits our ability to simulate ice dynamics and the subsequent impacts on sea-level rise realistically. Here we show that the subglacial hydrological system can have a large volume of water occupying basal crevasses that extend upward from the bed into the overlying ice. Radar and seismic imaging combined with in situ borehole measurements collected on Bench Glacier, Alaska, reveal numerous water-filled basal crevasses with highly transmissive connections to the bed. Some crevasses extend many tens of metres above the bed and together they hold a volume of water equivalent to at least a decimetre layer covering the bed. Our results demonstrate that the basal hydrologic system can extend high into the overlying ice mass, where basal crevasses increase water-storage capacity and could potentially modulate basal water pressure. Because basal crevasses can form under commonly observed glaciological conditions, our findings have implications for interpreting and modelling subglacial hydrologic processes and related sliding accelerations of glaciers and ice sheets. PMID:20882014

Harper, Joel T; Bradford, John H; Humphrey, Neil F; Meierbachtol, Toby W



Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Young African American women have an increased risk of developing aggressive forms of breast cancer (i.e. triple negative/basal-like) than young non-Hispanic white women. Recent epidemiological data show increased risk of basal-like breast cancer with inc...

T. Russell



Functional changes of the basal ganglia circuitry in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia circuitry processes the signals that flow from the cortex, allowing the correct execution of voluntary movements. In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta triggers a cascade of functional changes affecting the whole basal ganglia network. The most relevant alterations affect the output nuclei of the circuit, the medial globus pallidus

Fabio Blandini; Giuseppe Nappi; Cristina Tassorelli; Emilia Martignoni



How are Senior Citizens Portrayed in Basal Readers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five commonly used basal readers from grades one through three were studied to determine how they portrayed and represented older adults. It was hypothesized that older adults would be portrayed as active, contributing, and productive members of society and that they would be represented in the basals in proportion to their numbers in the…

Rosen, Doris F.


Complement resistance of tumor cells: basal and induced mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that complement may play a role in tumor cytotoxicity. However, the efficiency of complement-mediated tumor cell lysis is hampered by various protective mechanisms, which may be divided into two categories: basal and induced mechanisms. The basal mechanisms are spontaneously expressed in cells without a need for prior activation, whereas the induced mechanisms develop in

K Jurianz; S Ziegler; H Garcia-Schüler; S Kraus; O Bohana-Kashtan; Z Fishelson; M Kirschfink



Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers  

SciTech Connect

Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.



Supplement use by young athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supple- ment use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the

Jill Anne McDowall


Integrated profiling of basal and luminal breast cancers.  


Basal and luminal are two molecular subtypes of breast cancer with opposite histoclinical features. We report a combined, high-resolution analysis of genome copy number and gene expression in primary basal and luminal breast cancers. First, we identified and compared genomic alterations in 45 basal and 48 luminal tumors by using 244K oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We found various genome gains and losses and rare high-level gene amplifications that may provide therapeutic targets. We show that gain of 10p is a new alteration in basal breast cancer and that a subregion of the 8p12 amplification is specific of luminal tumors. Rare high-level amplifications contained BCL2L2, CCNE, EGFR, FGFR2, IGF1R, NOTCH2, and PIK3CA. Potential gene breaks involved ETV6 and FLT3. Second, we analyzed both aCGH and gene expression profiles for 42 basal and 32 luminal breast cancers. The results support the existence of specific oncogenic pathways in basal and luminal breast cancers, involving several potential oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSG). In basal tumors, 73 candidate oncogenes were identified in chromosome regions 1q21-23, 10p14, and 12p13 and 28 candidate TSG in regions 4q32-34 and 5q11-23. In luminal breast cancers, 33 potential oncogenes were identified in 1q21-23, 8p12-q21, 11q13, and 16p12-13 and 61 candidate TSG in 16q12-13, 16q22-24, and 17p13. HORMAD1 (P = 6.5 x 10(-5)) and ZNF703 (P = 7 x 10(-4)) were the most significant basal and luminal potential oncogenes, respectively. Finally, among 10p candidate oncogenes associated with basal subtype, we validated CDC123/C10orf7 protein as a basal marker. PMID:18089785

Adélaïde, José; Finetti, Pascal; Bekhouche, Ismahane; Repellini, Laetitia; Geneix, Jeannine; Sircoulomb, Fabrice; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Cervera, Nathalie; Desplans, Jérôme; Parzy, Daniel; Schoenmakers, Eric; Viens, Patrice; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bertucci, François; Chaffanet, Max



Diffuse Interstellar Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major component of this research is to extend existing models of thermal processes in the local interstellar medium to the inner and outer Galaxy. In completing this goal we have calculated the thermal equilibrium gas temperature of the neutral diffuse ...

D. Hollenbach L. Mundy M. Wolfire



Mushroom-Growing Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention describes a cellulosic medium for growing mushrooms. A liquid mixture containing sources of soluble carbon and nitrogen is fermented and mixed with cellulosic material. The so-treated cellulosic material is held at a temperature and for a ti...

R. H. Kurtzman



Mushroom-Growing Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is related to and has among its objects the provision of novel mushroom-growing media and novel methods of making the same. A cellulosic medium for growing mushrooms is disclosed. A liquid mixture containing sources of soluble carbon and ni...

R. H. Kurtzman



Dense Medium Cyclone Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot b...



High copper levels in the medium improves shoot bud differentiation and elongation from the cultured cotyledons of Capsicum annuum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of copper sulphate on differentiation and elongation of shoot buds from cotyledonary explants of Capsicum annuum L. cv X-235 was investigated. Shoot buds were induced on medium supplemented with 22.2 ?M BAP and 14.7 ?M PAA. Elongation\\u000a of shoot buds was obtained on MS medium containing 13.3 ?M BAP + 0.58 ?M GA3. Both shoot induction and elongation media were supplemented with different levels

A. Joshi; S. L. Kothari



Nutrition and nutritional supplementation  

PubMed Central

Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty.

Manissier, Patricia



Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.


Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson


Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC), anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated.

Redgrave, Peter; Coizet, Veronique; Comoli, Eliane; McHaffie, John G.; Leriche, Mariana; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hayes, Lauren M.; Overton, Paul



Adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment alter the patterns of basal and acute phase response-induced expression of acute phase protein genes in rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormonal requirements for full hepatic expression of ?2-macroglobulin (?2M), ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), haptoglobin (Hp) and ?-fibrinogen (Fb) were assessed at the level of mRNA. Prior to exposure to turpentine-induced inflammation, rats were either depleted of glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy or supplemented with an excess of dexamethasone. Adrenalectomy alone did not affect the basal level of acute phase protein (APP) expression except

Ljiljana Ševaljevi?; Mirjana Ma?vanin; Zorica Žakula; Dušan T Kanazir; Nevena Ribarac-Stepi?



Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil  

PubMed Central

Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3.

Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, Jose; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, Antonio J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.



The effect feeding forage legumes as nitrogen supplement on growth performance of sheep.  


The effect of feeding forage legumes, Cowpea, Silverleaf desmodium and Oxley fine stem stylo, as protein supplements to natural pasture (veld) hay on intake, growth rate and nitrogen metabolism in growing lambs was evaluated. Thirty growing lambs were stratified according to body weight and randomly assigned, within a stratum, to five diets in a completely randomised design. The diets were veld hay alone (V), veld hay supplemented with either 10 g/kg of urea (VU), veld hay supplemented with 250 g/kg Cowpea (VC), 250 g/kg Silverleaf desmodium (VS) or 250 g/kg Oxley fine stem stylo (VF) forage legume hays. The V and the VU groups were used as control diets. Animals supplemented with either urea or the forage legume had higher (P < 0.01) total dry matter intake compared with the animals on V. The animals supplemented with the forage legumes had higher (P < 0.01) nitrogen intake and faecal nitrogen output than the non-supplemented group. All animals, across the treatments, lost body weight; lambs on V had higher (P < 0.01) body weight losses than those in the other treatments. The forage legume supplemented groups lost less (P < 0.01) body weight than those on the V and VU diets. Although supplementation with forage legumes enhanced feed intake and reduced weight losses it did not maintain body weights of lambs fed a basal diet of poor quality roughages. PMID:18575974

Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Hamudikuwanda, H




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Data from 116 females previously fed a corn-soybean basal diet with 0 or 220 gig supplemental biotin\\/kg during growth and development were used to study the influence of 0 (NB) or 440 (SB) \\/ag of supplementa ! biotin\\/kg to corn-(C) or wheat- (W) based diets for gilts and sows housed in total confinement. Reproductive performance through four pari- ties

K. L. Bryant; E. T. Kornegay; J. W. Knight; K. E. Webb; D. R. Notter


Suture suspension arthroplasty technique for basal joint arthritis reconstruction.  


Numerous techniques have been developed to address thumb basal joint arthritis. Many techniques include trapeziectomy with ligament reconstruction, most commonly performed by sacrificing a tendon that is used for ligament reconstruction and stabilization of the first metacarpal, with or without pin fixation. Harvesting a tendon for use in basal joint reconstruction is time-consuming and not without potential complications. Redirecting tendons via drill holes or anchoring tendons via suture anchors adds additional morbidity and time to the operative procedures. The authors introduce a novel technique of basal joint reconstruction, employing suture suspension for maintenance of joint arthroplasty space and stabilization of the base of the first metacarpal. PMID:19956040

DelSignore, Jeanne L; Accardi, Kimberly Z



Metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Report of four cases.  


Four cases of metastasizing basal cell carcinoma, one occurring in the basal cell nevoid syndrome, are presented. Two patients are surviving without evidence of additional metastases. One patient died from cerebral involvement 31/2 years after a lymph node metastasis was established by aspiration biopsy. One patient died from complications of cerebral palsy one year after a metastasis to a regional lymph node was discovered in the primary resection of the neoplasm. Only 90 cases of metastases from basal cell carcinoma have been reported previously. PMID:850712

Goldberg, H M; Pratt-Thomas, H R; Harvin, J S



Contrast Medium Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contrast medium (CM) administration remains an integral part of thoracic and cardiovascular CT. While simple, empiric injection\\u000a protocols (fixed volume and fixed scanning delay) are sufficient for non-vascular CM-enhanced thoracic CT, cardiac and CT\\u000a angiographic applications require more sophistication. The goal is to achieve strong enhancement of the vascular territory\\u000a (or territories) of interest synchronized with CT data acquisition, which

Dominik Fleischmann; Margaret C. C. Lin


The violent interstellar medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational evidence for high-velocity and high-temperature interstellar gas is reviewed. The physical processes that characterize this gas are described, including the ionization and emissivity of coronal gas, the behavior and appearance of high-velocity shocks, and interfaces between coronal gas and cooler interstellar gas. Hydrodynamical models for the action of supernova explosions and stellar winds on the interstellar medium are examined,

R. McCray; T. P. Snow Jr.



Local interstellar medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews and analyses various observational data about the local interstellar medium (LISM)-a volume with a radius of about 200 pc near the Sun. There are collected radio, IR, optical, UV, and X-ray observations of the ISM and data on the Sco-Cen association. All available information confirms Weaver's (1979) conclusions that the Sun is located near an edge of

Nikolai G. Bochkarev



Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  


A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)



Evaluation of a new selective medium for Campylobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminating bacteria from the oropharynx and bacteria that colonise the stomachs of patients with a high gastric pH impede the isolation ofCampylobacter pylori from gastric biopsy specimens. Commercially available selective supplements are inhibitory to this organism and therefore a specific selective medium is needed for isolation. Potential selective agents were evaluated for their activity against 97 strains ofCampylobacter pylori. A

J. C. Dent; C. A. M. McNulty



Review of the toxicologic properties of medium-chain triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are a family of triglycerides, containing predominantly, caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) fatty acids with lesser amounts of caproic (C6) and lauric (C12) fatty acids. MCTs are widely used for parenteral nutrition in individuals requiring supplemental nutrition and are being more widely used in foods, drugs and cosmetics. MCTs are essentially non-toxic in acute toxicity tests

K. A Traul; A Driedger; D. L Ingle; D Nakhasi



Amino acid supplementation reveals differential regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357 and Aspergillus parasiticus SRRC 143  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasticus grown in yeast extract sucrose medium were compared to yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with several common amino acids. Yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with 50 mM tryptophan was found to significantly reduce...


Supplementation of graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to sheep feeding on maize stover harvested at three stages of maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilisation of cereal crop residues as animal feed is limited by deficiencies of protein, fermentable energy and other nutrients. In this study, rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism of lambs fed basal diets of maize stover harvested at three stages of maturity and supplemented with graded levels (0, 150, 300 and 450g per head per day) of desmodium (Desmodium intortum

Adugna Tolera; Frik Sundstøl




Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect on rate of growth and conversion of different levels of a protein supplement, with or without maize grain in basal diets of sugarcane\\/urea or sugar cane and molasses\\/urea given in separately feeders. In experiment 1 the levels of a 30% protein concentrate (compounded from soya bean, meat, maize gluten and alfalfa)

R Silvestre; N A MacLeod; T R Preston


Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Utilisation of Energy and Protein in Broiler Chicken Fed Different Dietary Fat Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of a supplementation of 80mg L-carnitine perkg diet were studied in broiler chicken at two dietary levels of fat (4 and 8 %) and different feeding levels (ad libitum in a growth trial, 95 and 85 % of ad libitum in a balance trial). A low-carnitine basal diet adequate in amino acid concentration was used. In the growth trial,

M. Rodehutscord; R. Timmler; Anke Dieckmann



Effects of breed and dietary protein supplementation on the responses to gastrointestinal nematode infections in Ethiopian sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of breed and dietary protein supplementation on the development of resistance and resilience to gastrointestinal nematode parasites (endoparasites) were examined in artificially infected Horro and Menz lambs from 4 to 12 months of age. The factorial design involved two breeds, two infection treatments (infected vs non-infected) and three dietary protein treatments (hay and wheat bran (basal diet), hay

Aynalem Haile; S Tembely; D. O Anindo; E Mukasa-Mugerwa; J. E. O Rege; Alemu Yami; R. L Baker



Golf club related basal skull fracture: a case study.  


Basal skull fractures, although rare, do occur and a high index of suspicion for high velocity injuries, should be at the forefront of the clinicians mind, particularly those from a golf club. Head injury in children is a common presentation to any Paediatric Emergency Department. With effective examination skills, recognition of signs of basal skull fracture such as haemotympanum, even in the absence of altered neurological findings, ensures safe and effective practice enabling correct and justifiable clinical decisions to be made. This is vital to ensure not only the correct investigative procedure is requested and performed, but also on discussion with the appropriate specialists, the correct treatment is also prescribed. This case study examines the use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of basal skull fractures and highlights further discussion into the appropriate treatment of children diagnosed with basal skull fractures. PMID:21968414

Hance, Katherine



The treatment of periocular basal cell carcinomas by radiotherapy.  

PubMed Central

Experience in the treatment of periocular basal cell carcinoma is described. Excellent local control rates and minimal morbidity have been achieved in a series of 128 tumours occurring in 127 patients with a minimum 3 year follow-up. Images

Rodriguez, J. M.; Deutsch, G. P.



Origin of basal activity in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons  

PubMed Central

Mammalian odorant receptors form a large, diverse group of G protein–coupled receptors that determine the sensitivity and response profile of olfactory receptor neurons. But little is known if odorant receptors control basal and also stimulus-induced cellular properties of olfactory receptor neurons other than ligand specificity. This study demonstrates that different odorant receptors have varying degrees of basal activity, which drives concomitant receptor current fluctuations and basal action potential firing. This basal activity can be suppressed by odorants functioning as inverse agonists. Furthermore, odorant-stimulated olfactory receptor neurons expressing different odorant receptors can have strikingly different response patterns in the later phases of prolonged stimulation. Thus, the influence of odorant receptor choice on response characteristics is much more complex than previously thought, which has important consequences on odor coding and odor information transfer to the brain.



Can subglacial processes reset the luminescence of basal sediment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the natural luminescence of basal sediment from Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland (Swift et al., under revision) has revived speculation that erosion and/or sediment transport in the subglacial environment may constitute effective luminescence resetting mechanisms. The plausibility of these resetting mechanisms rests on the presumption that luminescence signals can be reset if sediment grains are exposed to sufficient stress. The ice-bedrock contact zone of active glacial systems and the shear zones of active fault systems have been cited as environments where shearing has the potential to reset luminescence; however, laboratory studies that have investigated the effects of shearing on luminescence have produced conflicting results. We present the first results from a laboratory-based project that aims to determine the efficacy of resetting in the subglacial environment by shearing sediment under conditions representative of the ice-bedrock contact zone of active glacial systems. Preliminary luminescence data will be shown from an initial experiment that aims to quantify the effect of shearing on the luminescence of quartz. Homogenous medium-sand was obtained for the experiment from relict dune systems that possess substantial natural luminescence (we anticipate that glacial sediments with a wider range of grain sizes will be used in later experiments). Shearing was conducted using a state-of-the-art ring-shear apparatus using an imposed normal stress of 50 kPa at a shearing rate of 1 mm per minute for a distance of ~ 1200 mm, with samples for luminescence analyses taken from the shearing zone at pre-defined intervals. It is anticipated that further experiments using a range of imposed normal stresses and further analyses of changes in the luminescence and surface microtexture of grains in specific grain-size fractions will elucidate and quantify the specific nature of the resetting mechanism. Swift, D.A., Sanderson, D.C.W., Nienow, P.W., Bingham, R.G. and Cochrane, I.C. Under Revision. Luminescence investigation of subglacial sediment at Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. Quaternary Geochronology.

Swift, Darrel; Bateman, Mark; Piotrowski, Jan




PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Its occurrence in the perianal region is very rare. Awareness of its benign behavior in this region, in contrast to the earlier reports, is vital in its management. Local excision seems to provide adequate control. We are herewith reporting an extremely rare case of a 69-year-old male with basal cell carcinoma treated adequately with local excision.

Nagendra Naidu, D V; Rajakumar, V



EEG alpha rhythm, ocular activity and basal skin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hypotheses about the origin of the occipital alpha rhythm stress the specific influence of ocular activity.\\u000a\\u000aIn this study, the influence of eye-movement frequency and extreme upward deviation of the eyeballs (enlarging the corneo-retinal potential) on occipital alpha activity and basal skin resistance is investigated. Eye-movement frequency did not significantly influence alpha activity and basal skin resistance. On the

M. N. Verbaten; J. N. R. Beaujon; W. Sjouw



The Basal Ganglia and Chunking of Action Repertoires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia have been shown to contribute to habit and stimulus–response (S–R) learning. These forms of learning have the property of slow acquisition and, in humans, can occur without conscious awareness. This paper proposes that one aspect of basal ganglia-based learning is the recoding of cortically derived information within the striatum. Modular corticostriatal projection patterns, demonstrated experimentally, are viewed

Ann M. Graybiel



Neuroimaging of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) in children.  


Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant condition with a wide range of manifestations, including multiple basal cell carcinomas, medulloblastoma, odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) and skeletal abnormalities. Children with NBCCS also have a predisposition for secondary cancers after exposure to ionising radiation. In children undergoing imaging for posterior fossa mass and/or maxillofacial cysts, certain additional findings can raise the possibility of NBCCS. Making the diagnosis can significantly impact patient management, especially for children with medulloblastoma. PMID:23151728

Sartip, Kamyar; Kaplan, Adam; Obeid, George; Kadom, Nadja



Dopamine-glutamate interactions in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In an attempt to formulate a working hypothesis of basal-ganglia functions, arguments are considered suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in a process of response selection i.e. in the facilitation of “wanted” and in the suppression of “unwanted” behaviour. The meso-accumbal dopamine-system is considered to mediate natural and drug-induced reward and sensitization. The meso-striatal dopamine-system seems to fulfill

W. J. Schmidt



Performance-enhancing supplements.  


Supplements that are marketed as ergogenic aids have achieved widespread use in the United States. In image-conscious society, these agents are not only being consumed by athletes, but also by those looking for a quick fix to enhance their appearance. Many assume that the performance claims made by the manufacturers are based on actual data, and that these agents must be safe because they are sold to the general public. Unfortunately, in most cases these assumptions are false. Creatine has become very popular, particularly among college and high school athletes. Studies within the last 5 years have shown that creatine does seem to have certain ergogenic benefits in a laboratory setting. It is not currently known whether these benefits actually can be transferred to the playing field. Although creatine has not consistently been shown to cause any major side effects, there is some question regarding creatine's effect on the kidneys, particularly with long-term use. Also, the safety of supplementation in children and adolescents has not been examined at all; its use in this population should be discouraged until there are more data. Androstenedione is an agent that has received a large amount of popular press in the last year, and this has led to an surge in its usage. It is believed to exert its ergogenic effects through conversion to testosterone. But what limited data are available suggest that at the recommended dosage, it does not cause any measurable change in testosterone levels, or provide any ergogenic benefit in inexperienced weight lifters. Also, it has yet to be determined whether androstenedione causes any of the side effects often attributed to use of the illegal anabolic steroids. Its mechanism of action suggests it has the potential to cause many of these negative effects. Studies are just beginning to appear in the literature, and certainly more data need to be gathered before androstenedione supplementation can be recommended for use as an ergogenic aid. PMID:11092026

Pecci, M A; Lombardo, J A



Localization of GABA receptors in the basal ganglia.  


The majority of neurons in the basal ganglia utilize GABA as their principal neurotransmitter and, as a consequence, most basal ganglia neurons receive extensive GABAergic inputs derived from multiple sources. In order to understand the diverse roles of GABA in the basal ganglia it is necessary to define the precise localization of GABA receptors in relation to known neuron subtypes and known afferents. In this chapter, we summarize data on the ultrastructural localization of ionotropic GABA(A) receptors and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors in the basal ganglia. In each of the regions of the basal ganglia that have been studied, GABA(A) receptor subunits are located primarily at symmetrical synapses formed by GABAergic boutons, where they display a several-hundred-fold enrichment over extrasynaptic sites. In contrast, GABA(B) receptors are widely distributed at synaptic and extrasynaptic sites on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. Presynaptic GABA(B) receptors are localized on striatopallidal, striatonigral and pallidonigral afferent terminals, as well as glutamatergic terminals derived from the cortex, thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. It is concluded that fast GABA transmission mediated by GABA(A) receptors in the basal ganglia occurs primarily at synapses whereas GABA transmission mediated by GABA(B) receptors is more complex, involving receptors located at presynaptic, postsynaptic and extrasynaptic sites. PMID:17499117

Boyes, Justin; Bolam, J Paul



Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.

Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.




Microsoft Academic Search

An improved chemically defined basal medium (CMRL-1415) has been used to advantage in studying the effects on trypsinized, newly explanted mouse embryo cells of certain glyco- proteins from plasma and serum, certain nonprotein macromolecules, and various com- binations of these, in stationary cultures. When protein and nonprotein fractions were separated from fetal calf serum, the entire growth activity was found




Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on lipid metabolism in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid metabolism was studied in rats fed diets containing corn oil, coconut oil, or medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), a glyceride\\u000a mixture containing fatty acids of 8 and 10 carbons in length. The ingestion of MCT-supplemented, cholesterolfree diets depressed\\u000a plasma and liver total lipids and cholesterol as compared with corn oil-supplemented diets. In rats fed cholesterol-containing\\u000a diets, plasma cholesterol levels were not

Gilbert A. Leveille; Ronald S. Pardini; Jerry Ann Tillotson



Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen


[Physical activity and dietary supplements].  


The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has examined the scientific literature to evaluate the performance and health-related aspects of consuming dietary supplements in the context of physical activity. Certain nutritional supplements such as creatine and caffeine have documented ergogenic effects in specific situations. However, for the moderately physically active adult and healthy individual, who already consumes an energy- and nutrient balanced diet, consuming any currently legal dietary supplement does not seem to confer additional benefits on performance or health. PMID:19732518

Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Harald S; Hansen, Mette; Kiens, Bente; Kvorning, Thue; Nielsen, Lars N; Rasmussen, Lone B; Aagaard, Peter G



The inhibitory potential of feed supplementation with rosemary and\\/or ?-tocopheryl acetate on microbial growth and lipid oxidation of turkey breast during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four 12-week-old female turkeys divided into four equal groups were fed a basal diet (CONT) or basal diet supplemented with 300mg ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg (TOC), or 5g rosemary\\/kg (ROS5), or 10g rosemary\\/kg (ROS10), for 4 weeks. Following slaughter, fillets from breast were stored at 4°C in the dark for 12 days, and lipid oxidation was assessed on the basis of the

Alexandros Govaris; Panagiota Florou-Paneri; Evropi Botsoglou; Ilias Giannenas; Ioannis Amvrosiadis; Nikolaos Botsoglou



Inhibition of lipid oxidation in long-term frozen stored chicken meat by dietary oregano essential oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative effect of dietary oregano essential oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on susceptibility of chicken breast and thigh muscle meat to lipid oxidation during frozen storage at ?20 °C for 9 months was examined. Day-old chickens (n=80) were randomly divided into four groups, and fed a basal diet containing 30 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate kg?1 feed as control, or basal diet

N. A. Botsoglou; D. J. Fletouris; P. Florou-Paneri; E. Christaki; A. B. Spais



Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil and a-tocopheryl Acetate on Microbial Growth and Lipid Oxidation of Turkey Breast Fillets During Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: Twenty four 12-week-old turkeys were divided into four equal groups. One of the groups was given a basal diet containing 30 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg feed (CONT), whereas the other groups the basal diet further supplemented with 100 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate\\/kg (TOC), or 100 mg oregano essential oil\\/kg (OR), or 100 mg oregano essential oil plus 100 mg ?-tocopheryl



Consumer Research on Dietary Supplements  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Trends in Prevalence and Magnitude of Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Usage and Correlation with Health Status. 1992. ... More results from



SciTech Connect

Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood



Cryopreservation of basal stem buds of in vitro-grown mat rush (Juncus spp.) by vitrification.  


An optimal protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro-grown mat rush (igusa) buds by vitrification has been successfully developed. Established multiple stemmed cultures, which were induced in liquid MS medium containing 8.9 microM BA by roller culture, were cut into small clumps, plated on solid MS medium and cultured for three weeks at 25 degree C. Clumps that grew many buds were cold-hardened at 5 degrees C, with an 8 h photoperiod, for more than 30 d. The basal stem bud (1 to 2 mm long) was dissected from the clumps and precultured at 5 degrees C for 2 d on solid MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose. The precultured buds were placed in 2 ml plastic cryotubes and osmoprotected with 1 ml loading solution containing 2 M glycerol and 0.6 M sucrose for 30 min at 25 degree C. Then they were dehydrated in 1 ml PVS2 solution at 25 degree C for 30 min and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Using this protocol, the survival level of cryopreserved igusa 'NZ219' buds reached 87 percent. This protocol was successfully applied to 42 different lines from three Juncus species, which had relatively high survival levels ranging from 30 to 90 percent and an average of 63 percent. PMID:17898907

Niino, Takao; Tanaka, Daisuke; Tantely, Raminosa Rivo; Fukui, Kuniaki; Shirata, Kazuto


Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: fact or fiction?  


The consumption of oral creatine monohydrate has become increasingly common among professional and amateur athletes. Despite numerous publications on the ergogenic effects of this naturally occurring substance, there is little information on the possible adverse effects of this supplement. The objectives of this review are to identify the scientific facts and contrast them with reports in the news media, which have repeatedly emphasised the health risks of creatine supplementation and do not hesitate to draw broad conclusions from individual case reports. Exogenous creatine supplements are often consumed by athletes in amounts of up to 20 g/day for a few days, followed by 1 to 10 g/day for weeks, months and even years. Usually, consumers do not report any adverse effects, but body mass increases. There are few reports that creatine supplementation has protective effects in heart, muscle and neurological diseases. Gastrointestinal disturbances and muscle cramps have been reported occasionally in healthy individuals, but the effects are anecdotal. Liver and kidney dysfunction have also been suggested on the basis of small changes in markers of organ function and of occasional case reports, but well controlled studies on the adverse effects of exogenous creatine supplementation are almost nonexistent. We have investigated liver changes during medium term (4 weeks) creatine supplementation in young athletes. None showed any evidence of dysfunction on the basis of serum enzymes and urea production. Short term (5 days), medium term (9 weeks) and long term (up to 5 years) oral creatine supplementation has been studied in small cohorts of athletes whose kidney function was monitored by clearance methods and urine protein excretion rate. We did not find any adverse effects on renal function. The present review is not intended to reach conclusions on the effect of creatine supplementation on sport performance, but we believe that there is no evidence for deleterious effects in healthy individuals. Nevertheless, idiosyncratic effects may occur when large amounts of an exogenous substance containing an amino group are consumed, with the consequent increased load on the liver and kidneys. Regular monitoring is compulsory to avoid any abnormal reactions during oral creatine supplementation. PMID:10999421

Poortmans, J R; Francaux, M



The antiallergic effects and acute toxicity of Lactobacillus crispatus KT-11 cultured in food grade medium.  


We synthesized a medium consisting of commercial food supplements (food grade medium) that could be used to cultivate Lactobacillus crispatus KT-11 (KT-11), and investigated the antiallergic effects and acute toxicity of KT-11 cultured in this medium. We found that the growth of KT-11 in the food grade medium was comparable to that in DeMan-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium. Sneezing event was reduced in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice given a diet supplemented with KT-11 grown in the food grade medium (FG-KT-11 group) when compared to mice given a diet supplemented with KT-11 grown in MRS medium (MRS-KT-11 group). The number of CD80(+)CD11b(+) Peyer's patch cells was significantly lower in the FG-KT-11 group than in the MRS-KT-11 group, while IL-12(+)CD11b(+) Peyer's patch cells were higher in the FG-KT-11 group. Only minimal acute toxicity was observed in ICR mice given 1000 or 2000 mg of FG-KT-11/kg body weight. These results suggest that FG-KT-11 represents a safe antiallergic food material. PMID:20423083

Tobita, Keisuke; Yanaka, Hiroyuki; Otani, Hajime



Computer to recording medium interface  

SciTech Connect

A central computer is utilized to control a recording medium while a peripheral computer is utilized to supply data to the recording medium for recording on magnetic tape. Method and apparatus is provided whereby an error indication is provided to the central computer if an error occurs in the transfer of data from the peripheral computer to the recording medium.

Lacy, R.H.



Nutritive value of fermented and amino acid-supplemented malted sorghum sprouts for growing pigs.  


Two experiments were carried out to determine the effects of diets containing fermented and amino acid (AA)-supplemented malted sorghum sprout (MSP) on performance, nutrient utilisation and feed cost analysis of growing pigs. In experiment 1 (digestibility trial), 12 pigs were individually housed in metabolic crates, equipped with feeding and watering troughs which also allow for separate collection of faeces and urine. Data collection lasted for 7 days during which feed intake and faecal output were weighed, with daily storage of collected faeces at -4 °C. Four diets, a basal diet, basal plus malted sorghum sprout (B + MSP), basal plus fermented malted sorghum sprout (B + FMSP) and basal plus amino acids plus malted sorghum sprout (B + AA + MSP), were tested. Samples of test ingredients, feed and faeces were analysed for their gross energy and proximate compositions. In experiment 2, 18 weaner pigs were used in a completely randomised design for 63 days to determine the performance and cost analysis of feeding malted sorghum sprout at 0, 100 and 200 g/kg in pig's diet, six pigs per diet with each pig representing a replicate. Daily feed intake and weekly weight gain were determined. The prevailing cost of each feed ingredient was used to compute the feed cost and, subsequently, the feed cost analysis. Results of digestibility trial showed that there was no difference in the utilisation of the chemical constituents of B + MSP and B + AA + MSP diets, which were also similar to the basal diet, except the crude protein (CP) in amino acid-supplemented malted sorghum sprout diet, which was lower compared to the basal diet. B + FMSP was lower (P < 0.05) in the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and CP compared to the basal diet. The digestible energy (DE) and the fraction of gross energy utilised as DE of each diet also were not affected by fermentation and supplementation with AA. In experiment 2, the levels of MSP used did not affect (P > 0.05) the performance and feed cost indices measured. It was concluded that MSP can be used in growing pig's diet, without the need for fermentation and AA supplementation, at 200 g/kg level with no adverse effect on the nutritive value of the diet. PMID:23054803

Akinola, Olufemi Sunday; Alabi, Joel Oluwatosin; Fafiolu, Adeboye Olusesan; Adedayo, Folorunso Temitope; Sogunle, Olajide Mark; Oduguwa, Oluseyi Olutosin; Fanimo, Amos Oladipo



Moesin expression is a marker of basal breast carcinomas.  


Basal breast cancers (BBCs) have a high risk of metastasis, recurrence and death. Formal subtype definition relies on gene expression but can be approximated by protein expression. New markers are needed to help in the management of the basal subtype of breast cancer. In a previous transcriptional analysis of breast cell lines we found that Moesin expression was a potential basal marker. We show here that Moesin protein expression is a basal marker in breast tumors. In a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 547 sporadic breast cancers, of which 108 were profiled for gene expression, Moesin was expressed in 31% of all tumors and in 82% of the basal tumors. To confirm that Moesin expression remained associated with the basal phenotype in specific types of BBCs, we analyzed Moesin expression in 2 other TMAs containing 40 medullary breast cancers (MBCs) and 27 BRCA1-associated breast cancers (BRCA1-BCs), respectively. Moesin was strongly expressed in MBCs (87%; p = 2.4 x 10(-5)) and in BRCA1-BCs (58%; p = 1.3 x 10(-5)) as compared with non-MBCs and sporadic cases. Moesin-expressing tumors display features of BBCs, such as high proliferation rate, hormone receptors negativity, expression of putative basal/myoepithelial markers (CAV1, CD10, CK5/6, CK14, EGFR, P53, P-cadherin and SMA). Survival analysis showed a reduced specific survival and metastasis-free survival in Moesin-expressing tumors by log-rank test (p(SS) = 0.014 and p(MFS) = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, Moesin expression was nearly an independent prognostic marker of poor outcome as shown by Cox proportional hazard model in patients without lymph node metastasis (p = 0.052, HR = 2.38, CI 95[0.99-5.69]). PMID:17594689

Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Monville, Florence; Bertucci, François; Esterni, Benjamin; Ginestier, Christophe; Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Geneix, Jeannine; Hassanein, Mohamed; Rabayrol, Laetitia; Sobol, Hagay; Taranger-Charpin, Colette; Xerri, Luc; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Jacquemier, Jocelyne



Effect of moderate Cu supplementation on serum metabolites, enzymes and redox state in feedlot calves.  


The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether, in the nutritional management of commercial feedlots, copper (Cu) supplementation is justified to maintain the physiological requirements. This study compared beef calves fed concentrates with an average Cu basal content of 5 and 8 mg/kg in growing and finishing periods (10 animals) or supplemented with 15 mg/kg for each phase (20 animals) as regards production indices, metabolic parameters [glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), creatinine, total serum protein (TSP), albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST) and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT)] and markers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and serum antioxidant capacity (SAC)). Data were recorded at ages 12, 24 and 36 weeks. In general, Cu supplementation was neither detrimental nor beneficial for animal health and performance, and the levels of the measured metabolites and enzymes were within their normal ranges stated for feedlot with the same management during the whole study. However, in keeping with reported higher hepatic Cu levels at slaughter, animals on supplemented feed had higher GGT activities at the end of the finishing stage, although the difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, lower SAC levels at the end of the growing period in the supplemented group suggest the possibility of a positive effect of Cu supplementation on redox state. Further research is necessary to clarify the potential role of Cu in limiting the ROS production associated with fattening diets, and to evaluate the hepatobiliary consequences of supplementation, including hepatic Cu accumulation. PMID:21724218

Castillo, C; Hernández, J; García Vaquero, M; López Alonso, M; Pereira, V; Miranda, M; Blanco, I; Benedito, J L



Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Antioxidant Defense and Glucose Homeostasis in Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different forms of Se supplementation on the antioxidant defense\\u000a and glucose homeostasis in experimental diabetes. Sodium selenate (SS) or selenomethionine (SM) were administered (2 ?mol\\u000a Se kg?1 day?1) via orogastric route to streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic rats in addition to basal diet for 12 weeks. Glucose levels\\u000a in whole blood, glutathione peroxidase

Zubeyde Erbayraktar; Osman Y?lmaz; Ay?egul Temiz Artmann; Ruksan Cehreli; Canan Coker



The prophylactic effect of vitamin C supplementation on broiler ascites incidence and plasma thyroid hormone concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a two?factorial experiment, 420 1?day?old male commercial broiler chickens were randomly divided and fed a basal diet with or without vitamin C (500 parts\\/10). Half of the birds within each group receiving the same kind of feed were fed a T3 supplemented diet from day 1, in order to increase the ascites incidence. Weekly body weight and feed intake

M. Hassanzadeh Ladmakhi; Nadine Buys; Erna Dewil; G. Rahimi; E. Decuypere



Zinc supplementation aggravates body fat accumulation in genetically obese mice and dietary-obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perturbation of zinc metabolism has been noted in numerous laboratory animals with diabetes and obesity. The effects of\\u000a zinc supplementation on body fat deposition in two types of experimental obese mice: genetically obese (ob\\/ob) mice and high-fat\\u000a diet-induced ICR obese (HF) mice were investigated in this study. Their lean controls were +\\/? mice, and ICR on basal diet,\\u000a respectively.

Ming-Der Chen; Pi-Yao Lin; Vie Cheng; Wen-Han Lin



Effects of Supplemental Manganese on the Performance and Pork Carcass Composition of Growing-Finishing Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) on live animal performance and pork quality, crossbred pigs (n = 168) were assigned randomly to one of six dietary treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial design with Mn present or absent in the basal diet and 0 or 350 ppm of supplemental Mn from either Mn sulfate (MnSO4) or AvailaMn-80.

J. K. Apple; A. W. Tittor; C. V. Maxwell; J. B. Morgan; L. K. Rakes; M. E. Davis; J. Stephenson; T. M. Fakler


37 CFR 1.625 - Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination not limited to patents and printed publications or to subject matter that has been...



Ink jet recording medium  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An ink jet recording medium including a substrate and two or more ink receiving layers provided on the substrate, wherein a first ink receiving layer that is an outermost ink receiving layer of the two or more ink receiving layers and a second ink receiving layer adjacent to the first ink receiving layer contain an alumina pigment, polyvinyl alcohol and boric acid. The first ink receiving layer contains polyvinyl alcohol in an amount of 7.0-10.5% by mass or less based on the alumina pigment and contains boric acid in an amount of 1.1-1.4% by mass or less based on the alumina pigment. The second ink receiving layer contains polyvinyl alcohol in an amount of 10.5-17.0% by mass or less based on the alumina pigment and contains boric acid in an amount of 1.5-2.5% by mass or less based on the alumina pigment.

Nito; Yasuhiro (Yokohama, JP); Kamo; Hisao (Ushiku, JP); Noguchi; Tetsuro (Hachioji, JP); Taguri; Ryo (Sagamihara, JP); Oguri; Isamu (Yokohama, JP); Herlambang; Olivia (Kawasaki, JP); Hatta; Naoya (Kawasaki, JP); Yumoto; Shinya (Kawasaki, JP)



Basal melt rate at the Larsen-C Ice Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, the Larsen Ice Shelf has progressively thinned and two large sections have collapsed, catastrophically, leading to increased ice discharge into the oceans and a global sea level rise of about 0.07 mm yr-1. If similar events are to occur at the remaining Larsen-C section, the fate of a tenfold greater ice reservoir hangs in the balance. Although the origin of the underlying instability has yet to be determined, only three processes can realistically be to blame; enhanced basal or surface melting, or accelerated flow. To quantify rates of basal ice melting, we deployed a phase sensitive radar at the Larsen-C Ice Shelf in 2008. The radar is a high-precision instrument that directly measures changes in ice thickness at the base of the ice shelf, in contrast to indirect methods which infer basal melting from surface observation while assuming steady state equilibrium. During the spring 2008, we established three sites at the Larsen-C where time-series of satellite altimeter data are also available. In the spring 2009, the 3 sites have been re-visited twice with the objective of measuring yearly and summer rates of basal melting. We combine the phase sensitive radar observations with measurement of surface mass balance, gps-determined strain rates, surface velocity field from InSAR and elevation changes from altimetry to quantify the role of basal melting in the overall mass balance of the Larsen-C Ice Shelf.

Gourmelen, Noel; Shepherd, Andrew; Jenkins, Adrian; Houlie, Nicolas



Basal melt rate at the Larsen-C Ice Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, the Larsen Ice Shelf has progressively thinned and two large sections have collapsed, catastrophically, leading to increased ice discharge into the oceans and a global sea level rise of about 0.07 mm yr-1. If similar events are to occur at the remaining Larsen-C section, the fate of a tenfold greater ice reservoir hangs in the balance. Although the origin of the underlying instability has yet to be determined, only three processes can realistically be to blame; enhanced basal or surface melting, or accelerated flow. To quantify rates of basal ice melting, we deployed a phase sensitive radar at the Larsen-C Ice Shelf in 2008. The radar is a high-precision instrument that directly measures changes in ice thickness at the base of the ice shelf, in contrast to indirect methods which infer basal melting from surface observation while assuming steady state equilibrium. During the spring 2008, we established three sites at the Larsen-C where time-series of satellite altimeter data are also available. In the spring 2009, the 3 sites are to be re-visited twice with the objective of measuring yearly and summer rates of basal melting. We combine the phase sensitive radar observations with measurement of surface mass balance, gps-determined strain rates, surface velocity field from InSAR and elevation chanes from altimetry to quantify the role of basal melting in the overall mass balance of the Larsen-C Ice Shelf.

Gourmelen, N.; Shepherd, A.; Jenkins, A.; Houlie, N.




PubMed Central

Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006) were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Maleki, Masood; Javidi, Zari; Nahidi, Yalda



National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements  


... NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Office of Dietary Supplements Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements Searching for Scientific Literature on Dietary Supplements? Search ...


Dietary Supplements in Weight Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake

Johanna T. Dwyer; David B. Allison; Paul M. Coates



Basal cells are the progenitors of primary tracheal epithelial cell cultures  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to identify the cells from the rat tracheal epithelium which attach and proliferate in primary culture. When cells isolated from tracheas by enzymatic digestion were held in suspension at 37C for several hours most of the differentiated cells dies. The kinetics of this selective cell death were not dependent on the constituents of the holding medium. With time in suspension, the colony forming efficiency of the surviving cells increased two- to threefold. Comparison of the growth curves of cells held or plated directly showed no difference in the number of cells in the proliferating populations. Using two lectins, it was possible to monitor the loss of specific populations in suspension. BS1-B4 is a marker for basal cells and UEA-1 is a secretory cell marker. Only those cells that were BS1-B4 positive survived in suspension. Further, the colonies that formed in primary culture were positive for this marker. Single cell suspensions of cells were sorted by flow cytometry and a fivefold increase in the colony forming efficiency of BS1-B4 positive cells compared to that of the negative cells was observed. These findings suggest that the cells that survived in suspension and proliferated in culture originated from the basal cells of the trachea.

Ford, J.R.; Terzaghi-Howe, M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge (United States) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))



Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.


Dietary Supplements and Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Key Points\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Approximately one-half of all Americans use dietary supplements. Thousands of supplements of multiple combinations of vitamins,\\u000a minerals, and herbs are available for purchase, but the most commonly used supplements are multivitamins and single supplements\\u000a of vitamins C and E, and calcium.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Dietary supplements can provide a large proportion of total micronutrient intake for many consumers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • 

Marian L. Neuhouser; Ruth E. Patterson; Alan R. Kristal; Emily White


Osteopontin (Eta-1) is present in the rat basal ganglia.  


Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein that is responsive to oxidative stress and inflammation and controls cytokine production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and apoptotic cell death. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of OPN in the rat basal ganglia. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), OPN cDNA was found in the substantia nigra, and striatum. The presence of OPN mRNA was demonstrated in the same areas of the basal ganglia, using in situ hybridisation. OPN protein was found in the SN, using Western blotting and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The protein was localised to neurones but not to microglia or astroglia. This is the first report of the presence of OPN in the basal ganglia where it may be involved in the maintenance of neuronal viability. PMID:15548430

Iczkiewicz, Joanna; Rose, Sarah; Jenner, Peter



Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  


... for Consumers Selected Health Topics Women Kids & Teens - Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Available in PDF ( ... and your family about dietary supplements. Some Common Dietary Supplements: Acidophilus Echinacea Fiber Ginger Glucosamine and/or Chonodroitin ...


Bovine oocytes in secondary follicles grow in medium containing bovine plasma after vitrification.  


There has been no culture system that supports the growth of bovine oocytes for more than 2 weeks. In the present study, bovine secondary follicles were cultured for 4 weeks, and the effects of supplemented protein components and FSH in the culture medium on the growth of the oocytes were examined. The effect of vitrification of secondary follicles on the subsequent oocyte growth was also examined. Secondary follicles (150 to 200 µm in diameter) containing growing oocytes (approximately 60 µm in diameter) were dissected from ovaries and cultured in a medium supplemented with FSH (0, 25 or 50 ng/ml) and one of the following four kinds of protein components: bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine plasma (BPL), fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine follicular fluid (BFF). In BSA- and BPL-supplemented media with 0 or 25 ng/ml FSH, more than 50% of follicles showed no degenerative signs during culture, and oocytes significantly increased in size after 4 weeks (P<0.05). Higher percentages of granulosa cell-enclosed oocytes were recovered from the follicles cultured in BPL-supplemented media with 0 and 25 ng/ml FSH, and the oocytes grew to 90 µm or more in diameter. In FCS- and BFF-supplemented media, FSH increased the numbers of degenerating follicles. Next, vitrified-warmed secondary follicles were cultured in BPL-supplemented medium. One third of the follicles showed no degenerative signs, and the oocytes increased in diameter to 88.8 ± 3.1 µm after 4 weeks of culture. These results suggest that a BPL-supplemented medium supports oocyte growth in bovine secondary follicles for 4 weeks, even after vitrification and warming of the follicles. PMID:20962458

Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Takajo, Asuka; Bao, Rong-Mei; Hamawaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Motoichi; Miyano, Takashi



Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.  


We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S



Motility of basal fragments of sea urchin sperm flagella.  


Both live and reactivated sea urchin sperm flagella were broken by passage through a pipette. Distal fragments stopped, but basal fragments continued to beat. Intact flagella were about 48 micrometer long; basal fragments were about 4-20 micrometer long. Beat periods of tritonated fragments were 11% shorter than those of unbroken controls, possibly reflecting decreased viscous loading; beat periods of live fragments were 18% shorter than those of unbroken controls, possibly reflecting reduced rates of ATP consumption as well as decreased viscous loading. The undulations of basal fragments were compared with those of the basal regions of unbroken flagella, using the patterns of development of the radii and angles of basal bends. Fragments closely resembled basal regions of unbroken flagella, except that bends tended to open as they approached the distal end of a fragment, so that their radii increased more rapidly than those unbroken flagella. Fragments about 4 micrometer long contained only one bend during part of the cycle, and appeared to be straight during part of the cycle. They flipped back and forth with fairly constant angular speeds and abrupt changes in direction, so that plots of angle between their distal end and base often resembled triangular waves, although the peaks of the waveforms were often rounded. This behaviour suggests a mechanism in which sliding switches between 2 modes. Both the speed of sliding and the maximum angles attained in one direction of bending were greater than those attained in the other direction, suggesting differences between the doublets on the 2 sides of the axoneme. Sliding of the doublets continued as fast speeds as the fragments straightened, in contrast to the characteristics of some curvature-sensitive models. These flagellar fragments provide a simplified system for the study of flagellar oscillations. PMID:7320077

Goldstein, S F



Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Basal breast cancers (BCs) represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES). Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS) in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73). This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518) sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test). Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.



Molecular characterization of Italian nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.  


Mutations in the PTCH gene, the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene, have been found to lead to the autosomal dominant disorder termed Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS, also called Gorlin Syndrome). Patients display an array of developmental anomalies and are prone to develop a variety of tumors, with multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas occurring frequently. We provide here the results of molecular testing of a set of Italian Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients. Twelve familial patients belonging to 7 kindreds and 5 unaffected family members, 6 non-familial patients and an additional set of 7 patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the disease were examined for mutations in the PTCH gene. All of the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients were found to carry variants of the PTCH gene. We detected nine novel mutations (1 of which occurring twice): 1 missense mutation (c.1436T>G [p.L479R]), 1 nonsense mutation (c.1138G>T [p.E380X]), 6 frameshift mutations (c.323_324ins2, c.2011_2012dup, c.2535_2536dup, c.2577_2583del, c.3000_3005del, c.3050_3051del), 1 novel splicing variant (c.6552A>T) and 3 mutations that have been previously reported (c.3168+5G>A, c.1526G>T [p.G509V], and c.3499G>A [p.G1167R]). None of the patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the syndrome, carried germline coding region mutations. PMID:15712338

Pastorino, L; Cusano, R; Nasti, S; Faravelli, F; Forzano, F; Baldo, C; Barile, M; Gliori, S; Muggianu, M; Ghigliotti, G; Lacaita, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Bianchi-Scarra, G



Development of a chemically defined serum-free medium for differentiation of rat adipose precursor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stromal-vascular cells from the epididymal fat pad of 4-week-old rats, when cultured in a medium containing insulin or insulin-like growth factor, IFG-I, triiodothyronine and transferrin, were able to undergo adipose conversion. Over ninety percent of the cells accumulated lipid droplets and this proportion was reduced in serum-supplemented medium. The adipose conversion was assessed by the development of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)

S. Deslex; R. Negrel; G. Ailhaud



Fertilizability and developmental capacity of bovine oocytes cultured individually in a chemically defined maturation medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated effects of adding hypotaurine (HT), ?-merocaptoethanol (?-ME), or both into a chemically defined maturation medium (TCM-199 containing 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol: PVA) on maturation, fertilization and development of individually (single) cultured bovine oocytes. Mean GSH concentration in the oocytes cultured in the medium supplemented with either ?-ME (1.11 ± 0.05 nM) or HT plus ?-ME (0.97 ± 0.03

S. Mizushima; Y. Fukui



Growth Kinetics of Clostridium bifermentans and Its Ability to Degrade TNT Using an Inexpensive Alternative Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Clostridium bifermentans isolated from a munitions-supplemented anaerobic digester is known to degrade 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in rich media such as Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth. In order to make this biodegradation process commercially feasible, a new growth medium was developed. Corn steep liquor and molasses were selected as possible nitrogen and carbon sources. A medium containing 2.4% corn

Wudneh Admassu; Anand V. Sethuraman; Ronald Crawford; Roger A. Korus



A selective medium for the rapid isolation of pseudomonads associated with poultry meat spoilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A new selective medium (CFC) has been developed for the rapid isolation of pigmented and non?pigmented pseudomonads associated with the spoilage of poultry meat held under chill conditions. It comprises Difco Heart Infusion Agar supplemented with 50 ?g cephaloridine, 10 ?g fucidin and 10 ?g cetrimide\\/ml.2. CFC medium was found to be more selective than three other media which

G. C. Mead; B. W. Adams



Basal cell carcinoma masquerading as a hallux valgus  

PubMed Central

The incidence of primary skin cancers of the foot is exceedingly low; conversely, problems associated with a hallux valgus are common. A nonhealing ulcer overlying a hallux valgus managed conservatively with ointments and orthotic adjustments, and even with skin grafts, did not resolve over a period of 10 years. Ultimately, a shave biopsy revealed that the lesion was a basal cell carcinoma. Wide local excision and another skin graft resulted in tumour eradication and, finally, healing. Basal cell carcinoma associated with a hallux valgus has not been previously reported, and this reinforces the concept that malignant degeneration as the cause of any chronic ulceration should not be overlooked.

Hallock, Geoffrey G; Bulatao, Imelda S



Preparation of basal cell membranes for scanning probe microscopy.  


Scanning probe microscopy has the potential for investigating membranes in a physiological environment. We prepared with a lysis-squirting protocol basal cell membranes, that are suitable for scanning probe microscopy. Investigations using atomic force microscopy under liquid revealed cellular filaments which correlated perfectly with fluorescently stained actin filaments. Globular structures with a diameter as little as 10 nm could be resolved by stripping cytoplasmic components from the membranes. Therefore, cytoplasmic sides of supported basal cell membranes prove useful to gain high resolution with scanning probe microscopy in studies of plasma membrane associated structures and processes under buffer solution. PMID:9781674

Ziegler, U; Vinckier, A; Kernen, P; Zeisel, D; Biber, J; Semenza, G; Murer, H; Groscurth, P



Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.  


Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius



Isolation of basal and mucous cell populations from rabbit trachea  

SciTech Connect

The application of a unit gravity sedimentation procedure to monodispersed rabbit tracheal cells resulted in the isolation of enriched (2-fold to 2.5-fold) basal and mucous cell populations. Cellular integrity was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion index of 93%, (3H) leucine incorporation, and ultrastructural analysis. Unit gravity sedimentation is an affective and rapid procedure for obtaining viable, homogeneous preparations of basal and mucous cells that may be used for in vitro studies of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and glycoprotein biosynthesis in respiratory mucous epithelia.

Chilton, B.S.; Kennedy, J.R.; Nicosia, S.V.



Effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 and Enterococcus faecium CECT 4515 in adult healthy dogs.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic preparation consisting of two probiotic strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 and Enterococcus faecium CECT 4515 (each 5 · 10(8) CFU/g feed), on faecal consistency, faecal microbiology and nutrient digestibility in adult healthy dogs. Sixteen beagles (eight males and eight females) were divided into two groups: the Control group (CON), which was fed the basal diet, and the probiotic group (PRO), which received the basal diet supplemented daily with 1 · 10(8) CFU for 39 consecutive days. Faecal score was assessed before (BS) and throughout the supplementation period (SP). Fresh faecal samples were collected before supplementation, before finishing the supplementation period and after 6 days of withdrawal for microbial enumeration and pH measurement. During the supplementation period, a digestibility trial was performed. There were no differences in faecal scores or the digestibility coefficients between groups. Between groups no statistical differences were found in most microbiota analysed or in faecal pH. However, during the supplementation period, pathogenic clostridia dropped significantly in Group PRO (5.64 vs. 2.94 ± 0.53 CFU/g faeces; p < 0.001), when compared with the period BS. The use of the probiotic preparation had no impact on nutrient digestibility by adult healthy dogs; however, it could stabilise faecal microbiota by decreasing pathogenic clostridia. PMID:23952642

González-Ortiz, Gemma; Castillejos, Lorena; Mallo, Juan José; Angels Calvo-Torras, M; Dolores Baucells, M



Diagnostic Utility of Immunohistochemical Staining for p63, a Sensitive Marker of Prostatic Basal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostically reliable identification of prostatic basal cells has depended on staining for high molecular weight cytokeratin. The diagnosis of malignancy is often based on the absence of basal cells. False-negative staining is occasionally observed. Thus, a second method of identifying basal cells might prove useful. Selective expression of p63, a homologue of p53, has been demonstrated in prostatic basal cells.

Michael H. Weinstein; Sabina Signoretti; Massimo Loda



Reasoning in a reading context: Deductive inferences in basal reading series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined three basal reading programs published by Heath (1989), Silver Burdett Ginn (1993) and Houghton Mifflin (1993), to determine how frequently logically necessary relationships are expressed in text used by basal readers, and whether direct instruction in making logically necessary inferences accompanies such expressions in basal reader series. The complete contents of the basal readers, from grades one

Bridget A. Franks; Sharon L. Mulhern; Susan M. Schillinger



Geriatric Use Supplement Clinical Efficacy Trials Category  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Geriatric Use Supplement Clinical Efficacy Trials Category. FDA Data Element Number. ... Geriatric Use Supplement Clinical Efficacy Trials Category. ... More results from


Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... about dietary supplements? Some can be beneficial to your health - but taking supplements can also involve health risks. ... More results from


Chronic dietary choline supplementation modulates attentional change in adult rats.  


In two experiments adult rats were maintained on a diet enriched with added choline for 12 weeks prior to behavioral testing; control rats remained on the standard diet during this time. In Experiment 1 all rats received training in the Hall-Pearce negative transfer paradigm in which prior training with a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a small reinforcer retards further learning when the size of the reinforcer is increased. This effect, which has been attributed to a loss of associability by the CS, was obtained in control subjects but not in those given the supplement. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of prior nonreinforced exposure of the to-be-CS (latent inhibition). Such exposure retarded subsequent learning in control subjects, but latent inhibition was not obtained in those given the supplement. We conclude that the mechanism that reduces the attention paid to a stimulus that accurately predicts its consequences does not operate effectively after choline supplementation. These results are consistent with a role for the cholinergic system of the basal forebrain in modulation of attention. PMID:23376702

Moreno, Hayarelis; de Brugada, Isabel; Hall, Geoffrey



Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at the scale of the seismic refraction experiment ~100m). In order to interpret the value of the P-wave velocities, we measured in the laboratory the ultrasonic velocities on non-fractured blocks from the field. By, comparing the ultrasonic and the seismic velocities and using an effective medium model, we can estimate a mean crack density and a mean fracture aspect ratio. Finally this allows to estimate the permeability of this fractured aquifer.

Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.



Dietary L-glutamine supplementation increases Pasteurella multocida burden and the expression of its major virulence factors in mice.  


This study was conducted to determine the effects of graded doses of L-glutamine supplementation on the replication and distribution of Pasteurella multocida, and the expression of its major virulence factors in mouse model. Mice were randomly assigned to the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 % glutamine. Pasteurella multocida burden was detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney after 12 h of P. multocida infection. The expression of major virulence factors, toll-like receptors (TLRs), proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and anti-oxidative factors (GPX1 and CuZnSOD) was analyzed in the lung and spleen. Dietary 0.5 % glutamine supplementation has little significant effect on these parameters, compared to those with basal diet. However, results showed that a high dose of glutamine supplementation increased the P. multocida burden (P < 0.001) and the expression of its major virulence factors (P < 0.05) as compared to those with a lower dose of supplementation. In the lung, high dose of glutamine supplementation inhibited the proinflammatory responses (P < 0.05) and TLRs signaling (P < 0.05). In the spleen, the effect of glutamine supplementation on different components in TLR signaling depends on glutamine concentration, and high dose of glutamine supplementation activated the proinflammatory response. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation increased P. multocida burden and the expression of its major virulence factors, while affecting the functions of the lung and spleen. PMID:23884693

Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Shuping; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Fengmei; Li, Nengzhang; Yin, Jie; Peng, Yuanyi; Wu, Li; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao



Medium-evolved fragmentation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medium-induced gluon radiation is usually identified as the dominant dynamical mechanism underling the jet quenching phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions. In its actual implementation, multiple medium-induced gluon emissions are assumed to be independent, leading, in the eikonal approximation, to a Poisson distribution. Here, we introduce a medium term in the splitting probabilities so that both medium and vacuum contributions are included on the same footing in a DGLAP approach. The improvements include energy-momentum conservation at each individual splitting, medium-modified virtuality evolution and a coherent implementation of vacuum and medium splitting probabilities. Noticeably, the usual formalism is recovered when the virtuality and the energy of the parton are very large. This leads to a similar description of the suppression observed in heavy-ion collisions with values of the transport coefficient of the same order as those obtained using the quenching weights.

Armesto, Néstor; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Salgado, Carlos A.; Xiang, Wen-Chang



International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement  

SciTech Connect

This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.




Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated

Amitabha Chakrabarti; Heide Schatten; Kirk D. Mitchell; Michael Crosser; Meghan Taylor



Standardization of medium for culturing Lyme disease spirochetes.  

PubMed Central

To standardize the procedure for isolating and culturing Lyme disease spirochetes, we modified the composition of the medium generally used for this purpose (BSK-II) and developed a system for its distribution. This medium contains no gelatin or agarose, and various components are used in proportions that differ from those in BSK-II. Each of the major proteinacious components was screened by substitution in samples of the complete product. The final medium was evaluated for the capacity to grow related spirochetes including Borrelia burgdorferi N40, Guilford, and JD-1 as well as strains of Borrelia hermsii (HS-1) and of Borrelia coriaceae (CO53). Each isolate developed from inocula containing as few as one to five organisms. Doubling time of B. burgdorferi during log-phase growth at 37 degrees C was 10 to 12 h. Lyme disease spirochetes were isolated in this medium from ear punch biopsies and dermal aspirates from naturally infected mice and rabbits, from dermal biopsies from a human patient, and by sampling field-collected deer ticks (Ixodes dammini). Cultured spirochetes remained infective to mice and to ticks. The medium can be stored at -20 degrees C or lower temperatures for at least 8 months without effect on its ability to support growth of small inocula to densities exceeding 10(8) spirochetes per ml. Lyme disease spirochetes remained infective to mice after being stored at -80 degrees C in this medium for at least 8 months. We anticipate that the availability of this standardized medium (Sigma Chemical Co.), supplemented with prescreened rabbit serum, will facilitate comparison of research results between laboratories and may eventually permit definitive clinical diagnosis of Lyme disease based on demonstration of the pathogen. The standardized medium is designated BSK-H.

Pollack, R J; Telford, S R; Spielman, A



Standardization of medium for culturing Lyme disease spirochetes.  


To standardize the procedure for isolating and culturing Lyme disease spirochetes, we modified the composition of the medium generally used for this purpose (BSK-II) and developed a system for its distribution. This medium contains no gelatin or agarose, and various components are used in proportions that differ from those in BSK-II. Each of the major proteinacious components was screened by substitution in samples of the complete product. The final medium was evaluated for the capacity to grow related spirochetes including Borrelia burgdorferi N40, Guilford, and JD-1 as well as strains of Borrelia hermsii (HS-1) and of Borrelia coriaceae (CO53). Each isolate developed from inocula containing as few as one to five organisms. Doubling time of B. burgdorferi during log-phase growth at 37 degrees C was 10 to 12 h. Lyme disease spirochetes were isolated in this medium from ear punch biopsies and dermal aspirates from naturally infected mice and rabbits, from dermal biopsies from a human patient, and by sampling field-collected deer ticks (Ixodes dammini). Cultured spirochetes remained infective to mice and to ticks. The medium can be stored at -20 degrees C or lower temperatures for at least 8 months without effect on its ability to support growth of small inocula to densities exceeding 10(8) spirochetes per ml. Lyme disease spirochetes remained infective to mice after being stored at -80 degrees C in this medium for at least 8 months. We anticipate that the availability of this standardized medium (Sigma Chemical Co.), supplemented with prescreened rabbit serum, will facilitate comparison of research results between laboratories and may eventually permit definitive clinical diagnosis of Lyme disease based on demonstration of the pathogen. The standardized medium is designated BSK-H. PMID:8501226

Pollack, R J; Telford, S R; Spielman, A



Airway Basal Cell Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-mediated Cross-Talk Regulates Endothelial Cell Dependent Growth Support of Human Airway Basal Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The human airway epithelium is a pseudostratified heterogenous layer comprised of ciliated, secretory, intermediate and basal cells. As the stem/progenitor population of the airway epithelium, airway basal cells differentiate into ciliated and secretory cells to replenish the airway epithelium during physiological turnover and repair. Transcriptome analysis of airway basal cells revealed high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), a gene not typically associated with the function of this cell type. Using cultures of primary human airway basal cells, we demonstrate that basal cells express all of the 3 major isoforms of VEGFA (121, 165 and 189) but lack functional expression of the classical VEGFA receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. The VEGFA is actively secreted by basal cells and while it appears to have no direct autocrine function on basal cell growth and proliferation, it functions in a paracrine manner to activate MAPK signaling cascades in endothelium via VEGFR2 dependent signaling pathways. Using a cytokine- and serum-free co-culture system of primary human airway basal cells and human endothelial cells revealed that basal cell secreted VEGFA activated endothelium to express mediators that, in turn, stimulate and support basal cell proliferation and growth. These data demonstrate novel VEGFA mediated cross-talk between airway basal cells and endothelium, the purpose of which is to modulate endothelial activation and in turn stimulate and sustain basal cell growth.

Curradi, Giacomo; Walters, Matthew S.; Ding, Bi-Sen; Rafii, Shahin; Hackett, Neil R.; Crystal, Ronald G.



Effect of intermittent supplementation with selenate on selenium status of rats fed selenium-deficient diet.  


To examine the selenium (Se) status of rats intermittently supplemented with Se, we measured tissue Se contents and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in rats fed a Se-deficient diet intermittently supplemented with selenate. In experiment 1, four groups of male 4-wk-old Wistar rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient diet (Se content, < 0.01 microg/g) for 28 d. During the experimental period, the diet of each group was supplemented with sodium selenate (0.17 microg Se/g) for 0, 1, 2 or 7 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both increased gradually with an increase in frequency of the selenate supplementation, and significant linear regressions were observed between the frequency and these Se indices. In particular, the correlation coefficient in the liver and plasma indices was nearly equal to a value of 1.0. In experiment 2, three groups of rats were fed the Se-deficient basal diet for 28 d. Among these, one group was daily supplemented with sodium selenate to the Se-deficient diet at a level of 0.17 microg Se/g, and another group was intermittently supplemented with the selenate at a level of 1.19 microg Se/g for 1 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both were increased by the selenate supplementation and no significant difference was observed between daily and weekly supplementation in the Se indices except in erythrocyte Se. These results indicate that Se status in the growth period is dependent on total Se intake in this period and that weekly intermittent supplementation with Se can maintain adequate Se status. PMID:16521711

Sugihara, Satoru; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro



Simulating intergalactic medium reionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the intergalactic medium (IGM) reionization process in its full cosmological context, including structure evolution and a realistic galaxy population. We have used a combination of high-resolution N-body simulations (to describe the dark matter and diffuse gas component), a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation (to track the evolution of the sources of ionizing radiation) and the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code CRASH (to follow the propagation of ionizing photons into the IGM). The process has been followed in the largest volume ever used for this type of study, a field region of the Universe with a comoving length of L~ 20 h-1 Mpc, embedded in a much larger cosmological simulation. To assess the effect of environment on the reionization process, the same radiative transfer simulations have been performed on a 10 h-1 Mpc comoving box, centred on a clustered region. We find that, to account for the all-ionizing radiation, objects with total masses of M~ 109 Msolar must be resolved. In this case, the simulated stellar population produces a volume-averaged ionization fraction xv= 0.999 by z~ 8, consistent with observations without requiring any additional sources of ionization. We also find that environment substantially affects the reionization process. In fact, although the simulated protocluster occupies a smaller volume and produces a higher number of ionizing photons, it becomes totally ionized later. This is because high-density regions, which are more common in the protocluster, are difficult to ionize because of their high recombination rates.

Ciardi, B.; Stoehr, F.; White, S. D. M.



Interstellar medium simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we critically assess numerical simulations of the interstellar medium (ISM), and argue that 3D high resolution calculations are the most promising method to determine the structure of the interstellar gas and follow its evolution well into the nonlinear regime. Based on a Riemann solver adaptive mesh refinement code, we present a model, which fulfills the basic requirements of running it sufficiently long in order to erase memory effects of the initial conditions, set up a disk-halo fountain flow cycle, for converging solutions with increasing mesh refinement. We obtain the following results: (i) in a supernova driven ISM, high Reynolds number turbulence generates structures on all scales, (ii) the volume filling factor of the hot gas is substantially reduced due to the fountain flow, (iii) gas clouds are transient shock compressed layers, (iv) more than half of the gas mass resides in thermally unstable regimes, (v) O VI is distributed in patchy mixing layers, with the derived column densities being in agreement with FUSE and Copernicus observations, (vi) the electron density distribution up to distances of 8 kpc in the disk is consistent with pulsar dispersion measure observations, provided that the electron and ionization structure are not in equilibrium, (vii) the interstellar cooling function depends both on space and time (and not only on temperature and metallicity), (viii) the Local Bubble has been produced by 14-20 supernovae about 14 Myr ago, exploding in a moving group on its path through the local ISM, (ix) the nearest supernova explosion to Earth occurred 2.2 {×} 106 yr ago at a distance of {˜} 85 pc, in agreement with measurements of the radionuclide 60Fe found in the ferromanganese crust on the ocean floor.

Breitschwerdt, D.; de Avillez, M. A.; Feige, J.; Dettbarn, C.



Induction of gametogenesis in the basal cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol was established to reproducibly induce spawning in the basal cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa). We found that a combination of feeding regime, dark-light cycle and temperature shift synergistically induced gametogenesis in adult polyps. Females lay between 100-600 eggs. This procedure led reproducibly to the production of thousands of eggs over the course of more than 1 year in weekly

Jens H. Fritzenwanker; Ulrich Technau



Reassessment of the phylogenetic interrelationships of basal turtles (Testudinata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discoveries from the Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic have significantly improved the fossil record of early turtles. These new forms offer a unique opportunity to test the interrelationships of basal turtles. Nineteen fossil species are added to the taxon sample of the most comprehensive morphological phylogenetic analysis of the turtle clade. Among these additional species are recently discovered forms

Jérémy Anquetin



Basal Lamina Components in Experimentally Induced Skin Blisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of basement membrane glycoproteins, fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen was studied in experimentally induced skin blisters in which the epidermis is separated from the dermis through the lamina lucida part of basal lamina. Fibronectin was found surrounding the blister cavity and in a primary covering formed on the bottom of the blister. Neither laminin nor type IV

Olli Saksela; Kari Alitalo; Urpo Kiistala; Antti Vaheri



Basal forebrain activation enhances cortical coding of natural scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleus basalis of the basal forebrain is an essential component of the neuromodulatory system controlling the behavioral state of an animal and it is thought to be important in regulating arousal and attention. However, the effect of nucleus basalis activation on sensory processing remains poorly understood. Using polytrode recording in rat visual cortex, we found that nucleus basalis stimulation

Michael Goard; Yang Dan



Thermal history regulates methylbutenol basal emission rate in Pinus ponderosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylbutenol (MBO) is a 5-carbon alcohol that is emitted by many pines in western North America, which may have important impacts on the tropospheric chemistry of this region. In this study, we document seasonal changes in basal MBO emission rates and test several models predict- ing these changes based on thermal history. These models represent extensions of the ISO G93




Are periodic movements in sleep a basal ganglia dysfunction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Muscle activity during sleep is a new area of interest in sleep research. No precise brain structures are known to be involved in sleep movement. The etiology of periodic movements during sleep is unknown. The present study was dedicated to evaluate involvement of basal ganglia in periodic movements of the legs during sleep (PMS) in Parkinson's diseased patients. Sleep

J. J. M. Askenasy; E. D. Weitzman; M. D. Yahr



Toward a Functional Analysis of the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson patients were tested in two paradigms to test the hypothesis that the basal ganglia are involved in the shifting of attentional set. Set shifting means a respecification of the conditions that regulate responding, a process sometimes referred to as an executive process. In one paradigm, upon the appearance of each stimulus, subjects were instructed to respond either to its

Amy E. Hayes; Matthew C. Davidson; Steven W. Keele; Robert D. Rafal



Pancreatic basal secretion in alcohol-fed and normal dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical, histological, and crystallographic studies were carried out on basal pancreatic secretion of 4 dogs fed alcohol for 12–15 months and 11 control dogs. The results in alcohol-fed dogs when compared to normals showed that: (1) protein concentration was higher, (2) fluid was decreased; (3) conductivity was decrease leading to differences in ionic distribution: Cl- and H+ ion concentrations increased,

M. C. Noel-Jorand; E. Colomb; J. P. Astier; H. Sarles



Injuries of Basal Ganglia following Head Trauma in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

7 pediatric patients with injuries of basal ganglia following head trauma were reported. They ranged in age from 10 months to 10 years. 5 boys and 2 girls comprised the patients. Cases 1–4 are mild cases in which the children fell down backward while playing, followed by a minimum loss of consciousness. In every case there was hemiparesis, but all

Yutaka Maki; Hiroshi Akimoto; Takao Enomoto



The role of the basal ganglia in data processing.  


Complex cerebral activities are likely to be composed of massively repeated simple data processing tasks since the cortical data processing unit, the cortical mini-column, is found throughout the cortex with only minor variations. It has been proposed that one task performed by the cortical mini-column may be to match afferent sensory data to learnt datasets in a process known as automatic association. We hypothesize that basal ganglia circuits, through the relative signal of the nigro-striatal and striato-pallidal pathways, determine the matching threshold for dataset matching within cortical mini-columns. Basal ganglia circuits are in a unique position to use parallel information to modulate the parameters of auto-association to increase the speed of data processing tasks. This hypothesis can explain motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease and also predicts that over and underactivity of basal ganglia circuits (the 'on' and 'off' states) will lead to characteristic errors in sensory data interpretation in all modalities - false negative data recognition when 'off' and false positive data recognition when 'on'. As a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis 16 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease were tested in voice and face recognition when 'off' and 'on'. Each patient exhibited errors in the recognition task according to basal ganglia activity as predicted by our hypothesis. Further experiments to test the hypothesis are proposed. PMID:18410994

Leyden, James; Kleinig, Tim



Basal Water Flow, Melt and Accumulation in the Dome C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using airborne radar we infer the presence of subglacial water by three physical conditions: A high amplitude basal reflector, a local minimum on a potentiometric surface obtained by adding bed elevation to the thickness of the overlying ice cover times its density, and a deformation of internal layers consistent with melt at the base of the ice sheet. The coefficient

S. P. Carter; D. D. Blankenship; D. L. Morse; M. Peters



Immunohistochemical studies of basal cell carcinomas transplanted into nude mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenografting into nude mice forms a system for analysis of human tissues under experimental conditions. In this study, normal skin samples and basal cell carcinomas were investigated, prior to and after transplantation, using immunofluorescence methods with antibodies against keratins, laminin, and collagen type IV. Three groups of transplants were studied: (a) intact tissue samples, (b) human epithelium (either normal or

T. H. Löning; I. C. Mackenzie



Computed tomography of germinomas in basal ganglia and thalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT findings of 6 cases with germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus are reported. The early finding of germinoma in this region on plain CT, was an irregularly defined, slightly high density area without mass effect. Repeated CT scanning showed enlarging iso-density lesion accompanied by mass effect to high. Intratumorous cysts and calcifications were frequently observed. The tumor

T. Soejima; I. Takeshita; H. Yamamoto; Y. Tsukamoto; M. Fukui; S. Matsuoka



Tissue elongation requires oscillating contractions of a basal actomyosin network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how molecular dynamics leads to cellular behaviours that ultimately sculpt organs and tissues is a major challenge not only in basic developmental biology but also in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here we use live imaging to show that the basal surfaces of Drosophila follicle cells undergo a series of directional, oscillating contractions driven by periodic myosin accumulation on

Li He; Xiaobo Wang; Ho Lam Tang; Denise J. Montell



Globular and asymmetric acetylcholinesterase in frog muscle basal lamina sheaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

After denervation in vivo, the frog cutaneus pectoris muscle can be led to degenerate by sectioning the muscle fibers on both sides of the region rich in motor endplate, leaving, 2 wk later, a muscle bridge containing the basal lamina (BL) sheaths of the mus- cle fibers (28). This preparation still contains various tissue remnants and some acetylcholine receptor-con- taining

Marc Nicolet; Martine Pingon-Raymond; Frangois Rieger



Diet, phylogeny, and basal metabolic rate in phyllostomid bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aside from the pervasive effects of body mass, much controversy exists as to what factors account for interspecific variation i n basal metabolic rates (BMR) of mammals; however, both diet and phylogeny have been strongly implicated. We examined variation in BMR within the New World bat family Phyllostomidae, which shows the largest diversity of food habits among mammalian families,

Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto; Theodore Garland; Augusto Shinya Abe



Linear Branching Echogenicities in the Basal Ganglia and Thalami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echogenic vasculature in the basal ganglia and thalami of neonatal brain have been associated with congeni- tal infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella, and syphilis, trisomy 13 syndrome, Down syndrome, maternal drug use, neonatal asphyxia, nonimmune hydrops, and fetal alcohol syndrome. This abnormality is believed to result from necrotizing vasculitis with subsequent mineralization. In our study, we encountered 8 small

Han-Hsi Wang; Chih-Hao Chien; Min-Hou Liao; Yu-Nian Wu; Yu-Hsien Su



Histological Characteristics of Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Eyelid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the eyelid and to determine their effect on the size, depth of invasion and need of retreatment of a nonselected patient material seen in south-western Finland. Methods: We studied the case records and the histological characteristics of BCC of the eyelid treated at the Turku University Eye Clinic

Ville Paavilainen; Markku Aaltonen; Juhani Tuominen; K. Matti Saari



Is Broca's Area Part of a Basal Ganglia Thalamocortical Circuit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized “channels” via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the

Michael T. Ullman



Characteristics and Distribution of the Mars North Polar Basal Unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the characteristics and distribution of the dark, layered basal unit beneath the north PLD. An erosional unconformity marks the contact between the BU and PLD. Both the lower PLD and the BU may be the source for the ubiquitous dunes.

Fishbaugh, K. E.; Head, J. W., III



Glutamate–dopamine–GABA interactions in the aging basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of neurotransmitter interactions gives a better understanding of the physiology of specific circuits in the brain. In this review we focus mostly on our own results on the interaction of the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GABA in the basal ganglia during the normal process of aging. We review first the studies on the action of endogenous glutamate on

Francisco Mora; Gregorio Segovia; Alberto del Arco



Basal Insulin Once Daily and Prandial Insulin with Meals ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Basal Insulin Once Daily and Prandial Insulin with Meals added to OADs 3582 (52) Degludec 753 34 (4.5) 41 6.1 637 (84.6) 13820 2061 609 (80.9 ... More results from


The basal speed of valley glaciers: an inverse approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical inverse methods are used to calculate the basal motion of a glacier. They are applied to a one-dimensional forward model that can be linearized to make the analysis simpler. The inverse method finds a solution that fits the data within a given error. It selects for smooth solutions to discriminate against unrealistic oscillations. The method is applied to a simple model glacier of uniform shape and thickness to test how well a given basal motion field can be reconstructed. It shows, as expected, that optimizing for smoothness lowers maxima and increases minima of the solution. A step change in basal velocity is drawn out in the inversion over a distance that is given by the half-width of a resolving function. This is typically about three times the ice thickness, but is also affected by the sampling rate of the data. The method is then applied to two glaciers where suitable data are available: Brown Glacier on Heard Island, southern Indian Ocean, and McCall Glacier in the Brooks Range, Alaska, U.S.A.The McCall results agree well with earlier estimates of basal motion.

Truffer, Martin


Measurement of basal forebrain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease using MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the degeneration and loss of cholinergic neurones in the nucleus basalis Meynert, located within the substantia innominata at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. An in vivo measure of morphological changes in the nucleus basalis Meynert would be of high relevance to better under- stand the structural correlate of cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

Stefan J. Teipel; Wilhelm H. Flatz; Helmut Heinsen; Arun L. W. Bokde; Stefan O. Schoenberg; Stephanie Stockel; Olaf Dietrich; Maximilian F. Reiser; Hans-Jurgen Moller; Harald Hampel



Phenotypic plasticity in the scaling of avian basal metabolic rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many birds exhibit short-term, reversible adjustments in basal metabolic rate (BMR), but the overall contribution of phenotypic plasticity to avian metabolic diversity remains unclear. The available BMR data include estimates from birds living in natural environments and captive-raised birds in more homogenous, artificial environments. All previous analyses of interspecific variation in BMR have pooled these data. We hypothesized that phenotypic

Andrew E. McKechnie; Robert P. Freckleton; Walter Jetz



Expectation of reward modulates cognitive signals in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Action is controlled by both motivation and cognition. The basal ganglia may be the site where these kinds of information meet. Using a memory-guided saccade task with an asymmetric reward schedule, we show that visual and memory responses of caudate neurons are modulated by expectation of reward so profoundly that a neuron's preferred direction often changed with the change in

Reiko Kawagoe; Yoriko Takikawa; Okihide Hikosaka



Substructure in an Epithelial Basal Lamina (Basement Membrane).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A well ordered grid structure is described in the basal lamina of the Aedes aegypti midgut epithelium. In sections parallel to the epithelial base, the grid structure is a series of dense lines intersecting at approximately right angles to one another. Th...

J. A. Terzakis



Beyond Basal Reading: A District's Commitment to Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the district committee of the West Des Moines Schools (Iowa) changed its reading program. Explains how the role of a basal was redefined, how trade books were incorporated, how the program encouraged independent reading, and how writing was given a major role in reading class. (JK)|

Henke, Linda



Integrating neurotransmission in striatal medium spiny neurons.  


The striatum is a major entry structure of the basal ganglia. Its role in information processing in close interaction with the cerebral cortex and thalamus has various behavioral consequences depending on the regions concerned, including control of body movements and motivation. A general feature of striatal information processing is the control by reward-related dopamine signals of glutamatergic striatal inputs and of their plasticity. This relies on specific sets of receptors and signaling proteins in medium-sized spiny neurons which belong to two groups, striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Some signaling pathways are activated only by dopamine or glutamate, but many provide multiple levels of interactions. For example, the cAMP pathway is mostly regulated by dopamine D1 receptors in striatonigral neurons, whereas the ERK pathway detects a combination of glutamate and dopamine signals and is essential for long-lasting modifications. These adaptations require changes in gene expression, and the signaling pathways linking synaptic activity to nuclear function and epigenetic changes are beginning to be deciphered. Their alteration underlies many aspects of striatal dysfunction in pathological conditions which include a decrease or an increase in dopamine transmission, as encountered in Parkinson's disease or exposure to addictive drugs, respectively. PMID:22351066

Girault, Jean-Antoine



Application of Response Surface Methodology to Improve Carotene Production from Synthetic Medium by Blakeslea trispora in Submerged Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of the medium components which enhance carotene production by Blakeslea trispora was achieved with the aid of response surface methodology. In the first step, a central composite design was employed to\\u000a achieve the highest carotene concentration at optimum values of the process variables, i.e., linoleic acid, Span 20, and butylated\\u000a hydroxytoluene (BHT), added in the basal medium. The fit

Andreas Filotheou; Konstadina Nanou; Emmanuel Papaioannou; Triantafyllos Roukas; Parthena Kotzekidou; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides


Bld10/Cep135 stabilizes basal bodies to resist cilia-generated forces  

PubMed Central

Basal bodies nucleate, anchor, and organize cilia. As the anchor for motile cilia, basal bodies must be resistant to the forces directed toward the cell as a consequence of ciliary beating. The molecules and generalized mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of basal bodies remain to be discovered. Bld10/Cep135 is a basal body outer cartwheel domain protein that has established roles in the assembly of nascent basal bodies. We find that Bld10 protein first incorporates stably at basal bodies early during new assembly. Bld10 protein continues to accumulate at basal bodies after assembly, and we hypothesize that the full complement of Bld10 is required to stabilize basal bodies. We identify a novel mechanism for Bld10/Cep135 in basal body maintenance so that basal bodies can withstand the forces produced by motile cilia. Bld10 stabilizes basal bodies by promoting the stability of the A- and C-tubules of the basal body triplet microtubules and by properly positioning the triplet microtubule blades. The forces generated by ciliary beating promote basal body disassembly in bld10? cells. Thus Bld10/Cep135 acts to maintain the structural integrity of basal bodies against the forces of ciliary beating in addition to its separable role in basal body assembly.

Bayless, Brian A.; Giddings, Thomas H.; Winey, Mark; Pearson, Chad G.



Bld10/Cep135 stabilizes basal bodies to resist cilia-generated forces.  


Basal bodies nucleate, anchor, and organize cilia. As the anchor for motile cilia, basal bodies must be resistant to the forces directed toward the cell as a consequence of ciliary beating. The molecules and generalized mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of basal bodies remain to be discovered. Bld10/Cep135 is a basal body outer cartwheel domain protein that has established roles in the assembly of nascent basal bodies. We find that Bld10 protein first incorporates stably at basal bodies early during new assembly. Bld10 protein continues to accumulate at basal bodies after assembly, and we hypothesize that the full complement of Bld10 is required to stabilize basal bodies. We identify a novel mechanism for Bld10/Cep135 in basal body maintenance so that basal bodies can withstand the forces produced by motile cilia. Bld10 stabilizes basal bodies by promoting the stability of the A- and C-tubules of the basal body triplet microtubules and by properly positioning the triplet microtubule blades. The forces generated by ciliary beating promote basal body disassembly in bld10? cells. Thus Bld10/Cep135 acts to maintain the structural integrity of basal bodies against the forces of ciliary beating in addition to its separable role in basal body assembly. PMID:23115304

Bayless, Brian A; Giddings, Thomas H; Winey, Mark; Pearson, Chad G



Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.  


Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000?gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321?±?144?gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454?±?174?gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G



Eastern Olympus Mons Basal Scarp: Potential for active slope mobilization?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volcanic edifice of Olympus Mons is surrounded by presumed mass-movement landforms known as the aureole deposits. It has been suggested that the aureole deposits are the result of a catastrophic failure of the volcanic edifice. Tantalizingly, a topographic examination of the Eastern flank of Olympus Mons suggests that a large failure may have been captured. The flank exhibits a ~ 80 km near-continuous extensional fracture, bounded on either side by radial tear faults, that cut both the scarp face, and the more recent lava flows that have modified the basal scarp. Observed along fault offsets are on the order of 100 m. A compressional toe, parallel and downslope to the extensional fracture, may be linked and the result of downslope movement of the flank. If so, then a significant portion of the outer edge of the Eastern basal scarp may define a coherent zone of slope instability, or failure. Using digital elevation models derived from HRSC data, several transects along the basal scarp slope face are analyzed to better understand and quantify the stability of each section of the eastern slope, and examine potential failure conditions and mechanisms. Slope stability analysis is used to determine the likelihood of the Eastern basal scarp experiencing a catastrophic failure along the entire fault trace. This result may indicate an active failure process that can lead to an aureole type deposit. If this failure were to occur, a simple case of a curvilinear slip surface connecting the up-slope extensional and down-slope compressional fault traces produces an estimate for the potential mobile landslide volume on the order of 1000 cubic km, or ~ 5-10% of the volume previously estimated for the aureole lobe off of the east flank of Olympus Mons. Preliminary results from topography show that numerous smaller-scale localized slope failures that are emplaced upon young lava flows have occurred along this section of the basal scarp, suggesting significant instability and a strong potential for failure.

Weller, M. B.; McGovern, P. J.; Fournier, T.; Katz, O.; Morgan, J. K.



Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.  


The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping



Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p?=?0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping



What's Medicare Supplement (Medigap) Insurance?  


... Check your enrollment Find doctors, hospitals, & facilities Your Medicare Costs Get help paying costs Part A costs Part ... Baltimore, MD 21244 Sign Up / Change Plans Your Medicare Costs What Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & ...


Tips for Dietary Supplement Users  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... on the functions and potential benefits of vitamins and minerals, as well as ... While vitamin and mineral supplements are widely used and generally ... More results from


Effect of mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on caecal microbial activity of rabbits.  


A total of 200 weaned (35 days) hybrid Hyla rabbits were randomly divided among five groups housed in bicellular cages (20 cages per group). Between 35 and 60 days of age, the groups were submitted to the following treatments: group ANT (positive control) fed a basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (colistin sulphate, 144 mg/kg; tylosin, 100 mg/kg; and oxytetracyclin, 1000 mg/kg); groups MOS_0.5, MOS_1.0 and MOS_1.5 fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), respectively; another group fed the basal diet without antibiotics or mannanoligosaccarides supplementation (negative control). Along the trial, an episode of epizootyc rabbit enteropathy occurs so that in the control group mortality rate was very high (78%) and survivor rabbits showed severe symptoms of disease (diarrhoea). Thus, the control group was discarded from the trial. At 60 days of age, samples of caecal content were collected from 10 rabbits per group and used as inocula for an in vitro gas production trial. At the end of fermentation (120 h of incubation), organic matter digestibility (OMd), cumulative gas production, fermentation kinetics, pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and NH3 productions were measured. Inoculum from MOS_1.0 rabbits showed the significant higher values of OMd (64.21%, P < 0.05), gas production (262.32 ml/g, P < 0.05), acetate (96.99 mmol/g OM, P < 0.05) and butyrate (26.21 mmol/g OM, P < 0.05) than the other groups. Slight differences were recorded among the groups ANT, MOS_0.5 and MOS_1.5. In addition, branched chain acids, in proportion to total VFAs, were significantly higher in MOS_1.0 inoculum (0.04, P < 0.05). MOS are able to affect fermentation activity of caecal micro-organism, but their activities seem not proportional to their level in the diet. PMID:22444699

Bovera, F; Marono, S; Di Meo, C; Piccolo, G; Iannaccone, F; Nizza, A



Heat Transfer Mediums les Fluides Caloporteurs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different mediums (gas, vapor, liquid) most commonly employed in industry for heat transfer are discussed. Data pertaining to the various properties of these mediums are presented. Criteria for choosing a medium are given together with the medium most com...

J. P. Allard



Efficient transformation of Actinidia arguta by reducing the strength of basal salts in the medium to alleviate callus browning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient transformation system for high-throughput functional genomic studies of kiwifruit has been developed to overcome\\u000a the problem of necrosis in Actinidia arguta explants. The system uses Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the binary vector pART27-10 to inoculate leaf strips. The vector contains neomycin phosphotransferase\\u000a (nptII) and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) (uidA) genes. A range of light intensities and different strengths of

Meili Han; Andrew P. Gleave; Tianchi Wang



Accumulation of selected macronutrients in mistletoe tissue cultures: effect of medium composition and explant source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We initiated callus cultures of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) by inoculating leaf and stem explants on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations of growth regulators at various concentrations. The cultures were assayed for the accumulation of K, P, Ca and Mg. The accumulation of all macronutrients was significantly affected by both growth regulator treatment and explant

M Barberaki; S Kintzios



Newstream: a multi-device, cross-medium, and socially aware approach to news content  

Microsoft Academic Search

News content extends well beyond the scope of a single medium: video, audio, text, interactive experiences, and social sharing all contribute to an individual's understanding and experience of content. While some content that exists across media can supplement other forms, such as an interactive feature accompanying a text-based article, other content might replicate information and therefore be redundant to a

Reed Martin; Henry Holtzman



Replacement of serum by hormones permits growth of cells in a defined medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOST cell cultures require the addition of serum to synthetic media for their maintenance and growth, and we believe that the primary role of the serum is to provide hormones1. We have been led to this hypothesis by a series of experiments showing that serum depleted of certain hormones no longer supports growth of cells, unless the medium is supplemented

Izumi Hayashi; Gordon H. Sato



?-Supplemented Subgroups and Their Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subgroup H is called ?-supplemented in a finite group G, if there exists a subgroup B of G such that G = HB and H1B is a proper subgroup of G for any maximal subgroup H1 of H. In this article, we investigate the influence of ?-supplementation of some primary subgroups in finite groups. Some new results about supersolvable groups and

Long Miao; Yanming Wang



Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular\\u000a disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found\\u000a a 27–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction and a 12–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because\\u000a they

I. R. Reid; M. J. Bolland; A. Avenell; A. Grey



Dietary supplements in weight reduction.  


We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for new data on efficacy as it becomes available ( ). PMID:15867902

Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M



Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplements.  


Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%-31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%-20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments. PMID:23857224

Reid, Ian R



Medium for preserving biological materials  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a medium allowing the preservation and cryopreservation of biological materials such as animal cells and viral particles that are directly injectable or reinjectable into an organism. A medium for preserving and/or freezing biological materials, including a saline solution, modified fluid gelatin and human serum albumin, is disclosed.

Crespo; Andre (Ormesson, FR); Soria; Henri Michel (Monts, FR)



Variability of facies and depositional environments represented in basal Pennsylvanian rocks in Wallace quadrangle of west-central Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Field mapping has graphically demonstrated that a great variety of facies and depositional environments is represented in the basal Pennsylvanian rocks of Indiana. Initial sedimentation took place on an erosion surface developed on rocks of Mississippian age. This surface consisted of upland areas as well as valleys as deep as 100 m. The subsequent infilling and covering of this irregular surface with the basal Pennsylvanian sediments have added to the complexity of the area. Relief on this surface is reflected in the Pennsylvanian rocks in the form of debris flows that contain Mississippian fossils. Lithofacies change laterally within a few hundreds of meters. Fluvial channel-fill sandstones grade laterally into rhythmically laminated gray shales and lenticular to wavey-bedded sandstones that represent subtidal to intertidal environments. Primary sedimentary structures include large (1-3 m), medium (0.4-1 m) and small (5-40 cm) planar and trough cross-beds. Ripple marks, burrows, mud-chip pebble conglomerates, desiccation cracks, peat rip-up, dewatering structures, and convolute bedding are some of the common sedimentary features found in these basal Pennsylvanian rocks. The paleocurrent direction of any one sandstone body is unimodal. Paleocurrent indicators in the fluvial-dominated sandstones indicate flow to the west, southwest, or northwest. The tide-dominated sandstones have paleocurrents indicating a predominant northeasterly or easterly trend.

Fishbaugh, D.A. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington (USA))



Modification of MCDB 110 medium to support prolonged growth and consistent high cloning efficiency of diploid human fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for studies on the growth factor requirements of normal and transformed human fibroblasts, we have developed a serum-free medium that supports vigorous long-term serial subculture of diploid human fibroblasts and allows them to form large-sized colonies with high efficiency (40 to 60%) when plated at cloning density. This medium, which is a modification of Ham's MCDB 110 base medium with its serum replacement supplements, is relatively easy to prepare and the cost of the serum replacements is approximately the same as that of fetal bovine serum supplied at 10%. The ingredients of Supplement B of MCDB 110 medium were added in an ethanol solution, rather than in the form of liposomes, and were combined with bovine serum albumin, a lipid carrier. Gelatin and fetuin were included as attachment factors instead of polylysine. Bioassays indicated that none of the ingredients in the medium were contaminated with either epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor. In this modified serum-free medium, which the authors have designated McM + SR{sub 1}, diploid human fibroblasts grew for 21 days at the same rate as in the base medium, McM, supplemented wt 10% FBS. During the next 20 days, they underwent 15 population doublings which was 75% of the rate of cells growing in the medium containing serum.

Ryan, P.A.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))



Effect of tyrosine kinase inhibition on basal and epidermal growth factor-stimulated human Caco-2 enterocyte sheet migration and proliferation.  


Mucosal healing requires enterocyte migration (restitution) supplemented by proliferation. Proliferation and migration may be studied independently by thymidine uptake and proliferation-blocked cell migration using human Caco-2 enterocyte monolayers in culture. Since epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes mucosal healing and the EGF receptor is a tyrosine kinase, we hypothesized that tyrosine kinases might therefore modulate enterocyte migration and proliferation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and 2,5-dihydroxymethylcinnamate, which block kinase ATP-binding and substrate-binding sites, respectively, were studied alone and with EGF. Proliferation was blocked with mitomycin. Although each inhibitor decreased basal and EGF-stimulated monolayer expansion when cell proliferation occurred, neither genistein nor 2,5-dihydroxymethylcinnamate decreased migration when proliferation was blocked. However, each inhibitor prevented EGF stimulation of proliferation-blocked migration and thymidine uptake. More substantial inhibition of basal proliferation by genistein correlated with increased protein-linked DNA breaks, which may reflect nonspecific inhibition of DNA topoisomerase activity by genistein. The more specific 2,5-dihydroxymethylcinnamate blocked changes in the alpha 2 integrin subunit organization which may modulate EGF-stimulated migration. Antiproliferative effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors decrease basal monolayer expansion but true basal enterocyte migration appears independent of tyrosine kinase regulation. However, a specific tyrosine kinase-dependent modulation of cell-matrix interaction inhibits EGF-stimulated migration. PMID:8077287

Basson, M D; Beidler, D R; Turowski, G; Zarif, A; Modlin, I M; Jena, B P; Madri, J A



Effect of dietary supplemental plant extracts on performance, carcass characteristics, digestive system development, intestinal microflora and some blood parameters of broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine whether dietary supplemental plant extracts could have the potential as alternative growth promoters to antibiotics. One hundred and five, 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used in the experiment. The animals were allocated into seven dietary treatments groups in a complete randomized design. The groups were as follow: 1. Control (basal diet), 2.



Influence of Postruminal Supplementation of Methionine and Lysine, Isoleucine, or All Three Amino Acids on Intake and Chewing Behavior, Ruminal Fermentation, and Milk and Milk Component Production1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four multiparous Holstein cows were fed a basal diet balanced with the Cornell Net Protein and Carbohydrate System (CNCPS). Diets were formu- lated to be co-limiting in intestinally absorbable sup- plies of methionine, lysine, and isoleucine. Cows were supplemented with no amino acids (control); lysine and methionine in a ruminally protected form; isoleucine by abomasal infusion; or lysine, methionine, and

P. H. Robinson; W. Chalupa; C. J. Sniffen; W. E. Julien; H. Sato; T. Fujieda; K. Watanabe; H. Suzuki


Selective growth and expansion of human corneal epithelial basal stem cells in a three-dimensional-organ culture.  


We report on a three dimensional (3D)-organotypic culture in vitro for selective growth and expansion of human corneal epithelial stem cells. Limbal corneal explants were cultured on porous collagen sponges submerged in Epilife medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The fragments were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression and distribution of a spectrum of corneal epithelium markers: p63, CK-19, CK-3, Ki-67, pan-cytokeratins and vimentin. Early in culture the epithelium began to exfoliate losing its differentiated high-zone layers into the medium, maintaining only basal and few parabasal cells (mostly both p63 and CK-19 positive), which had remained attached to the specimen. After 14 days a new epithelium was formed displaying an increasing prominence of basal and suprabasal cells that, sliding onto the whole explant, showed the tendency to underlay stromal tissue and infiltrate into the underlaying sponge. After 21 days, sponge and fragments were incubated with trypsin-EDTA and dispersed epithelial cells were pipetted on a feeder monolayer of mitomycin-c-treated murine NIH.3T3 fibroblasts. Colonies of undifferentiated epithelial cells (p63, CK-19 and Ki-67 positive, CK-3 negative) were obtained: their cells, if seeded onto a collagen matrix containing embedded primary human corneal fibroblasts as feeder, provided the basic building blocks for reconstructing in vitro a 3D-multilayered corneal epithelium. PMID:15811129

Papini, Sandra; Rosellini, Alfredo; Nardi, Marco; Giannarini, Claudio; Revoltella, Roberto P



Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid.  


We conducted field trials at five different locations over a period of 6 yr to investigate the efficacy of imidacloprid applied each spring as a basal soil drench for protection against emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Canopy thinning and emerald ash borer larval density were used to evaluate efficacy for 3-4 yr at each location while treatments continued. Test sites included small urban trees (5-15 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), medium to large (15-65 cm dbh) trees at golf courses, and medium to large street trees. Annual basal drenches with imidacloprid gave complete protection of small ash trees for three years. At three sites where the size of trees ranged from 23 to 37 cm dbh, we successfully protected all ash trees beginning the test with <60% canopy thinning. Regression analysis of data from two sites reveals that tree size explains 46% of the variation in efficacy of imidacloprid drenches. The smallest trees (<30 cm dbh) remained in excellent condition for 3 yr, whereas most of the largest trees (>38 cm dbh) declined to a weakened state and undesirable appearance. The five-fold increase in trunk and branch surface area of ash trees as the tree dbh doubles may account for reduced efficacy on larger trees, and suggests a need to increase treatment rates for larger trees. PMID:20214376

Smitley, D R; Rebek, E J; Royalty, R N; Davis, T W; Newhouse, K F



Differentiation of rabbit adipocyte precursor cells in a serum-free medium.  


A serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium containing insulin, transferrin, and triiodothyronine (ITT medium), able to support differentiation of rat adipose precursor cells, has been used to study the regulation of the development of adipocytes in the rabbit. Adipose conversion was assessed by the appearance of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Stromal-vascular cells from rabbit perirenal adipose tissue differentiated to a very low extent or not at all in ITT medium. Supplementation of ITT medium with growth hormone or fibroblast growth factor did not increase the proportion of differentiated cells. In contrast, rabbit stromal-vascular cells were able to differentiate in ITT medium supplemented with glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, corticosterone) whereas sex steroids (beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone) did not affect the differentiation process. In the presence of both dexamethasone and insulin, 20 to 50% of rabbit stromal-vascular cells differentiated into adipocytes within 2 wk of culture. The stimulatory actions of dexamethasone or insulin were dose-dependent. Insulin-like growth Factor-I (IGF-I), did not replace insulin under our culture conditions and had only a slight effect when added along with dexamethasone (100 nM) and insulin (1.7 nM). The results suggest that glucocorticoids, in association with insulin, may play an important role in the development of adipocytes from rabbit precursor cells. PMID:2670876

Reyne, Y; Nouguès, J; Dulor, J P



Basal autophagy is required for the efficient catabolism of sialyloligosaccharides.  


Macroautophagy is an essential, homeostatic process involving degradation of a cell's own components; it plays a role in catabolizing cellular components, such as protein or lipids, and damaged or excess organelles. Here, we show that in Atg5(-/-) cells, sialyloligosaccharides specifically accumulated in the cytosol. Accumulation of these glycans was observed under non-starved conditions, suggesting that non-induced, basal autophagy is essential for their catabolism. Interestingly, once accumulated in the cytosol, sialylglycans cannot be efficiently catabolized by resumption of the autophagic process, suggesting that functional autophagy is important for preventing sialyloligosaccharides from accumulating in the cytosol. Moreover, knockdown of sialin, a lysosomal transporter of sialic acids, resulted in a significant reduction of sialyloligosaccharides, implying that autophagy affects the substrate specificity of this transporter. This study thus provides a surprising link between basal autophagy and catabolism of N-linked glycans. PMID:23880766

Seino, Junichi; Wang, Li; Harada, Yoichiro; Huang, Chengcheng; Ishii, Kumiko; Mizushima, Noboru; Suzuki, Tadashi



Canceling actions involves a race between basal ganglia pathways.  


Salient cues can prompt the rapid interruption of planned actions. It has been proposed that fast, reactive behavioral inhibition involves specific basal ganglia pathways, and we tested this by comparing activity in multiple rat basal ganglia structures during performance of a stop-signal task. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons exhibited low-latency responses to 'Stop' cues, irrespective of whether actions were canceled or not. By contrast, neurons downstream in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) only responded to Stop cues in trials with successful cancellation. Recordings and simulations together indicate that this sensorimotor gating arises from the relative timing of two distinct inputs to neurons in the SNr dorsolateral 'core' subregion: cue-related excitation from STN and movement-related inhibition from striatum. Our results support race models of action cancellation, with stopping requiring Stop-cue information to be transmitted from STN to SNr before increased striatal input creates a point of no return. PMID:23852117

Schmidt, Robert; Leventhal, Daniel K; Mallet, Nicolas; Chen, Fujun; Berke, Joshua D



Correlation of the basal Cretaceous beds of the Southeastern States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The basal Cretaceous deposits that fringe the inner margin of the Coastal Plain from eastern Alabama to central North Carolina, where they are overlapped by Miocene sands, have been commonly classified as of Lower Cretaceous age and correlated roughly with the Patuxent formation of the Potomac group of Maryland and Virginia. In this paper the evidence on which this early correlation was based is reviewed, later evidence is considered, and the conclusion is reached that all the basal Cretaceous deposits in the area under consideration are of Upper Cretaceous age. Acknowledgments are gratefully made of the helpful criticism of the manuscript by L. W. Stephenson and of his generous assistance in the preparation of the correlation table.

Cooke, Wythe



Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome).  


The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:23633824

Kiran, N K; Tilak Raj, T N; Mukunda, K S; Rajashekar Reddy, V



Conjunctival ganglioglioma as a feature of basal cell nevus syndrome.  


Basal cell nevus syndrome (MIM #109400), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. The syndrome is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts of the mandible, postnatal tumors, and multiple basal cell carcinomas. Mutations in the PTCH1 gene (a tumor suppressor gene) or, more rarely, the NBCCS or the TRPC1 genes are responsible for the development of many postnatal tumors. We present a case of Gorlin syndrome presenting as a conjunctival ganglioglioma in a 13-year-old girl. While cases of cerebral ganglioglioma have been described in association with Gorlin syndrome, conjunctival ganglioglioma has not, to the best of our knowledge, been reported. PMID:21907124

Sauer, Arnaud; Blavin, Julie; Lhermitte, Benoit; Speeg-Schatz, Claude



Centrality of Striatal Cholinergic Transmission in Basal Ganglia Function  

PubMed Central

Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction. Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.

Bonsi, Paola; Cuomo, Dario; Martella, Giuseppina; Madeo, Graziella; Schirinzi, Tommaso; Puglisi, Francesca; Ponterio, Giulia; Pisani, Antonio



Basal forebrain activation enhances cortical coding of natural scenes.  


The nucleus basalis of the basal forebrain is an essential component of the neuromodulatory system controlling the behavioral state of an animal and it is thought to be important in regulating arousal and attention. However, the effect of nucleus basalis activation on sensory processing remains poorly understood. Using polytrode recording in rat visual cortex, we found that nucleus basalis stimulation caused prominent decorrelation between neurons and marked improvement in the reliability of neuronal responses to natural scenes. The decorrelation depended on local activation of cortical muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whereas the increased reliability involved distributed neural circuits, as evidenced by nucleus basalis-induced changes in thalamic responses. Further analysis showed that the decorrelation and increased reliability improved cortical representation of natural stimuli in a complementary manner. Thus, the basal forebrain neuromodulatory circuit, which is known to be activated during aroused and attentive states, acts through both local and distributed mechanisms to improve sensory coding. PMID:19801988

Goard, Michael; Dan, Yang



Childhood trauma and basal cortisol in people with personality disorders  

PubMed Central

This study examined the influence of various forms of childhood abuse on basal cortisol levels in a sample of adults with Axis II personality disorders. Participants included 63 adults (n=19 women) who provided basal plasma cortisol samples and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Linear regression analyses that included all five subscales (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect) demonstrated that Physical abuse was related to lower cortisol levels (? = ?.43, p=.007), consistent with prior literature. In contrast, Physical neglect was associated with higher cortisol (? = .36, p=.02), after controlling for other forms of abuse. Results are consistent with the view that childhood trauma has long-lasting neurobiological effects and suggest that different forms of trauma may have distinct biological effects.

Flory, Janine D; Yehuda, Rachel; Grossman, Robert; New, Antonia S; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Siever, Larry J



Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.  


Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs. PMID:23117836

Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao



Modeling Basal Ganglia for Understanding Parkinsonian Reaching Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a computational model that highlights the role of basal ganglia\\u000a(BG) in generating simple reaching movements. The model is cast within the\\u000areinforcement learning (RL) framework with the correspondence between RL\\u000acomponents and neuroanatomy as follows: dopamine signal of substantia nigra\\u000apars compacta as the Temporal Difference error, striatum as the substrate for\\u000athe Critic, and the motor

K. N. Magdoom; D. Subramanian; V. S. Chakravarthy; B. Ravindran; Shun-ichi Amari; N. Meenakshisundaram



Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple areola complex  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the breast is a rare occurrence. To the best of our knowledge, only 34 cases of this rare malignancy have been reported worldwide. We report the case of a 48 year old lady who presented with history of rapid enlargement of a nevus over breast since three months. On initial examination a diagnosis of melanoma was considered. However the histopathology showed features suggestive of BCC. This case report highlights an atypical presentation of BCC.

Sharma, Abhishek; Tambat, Ramesh M.; Singh, Ashish; Bhaligi, Dayananda S.



What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including:\\u000a action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc. In spite of the immense amount of\\u000a data available today, researchers continue to wonder how a single deep brain circuit performs such a bewildering range of\\u000a functions. Computational models

V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy; Denny Joseph; Raju S. Bapi



Basal Metabolic Rates of Turkish Women during Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the basal metabolic rates (BMRs) of pregnant Turkish women and to compare them with values from other countries. Twenty-four pregnant women (aged 24.8 ± 5.7 years) were studied longitudinally from early pregnancy through to the end of pregnancy. BMR values were measured in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters by indirect



Novel experimental apparatus for granular experiments on basal friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a novel experimental apparatus to probe the mechanics of sheared quasi two-dimensional frictional granular materials with tunable friction from the supporting base of the apparatus. The experiment consists of a floating layer of photoelastic disks, which is subject to deformation. Forces on the particles are measured at the particle scale, using their photoelastic properties. This novel setup makes the study of the role of basal friction on sheared granular media possible.

Zheng, Hu; Dijksman, Joshua A.; Behringer, Robert P.



Hox cluster duplication in the basal teleost Hiodon alosoides (Osteoglossomorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale—even genome-wide—duplications have repeatedly been invoked as an explanation for major radiations. Teleosts, the\\u000a most species-rich vertebrate clade, underwent a “fish-specific genome duplication” (FSGD) that is shared by most ray-finned\\u000a fish lineages. We investigate here the Hox complement of the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a representative of Osteoglossomorpha, the most basal teleostean clade. An extensive PCR survey reveals that goldeye has

Karen E. ChambersRyan; Ryan McDaniell; Jeremy D. Raincrow; Maya Deshmukh; Peter F. Stadler; Chi-hua Chiu



Diagnosis and treatment of Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.  


Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years. PMID:22962928

Firnhaber, Jonathon M



In vitro basal and metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity of flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the basal cytotoxicity and metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity of kaempferol, quercetin and rutin. McCoy cells were exposed to various concentrations of the flavonols with and without the S9 system. The neutral red uptake assay was used to determine viability after 24h at 35–37°C. Dose–response curves were establ