Sample records for basal medium supplemented

  1. Improved Chemically Defined Basal Medium (CMRL-1969) for Primary Monkey Kidney and Human Diploid Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Healy, G. M.; Teleki, S.; Seefried, A. V.; Walton, M. J.; Macmorine, H. G.

    1971-01-01

    An improved tissue culture basal medium, CMRL-1969, supplemented with serum, has been evaluated by measuring the growth responses of primary cultures of trypsin-dispersed monkey kidney cells (PMKC) and of an established culture of a human diploid cell strain (HDCS). Medium H597, an early modification of medium 199 which has been used successfully in the preparation of poliomyelitis vaccine for 15 years, was used for comparison. In addition, parallel testing was done with Basal Medium Eagle (BME) widely used for the growth of HDCS. The improvements in basal medium CMRL-1969 are attributed to changes in amino acid concentrations, in vitamin composition, and, in particular, to enhanced buffering capacity. The latter has been achieved by the use of free-base amino acids and by increasing the dibasic sodium phosphate. The new medium has already been used to advantage for the production of polioviruses in PMKC where equivalent titers were obtained from cultures initiated with 70% of the number of cells required with earlier media. The population-doubling time was reduced in this system. Also, with small inocula of HDCS, the time required to obtain maximum cell yield was shorter with CMRL-1969 than with BME. Both media were supplemented with 10% calf serum. Maximum cell yields after repeated subcultivation in the new basal medium were greatly increased and the stability of the strain, as shown by chromosomal analysis, was not affected. Basal medium CMRL-1969 can be prepared easily in liquid or powdered form. PMID:4322279

  2. Improved chemically defined basal medium (CMRL-1969) for primary monkey kidney and human diploid cells.

    PubMed

    Healy, G M; Teleki, S; von Seefried, A; Walton, M J; Macmorine, H G

    1971-01-01

    An improved tissue culture basal medium, CMRL-1969, supplemented with serum, has been evaluated by measuring the growth responses of primary cultures of trypsin-dispersed monkey kidney cells (PMKC) and of an established culture of a human diploid cell strain (HDCS). Medium H597, an early modification of medium 199 which has been used successfully in the preparation of poliomyelitis vaccine for 15 years, was used for comparison. In addition, parallel testing was done with Basal Medium Eagle (BME) widely used for the growth of HDCS. The improvements in basal medium CMRL-1969 are attributed to changes in amino acid concentrations, in vitamin composition, and, in particular, to enhanced buffering capacity. The latter has been achieved by the use of free-base amino acids and by increasing the dibasic sodium phosphate. The new medium has already been used to advantage for the production of polioviruses in PMKC where equivalent titers were obtained from cultures initiated with 70% of the number of cells required with earlier media. The population-doubling time was reduced in this system. Also, with small inocula of HDCS, the time required to obtain maximum cell yield was shorter with CMRL-1969 than with BME. Both media were supplemented with 10% calf serum. Maximum cell yields after repeated subcultivation in the new basal medium were greatly increased and the stability of the strain, as shown by chromosomal analysis, was not affected. Basal medium CMRL-1969 can be prepared easily in liquid or powdered form. PMID:4322279

  3. Soy Content of Basal Diets Determines the Effects of Supplemental Selenium in Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Quiner, Trevor E.; Nakken, Heather L.; Mason, Brock A.; Lephart, Edwin D.; Hancock, Chad R.; Christensen, Merrill J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of supplemental Se in rodent models may depend upon composition of the basal diet to which it is added. Wild-type male littermates of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice were fed until 18 wk of age 1 of 2 Se-adequate stock diets high in soy (HS) or low in phytoestrogens (LP) or the same diets supplemented with 3.0 mg Se/kg diet as seleno-methylselenocysteine. Body and abdominal fat pad weights were lower (P < 0.01) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplemental Se reduced fat pad weights in mice receiving the LP diet but increased body and fat pad weights in mice consuming the HS formulation (P-interaction < 0.005). Serum free triiodothyronine concentrations were unaffected by supplemental Se in mice fed the LP diet but were decreased by Se supplementation of mice given the HS feed (P-interaction < 0.02). Free thyroxine concentrations were higher in mice consuming the HS diet regardless of Se intake (P < 0.001). Hepatic mRNA for iodothyronine deiodinase I was lower (P < 0.001) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplementation of Se increased this mRNA (P < 0.001) in both diet groups. Results from this study show a significant interaction between the composition of basal diets and the effects of supplemental Se with respect to body composition. These findings have important implications for future studies in rodent models of the effects of supplemental Se on heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other conditions related to body weight and composition. PMID:22031663

  4. MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna spp.) SUPPLEMENTATION OF GROWING SHEEP FED WITH A BASAL DIET OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Castillo-Caamal; J. B. Castillo-Caamal; A. J. Ayala-Burgos

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of Mucuna bean as a supplement for growing Pelibuey sheep fed with a basal diet of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Twenty males averaging 19.9 ± 2.19 kg LW were divided in four treatment groups and fed Napier grass ad libitum. The Mucuna bean supplementation consisted of Mucuna bean grain and husks that had been

  5. Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

  6. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 5, 1988-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.

    1994-01-01

    This publication represents an extension of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements that have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1988 through the end of 1993. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1988-1993 data as for the earlier data. Owing to a combination of non-continuity of IMP 8 telemetry acquisition and IMP's being out of the solar wind for about 40 percent of its orbit, the annual solar wind coverage for 1988-1993 is 40 plus or minus 5 percent. The plots and listings of this supplement are in essentially the same format as in previous supplements. Days for which neither IMF nor plasma data were available for any hours are omitted from the listings.

  7. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  8. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

    2013-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  9. Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9?±?0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P?Supplementation also improved (P?supplementation of E. coracana straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs. PMID:20661642

  10. Maternal choline supplementation differentially alters the basal forebrain cholinergic system of young-adult Ts65Dn and disomic mice.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Strupp, Barbara J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2014-04-15

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. Although DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS that displays age-related degeneration of the BFCN system, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation on the BFCN system in adult Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates at 4.3-7.5 months of age. Ts65Dn dams were maintained on a choline-supplemented diet (5.1 g/kg choline chloride) or a control, unsupplemented diet with adequate amounts of choline (1 g/kg choline chloride) from conception until weaning of offspring; post weaning, offspring were fed the control diet. Mice were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde, and brains were sectioned and immunolabeled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ). BFCN number and size, the area of the regions, and the intensity of hippocampal labeling were determined. Ts65Dn-unsupplemented mice displayed region- and immunolabel-dependent increased BFCN number, larger areas, smaller BFCNs, and overall increased hippocampal ChAT intensity compared with 2N unsupplemented mice. These effects were partially normalized by maternal choline supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest a developmental imbalance in the Ts65Dn BFCN system. Early maternal-diet choline supplementation attenuates some of the genotype-dependent alterations in the BFCN system, suggesting this naturally occurring nutrient as a treatment option for pregnant mothers with knowledge that their offspring is trisomy 21. PMID:24178831

  11. Evaluation of ebselen supplementation on cryopreservation medium in human semen

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. Objective: This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. Results: After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm. PMID:24976819

  12. Conditioned medium from activated microglia promotes cholinergic differentiation in the basal forebrain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jonakait, G M; Luskin, M B; Wei, R; Tian, X F; Ni, L

    1996-07-10

    In earlier studies we found that treatment with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) produced an 8- to 11-fold increase in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in cultured cells taken from Embryonic Day 16 (E16) septal nuclei with adjacent basal forebrain (SN/BF). Since younger cultures responded even more profoundly to IFN treatment, we have tested the possibility that the action of IFN (or its intermediate; see below) is to prompt the cholinergic differentiation of neuronal precursors. SN/BF cultures of various ages were labeled with a retrovirus engineered to express beta-galactosidase (Lac-Z), and ChAT-positive descendants of the retrovirally labeled precursors were counted. IFN-gamma treatment of cultures caused as much as an 8.8-fold increase in the proportion of ChAT-positive cells present in Lac-Z-positive clones, suggesting that IFN promoted cholinergic differentiation in precursor populations. By contrast, bFGF increased clone size but did not change the proportion of ChAT-positive cells. NGF affected neither. Only ameboid microglia present in the cultures responded to IFN with characteristic nuclear translocation of the signal transducing molecule p91, suggesting that a microglial-derived molecule may mediate the action of IFN. Consistent with this hypothesis, conditioned media from cultures of enriched, activated microglia also increased ChAT activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Conditioned media from an unstimulated macrophage/monocyte cell line (RAW 264.7) also proved extremely efficacious in raising ChAT activity. In addition, conditioned media from both activated microglia and RAW 264.7 cells increased the proportion of ChAT-positive cells in retrovirally labeled clones to the same extent as IFN itself, suggesting the possibility that they contain the molecule(s) that mediates the action of IFN. Preliminary characterization of this molecule suggests that it is a very stable and large protein. Together these data suggest that a molecule promoting cholinergic differentiation is produced by activated microglia and other macrophage-like cells. The identity of this molecule and its precise role in normal development await its further purification. PMID:8660879

  13. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  14. Development of a carbohydrate-supplemented semidefined medium for the semiselective cultivation of Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Menon, R; Shields, M; Duong, T; Sturino, J M

    2013-09-01

    The macronutrient and micronutrient compositions of traditional media used to cultivate Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are largely undefined, which precludes their use in many metabolic bioassays. In order to address this deficiency, we developed MS: a carbohydrate-supplemented semidefined medium with low-background coloration. MS was designed to support the semiselective cultivation of a wide range of fastidious species belonging to the Lactobacillus clade of the LAB. When supplemented with 100 mM D-glucose, the MS medium stimulated the proliferation of 21 strains of LAB, including Pediococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. The MS medium supported biomass accumulation comparable with MRS, an undefined medium routinely used for the cultivation of lactobacilli. Interestingly, however, the novel MS medium exhibited greater semiselectivity against non-LAB than MRS. Together, these results suggest that MS is an acceptable alternative to MRS for use in metabolic and phenotypic bioassays that use a colorimetric reporter system or would benefit from a semidefined nutrient composition. PMID:23691927

  15. Improvement of preimplantation development of in vitro-fertilized bovine zygotes by glucose supplementation to a chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Nishino, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Umeki, Hidenobu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2014-10-01

    The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

  16. Sequential use of human-derived medium supplements favours cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Vis, Paul W Riem; Sluijter, Joost P G; Soekhradj-Soechit, R Sarita; van Herwerden, Lex A; Kluin, Jolanda; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For clinical application of tissue engineering strategies, the use of animal-derived serum in culture medium is not recommended, because it can evoke immune responses in patients. We previously observed that human platelet-lysate (PL) is favourable for cell expansion, but generates weaker tissue as compared to culture in foetal bovine serum (FBS). We investigated if human serum (HS) is a better human supplement to increase tissue strength. Cells were isolated from venous grafts of 10 patients and expanded in media supplemented with PL or HS, to determine proliferation rates and expression of genes related to collagen production and maturation. Zymography was used to assess protease expression. Collagen contraction assays were used as a two-dimensional (2D) model for matrix contraction. As a prove of principle, 3D tissue culture and tensile testing was performed for two patients, to determine tissue strength. Cell proliferation was lower in HS-supplemented medium than in PL medium. The HS cells produced less active matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP2) and showed increased matrix contraction as indicated by gel contraction assays and 3D-tissue culture. Tensile testing showed increased strength for tissues cultured in HS when compared to PL. This effect was more pronounced if cells were sequentially cultured in PL, followed by tissue culture in HS. These data suggest that sequential use of PL and HS as substitutes for FBS in culture medium for cardiovascular tissue engineering results in improved cell proliferation and tissue mechanical properties, as compared to use of PL or HS apart. PMID:21645237

  17. Ex vivo expanded autologous limbal epithelial cells on amniotic membrane using a culture medium with human serum as single supplement.

    PubMed

    Shahdadfar, Aboulghassem; Haug, Kristiane; Pathak, Meeta; Drolsum, Liv; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Johnsen, Erik O; Petrovski, Goran; Moe, Morten C; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2012-04-01

    In patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), transplantation of ex vivo expanded human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) can restore the structural and functional integrity of the corneal surface. However, the protocol for cultivation and transplantation of HLECs differ significantly, and in most protocols growth additives such as cholera toxins, exogenous growth factors, hormones and fetal calf serum are used. In the present article, we compare for the first time human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) cultivated on human amniotic membrane (HAM) in a complex medium (COM) including fetal bovine serum to a medium with human serum as single growth supplement (HSM), and report on our first examinations of HLECs expanded in autologous HSM and used for transplant procedures in patients with LSCD. Expanded HLECs were examined by genome-wide microarray, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and for cell viability, morphology, expression of immunohistochemical markers and colony forming efficiency. Cultivation of HLECs in HSM produced a multilayered epithelium where cells with markers associated with LESCs were detected in the basal layers. There were few transcriptional differences and comparable cell viability between cells cultivated in HSM and COM. The p63 gene associated with LESCs were expressed 3.5 fold more in HSM compared to COM, and Western blotting confirmed a stronger p63? band in HSM cultures. The cornea-specific keratin CK12 was equally found in both culture conditions, while there were significantly more CK3 positive cells in HSM. Cells in epithelial sheets on HAM remaining after transplant surgery of patients with LSCD expressed central epithelial characteristics, and dissociated cells cultured at low density on growth-arrested fibroblasts produced clones containing 21 ± 12% cells positive for p63? (n = 3). In conclusion, a culture medium without growth additives derived from animals or from animal cell cultures and with human serum as single growth supplement may serve as an equivalent replacement for the commonly used complex medium for ex vivo expansion of HLECs on HAM. PMID:22342952

  18. Conifer somatic embryogenesis: improvements by supplementation of medium with oxidation-reduction agents.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Copeland-Kamp, Brandi; Crockett, Jonathan; Lucrezi, Jacob; May, Sheldon W; Bucalo, Kylie

    2015-02-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue (ET) and continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment has been shown to decrease this recalcitrance. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiological concentrations. Major differences in stage-specific oxidation-reduction (redox) agents were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate potential growth-promotion of natural and inorganic redox agents added to early-stage somatic embryo growth medium. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase initiation of loblolly pine. Low-cost reducing agents sodium dithionite and sodium thiosulfate increased ET initiation for loblolly pine and Douglas fir (Mirb) Franco. Germination medium supplementation with GSSG increased somatic embryo germination. Early-stage somatic embryos grown on medium with or without sodium thiosulfate did not differ in GSH or GSSG content, suggesting that sodium thiosulfate-mediated growth stimulation does not involve GSH or GSSG. We have developed information demonstrating that alteration of the redox environment in vitro can improve ET initiation, early-stage embryo development and somatic embryo germination in loblolly pine. PMID:25716878

  19. Pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent as a basal medium and its immobilization by selected materials.

    PubMed

    Asih, Devi Ratna; Alam, Zahangir; Salleh, Noor; Salihu, Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%. PMID:25017863

  20. COMPARISON OF GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTERIACEAE ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS AND ON COMMERICALLY AVAILABLE MEDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to compare the ability of a medium supplemented with organic acids to the ability of commercially available, non-selective media to support growth of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter butzleri. Liquid medium was composed of yeast extract-peptone basal broth (BB) supplement...

  1. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  2. Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanlong; Larson, Brian; Araujo, Joseph A; Lau, Winnie; de Rivera, Christina; Santana, Ruben; Gore, Asa; Milgram, Norton W

    2010-06-01

    The present study focused on the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG (MCT) will improve cognitive function in aged dogs by providing the brain with energy in the form of ketones. Aged Beagle dogs were subjected to a baseline battery of cognitive tests, which were used to establish cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups. The dogs in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with 5.5 % MCT. After an initial wash-in period, all the dogs were tested with a battery of cognitive test protocols, which assessed sequentially landmark discrimination learning ability, egocentric visuospatial function and attention. The groups were maintained on the diets for 8 months. The MCT-supplemented group showed significantly better performance in most of the test protocols than the control group. The group differences also varied as a function of task difficulty, with the more difficult task showing greater supplementation effects than the easier tasks. The group given the MCT supplement showed significantly elevated levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body. These results indicate, first, that long-term supplementation with MCT can have cognition-improving effects, and second, that MCT supplementation increases circulating levels of ketones. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of aged dogs can be improved by MCT supplementation, which provides the brain with an alternative energy source. PMID:20141643

  3. Culture of Metarhizium robertsii on salicylic-acid supplemented medium induces increased conidial thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Anderson, Anne J; Roberts, Donald W

    2012-03-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a cell-signaling metabolite in plants, is involved in resistance of plants to pathogens and environmental stresses; however, there is little information available on the responses of fungi to SA. Conidia of Metarhizium robertsii (ARSEF 2575) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were produced on potato dextrose agar medium plus yeast extract (PDAY) supplemented with 1, 2, 4, or 8 mM SA (pH adjusted to 6.9) and incubated under constant-dark conditions. Then the tolerance of conidia against wet heat (45 °C, 3 h) and UV-B radiation (7.0 kJ m(-2)) was tested. For comparison, conidia were also produced on minimal medium (MM) that contained no carbon source (carbon starvation), a condition known to induce elevated conidial tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation in M. robertsii. The heat tolerance of conidia produced on PDAY containing 1, 2, or 4 mM SA were two-fold higher than that of conidia produced on PDAY alone; which is the same level of thermotolerance induced by growth on MM. Conidia produced on PDAY with 8 mM SA, however, did not exhibit increased heat tolerance. Growth on PDAY + SA did not increase conidial UV-B tolerance at any of the SA concentrations tested. The conidial yields of M. robertsii produced on PDAY with all levels of SA were somewhat reduced in comparison to the yield on PDAY alone. Nevertheless, conidial yields on PDAY + SA were 20-40 times greater than that obtained on MM alone. In conclusion, M. robertsii conidia produced on PDAY medium containing low concentrations of SA demonstrated increased tolerance to heat, but not to UV-B radiation. In comparison to PDAY alone, SA-amended PDAY afforded somewhat reduced conidial yields; however, in a mass-production situation, yield reductions would be offset by the fact that the conidia obtained would have relatively high heat tolerance. PMID:22385625

  4. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  5. Honey Supplementation to Semen-Freezing Medium ImprovesHuman Sperm Parameters Post-Thawing

    PubMed Central

    Alsaadi, Rana A-R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of honey supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm motility, concentration, morphology and agglutination. Materials and methods Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1, control) alone, or enriched with 5% honey (G2) or with 10% honey (G3) for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196°C in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post-thawing. Sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post-thawing. Results Results appeared that the percentage of sperm motility for G1 and G2 groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post-thawing when compared to pre-cryopreservation. However, there was no significant difference in the total motility (%) of the post-thaw sperm between the G1 and G2 groups. While there was significant increased (P < 0.05) in the percentage of normal sperm morphology for G1 and G3 groups post-thawing. Post-thawing normal sperm morphology (%) for G3 group was significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared to G1 and G2 groups. In contrast non significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) was seen in the sperm concentration for all groups post-thawing as compared to pre-cryopreservation groups. After thawing the results reveal significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the sperm agglutination (%) for G3 group as compared to G1 and G2 groups. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the supplementation of honey (10%) to cryoprotectant solution results in enhancement of sperm quality post-thawing. PMID:24971130

  6. Controlled evaluation of modified radiometric blood culture medium supplemented with gelatin for detection of bacteremia and fungemia.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, M P; Reller, L B; Mirrett, S; Reimer, L G; Wang, W L; Stratton, C W

    1987-01-01

    Although the addition of 1.2% gelatin to broth blood culture media containing sodium polyanetholesulfonate has been shown to enhance detection of certain bacteria, including Neisseria meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Gardnerella vaginalis, the effect of such supplementation on the detection of other microorganisms causing bacteremia and fungemia is not known. Therefore, we studied BACTEC 6B medium with and without gelatin in 6,833 paired comparisons to examine the effects of supplementation on both the yield and the speed of detection of sepsis. More aerobic and facultative bacteria grew in the 6B than in the 6B-gelatin medium (P less than 0.001), especially staphylococci (P less than 0.01), Escherichia coli (P less than 0.01), other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P less than 0.05), and Acinetobacter spp. (P less than 0.05). When microorganisms grew in both bottles, they did so earlier in 6B than in 6B-gelatin (P less than 0.001). We conclude that the 6B medium in its present formulation is superior to 6B medium supplemented with 1.2% gelatin. PMID:3624437

  7. Comparison of Wilkins-Chalgren medium supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and Haemophilus test medium for susceptibility testing of clinical Haemophilus isolates.

    PubMed

    Traub, W H; Leonhard, B

    1995-01-01

    Haemophilus test medium (HTM) was compared with Wilkins-Chalgren agar (WCA; supplemented with 15 micrograms/ml nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)) for antibiotic susceptibility testing of 74 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method and the agar dilution procedure were the two tests employed. WCA + NAD and HTM yielded comparable results for the following antimicrobial drugs and drug combinations: ampicillin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, ampicillin plus sulbactam, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. However, WCA + NAD slightly antagonized rifampin. Co-trimoxazole was significantly antagonized by WCA + NAD. WCA + NAD was much simpler with regard to in-house preparation, and WCA plates could be supplemented with NAD following pouring, solidification and storage of the plates simply by surface spreading the required amount of NAD with a glass spatula, thus adding considerably to laboratory flexibility. It is suggested that additional laboratories comparatively and critically examine WCA + NAD medium for antibiotic susceptibility testing of clinical Haemophilus isolates. PMID:8529434

  8. Cultivation of Bowes melanoma cells in the Opticell system: influence of the addition of protein supplements to the serum-free medium on the production of plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Bödeker, B G; Klimetzek, V; Klein, U; Hewlett, G; Schlumberger, H D

    1987-01-01

    The influence of a protein-free and a protein-rich, supplemented serum-free medium on the production of plasminogen activator (t-PA) from Bowes melanoma cells was investigated in the Opticell culture system and compared to tissue culture flask cultures. In the presence of medium supplements metabolic activity and t-PA production were favoured in both systems. The addition of supplements was apparently more effective in the Opticell than in flask cultures, because t-PA activity obtained in the Opticell was 2-3 times higher in protein-rich medium, but 2 times lower in unsupplemented medium than in flasks. These results indicate that the protein content in a serum-free medium is important for product formation in the Opticell, and serum-free media which work at small scale in tissue culture flasks are not always suited for technical culture systems such as the Opticell but have to be adapted to them. PMID:3108052

  9. Basal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Basal cell skin cancer; Rodent ulcer; Skin cancer - basal cell; Cancer - skin - basal cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer; Basal cell NMSC ... Basal cell cancer starts in the top layer of the skin called the epidermis. Most basal cell cancers occur ...

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and treatments A - D Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer often ... skin tissue and bone. Learn more about basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Basal ...

  11. Riboflavin excretion by Pachysolen tannophilus grown in synthetic medium supplemented with d -xylose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. D. Vanetti; E. Aquarone

    1992-01-01

    Pachysolen tannophilus excreted riboflavin (12.7 m g\\/ml) into a synthetic medium withd-xylose as carbon source, when the pH was below 2.0. The addition of glucose enhanced the quantity of riboflavin excreted. The greatest riboflavin production was at pH 1.6 after 5 days at 30°C.

  12. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

  13. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Kaitho; A. Tegegne; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J Van Bruchem; J. M. Arts

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150 g), Leucaena (200 or 400 g) or Sesbania (200 or 400 g). The animals

  14. Influence of supplementation with corn dried distillers grains plus solubles to growing calves fed medium-quality hay on growth performance and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Islas, A; Gilbery, T C; Goulart, R S; Dahlen, C R; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C

    2014-02-01

    To determine the effect of increasing supplementation of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and feeding behavior, 70 steer calves (287 ± 10 kg of BW) were blocked by BW to 3 pens equipped with Insentec feeders. For 84 d, calves were fed medium-quality grass/legume hay offered for ad libitum intake and provided 1 of 3 dietary supplemental treatments (n = 7 or 8 steers per treatment within each pen; n = 23 or 24 per treatment): 1) nothing, 2) DDGS at 0.5% of BW daily (DM basis), and 3) DDGS at 1% of BW daily (DM basis). Hay intake (kg/d and % of BW daily) decreased linearly (P < 0.001) as DDGS supplementation increased. Total DMI (kg/d and % of BW) increased linearly (P < 0.001) with DDGS supplementation. Average daily gain and gain efficiency (G:F) responded quadratically (P ? 0.006) as G:F increased to a lesser extent when DDGS supplementation increased from 0.5 to 1% than from 0 to 0.5%. Meals (number per day) and time eating per meal for hay and total diet decreased linearly (P ? 0.006) with increasing DDGS supplementation. Time eating per day for hay responded quadratically (P < 0.001) and decreased to a greater extent when increasing from 0 to 0.5% DDGS supplementation than from 0.5 to 1% DDGS. Feed intake per minute (eating rate) for hay and total diet increased linearly (P ? 0.05) with increasing DDGS supplementation. On d 84, LM area, back fat thickness, and rump fat thickness increased linearly (P ? 0.006) with increasing DDGS supplementation. There were significant day × treatment interactions (P < 0.001) for plasma glucose and urea-N concentrations. Glucose did not change over the feeding period in control steers but increased in both supplemented groups. Urea-N decreased for control steers over the feeding period whereas urea-N increased in supplemented steers. In conclusion, supplementation of DDGS in amounts of 0.5 or 1% of BW daily can be used to reduce hay intake and improve ADG and G:F in growing steers fed medium-quality hay. Additionally, DDGS supplementation alters feeding behavior. PMID:24352960

  15. Comparison of goat and horse blood as culture medium supplements for isolation and identification of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae from upper respiratory tract secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Gratten, M; Battistutta, D; Torzillo, P; Dixon, J; Manning, K

    1994-01-01

    The results of this study show that goat blood as a culture medium supplement is as supportive as horse blood for the isolation and identification of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical material. Care is required in the preparation of goat blood chocolate agar to ensure that a thermolabile growth inhibitor of NAD-dependent Haemophilus species is eliminated. PMID:7852593

  16. Dissociated cells of foetal rat pallium grown in culture medium supplemented with noradrenaline: effects on the expression of neuron-specific enolase and cell adhesion molecule L1.

    PubMed

    König, N; Drian, M J; Privat, A; Lamandé, N; Parés-Herbuté, N; Schachner, M

    1986-05-01

    The possible influence of noradrenaline (NA) upon cell differentiation has been studied by comparing NA-supplemented cultures of foetal pallial cells with control cultures grown in normal medium. Two days after plating, the cultures were processed for immunocytochemical detection of either an adhesion molecule and marker of early stages of neuronal differentiation (L1) or a marker expressed at relatively late stages (gamma-enolase). In both cases, the NA supplement reduced the expression of the antigen. The effects were more clear-cut for the late than for the early marker. In conclusion, the NA supplement to the culture medium, in our model, seemed to have a 'differentiation regulating' rather than a 'neurotrophic' function sensu stricto. It remains to be clarified, however, to which extent this finding can be generalized to in vivo situations. PMID:3714115

  17. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis. PMID:24778327

  18. Neurocognitive effects of acute choline supplementation in low, medium and high performer healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Knott, Verner; de la Salle, Sara; Choueiry, Joelle; Impey, Danielle; Smith, Dylan; Smith, Meaghan; Beaudry, Elise; Saghir, Salman; Ilivitsky, Vadim; Labelle, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Novel pharmacological treatments targeting alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7 nAChR) hypofunction in schizophrenia have shown mixed success in ameliorating cognitive impairments associated with this disorder. Choline, a selective agonist at ?7 receptors is increased with oral administration of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline), the cognitive effects of which were assessed in healthy volunteers. Using the CogState test battery, behavioral performance in schizophrenia-relevant cognitive domains was assessed in 24 male participants following a single low (500mg) and moderate (1000mg) dose of CDP-choline. Relative to placebo, CDP-choline improved processing speed, working memory, verbal learning, verbal memory, and executive function in low baseline performers, while exerting no effects in medium baseline performers, and diminishing cognition in high baseline performers. Dose effects varied with cognitive domain but were evident with both the 500mg and 1000mg doses. These preliminary findings of cognitive enhancement in relatively impaired performers are consistent with the ?7 receptor mechanism and support further trials with CDP-choline as a potential pro-cognitive strategy for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:25681529

  19. Effect of knockout serum replacement supplementation to culture medium on porcine blastocyst development and piglet production.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Suzuki, Chie; Yoshioka, Koji

    2015-03-01

    We have previously developed chemically defined media suitable for in vitro production (IVP) of porcine embryos and subsequently generated piglets by nonsurgical embryo transfer. In this study, to further improve the culture conditions for IVP of porcine embryos, we evaluated the effect of knockout serum replacement (KSR), a substitute for serum or albumin, on the viability and development of porcine blastocysts. The addition of 5% (v:v) KSR to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) on Day 5 (Day 0 = IVF) significantly increased the survival and hatching rates of blastocysts and the total cell number of Day-7 blastocysts compared with those in cultures without KSR or addition of 10% fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, the number of cells in the trophectoderm of Day-6 blastocysts and the ATP content of Day-7 blastocysts cultured with 5% KSR were significantly higher than those of blastocysts cultured without KSR. The mRNA expression of a rate-limiting enzyme in ?-oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, in Day-6 blastocysts, and a serine proteinase, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in Day-7 blastocysts cultured in 5% KSR-PBM was significantly higher than that of blastocysts cultured in PBM alone. Four of eight recipients (50%), in which Day-5 blastocysts treated with 5% KSR were transferred nonsurgically, became pregnant. However, the efficiency of piglet production (percentage of piglets born based on the number of embryos transferred) was similar to recipients with transferred blastocysts treated without KSR. The present study demonstrated that the addition of KSR to PBM enhanced the in vitro viability of porcine blastocysts. In addition, our data suggest that KSR improved development to the hatching stage and blastocyst quality by increasing ATP content and hatching-related mRNA expression of blastocysts. PMID:25434774

  20. Evaluation of Clitoria, Gliricidia and Mucuna as nitrogen supplements to Napier grass basal diet in relation to the performance of lactating Jersey cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Juma; S. A. Abdulrazak; R. W. Muinga; M. K. Ambula

    2006-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Mtwapa in Coastal lowland Kenya to evaluate the effects of supplementing Napier grass variety Bana (Pennisetum purpureum) with Clitoria ternatea (Clitoria), Gliricidia sepium (Gliricidia) and Mucuna pruriens (Mucuna) on feed intake, diet digestibility and milk yield of lactating Jersey cows. Clitoria and Mucuna were compared with Gliricidia; a widely

  1. Effects of temperature and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) serum supplement on the in vitro multiplication of Cryptobia catostomi in cell-free culture medium.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Woo, P T

    1996-01-01

    Cryptobia catostomi, a non-pathogenic haemoflagellate of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) multiplied rapidly in modified TDL-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% heatinactivated white sucker serum (WSS) at 10 degrees C and 18 degrees C. The numbers of C. catostomi counted were significantly higher in cultures incubated at 10 degrees C than in those incubated at 18 degrees C beginning at 3 weeks post-incubation. The culture forms (from the eighth subculture at 9 months after isolation) were morphologically similar to blood forms and were infective to laboratory-raised white suckers. The parasite survived for about 4 weeks in the medium without WSS at 18 degrees C. The present study indicates that WSS supplement supports the in vitro multiplication of C. catostomi and that its multiplication is temperature-dependent. PMID:8801566

  2. Effects of temperature and white sucker ( Catostomus commersoni ) serum supplement on the in vitro multiplication of Cryptobia catostomi in cell-free culture medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Li; P. T. K. Woo

    1996-01-01

    Cryptobia catostomi, a non-pathogenic haemoflagellate of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) multiplied rapidly in modified TDL-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% heat-inactivated white sucker\\u000a serum (WSS) at 10°C and 18°C. The numbers of C. catostomi counted were significantly higher in cultures incubated at 10°C than in those incubated at 18°C beginning at 3 weeks post-incubation.\\u000a The culture

  3. Assessment of different levels of enset (Ensete ventricosum) corm as an energy supplement in sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars Olav

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of enset corm as a supplement to sheep fed Rhodes grass hay. Thirty local yearling rams with a mean (±SD) body weight of 16.97 (±1.13) kg were used. Six sheep were allocated to each of the five treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were hay ad libitum and 129 g dry matter (DM) corm (T1), 188 g DM corm (T2), 248 g DM corm (T3), 100 g DM noug (T4) cake, and hay alone (T5). One hundred grams of noug seedcake was supplemented for all treatments except T5. Total DM and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep in T1, T2, and T3 were the highest (P?supplemented groups was similar (P?>?0.05). The daily body weight gain for T1, T2, and T3 diets was greater (P?supplement enset corm at 129 g DM/day as an alternative energy source to improve the productivity of sheep for small-scale farmers under enset-livestock production systems. PMID:24715206

  4. A simple and effective method for the removal of trace metal cations from a mammalian culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum.

    PubMed

    Rayner, M H; Suzuki, K T

    1995-07-01

    Direct batch addition of sterile Chelex ion-exchange resin to Dubecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum with gentle stirring removed a very wide variety of trace metal ions from the medium to varying extents dependent upon Chelex content (between 0.01 and 4% w/v), exposure time (between 5 min and 10 days) and temperature (4, 25 and 37 degrees C). Prolonged treatment (10 days) with 4% w/v Chelex at 4 degrees C reduced the concentration of zinc, strontium, aluminum, copper, manganese, nickel and chromium from 100 to 2.7, 12.1, 7.7, 22.6, 13.0, 14.7 and 53.3% of their original concentrations, respectively. Re-supplementation of the metal depleted medium with a defined cocktail of metals restored the growth potential of the medium which was then capable of supporting growth over at least three subcultures without a decrease in fibroblast cell yield, demonstrating its suitability in cell culture studies on trace metal ions. PMID:7647515

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  6. A novel chemical-defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements supports undifferentiated growth in human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yanxia [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Song Zhihua [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Zhao Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Qin Han [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China); Cai Jun [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhang Hong [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yu Tianxin [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Jiang Siming [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Wang Guangwen [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ding Mingxiao [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Hongkui [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China) and Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, University Town, Shenzhen (China)]. E-mail: hongkui_deng@pku.edu.cn

    2006-07-21

    Traditionally, undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells or on matrigel with an MEF-conditioned medium (CM), which hampers the clinical applications of hESCs due to the contamination by animal pathogens. Here we report a novel chemical-defined medium using DMEM/F12 supplemented with N2, B27, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [termed NBF]. This medium can support prolonged self-renewal of hESCs. hESCs cultured in NBF maintain an undifferentiated state and normal karyotype, are able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and differentiate into three germ layers and extraembryonic cells. Furthermore, we find that hESCs cultured in NBF possess a low apoptosis rate and a high proliferation rate compared with those cultured in MEF-CM. Our findings provide a novel, simplified chemical-defined culture medium suitable for further therapeutic applications and developmental studies of hESCs.

  7. Effects of a liquid diet supplement containing structured medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols on bodyfat accumulation in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Matsuo, M; Kasai, M; Takeuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a liquid-formula diet supplement containing structured medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (SMLCT) composed of medium- (10%) and long-chain (90%) fatty acids were compared with those of long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT) on bodyfat accumulation in 13 healthy male volunteers aged 18-20 years. The subjects were randomly assigned the SMLCT or LCT group. The subjects in each group received a liquid-formula diet supplement of the SMLCT or LCT, which provided 1040 kJ plus daily energy intake for 12 weeks. Mean energy intake containing liquid diet throughout the 12-week period did not differ between the SMLCT and LCT groups. Bodyweight of subjects in both groups increased slightly from the baseline throughout the 12-week period, but the differences were not significant. Rates of variation of bodyfat percentage were significantly lower in the SMLCT group than in the LCT group throughout the 12-week period. Comparisons between the SMLCT and LCT groups at baseline and 12 weeks showed no significant differences in any of the biochemical blood parameters. These results suggest that replacing LCT with SMLCT over long periods of time could produce bodyfat loss in the absence of reduced energy intake. PMID:11708608

  8. Monitoring the enzyme expression in a respiratory chain of Corynebacterium glutamicum in a copper ion-supplemented culture medium.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Tomoichirou; Aoyagi, Makoto; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Sakamoto, Junshi

    2015-02-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum has a branched respiratory chain: one of the branches is cytochrome bcc complex and cytochrome aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase, and the other is cytochrome bd-type menaquinol oxidase. The factors that influence the expression patterns of these respiratory enzymes remain unclear. To investigate the expressional control mechanism of the enzymes, we have previously constructed a promoter assay system utilizing enhanced green fluorescence protein. Here, we monitored respiratory enzymes' expression by using this system during growth in various culture media, with and without Cu(2+) ion supplementation. The promoter activities of cytochrome aa3 oxidase in the early stationary phase in the media supplemented with Cu(2+) ion at 40 or 400 ?M were significantly increased 1.49-fold or 1.99-fold, respectively, as compared to the control. Moreover, the H(+)/O ratio, or the proton-pumping activity of the cells, increased about 1.6 times by the Cu(2+) supplementation. These facts indicate that copper ions can switch the branches. PMID:25338939

  9. Enhancing Basal Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenfest, Ashleigh; Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This article addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to…

  10. In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Reynoso-Cuevas; M. E. Gallegos-Martínez; F. Cruz-Sosa; M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination

  11. Combined epidermal growth factor and hyaluronic acid supplementation of in vitro maturation medium and its impact on bovine oocyte proteome and competence.

    PubMed

    Ríos, G L; Buschiazzo, J; Mucci, N C; Kaiser, G G; Cesari, A; Alberio, R H

    2015-03-15

    The conditions for in vitro oocyte maturation impact on cytoplasmic and nuclear processes in the oocyte. These events are differentially influenced by the nature of the maturation inducer and the presence of intact cumulus in cumulus-oocyte complexes. Epidermal growth factor is the main growth factor promoting oocyte maturation. Also, hyaluronic acid (HA) produced by cumulus cells is known to be responsible for the correct structural and functional organization of the cumulus during oocyte maturation. Therefore, we evaluated the developmental competence of bovine oocytes matured in vitro in a maturation medium supplemented with both EGF and HA, compared to FSH and fetal bovine serum (FBS). In addition, the impact of IVM conditions on the proteomic profile of metaphase II bovine oocytes was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured in two media: (1) 10 ng/mL EGF, 15 ?g/mL HA, and 100-?M cysteamine and (2) 0.01 UI/mL rh-FSH and 10% FBS. The percentages of first polar body and embryo production and the kinetics of embryo development and oocyte proteomic profiles were analyzed. Oocytes matured in the presence of EGF-HA showed an increase (6%, P < 0.05) in the percentage of polar body extrusion. The blastocyst rate was 3% (P < 0.05) higher in the FSH-FBS group, but no differences were found in the rate of expanded blastocyst neither in total embryo production between IVM conditions. Cleavage rate of oocytes matured with FSH-FBS was 5% higher (P < 0.05) with respect to EGF-HA-matured oocytes when evaluated 30 hours after fertilization. However, at Day 7, those inseminated oocytes that underwent division at a correct timing showed that although there are still early blastocysts in the FSH-FBS condition, EGF-HA embryos have developed completely into blastocysts. Still, the production rate of those embryos that achieved expansion was similar between both maturation conditions. On the other hand, noncleaved presumptive zygotes at Day 7 developed into the different stages with similar rates (?4%) independently of the medium condition. Modifications of IVM medium composition markedly affected protein profile of bovine oocytes in a differential manner. The proteomic approach revealed the presence of 68 spots in both treatments, 41 exclusively found in the FSH-FBS group and 64 exclusive for the EGF-HA group. Taken together, these results indicate that combined EGF-HA supplementation of in vitro maturation medium could be used to improve oocyte meiotic competence and ensure a better timing to develop into the blastocyst stage. PMID:25497783

  12. Neuronal firing patterns of organotypic rat spinal cord cultures in normal and in ACTH/alpha-MSH(4-10) analog (BIM 22015)-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Calvet, M C; Drian, M J; Calvet, J

    1992-02-01

    The spontaneous and evoked electrical patterns of spinal cord explants from 13- to 14-day old rat fetuses grown from 2 to 8 weeks in vitro were compared when fed either with a standard or with an adrenocorticotropic hormone/alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (4-10) analog (BIM 22015)-supplemented medium. Standard and BIM 22015-treated cultures developed similar patterns of extracellularly recorded activity which consisted of mostly phasic but also tonic discharges. The standard cultures when treated by BIM 22015 in acute experiments (100 micrograms/ml) showed a decrease in their frequency of discharges which fired in a regular tonic pattern. These effects were neither age- nor dose-dependent but were increased in Ca2+ free medium. The ventral cord neurons chronically fed with BIM 22015 showed a strongly bursting pattern resembling strychnine-induced synchronized bursts. Both these effects, inhibitory (acute) and excitatory (chronic), of the BIM upon spinal cord cultured ventral horn neurons are discussed as possible calcium-dependent phenomena. PMID:1319267

  13. Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Hammond; R. G. Ham; M. R. Stampfer

    1984-01-01

    A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient

  14. Formulation of a protein-free medium based on IPL41 for the sustained growth of Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiana R. X. Batista; Carlos A. Pereira; Ronaldo Z. Mendonça; Ângela M. Moraes

    2008-01-01

    An animal protein-free medium was developed for Drosophila melanogaster S2 (S2AcGPV2) cells genetically modified to produce the rabies virus G glycoprotein (GPV). IPL-41, used as a basal medium,\\u000a was supplemented with yeastolate, carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids aiming initially to reduce and further to eliminate\\u000a the need of fetal bovine serum. The S2AcGPV2 cells were fully capable of growing in

  15. In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Reynoso-Cuevas, L; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Cruz-Sosa, F; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-09-01

    The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination was not affected for any assayed concentration; however, the length of the stems and roots decreased when HCM increased and the survival of the four species also diminished. Except for F. arundinacea, a direct link between hydrocarbon concentration and plant survival was observed. In vitro studies are clean and easy to handle techniques allowing isolation of the plant activity from that derived from associations with microorganisms in non-sterile cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first work towards phytoremediation assisted by in vitro plant cultivation. PMID:18222086

  16. Basal Ganglia and Learning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-14

    The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders.

  17. The Robot Basal Ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony J. Prescott; Kevin Gurney; Fernando Montes-Gonzalez; Mark Humphries; Peter Redgrave

    \\u000a Action selection is the task of resolving conflicts between multiple sensorimotor systems seeking access to the final common\\u000a motor path. Recently,1,2 we proposed that the basal ganglia may act to provide a biological solution to the problem of selection. To test this notion\\u000a we have implemented a high level computational model of intrinsic basal ganglia circuitry and its interactions with

  18. Tracheal Basal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Brook B.; Smith, Russell W.; Jenkins, Kimberly M.; Graham, Brian B.; Reynolds, Paul R.; Reynolds, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of lineage relationships in the naphthalene-injured tracheal epithelium demonstrated that two multipotential keratin 14–expressing cells (K14ECs) function as progenitors for Clara and ciliated cells. These K14EC were distinguished by their self-renewal capacity and were hypothesized to reside at the stem and transit amplifying tiers of a tissue-specific stem cell hierarchy. In this study, we used gene expression and histomorphometric analysis of the steady-state and naphthalene-injured trachea to evaluate the predictions of this model. We found that the steady-state tracheal epithelium is maintained by two progenitor cell pools, secretory and basal cells, and the latter progenitor pool is further divided into two subsets, keratin 14–negative and –positive. After naphthalene-mediated depletion of the secretory and ciliated cell types, the two basal cell pools coordinate to restore the epithelium. Both basal cell types up-regulate keratin 14 and generate a broadly distributed, abundant, and highly mitotic cell pool. Furthermore, basal cell proliferation is associated with generation of differentiated Clara and ciliated cells. The uniform distribution of basal cell progenitors and of their differentiated progeny leads us to propose that the hierarchical organization of tracheal reparative cells be revised to include a facultative basal cell progenitor pool. PMID:20522644

  19. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters. PMID:18777140

  20. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-W?klar, Daria; Da?czak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  1. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors.

  2. Future of newer basal insulin

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins PMID:23776897

  3. CHAPTER SEVEN Were Basal Primates

    E-print Network

    233 CHAPTER SEVEN Were Basal Primates Nocturnal? Evidence from Eye and Orbit Shape Callum F. Ross pattern, Charles-Dominique (1975: 86) suggested that the last common ancestor of primates "had an eye or a strepsirrhine eye. By the late 1970s, the issue of the activity pattern of basal primates was independently

  4. Neuron, Volume 80 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    1 Neuron, Volume 80 Supplemental Information The Basal Ganglia Is Necessary for Learning Spectral produced by RA-projecting HVC neurons is transformed into a specific motor program through connections to neurons in motor cortex analogue RA, which control vocal musculature. (bottom) Within this framework

  5. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  6. Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    LETTERS Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia of basal ganglia circuitry in vivo, using optogenetic control11­14 of direct- and indirect-pathway medium motor deficits. To obtain selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways in vivo, we

  7. Polar basal melting on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.

    1987-08-01

    The potential importance of basal melting on Mars is illustrated through the discussion of four examples: (1) the origin of the major polar reentrants, (2) the removal and storage of an ancient Martian ice sheet, (3) the mass balance of the polar terrains, and (4) the possibility of basal melting at temperate latitudes. This analysis suggests that the process of basal melting may play a key role in understanding the evolution of the Martian polar terrains and the long-term climatic behavior of water on Mars.

  8. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  9. Supplemental Material Supplemental methods

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Photoshop using regions similar to those shown in Supplemental figure 1. Technetium experiments. Technetium-99m experiments were done by labeling Suc-e9-xPLG(MeC)Ax-r9-k(DTPA) (MeC = methylcysteine) peptide with technetium-99m and injecting the probe intravenously into animals (n=3). Organs were counted using a gamma

  10. Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances in vitro skeletal muscle cell growth via a COX-2-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the metabolic precursor to a diverse range of downstream bioactive lipid mediators. A positive or negative influence of individual eicosanoid species [e.g., prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids] has been implicated in skeletal muscle cell growth and development. The collective role of AA-derived metabolites in physiological states of skeletal muscle growth/atrophy remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the direct effect of free AA supplementation and subsequent eicosanoid biosynthesis on skeletal myocyte growth in vitro. C2C12 (mouse) skeletal myocytes induced to differentiate with supplemental AA exhibited dose-dependent increases in the size, myonuclear content, and protein accretion of developing myotubes, independent of changes in cell density or the rate/extent of myogenic differentiation. Nonselective (indomethacin) or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)-selective (NS-398) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs blunted basal myogenesis, an effect that was amplified in the presence of supplemental free AA substrate. The stimulatory effects of AA persisted in preexisting myotubes via a COX-2-dependent (NS-389-sensitive) pathway, specifically implying dependency on downstream PG biosynthesis. AA-stimulated growth was associated with markedly increased secretion of PGF(2?) and PGE(2); however, incubation of myocytes with PG-rich conditioned medium failed to mimic the effects of direct AA supplementation. In vitro AA supplementation stimulates PG release and skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via a COX-2-dependent pathway. PMID:23076795

  11. Extended amygdala and basal forebrain.

    PubMed

    Alheid, George F

    2003-04-01

    The basal forebrain is a confluence of systems that are crucial to understanding some of the most important functions of the brain, including reward and punishment, learning and cognition, and feeding and reproduction. Basic to understanding this broad spectrum of behavior is untangling the interwoven functional systems in basal forebrain. This has been grounded by the appreciation that the major nearby structures, that is, amygdala and basal ganglia, provide a context for interpreting basal forebrain areas that are best viewed as extensions of either of these larger regions. The components of basal forebrain, the ventral striatopallidal system and the medial and central divisions of extended amygdala, are subcortical relays for information garnered from brain stem, thalamus, and cortical areas. With respect to the classically defined amygdala of the temporal lobe, the lateral-basolateral complex, and the superficial amygdaloid nuclei may tentatively be viewed as specialized cortical regions. Their output targets both the striatopallidal complex and the extended amygdala, with some of the most massive basal forebrain efferents originating in the basolateral amygdaloid complex. The subcortical projections of the basolateral nucleus, at least in the rat, appear to be dichotomous, with anterior (or magnocellular) portions of the nucleus preferentially targeting striatum and ventral striatum (including the core of the nucleus accumbens), while the posterior (small-celled) portions of the basolateral nucleus target the extended amygdala as well as the shell of the nucleus accumbens. This divergence represents a particular opportunity for behavioral neuroscientists analyzing basal forebrain functions. Studies exploiting the dual subcortical projection of basolateral amygdala indicate distinct functional roles for striatum versus extended amygdala. These reinforce the identification of extended amygdala as a functional-anatomical entity distinct from the striatopallidal system. PMID:12724159

  12. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further studies are needed to address the impact of this diet on other tumour-relevant functions such as invasive growth and metastasis. PMID:18447912

  13. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and Lactobacillus species growth in a defined medium simulating vaginal secretions.

    PubMed

    Stingley, Robin L; Liu, Huanli; Mullis, Lisa B; Elkins, Christopher A; Hart, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus species are commensal with the healthy vaginal environment and inhibit the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the vaginal tract by a variety of mechanisms, such as the production of hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and antimicrobial substances. Simulation of the vaginal environment is crucial for proper investigation of the effects of Lactobacillus species on pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we modified a medium used to simulate vaginal secretions to improve the growth of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains and Lactobacillus species so that interactions between these bacteria may be examined. A medium consisting of basal salts, vitamins, albumin, glycogen, mucin, urea, sodium bicarbonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, and amino acids supported the growth of S. aureus and the production of TSST-1 as determined by Western analysis. Improved growth of the Lactobacillus species was seen when this same medium was supplemented with manganese chloride, sodium acetate, and an increase in glucose concentration. However, growth of S. aureus in the supplemented medium resulted in reduced levels of TSST-1. Production of TSST-1 was not detected in a medium routinely used for the growth of Lactobacillus species although S. aureus growth was not inhibited. The development of an improved genital tract secretion medium provides a more authentic environment in which to study the interactions of Lactobacillus species and vaginal pathogens, such as S. aureus. PMID:25135489

  14. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Massey, Patrick B

    2002-01-01

    The amount of published information on dietary supplements mushroomed in the 1990s. In fewer than 5 years, publications increased at least 100-fold in the medical literature alone. Dietary supplements are an uncharted territory that warrants complete and accurate exploration. One should not be surprised that disease and illness may respond to dietary supplements. Nutrition is the foundation to good health, and dietary supplements may prove to be some of the most powerful medicines ever discovered. An especially exciting discovery is that dietary supplements may enhance the effects of specific drugs. This discovery may lead to more effective and safer protocols for the treatment of cancer, heart and lung disease, and a host of chronic medical conditions. Information about dietary supplements is becoming more common in the popular medical literature and is creating increased curiosity and an increased awareness. The explosion of the dietary supplement market is compelling physicians to become aware of dietary supplements. Whether or not they are used in clinical practice is a decision for the individual physician. Given the increasing number of patients who are using dietary supplements, however, it is imperative that physicians have a good understanding of this topic. Considering the increasing complexity and magnitude of this topic, physician specialization may be essential. There are many good reference books, review articles, and internet sites on specific supplements that probably should be part of every physician's reference library. The accompanying box provides a brief list of such sources. PMID:11795085

  15. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. PMID:21572528

  16. The basal ganglia Ann M. Graybiel

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    of the basal ganglia lead to devastating motor disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington of the cortical input to the basal ganglia. Degeneration of neurons in the striatum leads to Huntington's disease The leading model for motor disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases is that the basal ganglia

  17. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil R. Hackett; Renat Shaykhiev; Matthew S. Walters; Rui Wang; Rachel K. Zwick; Barbara Ferris; Bradley Witover; Jacqueline Salit; Ronald G. Crystal; Melanie Koenigshoff

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem\\/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of

  18. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovi?ova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lan?ok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-?ež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Bo?a, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 ?m in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  19. Dietary supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RON J. MAUGHAN; DOUG S. KING; Trevor Lea

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of

  20. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

  1. Oilseed lipid supplements and fatty acid composition of cow milk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Glasser, F; Ferlay, A; Chilliard, Y

    2008-12-01

    Numerous experiments have studied the use of oilseed supplements in cow diets to alter milk fatty acid (FA) composition, but no quantitative synthesis of these studies is currently available. This article reports a meta-analysis of the response of cow milk FA composition to oilseed lipid supplements from linseed, rapeseed, soybeans, and sunflower seed. First, from a database of 145 oilseed supplementation experiments, we collected the mean FA percentages observed with unsupplemented diets and diets supplemented with the 4 oilseeds given as seeds (after various types of processing), as oils (including Ca salts and amides), or in protected forms. Second, we studied the response of the major milk FA percentages to increasing amounts of supplemental lipids from the 4 oilseeds. Responses were nonsignificant, linear, or quadratic, depending on the FA studied and the supplement. Effects of interfering factors, such as supplement form, forage component of the diet, or lactation stage, were difficult to assess from the available data. Third, we studied the response of the major milk FA percentages to increasing dietary intakes of linoleic or linolenic acids, taken separately. Overall, these results confirm the high plasticity of milk FA composition, with the widest variations being observed in the percentages of medium-chain versus C18 FA, and among the C18 in 18:0, cis-18:1, and trans-18:1. The percentages of the polyunsaturated FA cis-9 cis-12-18:2 and 18:3 were less variable, except when protected lipids (mostly formaldehyde treated) were supplied. However, trans-18:1 and polyunsaturated FA (including conjugated linoleic acid) exhibited the greatest variations when expressed relative to their respective basal values (for unsupplemented diets). Oils, compared with seeds, induced greater percentages of trans-18:1 and tended to decrease C6 to C12 FA more. Intakes of 18:2- and 18:3-rich lipid sources did not differ greatly in their effects on short- and medium-chain FA and trans-18:1 percentages, although the profiles of individual 18:1 and 18:2 isomers in milk differed. This meta-analysis provides quantitative estimates, obtained from the extensive literature produced over more than 40 yr, of the impact of oilseed supplements on milk FA composition. PMID:19038946

  2. Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends Supp. Fig. 1. Fluorescence images of 3-D clusters labeled nuclei, and green is rhodamine dextran blood pool. Scale bar is 20 m. Supplementary Material (ESI Supplementary Material (ESI) for Integrative Biology This journal is (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009 #12

  3. Potassium Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vegetables, and other plant sources such as nuts, seeds, whole grains, and beans is likely to be ... the FDA wrote new rules to improve the quality of manufacturing for dietary supplements and the proper ...

  4. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supplements. Instead, try these tips for getting better game: Make downtime a priority. Studies show that teens ... Meditating or visualizing your success during the next game may improve your performance; sitting quietly and focusing ...

  5. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    PubMed Central

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  6. High cholesterol diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil but not olive oil stimulates lipid peroxidation in plasma, liver, and aorta of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin Bulur; Gül Özdemirler; Büge Öz; Gülçin Toker; Muzaffer Öztürk; Müjdat Uysal

    1995-01-01

    To determine the effect of a high cholesterol diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil or olive oil on plasma, liver, and aorta lipid peroxidation, rats were fed a basal diet, a high cholesterol diet (basal diet containing 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid), or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 10% (wtwt) sunflower seed oil or 10% (wtwt) olive oil

  7. Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, S.L.; Ham, R.G.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient medium, (MCDB 170, supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, and bovine pituitary extract. Replacement of pituitary extract with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and ovine prolactin yields a defined medium that supports rapid clonal growth and serial subculture for three of four passages. Cultures initiated in these media from normal reduction mammoplasty tissue remain diploid and maintain normal epithelia morphology, distribution of cell-associated fibronectin, expression of keratin fibrils, and a low level of expression of milk fat globule antigen. Large cell populations can now be generated and stored frozen, permitting multiple experiments over a period of time with cells from a single donor. These media greatly extend the range of experiments that can be performed both conveniently and reproducibly with cultured normal and tumor-derived human mammary epithelial cells. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Development of nalidixic acid amphotericin B vancomycin (NAV) medium for the isolation of Campylobacter ureolyticus from the stools of patients presenting with acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, A; Koziel, M; De Barra, L; Corcoran, D; Bullman, S; Lucey, B; Sleator, R D

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Campylobacter ureolyticus has been detected for the first time in the faeces of patients with acute gastroenteritis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Cultural isolation of C. ureolyticusis is not possible using the established selective methods for the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from faeces. The aim of the current study is to develop a new selective medium capable of isolating C. ureolyticus from faecal samples. The newly-developed medium consists of Anaerobe Basal Agar with 10 g/L additional agar, 2 g/L sodium formate and 3 g/L sodium fumarate dibasic, to which 10 mg/L nalidixic acid, 10 mg/L amphotericin B and 20 mg/L vancomycin (NAV) are added as selective agents. Validation studies have shown that this experimental selective medium completely inhibits growth of Candida spp. and of Enterococcus spp. and permits reduced growth of selected coliforms and Proteus spp. Growth of Campylobacter ureolyticus on NAV medium is optimal in anaerobic and enriched hydrogen atmospheres. Additionally, an overnight enrichment step using Bolton broth to which 2 g/L sodium formate, 3 g/L sodium fumarate dibasic and the NAV supplement are added, in place of the commercial Bolton broth supplement, allows improved recovery of C. ureolyticus from patients' faeces. PMID:24693569

  9. Forms of Discourse in Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, James; Lapp, Diane

    1987-01-01

    Examined each book in 8 basal reading series (preprimers to sixth readers) to determine the variety of types of writing in these 1983 basals. Texts were examined for the number of selections representing narrative, poetry, plays, exposition, biography, hybrid writing types and for the number of pages devoted to each type of writing. (Author/NH)

  10. Contemporary Children and Basal Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebacher, Kathryn F.

    Contemporary children must deal with many family problems that children 20 years ago never had to face, including divorce, parental separation, death, working mothers, and economic status. To determine how well current basal reading series reflect the changing American family, the stories of four basal reading series for grades four, five, and six…

  11. Medium Ordinary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Radio has generally been overshadowed by television as an educational aid. Here it is argued that the medium's Cinderella-like qualities have their uses "now that nobody's going to the ball." (Editor/RK)

  12. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Copper Supplementation on Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Defenses in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Galhardi; Y. S. Diniz; H. G. Rodrigues; L. A. Faine; R. C. Burneiko; B. O. Ribas; E. L. B. Novelli

    2005-01-01

    Background: A nutrition experiment was utilized to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary copper (Cu) supplementation on lipid profile and antioxidant defenses in serum of rats. Methods: Male Wistarrats (180–200 g; n = 10) were divided into three groups: control group (A), fed a basal diet with 6 ?g Cu\\/g, and rats fed a basal diet with Cu

  13. Degradability and flow rate studies in sheep fed a basal diet of Katambora Rhodes grass hay (Chloris gayana),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Degradability and flow rate studies in sheep fed a basal diet of Katambora Rhodes grass hay, Harare, Zimbabwe The objective was to study the effects of supplementing Rhodes grass hay with a legume used for both feeding the steers and in the nylon bags were : (a) the control, 100 % Katambora Rhodes

  14. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Micha? S; Jefimow, Ma?gorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. PMID:21889598

  15. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows’ diets. PMID:25050036

  16. Effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk Fatty Acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow's diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows' diets. PMID:25050036

  17. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  18. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  19. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  20. Influence of plant growth regulators, basal media and carbohydrate levels on the in vitro development of Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. ex Law.) cotyledon explants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Tuskan; W. A. Sargent; T. Rensema; J. A. Walla

    1990-01-01

    Applications of in vitro screening techniques for Pinus ponderosa resistance to Peridermium harknessii could be beneficial in a tree breeding program. Plant growth regulators, basal media formula and carbohydrate levels were examined to determine the various effects each would have on excised cotyledon growth and development. Proliferating green callus was initiated from cotyledon explants on SH basal medium containing 4.4

  1. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis. PMID:25746660

  2. Fluorogenic Selective and Differential Medium for Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se-Wook; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    4-Methylumbelliferyl-?-d-glucoside, the fluorogenic substrate of ?-glucosidase, was used as a selective marker to develop a differential medium for Enterobacter sakazakii. This bacterium showed strong fluorogenic characteristics clearly distinguishable from other microorganisms. On the basis of reducing background noise, an optimum basal medium and nitrogen source were selected. Incubation conditions were optimized. PMID:15345462

  3. Antioxidants Supplementation in Elderly Cardiovascular Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Susana; Azzato, F.; Milei, José

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with antioxidants and its benefit-risk relationship have been largely discussed in the elderly population. We evaluated whether antioxidants supplementation improved the biochemical profile associated with oxidative metabolism in elderly cardiovascular patients. Patients (n = 112) received daily supplementation with ?-TP 400?mg, beta-carotene 40?mg, and vitamin C 1000?mg for 2 months (treatment). Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (?-TP), ?-carotene (?C), ubiquinol-10 (QH-10), glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined before and after treatment. Response to treatment was dependent on pretreatment ?-TP and ?C levels. Increase in ?-TP and ?C levels was observed only in patients with basal levels <18??M for ?-TP (P < 0.01) and <0.30??M for ?C (P < 0.02). Ubiquinol-10, glutathione, and TBARS were unaffected by treatment: QH-10 (+57%, F1,110 = 3.611, P < 0.06, and N.S.), glutathione (+21%, F1,110 = 2.92, P < 0.09, and N.S.), and TBARS (?29%, F1,110 = 2.26, P < 0.14, and N.S.). Treatment reduced oxidative metabolism: 5.3% versus 14.6% basal value (F1,110 = 9.21, P < 0.0003). Basal TBARS/?-TP ratio was higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers: 0.11 ± 0.02 versus 0.06 ± 0.01 (F32,80 = 1.63, P < 0.04). Response to antioxidant supplementation was dependent on basal plasma levels of ?-TP and ?C. Smoking status was strongly associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and high TBARS/?-TP ratio (lipid peroxidation). PMID:24489984

  4. Basal constriction : shaping the vertebrate brain

    E-print Network

    Graeden, Ellie Graham

    2011-01-01

    Organs are primarily formed from epithelia, polarized sheets of cells with an apical surface facing a lumen and basal surface resting on the underlying extracellular matrix. Cells within a sheet are joined by junctions, ...

  5. Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is ‘processed’ within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical ‘premotor’ regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic integration of functionally diverse information derived from the cortex. It is concluded that the essential concept of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia remains intact but that the role of the indirect pathway is more complex than previously suggested and that neurons of the globus pallidus are in a position to control the activity of virtually the whole of the basal ganglia. PMID:10923985

  6. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Figure 2. Culture-based example of issue regarding the correct identification is based on the formulation of Evans and Parslow (1985), with slight modifications following Moore et al latitude and based on the light model of Evans and Parslow (1985). As in Evans and Parslow (1985

  7. Development of a New Semiselective Medium for Isolating Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis from Plant Material and Soil.

    PubMed

    Fessehaie, A; Wydra, K; Rudolph, K

    1999-07-01

    ABSTRACT An effective control for bacterial blight of cassava (Manihot esculenta), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis, requires the use of non-contaminated cuttings and seeds. Using classical agar plating techniques for screening planting material for contamination has not been very successful because of the lack of a reliable semiselective agar medium. The pathogen grows slowly on general plating media and is easily overgrown by saprophytic bacteria during isolation from diseased plants. In an effort to develop a semiselective medium, the utilization of several carbon and nitrogen sources was studied. Results of these tests provided information used to design a basal medium allowing good growth of the target organism while suppressing growth of several common saprophytes. Additional selectivity was achieved by incorporating three antibiotics into the basal medium. The new semiselective agar medium, designated cefazolin trehalose agar (CTA) medium, contained (per liter) 3.0 g of K(2)HPO(4), 1.0 g of NaH(2)PO(4), 0.3 g of MgSO(4).7H(2)O, 1.0 g of NH(4)Cl, 9.0 g of D(+)-trehalose, 1.0 D(+)-glucose, 1.0 g of yeast extract, 0.025 g of cefazolin, 0.0012 g of lincomycin, 0.0025 g of phosphomycin, 0.25 g of cycloheximide, and 14.0 g of agar. In comparison to a starch-based semiselective medium (SXM), plating efficiencies using pure cultures of 10 strains of X. campestris pv. manihotis were significantly higher on CTA, with an average of 85 and 50%, respectively. Likewise, isolation and recovery of X. campestris pv. manihotis from infected cassava leaves and contaminated soil were much higher on CTA than on SXM agar. When X. campestris pv. manihotis occurs in high concentrations in diseased tissue, the standard yeast trehalose glucose agar medium supplemented with 250 mug of cycloheximide per ml appears to be satisfactory. The newly developed CTA medium should prove useful for control strategies to identify and remove infected planting material of cassava, as well as for basic ecological studies of the pathogen. PMID:18944695

  8. Jaw mechanics in basal ceratopsia (Ornithischia, Dinosauria).

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Kyo; Grandstaff, Barbara S; You, Hai-Lu; Dodson, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Ceratopsian dinosaurs were a dominant group of herbivores in Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems. We hypothesize that an understanding of the feeding system will provide important insight into the evolutionary success of these animals. The mandibular mechanics of eight genera of basal ceratopsians was examined to understand the variability in shape of the jaws and the early evolution of the masticatory system in Ceratopsia. Data were collected on lever arms, cranial angles and tooth row lengths. The results indicate that psittacosaurids had higher leverage at the beak and in the rostral part of the tooth row than basal neoceratopsians, but lower leverage in the caudal part of the tooth row. Although the vertebrate mandible is generally considered as a third-class lever, that of basal neoceratopsians acted as a second-class lever at the caudal part of the tooth row, as is also true in ceratopsids. When total input force from the mandibular adductor muscles on both sides of the skull is considered, the largest bite force in basal ceratopsian tooth rows was exerted in the caudal part of the tooth row at the caudal extremity of the zone with near-maximum input force. Medially positioned teeth generate higher leverage than laterally positioned teeth. The largest bite force in all basal ceratopsians is smaller than the maximum input force, a limit imposed by the morphology of the basal ceratopsian masticatory system. In ceratopsids, caudal extension of the tooth row resulted in a much larger bite force, even exceeding the maximum input force. PMID:19711460

  9. Strategies for repair of white matter: influence of osmolarity and microglia on proliferation and apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in different basal culture media

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsimlinghaus, Karolina; Marx, Romy; Serdar, Meray; Bendix, Ivo; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to obtain high yields of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in culture. This is a first step in facilitation of myelin repair. We show that, in addition to factors, known to promote proliferation, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) the choice of the basal medium exerts a significant influence on the yield of OPCs in cultures from newborn rats. During a culture period of up to 9 days we observed larger numbers of surviving cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), and Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium (RPMI) compared with Neurobasal Medium (NB). A larger number of A2B5-positive OPCs was found after 6 days in RPMI based media compared with NB. The percentage of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells was largest in cultures maintained in DMEM and RPMI. The percentage of caspase-3 positive cells was largest in NB, suggesting that this medium inhibits OPC proliferation and favors apoptosis. A difference between NB and DMEM as well as RPMI is the reduced Na+-content. The addition of equiosmolar supplements of mannitol or NaCl to NB medium rescued the BrdU-incorporation rate. This suggested that the osmolarity influences the proliferation of OPCs. Plating density as well as residual microglia influence OPC survival, BrdU incorporation, and caspase-3 expression. We found, that high density cultures secrete factors that inhibit BrdU incorporation whereas the presence of additional microglia induces an increase in caspase-3 positive cells, indicative of enhanced apoptosis. An enhanced number of microglia could thus also explain the stronger inhibition of OPC differentiation observed in high density cultures in response to treatment with the cytokines TNF-? and IFN-?. We conclude that a maximal yield of OPCs is obtained in a medium of an osmolarity higher than 280 mOsm plated at a relatively low density in the presence of as little microglia as technically achievable. PMID:24421756

  10. GROWTH OF CAMPYLOBACTER ON MEDIA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC ACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the main cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans, and contaminated poultry products are major sources of campylobacteriosis. In this study, the growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with organic acids was examined. Tryptose-yeast extract basal broth mediu...

  11. The growth of paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betaine when growing anaerobically.

  12. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  13. Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum- free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE on basal lamina assembly and on myelin formation by Schwann cells cultured with neurons have been examined. Some batches of HPS were unable to promote myelin formation in the absence of EE, as assessed by quantitative evaluation of cultures stained with Sudan black; such HPS also failed to promote basal lamina assembly, as assessed by immunofluorescence using antibodies against laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The addition of EE or L-ascorbic acid with such HPS led to the formation of large quantities of myelin and to the assembly of basal laminae. Pretreatment of EE with ascorbic acid oxidase abolished the EE activity, whereas trypsin did not. Other batches of HPS were found to promote both basal lamina and myelin formation in the absence of either EE or ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid oxidase treatment or dialysis of these batches of HPS abolished their ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation, whereas the subsequent addition of ascorbic acid restored that ability. Ascorbic acid in the absence of serum was relatively ineffective in promoting either basal lamina or myelin formation. Fetal bovine serum was as effective as HPS in allowing ascorbic acid (and several analogs but not other reducing agents) to manifest its ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation. We suggest that ascorbic acid promotes Schwann cell myelin formation by enabling the Schwann cell to assemble a basal lamina, which is required for complete differentiation. PMID:3624305

  14. Multiple polypoid basal cell carcinomas on the perineum of a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Steven Q; Goldberg, Leonard H

    2007-08-01

    We present a case report of a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) who developed multiple polypoid basal cell carcinomas (PBCC) in the perineum. PBCC is a rare variant of nodular BCCs. Clinically, PBCCs mimic acrochordons. We recommend that the perineum, perianal, and genital areas should be included in the routine exam of patients with BCNS. PMID:17637368

  15. Topical Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinomas in Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome with a Smoothened Inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Skvara; Frank Kalthoff; Josef G Meingassner; Barbara Wolff-Winiski; Heinrich Aschauer; Joseph F Kelleher; Xu Wu; Shifeng Pan; Lesanka Mickel; Christopher Schuster; Georg Stary; Ahmad Jalili; Olivier J David; Corinne Emotte; Ana Monica Costa Antunes; Kristine Rose; Jeremy Decker; Ilene Carlson; Humphrey Gardner; Anton Stuetz; Arthur P Bertolino; Georg Stingl; Menno A De Rie

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a distinctive manifestation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients. Both inherited and acquired mutations of patched 1 (PTCH1), a tumor-suppressor gene controlling the activity of Smoothened (SMO), are the primary cause of the constitutive activation of the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, leading to the emergence of BCCs in NBCCS. LDE225, a distinct, selective antagonist

  16. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2014-11-29

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By performing graph theoretical analyses it turns out that beside the caudate putamen further regions like the mesencephalic reticular formation, amygdaloid complex and ventral tegmental area are important nodes in the basal ganglia connectome. The connectome data of this meta-study of tract-tracing reports of the basal ganglia are available for further network studies, the integration into neocortical connectomes and further extensive investigations of the basal ganglia dynamics in population simulations. PMID:25432770

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Gücin, Zuhal; Keklik, Bar??; Özyalvaçl?, Gülzade; Ba?aran, Karaca

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4?cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10?mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family. PMID:21188232

  18. Effects of medium concentration on antibody production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody production by two different cell lines was measured as the media were supplemented with varied amounts of glucose and fetal bovine serum. Both cell lines elaborated antidinitrophenyl hapten antibodies. Two basic media were used: RPMI 1640 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The production of antibodies was followed from 0 to 180 h and was assayed by radioimmunoassay.

  19. Poetry Instruction: Do Basals Follow Recommended Procedures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Sheila

    To determine whether the suggested poetry teaching procedures found in the teacher manuals of sixth-grade basal readers reflect the pedagogical procedures suggested by expert opinion and research, an indepth analysis was made of a total of 106 poetry lessons in eight teacher manuals. The poetry lessons were analyzed for the purposes of determining…

  20. Middle-Ear Pressure Under Basal Conditions

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    Middle-Ear Pressure Under Basal Conditions Leif Hergils, MD, Bengt Magnuson, MD, PhD \\s=b\\Spontaneous pressure changes in the middle ear were measured under bas- al conditions in ten subjects with healthy ears. Results showed that the pressure in the majority of ears remained slightly above the atmo- spheric

  1. Basal ganglia physiology and pathophysiology: A reappraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin B. Montgomery Jr

    Current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function based on suppression of activity in the ventrolateral thalamic-cortical circuits by the globus pallidus internal segment are inconsistent with accumulating evidence, demonstrating the need for reconsideration. Changes in busting, oscillatory and synchronous neuronal activities have been indicted as pathophyisological mechanisms but they are unaccompanied by any mechanistic explanatory theory and rely on the

  2. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  3. Ca ++ -transport across basal-lateral plasma membranes from rat small intestinal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hildmann; A. Schmidt; H. Murer

    1982-01-01

    Summary Basal-lateral plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from rat duodenum and jejunum by a Percoll gradient centrifugation technique. Ca-uptake into and Ca-release from the vesicles was studied by a rapid filtration method. In the absence of Na (K-medium) at a Ca concentration of 0.05 mmol\\/liter and pH 7.4, addition of 5mm MgATP stimulated Ca-uptake up to 10-fold as compared to

  4. Current Biology Volume 20 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Xing, Jianhua

    Current Biology Volume 20 Supplemental Information Robust Growth of Escherichia coli Ping Wang) Timeseries of E. coli cells in the growth channels during nutrient shift-down from LB to M9-minimal medium of the size of typical proteins or metabolites (e.g., 4nm for GFP) to be of order ~1 second. This two orders

  5. Effects of supplemental soybean oil and vitamin E on carcass quality and fatty acid profiles of meat in Huzhou lamb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Chen; H. L. Mao; J. Lin; J. X. Liu

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental soybean oil (SBO) and vitamin E (VE) on carcass characteristics, serum metabolites, and fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus muscle in Huzhou lambs. Totally, 24 male lambs were allocated to three dietary treatments: basal, 3% SBO, and 3% SBO plus 500 mg\\/kg VE supplemented diet (SOE). No differences were observed

  6. Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent findings on different aspects of the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia. Attempts have been made to delineate the anatomical substrate of information processing along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Emphasis has been placed on data obtained with highly sensitive anterograde tract-tracing methods applied to the study of the main axis of the loop,

  7. New basal media for half-anther culture of Anthurium andreanum Linden ex André cv. Tropical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Budi Winarto; F. Rachmawati

    A successful protocol for high frequency callus induction and plant regeneration from Anthurium andreanum Linden ex André cv. Tropical half-anthers is described. Different variables using Winarto and Teixeira and Murashige and\\u000a Skoog basal media supplemented with several plant growth regulators [2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.1–1.0 mg\\/l), ?-naphthalene\\u000a acetic acid (0.01–0.2 mg\\/l), thidiazuron (0.5–2.0 mg\\/l), 6-benzylaminopurine (0.5–1.0 mg\\/l), and kinetin (0.5–1.0 mg\\/l)] were\\u000a tested for their ability

  8. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PLASMA, MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS, AND UTERINE TISSUE IN PRIMIPAROUS BEEF COWS FED HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental objectives were to evaluate the influence of supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds on fatty acid concentrations in plasma, medial basal hypothalamus, uterine tissues, and serum 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2' metabolite (PGFM) in primiparous beef cows during early lactation. Begin...

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis.

    PubMed

    Bedir, Recep; Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-07-01

    Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

  11. The telomere repeat motif of basal Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Traut, Walther; Szczepanowski, Monika; Vítková, Magda; Opitz, Christian; Marec, Frantisek; Zrzavý, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In most eukaryotes the telomeres consist of short DNA tandem repeats and associated proteins. Telomeric repeats are added to the chromosome ends by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase. We examined telomerase activity and telomere repeat sequences in representatives of basal metazoan groups. Our results show that the 'vertebrate' telomere motif (TTAGGG)( n ) is present in all basal metazoan groups, i.e. sponges, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Placozoa, and also in the unicellular metazoan sister group, the Choanozoa. Thus it can be considered the ancestral telomere repeat motif of Metazoa. It has been conserved from the metazoan radiation in most animal phylogenetic lineages, and replaced by other motifs-according to our present knowledge-only in two major lineages, Arthropoda and Nematoda. PMID:17385051

  12. Active Decorrelation in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    The cytoarchitecturally-homogeneous appearance of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra has long been said to imply a high degree of afferent convergence and sharing of inputs by nearby neurons. Moreover, axon collaterals of neurons in the external segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata arborize locally and make inhibitory synapses on other cells of the same type. These features suggest that the connectivity of the basal ganglia may impose spike-time correlations among the cells, and it has been puzzling that experimental studies have failed to demonstrate such correlations. One possible solution arises from studies of firing patterns in basal ganglia cells, which reveal that they are nearly all pacemaker cells. Their high rate of firing does not depend on synaptic excitation, but they fire irregularly because a dense barrage of synaptic inputs normally perturbs the timing of their autonomous activity. Theoretical and computational studies show that the responses of repetitively firing neurons to shared input or mutual synaptic coupling often defy classical intuitions about temporal synaptic integration. The patterns of spike timing among such neurons depend on the ionic mechanism of pacemaking, the level of background uncorrelated cellular and synaptic noise, and the firing rates of the neurons, as well as the properties of their synaptic connections. Application of these concepts to the basal ganglia circuitry suggests that the connectivity and physiology of these nuclei may be configured to prevent the establishment of permanent spike-timing relationships between neurons. The development of highly synchronous oscillatory patterns of activity in Parkinson’s disease may result from the loss of pacemaking by some basal ganglia neurons, and accompanying breakdown of the mechanisms responsible for active decorrelation. PMID:23892007

  13. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  14. Molecular Pathogenesis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Meyer

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent cancer among the white population, representing 75% of all skin cancers [1].\\u000a The incidence of BCC cases is increasing, probably because of changes of leisure activities and migration to regions with\\u000a higher solar radiation. BCCs rarely metastasize (<0.1%), and mortality rates are low; however, some tumors grow aggressively\\u000a and may cause extensive

  15. Influence of medium components on growth kinetics of Dictyostelium discoideum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Hua Lu; Ying Wang; Xiao Xia Wu; Zhi Nan Xu; Ning He; Jie Chen

    2008-01-01

    Starting with the standard complex medium HL-5C, the influence of different medium components on the growth behavior of Dictyostelium discoideum was investigated. For this purpose, each component was individually deleted from the complex medium HL-5C, and the overall\\u000a concentration of all components as well as the kinds and concentrations of carbon source were varied. The effects of the supplementation\\u000a with

  16. Oscillators and Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charles J

    2014-12-01

    What is the meaning of an action potential? There must be different answers for neurons that fire spontaneously, even in the absence of synaptic input, and those driven to fire from a resting membrane potential. In spontaneously firing neurons, the occurrence of the next action potential is guaranteed; only variations in its timing can carry the message. In the basal ganglia, the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus consist of neurons firing spontaneously. They each receive thousands of synaptic inputs, but these are not required to maintain their background firing. Instead, synaptic interactions among basal ganglia nuclei comprise a system of coupled oscillators that produces a complex resting pattern of activity. Normally, this pattern is highly irregular and uncorrelated, so that the firing of each cell is statistically independent of the others. This maximizes the potential information that may be transmitted by the basal ganglia to its target structures. In Parkinson's disease, the resting pattern of activity is dominated by a slow oscillation shared by nearly all of the neurons. Treatment with deep brain stimulation may gain its therapeutic value by disrupting this shared pathological oscillation, and restoring independent action by each neuron in the network. PMID:25449134

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease On this page: ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2014 What is biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease? Biotin-thiamine-responsive ...

  18. Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

  19. 368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease Ann M. Graybiel As the search for molecular therapies for basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, accelerates, new-9822 The motor symptoms of basal ganglia disorders fall at two extremes. In Parkinson's disease and related

  20. Food habits and the basal rate of metabolism in birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian K. McNab

    1988-01-01

    The correlation of basal rate of metabolism with various factors is examined in birds. Chief among these is body mass. As in mammals, much of the remaining variation in basal rate among birds is associated with food habits. Birds other than passerines that feed on grass, nectar, flying insects, or vertebrates generally have basal rates that are similar to mammals

  1. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  2. Improved fetal hair follicle development by maternal supplement of selenium at nano size (Nano-Se)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoying Wu; Jiguang Yao; Zisheng Yang; Wenbin Yue; Youshe Ren; Chunxiang Zhang; Xiaoni Liu; Huisheng Wang; Xingcai Zhao; Suying Yuan; Qian Wang; Liguang Shi; Lei Shi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of maternal and dietary selenium on antioxidant status and hair follicle development in 110-day fetal skin from cashmere goats, eighty selected cashmere goats (n=80) were randomly divided in two groups, C group (fed with the basal diet) and S group (fed with the basal diet with 0.5mg\\/kg Nano-Se). Nano-Se was supplemented from 30days prior to gestation

  3. Influence of Dietary Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and Corn Supplemented with Methionine on CutUp Pieces Weights of Broiler Carcass and Quality Properties of Breast and Drumsticks Meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Karao?lu

    2007-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of sorghum (BS = basal diets containing 30% sorghum), corn (BC = basal diets containing corn) and supplemental methionine (BSM = diet BS plus 0.69% methionine, BCM = diet BC plus 0.69% methionine) in broiler diets on the cold carcass weight and cut-up pieces weight of broilers and some chemical, physical

  4. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  5. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  6. Tobacco Use Supplement: An Overview

    Cancer.gov

    1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current

  7. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that all herbal health products and supplements are safer than medicines just because they occur in nature ... too long. View larger and print from your internet browser Can herbal health products or supplements change ...

  8. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  9. High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

  10. Complex mediums education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dikshitulu K. Kalluri

    2001-01-01

    A simple electromagnetic medium is described by the constitutive relations D equals (epsilon) E,B equals (mu) H,J equals (sigma) E, where all the electromagnetic parameters, the permittivity (epsilon) , the permeability (mu) , and the conductivity (sigma) are scalar constants. All other electromagnetic mediums are complex mediums. A sub-class of complex mediums are layered mediums which are piece-wise simple mediums.

  11. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  12. Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2015-02-01

    Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

  13. Effect of dobutamine stress on basal septal tissue dynamics in hypertensive patients with basal septal hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, F; Yigit, F; Erol, T; Baltali, M; Korkmaz, M E; Müderrisoglu, H

    2006-08-01

    Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction has been classically observed in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the LVOT obstruction is associated with asymmetric septal hypertrophy producing a systolic pressure gradient across the LVOT. Basal septal hypertrophy (BSH) with hypertension may result in dynamic LVOT obstruction as well. It was suggested that regional hypertrophy may be related to enhanced ventricular dynamics. PMID:16761028

  14. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss:Fr) Karst used as a dietary supplement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosália Rubel; Herta S. Dalla Santa; Luiz Cláudio Fernandes; Sandro J. R. Bonatto; Sérgio Bello; Bonald C. Figueiredo; José Hermenio C. Lima Filho; Cid Aimbiré M. Santos; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of Ganoderma lucidum CG 144, a medicinal mushroom cultivated on wet wheat grains by solid-state fermentation, were investigated followed dietary supplementation.\\u000a Basal chow was supplemented with 85, 50, or 10% of G. lucidum CG 144 dried spawn, resulting in G85, G50, and G10 diets, respectively, and fed to normocholesterolemic and induced-hypercholesterolemic\\u000a mice.

  15. Antibody production in packed bed reactors using serum-free and protein-free medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bliem; R. Oakley; K. Matsuoka; R. Varecka; V. Taiariol

    1990-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the utility of packed bed reactors for the production of monoclonal antibody. We present data from a continuous process run for the production of over 100 grams of antibody, using serum-free medium. An additional pilot run also demonstrates the potential for continued antibody production under protein-free conditions, using a standard basal medium.

  16. Seismic signals associated with basal processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röösli, Claudia; Walter, Fabian; Kisslin, Edi; Helmstetter, Agnes; Lüthi, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding ice sheet and glacier dynamics is crucial for modeling of ice mass balance and resulting sea level changes. Ice dynamics is strongly influenced by surface melt water accumulating at the glacier base and its effect on basal sliding. The relationship between surface melt and ice flow depends on hydraulic processes in the subglacial drainage system. However, both subglacial and englacial drainage systems are inherently difficult to investigate due to their remoteness, and basal processes to date remain poorly understood. Borrowing concepts from volcano studies, recent glacier studies are employing passive seismology as a supplement to traditional glaciological techniques. When monitoring the seismic activity of a glacier or an ice sheet, several different types of so-called 'icequakes' and some times even 'tremor' may be detected in the seismic records that is dominated by the large number of surficial icequakes. Deep icequakes may provide information about englacial water flow and basal motion in response to hydraulic events over a region whose size is only limited by seismic background noise and the aperture of the monitoring network. Here, we present results from a passive seismic deployment on western Greenland's ablation zone during summer 2011. The high-density seismometer network consisted of 17 three-component stations installed at the ice surface or in boreholes. We recorded a large variety of seismic signals, including thousands of near-surface crevasse events as well as dislocation events deep within the ice sheet and near its bed. We discuss these 'deep icequakes' in view of hydraulic processes and basal motion. Furthermore, the seismic deployment was part of larger field campaign including a deep drilling project and glaciological surface observations. This provides the unique opportunity to interpret the seismic monitoring results within the variety of observations including subglacial water pressures and other borehole measurements.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma Masked in Rhinophyma

    PubMed Central

    De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002

  18. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  19. Effects of one-seed juniper on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of feeding one-seed juniper on total intake, VFA profile, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and a basal diet with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or rumen degradable (SBM; RDP 15% CP) or undegradable (FM; RUP 15% CP) protein supplement. Aft...

  20. Fast Modulation of Visual Perception by Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Estandian, Daniel; Xu, Min; Kwan, Alex C.; Lee, Seung-Hee; Harrison, Thomas C.; Feng, Guoping; Dan, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain provides the primary source of cholinergic input to the cortex, and it plays a crucial role in promoting wakefulness and arousal. However, whether rapid changes in basal forebrain neuron spiking in awake animals can dynamically influence sensory perception is unclear. Here we show that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons rapidly regulate cortical activity and visual perception in awake, behaving mice. Optogenetic activation of the cholinergic neurons or their V1 axon terminals improved performance of a visual discrimination task on a trial-by-trial basis. In V1, basal forebrain activation enhanced visual responses and desynchronized neuronal spiking, which could partly account for the behavioral improvement. Conversely, optogenetic basal forebrain inactivation decreased behavioral performance, synchronized cortical activity and impaired visual responses, indicating the importance of cholinergic activity in normal visual processing. These results underscore the causal role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fast, bidirectional modulation of cortical processing and sensory perception. PMID:24162654

  1. Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

  2. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome Showing Several Histologic Types of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Go, Jae Wan; Kim, Shin Han; Yi, Sang Yeop

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), or Gorlin Syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by multiple developmental abnormalities and associated with germline mutations in the PTCH gene. Patients show multiple and early onset basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in skin, odontogeniccysts in the jaw, pits on palms and soles, medulloblastoma, hypertelorism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. Clinical features of BCCs in these patients are indistinguishable from ordinary BCCs. However, some patients show variable histologic findings in subtypes of BCCs, and only one case associated with several histologic types of BCCs in the syndrome has been reported in Korea. We present a case of BCNS characterized by multiple BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts, multiple palmar pits, and calcified falx cerebri. Histopathologic findings of BCCs showed several patterns, which were nodular, superficial, and pigmented types. PMID:22028568

  3. Thin stillage supplementation greatly enhances bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyh-Ming; Liu, Ren-Han

    2012-09-01

    Thin stillage (TS), a wastewater from rice wine distillery can well sustain the growth of Gluconacetobacter xylinus for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). When used as a supplement to the traditional BC production medium (Hestrin and Schramm medium), the enhancement of BC production increased with the amount of TS supplemented in a static culture of G. xylinus. When TS was employed to replace distilled water for preparing HS medium (100%TS-HS medium), the BC production in this 100%TS-HS medium was enhanced 2.5-fold to a concentration of 10.38 g/l with sugar to BC conversion yield of 57% after 7 days cultivation. The cost-free TS as a supplement in BC production medium not only can greatly enhance the BC production, but also can effectively dispose the nuisance wastewater of rice wine distillery. PMID:24751018

  4. Improved Enumeration of Streptomyces spp. on a Starch Casein Salt Medium

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Shirley J.

    1977-01-01

    Well-formed Streptomyces colonies were counted more rapidly when a starch casein medium containing antibiotics was supplemented with either magnesium chloride or additional sodium chloride. Images PMID:848946

  5. Conditionally ablated Pten in prostate basal cells promotes basal-to-luminal differentiation and causes invasive prostate cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsai-Ling; Huang, Yi-Fen; You, Li-Ru; Chao, Nai-Chen; Su, Fang-Yi; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Chun-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Prostate glands comprise two major epithelial cell types: luminal and basal. Luminal cells have long been considered the cellular origin of prostate cancer (CaP). However, recent evidence from a prostate regeneration assay suggests that prostate basal cells can also give rise to CaP. Here, we characterize Pten-deficient prostate lesions arising from keratin 5-expressing basal cells in a temporally controlled system in mice. Pten-deficient prostate lesions arising from basal cells exhibited luminal phenotypes with higher invasiveness, and the cell fate of Pten-deficient basal cells was traced to neoplastic luminal cells. After temporally ablating Pten in keratin 8-expressing luminal cells, luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate tumors exhibited slower disease progression, compared with basal-derived tumors, within 13 weeks after Pten ablation. Cellular proliferation was significantly increased in basal-derived versus luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate lesions. Increased tumor invasion into the smooth muscle layer and aberrantly regulated aggressive signatures (Smad4 and Spp1) were identified exclusively in basal-derived Pten-deficient lesions. Interestingly, p63-expressing cells, which represent basal stem and progenitor cells of basal-derived Pten-deficient prostate lesions, were significantly increased, relative to cells of the luminal-derived prostate lesion. Furthermore, castration did not suppress cellular proliferation of either basal-derived or luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that, although prostate malignancy can originate from both basal and luminal populations, these two populations differ in aggressive potential. PMID:23313138

  6. Supplemental dietary inulin influences expression of iron and inflammation related genes in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown improved hemoglobin repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti, Tienen, Belgium) into a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In the present study, weanling pigs (5 or 6-wk old) were f...

  7. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic therapy and topical chemotherapy. Radiotherapy should be avoided. Vitamin A analogs may play a preventive role against development of new BCCs. Life expectancy in NBCCS is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications can be substantial. Regular follow-up by a multi-specialist team (dermatologist, neurologist and odontologist) should be offered. Patients with NBCCS should strictly avoid an excessive sun exposure. PMID:19032739

  8. Morphologic changes in basal cells during repair of tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Z.; Evans, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Burke, A. S.; Zhu, Q.; Herndon, D. N.; Barrow, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Basal cells are differentiated with respect to junctional adhesion mechanisms and play a role in attachment of columnar epithelium to the basal lamina. Although much is known about nonciliated and ciliated cell differentiation during the repair process after injury, little is known about the basal cell. We studied the morphology of basal cells and quantitated junctional adhesion structures during repair of tracheal epithelium exposed to toxic cotton smoke. Ten adult ewes were given a smoke injury to a portion of the upper cervical trachea and were killed at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 days after injury for morphometric studies. At 4 days, there was a stratified reparative epithelium over the basal lamina, which was two to four cells in depth. The basal cells were identified by their hemidesmosome (HD) attachment to the basal lamina. Basal cells were about 69% larger than controls and flattened rather than columnar. The amount of HD attachment was 192% greater than controls. In contrast, volume density of cytokeratin filaments had decreased about 47%. Basal cells had returned to normal numbers and size and a columnar shape by day 18. The amount of desmosome (D) and HD attachment and volume density of cytokeratins had also reached control levels by day 18. These data indicate that morphology of basal cells changes during the initial stages of reparative regeneration but returns to normal by 18 days. Morphologic changes appear to reflect changes in size of the cell associated with cell division rather than differentiation of recently divided basal cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1381564

  9. Basal leptin regulates amino acid uptake in polarized Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fanjul, Carmen; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Lostao, María Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Leptin is secreted by gastric mucosa and is able to reach the intestinal lumen where its receptors are located in the apical membrane of the enterocytes. We have previously demonstrated that apical leptin inhibits sugar and amino acids uptake in vitro and glucose absorption in vivo. Since leptin receptors are also expressed in the basolateral membrane of the enterocytes, the aim of the present work was to investigate whether leptin acting from the basolateral side could also regulate amino acid uptake. Tritiated Gln and ?-Ala were used to measure uptake into Caco-2 cells grown on filters, in the presence of basal leptin at short incubation times (5 and 30 min) and after 6 h of preincubation with the hormone. In order to compare apical and basal leptin effect, Gln and ?-Ala uptake was measured in the presence of leptin acting from the apical membrane also in cells grown on filters. Basal leptin (8 mM) inhibited by ~15-30% the uptake of 0.1 mM Gln and 1 mM ?-Ala quickly, after 5 min exposure, and the effect was maintained after long preincubation periods. Apical leptin had the same effect. Moreover, the inhibition was rapidly and completely reversed when leptin was removed from the apical or basolateral medium. These results extend our previous findings and contribute to the vision of leptin as an important hormonal signal for the regulation of intestinal absorption of nutrients. PMID:23359137

  10. Constrained inversion for basal and englacial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    When inverting for basal slipperiness and (C retrieval) the rate factor in Glen's flow law (A retrieval) using surface data, the inversion needs to be constrained for the retrieved values to be positive. Some other constraints may also have to be imposed on the retrieved fields. There are various ways of enforcing such constraints. Using an adjoint model of the shallow-ice stream equations, several different algorithms are tested and compared with respect to rate of convergence and cost per iteration. These methods included the projected gradient method, the limited-memory projected BFGS method, the interior-point method, and an incomplete Newton iteration using a barrier function. All these methods perform favourably for small problem sizes (O(1000) unknowns). It is shown that for large-scale optimisation problems the convergence rate for A retrieval is generally lower than for C retrieval. Both projection methods suffer from slow convergence for large problem sizes (O(100 000) unknowns.) Interior-point methods, especially when coupled with an incomplete inner iteration of the Newton system appear to give the best large-scale performance.

  11. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Simon N; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Olafsson, Jon H; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10(-12)), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10(-9)), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10(-12)) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10(-16)). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  12. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    E-print Network

    Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Fay Y. Womer a,n , Lei of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using Free

  13. Basal-plane metallography of deformed pyrolytic carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, J. M.; Fischbach, D. B.

    1969-01-01

    Cleavage technique is recommended over the normal polishing technique in preparing pyrolytic carbon for metallographic examination of basal-plane surfaces. After careful removal of torn basal-plane fragments and other cleavage debris with cellulose tape, the true structure is clearly revealed.

  14. Are Basal Readers Becoming Too Difficult for Some Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Leslie Anne; Sagen, Patricia Smith

    1989-01-01

    Compares basal readers' vocabulary load in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Finds that the average number of words introduced in books for first grade increased during this time. Recommends that teachers adjust instruction to meet the needs of less able students when using basals with a high vocabulary load. (RS)

  15. Basal forebrain atrophy correlates with amyloid ? burden in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerbler, Georg M; Fripp, Jürgen; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L; Salvado, Olivier; Rose, Stephen; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    The brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) have three classical pathological hallmarks: amyloid-beta (A?) plaques, tau tangles, and neurodegeneration, including that of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. However the relationship between A? burden and basal forebrain degeneration has not been extensively studied. To investigate this association, basal forebrain volumes were determined from magnetic resonance images of controls, subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD patients enrolled in the longitudinal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) studies. In the AIBL cohort, these volumes were correlated within groups to neocortical gray matter retention of Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) from positron emission tomography images as a measure of A? load. The basal forebrain volumes of AD and aMCI subjects were significantly reduced compared to those of control subjects. Anterior basal forebrain volume was significantly correlated to neocortical PiB retention in AD subjects and aMCI subjects with high A? burden, whereas posterior basal forebrain volume was significantly correlated to neocortical PiB retention in control subjects with high A? burden. Therefore this study provides new evidence for a correlation between neocortical A? accumulation and basal forebrain degeneration. In addition, cluster analysis showed that subjects with a whole basal forebrain volume below a determined cut-off value had a 7 times higher risk of having a worse diagnosis within ~18 months. PMID:25610772

  16. Paleoenvironmental analysis of thrombolites in the basal Purbeck Formation

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Mark A.

    Paleoenvironmental analysis of thrombolites in the basal Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic the basal Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic) on the Isle of Portland, southern England, are described upright and for some time after they fell, a period of a few hundred years. This suggests a relatively

  17. Basal forebrain atrophy correlates with amyloid ? burden in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kerbler, Georg M; Fripp, Jürgen; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L; Salvado, Olivier; Rose, Stephen; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    The brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) have three classical pathological hallmarks: amyloid-beta (A?) plaques, tau tangles, and neurodegeneration, including that of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. However the relationship between A? burden and basal forebrain degeneration has not been extensively studied. To investigate this association, basal forebrain volumes were determined from magnetic resonance images of controls, subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD patients enrolled in the longitudinal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) studies. In the AIBL cohort, these volumes were correlated within groups to neocortical gray matter retention of Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) from positron emission tomography images as a measure of A? load. The basal forebrain volumes of AD and aMCI subjects were significantly reduced compared to those of control subjects. Anterior basal forebrain volume was significantly correlated to neocortical PiB retention in AD subjects and aMCI subjects with high A? burden, whereas posterior basal forebrain volume was significantly correlated to neocortical PiB retention in control subjects with high A? burden. Therefore this study provides new evidence for a correlation between neocortical A? accumulation and basal forebrain degeneration. In addition, cluster analysis showed that subjects with a whole basal forebrain volume below a determined cut-off value had a 7 times higher risk of having a worse diagnosis within ~18 months. PMID:25610772

  18. Compatibility of Stand Basal Area Predictions Based on Forecast Combination

    E-print Network

    Cao, Quang V.

    of models. It also improved the compatibility of stand basal area growth predicted from models of different: compatibility, forecast combination, optimal weight, Pinus tabulaeformis, stand basal area model I N FOREST processes. Forest growth and yield models can be broken into three broad categories: whole-stand models

  19. CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder,8 both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

  20. CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder8 , both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

  1. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. J. Solomon; Christine M. Marchetti; Raj K. Krishnan; Frank Gonzalez; John P. Kirwan

    2008-01-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 ± 4 years; mean ± SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 ± 4

  2. Basal ganglia anatomy and schizophrenia: the role of antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, E; Bellani, M; Crespo-Facorro, B; Brambilla, P

    2014-12-01

    Progressive enlargement of basal ganglia volume has been observed in schizophrenia individuals, potentially being sustained by chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs. Here we briefly summarise the state of the art of the role of antipsychotic in leading to increased basal ganglia in schizophrenia, particularly focusing on the caudate nucleus. PMID:25335548

  3. Vertical extension of the subglacial drainage system into basal crevasses.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joel T; Bradford, John H; Humphrey, Neil F; Meierbachtol, Toby W

    2010-09-30

    Water plays a first-order role in basal sliding of glaciers and ice sheets and is often a key constituent of accelerated glacier motion. Subglacial water is known to occupy systems of cavities and conduits at the interface between ice and the underlying bed surface, depending upon the history of water input and the characteristics of the substrate. Full understanding of the extent and configuration of basal water is lacking, however, because direct observation is difficult. This limits our ability to simulate ice dynamics and the subsequent impacts on sea-level rise realistically. Here we show that the subglacial hydrological system can have a large volume of water occupying basal crevasses that extend upward from the bed into the overlying ice. Radar and seismic imaging combined with in situ borehole measurements collected on Bench Glacier, Alaska, reveal numerous water-filled basal crevasses with highly transmissive connections to the bed. Some crevasses extend many tens of metres above the bed and together they hold a volume of water equivalent to at least a decimetre layer covering the bed. Our results demonstrate that the basal hydrologic system can extend high into the overlying ice mass, where basal crevasses increase water-storage capacity and could potentially modulate basal water pressure. Because basal crevasses can form under commonly observed glaciological conditions, our findings have implications for interpreting and modelling subglacial hydrologic processes and related sliding accelerations of glaciers and ice sheets. PMID:20882014

  4. Pine Island Glacier - local flow mechanisms and basal sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkens, N. M.; Kleiner, T.; Humbert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier is a fast moving outlet glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Several tributaries feeding the central ice stream characterise the flow field structure of this glacier. In the past decades the glacier has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modelling studies. One major challenge encountered when modelling the flow field of Pine Island Glacier is to reproduce the locally varying flow pattern, with its many tributaries. Commonly this difficulty is overcome by inversion for parameters controlling basal sliding. Our study is aimed at connecting basal sliding again to physical parameters. To achieve this we conduct experiments of Pine Island Glacier with the diagnostic 3D full-Stokes model COMice. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. In a first step, the model is used to identify dominant local mechanisms that drive the flow of the different tributaries. We identify connections between the basal topography, the basal temperature, the driving stress and the basal roughness distribution. The thus gained information is used to confine basal sliding. Areas with similar qualitative characteristics are identified, and constant-sliding assumptions made for those. Additionally, the basal roughness distribution is matched onto a basal sliding parameter. This way the sliding law is again brought closer to its original meaning. Our results are important for prognostic model experiments, as we connect basal sliding to locally varying basal properties, which might lead to different responses of the tributaries to altered external forcing.

  5. Intake and digestibility of hay supplemented with Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) by sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Intake and digestibility of hay supplemented with Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) by sheep was to compare the effect of Tagasaste supplementation on intake and digestibility of good, medium and low with rumen, abomasal and ileal cannulae. Partial digestion of organic matter and disappearance of non ammonia

  6. Say "Si" to Supplementals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Judy; Moore, Diane

    A supplemental instruction program was designed to assist students in mastering course concepts and to increase student competence in reading, reasoning, and study skills. Supplemental leaders, upper division students whose course competency has been certified by course instructors, attend course lectures where they take notes and complete…

  7. Dietary supplements for football

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hespel; R. J. Maughan; P. L. Greenhaff

    2006-01-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplemens. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a

  8. Response of laying hens to choline when fed practical diets devoid of supplemental sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Miles, R D; Ruiz, N; Harms, R H

    1986-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted with White Leghorn laying hens. In both experiments, a corn-soybean meal basal diet was used, and hens were housed individually in cages in open-type houses. In Experiment 1, the basal diet contained no supplemental choline, inorganic sulfate, or sulfur amino acids and was supplemented with 0 or 660 mg choline/kg, and 0 and .1% K2SO4, or K2Mg(SO4)2. In Experiment 2, the basal diet contained .1% reagent grade K2SO4. Four diets were formulated to contain 0, 110, 220, and 440 mg choline/kg, respectively. A fifth diet was formulated to contain 440 mg choline/kg and .15% DL-methionine. In Experiment 1, a significant increase in egg production resulted from supplementing the diet with 660 mg choline/kg in the absence of supplemental inorganic sulfate and sulfur amino acids. Only a numerical increase in egg production resulted from adding inorganic sulfate alone or in combination with choline. Addition of choline and inorganic sulfate in combination resulted in an increase in egg weight. In Experiment 2, 220 mg of supplemental choline/kg, or 114 mg choline intake/bird/day, resulted in maximum egg production and feed efficiency. However, maximum egg size was obtained only when supplemental DL-methionine and choline were present. The results obtained in this study indicate that laying hens will respond to supplemental choline in practical situations when diets are deficient in total sulfur amino acids, and daily sulfur amino acid intake is insufficient to meet the animal's requirement. For maximum egg size, adequate sulfur amino acids must be present in the diet, because supplementing choline alone will not maximize egg size. PMID:3774741

  9. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation improves growth performance and decreases inflammation during an experimental lipopolysaccharide injection.

    PubMed

    Morris, Antrison; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Lilburn, Mike S; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2014-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation on BW gain, IL-1?, and 1?-hydroxylase mRNA expression in different organs of broiler chickens following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. In experiment I, birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with either cholecalciferol (3,000 IU/kg) or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (69 µg/kg). At 21 and 35 d of age, birds were injected with LPS. Post-LPS injection, birds supplemented with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol gained approximately 2.5% (P = 0.03) and 3.8% (P < 0.01), respectively, more BW than the birds supplemented with cholecalciferol over the 24-h period. In experiment II, birds were fed basal diets supplemented with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol at 6.25, 25, and 50 µg/kg of feed or cholecalciferol at 250 IU/kg of feed. At 35 d of age, birds were injected with LPS. Birds fed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol at 25 and 50 µg/kg and injected with LPS had approximately 7-fold and 3-fold less (P = 0.010) IL-1? mRNA in the liver compared with those birds fed 6.25 µg/kg of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and the cholecalciferol (250 IU/kg) group. In experiment III, birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with either cholecalciferol (3,000 IU/kg) or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (69 µg/kg). At 28 d of age, birds were fed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and injected with LPS had 1.1-fold less (P < 0.01) IL-1? mRNA in the liver than the cholecalciferol-fed group. After an LPS injection, birds supplemented with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol had increased 1?-hydroxylase mRNA amounts in the liver (P = 0.07). In conclusion, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation at higher doses improved growth performance and decreased inflammatory gene IL-1? mRNA amounts in the liver post-LPS injection. PMID:24931970

  10. Growth of hybridoma cells in serum-free medium: ethanolamine is an essential component.

    PubMed

    Murakami, H; Masui, H; Sato, G H; Sueoka, N; Chow, T P; Kano-Sueoka, T

    1982-02-01

    A serum-free medium supplemented with a few growth factors was devised to grow lymphocyte hybridomas. The medium was developed with the hybridoma line MPC11-BL, a fusion product between a mouse plasmacytoma cell line (MPC11TG70na3) and mouse (BALB/c) spleen cells. In the process of developing the medium, ethanolamine was found to be an essential growth factor for the hybridoma. Phosphoethanolamine at 10-fold higher concentration could substitute for ethanolamine. Long-term cultivation of the cells was achieved in the defined medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, ethanolamine, and selenium. The defined medium supported the growth of various other mouse hybridoma cell lines, mostly at a rate comparable to that observed in a serum-containing medium. After one-step ammonium sulfate precipitation of the spent medium, more than 95% of the protein recovered was immunoglobulin as shown by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:7041116

  11. Epigenetic alterations in sporadic basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Stamatelli, Angeliki; Vlachou, Christina; Aroni, Kiriaki; Papassideri, Issidora; Patsouris, Efstratios; Saetta, Angelica A

    2014-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant human neoplasm characterized by slow growth and virtual absence of metastases. Recently, it has become evident that along with genetic mutations epigenetic alterations play a key role in the pathogenesis of human cancer. We searched for promoter methylation of hMLH1, RASSF1A, DAPK, APC, DCR1 and DCR2 genes and BRAF mutations in BCCs in association with the clinicopathological parameters and the histological subtypes of the tumours. Fifty-two BCCs, 17 FFPE along with 35 fresh tissue samples with matching normal tissues for 26 cases were analyzed by methylation-specific PCR to assess the methylation status of hMLH1, RASSF1A, DAPK, APC, DCR1 and DCR2 genes after sodium bisulfite treatment of the tumour and normal DNA. hMLH1 and DCR1 gene expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. BRAF mutations were studied by high resolution melting analysis. Methylation was detected at a variable frequency of 44, 33, 32.5, 32 and 14 % of DCR2, APC, DCR1, RASSF1 and DAPK promoters, respectively, whereas methylation of hMLH1 promoter was absent. No BRAF mutations were found. There was no correlation between the frequency of the promoter methylation of the above-mentioned genes and the clinicopathological features or the histological subtypes of the tumours. The relatively high frequency of RASSF1A, DCR1, DCR2 and APC promoter methylation may imply that methylation constitutes an important pathway in the tumourigenesis of BCC that could provide new opportunities in developing epigenetic therapies for BCC patients. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to establish the above-mentioned hypothesis. PMID:24573469

  12. Basal cell carcinoma of the sole.

    PubMed

    Roth, M J; Stern, J B; Haupt, H M; Smith, R R; Berlin, S J

    1995-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the plantar surface of the foot is rare, with only 22 previously reported cases. This clinicopathologic study is based on 20 cases of BCC of the plantar surface and plantar-like surfaces from adjacent lower lateral and medial aspects of the foot, submitted to a large podiatric laboratory from 1986 through June 1992 (total specimens for this period = 518,624; total BCC of lower extremities, below knee = 53). There were 15 women and 5 men. The average patient age was 73 years, with a range from 52 to 92 years. The duration of the lesion before diagnosis was 2 months to 12 years, with an average of 2 years. Three patients had a history of trauma. Podiatric clinical diagnoses included BCC (4), SCC (3), soft tissue tumor (2), nevus (1), granuloma (1), keratosis (2), verucca (1), and psoriasis (1). Follow-up information was available on 10 patients; all were free of disease up to 64 months, with an average follow-up of 15.7 months. Three of 20 BCC showed predominant histologic patterns characteristic of fibroepithelioma of Pinkus (FEP). An additional three BCC showed focal or suggestive patterns of FEP. Fourteen tumors showed ordinary BCC histologic patterns. No multicentric-superficial or morphea like BCC were observed. The relatively high incidence of FEP in BCC of the sole correlates with abundant sweat glands and lack of hair follicles on the plantar surface, in accordance with the recent proposal that FEP derives its histologic pattern from the spread of BCC down eccrine ducts, eventually replacing them with solid strands of tumor. PMID:7499575

  13. basal hay and grain diet with 90 g rumen degradable crude protein in the DM, was not significantly related to any increase in nitrogen accretion. Fish meal addition, on the other hand,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    basal hay and grain diet with 90 g rumen degradable crude protein in the DM, was not significantly diet on digestibility and nitrogen balance in the lactating goat R. DACCORD Swiss Federal Research, particularly when hay rations are complemented with fodder beets. Supplementation of such diets with animal

  14. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  15. A clinical comparison of continuous interscalene brachial plexus block with different basal infusion rates of 0.2% ropivacaine for shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun Woo; Kwon, Hee Uk; Cho, Choon-Kyu; Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Chul Woung; Jung, Jong-Kwon; An, Young Mi

    2010-01-01

    Background A continuous interscalene brachial plexus block is a highly effective postoperative analgesic modality after shoulder surgery. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal basal infusion rate of ropivacaine for a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block. A prospective, double blind study was performed to compare two different basal rates of 0.2% ropivacaine for a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block after shoulder surgery. Methods Sixty-two patients receiving shoulder surgery under an interscalene brachial plexus block were included. The continuous interscalene brachial plexus block was performed using a modified lateral technique with 30 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine. Surgery was carried out under an interscalene brachial plexus block or general anesthesia. After surgery, the patients were divided randomly into two groups containing 32 each. During the first 48 h after surgery, groups R8 and R6 received a continuous infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine at 8 ml/h and 6 ml/h, respectively. The pain scores at rest and on movement, supplemental analgesia, motor block, adverse events and patient's satisfaction were recorded. Results The pain scores, supplemental analgesia, motor block, adverse events and patient's satisfaction were similar in the two groups. Conclusions When providing continuous interscalene brachial plexus block after shoulder surgery, 0.2% ropivacaine at a basal rate of 8 ml/h or 6 ml/h produces similar clinical efficacy. Therefore, decreasing the basal rate of CISB is more appropriate considering the toxicity of local anesthetics. PMID:20651995

  16. The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on the quality of fresh and frozen lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Guidera, J; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J; Lynch, P B; Morrissey, P A

    1997-01-01

    The effect of dietary ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on the uptake of ?-tocopherol in ewe plasma, lamb plasma, milk, organs and muscles was investigated. The oxidative stability and colour in fresh M. longissimus dorsi and frozen M. longissimus dorsi, M. psoas major and M. gluteus medius were also investigated. Ewes (n = 12) were selected and scanned to assess pregnancy. They were divided into two groups (n = 6). The control group was fed a diet containing 20 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed/day and the supplemented group fed a diet containing 1000 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed/day, for 9 weeks ante-parturition and 3 weeks post-parturition. The lambs were weaned at 3 weeks and fed supplemented or basal feed for 10 weeks before slaughter. Plasma ?-tocopherol increased significantly (p < 0.01) in ewes in the 9 weeks ante-parturition, and lamb plasma taken just before slaughter was significantly (p < 0.01) higher for the supplemented group than the basal group, following 13 weeks of supplementation. Milk ?-tocopherol levels were significantly (p < 0.01) higher from ewes fed the supplemented diet at parturition and for the three weeks of supplementation post-parturition (p < 0.05). Supplementation increased the ?-tocopherol levels in all tissues sampled. The ?-tocopherol concentrations in M. longissimus dorsi and M. psoas major were also determined after frozen storage at -20 °C for 34 weeks. Frozen storage resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in mean ?-tocopherol levels for M. longissimus dorsi but not M. psoas major. Dietary supplementation with ?-tocopheryl acetate significantly (p < 0.05) increased the oxidative stability of lamb muscle. Surface colour (Hunter L, a, b) was found to be negatively correlated with metmyoglobin content. Supplementation reduced surface discolouration in refrigerated display under fluorescent light over a 6-7 day storage period. The effect was more pronounced in frozen displayed muscles than in freshly displayed samples. PMID:22061135

  17. Isoflurane-induced acidosis depresses basal and PGE(2)-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, Markus; Nylander, Olof

    2007-03-01

    When running in vivo experiments, it is imperative to keep arterial blood pressure and acid-base parameters within the normal physiological range. The aim of this investigation was to explore the consequences of anesthesia-induced acidosis on basal and PGE(2)-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Mice (strain C57bl/6J) were kept anesthetized by a spontaneous inhalation of isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial acid-base balance, and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) were studied. Two intra-arterial fluid support strategies were used: a standard Ringer solution and an isotonic Na(2)CO(3) solution. Duodenal single perfusion was used, and DMBS was assessed by back titration of the effluent. PGE(2) was used to stimulate DMBS. In Ringer solution-infused mice, isoflurane-induced acidosis became worse with time. The blood pH was 7.15-7.21 and the base excess was about -8 mM at the end of experiments. The continuous infusion of Na(2)CO(3) solution completely compensated for the acidosis. The blood pH was 7.36-7.37 and base excess was about 1 mM at the end of the experiment. Basal and PGE(2)-stimulated DMBS were markedly greater in animals treated with Na(2)CO(3) solution than in those treated with Ringer solution. MAP was slightly higher after Na(2)CO(3) solution infusion than after Ringer solution infusion. We concluded that isoflurane-induced acidosis markedly depresses basal and PGE(2)-stimulated DMBS as well as the responsiveness to PGE(2), effects prevented by a continuous infusion of Na(2)CO(3). When performing in vivo experiments in isoflurane-anesthetized mice, it is recommended to supplement with a Na(2)CO(3) infusion to maintain a normal acid-base balance. PMID:17158257

  18. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

  19. On basal-prismatic twinning interfaces in magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapovets, A.; Molnár, P.; Gröger, R.

    2014-08-01

    The existence of basal-prismatic interfaces and their roles in twinning of hexagonal materials have recently attracted appreciable attention of scientific community. In this paper, we utilize molecular statics to investigate the formation of basal-prismatic facets in the 10bar12 twin boundary of magnesium. This interface is shown to be the consequence of a collective motion and interaction of twinning disconnections. By analyzing volume deformations caused by the migration of a single basal-prismatic interface, we show that the passage of this interface distorts the material equivalently to twinning shear.

  20. Neurobasal medium toxicity on mature cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Daniele; Monfrini, Marianna; Ravasi, Maddalena; Tredici, Giovanni; Scuteri, Arianna

    2015-04-15

    Neurobasal medium (NBM) is a widely used medium for neuronal cultures, originally formulated to support survival of rat hippocampal neurons, but then optimized for several other neuronal subtypes. In the present study, the toxic effect of NBM on long-term cortical neuron cultures has been reported and investigated. A significant neuronal cell loss was observed 24?h after the total medium change performed at days in vitro 10. The neurotoxic effect was specifically because of NBM-A, a commercially derived modification of classic NBM, as neurons exposed to minimum essential medium for 24?h did not show the same mortality rate. We showed that the toxic effect was mediated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) as its inactivation partly prevented NBM-induced neuronal loss, and the addition of NMDAr activators, such as L-cysteine or glycine to minimum essential medium, reproduced the same toxicity rate observed in NBM. Besides the toxicity associated with NMDAr activation, the decreased antioxidative defenses also worsen (because of glutathione depletion) neuronal death, thus amplifying the effect of excitotoxic amino acids. Indeed, glutathione supplementation by the addition of its precursor N-acetyl-cysteine resulted in an increase in neuronal survival that partially prevented NBM-A toxicity. These results evidenced, on the one hand, the unsuitability of NBM-A for long-term neuronal culture, and on the other, they highlight the importance of selection of more suitable culture conditions. PMID:25756909

  1. Effect of feeding fat to dairy cows receiving a fat-deficient basal diet. I. Milk yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Banks, W; Clapperton, J L; Ferrie, M E; Wilson, A G

    1976-06-01

    The effects of supplementing a basal diet, in which the low level of fatty acids limited milk production, with soya oil, a palm oil/palmitic acid mixture and tallow, on the yield of milk and of its constituents, and on the composition of the milk, are reported. The yields of milk and milk fat were greatly increased by all the oil-supplemented diets; the mean daily yield of solids-not-fat (SNF) was also increased, but supplementation with soya oil caused the yield of crude protein (CP) to decrease, whereas the other fat-rich concentrate mixtures gave the same mean yield of protein as did the low-fat, control diet. All 3 oil-supplemented diets lowered the proportion of CP in the milk, but the SNF content was unchanged by any treatment. Dietary soya oil tended to lower the proportion of fat in the milk, whilst the palm oil/palmitic acid mixture raised it, with the tallow exerting no effect. The results are discussed in relation to previous work in which these dietary oils have been used, but in which the intake of fatty acids from the control diets did not limit milk production to the extent reported here. PMID:986404

  2. BIOSYNTHESIS OF MEDIUM-CHAIN-LENGTH POLY(HYDROXYALKANOATES) FROM SOY MOLASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas corrugata was selected from a screening process for use in the bioconversion of inexpensive soy molasses into medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHA). We obtained cell-mass yields of 1.5 g cell-dry-weight (CDW)/l culture with growth medium supplemented with 2% soy molasses...

  3. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are ?_E?_4 (also called ?_6?_4) and ?_2?_1/?_3?_1. The ?_E?_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas ?_2?_1/ ?_3?_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-?_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-?_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-?_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that ?_E?_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the ?_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  4. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has special training in looking at skin samples. Lymph node biopsy It’s rare for basal or squamous cell ... a sample to find cancer cells. Surgical (excisional) lymph node biopsy If an FNA does not find cancer ...

  5. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    E-print Network

    Gershman, Samuel J.

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still ...

  6. Wideband measurements of ice sheet attenuation and basal scattering

    E-print Network

    Allen, Christopher Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Paden, J. D.; Jezek, K. C.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Larsen, L. B.

    2005-04-01

    We are developing a multifirequency multistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for determining polar ice sheet basal conditions. To obtain data for designing and optimizing radar performance, we performed field measurements with a network-analyzer...

  7. INTRODUCTION Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed a basal

    E-print Network

    Schuettpelz, Eric

    INTRODUCTION Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed a basal dichotomy within vascular plants, separating the lyco- phytes (less than 1% of extant vascular plants) from the euphyllophytes (Fig. 1 phylogeny depicting relationships of major vascular plant lineages. Topology summarizes the results

  8. Basal Sidenotes: Do They Effect the Comprehension of Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, Clifton A.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of "sidenotes" designed to improve reading comprehension and foster self-independence among poor-ability eighth-grade readers. Finds no significant effect associated with basal reading passages containing "sidenotes." (RS)

  9. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid diet supplementation, training, and acute exercise on oxidative balance in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2014-04-01

    Diet supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids could influence the oxidative equilibrium, enhancing a pro-oxidant status. The aim was to determine the effects of diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), training, and acute exercise on oxidative balance in neutrophils. Fifteen volunteer male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or experimental group. The placebo group was supplemented with an almond-based beverage whereas the experimental group was supplemented with the same beverage enriched with DHA, in addition to their Mediterranean-type diet. Three blood samples were taken: in basal conditions at the beginning of the nutritional intervention and after 8 weeks of training season in basal and postexercise conditions. The training season significantly increased the antioxidant defenses of neutrophils, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzyme activities; and decreased oxidative damage markers such as malondialdehyde, carbonyl and nitrotyrosine indexes. Oxidative damage markers decreased in neutrophils after acute exercise, which primed neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) after immune stimulation with zymosan or phorbol myristate acetate in trained footballers. DHA supplementation resulted in no significant effects on oxidative stress balance in neutrophils. In conclusion, DHA supplementation did not modify the adaptive response of the antioxidant system of neutrophils to training or the production of RONS induced by immune stimulation after acute exercise. PMID:24669986

  10. Basal-cell carcinoma complicating a port-wine stain.

    PubMed

    Duhra, P; Foulds, I S

    1991-01-01

    A rare radio-resistant basal-cell carcinoma is described which presented as a recently enlarged non-ulcerated nodule on a port-wine stain. The literature on basal-cell carcinoma occurring on a port-wine stain is reviewed, and the aetiological significance of thorium-X, sun-exposure and vascular changes in the development of malignancy on this type of haemangioma is discussed. PMID:2025941

  11. Pseudohypoparathyroidism, parkinsonism syndrome, with no basal ganglia calcification.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, B K; Donley, D K

    1988-01-01

    A 20 year old woman with pseudohypoparathyroidism, Parkinsonism and no basal ganglia calcifications shown by computed tomography is reported. She has typical features of pseudohypoparathyroidism and biochemical evidence of end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone. She is mentally retarded and has tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and stooped posture. The cause of Parkinsonism in pseudohypoparathyroidism is thought to be basal ganglia calcification. This patient must have another pathophysiology, perhaps directly related to a G protein defect, causing impaired neurotransmission. Images PMID:3404168

  12. Parkinsonism caused by cavernoma located in basal ganglion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibel Ertan; Gulcin Benbir; Taner Tanriverdi; Ilker Alver; Mustafa Uzan

    2005-01-01

    Deep-seated cavernoma or cavernous angioma is a very rare clinical entity, as is basal ganglia cavernoma presenting with Parkinsonism. The authors demonstrate a 56-year-old man with a cavernoma located in basal ganglion, who subsequently developed Parkinsonism. The patient refused the surgical intervention, and received L-dopa trial; however, no change in the tremor and bradykinesia was observed in spite of high

  13. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

  14. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  15. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... like iron, vitamin A, zinc, niacin, and folic acid, especially when a person uses more than a ... pregnant should get 400 mcg/day of folic acid from fortified foods and/or dietary supplements to ...

  16. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  17. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

  18. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or plant part (such as leaves, flowers, or seeds) that is used for its flavor, scent, and/ ... are processed, labeled, and packaged consistently and meet quality standards. Once a dietary supplement is on the ...

  19. Who Needs Supplements?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are getting adequate intake of necessary vitamins and minerals. To avoid indigestion, take the multivitamin with food. ... menstruation may need to take a multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains iron to meet the daily ...

  20. Fluoride Treatments and Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    Fluoride Treatments and Supplements What Is It? What It's Used For Preparation How It's Done Follow-Up ... When To Call a Professional What Is It? Fluoride is a naturally occurring element that strengthens teeth. ...

  1. Thermal history regulates methylbutenol basal emission rate in Pinus ponderosa.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dennis W; Goldstein, Allen H; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2006-07-01

    Methylbutenol (MBO) is a 5-carbon alcohol that is emitted by many pines in western North America, which may have important impacts on the tropospheric chemistry of this region. In this study, we document seasonal changes in basal MBO emission rates and test several models predicting these changes based on thermal history. These models represent extensions of the ISO G93 model that add a correction factor C(basal), allowing MBO basal emission rates to change as a function of thermal history. These models also allow the calculation of a new emission parameter E(standard30), which represents the inherent capacity of a plant to produce MBO, independent of current or past environmental conditions. Most single-component models exhibited large departures in early and late season, and predicted day-to-day changes in basal emission rate with temporal offsets of up to 3 d relative to measured basal emission rates. Adding a second variable describing thermal history at a longer time scale improved early and late season model performance while retaining the day-to-day performance of the parent single-component model. Out of the models tested, the T(amb),T(max7) model exhibited the best combination of day-to-day and seasonal predictions of basal MBO emission rates. PMID:17080951

  2. CURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT UNDERGRADUATE CATALOG

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    to the Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Computer Science. The Bachelor's degree in Computer Science/MathematicsCURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT 2008­2009 UNDERGRADUATE CATALOG C O O FL L E G E S T A T E N I S L A N D T h e C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Y o r k #12;CURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT TO THE UNDERGRADUATE

  3. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24?mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10?mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  4. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E. (Danville, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  5. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  6. Chapter 28. Iowa supplemental energy conservation plan

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-01-01

    The Iowa supplemental energy conservation plan is designed to provide conservation services to those consumers who would not otherwise be offered services under the statewide I-SAVE conservation plan. The provisions of the plan are tailored to the needs and concerns of the small to medium-sized energy supplier and reflect a balance between effective conservation services, program participation, and cost-recovery ability. The plan applies to all electric and gas utilities not covered under the I-SAVE plan and to all suppliers of fuel oil, propane, and butane for home-heating purposes. Participation in the plan is voluntary. The text of the plan is presented.

  7. Effects of fermentation conditions and soybean peptide supplementation on hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus thermophilus strain YIT 2084 in milk.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Naoki; Hanamizu, Tomoko; Sone, Toshiro; Chiba, Katsuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    To increase the hyaluronic acid (HA) yield from Streptococcus thermophilus YIT 2084, fermentation conditions (pH, temperature, agitation, aeration) were optimized in milk-based medium, and the effects of supplemental soybean peptides, which have different molecular weight distributions, were determined. HA production was enhanced to approximately 100 mg/l at pH 6.8 and 33-40 degrees C. Agitation speed and aeration rate slightly affected HA production. Soybean peptides including those of high molecular weight (approximately 27 to 130 kDa) further increased HA production to 208 mg/l under the optimal condition (pH 6.8, 35 degrees C, 100 rpm), which was 20-fold greater than non-optimal condition. HA production was no longer related to the specific growth rate. The HA produced under the optimal condition included a large amount of high-molecular-weight fraction of 100 to 2000 kDa, compared with under the basal condition without optimization. PMID:20226377

  8. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3. PMID:23484024

  9. Growth and body composition of juvenile red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets containing lecithin and supplemental choline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Craig; Delbert M. Gatlin

    1997-01-01

    Two factorial experiments were conducted for 6 weeks each to determine the effects of supplemental choline and lecithin in the diet of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Four isocaloric diets were formulated utilizing solvent-extracted menhaden fish meal which provided 744 mg choline kg?1 diet. Menhaden oil was added to provide a total of 7% lipid in the basal diet. In

  10. A new medium for spore production of Blakeslea trispora using response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Triantafyllos Roukas; Panagiota Niavi; Parthena Kotzekidou

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the medium components which enhance sporulation of the two mating types of the fungus Blakeslea trispora ATCC 14271 and ATCC 14272 (a heterothallic Zygomycota producing carotene) was achieved with the aid of response surface methodology\\u000a (RSM). Glucose, corn steep liquor, yeast extract, and ammonium sulfate were investigated as carbon and nitrogen sources in\\u000a a basal medium. RSM was

  11. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-nine first parity sows (BW of 197.7 ± 2.5 kg and BF of 14.87 ± 0.21 mm) were used in this study. On d 60 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assigned to one of two dietary treatments which consisted of either a corn-soy meal basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% Fertilium™ (Uni...

  12. Basal ganglia and Dopamine Contributions to Probabilistic Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Shohamy, D.; Myers, C.E.; Kalanithi, J.; Gluck, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems have recently been extended towards understanding the neural systems contributing to category learning. The basal ganglia, in particular, have been linked to probabilistic category learning in humans. A separate parallel literature in systems neuroscience has emerged, indicating a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in reward prediction and feedback processing. Here, we review behavioral, neuropsychological, functional neuroimaging, and computational studies of basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to learning in humans. Collectively, these studies implicate the basal ganglia in incremental, feedback-based learning that involves integrating information across multiple experiences. The medial temporal lobes, by contrast, contribute to rapid encoding of relations between stimuli and support flexible generalization of learning to novel contexts and stimuli. By breaking down our understanding of the cognitive and neural mechanisms contributing to different aspects of learning, recent studies are providing insight into how, and when, these different processes support learning, how they may interact with each other, and the consequence of different forms of learning for the representation of knowledge. PMID:18061261

  13. Basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to probabilistic category learning.

    PubMed

    Shohamy, D; Myers, C E; Kalanithi, J; Gluck, M A

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems have recently been extended towards understanding the neural systems contributing to category learning. The basal ganglia, in particular, have been linked to probabilistic category learning in humans. A separate parallel literature in systems neuroscience has emerged, indicating a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in reward prediction and feedback processing. Here, we review behavioral, neuropsychological, functional neuroimaging, and computational studies of basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to learning in humans. Collectively, these studies implicate the basal ganglia in incremental, feedback-based learning that involves integrating information across multiple experiences. The medial temporal lobes, by contrast, contribute to rapid encoding of relations between stimuli and support flexible generalization of learning to novel contexts and stimuli. By breaking down our understanding of the cognitive and neural mechanisms contributing to different aspects of learning, recent studies are providing insight into how, and when, these different processes support learning, how they may interact with each other, and the consequence of different forms of learning for the representation of knowledge. PMID:18061261

  14. Influence of a supplement containing conjugated linoleic acid on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and adipose tissue reactivity to lipolytic challenge in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) on milk performance, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, and adipose tissue reactivity in dairy goats fed a high-concentrate diet based on corn silage. Twenty-four multiparous dairy goats in early to mid lactation were used in a 10-wk trial, with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental total mixed ration that contained corn silage (35%, dry matter basis), beet pulp (20%), barley (15%), and a commercial concentrate (30%). Goats were randomly allocated to 2 experimental groups and they were fed 45 g/d of a lipid supplement (either CLA or Ca salts of palm oil added on top of the total mixed ration). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 2, 5, and 6. In the last week of the trial, an isoproterenol challenge was performed for 12 goats before morning feeding. The CLA supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW), milk yield, milk protein content, and lactose yield and content, but it significantly decreased milk fat yield and content by 18 and 15%, respectively. The decrease in milk fat yield was related to a lower secretion of FA synthesized de novo, of the medium-chain FA, and to a lesser extent of the long-chain FA that are taken up from the peripheral circulation. The CLA supplementation decreased the proportion of the sum of C16:0 and C16:1 and the sum of total cis C18:1, and it increased the proportions of the sum of long-chain (C >16) and the sum of iso FA without modification of the total trans C18:1 and the sum of FA synthesized de novo (C <16). During the first 25 min relative to isoproterenol injection, the maximal concentrations, the increases above basal concentration, the changes in area under the curve, and the total area under the curve for glucose and nonesterified FA were not affected by CLA treatment. In conclusion, CLA supplementation associated with a high-concentrate diet based on corn silage resulted in decreased milk fat yield, increased net energy balance, and it did not affect the sensitivity of the adipose tissue to lipolytic challenge in lactating goats. PMID:23063154

  15. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  16. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

  17. Immunohistochemical study of basal cell adenoma in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hamano, H; Abiko, Y; Hashimoto, S; Inoue, T; Shimono, M; Takagi, T; Noma, H

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland was studied with immunohistochemical methods. We observed cells in the tumor with positive reaction to polyclonal keratin, prekeratin, monoclonal PKK-1, polyclonal S-100 protein, monoclonal S-100 protein (alpha), secretory component, actin and laminin. However, no cells which stained positively with monoclonal KL-1, amylase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or epithelial membrane antigen were recognized. From these immunohistochemical results and our ultrastructural observations reported previously, we conclude that the cells constituting the basal cell adenoma are ductal, myoepithelial, and squamous cells but not secretory ones. It is also suggested that the origins of basal cell ademona as well as those of pleomorphic and clear cell adenoma are undifferentiated cells of intercalated duct. PMID:2133439

  18. Altered functional connectivity of basal ganglia circuitry in dental phobia.

    PubMed

    Scharmüller, Wilfried; Leutgeb, Verena; Schöngaßner, Florian; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Schienle, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Recent symptom provocation studies that compared patients suffering from dental phobia with healthy controls identified hyperactivation of basal ganglia structures, but none have assessed striatal functional connectivity. We reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study on dental phobia. Patients (20 men, 25 women) and healthy controls (18 men, 23 women) had been exposed to pictures showing dental treatment, and neutral contents. We conducted connectivity analyses via psychophysiological interactions (PPIs). Relative to non-phobic controls, the patients showed decreased connectivity between prefrontal and basal ganglia regions. Moreover, the clinical group was characterized by increased internal basal ganglia connectivity, which was more pronounced in female compared with male patients. This study provides first evidence for an altered information flow within a fronto-striatal network in dentophobic individuals during visual symptom provocation, which can be considered a neuromarker of this disorder. PMID:24084590

  19. Organophilic clay suspension medium

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, G.G.; Parlman, R.M.; Stewart, W.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes an improved liquid suspension medium for particulate solids. The suspension medium having been formed by admixing an organophilic clay wherein the clay is selected from the group consisting of bentonite, attapulgite, sepiolite and hectorite and admixtures thereof present in the quantity of about 0.5-8 weight percent with a liquid hydrocarbon present in the quantity of about 99-70 weight percent and at least one activator selected from the group consisting of phenyl hydroxyalkyl ethers.

  20. What's Medicare Supplement (Medigap) Insurance?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How to compare Medigap policies Medigap & travel What's Medicare Supplement Insurance (Medigap)? A Medicare Supplement Insurance (Medigap) policy, sold ... care, hearing aids, eyeglasses, or private-duty nursing. Insurance plans that aren't Medigap Some types of ...

  1. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  2. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePLUS

    Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

  3. Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle

    E-print Network

    McCollum III, Ted

    1997-11-03

    Supplemental nutrients for cattle--as concentrated feeds, harvested forages, or a complementary grazing program--accounts for a significant portion of annual production costs in a cattle operation. The producer should know how a supplement affects...

  4. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More When you reach for that ... powder or liquid form. Common supplements include vitamins, minerals and herbal products, also known as botanicals. People ...

  5. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hoax? Updated:Feb 26,2014 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so ...

  6. NCI: SBIR & STTR - Administrative Supplements

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SBIR Development Center announces the opportunity for current STTR Phase I and Phase II grantees to seek supplemental project funding via the Administrative Supplement mechanism.

  7. Effect of glutamate and somatostatin-14 on basal and cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leatherland, John F; Lin, Lucy; Renaud, Rick

    2005-04-01

    The effects of glutamate and somatostatin-14 (SRIF) on the in vitro basal and cAMP-stimulated steroid production of mid-vitellogenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles were investigated. cAMP-stimulation was achieved by the addition of the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin (FS), or a membrane permeate cAMP agonist, 8-bromo-cAMP (BA), to the incubation medium. Testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) secretion was measured using radioimmunoassay. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to measure the relative formation of unconjugated and conjugated steroids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to examine the steroid metabolites formed from the metabolism of a tritium labelled precursor, pregnenolone (P(5)). The accumulations of T and E(2) in the medium were suppressed in the presence of the glutamate agonists, N-methyl-d,l-aspartate (NMA) or l-glutamic acid (GA), and by the presence of SRIF. The suppression was evident for both basal and cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis except for T concentrations of GA treatments following basal steroidogenesis, when there were no treatment effects. No significant effects of treatment on conjugated:unconjugated steroid ratios were found. For all treatments E(2) was the major end product steroid synthesized from P(5), and the steroid profiles were similar except for trace amounts of radiolabelled androgens in the medium following cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis that were not present following basal steroidogenesis. The findings suggest that glutamate and SRIF reduce end point steroid production, possibly by reducing P(5) production. However, since the inhibitory affect was found for basal and cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis, the response does not appear to be due to the inhibition of cAMP synthesis. PMID:15763520

  8. Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.

    2012-04-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at the scale of the seismic refraction experiment ~100m). In order to interpret the value of the P-wave velocities, we measured in the laboratory the ultrasonic velocities on non-fractured blocks from the field. By, comparing the ultrasonic and the seismic velocities and using an effective medium model, we can estimate a mean crack density and a mean fracture aspect ratio. Finally this allows to estimate the permeability of this fractured aquifer.

  9. Supplemental Language Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

    The Supplemental Language Study Group (SLSG) program at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, Colorado) is described. The program was developed following a student's expression of interest in learning "exotic" languages unavailable in the standard foreign language curriculum at the university. This student-run club offers several weekly…

  10. Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Geoff

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

  11. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Black Cohosh Botanical Dietary Supplements Bromelain Butterbur Vitamin B1 Vitamin B12 Vitamin B6 C Calcium Carnitine Cartilage (Bovine ... God Vine Turmeric V Valerian Vitamin A Vitamin B1 Vitamin B12 Vitamin B6 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin ...

  12. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  13. Shear Jamming in Granular Experiments without Basal Friction

    E-print Network

    Hu Zheng; Joshua A. Dijksman; Robert P. Behringer

    2014-08-08

    Jammed states of frictional granular systems can be induced by shear strain at densities below the isostatic jamming density ($\\phi_c$). It remains unclear, however, how much friction affects this so-called shear-jamming. Friction appears in two ways in this type of experiment: friction between particles, and friction between particles and the base on which they rest. Here, we study how particle-bottom friction, or basal friction, affects shear jamming in quasi-two dimensional experiments. In order to study this issue experimentally, we apply simple shear to a disordered packing of photoelastic disks. We can tune the basal friction of the particles by immersing the particles in a density matched liquid, thus removing the normal force, hence the friction, between the particles and base. We record the overall shear stress, and particle motion, and the photoelastic response of the particles. We compare the shear response of dry and immersed samples, which enables us to determine how basal friction affects shear jamming. Our findings indicate that changing the basal friction shifts the point of shear jamming, but it does not change the basic phenomenon of shear jamming.

  14. Survey among patients with basal cell carcinoma in The Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. P. Gerritsen; Rie de M. A; R. C. Beljaards; M. R. T. M. Thissen; M. V. Kuipers

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a survey distributed among Dutch patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The questionnaire comprised a list of questions related to demographic characteristics, features of BCC, reason for consulting a dermatologist, anxiety, type of treatment and the satisfaction with this treatment and desired benefits of treatment. In total, 220 patients completed the survey. The age

  15. Measurement of basal forebrain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease using MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan J. Teipel; Wilhelm H. Flatz; Helmut Heinsen; Arun L. W. Bokde; Stefan O. Schoenberg; Stephanie Stockel; Olaf Dietrich; Maximilian F. Reiser; Hans-Jurgen Moller; Harald Hampel

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the degeneration and loss of cholinergic neurones in the nucleus basalis Meynert, located within the substantia innominata at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. An in vivo measure of morphological changes in the nucleus basalis Meynert would be of high relevance to better under- stand the structural correlate of cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Multifocal basal cell carcinoma arising within a linear epidermal nevus

    PubMed Central

    Mordovtseva, Veronica V.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal nevi are usually benign lesions with a lifelong course if left untreated. In rare cases development of basal cell carcinoma in such nevi has been documented. We describe a 32-year-old man with a multifocal malignant transformation within a congenital epidermal nevus. PMID:25657916

  17. Adenosine A2A receptors and basal ganglia physiology

    PubMed Central

    Schiffmann, S.N.; Fisone, G.; Moresco, R.; Cunha, R.A.; Ferré, S.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are highly enriched in the basal ganglia system. They are predominantly expressed in enkephalin-expressing GABAergic striatopallidal neurons and therefore are highly relevant to the function of the indirect efferent pathway of the basal ganglia system. In these GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons, the A2A receptor tightly interacts structurally and functionally with the dopamine D2 receptor. Both by forming receptor heteromers and by targeting common intracellular signaling cascades, A2A and D2 receptors exhibit reciprocal antagonistic interactions that are central to the function of the indirect pathway and hence to basal ganglia control of movement, motor learning, motivation and reward. Consequently, this A2A / D2 receptors antagonistic interaction is also central to basal ganglia dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. However, recent evidence demonstrates that, in addition to this postsynaptic site of action, striatal A2A receptors are also expressed and have physiological relevance on presynaptic glutamatergic terminals of the cortico-limbic-striatal and thalamo-striatal pathways, where they form heteromeric receptor complexes with adenosine A1 receptors. Therefore, A2A receptors play an important fine-tuning role, boosting the efficiency of glutamatergic information flow in the indirect pathway by exerting control, either pre- and/or post-synaptically, over other key modulators of glutamatergic synapses, including D2 receptors, group I metabotropic mGlu5 glutamate receptors and cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and by triggering the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling cascade. PMID:17646043

  18. Basal song rate variation in male red-winged blackbirds

    E-print Network

    Shutler, Dave

    Basal song rate variation in male red-winged blackbirds: sound and fury signifying nothing? Male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) vary substantially in how much they sing. We tested blackbirds appears to provide to conspecifics is that the territory is occupied. In sim- ulated territory

  19. Multidimensional Sequence Learning in Patients with Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, J.C.; Aparicio, P.; Ivry, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's patients have been found to be impaired in learning movement sequences. In the current study, patients with unilateral basal ganglia lesions due to stroke were tested on a serial reaction time task in which responses were based on the spatial location of each stimulus. The spatial locations either followed a fixed sequence or were…

  20. Task-phase-specific dynamics of basal forebrain neuronal ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Tingley, David; Alexander, Andrew S.; Kolbu, Sean; de Sa, Virginia R.; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases. PMID:25309352

  1. Complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system modulates neuronal excitability and vascular tone throughout the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. This system is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and drug treatment to enhance cholinergic signaling is widely used as symptomatic therapy in AD. Defining the full morphologies of individual basal forebrain cholinergic neurons has, until now, been technically beyond reach due to their large axon arbor sizes. Using genetically-directed sparse labeling, we have characterized the complete morphologies of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mouse. Individual arbors were observed to span multiple cortical columns, and to have >1000 branch points and total axon lengths up to 50 cm. In an AD model, cholinergic axons were slowly lost and there was an accumulation of axon-derived material in discrete puncta. Calculations based on published morphometric data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in humans have a mean axon length of ?100 meters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02444.001 PMID:24894464

  2. Metacomprehension during Basal Reader Instruction: Do Teachers Promote It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Baumann, James F.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes elementary teachers' interactions with students during guided reading of basal reader selections to determine the extent to which the interactions promote students' metacomprehension abilities. Finds that teachers assumed most of the responsibility for students' comprehension themselves rather than conducting the lessons in a manner that…

  3. ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia A group of subcortical nuclei

    E-print Network

    Sergio, Lauren E.

    experienced by patients with cerebellar damage Cerebellum of a (former) alcoholicCerebellar atrophy Cerebellar by involuntary purposeless movements CIRCUITRY As with cerebellum, basal ganglia act indirectly · Highly brainstem and rest of cerebellum Cerebellum overview1. 2. 3. Regulatory system within a regulatory system

  4. Bilateral large traumatic hemorrhage of the basal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nityanand; Mahapatra, Ashok; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed is extremely rare. It is defined as a hemorrhagic lesion located in the basal ganglia or neighboring structures such as the internal capsule and the thalamus. This report describes a 37-year-old man who had large bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) with subdural hematoma and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. With regards to an etiology of bilateral hemorrhage of the basal ganglia, we could not disclose any possible cause except head injury in spite of full diagnostic work-up. Our final diagnosis was bilateral traumatic BGH (TBGH). The pathomechanism of such injuries is still not clear and it is proposed to be due to shear injury to the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. Rather than any features of the TBGH itself, duration of coma and/or associated temporal herniation predicted slower recovery and worse outcome. Bilateral TBGH is an extremely rare entity, compatible with a favorable recovery, if not associated with damage to other cortical and subcortical structures and occurring in isolation. TBGH can be considered as a marker of poor outcome rather than its cause. The BGHs seem to be hemorrhagic contusions resulting from a shearing injury, due to high velocity impact. PMID:25685230

  5. Supplementing Corn-Soybean Meal Diets with Microbial Phytase Maximizes Phytate Phosphorus Utilization by Weanling Pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. G. Lei; P. K. Ku; E. R. Millel; M. T. Yokoyama; D. E. Ullrey

    2010-01-01

    ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted mately 1,200 PU\\/g of BD. Estimated maximum with crossbred weanling pigs to determine the optimal responses of these measures in pigs fed phytase were 2 dietary supplement of AspergiZZus niger phytase ac- 90% compared with MDCaP. Pigs fed 1,250 PUlg of tivity to a low-P, corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD).

  6. Comparative response of broiler chicks to a high fibre diet supplemented with four antibiotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Onifade; G. M. Babatunde

    1997-01-01

    The growth performance and nutrient retention of broiler chicks fed a high fibre diet supplemented with procaine penicillin, tylosin, streptomycin sulphate, or neomycin-oxytetracycline mixture was studied. A total of 150 seven-day-old broiler chicks were fed for 28 days on five experimental diets. The antibiotics were added to a high fibre (250 g kg?1 Palm Kernel Meal) basal diet, at a

  7. Effect of glutamate and somatostatin-14 on basal and cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis by rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles, in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Leatherland; Lucy Lin; Rick Renaud

    2005-01-01

    The effects of glutamate and somatostatin-14 (SRIF) on the in vitro basal and cAMP-stimulated steroid production of mid-vitellogenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles were investigated. cAMP-stimulation was achieved by the addition of the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin (FS), or a membrane permeate cAMP agonist, 8-bromo-cAMP (BA), to the incubation medium. Testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) secretion was measured using

  8. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000?gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321?±?144?gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454?±?174?gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

  9. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  10. Towards an Optimized Culture Medium for the Generation of Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiekai; Liu, Jing; Han, Qingkai; Qin, Dajiang; Xu, Jianyong; Chen, You; Yang, Jiaqi; Song, Hong; Yang, Dongshan; Peng, Meixiu; He, Wenzhi; Li, Ronghui; Wang, Hao; Gan, Yi; Ding, Ke; Zeng, Lingwen; Lai, Liangxue; Esteban, Miguel A.; Pei, Duanqing

    2010-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells using defined factors has potential relevant applications in regenerative medicine and biology. However, this promising technology remains inefficient and time consuming. We have devised a serum free culture medium termed iSF1 that facilitates the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. This optimization of the culture medium is sensitive to the presence of Myc in the reprogramming factors. Moreover, we could reprogram meningeal cells using only two factors Oct4/Klf4. Therefore, iSF1 represents a basal medium that may be used for mechanistic studies and testing new reprogramming approaches. PMID:20595395

  11. A system employing a minimal defined medium for the selection of tumorigenic cells.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, W I; Simkins, S G; Lamore, B J

    1990-07-01

    Populations of normal and tumorigenic epithelial cells were plated in normal (serum supplemented) and a minimal defined medium. The ability of cells to grow in the minimal defined medium vs. the normal medium was related to their tumorigenic ability. All of the clones that were capable of growth in the minimal defined medium demonstrated tumorigenic ability. None of the normal clones survived in the minimal defined medium. As expected, some of the tumorigenic clones could not grow in the minimal medium. However, at no time did a clone that grew in the minimal defined medium fail to demonstrate tumorigenic ability. This validated that this system can be an animal-free means for selecting tumorigenic epithelial cells out of a mixed population. PMID:2384452

  12. Docosahexanoic acid diet supplementation attenuates the peripheral mononuclear cell inflammatory response to exercise following LPS activation.

    PubMed

    Capó, X; Martorell, M; Llompart, I; Sureda, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2014-10-01

    Exercise induces changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on the plasma cytokine levels and on the peripheral mononuclear (PBMCs) cells cytokine production after a training season or an acute bout of exercise. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA, whereas the placebo group consumed the same beverage without DHA. Three blood samples were taken: in basal conditions at the beginning of the nutritional intervention and after eight weeks of training season in basal and post-exercise conditions. The DHA content increased in erythrocytes after 8weeks of training and supplementation. Neither diet supplementation with DHA nor training season altered the basal plasma cytokines and growth factors. Only acute exercise significantly increased plasma IL6 in experimental and placebo groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation induced the inflammatory response in PBMCs, with a significant production rate of TNF?, IL6 and IL8 mainly after acute exercise. DHA supplementation significantly reduced the rate of TNF? and IL6 production by stimulated PBMCs. Acute exercise increased the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels in PBMCs, although the increase was only statistically significant in the placebo group. In conclusion, a training season does not induce significant changes in the circulating cytokine profile in well-trained soccer players. Exercise increases the PBMCs cell capabilities to produce cytokines after TLR4 stimulation with LPS and this rate of cytokine production is attenuated by diet DHA supplementation. PMID:24954162

  13. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  14. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  15. The Neutral Medium

    E-print Network

    Robert Braun

    2005-01-17

    We consider the physical conditions of the neutral medium within, and in the environments of, galaxies. The basic physical and morphological properties of the neutral medium within galaxy disks are now quite well-constrained. Systematic variations in temperature and phase-balance (of cool versus warm neutral gas) are indicated as a function of both radius and z-height. Interestingly, the cool medium line-widths are observed to be dominated by turbulent energy injection within cells of 10 pc to 1 kpc size. Deep new observations reveal that 5-10% of the neutral medium is associated within an extended halo which rotates more slowly and experiences radial inflow. Much of this component is likely to be associated with a ``galactic fountain'' type of phenomenon. However, compelling evidence is also accumulating for the importance of tidal disruption of satellites as well as continuous accretion (of both diffuse and discrete components) in fueling galaxy halos and disks. Continued fueling is even observed on scales of 100's of kpc in galaxy environments, where the neutral component is likely to be merely a trace constituent of a highly ionized plasma.

  16. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  17. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate local bed-normal acceleration and deceleration that doubled the action-reaction coupling of the debris flows to the bed. In such cases, standard depth-integrated models of flow dynamics are unsatisfactory, as suitable models must account for the effects of bed-normal acceleration on basal stress. We infer that similar details of flow dynamics may strongly influence stresses that determine where and how debris flows scour their beds.

  18. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Eckerson

    \\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

  19. Unmasking adenosine 2A receptors (A2ARs) in monkey basal ganglia output neurons using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB).

    PubMed

    Luquin, Natasha; Sierra, Salvador; Rico, Alberto J; Gómez-Bautista, Virginia; Roda, Elvira; Conte-Perales, Lorena; Franco, Rafael; McCormick, Peter; Labandeira-García, José L; Lanciego, José L

    2012-09-01

    The A(2A)R has become a therapeutic target in Parkinson disease due to its functional role in the striatum, capable of modulating dopaminergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. No conclusive evidence, however, has been provided to demonstrate the existence of A(2A)Rs in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia: the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques we have confirmed the presence of A(2A)Rs in both the striatum (medium spiny and cholinergic neurons) and the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), in the monkey. The antibody routinely used to label A(2A)Rs failed to detect A(2A)R-positive neurons in the GPi and SNr, however, in situ hybridization showed that A(2A)R mRNA transcripts were indeed present in both these nuclei. Surprisingly, by labeling pallidothalamic and nigrothalamic projection neurons originating in the GPi and SNr with the neuronal retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), the receptor protein was unmasked and detectable using the antibody. This unmasking of the protein was specific to CTB and not an artifact of the tracer. We have shown unequivocally that the A(2A)R is present in the output nuclei of the primate basal ganglia, however, to be able to detect the receptor immunohistochemically, unmasking the protein with CTB was necessary. The presence of A(2A)Rs in the GPi and SNr suggests that these output nuclei could be targeted therapeutically in Parkinson disease to restore abnormal activity in the basal ganglia. PMID:22659306

  20. Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Smitley, D R; Rebek, E J; Royalty, R N; Davis, T W; Newhouse, K F

    2010-02-01

    We conducted field trials at five different locations over a period of 6 yr to investigate the efficacy of imidacloprid applied each spring as a basal soil drench for protection against emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Canopy thinning and emerald ash borer larval density were used to evaluate efficacy for 3-4 yr at each location while treatments continued. Test sites included small urban trees (5-15 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), medium to large (15-65 cm dbh) trees at golf courses, and medium to large street trees. Annual basal drenches with imidacloprid gave complete protection of small ash trees for three years. At three sites where the size of trees ranged from 23 to 37 cm dbh, we successfully protected all ash trees beginning the test with <60% canopy thinning. Regression analysis of data from two sites reveals that tree size explains 46% of the variation in efficacy of imidacloprid drenches. The smallest trees (<30 cm dbh) remained in excellent condition for 3 yr, whereas most of the largest trees (>38 cm dbh) declined to a weakened state and undesirable appearance. The five-fold increase in trunk and branch surface area of ash trees as the tree dbh doubles may account for reduced efficacy on larger trees, and suggests a need to increase treatment rates for larger trees. PMID:20214376

  1. Fat supplementation, health, and endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E; Aldred, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Pre-exercise fat ingestion (i.e., long chain triacylglycerol ingestion 1 to 4 h before exercise), medium-chain triacylglycerols, fish oil, and conjugated linoleic acid have been suggested to alter metabolism to achieve weight loss, alter lipid profiles, or improve performance. However, studies have demonstrated that ingestion of meals with long-chain triacylglycerols before exercise has little or no effect on metabolism and does not alter subsequent exercise performance. Also, medium-chain triacylglycerol supplementation before or during exercise has not been shown to be ergogenic, although this could be related to the small amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol that can be ingested before gastrointestinal discomfort occurs. Fish oil may improve red blood cell deformability, but these effects are likely to be small and do not seem to influence maximum oxygen delivery or exercise performance. Conjugated linoleic acid has been implicated in weight loss, but based on the results of human studies it must be concluded that the effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body weight loss are far less clear than those observed in animal studies. Most studies have not found any evidence for a beneficial effect of conjugated linoleic acid. PMID:15212751

  2. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  3. Infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma: dermoscopic findings and histologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Leal-Osuna, Sergio; Lammoglia-Ordiales, Lorena; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma is a rare variant. It was first described in 1987 and proposed as a new basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtype by Ackerman and Walsh in 1990. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that allows prompt identification of many types of BCC. However, dermoscopic findings for the infundibulocystic variant have not been reported. In our patient the dermoscopic findings were maple leaf-like areas in the periphery of the tumor, multiple scattered blue-gray dots and globules, short, fine telangiectasia and chrysalis or white-shiny streaks. All these structures had an underlying anatomopathological correlation. Conclusion: According to our case report, dermoscopy findings may aid to clearly diagnose this unusual BCC variant with proper histopathological correlation. PMID:25126459

  4. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kiran, N K; Tilak Raj, T N; Mukunda, K S; Rajashekar Reddy, V

    2012-10-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:23633824

  6. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, N. K.; Tilak Raj, T. N.; Mukunda, K. S.; Rajashekar Reddy, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:23633824

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masahiro; Tabuchi, Keiji; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hara, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a malignant neoplasm derived from nonkeratinizing cells that originate from the basal layer of the epidermis and is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation as an important risk factor. BCC occurs most frequently at sun-exposed sites, with the head and neck being common areas. Tumors can be classified as nodular, superficial, morpheaform, infiltrating, metatypic, and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. Several treatment options such as surgical excision and nonsurgical procedures are available. The choice of treatment should be determined based on the histological subtype of a lesion, cost, its size and location, patient age, medical condition of the patient, treatment availability, and the patient's wishes. The aim of any therapy selected for BCC treatment involving the head and neck is to ensure complete removal, the preservation of function, and a good cosmetic outcome. PMID:21209728

  8. Elongated styloid process associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ismail Önder; Atalar, Mehmet H; Ko?ar, Mehmet Ilkay; Durmu?, Kasim

    2011-11-01

    This article presents a case with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) and an elongated styloid process. Basal cell carcinoma syndrome, also known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome manifested by multiple defects involving the skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine system, and bones. Elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament cause craniofacial or cervical pain. The actual cause of elongation of the styloid process or the calcification of the stylohyoid ligament is unclear. The cause of elongation of styloid process in this case may be the calcification induced by NBCCS. This report is the first case presentation of NBCCS with elongated styloid process. Elongated styloid process might be described as an anomaly of an NBCCS. PMID:22067864

  9. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  10. Hox cluster duplication in the basal teleost Hiodon alosoides (Osteoglossomorpha)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen E. ChambersRyan; Ryan McDaniell; Jeremy D. Raincrow; Maya Deshmukh; Peter F. Stadler; Chi-hua Chiu

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale—even genome-wide—duplications have repeatedly been invoked as an explanation for major radiations. Teleosts, the\\u000a most species-rich vertebrate clade, underwent a “fish-specific genome duplication” (FSGD) that is shared by most ray-finned\\u000a fish lineages. We investigate here the Hox complement of the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a representative of Osteoglossomorpha, the most basal teleostean clade. An extensive PCR survey reveals that goldeye has

  11. Numerical modeling of frontal and basal accretion at collisional margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Cornelia; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the deformation of orogenic wedges that form in the early stages of continent-continent collisions using a two-dimensional numerical model limited to the upper lithosphere. Our models show that deformation at the plate margins is influenced by rheology, surface processes, and the balance between inward mass flux and outward subduction flux, as controlled by the subduction load (which represents the effects of slab pull and resistive forces) and flexural downbending. We find three characteristic deformation modes: (1) near-pure subduction with little or no accretion; (2) frontal accretion with development of an accretionary wedge built up by offscraping of the sediment layer at shallow depth; and (3) independent frontal and basal accretion where a retrothrust allows stacking of basement nappes at crustal to mantle depths. Near-pure subduction is enabled for "ordinary-rheology" materials, characterized by brittle and viscous material behavior (approximating a "Christmas tree-type" depth profile), and almost zero friction along the subduction shear zone. Frontal accretion occurs when slightly increased friction along the subduction shear zone allows offscraping of the sediment layer from the subducting plate. Independent frontal and basal accretion develops in strong-rheology models with an almost fully brittle material behavior. Major surface erosion or a reduction of the subduction load promote the development of large basement nappes. Frontal accretion is favored by major sedimentation during convergence, a large backstop, and in the case of a lateral transition from a "strong-rheology" to an "ordinary-rheology" subducting plate. Our numerical models develop first-order characteristics as observed in natural orogenic wedges, for example upper crustal nappe stacks, frontal and basal accretion, or extension in the core of an orogen. Frontal and basal accretion are interdependent, and tend to stabilize the subduction system.

  12. Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma by Raman Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gniadecka; H. C. Wulf; N. Nymark Mortensen; O. Faurskov Nielsen; D. H. Christensen

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancers are the most common form of malignant neoplasms in man. In this work, near-infrared Fourier transform (NIR-FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to study the molecular alterations in the most common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Biopsies from 16 histopathologically veri-ed BCC and 16 biopsies from normal skin were harvested and analysed by NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy using a 1064

  13. Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Raichlen; Adam D. Gordon; Magdalena N. Muchlinski; J. Josh Snodgrass

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian basal metabolic rates (BMR) increase with body mass, whichs explains approximately 95% of the variation in BMR.\\u000a However, at a given mass, there remains a large amount of variation in BMR. While many researchers suggest that the overall\\u000a scaling of BMR with body mass is due to physiological constraints, variation at a given body mass may provide clues as

  14. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in ornithischians and birds. Craniad migration of the iliofemoralis group muscles in birds correlates with increased leverage and use of medial femoral rotation to counter stance phase adduction moments at the hip. In Lesothosaurus the iliofemoralis group maintains significantly higher moment arms for abduction, consistent with the hip abduction mode of lateral limb support hypothesized for basal dinosaurs. Sensitivity analysis highlights ambiguity in the role of musculature associated with the retroverted pubis (puboischiofemoralis externus group) in ornithischians. However, it seems likely that this musculature may have predominantly functioned similarly to homologous muscles in extant birds, activating during the swing phase to adduct the lower limb through lateral rotation of the femur. Overall the results suggest that locomotor muscle leverage in Lesothosaurus (and by inference basal ornithischians in general) was more similar to that of other non-avian dinosaurs than the ostrich, representing what was probably the basal dinosaur condition. This work thereby contradicts previous hypotheses of ornithischian-bird functional convergence. PMID:22211275

  15. Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yan, Hai; Lv, Le; Xu, Qianqian; Yin, Chunhua; Zhang, Keyi; Wang, Pei; Hu, Jiye

    2012-05-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Nine hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups with three replicate pens of 100 broiler chicks. Three treatments were i) control, ii) basal diets supplemented with 1 ml of B. licheniformis for each in feed water per day iii) basal diets supplemented with 2 ml of B. licheniformis per chick in feed water per day. The supplementation of B. licheniformis significantly increased body weight in grower chickens (p<0.05), and significantly improved the feed conversion in 3 to 6 and 0 to 6 wk feeding period compared with the control group (p<0.05). Additionally, the supplement also resulted in increased protein and free amino acid contents, and decreased fat content in chicken breast fillet (p<0.05). Furthermore, improvement in sensory attributes was observed in broilers fed with the probiotic. In conclusion, B. licheniformis treatments resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in broiler productivity based on an index taking into account daily weight gain and feed conversion rate. Meanwhile, the probiotic contributed towards an improvement of the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of breast fillet. Overall, the study indicates that B. licheniformis can be used as a growth promoter and meat quality enhancer in broiler poultry. PMID:25049614

  16. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  17. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    PubMed Central

    N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

  18. Proactive Selective Response Suppression Is Implemented via the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Majid, D. S. Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway. PMID:23946385

  19. A Case of Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yuriko; Omura, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of benign salivary gland tumor found most commonly in the parotid gland. We present a rare case of basal cell adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland of the upper lip. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man who visited our department in December 2012 with a chief complaint of a mass in the upper lip, which had increased in size over several years. A mobile, elastic, and relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in the upper lip region. The mucosa of the upper lip covering the mass was normal. Tumor extirpation was performed under local anesthesia. Histologically, the tumor had a capsule and was composed of islands of relatively uniform, monotonous cells. Immunohistochemically, the inner tumor comprised tubuloductal structures that showed strong staining for CK7, while the outer tumor showed weak staining for CK7. The outer tumor cells also stained positively for CD10 and p63. The MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index was extremely low. Basal cell adenoma was diagnosed based on these results. The postoperative course was uneventful 12 months after surgery and there has been no recurrence. PMID:24711821

  20. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

  1. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-01-01

    The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

  2. Relationship between genotoxic effects of breast cancer treatments and patient basal DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, María Paula; Funes, Juan Capitaine; Massa, Estefanía; Cipulli, Germán; Gil, Alfonso Benitez; Funes, Carlos Capitaine; Tozzini, Roberto; Ghersevich, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy cause genotoxic side effects that are highly variable among patients. In this study, we evaluated DNA integrity using the comet assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes from breast cancer patients before ("pre-treatment patients"; n=47) and after ("post-treatment patients"; n=24) radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy treatment and from healthy donors (n=15). Comet evaluation was made by visual (types 0-4) and digital (percentage of DNA remaining in the comet head=% head DNA) analysis. The association between the level of DNA damage and cancer prognostic factors was assessed. The treatments caused a significant increase in DNA damage registered by both visual (p<0.001) and digital (p<0.001) analyses. No significant associations between the level of DNA damage in pre-treatment patients and cancer prognostic factors were found. A significant correlation between the comet results from each patient before and after treatment (r=0.64, p=0.001) was observed. The % head DNA in post-treatment samples from patients with a high level of DNA damage before treatment (30.3±3.1%, p<0.01) was lower than in post-treatment samples from patients with a low-to-medium level of DNA damage before therapy (49.2±4.4%). These results support the usefulness of the comet assay as a sensitive technique to evaluate basal DNA status and DNA damage caused by cancer treatments. The comet assay could contribute to treatment decisions, especially by taking into account the patient's basal DNA damage before therapy. PMID:24941294

  3. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  4. Maternal Supplement Use During Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Bratton, Mallory Michelle

    2012-05-31

    supplementation are not consistent. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends general, prenatal supplementation only for women who smoke, abuse alcohol/drugs, have iron deficiency anemia, have poor quality diets, are vegans, and women with ?2 fetuses (2, 8... in the diet of US pregnant women by evaluating both the composition and frequency of supplement intake. 2 Research questions Primary research question: How much vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium, iron, iodine, and choline did women...

  5. The role of basal ganglia-forebrain circuitry in the vocal learning of songbirds

    E-print Network

    Andalman, Aaron Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The basal ganglia form the largest sub-cortical structure in the human brain and are implicated in numerous human diseases. In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and ...

  6. A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Jesse H.

    The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia to the cortex and is critical for motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the basal ganglia, ...

  7. What are the Computations of the Cerebellum, the Basal Gangila, and the Cerebral Cortex?

    E-print Network

    Doya, Kenji

    ganglia participate in 2 #12;Cerebral Cortex Basal Ganglia Cerebellum Thalamus substantia nigra inferior olive Figure 1: Global network linking the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex

  8. An engineering model of lower thalamo-cortico-basal ganglionic circuit function

    E-print Network

    Lim, Eugene J. (Eugene Jungsud), 1980-

    2003-01-01

    An engineering model of lower thalamo-cortico-basal ganglionic circuit functionality was extended and tested. This model attempts to explain the circuitry of the basal ganglia, examine its functional properties, and integrate ...

  9. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancers , such as those with certain congenital conditions (basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, etc.), a history of skin cancer, ... PTCH and SMO , may help some people with basal cell nevus syndrome. The drug vismodegib (Erivedge), taken daily as a ...

  10. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  11. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  12. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24?cm by 15.24?cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris?flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4?year monitoring period, 11 debris?flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64?mm. The basal force during these erosive debris?flow events had a large?magnitude (up to 21?kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time?averaged mean force), high?frequency (greater than 1?Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time?averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~?20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time?averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~?5?cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse?grained granular surges and water?rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite differences in appearance and bulk?flow density. These results demonstrate that debris flows can have strong control on rates of steepland evolution and contribute to a foundation needed for modeling debris?flow incision stochastically.

  13. FDA Guide to Dietary Supplements

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kurtzweil, Paula, 1958-.

    1999-01-01

    The sale and variety of dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbal mixtures, and hormones have expanded tremendously in recent years, accounting for $6.5 billion in sales in 1996 alone. This resource will help users to understand this trend and the health claims made by supplement companies and to make educated decisions regarding their use. This site offers a revised version of an article which originally ran in the September-October 1998 FDA Consumer. The article addresses topics such as the definition of a dietary supplement, safety monitoring, understanding claims, and fraudulent products. An illustration of new requirements for dietary supplement labels and sources for more information are also provided.

  14. Cultivation of Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells in Serum-Free Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Castro-Munozledo; Walid Kuri-Harcuch

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To establish conditions for cultivation, serial growth, and normal differentiation of corneal epithelial cells in serum-free medium (SFM). Methods. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were co-cultured with lethally treated 3T3-cell feeder layers. Instead of serum, medium was supplemented with serum albumin, hormones, and other additives. Cell growth was quantitated spectrophotometrically with a new rhodamine-B staining protocol with a sensitivity range

  15. Development of chemically defined medium for Mannheimia succiniciproducens based on its genome sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyohak Song; Tae Yong Kim; Bo-Kyeong Choi; Seong Jun Choi; Lars K. Nielsen; Ho Nam Chang; Sang Yup Lee

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a novel methodology for the development of a chemically defined medium (CDM) using genome-scale metabolic\\u000a network and flux balance analysis. The genome-based in silico analysis identified two amino acids and four vitamins as non-substitutable\\u000a essential compounds to be supplemented to a minimal medium for the sustainable growth of Mannheimia succiniciproducens, while no substitutable essential compounds were identified.

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Roewe, R. J.; Uhlman, Matthew A.; Bockholt, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision. PMID:25298901

  17. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Improve Carotene Production from Synthetic Medium by Blakeslea trispora in Submerged Fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Filotheou; Konstadina Nanou; Emmanuel Papaioannou; Triantafyllos Roukas; Parthena Kotzekidou; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides

    Optimization of the medium components which enhance carotene production by Blakeslea trispora was achieved with the aid of response surface methodology. In the first step, a central composite design was employed to\\u000a achieve the highest carotene concentration at optimum values of the process variables, i.e., linoleic acid, Span 20, and butylated\\u000a hydroxytoluene (BHT), added in the basal medium. The fit

  18. Effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the motility and penetrability of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa incubated in the fertilization medium.

    PubMed

    Kaedei, Y; Naito, M; Naoi, H; Sato, Y; Taniguchi, M; Tanihara, F; Kikuchi, K; Nagai, T; Otoi, T

    2012-12-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis) and is known for its antioxidant effects. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of EGCG during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on the sperm quality and penetrability into oocytes. In the first experiment, the effects of concentration and incubation period of EGCG on the motility and penetrability of spermatozoa were examined. When frozen-thawed spermatozoa were incubated in IVF medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1, 50 and 100 ?m EGCG for 1, 3 and 5 h, supplementation with 50 and 100 ?m EGCG improved motility of the spermatozoa (p < 0.05), but not viability, as compared with the control group. When frozen-thawed spermatozoa were co-incubated with in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes in IVF medium supplemented with 50 and 100 ?m EGCG for 5 h, supplementation of EGCG had positive effects on sperm penetration rates. In the second experiment, the effects of supplementation of EGCG in IVF medium on penetrability of sperm from different boars and development of fertilized oocytes were evaluated. When frozen-thawed spermatozoa from six boars were co-incubated with IVM oocytes in IVF medium supplemented with 50 ?m EGCG, the effect of EGCG on sperm penetration and development of oocytes after fertilization was found to vary with individual boar. Our results indicate that motility and penetrability of boar spermatozoa are improved by co-incubation with 50 ?m EGCG, but the effects vary with individual boars. PMID:22299777

  19. Supplemental Data ENCODE dataset

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    Supplemental Data Figure S1 ~2.5 Mb of ENCODE dataset AHI1, ASPM, FOXP2 and GPR56 Figure S1.99 2.68 0.0036 GPR56 rs3848270 57446991 T 0.55 0.13 13.25 2.78 0.0028 GPR56 rs3916059 57447303 G 0.58 0.12 11.66 2.77 0.0028 GPR56 rs6499906 57447754 T 0.56 0.13 13.38 2.92 0.0018 GPR56 rs3760061 57448857 A 0

  20. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  1. Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians Kim L. Hoke the existence of a homologue of the mam- malian substantia nigra­basal ganglia circuit in the amphibian brain proposed that homologous basal ganglia circuits may exist in both amphibians and mammals (reviewed

  2. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  3. Glacier surge mechanism based on linked cavity configuration of the basal water conduit system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barclay Kamb

    1987-01-01

    Based on observations of the 1982-1983 surge of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, a model of the surge mechanism is developed in terms of a transition from the normal tunnel configuration of the basal water conduit system to a linked cavity configuration that tends to restrict the flow of water, resulting in increased basal water pressures that cause rapid basal sliding. The

  4. Basal ice motion and deformation at the ice-sheet margin, West Greenland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Chandler; Richard I. Waller; William G. Adam

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of basal ice deformation at the margin of Russell Glacier, West Greenland, have provided an opportunity to gain more insight into basal processes occurring near the margin. The basal ice layer comprises a debris-rich, heterogeneous stratified facies, overlain by a comparatively debris-poor dispersed facies. Ice velocities were obtained from anchors placed in both ice facies, at three sites under

  5. Cyclical behavior of thrust wedges: Insights from high basal friction sandbox experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc-André Gutscher; Nina Kukowski; Jacques Malavieille; Serge Lallemand

    1996-01-01

    Scaled sandbox experiments with high basal friction, simulating the growth of accretionary wedges, display cycles alternating between frontal imbricate thrusting and underthrusting of long, undeformed sheets. By contrast, low basal friction experiments with otherwise similar and constant, initial conditions produce a classic frontal imbricate fan through repeated failure along frontal thrusts. The cyclical behavior observed in high basal friction experiments

  6. Efflux-dependent auxin gradients establish the apical-basal axis of Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jirí Friml; Anne Vieten; Michael Sauer; Dolf Weijers; Heinz Schwarz; Thorsten Hamann; Remko Offringa; Gerd Jürgens

    2003-01-01

    Axis formation occurs in plants, as in animals, during early embryogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the first manifestation of the apical-basal axis in plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote, produces a basal cell that transports and an apical cell that responds to the signalling molecule auxin. This apical-basal auxin activity gradient triggers

  7. The Social Endocrinology of Dominance: Basal Testosterone Predicts Cortisol Changes and Behavior Following Victory and Defeat

    E-print Network

    Josephs, Robert

    The Social Endocrinology of Dominance: Basal Testosterone Predicts Cortisol Changes and Behavior at Austin Past research suggests that individuals high in basal testosterone are motivated to gain high consequences of high and low status as a function of basal testosterone. The outcome of a competition

  8. Basal Keratinocytes from Uninvolved Psoriatic Skin Exhibit Accelerated Spreading and Focal Adhesion Kinase Responsiveness to Fibronectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guofen Chen; Thomas S. McCormick; Craig Hammerberg; Shauna Ryder-Diggs; Seth R. Stevens; Kevin D. Cooper

    2001-01-01

    We previously proposed that the keratinocyte hyperproliferative state in psoriatic skin results from a combination of T cell cytokine interaction with basal keratinocytes that exist in a primed state. We now provide evidence that basal keratinocytes from psoriatic uninvolved skin are in a preactivated state with regard to their interaction with fibronectin. Freshly isolated basal keratinocytes (K1\\/K10–) from nonlesional psoriatic

  9. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  10. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  11. Influence of cytokinins, basal media and pH on adventitious shoot regeneration from excised root cultures of Albizia lebbeck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahnaz Perveen; Ankita Varshney; Mohammad Anis; Ibrahim M. Aref

    2011-01-01

    A highly reproducible and efficient in vitro shoot regeneration system was developed in a potential medicinal plant, Albizia lebbeck using root explants. Root explants from 15 day-old-aseptic seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with different concentrations (0.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 ?M) of 6-Benzyladenine (BA), Kinetin (Kn), 2-Isopentenyl adenine\\u000a (2-iP) singly as well as in

  12. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  13. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... view as pdf | share Create PDF Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  14. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  15. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  16. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  17. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  18. Effect of fish oil supplementation for 2 generations on changes in macrophage function induced by Walker 256 cancer cachexia in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Folador; Sandro M. Hirabara; Sandro J. R. Bonatto; Júlia Aikawa; Ricardo K. Yamazaki; Rui Curi; Luiz C. Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The effect of coconut fat (rich in medium saturated fatty acids) or fish oil (rich in -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) supplementation for 2 generations on tumor growth, cancer cachexia, animal survival and macrophage function was investigated in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Female Wistar rats were supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil prior to mating and then throughout pregnancy and

  19. Angiostrongylus costaricensis: culture of third-stage larvae to young adults in a defined medium.

    PubMed

    Hata, H; Kojima, S

    1991-10-01

    The third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis were successfully cultured to young adults in a chemically defined medium. The most suitable medium for the development was Waymouth's medium among eight defined media examined. Twenty-eight days after cultivation in this medium, 77% of the larvae developed to young adults, although these worms gradually died thereafter. When Waymouth's medium was supplemented with mouse red blood cells, these young adult worms continued their development. The mean body lengths of the worms cultivated in Waymouth's medium supplemented with RBCs were significantly larger than those of the worms in the medium without RBCs on Days 14 and 21 after cultivation. Addition of RBCs was essential for their further development. At 28 days after cultivation, the maximum body length of the worms was 2.1 mm for males and 3.3 mm for females. Additions of serum, yeast extract lactalbumin hydrolysate, and growth factors to Waymouth's medium did not provide any additional benefits for worm development. PMID:1915749

  20. The Local Interstellar Medium

    E-print Network

    R. Ferlet

    1999-03-17

    Substantial progress in the field of the Local Interstellar Medium has been largely due to recent launches of space missions, mostly in the UV and X-ray domains, but also to ground-based observations, mainly in high resolution spectroscopy. However, a clear gap seems to remain between the wealth of new data and the theoretical understanding. This paper gives an overview of some observational aspects, with no attempt of completeness or doing justice to all the people involved in the field. As progress rarely evolves in straight paths, we can expect that our present picture of the solar system surroundings is not definitive.

  1. Intracluster Medium Abundances Revisited

    E-print Network

    Brad K. Gibson; Emma J. Woolaston

    1998-02-13

    We examine the origin of heavy elements in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters, concentrating upon the roles played by supernovae (SNe) Types Ia and II. The most accurately determined elemental abundances, Si and Fe, imply a mild predominance of Type II SNe as the source of ICM Fe, contributing approximately 60-80% of its total (and approximately 100% of the alpha-elements). (Currently) intractable uncertainties in measuring X-ray alpha-element ICM abundances, the initial mass function (IMF), and stellar evolution ingredients, make a more precise determination of the Ia:II ICM iron ``ratio'' impossible.

  2. Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Not all "natural" products are safe, and they are not tested or regulated like other drugs and medicines. Taking too much of a dietary supplement can have ... or herbal products. Tell your doctor about any supplements you are ...

  3. Neuron, Volume 55 Supplemental Data

    E-print Network

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    Neuron, Volume 55 Supplemental Data Differential Attention-Dependent Response Modulation across in firing rate across the undifferentiated neural population. We recorded 218 neurons (142 in monkey A, 76 between animals. Supplemental Figure 1B shows the average firing rate of the visually responsive neurons

  4. Neuron, Volume 70 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Kemnitz, Joseph

    Neuron, Volume 70 Supplemental Information Synaptophysin Regulates the Kinetics of Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Central Neurons Sung E. Kwon and Edwin R. Chapman #12;#12;#12;#12;Supplemental Figure Legends pool in wt and syp -/- neurons. (A) Schematic diagram of SV2A-pHluorin. The pHluorin was inserted

  5. Neuron, volume 77 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Oertner, Thomas

    1 Neuron, volume 77 Supplemental Information Developmental Refinement of Vesicle Cycling (`mature') or 5-7 days (`immature') after targeted transfection of CA3. To selectively transfect neurons-10 min). Neurons were suspended in MEM plus glutamax (Gibco 41090, supplemented with 11% fetal calf serum

  6. Computer to recording medium interface

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, R.H.

    1981-03-17

    A central computer is utilized to control a recording medium while a peripheral computer is utilized to supply data to the recording medium for recording on magnetic tape. Method and apparatus is provided whereby an error indication is provided to the central computer if an error occurs in the transfer of data from the peripheral computer to the recording medium.

  7. Functional anatomy: dynamic States in Basal Ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Arbuthnott, Gordon W

    2010-01-01

    The most appealing models of how the basal ganglia function propose distributed patterns of cortical activity selectively interacting with striatal networks to yield the execution of context-dependent movements. If movement is encoded by patterns of activity then these may be disrupted by influences at once more subtle and more devastating than the increase or decrease of neuronal firing that dominate the usual models of the circuit. In the absence of dopamine the compositional capabilities of cell assemblies in the network could be disrupted by the generation of dominant synchronous activity that engages most of the system. Experimental evidence about Parkinson's disease suggests that dopamine loss produces abnormal patterns of activity in different nuclei. For example, increased oscillatory activity arises in the GPe, GPi, and STN and is reflected as increased cortical beta frequency coherence disrupting the ability to produce motor sequences. When the idea of deep brain stimulation was proposed - it was supported by the information that lesions of the subthalamus reversed the effects of damage to the dopamine input to the system. However, it seems increasingly unlikely that the stimulation acts by silencing the nucleus as was at first proposed. Perhaps the increased cortical beta activity caused by the lack of dopamine could have disabled the patterning of network activity. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus disrupts the on-going cortical rhythms. Subsequently asynchronous firing is reinstated and striatal cell assemblies and the whole basal ganglia circuit engage in a more normal pattern of activity. We will review the different variables involved in the generation of sequential activity patterns, integrate our data on deep brain stimulation and network population dynamics, and thus provide a novel interpretation of functional aspects of basal ganglia circuitry. PMID:21151374

  8. Pine Island Glacier - basal properties and sliding laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkens, Nina; Humbert, Angelika

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Antarctic Ice Sheet can be well seen and studied on the behavior of Pine Island Glacier. Despite the long time believe in a slow response of the ice sheet to changing atmospheric and oceanic forcing, Pine Island has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat in the past decades. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope below the glacier. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modeling studies. Plenty of working groups have conducted modeling studies of Pine Island Glacier with varying model complexity and diverse focuses. We want to add to this by conducting model experiments with a diagnostic 3D full-stokes model of Pine Island Glacier. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. The focus of our work lies on the basal properties below the glacier and the connection to sliding behavior. We believe that this is a crucial part, as different basal conditions might cause different responses to ongoing changes in the area. Recent studies presented evidence for the existence of a water saturated sediment basin below the main trunk of the glacier. We conduct a variety a numerical experiments with which we test different approaches of combining information about the basal properties with sliding laws.

  9. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ?, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews. PMID:23572369

  10. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Basal Aquifer of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Rebscher, D.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge for society. Geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions to decrease carbon emissions. One such deep saline aquifer targeted for industrial-scale CO2 injection is the Basal Aquifer of Prairie Region in Canada and Northern Plains in the US. The aquifer stretches across three provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and three states (Montana, North and South Dakota), and covers approximately 1,320,000 km2 (Figure 1). A large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the foot print of the aquifer, and several CO2 injection projects are in the planning stage. In order for CO2 sequestration to be successful, the injected CO2 needs to stay isolated from the atmosphere for many centuries. Mathematical models are useful tools to assess the fate of both the injected CO2 and the resident brine. These models vary in complexity from fully three-dimensional multi-phase numerical reservoir simulators to simple semi-analytical solutions. In this presentation we compare a cascade of models ranging from single-phase semi-analytic solutions to multi-phase numerical simulators to determine the ability of each of these approaches to predict the pressure response in the injection formation. The majority of the models in this study are based on vertically-integrated governing equations; such models are computationally efficient, allow for reduced data input, and are broadly consistent with the flow physics. The petro-physical parameters and geometries used in this study are based on the geology of the Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer. Approximately ten injection sites are included in the model, with locations and injection rates based on planned injection operations. The predicted areas of review of the injection operations are used as a comparison metric among the different simulation approaches. Areal extent of the Basal Aquifer (*Source: Alberta Innovates Technology Futures)

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  12. Concurrent primary and secondary myiasis on basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Adriana Andrade; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Massone, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Myiasis is a disease caused by infestation of fly larvae in human and other vertebrate tissues. It is a skin condition common in tropical and subtropical countries and its predisposing factors are: chronic diseases, immunodeficiency, poor hygiene, senility, psychiatric disorders, skin cancers and ulcerated mucosae. We report the case of a healthy patient who after traumatic injury of a preexisting lesion showed a tumor on the dorsal region parasitized by fly larvae. The histopathological examination performed for the diagnosis of skin neoplasm surprisingly revealed the presence of a partially degenerated larva with characteristics of Dermatobia hominis, suggesting an association of primary and secondary myiasis on basal cell carcinoma. PMID:22570036

  13. Brain cell microenvironment effects on neuron excitability and basal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aiello, G L; Bach-y-Rita, P

    1997-03-24

    In a model of neurons in a brain cell assembly, changes in volume of the extracellular space affect neuronal excitability and basal metabolism. A widely applicable coefficient of excitability with respect to a variation of the volume fraction has been determined. Calculations suggest that chloride increases membrane stability by indirectly promoting an acceleration of the metabolic pumping rate as a response to a diminished extracellular volume fraction. Volume fraction changes induced by cell swelling in a compact and highly tortuous microenvironment may play a role in epilepsy and, following brain damage, in cell death and recovery. PMID:9175106

  14. Basal scarp, paleoglacier, and fissure flows of Elysium Mons, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Mary G.

    1993-01-01

    Geological mapping at 1:500,000 scale of the Granicus Valles area west of Elysium Mons (MTM quadrangles 30227, 30222, and 25227) indicates that (1) the oldest deposits in the area are Upper Hesperian lavas of the Elysium shield; (2) a basal scarp formed by Early Amazonian faulting around the northwest flank of Elysium Mons triggered growth of Elysium Fossae; (3) a glacier or an ice sheet west and north of the scarp was of long duration; (4) water and lava flows from Elysium Fossae became dominant during and after glacial recession; and (5) the last volcanic-fissure-related flows resulted in linear chains of small domes on the Elysium shield.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma: a comprehensive review for the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Baheti, Akshay D; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Giardino, Angela; Rosenthal, Michael H; Tirumani, Harika; Krajewski, Katherine; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in the United States. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive description of the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic workup, staging, treatment, and follow-up of BCC. CONCLUSION. Radiology plays an important role in the evaluation and staging of locally advanced and metastatic BCC. MRI is the modality of choice for assessing perineural disease and is equivalent or superior to CT for evaluating bony involvement. CT and PET/CT are used to evaluate metastatic disease. PMID:25615773

  16. Basal cell carcinoma — molecular biology and potential new therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Maria; Jaks, Viljar; Hohl, Daniel; Toftgård, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, the most common malignancy in individuals of mixed European descent, is increasing in incidence due to an aging population and sun exposure habits. The realization that aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling is a pathognomonic feature of BCC development has opened the way for exciting progress toward understanding BCC biology and translation of this knowledge to the clinic. Genetic mouse models closely mimicking human BCCs have provided answers about the tumor cell of origin, and inhibition of Hedgehog signaling is emerging as a potentially useful targeted therapy for patients with advanced or multiple BCCs that have hitherto lacked effective treatment. PMID:22293184

  17. Accumulation of selected macronutrients in mistletoe tissue cultures: effect of medium composition and explant source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Barberaki; S Kintzios

    2002-01-01

    We initiated callus cultures of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) by inoculating leaf and stem explants on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations of growth regulators at various concentrations. The cultures were assayed for the accumulation of K, P, Ca and Mg. The accumulation of all macronutrients was significantly affected by both growth regulator treatment and explant

  18. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  19. Distribution and Intrinsic Membrane Properties of Basal Forebrain GABAergic and Parvalbumin Neurons in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, James T.; Yang, Chun; Franciosi, Serena; Winston, Stuart; Abarr, Kathleen K.; Rigby, Matthew S.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; McCarley, Robert W.; Brown, Ritchie E.

    2013-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) strongly regulates cortical activation, sleep homeostasis, and attention. Many BF neurons involved in these processes are GABAergic, including a subpopulation of projection neurons containing the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). However, technical difficulties in identification have prevented a precise mapping of the distribution of GABAergic and GABA/PV+ neurons in the mouse or a determination of their intrinsic membrane properties. Here we used mice expressing fluorescent proteins in GABAergic (GAD67-GFP knock-in mice) or PV+ neurons (PV-Tomato mice) to study these neurons. Immunohistochemical staining for GABA in GAD67-GFP mice confirmed that GFP selectively labeled BF GABAergic neurons. GFP+ neurons and fibers were distributed throughout the BF, with the highest density in the magnocellular preoptic area (MCPO). Immunohistochemistry for PV indicated that the majority of PV+ neurons in the BF were large (>20 ?m) or medium-sized (15–20 ?m) GFP+ neurons. Most medium and large-sized BF GFP+ neurons, including those retrogradely labeled from the neocortex, were fast-firing and spontaneously active in vitro. They exhibited prominent hyperpolarization-activated inward currents and subthreshold “spikelets,” suggestive of electrical coupling. PV+ neurons recorded in PV-Tomato mice had similar properties but had significantly narrower action potentials and a higher maximal firing frequency. Another population of smaller GFP+ neurons had properties similar to striatal projection neurons. The fast firing and electrical coupling of BF GABA/PV+ neurons, together with their projections to cortical interneurons and the thalamic reticular nucleus, suggest a strong and synchronous control of the neocortical fast rhythms typical of wakefulness and REM sleep. PMID:23254904

  20. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  1. The basal transcription machinery as a target for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    General transcription is required for the growth and survival of all living cells. However, tumor cells require extraordinary levels of transcription, including the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes by RNA polymerase I (RNPI) and mRNA by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). In fact, cancer cells have mutations that directly enhance transcription and are frequently required for cancer transformation. For example, the recent discovery that MYC enhances the transcription of the majority genes in the genome correlates with the fact that several transcription interfering drugs preferentially kill cancer cells. In recent years, advances in the mechanistic studies of the basal transcription machinery and the discovery of drugs that interfere with multiple components of transcription are being used to combat cancer. For example, drugs such as triptolide that targets the general transcription factors TFIIH and JQ1 to inhibit BRD4 are administered to target the high proliferative rate of cancer cells. Given the importance of finding new strategies to preferentially sensitize tumor cells, this review primarily focuses on several transcription inhibitory drugs to demonstrate that the basal transcription machinery constitutes a potential target for the design of novel cancer drugs. We highlight the drugs’ mechanisms for interfering with tumor cell survival, their importance in cancer treatment and the challenges of clinical application. PMID:24576043

  2. Hox cluster duplication in the basal teleost Hiodon alosoides (Osteoglossomorpha).

    PubMed

    Chambers, Karen E; McDaniell, Ryan; Raincrow, Jeremy D; Deshmukh, Maya; Stadler, Peter F; Chiu, Chi-hua

    2009-05-01

    Large-scale--even genome-wide--duplications have repeatedly been invoked as an explanation for major radiations. Teleosts, the most species-rich vertebrate clade, underwent a "fish-specific genome duplication" (FSGD) that is shared by most ray-finned fish lineages. We investigate here the Hox complement of the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a representative of Osteoglossomorpha, the most basal teleostean clade. An extensive PCR survey reveals that goldeye has at least eight Hox clusters, indicating a duplicated genome compared to basal actinopterygians. The possession of duplicated Hox clusters is uncoupled to species richness. The Hox system of the goldeye is substantially different from that of other teleost lineages, having retained several duplicates of Hox genes for which crown teleosts have lost at least one copy. A detailed analysis of the PCR fragments as well as full length sequences of two HoxA13 paralogs, and HoxA10 and HoxC4 genes places the duplication event close in time to the divergence of Osteoglossomorpha and crown teleosts. The data are consistent with-but do not conclusively prove-that Osteoglossomorpha shares the FSGD. PMID:19225820

  3. Immunohistochemical characterization of basal cell adenomas of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Fujita, S; Okabe, H; Tsuda, N; Tezuka, F

    1991-03-01

    Seven cases of basal cell adenomas of the salivary gland were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods with a broad panel of routinely used antibodies. Histologically the epithelial elements were classified as tubuloglandular, trabecular and solid patterns. The authors' results indicated the following: 1) The duct lining cells of tubuloglandular and trabecular patterns have distinct epithelial features with cytokeratins (KL 1, PKK 1, *PKK 2 and PKK 3), alpha-one-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-ACT), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and S-100 alpha subunit positivity. 2) The basaloid cells in the trabecular and solid patterns expressed two immunophenotypes: one had actin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S-100 protein and S-100 beta subunit patterns typical of myoepithelial cells in normal glands. The other basaloid cells had vimentin and S-100 protein patterns. The former cell type could be found in 4 of 7 cases and the latter was found in 7 cases. This represents a minor participation of the myoepithelial cells in the basal cell adenoma. 3) The basement membrane and stromal connective tissue around the neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-one-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT). This antibody is a good marker in identifying the basement membrane-like material. PMID:2067993

  4. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P.Martin

    2007-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, ‘aquatic’ turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  5. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    PubMed

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease. PMID:24983277

  6. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, SR; Ion, RM; Popescu, SM; Giurcaneanu, C

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology. PMID:23599819

  7. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Womer, Fay Y; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Smith, Matthew J; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M; Mamah, Daniel

    2014-08-30

    In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866

  8. Anisotropic effective medium theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Serge

    1994-02-01

    The optical properties of anisotropic inhomogeneous media are studied within the framework of the classical 3D effective medium theories of Maxwell Garnett and Bruggeman, and the 2D theory of Yamaguchi et al. The origin of the anisotropy is either the nonspherical shape of the metallic inclusions in the 3D systems, or the distribution of the inclusions (even if spherical) on a substrate in the 2D configuration. In both cases, it leads to an anisotropic effective medium. In this paper, it is shown that this surrounding anisotropic medium induces a fictitious deformation of the inclusions which reduces the anisotropy and shifts the resonance wavelengths toward the sphere plasmon resonance. In the case of the mean field theory of Bruggeman, it also affects the percolation threshold value. Although some of these theories are now quite old, they are still extensively used, especially for the predictions of the absorption of the composite media. Therefore the effect presented here for the first time should be taken into account. Les propriétés optiques des milieux inhomogènes anisotropes sont étudiées dans le cadre des théories du milieu effectif, tant à trois dimensions (3D) (théories de Maxwell Garnett et de Bruggeman) qu'à deux dimensions (2D) (théorie de Yamaguchi et al.). L'anisotropie du milieu effectif peut provenir soit de l'alignement d'inclusions non sphériques dans un système à deux ou trois dimensions, soit de la distribution plane du système 2D, même pour des particules sphériques. Nous montrons ici que ce milieu effectif anisotrope induit une déformation fictive des inclusions qui va dans le sens d'une réduction de l'anisotropie et rapproche les fréquences de résonance de plasmon de surface vers celle de la sphère. Par ailleurs, dans le cas de la théorie de Bruggeman, cela modifie la valeur du seuil de percolation optique. Ces théories, bien qu'anciennes, sont toujours très utilisées, en particulier pour prédire l'absorption optique des composites. L'effet présenté ici doit donc impérativement être pris en compte.

  9. Palatability of post-extraction algal residue as a protein supplement for cattle.

    SciTech Connect

    Drewery, M. L. [Texas A& M University; Sawyer, J. E. [Texas A& M University; Wickersham, T. A. [Texas A& M University

    2012-12-01

    Market value of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) is driven by its ability to compete with commonly fed protein sources; for example cottonseed meal (CSM) and dried distillers’ grains (DDG). An initial step in evaluating PEAR (20% CP, 59% OM) is to determine palatability when fed as a protein supplement. Accordingly, we evaluated the palatability of PEAR-containing supplements in cattle consuming a basal diet of Bermudagrass (13% CP, 76% NDF). Twelve steers were used in a 12 × 12 Latin square experiment consisting of 12 4-d periods. Each period included 3-d where steers were fed a test supplement and a 1-d washout where steers were fed DDG. Supplements were formulated with different carrier ingredients (DDG, CSM, or liquid supplement, LS) and different levels of PEAR inclusion (0, 20, 40, and 60% for DDG and CSM and 0, 33, 66, and 100% for LS). Intake and time required for consumption were recorded daily. A significant (P < 0.05) treatment × day interaction for g consumed per min (GPM) was observed. This interaction resulted from changing rates of consumption as cattle adapted to supplements. Supplements containing DDG had the greatest rates of consumption (177 – 187 GPM), followed by CSM supplements (148 – 166 GPM). Blends including PEAR and LS had slower rates of consumption (58 – 93 GPM). Supplement formulation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the amount of supplement consumed and time required for complete consumption. Supplements which contained DDG or CSM were consumed in less than 11 min; complete consumption was observed 92 – 100% of the time. Treatments containing LS required more time for complete consumption (21 – 33 min) and were finished 77 – 96% of the time. Our results suggest PEAR can be blended (up to 60%) with existing ingredients utilized in beef rations to create suitable protein supplements. However, PEAR is not palatable when offered alone (complete consumption of 100% PEAR occurred 77.5% of the time and required 31.5 min) or incorporated into LS. Additional research is necessary to determine the impact of PEAR on nutrient utilization in cattle.

  10. Effect of fat supplementation on leptin, insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, and insulin in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; García-Tornadú, Isabel; Shroeder, Guillermo; Salado, Eloy E.; Gagliostro, Gerardo; Delavaud, Carole; Chilliard, Yves; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fat supplementation on plasma levels of hormones related to metabolism, with special attention to leptin, in cows in early lactation and in feedlot steers. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows received no fat or else 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum. In experiment 2, part of the corn in the basal concentrate was replaced with 0.7 kg of the same oil such that the diets were isocaloric; 18 cows received the fat-substituted diet and 18 a control diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 75 postpartum. In experiment 3, calcium salts of fatty acids were added to the basal diet of 14 feedlot steers for 80 d; another 14 steers received a control diet. The basal plasma levels of leptin were higher in the cows than in the steers. Dietary fat supplementation did not affect the leptin levels in the lactating cows but lowered the levels in the feedlot steers despite greater energy intake and body fatness (body weight) in the steers receiving the supplement than in those receiving the control diet. The levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin were decreased with dietary fat supplementation in the lactating cows but were unaffected in the steers, suggesting that responses to fat ingestion depend on the physiological state of the animal, including age and sex. Finally, no effects of supplementary fat on the level of growth hormone were demonstrated in any of the models. PMID:17695598

  11. Effect of zinc supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on growth and blood biochemical profi le in crossbred calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Mandal; R. S. Dass; A. K. Garg; V. P. Varshney; A. B. Mondal

    The effect of zinc supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on some physiological and biochemical profi le was investigated in 15 male crossbred calves (age 14-15 months, liveweight 226.0 ± 9.06 kg) randomly divided into three groups of fi ve animals in each. Animals in group I (control) were fed a basal diet comprised of wheat straw and concentrate mixture

  12. Effect of nutritional supplementation of Khat ( Catha edulis) on testicular growth and sperm production in Ethiopian bucks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoseph Mekasha; Azage Tegegne; Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez

    A study was conducted to characterize body and testicular growth and sperm production parameters in indigenous Ogaden goats fed a basal diet of hay and supplemented with either Khat leftovers or a concentrate. Forty bucks with a mean (±S.D.) initial body weight (BW) of 15.5±1.5kg were selected and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a period of

  13. Evaluation of lactic acid bacteria autolysate for the supplementation of lactic acid bacteria fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Amrane

    2000-01-01

    At the end of culture in a carbon-limited medium, i.e. the best conditions for subsequent autolysis, lactic acid bacteria were harvested and autolysed at 50 °C for 24 h. The resulting supernatant was then successfully tested as a substitute for industrial yeast extract for the supplementation of whey permeate and its conversion into lactic acid: for almost equivalent total nitrogen

  14. Promoting Enterprise Development or Subsidizing Tradition?The Japan Credit Supplementation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miwako Nitani; Allan Riding

    2005-01-01

    Governments and trade associations have often intervened in credit markets to guarantee loans made by financial institutions to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The most active loan guarantee program in the world is the Japanese Credit Supplementation System yet the level of entrepreneurial activity in Japan is extremely low. This paradox suggests that lack of available capital may not be

  15. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  16. [Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with corpus callosum agenesis, PTCH1 mutation and absence of basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mazzuoccolo, Luis D; Martínez, María Florencia; Muchnik, Carolina; Azurmendi, Pablo J; Stengel, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, mainly due to PTCH1 gene mutations, that comprises a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The presence of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is a cardinal sign in NBCCS, therefore cases in which BCCs are absent entails a delay in the diagnosis.We present a 14 years old boy with a clinical diagnosis of NBCCS by the presence of odontogenic cysts, hypertelorism, macrocephaly, and corpus callosum agenesia, but with absence of skin lesions. His 43 years old mother has NBCCS diagnosis and no history of BCCs. For a deeper study, PTCH1 mutation screening from peripheral blood samples were performed by both bidirectional sequencing and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) techniques. The proband and his mother carry 25 pb duplication in exon 10 (c.1375dupl25bp) that causes a reading frameshift with a premature stop codon. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that this mutation results in a truncated protein shorter than normal. Our results suggest that complete clinical and genealogical studies accompanied by genetic analysis are essential in the early detection of the NBCCS cases such the one presented here. PMID:25188659

  17. Selective medium for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from soil and rhizosphere environments.

    PubMed Central

    Juhnke, M E; des Jardin, E

    1989-01-01

    A selective medium (XMSM) was developed for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from bulk soil and plant rhizosphere environments. The XMSM basal medium contained maltose, tryptone, bromthymol blue, and agar. Antibiotics added to select for X. maltophilia were cycloheximide, nystatin, cephalexin, bacitracin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin sulfate, and tobramycin. A comparison was made between XMSM and 1/10-strength tryptic soy broth agar for recovery of X. maltophilia from sterile and nonsterile soil infested with known X. maltophilia isolates. A recovery rate of 97% or greater for XMSM was demonstrated. XMSM was used to isolate X. maltophilia from a variety of soil and rhizosphere environments. PMID:2930173

  18. Endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients: the effect of exogenous glutamine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Glutamine rate of appearance (Ra) may be used as an estimate of endogenous glutamine production. Recently a technique employing a bolus injection of isotopically labeled glutamine was introduced, with the potential to allow for multiple assessments of the glutamine Ra over time in critically ill patients, who may not be as metabolically stable as healthy individuals. Here the technique was used to evaluate the endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients in the fed state with and without exogenous glutamine supplementation intravenously. Methods Mechanically ventilated patients (n?=?11) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were studied on two consecutive days during continuous parenteral feeding. To allow the patients to be used as their own controls, they were randomized for the reference measurement during basal feeding without supplementation, before or after the supplementation period. Glutamine Ra was determined by a bolus injection of 13C-glutamine followed by a period of frequent sampling to establish the decay-curve for the glutamine tracer. Exogenous glutamine supplementation was given by intravenous infusion of a glutamine containing dipeptide, L-alanyl-L-glutamine, 0.28 g/kg during 20 hours. Results A 14% increase of endogenous glutamine Ra was seen at the end of the intravenous supplementation period as compared to the basal measurements (P?=?0.009). Conclusions The bolus injection technique to measure glutamine Ra to estimate the endogenous production of glutamine in critically ill patients was demonstrated to be useful for repetitive measurements. The hypothesized attenuation of endogenous glutamine production during L-alanyl-L-glutamine infusion given as a part of full nutrition was not seen. PMID:24731231

  19. Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue ODS vitamin D conference Sept 5-6 1 ODS it or to which the nutrient has been added, and by taking vitamin D-containing dietary supplements. Questions practicum on supplements 1 News for researchers 2 New supplement assessment tool 2 Past and upcoming events

  20. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  1. Oxygen reduction reaction in a droplet on graphite: direct evidence that the edge is more active than the basal plane.

    PubMed

    Shen, Anli; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Qiang; Dryfe, Robert A W; Huang, Xiaobing; Dou, Shuo; Dai, Liming; Wang, Shuangyin

    2014-09-26

    Carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium have been extensively investigated with the aim of replacing the commercially available, but precious platinum-based catalysts. For the proper design of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts for the ORR, it would be interesting to identify the active sites of the electrocatalyst. The ORR was now studied with an air-saturated electrolyte solution droplet (diameter ca. 15??m), which was deposited at a specified position either on the edge or on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Electrochemical measurements suggest that the edge carbon atoms are more active than the basal-plane ones for the ORR. This provides a direct way to identify the active sites of carbon materials for the ORR. Ball-milled graphite and carbon nanotubes with more exposed edges were also prepared and showed significantly enhanced ORR activity. DFT calculations elucidated the mechanism by which the charged edge carbon atoms result in the higher ORR activity. PMID:25124986

  2. Effects of nutrient medium composition on development of Stevia rebaudiana shoots cultivated in the roller bioreactor and their production of steviol glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai Bondarev; Oxana Reshetnyak; Alexander Nosov

    2003-01-01

    Effects of sugars, mineral salts and plant growth regulators on the development of Stevia shoots cultivated in the roller bioreactor and their production of steviol glycosides (SGs) were investigated. In the medium with fructose or glucose, extension of the shoots and development of their root system were much better than in the medium supplemented with sucrose. Under these conditions, however,

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotic on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and carcass composition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Z; Firouzbakhsh, F; Jafarpour, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a synbiotic (Biomin IMBO) on serum parameters and feeding efficiency in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. The fish with initial average weight of 4.59 ± 0.2 g were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments for two months. The dietary treatment (0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg of diet) was supplemented with basal diet and non-supplemented basal diet was used as control. After two months, all treatments supplemented with synbiotic showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in final mean weight, weight gain percentage, specific growth rate, condition factor, food conversion efficiency and survival rate, compared to the control group. Among all supplemented treatments, the best result in terms of growth factors and survival was observed in the treatment supplemented with 1 g synbiotic per kilogram of diet. Furthermore, supplementation with symbiotic, specifically 1 and 1.5 g/kg, significantly (p < 0.05) increased the total serum protein, but there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in globulin content, albumin/globulin ratio, and triglyceride content among experimental treatments. In terms of body composition, carcass protein content of fish fed with synbiotic significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to the control. These results revealed that a feeding regime with synbiotic for two months led to a significant increase in growth performance, survival rate and feeding efficiency in rainbow trout fingerlings. PMID:21605177

  4. Carcass and beef color characteristics of three biological types of cattle grazing cool-season forages supplemented with soyhulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T Baublits; A. H Brown; F. W Pohlman; Z. B Johnson; D. O Onks; H. D Loveday; R. E Morrow; B. A Sandelin; W. K Coblentz; C. J Richards; R. B Pugh

    2004-01-01

    Soyhull supplementation to divergent biological types of cattle on forage-based systems was studied to determine the impact on carcass and color characteristics. Weaned calves (n=107) biologically classified as large-, medium-, or small-framed and intermediate rate of maturing were allocated to three cool-season grazing systems consisting of either orchardgrass pasture or fescue pasture, each with soyhull supplementation, or fescue pasture with

  5. Effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts on growth performance and aspects of gastrointestinal health of newly weaned piglets after challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts ( - SWE v. +SWE, n 20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on post-weaning (PW) growth performance, faecal score, faecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) toxin quantification, intestinal histology and cytokine mRNA of unchallenged and ETEC-challenged pigs. Pigs were ETEC challenged on day 9 PW. There was a maternal treatment × challenge (SWE × ETEC) interaction effect on growth performance and faecal score (P< 0.05). Pigs from SWE-supplemented sows and ETEC-challenged (SE) had higher average daily gain (ADG) during 0-13 d PW and reduced faecal score during 0-72 h post-challenge than those from basal-fed sows and ETEC-challenged (BE) (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference between unchallenged pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows (SC) and basal-fed sows (BC) (P>0.10). Pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows had reduced heat-labile enterotoxin gene copy numbers than those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). Maternal SWE supplementation increased the villus height in the ileum of pigs (P< 0.05). There was a SWE × ETEC interaction effect (P< 0.05) on IL-6 mRNA and a SWE × gastrointestinal (GI) region interaction effect (P< 0.05) on transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and TNF-? mRNA. IL-6 mRNA was down-regulated in SC pigs than BC pigs (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in IL-6 mRNA between SE and BE pigs. The mRNA of TGF-?1 and TNF-? was down-regulated in the colon of pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows compared with those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in TGF-?1 and TNF-? mRNA in the ileum between the pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows and basal-fed sows. In conclusion, maternal SWE supplementation improves ADG and the aspects of GI health of weaned pigs following an ETEC challenge. PMID:25345748

  6. Neuron, Volume 77 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    Cells Mona M. Garvert and Tim Gollisch Inventory: - Supplemental Figure S1 (related to Figure 2 is Gaussian white noise, sampled in discrete time steps, with standard deviation and that the temporal filter

  7. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Dietary Supplements or the National Library of Medicine, both part of the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Disclaimer: All information contained in the Dietary ...

  8. Supplemental Life Insurance Benefit Highlights

    E-print Network

    it comes down to it, contemplating some pretty unpleasant things is hard to do. But whenSupplemental Life income. 1 Death Rates by Age, Sex and Race: 1970 to 1997, U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract

  9. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian's relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  10. Neuron, Volume 52 Supplemental Data

    E-print Network

    Chklovskii, Dmitri "Mitya"

    Neuron, Volume 52 Supplemental Data Optimal Information Storage in Noisy Synapses under Resource EPSP amplitude. Blue squares: fraction of neuron pairs belonging to a bin centered on that synaptic.49. Unconnected pairs of neurons as well as very weak connections (

  11. Neuron, Volume 79 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Rash, John E.

    Neuron, Volume 79 Supplemental Information Molecular and Functional Asymmetry at a Vertebrate by immunofluorescence with various antibodies against Cx34.7 and Cx36. To aid future studies of the two neuronal

  12. Neuron, Volume 68 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Neuron, Volume 68 Supplemental Information Cortical Preparatory Activity: Representation rate (across all neurons) for the condition with the strongest preparatory response (red). Such conditions were found separately for each neuron. They were then averaged after normalizing each neuron

  13. Neuron, Volume 59 Supplemental Data

    E-print Network

    Destexhe, Alain

    Neuron, Volume 59 Supplemental Data High-Resolution Intracellular Recordings Using a Real-resolution intracellular recordings using a real-time interaction between the neuron and a computational model

  14. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, Po-Lin; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2009-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastro-intestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence. PMID:17276471

  15. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  16. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: tangy@stanford.edu; So, P.-L. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Epstein, Ervin H. [Department of Dermatology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  17. Numerical deficits in a single case of basal ganglia dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zamarian, L; Bodner, T; Revkin, S K; Benke, T; Boesch, S; Donnemiller, E; Delazer, M

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation assesses specific numerical difficulties in a patient (SJ) with basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction. While previous studies on number processing in BG disorders typically tested arithmetic facts by production tasks, the present study uses production, recognition (verification, multiple-choice) and indirect (number-matching) arithmetic tasks. Patient SJ was severely impaired in production and to a lesser extent in verification and multiple-choice tasks. In number-matching, an abnormal latency pattern was found. This study extends previous research by indicating that BG dysfunction may not only affect production processes and sequencing, as was found in previous investigations, but may lead to a breakdown of semantic relationships of arithmetic facts. PMID:19370479

  18. Ancestral reproductive structure in basal kelp Aureophycus aleuticus

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Ridgway, L. Michelle; Holser, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Laminarialean species (so-called kelps) are the largest photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments, constituting significant ecological components of coastal ecosystems. The largest kelps such as Macrocystis exhibit differentiation between stipe and blade, as well as buoyancy to maintain the distal portion at the water's surface for photosynthesis, while bearing reproductive structures only near the base on special blades (sporophylls). There is a considerable gap between basic kelps such as Chorda and derived kelps, and the evolution of kelp specialization remains unclear. Here we report novel reproductive adaptations in the recently discovered species Aureophycus aleuticus; unlike any known kelps, A. aleuticus forms zoidangia only on the expanded, disc-shaped holdfast. Molecular phylogeny suggests that A. aleuticus is most basal among derived kelps. Because Aureophycus lacks any of the elaborate anatomical structures found in other derived kelps, we suggest that it exhibits some of the most ancestral morphological features of kelps. PMID:23966101

  19. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  20. Gastric secretion and basal gastrin concentration in bilharzial hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, P B; Okosdonossian, E T; Elmunshid, H A; Elmasri, S H; Hassan, M A; Hobsley, M

    1978-01-01

    Gastric secretion and fasting plasma gastrin levels were investigated in 26 patients with bilharzial hepatic fibrosis and 26 controls. The groups did not differ in their basal secretion. When stimulated by intravenous infusion of histamine the maximal acid output in patients with bilharzial hepatic fibrosis was significantly less than in the control group. This was unlikely to be a result of neutralisation by reflux of alkaline duodenal contents as the volumes of reflux were not different from control subjects, but was compatible with a true reduction in gastric secretion as assessed by two-component hypothesis. Neither the lowered gastric acidity nor the liver damage in patients with bilharzial hepatic fibrosis correlated with circulating gastrin. The fasting levels of plasma gastrin in these patients were not different from controls. As in other liver diseases the cause of diminished gastric secretion remains unclear. PMID:30681

  1. Patched Knockout Mouse Models of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nitzki, Frauke; Becker, Marco; Frommhold, Anke; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Hahn, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human tumor. Mutations in the hedgehog (HH) receptor Patched (PTCH) are the main cause of BCC. Due to their high and increasing incidence, BCC are becoming all the more important for the health care system. Adequate animal models are required for the improvement of current treatment strategies. A good model should reflect the situation in humans (i.e., BCC initiation due to Ptch mutations on an immunocompetent background) and should allow for (i) BCC induction at a defined time point, (ii) analysis of defined BCC stages, and (iii) induction of BCC in 100% of animals. In addition, it should be easy to handle. Here, we compare several currently existing conventional and conditional Ptch knockout mouse models for BCC and their potential use in preclinical research. In addition, we provide new data using conditional Ptchflox/flox mice and the K5-Cre-ERT+/? driver. PMID:23024864

  2. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  3. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Farris

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on\\u000a training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two\\u000a nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have\\u000a positive

  4. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta.

    PubMed

    Cotrufo, M; De Santo, L; Della Corte, A; Di Meglio, F; Guerra, G; Quarto, C; Vitale, S; Castaldo, C; Montagnani, S

    2005-01-01

    Basal lamina (BL) is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation. We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens. We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study. We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin alpha2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type IV is more evident in the concavity and Tenascin in the convexity. PMID:16377578

  5. Zonisamide regulates basal ganglia transmission via astroglial kynurenine pathway.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Kouji; Tanahashi, Shunske; Hoshikawa, Masamitsu; Shinagawa, Rika; Okada, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the anti-parkinsonian mechanisms of action of zonisamide (ZNS), we determined the effects of ZNS on tripartite synaptic transmission associated with kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) in cultured astrocytes, and transmission in both direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia using microdialysis. Interactions between cytokines [interferon-? (IFN?) and tumor-necrosis factor-? (TNF?)] and ZNS on astroglial releases of KP metabolites, KYN, kynurenic-acid (KYNA), xanthurenic-acid (XTRA), cinnabarinic-acid (CNBA) and quinolinic-acid (QUNA), were determined by extreme liquid-chromatography with mass-spectrometry. Interaction among metabotropic glutamate-receptor (mGluR), KP metabolites and ZNS on striato-nigral, striato-pallidal GABAergic and subthalamo-nigral glutamatergic transmission was examined by microdialysis with extreme liquid-chromatography fluorescence resonance-energy transfer detection. Acute and chronic ZNS administration increased astroglial release of KYN, KYNA, XTRA and CNBA, but not QUNA. Chronic IFN? administration increased the release of KYN, KYNA, CNBA and QUNA, but had minimal inhibitory effect on XTRA release. Chronic TNF? administration increased CNBA and QUNA, but not KYN, KYNA or XTRA. ZNS inhibited IFN?-induced elevation of KYN, KYNA and QUNA, but enhanced IFN?-induced that of CNBA. TNF?-induced rises in CNBA and QUNA were inhibited by ZNS. ZNS inhibited striato-nigral GABAergic, striato-pallidal GABAergic and subthalamo-nigral glutamatergic transmission via activation of groups II and III mGluRs. ZNS enhanced astroglial release of endogenous agonists of group II mGluR, XTRA and group III mGluR, CNBA. Activated endogenous mGluR agonists inhibited transmission in direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia. These mechanisms contribute to effectiveness and well tolerability of ZNS as an adjunct treatment for Parkinson's disease during l-DOPA monotherapy. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'. PMID:23973311

  6. Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Supplemental Feeding

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Bruce B.; Hart, Charles R.

    2001-05-31

    such as forage testing and fecal analysis. Results of these tests can indicate the diet quality of free-ranging animals. For more information on these technologies see: http://cnrit.tamu.edu/ganlab/ and http://soilcrop.tamu.edu/soiltest/index.html Supplementation.... For more information, see Extension publication B-6067, Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle. What to supplement When evaluating supplements, remember that there are no ?magic bullets.? Animals will perform as long as the supplement compensates...

  7. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue < 0.021) and Huang et al. (Pvalue ? 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate. PMID:25436144

  8. Three-dimensional structure of basal body triplet revealed by electron cryo-tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sam; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus; Marshall, Wallace F; Agard, David A

    2012-01-01

    Basal bodies and centrioles play central roles in microtubule (MT)-organizing centres within many eukaryotes. They share a barrel-shaped cylindrical structure composed of nine MT triplet blades. Here, we report the structure of the basal body triplet at 33 Å resolution obtained by electron cryo-tomography and 3D subtomogram averaging. By fitting the atomic structure of tubulin into the EM density, we built a pseudo-atomic model of the tubulin protofilaments at the core of the triplet. The 3D density map reveals additional densities that represent non-tubulin proteins attached to the triplet, including a large inner circular structure in the basal body lumen, which functions as a scaffold to stabilize the entire basal body barrel. We found clear longitudinal structural variations along the basal body, suggesting a sequential and coordinated assembly mechanism. We propose a model in which ?-tubulin and other components participate in the assembly of the basal body. PMID:22157822

  9. SLIT/ROBO1 signaling suppresses mammary branching morphogenesis by limiting basal cell number

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Hector; Moran, Angel; Samara, Yazeed; Moreno, Melissa; Compton, Jennifer E; Harburg, Gwyndolen; Strickland, Phyllis; Hinck, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Summary In the field of breast biology, there is a growing appreciation for the “gatekeeping function” of basal cells during development and disease processes; yet, mechanisms regulating the generation of these cells are poorly understood. Here, we report that the proliferation of basal cells is controlled by SLIT/ROBO1 signaling and that production of these cells regulates outgrowth of mammary branches. We identify the negative regulator TGF-?1 upstream of ROBO1 and show that it induces Robo1 expression specifically in the basal layer, functioning together with SLIT2 to restrict branch formation. Loss of SLIT/ROBO1 signaling in this layer, alone, results in precocious branching due to a surplus of basal cells. SLIT2 limits basal cell proliferation by inhibiting canonical WNT signaling, increasing the cytoplasmic and membrane pools of ?-catenin at the expense of its nuclear pool. Together, our studies provide mechanistic insight into how specification of basal cell number influences branching morphogenesis. PMID:21664580

  10. A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Rubidge, Bruce; Li, Jinling

    2010-01-01

    A new well-preserved basal therapsid skull from the Xidagou Formation, Middle Permian of China, is identified as Biseridens qilianicus. The following synapomorphies distinguish Biseridens as an anomodont and not an eotitanosuchian as previously described: short snout; dorsally elevated zygomatic arch and septomaxilla lacking elongated posterodorsal process between nasal and maxilla. The presence of a differentiated tooth row; denticles on vomer, palatine and pterygoid; contact between tabular and opisthotic; lateral process of transverse flange of pterygoid free of posterior ramus and absence of mandibular foramen exclude it from other anomodonts. Our cladistic analysis indicates Biseridens to be the most basal anomodont, highlights separate Laurasian and Gondwanan basal anomodont clades and suggests that dicynodonts had their origins in the Gondwanan clade. The co-occurrence of the most basal anomodont (Biseridens) together with the most basal therapsid (Raranimus), basal anteosaurid dinocephalians, bolosaurids and dissorophids suggests that the earliest therapsid faunas are from China. PMID:19640887

  11. Plutonium shipments - a supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowska, B.; Soons, A. [Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1994-10-01

    By means of a supplement to the stimulating analysis found in the comprehensive article by Professor Jon Van Dyke on `Sea Shipment of Japanese Plutonium under International Law`, published in Volume 24 of this journal, we feel that the following clarifications and additions are appropriate. Radioactive wastes are not covered by the 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. Fir this reason, the Basel Conference adopted on March 22, 1989, along with the convention, Resolution 5 on Harmonization of Procedures of the Basel Convention and the Code of Practice for International Transactions Involving Nuclear Wastes. In accordance with Resolution 5, the provisions of the Basel Convention were taken into full account during the elaboration of the IAEA code, which ultimately was adopted by Resolution GC(XXXIV)/530 of the General Conference on Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste (TMRW) of September 21, 1990. The IAEA code of practice and the respective regional instruments affirm, with respect to TMRW, the general principles of the Basel Convention, including the critical regime of prior notification and prior informed consent (PIC) that extend the scope of duties of notification, environmental impact assessment, and consultation with respect to transboundary interference as the duties have evolved under existing customary law.

  12. Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Methods Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. Results IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. Conclusion FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA in the tumorigenesis of triple negative, basal-like FMAs. The strong similarities in clinical behavior, morphology and IHC phenotype suggest that triple negative, basal-like FMAs may be a suitable spontaneous animal model for studying novel therapeutic approaches against human basal-like TNBC. PMID:24004841

  13. Sox2: a possible driver of the basal-like phenotype in sporadic breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Socorro M Rodriguez-Pinilla; David Sarrio; Gema Moreno-Bueno; Yolanda Rodriguez-Gil; Miguel A Martinez; Lucia Hernandez; David Hardisson; Jorge S Reis-Filho; Jose Palacios

    2007-01-01

    Tumours arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and sporadic basal-like breast carcinomas have similar phenotypic, immunohistochemical and clinical characteristics. SOX2 is an embryonic transcription factor located at chromosome 3q, a region frequently gained in sporadic basal-like and BRCA1 germline mutated tumours. The aim of the study was to establish whether sox2 expression was related to basal-like sporadic breast tumours. Two hundred

  14. A gene expression signature identifies two prognostic subgroups of basal breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renaud Sabatier; Pascal Finetti; Nathalie Cervera; Eric Lambaudie; Benjamin Esterni; Emilie Mamessier; Agnès Tallet; Christian Chabannon; Jean-Marc Extra; Jocelyne Jacquemier; Patrice Viens; Daniel Birnbaum; François Bertucci

    2011-01-01

    Prognosis of basal breast cancers is poor but heterogeneous. Medullary breast cancers (MBC) display a basal profile, but a\\u000a favorable prognosis. We hypothesized that a previously published 368-gene expression signature associated with MBC might serve\\u000a to define a prognostic classifier in basal cancers. We collected public gene expression and histoclinical data of 2145 invasive\\u000a early breast adenocarcinomas. We developed a

  15. Basal cell ameloblastoma–review of literature with report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Giraddi, Girish B; Anusha, AJ Sai

    2012-01-01

    The ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaw with several histologic variants viz. follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, desmoplastic, and granular cell and basal cell types. The basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare histological variant which tends to demonstrate microscopic features similar to cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. In the current article we report three cases and review the literature of this rare tumor PMID:25756034

  16. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma to the lungs: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Nongrum, Henry Benson; Bhuyan, Debomaliya; Royte, Vanlalhuma; Dkhar, Hughbert

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer and it rarely metastasizes. The prevalence of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) varies between 0.0028% and 0.55% of all cases. Over 250 MBCC have been reported in the literature. We present a case with large recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the face with radiological and histopathological findings indicating the presence of metastasis to the lungs. PMID:25506559

  17. Polydatin supplementation ameliorates diet-induced development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Yingying; Zhang, Nan; Yao, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease remains to be elucidated, and the currently available treatments are not entirely effective. Polydatin, a stilbenoid compound derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum, has previously been demonstrated to possess hepatoprotective effects. The present study aimed to determine the effects of polydatin supplementation on hepatic fat accumulation and injury in rats fed a high-fat diet. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of polydatin were examined. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and received one of four treatment regimes for 12 weeks: Control diet, control diet supplemented with polydatin, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet supplemented with polydatin. Polydatin was supplemented in the drinking water at a concentration of 0.3% (wt/vol). The results of the present study showed that long-term high-fat feeding resulted in fatty liver in rats, which was manifested by excessive hepatic neutral fat accumulation and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Polydatin supplementation alleviated the hepatic pathological changes, and attenuated the insulin resistance, as shown by an improved homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance values and a glucose tolerance test. Polydatin supplementation also corrected abnormal leptin and adiponectin levels. Specifically, polydatin supplementation enhanced insulin sensitivity in the liver, as shown by improved insulin receptor substrate 2 expression levels and Akt phosphorylation in the rat liver, following high-fat diet feeding. The results of the present study suggest that polydatin protects rats against high-fat feeding-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Polydatin may be an effective hepatoprotective agent and a potential candidate for the prevention of fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. PMID:25333896

  18. Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Zhou, Y. M.; Wu, Y. N.; Wang, T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity. PMID:25049877

  19. Rapamycin reverses insulin resistance (IR) in high-glucose medium without causing IR in normoglycemic medium

    PubMed Central

    Leontieva, O V; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetic retinopathy. In retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, insulin activates the mTOR pathway, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and HIF-dependent transcription in serum-free minimum essential medium Eagle (MEM). Serendipitously, we found that insulin failed to induce the HIF-1?-dependent response, when RPE cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). Whereas concentration of glucose in MEM corresponds to normal glucose levels in blood (5.5?mM), its concentration in DMEM corresponds to severe diabetic hyperglycemia (25?mM). Addition of glucose to MEM also caused IR. Glucose-mediated IR was characterized by basal activation of mTORC1 and its poor inducibility by insulin. Basal levels of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), S6 and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) S635/639 were high, whereas their inducibilities were decreased. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased and restored by rapamycin and an inhibitor of S6K. IR was associated with de-phosphorylation of IRS1 at S1011, which was reversed by rapamycin. Both short (16–40?h) and chronic (2 weeks) treatment with rapamycin reversed IR. Furthermore, rapamycin did not impair Akt activation in RPE cells cultured in normoglycemic media. In contrast, Torin 1 blocked Akt activation by insulin. We conclude that by activating mTOR/S6K glucose causes feedback IR, preventable by rapamycin. Rapamycin does not cause IR in RPE cells regardless of the duration of treatment. We confirmed that rapamycin also did not impair phosphorylation of Akt at T308 and S473 in normal myoblast C2C12 cells. Our work provides insights in glucose-induced IR and suggests therapeutic approaches to treat patients with IR and severe hyperglycemia and to prevent diabetic complications such as retinopathy. Also our results prompt to reconsider physiological relevance of numerous data and paradigms on IR given that most cell lines are cultured with grossly super-physiological levels of glucose. PMID:24810050

  20. Response to dietary supplementation of l-glutamine and l-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

  1. Mesons in the nuclear Medium

    E-print Network

    Martin Kotulla

    2006-09-11

    We discuss recent experimental results on the modification of hadron properties in a nuclear medium. Particular emphasis is placed on an $\\omega$ production experiment performed by the CBELSA/TAPS collaboration at the ELSA accelerator. The data shows a smaller $\\omega$ meson mass together with a significant increase of its width in the nuclear medium.

  2. Dietary Supplementation with Ethyl Ester Concentrates of Fish Oil (n-3) and Borage Oil (n-6) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Induces Epidermal Generation of Local Putative Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig C. Miller; Wilson Tang; Vincent A. Ziboh; Mark P. Fletcher

    1991-01-01

    Clinical reports have attributed the amelioration of chronic inflammatory skin disorders to the presence of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in dietary oils. To test the hypothesis of a local modulatory effect of these PUFA in the epidermis, the basal diet of normal guinea pigs was supplemented with ethyl esters of either fish oil [rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and

  3. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  4. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  5. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  6. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  7. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  8. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  9. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  10. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P < 0.05) by 10% guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P < 0.05) by 10% cellulose. The ileal digestibility of several AA was decreased (P < 0.05) by the test potatoes plus 8.5% guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein. PMID:23365378

  11. Dietary folate and vitamin B 12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaiyapoom Bunchasak; Sompong Kachana

    2009-01-01

    We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64–72 weeks). Four levels of folate\\u000a (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg\\/kg) and three levels of vitamin B12 (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg\\/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4?×?3 factorial completely

  12. Inhibiting the Hedgehog Pathway in Patients with the Basal-Cell Nevus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jean Y.; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M.; Aszterbaum, Michelle; Yauch, Robert L.; Lindgren, Joselyn; Chang, Kris; Coppola, Carol; Chanana, Anita M.; Marji, Jackleen; Bickers, David R.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dysregulated hedgehog signaling is the pivotal molecular abnormality underlying basal-cell carcinomas. Vismodegib is a new orally administered hedgehog-pathway inhibitor that produces objective responses in locally advanced and metastatic basal-cell carcinomas. METHODS We tested the anti–basal-cell carcinoma efficacy of vismodegib in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with the basal-cell nevus syndrome at three clinical centers from September 2009 through January 2011. The primary end point was reduction in the incidence of new basal-cell carcinomas that were eligible for surgical resection (surgically eligible) with vismodegib versus placebo after 3 months; secondary end points included reduction in the size of existing basal-cell carcinomas. RESULTS In 41 patients followed for a mean of 8 months (range, 1 to 15) after enrollment, the per-patient rate of new surgically eligible basal-cell carcinomas was lower with vismodegib than with placebo (2 vs. 29 cases per group per year, P<0.001), as was the size (percent change from baseline in the sum of the longest diameter) of existing clinically significant basal-cell carcinomas (?65% vs. ?11%, P = 0.003). In some patients, all basal-cell carcinomas clinically regressed. No tumors progressed during treatment with vismodegib. Patients receiving vismodegib routinely had grade 1 or 2 adverse events of loss of taste, muscle cramps, hair loss, and weight loss. Overall, 54% of patients (14 of 26) receiving vismodegib discontinued drug treatment owing to adverse events. At 1 month, vismodegib use had reduced the hedgehog target-gene expression by basal-cell carcinoma by 90% (P<0.001) and diminished tumor-cell proliferation, but apoptosis was not affected. No residual basal-cell carcinoma was detectable in 83% of biopsy samples taken from sites of clinically regressed basal-cell carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS Vismodegib reduces the basal-cell carcinoma tumor burden and blocks growth of new basal-cell carcinomas in patients with the basal-cell nevus syndrome. The adverse events associated with treatment led to discontinuation in over half of treated patients. (Funded by Genentech and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00957229.) PMID:22670904

  13. Basal magnetic flux and the local solar dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2012-11-01

    The average unsigned magnetic flux density in magnetograms of the quiet Sun is generally dominated by instrumental noise. Due to the entirely different scaling behavior of the noise and the solar magnetic pattern it has been possible to determine the standard deviation of the Gaussian noise distribution and remove the noise contribution from the average unsigned flux density for the whole 15-yr SOHO/MDI data set and for a selection of SDO/HMI magnetograms. There is a very close correlation between the MDI disk-averaged unsigned vertical flux density and the sunspot number, and regression analysis gives a residual level of 2.7 G when the sunspot number is zero. The selected set of HMI magnetograms, which spans the most quiet phase of solar activity, has a lower limit of 3.0 G to the noise-corrected average flux density. These apparently cycle-independent levels may be identified as a basal flux density, which represents an upper limit to the possible flux contribution from a local dynamo, but not evidence for its existence. The 3.0 G HMI level, when scaled to the Hinode spatial resolution, translates to 3.5 G, which means that the much higher average flux densities always found by Hinode in quiet regions do not originate from a local dynamo. The contributions to the average unsigned flux density come almost exclusively from the extended wings of the probability density function, also in the case of HMI magnetograms with only basal-level magnetic flux. These wings represent intermittent magnetic flux. As the global dynamo continually feeds flux into the small scales at a fast rate through turbulent shredding, a hypothetical local dynamo may only be relevant to the Sun if its rate of flux build-up can be competitive. While the global dynamo appears to dominate the magnetic energy spectrum at all the resolved spatial scales, there are indications from the observed Hanle depolarization in atomic lines that the local dynamo may dominate the spectrum at scales of order 1-10 km and below.

  14. Is Hazardous Waste Injection into Basal Aquifers a Good Idea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Person, M. A.; Rupp, J.; Celia, M. A.; Gable, C. W.; Bowen, B. B.; Mozley, P. S.; Evans, J. P.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The recent induced M3.8 - M5.5 seismic events across the midcontinent, USA have raised concern regarding regulations for hazardous waste injection. It is also important to note that in the midcontinent region, the Illinois Basin is the main target for storing CO2 up to 1 million metric tons over a 3-year period in the CCS project of DOE. Here we present a hydrogeologic-geomechanical sensitivity study using a hybrid analytic-numerical cross-sectional model to assess a wide variety of possible failure scenarios within crystalline rocks. The hydrostratigraphic framework model we used in this study is based on the geology of the Illinois Basin. The model includes 2.8 km thick Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers and confining units underlain by 4 km of bedrock. We represented injection at 1000 gallons per minute (3785 liters per minute) into a basal sandstone aquifer (Mt. Simon Sandstone) as well as the overlying carbonate and siliciclastic reservoirs (middle aquifer: Knox Dolomite, St. Peter Sandstone, upper Ordovician Carbonates). In some scenarios, we included high/low permeability vertical and sub-horizontal thrust faults. Deviatoric pore pressures from the model were used to estimate failure along critically stressed faults within the bedrock. For a basement permeability between 10-15 m2 to 10-16 m2, injection into the basal aquifer (Mt. Simon sandstone) resulted in a failure envelop within the crystalline basement to depths of about 1.4 - 4 km and extending laterally up to 6 km. Including a transmissive vertical normal fault increased the depth of the failure envelope to 4 km below the base of the sedimentary pile. If a 108 order of magnitude permeability contrast exists between the thrust fault (10-10 m2) and basement rocks (10-18 m2), then pore pressures can propagate along a sub-horizontal fault about 12 km from the injection well. For middle aquifer injection, the presence of a bottom seal (Eau Claire Formation) has a prophylactic effect, preventing downward propagation of deviatoric pressures into the basement as shown in the simulation results in Figure 1.

  15. Plasticity of basal cells during postnatal development in the rat epididymis

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Winnie W C; Hill, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that basal cells sense luminal factors by forming a narrow body projection that can cross epithelial tight junctions. As a first step toward characterizing the structural plasticity of basal cells, in this study, we followed their appearance and morphology in the rat epididymis and vas deferens (VD) during postnatal development and examined their modulation by androgens in adulthood. Immunofluorescence labeling for cytokeratin 5 showed that basal cells are absent at birth. They progressively appear in a retrograde manner from the VD and cauda epididymis to the initial segments during the postnatal weeks PNW1–3. At the onset of differentiation, basal cells are in contact with the lumen and their nucleus is located at the same level as that of adjacent epithelial cells. Basal cells then position their nucleus to the base of the epithelium, and while some are still in contact with the lumen, others have a ‘dome-shaped’ appearance. At PNW5–6, basal cells form a loose network at the base of the epithelium, and luminal-reaching basal cells are rarely detected. The arrival of spermatozoa during PNW7–8 did not trigger the development of projections in basal cells. However, cells with a narrow luminal-reaching projection began to reappear between PNW8 and PNW12 in the corpus and the cauda. Treatment with flutamide from PNW10 to PNW12 significantly reduced the number of luminal-reaching basal cell projections. In summary, basal cells exhibit significant structural plasticity during differentiation. Fewer apical-reaching projections were detected after flutamide treatment in adulthood, indicating the role of androgens in the luminal-sensing function of basal cells. PMID:23960170

  16. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  17. Improved methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium: Application to studies of lymphoblast proliferation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Brennan; James Mansky; Geraldine Roberts; Marshall A. Lichtman

    1975-01-01

    Summary  We have compared several methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium, with the objective\\u000a of producing selective deficiency effects on the growth of mouse (L5178Y) and human (P1R) lymphoblasts. In experiments in\\u000a which calcium- and magnesium-“free” McCoy’s medium was supplemented with 15% horse or fetal calf serum, enough calcium and\\u000a magnesium was provided by serum to

  18. Comparison of mupirocin-based media for selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in probiotic supplements.

    PubMed

    Bunesova, Vera; Musilova, Sarka; Geigerova, Martina; Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-02-01

    An international standard already exists for the selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in milk products. This standard uses Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS) propionate agar supplemented with mupirocin. However, no such standard method has been described for the selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in probiotic supplements, where the presence of bifidobacteria is much more variable than in milk products. Therefore, we enumerated bifidobacteria by colony count technique in 13 probiotic supplements using three media supplemented with mupirocin (Mup; 100mg/l): TOS, Bifidobacteria selective medium (BSM) and modified Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobe agar with soya peptone (WSP). Moreover, the potential growth of bifidobacterial strains often used in probiotic products was performed in these media. All 13 products contained members of the genus Bifidobacterium, and tested mupirocin media were found to be fully selective for bifidobacteria. However, the type strain Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20456 and collection strain B. bifidum DSM 20239 showed statistically significant lower counts on TOS Mup media, compared to BSM Mup and WSP Mup media. Therefore, the TOS Mup medium recommended by the ISO standard cannot be regarded as a fully selective and suitable medium for the genus Bifidobacterium. In contrast, the BSM Mup and WSP Mup media supported the growth of all bifidobacterial species. PMID:25542994

  19. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    PubMed

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  20. Basal Murphy belt and Chilhowee Group -- Sequence stratigraphic comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Aylor, J.G. Jr. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The lower Murphy belt in the central western Blue Ridge is interpreted to be correlative to the Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group of the westernmost Blue Ridge and Appalachian fold and thrust belt. Basal Murphy belt depositional sequence stratigraphy represents a second-order, type-2 transgressive systems tract initiated with deposition of lowstand turbidites of the Dean Formation. These transgressive deposits of the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations are interpreted as middle to outer continental shelf deposits. Cyclic and stacked third-order regressive, coarsening upwards sequences of the Nantahala Formation display an overall increase in feldspar content stratigraphically upsection. These transgressive siliciclastic deposits are interpreted to be conformably overlain by a carbonate highstand systems tract of the Murphy Marble. Palinspastic reconstruction indicates that the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations possibly represent a basinward extension of up to 3 km thick siliciclastic wedge. The wedge tapers to the southwest along the strike of the Murphy belt at 10[degree] and thins northwestward to 2 km in the Tennessee depocenter where it is represented by the Chilhowee Group. The Murphy belt basin is believed to represent a transitional rift-to-drift facies deposited on the lower plate of the southern Blue Ridge rift zone.

  1. Cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy predicts amyloid burden in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Teipel, Stefan; Heinsen, Helmut; Amaro, Edson; Grinberg, Lea T; Krause, Bernd; Grothe, Michel

    2014-03-01

    We compared accuracy of hippocampus and basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) atrophy to predict cortical amyloid burden in 179 cognitively normal subjects (CN), 269 subjects with early stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 136 subjects with late stages of MCI, and 86 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia retrieved from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Hippocampus and BFCS volumes were determined from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 Tesla, and cortical amyloid load from AV45 (florbetapir) positron emission tomography scans. In receiver operating characteristics analyses, BFCS volume provided significantly more accurate classification into amyloid-negative and -positive categories than hippocampus volume. In contrast, hippocampus volume more accurately identified the diagnostic categories of AD, late and early MCI, and CN compared with whole and anterior BFCS volume, whereas posterior BFCS and hippocampus volumes yielded similar diagnostic accuracy. In logistic regression analysis, hippocampus and posterior BFCS volumes contributed significantly to discriminate MCI and AD from CN, but only BFCS volume predicted amyloid status. Our findings suggest that BFCS atrophy is more closely associated with cortical amyloid burden than hippocampus atrophy in predementia AD. PMID:24176625

  2. Subregional basal forebrain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kilimann, Ingo; Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopez; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Dos Santos, Gláucia Aparecida Bento; da Silva, Rafael Emídio; Mitchell, Alex J; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Bokde, Arun L W; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Teipel, Stefan J

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest severe and region-specific neurodegeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Here, we studied the between-center reliability and diagnostic accuracy of MRI-based BFCS volumetry in a large multicenter data set, including participants with prodromal (n = 41) or clinically manifest AD (n = 134) and 148 cognitively healthy controls. Atrophy was determined using voxel-based and region-of-interest based analyses of high-dimensionally normalized MRI scans using a newly created map of the BFCS based on postmortem in cranio MRI and histology. The AD group showed significant volume reductions of all subregions of the BFCS, which were most pronounced in the posterior nucleus basalis Meynert (NbM). The mild cognitive impairment-AD group showed pronounced volume reductions in the posterior NbM, but preserved volumes of anterior-medial regions. Diagnostic accuracy of posterior NbM volume was superior to hippocampus volume in both groups, despite higher multicenter variability of the BFCS measurements. The data of our study suggest that BFCS morphometry may provide an emerging biomarker in AD. PMID:24503619

  3. Man with macrocephaly, learning disability and multiple basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    von der Lippe, Charlotte; Roscher, Ingrid; Nordgarden, Hilde; Rustad, Cecilie; Larsen, Selma Mujezinovic; Mjøen, Even; Bratland, Åse

    2014-06-17

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare genetic condition in which patients may develop medulloblastomas, jaw cysts and basal cell carcinomas and show congenital skeletal malformations. If left undiagnosed, Gorlin syndrome can have a number of negative consequences. Early diagnosis and good follow-up is important for all patients with rare disorders. We wish to make doctors and dentists aware of Gorlin syndrome so that, whenever the syndrome is suspected or a patient has been diagnosed, the patient is referred for assessment, treatment and follow-up by specialists who know the disorder well. Dermatology departments at university hospitals and departments of medical genetics have a key role to play in assessment and follow-up. A national support group for Gorlin syndrome has been established, consisting of a dermatologist, oncologist, geneticist, paediatrician, specialist dentist, ophthalmologist, orthopaedic surgeon, plastic surgeon, oral and maxillofacial surgeon and counsellors. Patients, relatives and health professionals can contact the Centre for Rare Disorders directly for information about Gorlin syndrome, or to be put in touch with members of the group. PMID:24939783

  4. Sonic hedgehog signaling in Basal cell nevus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Athar, Mohammad; Li, Changzhao; Kim, Arianna L; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Bickers, David R

    2014-09-15

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to be a major signal transduction pathway during embryonic development, but it usually shuts down after birth. Aberrant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) activation during adulthood leads to neoplastic growth. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is driven by this pathway. Here, we summarize information related to the pathogenesis of this neoplasm, discuss pathways that crosstalk with Shh signaling, and the importance of the primary cilium in this neoplastic process. The identification of the basic/translational components of Shh signaling has led to the discovery of potential mechanism-driven druggable targets and subsequent clinical trials have confirmed their remarkable efficacy in treating BCCs, particularly in patients with nevoid BCC syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder in which patients inherit a germline mutation in the tumor-suppressor gene Patched (Ptch). Patients with NBCCS develop dozens to hundreds of BCCs due to derepression of the downstream G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened (SMO). Ptch mutations permit transposition of SMO to the primary cilium followed by enhanced expression of transcription factors Glis that drive cell proliferation and tumor growth. Clinical trials with the SMO inhibitor, vismodegib, showed remarkable efficacy in patients with NBCCS, which finally led to its FDA approval in 2012. PMID:25172843

  5. Metformin and erlotinib synergize to inhibit basal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying-Ka Ingar; Du, Xing; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Hopkins, Benjamin; Shaw, Jacquelyn; Bessler, Eliana; Thomas, Tiffany; Pires, Maira M; Keniry, Megan; Parsons, Ramon E; Cremers, Serge; Szabolcs, Matthias; Maurer, Matthew A

    2014-11-15

    Basal-like breast cancers (BBCs) are enriched for increased EGFR expression and decreased expression of PTEN. We found that treatment with metformin and erlotinib synergistically induced apoptosis in a subset of BBC cell lines. The drug combination led to enhanced reduction of EGFR, AKT, S6 and 4EBP1 phosphorylation, as well as prevented colony formation and inhibited mammosphere outgrowth. Our data with other compounds suggested that biguanides combined with EGFR inhibitors have the potential to outperform other targeted drug combinations and could be employed in other breast cancer subtypes, as well as other tumor types, with activated EGFR and PI3K signaling. Analysis of BBC cell line alterations led to the hypothesis that loss of PTEN sensitized cells to the drug combination which was confirmed using isogenic cell line models with and without PTEN expression. Combined metformin and erlotinib led to partial regression of PTEN-null and EGFR-amplified xenografted MDA-MB-468 BBC tumors with evidence of significant apoptosis, reduction of EGFR and AKT signaling, and lack of altered plasma insulin levels. Combined treatment also inhibited xenografted PTEN null HCC-70 BBC cells. Measurement of trough plasma drug levels in xenografted mice and a separately performed pharmacokinetics modeling study support possible clinical translation. PMID:25361177

  6. Loss of Specificity in Basal Ganglia Related Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bronfeld, Maya; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of interconnected nuclei which play a pivotal part in limbic, associative, and motor functions. This role is mirrored by the wide range of motor and behavioral abnormalities directly resulting from dysfunction of the BG. Studies of normal behavior have found that BG neurons tend to phasically modulate their activity in relation to different behavioral events. In the normal BG, this modulation is highly specific, with each neuron related only to a small subset of behavioral events depending on specific combinations of movement parameters and context. In many pathological conditions involving BG dysfunction and motor abnormalities, this neuronal specificity is lost. Loss of specificity (LOS) manifests in neuronal activity related to a larger spectrum of events and consequently a large overlap of movement-related activation patterns between different neurons. We review the existing evidence for LOS in BG-related movement disorders, the possible neural mechanisms underlying LOS, its effects on frequently used measures of neuronal activity and its relation to theoretical models of the BG. The prevalence of LOS in a many BG-related disorders suggests that neuronal specificity may represent a key feature of normal information processing in the BG system. Thus, the concept of neuronal specificity may underlie a unifying conceptual framework for the BG role in normal and abnormal motor control. PMID:21687797

  7. Metformin and erlotinib synergize to inhibit basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Ying-Ka Ingar; Du, Xing; Reyannavar, Vinayak; Hopkins, Benjamin; Shaw, Jacquelyn; Bessler, Eliana; Thomas, Tiffany; Pires, Maira M.; Keniry, Megan; Parsons, Ramon E.; Cremers, Serge; Szabolcs, Matthias; Maurer, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like breast cancers (BBCs) are enriched for increased EGFR expression and decreased expression of PTEN. We found that treatment with metformin and erlotinib synergistically induced apoptosis in a subset of BBC cell lines. The drug combination led to enhanced reduction of EGFR, AKT, S6 and 4EBP1 phosphorylation, as well as prevented colony formation and inhibited mammosphere outgrowth. Our data with other compounds suggested that biguanides combined with EGFR inhibitors have the potential to outperform other targeted drug combinations and could be employed in other breast cancer subtypes, as well as other tumor types, with activated EGFR and PI3K signaling. Analysis of BBC cell line alterations led to the hypothesis that loss of PTEN sensitized cells to the drug combination which was confirmed using isogenic cell line models with and without PTEN expression. Combined metformin and erlotinib led to partial regression of PTEN-null and EGFR-amplified xenografted MDA-MB-468 BBC tumors with evidence of significant apoptosis, reduction of EGFR and AKT signaling, and lack of altered plasma insulin levels. Combined treatment also inhibited xenografted PTEN null HCC-70 BBC cells. Measurement of trough plasma drug levels in xenografted mice and a separately performed pharmacokinetics modeling study support possible clinical translation. PMID:25361177

  8. Repeatability of basal metabolism in breeding female kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla

    PubMed Central

    Bech, C.; Langseth, I.; Gabrielsen, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    We studied kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding near Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E) on Svalbard. In 1997, the basal metabolic rates (BMRs) of 17 breeding females were measured during the incubation and chick-rearing periods. The mean body mass of the kittiwakes decreased significantly (by 10%) between the incubation and chick-rearing periods. At the same time, both the whole-body and mass-specific BMRs decreased significantly. There was a positive and significant relationship between the BMR residuals from the incubation period and those from the chick-rearing period. Thus, the BMR of incubating female kittiwakes is a significant predictor of their BMR during the chick-rearing period. New BMR data were collected in 1998 from ten of these females, measured around the chick-hatching date. Repeatability values were calculated using either (i) the data for eight individuals for which three BMR measurements existed, or (ii) all the data from both years, yielding significant repeatabilities of 0.52 and 0.35, respectively. These values indicate that between 48 and 65% of the observed variation in BMR is due to intraindividual variability, while between-individual variability accounts for 35 to 52% of the variation in the BMR. This is the first report of a significant repeatability of the BMR of an endothermic organism across an elapsed time of more than one day.

  9. Phenotypic plasticity in the scaling of avian basal metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Freckleton, Robert P; Jetz, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Many birds exhibit short-term, reversible adjustments in basal metabolic rate (BMR), but the overall contribution of phenotypic plasticity to avian metabolic diversity remains unclear. The available BMR data include estimates from birds living in natural environments and captive-raised birds in more homogenous, artificial environments. All previous analyses of interspecific variation in BMR have pooled these data. We hypothesized that phenotypic plasticity is an important contributor to interspecific variation in avian BMR, and that captive-raised populations exhibit general differences in BMR compared to wild-caught populations. We tested this hypothesis by fitting general linear models to BMR data for 231 bird species, using the generalized least-squares approach to correct for phylogenetic relatedness when necessary. The scaling exponent relating BMR to body mass in captive-raised birds (0.670) was significantly shallower than in wild-caught birds (0.744). The differences in metabolic scaling between captive-raised and wild-caught birds persisted when migratory tendency and habitat aridity were controlled for. Our results reveal that phenotypic plasticity is a major contributor to avian interspecific metabolic variation. The finding that metabolic scaling in birds is partly determined by environmental factors provides further support for models that predict variation in scaling exponents, such as the allometric cascade model. PMID:16627278

  10. The source of haemorrhage in traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brittany; Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage (TBSH) following trauma to the head, face or neck is well-established as a cause of death; however it remains a heavily disputed topic as the site of vascular injury is difficult to identify. Whilst many regions within the vasculature of the head and neck have been proposed as more susceptible to rupture, the vertebral artery remains the focal point of many investigations. We present a retrospective case review of TBSH in our forensic centre at Forensic and Scientific Services in Brisbane, Australia, from 2003 to 2011. Thirteen cases of TBSH were found, one case excluded due to vasculopathy. All decedents were male, the majority of which were involved in an altercation receiving blows to the head, face, or neck and were unconscious at the scene. All victims were under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or a combination thereof. External examination revealed injuries to the head, face, and neck in all cases. Various combinations of further examination techniques were used during the post-mortem examination including brain and/or cervical spine retention, CT imaging, and angiography. Vascular injury was identified in eight of the twelve cases, all of which occurred intracranially, with seven involving the vertebral artery. Histology was most reliable in identifying the rupture site and angiography failed to reveal a rupture site. The added benefits of histology over angiography are the ability to identify the microscopic architecture of the tear and to diagnose vasculopathy that may have rendered the individual more susceptible to TBSH. PMID:25572079

  11. Antipathetic magnesium-manganese relationship in basal metalliferous sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloch, S.

    1981-01-01

    Basal metalliferous sediments from sites 77B, 80 and 81 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project represent mixtures of pelagic clay, biogenic ooze, and a metalliferous component of hydrothermal origin. The metalliferous end-member of the sediments displays a strong inverse relationship (r = -0.88) between Mg and Mn. Mg is most likely tied up in an X-ray amorphous Mg-silicate ("sepiolite"), whereas Mn occurs almost exclusively in an oxide phase. Precipitation of the Mg-rich phase is favored by high flow rates and limited mixing of the hydrothermal end-member (source of silica) with seawater (source of Mg). Under those conditions much of the hydrothermal Mn2+, with its slow oxidation kinetics, may escape to the free water column. In contrast, in highly-diluted hydrothermal fluids, which provide a source solution for Mn-rich sediments, dissolved silica is diluted below saturation with respect to "sepiolite". The separation of the Mn and Mg phases may be further compounded by hydraulic fractionation. ?? 1981.

  12. Current landscape for treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foley, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) account for around 80% of non-melanoma skin cancer. Australia has the highest incidence of BCC globally and the rates continue to increase in both Australia and New Zealand. BCC causes significant morbidity, placing an enormous burden on the healthcare system. Treatment of patients with advanced BCC can be particularly challenging. A panel of UK experts recently defined advanced disease as BCC that in which current treatment modalities are considered potentially contraindicated by clinical or patient-driven factors. Research has found that mutations in the hedgehog signalling pathway underpin the pathogenesis of the vast majority of sporadic BCC, as well as Gorlin syndrome. The first-in-class oral small molecule hedgehog pathway inhibitor - vismodegib-is now approved in a number of countries for use in locally-advanced and metastatic BCC and has resulted in improved outcomes in the majority of patients treated. With a number of similar agents in the pipeline, research is now focusing on identifying mechanisms that may contribute to resistance to this agent in some lesions. PMID:25715811

  13. A method for preparing skeletal muscle fiber basal laminae

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.C.; Carlson, B.M. (University of North Dakota, Grand Forks (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Previous attempts to prepare skeletal muscle basal laminae (BL) for ultrastructural analyses have been hampered by difficulties in successfully removing skeletal muscle proteins and cellular debris from BL tubes. In the present study the authors describe a two phase method which results in an acellular muscle preparation, the BL of which are examined by light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. In the first phase, excised rat extensor digitorum longus muscles are subjected to x-radiation and then soaked in Marcaine to inhibit muscle regeneration and to destroy peripheral muscle fibers. The muscles are then grafted back into their original sites and allowed to remain in place 7-14 days to allow for maximal removal of degenerating muscle tissue with minimal scar tissue formation. In the second phase, the muscle grafts are subjected sequentially to EDTA, triton X-100, DNAase, and sodium deoxycholate to remove phagocytizing cells and associated degenerating muscle tissue. These procedures result in translucent, acellular muscle grafts which show numerous empty tubes of BL backed by endomysial collagenous fibers. These preparations should be useful for morphological analyses of isolated muscle BL and for possible in vitro studies by which the biological activity of muscle BL can be examined.

  14. Basal Ganglia Disorders Associated with Imbalances in the Striatal Striosome and Matrix Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Jill R.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny striatal projection neurons (MSNs) that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles, and input–output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include (1) those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, (2) those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and (3) those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input–output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia, and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in these disorders. PMID:21941467

  15. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: Tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Koebele, Stephanie V; Kingston, Melissa L; Tsang, Candy W S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Baxter, Leslie C; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. We evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory as well as basal forebrain cholinergic integrity using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory; tonic delivery of low EE, a dose that corresponds to the most popular doses used in the clinic today, did not impact cognition on any measure. Both medium and high injection doses of EE reduced the number of ChAt-immunoreactive cells in the basal forebrain, and cell population estimates in the vertical/diagonal bands negatively correlated with working memory errors. PMID:25679306

  16. Beta1 integrin deletion from the basal compartment of the mammary epithelium affects stem cells

    E-print Network

    Beta1 integrin deletion from the basal compartment of the mammary epithelium affects stem cells receptors, integrins, than luminal cells. We show that the deletion of 1 integrin from basal cells abolishes at the end of gestation, the secretory alveoli develop from 1 integrin-positive progenitors. Lack of 1

  17. 1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells receptors, integrins, than luminal cells. We show that the deletion of 1 integrin from basal cells abolishes at the end of gestation, the secretory alveoli develop from 1 integrin-positive progenitors. Lack of 1

  18. Activation of Expression of Hedgehog Target Genes in Basal Cell Carcinomas

    E-print Network

    Chuang, Pao-Tien

    Activation of Expression of Hedgehog Target Genes in Basal Cell Carcinomas Jeannette M. Bonifas, and **Molecular Oncology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Mutations in hedgehog signaling. The study of basal cell carcinoma gene expression not only may eluci- date mechanisms by which hedgehog

  19. ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)] [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Bertello, Luca, E-mail: apevtsov@nso.edu, E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu, E-mail: lbertello@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

  20. Basal acid output and gastric acid hypersecretion in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Collen; David A. Johnson; Michael J. Sheridan

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible differences in basal gastric acid secretion with regard to severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Basal acid output was determined by nasogastric suction in 228 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and were diagnosed with either pyrosis alone (N = 98), erosive esophagitis with or without pyrosis (N

  1. Multiple KCNQ Potassium Channel Subtypes Mediate Basal Anion Secretion from the Human Airway Epithelial Cell Line

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    Multiple KCNQ Potassium Channel Subtypes Mediate Basal Anion Secretion from the Human Airway force for anion secretion from secretory epithelia. To investigate the role of KCNQ K+ channels in mediating rates of basal anion secretion across the human airway submucosal gland serous cell model

  2. The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaya; AV Kurpad; HR Nagendra; R Nagarathna

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or

  3. Adenoid basal carcinomas of the cervix:A unique morphological evolution with cell cycle correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aida Cviko; Birgir Briem; Scott R. Granter; Alvaro P. Pinto; Tao-Yeuan Wang; Yuh-Cheng Yang; Be-Fong Chen; Annie Yang; Ellen E. Sheets; Frank D. McKeon; Christopher P. Crum

    2000-01-01

    Adenoid basal carcinoma (ABC) is a rare cervical carcinoma of postmenopausal women composed of small basal-type (basaloid) cells with focal endocervical (“adenoid”) differentiation. ABCs are associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and contain integrated human papillomavirus type 16 DNA. However, ABCs have a favorable prognosis and do not metastasize. Five (5) ABCs were analyzed histologically for a marker distinguishing

  4. Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexxai V. Kravitz; Benjamin S. Freeze; Philip R. L. Parker; Kenneth Kay; Myo T. Thwin; Karl Deisseroth; Anatol C. Kreitzer

    2010-01-01

    Neural circuits of the basal ganglia are critical for motor planning and action selection. Two parallel basal ganglia pathways have been described, and have been proposed to exert opposing influences on motor function. According to this classical model, activation of the `direct' pathway facilitates movement and activation of the `indirect' pathway inhibits movement. However, more recent anatomical and functional evidence

  5. Basal shear stress of the Ross ice streams from control method Ian Joughin1

    E-print Network

    Boyce, C. Kevin

    motion of the Ross ice streams (Ice Streams A, B, C, D, E, and F, also called Mercer, Whillans, KambBasal shear stress of the Ross ice streams from control method inversions Ian Joughin1 Jet inversions to determine the basal shear stress beneath the Ross ice streams where new high

  6. Mutations of the Human Homolog of Drosophila patched in the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Hahn; Carol Wicking; Peter G Zaphiropoulos; Mae R Gailani; Susan Shanley; Abirami Chidambaram; Igor Vorechovsky; Erika Holmberg; Anne Birgitte Unden; Susan Gillies; Kylie Negus; Ian Smyth; Carolyn Pressman; David J Leffell; Bernard Gerrard; Alisa M Goldstein; Michael Dean; Rune Toftgard; Georgia Chenevix-Trench; Brandon Wainwright; Allen E Bale

    1996-01-01

    The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), pits of the palms and soles, jaw keratocysts, a variety of other tumors, and developmental abnormalities. NBCCS maps to chromosome 9q22.3. Familial and sporadic BCCs display loss of heterozygosity in this region, consistent with the gene being a tumor suppressor. A

  7. Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae): Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SILVIA MARÍA WOLCAN; LÍA RONCO; GLADYS ALBINA LORI

    Summary: Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae). Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae) The aims of the paper were to determine the causal agents of basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata in Argentina, and to evaluate its possible pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus. Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Phytophthora nicotianae, Rhizoctonia solani, F. graminearum, F. verticilloides, F. equiseti and

  8. Effects of Direct Instruction and Basal Reading Instruction Programs on the Reading Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Deborah R.

    1999-01-01

    Compares the reading achievement of second graders who were taught with a direct instruction program to second graders who were taught with a basal reading program in three areas: vocabulary, comprehension, and language. Finds Direct Instruction was more successful than the basal reading program. (NH)

  9. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Mason, Helen D.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined follicles from human ovaries (n = 18) by electron microscopy and found that many follicles had additional layers of basal lamina. Oocytes (n = 222) from bovine follicles with normal or unusual basal laminas were isolated and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst was compared. Healthy bovine follicles with a single layer of basal lamina had oocytes with significantly (P < 0.01) greater developmental competence than healthy follicles with additional layers of follicular basal lamina (65% versus 28%). CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence that the phenotype of the follicular basal lamina is related to oocyte competence. PMID:19095662

  10. Retrieving avalanche basal friction law from high rate positioning of avalanches Pulfer G.1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Retrieving avalanche basal friction law from high rate positioning of avalanches Pulfer G.1 : The Voellmy avalanche basal friction parameters are retrieved from high rate positioning of artificially released avalanches. Two dense snow avalanches were triggered at the Lautaret full-scale test site

  11. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) for Fine-resolution Basal Ice Sheet Imaging

    E-print Network

    Blake, William Arthur

    2010-08-31

    This dissertation work was to examine the feasibility of InSAR through the ice sheets to create a fine resolution basal topography map and extraction of basal composition. InSAR was shown to be possible through the ice sheet, using data collected...

  12. The Relevance of Illustration in Basal Readers as It Relates to Contextual Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesnov, Wendy Beth

    A study examined the hypothesis that illustrations found in first-grade basal texts do not always relate to context. Six texts were analyzed to determine the percentage of illustration miscues appearing in each story. The basal readers used were: "Story Clouds," Scott Foresman Reading: An American Tradition (1987); "Red Rock," Rand McNally Reading…

  13. The Social Endocrinology of Dominance: Basal Testosterone Predicts Cortisol Changes and Behavior Following Victory and Defeat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranjal H. Mehta; Amanda C. Jones; Robert A. Josephs

    2008-01-01

    Past research suggests that individuals high in basal testosterone are motivated to gain high status. The present research extends previous work by examining endocrinological and behavioral consequences of high and low status as a function of basal testosterone. The outcome of a competition—victory versus defeat–was used as a marker of status. In Study 1, high testosterone men who lost in

  14. Metacognitive Theory Applied: Strategic Reading Instruction in the Current Generation of Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Hopkins, Carol J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the content of eight basal reading series (published in 1989) to determine how and the extent to which lessons and activities that promote metacomprehension behaviors necessary for independent reading were included. Finds that basal authors made considerable efforts to incorporate activities and lessons that promote or foster strategic…

  15. Actor critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphna Joel; Yael Niv; Eytan Ruppin

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor- critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and

  16. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. PMID:25465558

  17. Basal and acidic fibroblast growth factor-induced atrial natriuretic peptide gene expression and secretion is inhibited by staurosporine.

    PubMed

    Tokola, H; Salo, K; Vuolteenaho, O; Ruskoaho, H

    1994-04-15

    We examined the mechanisms involved in the activation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene expression and secretion in response to acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) by studying the effects of staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, on basal and AFGF-induced ANP messenger RNA (mRNA) and immunoreactive ANP (IR-ANP) levels in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Acidic FGF caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in IR-ANP and immunoreactive N-terminal fragment of proANP (IR-NT-proANP) release into the culture medium from ventricular but not from atrial myocytes. In ventricular cells, 50 ng/ml aFGF for 24 or 48 h resulted in a 70% or 181% increase, respectively, in the accumulation of IR-ANP into the culture medium. Acidic FGF also stimulated ANP gene expression significantly; after 48 h of incubation, the ANP mRNA levels of aFGF-treated ventricular myocytes were 205% (P < 0.001) higher than those of control cells. Staurosporine alone at concentration of 10 nM significantly decreased the basal IR-ANP and IR-NT-proANP secretion, and inhibited the aFGF-induced increase in ANP mRNA and IR-ANP levels in ventricular myocytes. TPA (100 nM) alone significantly stimulated ANP gene expression and secretion but these effects were not augmented by combining aFGF with TPA. High performance liquid chromatographical analysis showed that atrial and ventricular myocytes maintained in serum-free medium were capable of secreting processed, ANP99-126 sized material, and that aFGF did not alter the processing of ANP in ventricular cultures. These results demonstrate that aFGF is a potent stimulator of ANP gene expression and secretion in cultured neonatal rat ventricular but not in atrial cells. The observations that (a) staurosporine completely abolished the effects of aFGF on ANP gene expression and release and (b) ANP secretory and gene expression inducing effects of phorbol ester were not augmented by aFGF, suggest an important role of protein kinase C in mediating aFGF-induced ANP gene expression and secretion. PMID:7519562

  18. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages. PMID:25162760

  19. Effect of different supplements on eggshell quality, some characteristics of gastrointestinal tract and performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Shalaei, Mosayeb; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Zergani, Emel

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on performance, egg shell quality, pH value of gastrointestinal (GI) tract and small intestinal morphology of laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain (W-36) from 32 to 42 weeks of age, with five treatments, four replicates and eight hens in each replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of: 1-basal diet, 2-basal diet + 150 g per ton antibiotic (oxytetracycline), 3-basal diet + 3 kg per ton mixture of organic acids supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g per ton probiotic (protoxin) and 5-basal diet + 2 kg per ton prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide). During the experimental period, performance characteristics were evaluated. At the end of experiment two birds per replicate was sacrificed for small intestinal morphology. The results showed that organic acid and mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased average egg weight. Also feed conversion ratio significantly improved by mannan oligosaccharide. Eggshell quality was not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Regarding gastrointestinal tract characteristics, pH value of different parts of GI tract were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Villi height in duodenum by probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. Villi width in duodenum by antibiotic and probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. The number of goblet cells in duodenum by addition of antibiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. It was concluded that the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharide could have positive effects on performance of laying hens. PMID:25610579

  20. Activation of KRAS promotes the mesenchymal features of basal-type breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Suh, Yongjoon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Cui, Yan-Hong; Kim, Hyeonmi; Kim, Min-Jung; Gyu Kim, In; Lee, Su-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Basal-type breast cancers are among the most aggressive and deadly breast cancer subtypes, displaying a high metastatic ability associated with mesenchymal features. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes of basal-type breast cancer cells remain obscure. Here, we report that KRAS is a critical regulator for the maintenance of mesenchymal features in basal-type breast cancer cells. KRAS is preferentially activated in basal-type breast cancer cells as compared with luminal type. By loss and gain of KRAS, we found that KRAS is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes and metastatic ability through SLUG expression. Taken together, this study demonstrates that KRAS is a critical regulator for the metastatic behavior associated with mesenchymal features of breast cancer cells, implicating a novel therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer. PMID:25633745

  1. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an Uncommon Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Meela; Bhaskar Reddy, L. Raja; Kharat, Sagar; Mahesh, B.S.; Gandi, Lakshmi; Mahendra, Ashish; Nigam, Pankhuri; Grewal, Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell adenoma and intra-osseous adenoid cystic carcinoma. This report describes the case of a 27-year-old male with an ameloblastoma in the right posterior mandible. Orthopantomography computed tomography and finally histopathological examination directed us toward the confirmatory diagnosis of basal cell variant of ameloblastoma. Considering the rarity of the lesion and histological paradox regarding its diagnosis, we report here an interesting and rare case of basal cell ameloblastoma of the mandible with emphasis on differential diagnosis from other entities with basaloid differentiation having varying prognosis. After surgery, long-term follow-up at regular intervals is recommended as no sufficient statistical information regarding the behavior of this tumor is available.

  2. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Procyanidin on Growth Performance and Immune Response in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. C.; Lee, S. H.; Hong, J. K.; Cho, J. H.; Kim, I. H.; Park, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of procyanidin on growth performance, blood characteristics, and immune function in growing pigs. In experiment 1 (Exp. 1), thirty-two crossbred pigs with an initial BW of 19.2±0.3 kg were allocated into 4 treatments for an 8-wk experiment: i) CON (basal diet), ii) MOS 0.1 (basal diet+0.1% mannanoligosaccharide), iii) Pro-1 (basal diet+0.01% procyanidin), and iv) Pro-2 (basal diet+0.02% procyanidin). Pigs fed Pro-1 and Pro-2 diets had greater (p<0.05) gain:feed ratio compared with those fed CON or MOS 0.1 diets. Serum creatinine concentration was less (p<0.05) in Pro-2 treatment than those in CON, MOS 0.1 and Pro-1 treatments. In Exp. 2, twelve pigs (BW 13.4±1.3 kg) received basal diet with i) 0 (CON), ii) 0.02% (Pro-0.02%), and iii) 0.04% procyanidin (Pro-0.04%) for 4 wk. Concentration of platelets was lower (p<0.05) in the Pro-0.04% group compared to CON at 24 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In addition, secretion of cytokines from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence or absence of procyanidin was examined. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were lower (p<0.05) in Pro (LPS-stimulated PBMCs+procyanidin) than those in CON (LPS-stimulated PBMCs+PBS) at 4 h after LPS challenge. These data suggest that dietary addition of procyanidin improves feed efficiency and anti-inflammatory cytokines of pigs. PMID:25049935

  3. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

  4. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

  5. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

  6. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

  7. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

  8. Progress in Developing Dietary Supplement Databases: The Analytically Validated Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) and Dietary Supplement Label Databases (DSLD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although an estimated 50% of the US population consumes dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on bioactive constituents in them are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database deve...

  9. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

  10. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

  11. D'Alembert's Supplemented Principle and Newton's Five Supplemented Laws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Stepniewski

    1. Abstract In this article, the elucidation of the inconsistency of the type 3 = 6 found in the literature while arriving at Euler's equations, which describe the rotation about a fixed point of a rigid body, is presented. For this purpose, the law of dynamic equilibrium referred to as D'Alembert's supplemented principle is developed, which-being a generalisation of Newton's

  12. Effects of dietary star anise (Illicium verum?Hook f) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the performance of lactating multiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong Ying; Yang, ChongWu; Yang, Zaibin; Yang, Weiren; Jiang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Guiguo; Guo, Yixuan; Wei, Maolian

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-two sows were allocated to four treatments to evaluate the effect of dietary star anise (SA) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the lactational performance of sows. At 85 days of gestation, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. After farrowing, sows were further allotted to one of two lactation diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. On a weekly basis, body weight (BW) of sows and piglets was measured. Blood and milk samples were obtained from the sows and piglets. Number of days from weaning to estrus, milk yield and feed intake were also recorded. Weight gain of piglets from sows fed the SA-supplemented diet during lactation was greater between days 7 and 14, days 14 and 21 and the overall experimental period compared with control groups. Supplementation of SA during lactation improved weaning weight of piglets, milk yield and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows. The SA diet increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ordinary milk and prolactin (PRL) in serum of sows. In conclusion, this study has indicated the beneficial effects of dietary SA addition in improving the lactation performance of sows. PMID:25438815

  13. Effect of supplementing Rhodes grass hay (Chloris gayana) with Berchemia discolor or Zizyphus mucronata on the performance of growing goats in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Osuga, I M; Abdulrazak, S A; Muleke, C I; Fujihara, T

    2012-08-01

    Twenty growing Small East African goats were used to determine the effects of feeding sun-dried leaves of the browse forages Berchemia discolor and Zizyphus mucronata as supplements to low-quality basal diet, Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay, on voluntary feed intake (VFI), digestibility and growth performance. The grass hay and maize bran were used as a control. The dried leaves were then included at the rates of 15% and 30% of the dry matter intake (DMI). Berchemia discolor had the highest crude protein (CP) content of 195.5 g/kg DM, while Z. mucronata had CP content of 169.5 g/kg DM. The grass hay had the lowest CP content of 50.9 g/kg DM. The browse forages had low fibre content [Neutral detergent fibre (NDF); 257.9-369.5 g/kg DM], while the grass hay had high fibre content (NDF; 713.1 g/kg DM). Goats in the groups supplemented with either of the browse forages had higher total DMI, nitrogen (N) intake and retention and live-weight gains than those in the control diet group. The digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) was not affected by supplementation, but the CP digestibility increased with supplementation. The use of the browse forages as supplements for goats fed on poor-quality basal diets would enhance the performance of the animals. PMID:21699586

  14. Editor's Announcement: The Journal's New Supplement Series

    E-print Network

    Barnett, William A.

    2007-02-01

    Beginning in 2007, this journal will publish a new series of supplements for special issues. This new supplements series is intended to remove some special issues from the regular-issues space budget and thereby help to avoid the crowding...

  15. Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of when taking blood thinners , also called anticoagulants. Vitamin supplements can also disrupt a carefully balanced dosage of ... about the drug or my condition? Learn more: Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Over-the-Counter Medications and ...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Supplemental payments. 1430.511 Section 1430.511 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental payments. (a)...

  17. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  18. Effective medium in dispersed systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R N Pande; D R Chaudhary; F Gori

    1987-01-01

    A structural analysis of effective medium formed by dispersed systems from the viewpoint of flux modification at large dispersions\\u000a is presented. The effective medium coefficient is investigated for its parametric dependence and the effective properties\\u000a are estimated through this dependence. This estimation covers all highly dispersed two-phase systems including the effect\\u000a of container.

  19. Moderate dietary supplementation with vitamin E enhances lymphocyte functionality in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Teresa; Thomas, David G; Morel, Patrick C H; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of supplemental Vit E and/or Se on selected parameters of the immune system of the cat. Nine diets were fed in a 3?×?3 factorial design with no supplementation (control (C)); and either moderate (M); or high (H) levels of Vit E (0, 225 or 450?mg/kg DM diet) and/or Se (0, 2 or 10?mg/kg DM diet) added to a complete and balanced basal diet. After 28 days of feeding, enhanced lymphocyte proliferative responses to Concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin were observed (P?supplemental Vit E, irrespective of whether they also contained Se. Cats in the MVitE, HVitE, MVitE?+?MSe, HVitE?+?MSe, and HVitE?+?HSe groups all showed enhancement of phagocytic activity compared to control animals (P?supplemental level of 225?mg/kg DM diet Vit E appears to have beneficial effects on immune function in the cat. PMID:25660045

  20. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics. PMID:24902083