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Sample records for basal metazoan nematostella

  1. The making of an embryo in a basal metazoan: Proteomic analysis in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Shimrit; Sher, Noa; Brekhman, Vera; Ziv, Tamar; Lubzens, Esther; Lotan, Tamar

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians are widely distributed basal metazoans that play an important role in the marine ecosystem. Their genetic diversity and dispersal depends on successful oogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis. To understand the processes that lead to successful embryogenesis in these basal organisms, we conducted comparative proteomics on the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We examined four developmental stages from oocyte maturation through early embryogenesis, as well as the oocyte jelly sac in which fertilization and embryogenesis take place. Our analysis revealed 37 stage-specifically expressed proteins, including cell cycle, cellular energy related and DNA replication proteins and transcription regulators. Using in situ hybridization, we show that within the mesenteria, two cell types support successful oocyte development and embryogenesis. Large somatic supporting cells synthesize vitellogenin, the most abundant egg yolk protein within the oocyte, whereas mesenteria gland cells synthesize mucin 5B, which was found to be the main component of the jelly sac. These findings shed light on the sexual reproduction program in cnidarians and suggest a high conservation with proteins governing oogenesis in Bilateria. PMID:26365810

  2. Enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway encoded in the genome of a basal metazoan, Nematostella vectensis, have microbial origins.

    PubMed

    Starcevic, Antonio; Akthar, Shamima; Dunlap, Walter C; Shick, J Malcolm; Hranueli, Daslav; Cullum, John; Long, Paul F

    2008-02-19

    The shikimic acid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many aromatic compounds by a broad range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and some protozoans. Animals are considered to lack this pathway, as evinced by their dietary requirement for shikimate-derived aromatic amino acids. We challenge the universality of this traditional view in this report of genes encoding enzymes for the shikimate pathway in an animal, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Molecular evidence establishes horizontal transfer of ancestral genes of the shikimic acid pathway into the N. vectensis genome from both bacterial and eukaryotic (dinoflagellate) donors. Bioinformatic analysis also reveals four genes that are closely related to those of Tenacibaculum sp. MED152, raising speculation for the existence of a previously unsuspected bacterial symbiont. Indeed, the genome of the holobiont (i.e., the entity consisting of the host and its symbionts) comprises a high content of Tenacibaculum-like gene orthologs, including a 16S rRNA sequence that establishes the phylogenetic position of this associate to be within the family Flavobacteriaceae. These results provide a complementary view for the biogenesis of shikimate-related metabolites in marine Cnidaria as a "shared metabolic adaptation" between the partners. PMID:18268342

  3. Enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway encoded in the genome of a basal metazoan, Nematostella vectensis, have microbial origins

    PubMed Central

    Starcevic, Antonio; Akthar, Shamima; Dunlap, Walter C.; Shick, J. Malcolm; Hranueli, Daslav; Cullum, John; Long, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    The shikimic acid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many aromatic compounds by a broad range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and some protozoans. Animals are considered to lack this pathway, as evinced by their dietary requirement for shikimate-derived aromatic amino acids. We challenge the universality of this traditional view in this report of genes encoding enzymes for the shikimate pathway in an animal, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Molecular evidence establishes horizontal transfer of ancestral genes of the shikimic acid pathway into the N. vectensis genome from both bacterial and eukaryotic (dinoflagellate) donors. Bioinformatic analysis also reveals four genes that are closely related to those of Tenacibaculum sp. MED152, raising speculation for the existence of a previously unsuspected bacterial symbiont. Indeed, the genome of the holobiont (i.e., the entity consisting of the host and its symbionts) comprises a high content of Tenacibaculum-like gene orthologs, including a 16S rRNA sequence that establishes the phylogenetic position of this associate to be within the family Flavobacteriaceae. These results provide a complementary view for the biogenesis of shikimate-related metabolites in marine Cnidaria as a “shared metabolic adaptation” between the partners. PMID:18268342

  4. The Hedgehog gene family of the cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis, and implications for understanding metazoan Hedgehog pathway evolution

    PubMed Central

    Matus, David Q.; Magie, Craig; Pang, Kevin; Martindale, Mark Q; Thomsen, Gerald H.

    2008-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is an important component of cell-cell communication during bilaterian development, and abnormal Hedgehog signaling contributes to disease and birth defects. Hedgehog genes are composed of a ligand (“hedge”) domain and an autocatalytic intein (“hog”) domain. Hedgehog (hh) ligands bind to a conserved set of receptors and activate downstream signal transduction pathways terminating with Gli/Ci transcription factors. We have identified five intein-containing genes in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, two of which (NvHh1 and NvHh2) contain definitive hedgehog ligand domains, suggesting that to date, cnidarians are the earliest branching metazoan phylum to possess definitive Hh orthologs. Expression analysis of NvHh1 and NvHh2, the receptor NvPatched and a downstream transcription factor NvGli (a Gli3/Ci ortholog) indicate that these genes may have conserved roles in planar and trans-epithelial signaling during gut and germline development, while the three remaining intein-containing genes (NvHint1,2,3) are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in putative neural precursors. Metazoan intein-containing genes that lack a ligand domain have previously only been identified within nematodes. However, phylogenetic analyses suggest that these nematode inteins may be derived from an ancestral nematode true hedgehog gene, and that the non-bilaterian intein-containing genes identified here may represent an ancestral state prior to the domain swapping events that resulted in the formation of true hedgehog genes in the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. Genomic surveys of N. vectensis suggest that most of the components of both protostome and deuterostome Hh signaling pathways are present in anthozoans and that some appear to have been lost in ecdysozoan lineages. Cnidarians possess many bilaterian cell-cell signaling pathways (Wnt, TGFß, FGF and Hh) that appear to act in concert to pattern tissues along the oral-aboral axis of the polyp

  5. Characterization of the Cadherin–Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell–Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Donald Nathaniel; Miller, Phillip W.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Weis, William I.; Nelson, William James

    2016-01-01

    The cadherin–catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell–cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin–catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin. Using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we showed that α-catenin and β-catenin formed a heterodimer that bound N. vectensis Cadherin-1 and -2. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin bound F-actin with equivalent affinity as either a monomer or an α/β-catenin heterodimer, and its affinity for F-actin was, in part, regulated by a novel insert between the N- and C-terminal domains. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin inhibited Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin filaments, a regulatory property previously thought to be unique to mammalian αE-catenin. Thus, despite significant differences in sequence, the key interactions of the CCC are conserved between bilaterians and cnidarians, indicating that the core function of the CCC as a link between cell adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton is ancestral in the eumetazoans. PMID:27189570

  6. Characterization of the Cadherin-Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell-Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Donald Nathaniel; Miller, Phillip W; Lowe, Christopher J; Weis, William I; Nelson, William James

    2016-08-01

    The cadherin-catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell-cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin-catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin. Using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we showed that α-catenin and β-catenin formed a heterodimer that bound N. vectensis Cadherin-1 and -2. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin bound F-actin with equivalent affinity as either a monomer or an α/β-catenin heterodimer, and its affinity for F-actin was, in part, regulated by a novel insert between the N- and C-terminal domains. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin inhibited Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin filaments, a regulatory property previously thought to be unique to mammalian αE-catenin. Thus, despite significant differences in sequence, the key interactions of the CCC are conserved between bilaterians and cnidarians, indicating that the core function of the CCC as a link between cell adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton is ancestral in the eumetazoans. PMID:27189570

  7. The evolutionary origin of the Runx/CBFbeta transcription factors – Studies of the most basal metazoans

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Members of the Runx family of transcriptional regulators, which bind DNA as heterodimers with CBFβ, are known to play critical roles in embryonic development in many triploblastic animals such as mammals and insects. They are known to regulate basic developmental processes such as cell fate determination and cellular potency in multiple stem-cell types, including the sensory nerve cell progenitors of ganglia in mammals. Results In this study, we detect and characterize the hitherto unexplored Runx/CBFβ genes of cnidarians and sponges, two basal animal lineages that are well known for their extensive regenerative capacity. Comparative structural modeling indicates that the Runx-CBFβ-DNA complex from most cnidarians and sponges is highly similar to that found in humans, with changes in the residues involved in Runx-CBFβ dimerization in either of the proteins mirrored by compensatory changes in the binding partner. In situ hybridization studies reveal that Nematostella Runx and CBFβ are expressed predominantly in small isolated foci at the base of the ectoderm of the tentacles in adult animals, possibly representing neurons or their progenitors. Conclusion These results reveal that Runx and CBFβ likely functioned together to regulate transcription in the common ancestor of all metazoans, and the structure of the Runx-CBFβ-DNA complex has remained extremely conserved since the human-sponge divergence. The expression data suggest a hypothesis that these genes may have played a role in nerve cell differentiation or maintenance in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. PMID:18681949

  8. Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.

    PubMed

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-01-01

    The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis. PMID:24957317

  9. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  10. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Groves B.; Bay, Line K.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  11. Over-represented localized sequence motifs in ribosomal protein gene promoters of basal metazoans.

    PubMed

    Perina, Drago; Korolija, Marina; Roller, Maša; Harcet, Matija; Jeličić, Branka; Mikoč, Andreja; Cetković, Helena

    2011-07-01

    Equimolecular presence of ribosomal proteins (RPs) in the cell is needed for ribosome assembly and is achieved by synchronized expression of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) with promoters of similar strengths. Over-represented motifs of RPG promoter regions are identified as targets for specific transcription factors. Unlike RPs, those motifs are not conserved between mammals, drosophila, and yeast. We analyzed RPGs proximal promoter regions of three basal metazoans with sequenced genomes: sponge, cnidarian, and placozoan and found common features, such as 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tracts and TATA-boxes. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs, some of which displayed the highest similarity to motifs abundant in human RPG promoters and not present in Drosophila or yeast. Our results indicate that humans over-represented motifs, as well as corresponding domains of transcription factors, were established very early in metazoan evolution. The fast evolving nature of RPGs regulatory network leads to formation of other, lineage specific, over-represented motifs. PMID:21457775

  12. Nme Gene Family Evolutionary History Reveals Pre-Metazoan Origins and High Conservation between Humans and the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Thomas; Pontarotti, Pierre; Bobe, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Background The Nme gene family is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes such as cellular differentiation, development, metastatic dissemination, and cilia functions. Despite the known importance of Nme genes and their use as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness, the associated cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Over the last 20 years, several non-vertebrate model species have been used to investigate Nme functions. However, the evolutionary history of the family remains poorly understood outside the vertebrate lineage. The aim of the study was thus to elucidate the evolutionary history of the Nme gene family in Metazoans. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a total of 21 eukaryote species including 14 metazoans, the evolutionary history of Nme genes was reconstructed in the metazoan lineage. We demonstrated that the complexity of the Nme gene family, initially thought to be restricted to chordates, was also shared by the metazoan ancestor. We also provide evidence suggesting that the complexity of the family is mainly a eukaryotic innovation, with the exception of Nme8 that is likely to be a choanoflagellate/metazoan innovation. Highly conserved gene structure, genomic linkage, and protein domains were identified among metazoans, some features being also conserved in eukaryotes. When considering the entire Nme family, the starlet sea anemone is the studied metazoan species exhibiting the most conserved gene and protein sequence features with humans. In addition, we were able to show that most of the proteins known to interact with human NME proteins were also found in starlet sea anemone. Conclusion/Significance Together, our observations further support the association of Nme genes with key cellular functions that have been conserved throughout metazoan evolution. Future investigations of evolutionarily conserved Nme gene functions using the starlet sea anemone could shed new light on a wide variety of key developmental and

  13. The synaptonemal complex of basal metazoan hydra: more similarities to vertebrate than invertebrate meiosis model organisms.

    PubMed

    Fraune, Johanna; Wiesner, Miriam; Benavente, Ricardo

    2014-03-20

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an evolutionarily well-conserved structure that mediates chromosome synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division. Although its structure is conserved, the characterized protein components in the current metazoan meiosis model systems (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus) show no sequence homology, challenging the question of a single evolutionary origin of the SC. However, our recent studies revealed the monophyletic origin of the mammalian SC protein components. Many of them being ancient in Metazoa and already present in the cnidarian Hydra. Remarkably, a comparison between different model systems disclosed a great similarity between the SC components of Hydra and mammals while the proteins of the ecdysozoan systems (D. melanogaster and C. elegans) differ significantly. In this review, we introduce the basal-branching metazoan species Hydra as a potential novel invertebrate model system for meiosis research and particularly for the investigation of SC evolution, function and assembly. Also, available methods for SC research in Hydra are summarized. PMID:24656231

  14. Evolution of the perlecan/HSPG2 gene and its activation in regenerating Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Warren, Curtis R; Kassir, Elias; Spurlin, James; Martinez, Jerahme; Putnam, Nicholas H; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2)/perlecan gene is ancient and conserved in all triploblastic species. Its presence maintains critical cell boundaries in tissue and its large (up to ~900 kDa) modular structure has prompted speculation about the evolutionary origin of the gene. The gene's conservation amongst basal metazoans is unclear. After the recent sequencing of their genomes, the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens have become favorite models for studying tissue regeneration and the evolution of multicellularity. More ancient basal metazoan phyla include the poriferan and ctenophore, whose evolutionary relationship has been clarified recently. Our in silico and PCR-based methods indicate that the HSPG2 gene is conserved in both the placozoan and cnidarian genomes, but not in those of the ctenophores and only partly in poriferan genomes. HSPG2 also is absent from published ctenophore and Capsaspora owczarzaki genomes. The gene in T. adhaerens is encoded as two separate but genetically juxtaposed genes that house all of the constituent pieces of the mammalian HSPG2 gene in tandem. These genetic constituents are found in isolated genes of various poriferan species, indicating a possible intronic recombinatory mechanism for assembly of the HSPG2 gene. Perlecan's expression during wound healing and boundary formation is conserved, as expression of the gene was activated during tissue regeneration and reformation of the basement membrane of N. vectensis. These data indicate that the complex HSPG2 gene evolved concurrently in a common ancestor of placozoans, cnidarians and bilaterians, likely along with the development of differentiated cell types separated by acellular matrices, and is activated to reestablish these tissue borders during wound healing. PMID:25876075

  15. Evolution of the Perlecan/HSPG2 Gene and Its Activation in Regenerating Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Curtis R.; Kassir, Elias; Spurlin, James; Martinez, Jerahme; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2)/perlecan gene is ancient and conserved in all triploblastic species. Its presence maintains critical cell boundaries in tissue and its large (up to ~900 kDa) modular structure has prompted speculation about the evolutionary origin of the gene. The gene’s conservation amongst basal metazoans is unclear. After the recent sequencing of their genomes, the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens have become favorite models for studying tissue regeneration and the evolution of multicellularity. More ancient basal metazoan phyla include the poriferan and ctenophore, whose evolutionary relationship has been clarified recently. Our in silico and PCR-based methods indicate that the HSPG2 gene is conserved in both the placozoan and cnidarian genomes, but not in those of the ctenophores and only partly in poriferan genomes. HSPG2 also is absent from published ctenophore and Capsaspora owczarzaki genomes. The gene in T. adhaerens is encoded as two separate but genetically juxtaposed genes that house all of the constituent pieces of the mammalian HSPG2 gene in tandem. These genetic constituents are found in isolated genes of various poriferan species, indicating a possible intronic recombinatory mechanism for assembly of the HSPG2 gene. Perlecan’s expression during wound healing and boundary formation is conserved, as expression of the gene was activated during tissue regeneration and reformation of the basement membrane of N. vectensis. These data indicate that the complex HSPG2 gene evolved concurrently in a common ancestor of placozoans, cnidarians and bilaterians, likely along with the development of differentiated cell types separated by acellular matrices, and is activated to reestablish these tissue borders during wound healing. PMID:25876075

  16. The cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor possessed at least 56 homeoboxes: evidence from the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph F; Burton, Patrick M; Mazza, Maureen E; Kwong, Grace K; Mullikin, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2006-01-01

    Background Homeodomain transcription factors are key components in the developmental toolkits of animals. While this gene superclass predates the evolutionary split between animals, plants, and fungi, many homeobox genes appear unique to animals. The origin of particular homeobox genes may, therefore, be associated with the evolution of particular animal traits. Here we report the first near-complete set of homeodomains from a basal (diploblastic) animal. Results Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 130 homeodomains from the sequenced genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis along with 228 homeodomains from human and 97 homeodomains from Drosophila. The Nematostella homeodomains appear to be distributed among established homeodomain classes in the following fashion: 72 ANTP class; one HNF class; four LIM class; five POU class; 33 PRD class; five SINE class; and six TALE class. For four of the Nematostella homeodomains, there is disagreement between neighbor-joining and Bayesian trees regarding their class membership. A putative Nematostella CUT class gene is also identified. Conclusion The homeodomain superclass underwent extensive radiations prior to the evolutionary split between Cnidaria and Bilateria. Fifty-six homeodomain families found in human and/or fruit fly are also found in Nematostella, though seventeen families shared by human and fly appear absent in Nematostella. Homeodomain loss is also apparent in the bilaterian taxa: eight homeodomain families shared by Drosophila and Nematostella appear absent from human (CG13424, EMXLX, HOMEOBRAIN, MSXLX, NK7, REPO, ROUGH, and UNC4), and six homeodomain families shared by human and Nematostella appear absent from fruit fly (ALX, DMBX, DUX, HNF, POU1, and VAX). PMID:16867185

  17. A cleavage clock regulates features of lineage-specific differentiation in the development of a basal branching metazoan, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA to cytoplasmic ratio, are critical for the appearance of lineage-specific differentiation. Conclusion Our work corroborates previous studies demonstrating that the cleavage program is causally involved in the spatial segregation and/or activation of factors that give rise to distinct cell types in ctenophore development. These factors are segregated independently to the appropriate lineage at the 8- and the 16-cell stages and have features of a clock, such that comb-plate-like cilia and light-emitting photoproteins appear at roughly the same developmental time in cleavage-arrested embryos as they do in untreated embryos. Nuclear division, which possibly affects DNA-cytoplasmic ratios, appears to be important in the timing of differentiation markers. Evidence suggests that the 60-cell stage, just prior to gastrulation, is the time of zygotic gene activation. Such cleavage-clock-regulated phenomena appear to be widespread amongst the Metazoa and these cellular and molecular developmental mechanisms probably evolved early in metazoan evolution. PMID:24485336

  18. Asexual metazoans undergo senescence.

    PubMed

    Martínez, D E; Levinton, J S

    1992-10-15

    August Weismann popularized the notion that metazoans have a potentially immortal germ line separated from a mortal soma, and evolutionary biologists regard senescence as an evolved characteristic of the soma. Many have claimed that metazoans that do not sequester their germ line have no clear distinction between germ line and soma, and consequently they should lack senescence. Here we present experimental evidence that senescence occurs in the asexually reproducing marine oligochaete Paranais litoralis. We also analyze data reported in Sonneborn's classical study and show that the rhabdocoel Stenostomum incaudatum undergoes senescence. We argue that the stability of commitment to somatic function and the fact that asexual metazoans form their germ cells from undifferentiated stem cells are sufficient to allow for senescence of the asexual metazoan's soma. Thus the evolution of somatic differentiation, and not germ-line sequestration, would be the necessary condition for the evolution of senescence. PMID:11607334

  19. Pre-metazoan origins and evolution of the cadherin adhesome

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Paul S.; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vertebrate adherens junctions mediate cell–cell adhesion via a “classical” cadherin–catenin “core” complex, which is associated with and regulated by a functional network of proteins, collectively named the cadherin adhesome (“cadhesome”). The most basal metazoans have been shown to conserve the cadherin–catenin “core”, but little is known about the evolution of the cadhesome. Using a bioinformatics approach based on both sequence and structural analysis, we have traced the evolution of this larger network in 26 organisms, from the uni-cellular ancestors of metazoans, through basal metazoans, to vertebrates. Surprisingly, we show that approximately 70% of the cadhesome, including proteins with similarity to the catenins, predate metazoans. We found that the transition to multicellularity was accompanied by the appearance of a small number of adaptor proteins, and we show how these proteins may have helped to integrate pre-metazoan sub-networks via PDZ domain–peptide interactions. Finally, we found the increase in network complexity in higher metazoans to have been driven primarily by expansion of paralogs. In summary, our analysis helps to explain how the complex protein network associated with cadherin at adherens junctions first came together in the first metazoan and how it evolved into the even more complex mammalian cadhesome. PMID:25395670

  20. Conserved and novel gene expression between regeneration and asexual fission in Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Patrick M; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    Due to work in model systems (e.g., flies and mice), the molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis are known in exquisite detail. However, these organisms are incapable of asexual reproduction and possess limited regenerative abilities. Thus, the mechanisms of alternate developmental trajectories and their relation to embryonic mechanisms remain understudied. Because these developmental trajectories are present in a diverse group of animal phyla spanning the metazoan phylogeny, including cnidarians, annelids, and echinoderms, they are likely to have played a major role in animal evolution. The starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging model system, undergoes larval development, asexual fission, and complete bi-directional regeneration in the field and laboratory. In order to investigate to what extent embryonic patterning mechanisms are utilized during alternate developmental trajectories, we examined expression of developmental regulatory genes during regeneration and fission. When compared to previously reported embryonic expression patterns, we found that all genes displayed some level of expression consistent with embryogenesis. However, five of seven genes investigated also displayed striking differences in gene expression between one or more developmental trajectory. These results demonstrate that alternate developmental trajectories utilize distinct molecular mechanisms upstream of major developmental regulatory genes such as fox, otx, and Hox-like. PMID:19184098

  1. Ether-à-go-go family voltage-gated K+ channels evolved in an ancestral metazoan and functionally diversified in a cnidarian–bilaterian ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofan; Martinson, Alexandra S.; Layden, Michael J.; Diatta, Fortunay H.; Sberna, Anna P.; Simmons, David K.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Jegla, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the evolutionary origins of the ether-à-go-go (EAG) family of voltage-gated K+ channels, which have a strong influence on the excitability of neurons. The bilaterian EAG family comprises three gene subfamilies (Eag, Erg and Elk) distinguished by sequence conservation and functional properties. Searches of genome sequence indicate that EAG channels are metazoan specific, appearing first in ctenophores. However, phylogenetic analysis including two EAG family channels from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi indicates that the diversification of the Eag, Erg and Elk gene subfamilies occurred in a cnidarian/bilaterian ancestor after divergence from ctenophores. Erg channel function is highly conserved between cnidarians and mammals. Here we show that Eag and Elk channels from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (NvEag and NvElk) also share high functional conservation with mammalian channels. NvEag, like bilaterian Eag channels, has rapid kinetics, whereas NvElk activates at extremely hyperpolarized voltages, which is characteristic of Elk channels. Potent inhibition of voltage activation by extracellular protons is conserved between mammalian and Nematostella EAG channels. However, characteristic inhibition of voltage activation by Mg2+ in Eag channels and Ca2+ in Erg channels is reduced in Nematostella because of mutation of a highly conserved aspartate residue in the voltage sensor. This mutation may preserve sub-threshold activation of Nematostella Eag and Erg channels in a high divalent cation environment. mRNA in situ hybridization of EAG channels in Nematostella suggests that they are differentially expressed in distinct cell types. Most notable is the expression of NvEag in cnidocytes, a cnidarian-specific stinging cell thought to be a neuronal subtype. PMID:25696816

  2. Strabismus-mediated primary archenteron invagination is uncoupled from Wnt/β-catenin-dependent endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): Implications for the evolution of gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastrulation is a uniquely metazoan character, and its genesis was arguably the key step that enabled the remarkable diversification within this clade. The process of gastrulation involves two tightly coupled events during embryogenesis of most metazoans. Morphogenesis produces a distinct internal epithelial layer in the embryo, and this epithelium becomes segregated as an endoderm/endomesodermal germ layer through the activation of a specific gene regulatory program. The developmental mechanisms that induced archenteron formation and led to the segregation of germ layers during metazoan evolution are unknown. But an increased understanding of development in early diverging taxa at the base of the metazoan tree may provide insights into the origins of these developmental mechanisms. Results In the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, initial archenteron formation begins with bottle cell-induced buckling of the blastula epithelium at the animal pole. Here, we show that bottle cell formation and initial gut invagination in Nematostella requires NvStrabismus (NvStbm), a maternally-expressed core component of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway. The NvStbm protein is localized to the animal pole of the zygote, remains asymmetrically expressed through the cleavage stages, and becomes restricted to the apical side of invaginating bottle cells at the blastopore. Antisense morpholino-mediated NvStbm-knockdown blocks bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination, but it has no effect on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling-mediated endoderm cell fate specification. Conversely, selectively blocking Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibits endoderm cell fate specification but does not affect bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Wnt/PCP-mediated initial archenteron invagination can be uncoupled from Wnt/ß-catenin-mediated endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella, and provides evidence

  3. Proteome-wide dataset supporting the study of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Phanse, Sadhna; Wan, Cuihong; Borgeson, Blake; Tu, Fan; Drew, Kevin; Clark, Greg; Xiong, Xuejian; Kagan, Olga; Kwan, Julian; Bezginov, Alexandr; Chessman, Kyle; Pal, Swati; Cromar, Graham; Papoulas, Ophelia; Ni, Zuyao; Boutz, Daniel R; Stoilova, Snejana; Havugimana, Pierre C; Guo, Xinghua; Malty, Ramy H; Sarov, Mihail; Greenblatt, Jack; Babu, Mohan; Derry, W Brent; Tillier, Elisabeth R; Wallingford, John B; Parkinson, John; Marcotte, Edward M; Emili, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Our analysis examines the conservation of multiprotein complexes among metazoa through use of high resolution biochemical fractionation and precision mass spectrometry applied to soluble cell extracts from 5 representative model organisms Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and Homo sapiens. The interaction network obtained from the data was validated globally in 4 distant species (Xenopus laevis, Nematostella vectensis, Dictyostelium discoideum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and locally by targeted affinity-purification experiments. Here we provide details of our massive set of supporting biochemical fractionation data available via ProteomeXchange (PXD002319-PXD002328), PPIs via BioGRID (185267); and interaction network projections via (http://metazoa.med.utoronto.ca) made fully accessible to allow further exploration. The datasets here are related to the research article on metazoan macromolecular complexes in Nature [1]. PMID:26870755

  4. Proteome-wide dataset supporting the study of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes

    PubMed Central

    Phanse, Sadhna; Wan, Cuihong; Borgeson, Blake; Tu, Fan; Drew, Kevin; Clark, Greg; Xiong, Xuejian; Kagan, Olga; Kwan, Julian; Bezginov, Alexandr; Chessman, Kyle; Pal, Swati; Cromar, Graham; Papoulas, Ophelia; Ni, Zuyao; Boutz, Daniel R.; Stoilova, Snejana; Havugimana, Pierre C.; Guo, Xinghua; Malty, Ramy H.; Sarov, Mihail; Greenblatt, Jack; Babu, Mohan; Derry, W. Brent; Tillier, Elisabeth R.; Wallingford, John B.; Parkinson, John; Marcotte, Edward M.; Emili, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis examines the conservation of multiprotein complexes among metazoa through use of high resolution biochemical fractionation and precision mass spectrometry applied to soluble cell extracts from 5 representative model organisms Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and Homo sapiens. The interaction network obtained from the data was validated globally in 4 distant species (Xenopus laevis, Nematostella vectensis, Dictyostelium discoideum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and locally by targeted affinity-purification experiments. Here we provide details of our massive set of supporting biochemical fractionation data available via ProteomeXchange (PXD002319-PXD002328), PPIs via BioGRID (185267); and interaction network projections via (http://metazoa.med.utoronto.ca) made fully accessible to allow further exploration. The datasets here are related to the research article on metazoan macromolecular complexes in Nature [1]. PMID:26870755

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE WIDELY INTRODUCED ESTUARINE ANEMONE NEMATOSTELLA VECTENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We characterized ten polymorphic microsatellite loci from Nematostella vectensis, a burrowing anemone recently introduced to estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America and the southeast coast of England. Preliminary results indicate high variability and significant depar...

  6. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48 hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa. PMID:26081482

  7. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M.; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48 hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa PMID:26081482

  8. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  9. Nonribosomal peptide synthesis in animals: the cyclodipeptide synthase of Nematostella.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Jérôme; Moutiez, Mireille; Li, Yan; Belin, Pascal; Lecoq, Alain; Fonvielle, Matthieu; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Gondry, Muriel

    2011-11-23

    Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) are small enzymes structurally related to class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). They divert aminoacylated tRNAs from their canonical role in ribosomal protein synthesis, for cyclodipeptide formation. All the CDPSs experimentally characterized to date are bacterial. We show here that a predicted CDPS from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is an active CDPS catalyzing the formation of various cyclodipeptides, preferentially containing tryptophan. Our findings demonstrate that eukaryotes encode active CDPSs and suggest that all CDPSs have a similar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like architecture and ping-pong mechanism. They also raise questions about the biological roles of the cyclodipeptides produced in bacteria and eukaryotes. PMID:22118670

  10. Continuous drug release by sea anemone Nematostella vectensis stinging microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-02-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  11. Development and epithelial organisation of muscle cells in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nematostella vectensis, a member of the cnidarian class Anthozoa, has been established as a promising model system in developmental biology, but while information about the genetic regulation of embryonic development is rapidly increasing, little is known about the cellular organization of the various cell types in the adult. Here, we studied the anatomy and development of the muscular system of N. vectensis to obtain further insights into the evolution of muscle cells. Results The muscular system of N. vectensis is comprised of five distinct muscle groups, which are differentiated into a tentacle and a body column system. Both systems house longitudinal as well as circular portions. With the exception of the ectodermal tentacle longitudinal muscle, all muscle groups are of endodermal origin. The shape and epithelial organization of muscle cells vary considerably between different muscle groups. Ring muscle cells are formed as epitheliomuscular cells in which the myofilaments are housed in the basal part of the cell, while the apical part is connected to neighboring cells by apical cell-cell junctions. In the longitudinal muscles of the column, the muscular part at the basal side is connected to the apical part by a long and narrow cytoplasmic bridge. The organization of these cells, however, remains epitheliomuscular. A third type of muscle cell is represented in the longitudinal muscle of the tentacle. Using transgenic animals we show that the apical cell-cell junctions are lost during differentiation, resulting in a detachment of the muscle cells to a basiepithelial position. These muscle cells are still located within the epithelium and outside of the basal matrix, therefore constituting basiepithelial myocytes. We demonstrate that all muscle cells, including the longitudinal basiepithelial muscle cells of the tentacle, initially differentiate from regular epithelial cells before they alter their epithelial organisation. Conclusions A wide range of

  12. Oncogenic Brain Metazoan Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Angela N.; Cress, Marshall C.; Gabor, Oroszi; Ding, Qing-Qing; Miller, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100). The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship. PMID:24151568

  13. Biological control of biofilms on membranes by metazoans.

    PubMed

    Klein, Theresa; Zihlmann, David; Derlon, Nicolas; Isaacson, Carl; Szivak, Ilona; Weissbrodt, David G; Pronk, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, chemical and physical methods have been used to control biofouling on membranes by inactivating and removing the biofouling layer. Alternatively, the permeability can be increased using biological methods while accepting the presence of the biofouling layer. We have investigated two different types of metazoans for this purpose, the oligochaete Aelosoma hemprichi and the nematode Plectus aquatilis. The addition of these grazing metazoans in biofilm-controlled membrane systems resulted in a flux increase of 50% in presence of the oligochaetes (Aelosoma hemprichi), and a flux increase of 119-164% in presence of the nematodes (Plectus aquatilis) in comparison to the control system operated without metazoans. The change in flux resulted from (1) a change in the biofilm structure, from a homogeneous, cake-like biofilm to a more heterogeneous, porous structure and (2) a significant reduction in the thickness of the basal layer. Pyrosequencing data showed that due to the addition of the predators, also the community composition of the biofilm in terms of protists and bacteria was strongly affected. The results have implications for a range of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration for potable water production, membrane bioreactors and reverse osmosis. PMID:26458189

  14. Identification of 526 Conserved Metazoan Genetic Innovations Exposes a New Role for Cofactor E-like in Neuronal Microtubule Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Matthew D.; Cueva, Juan G.; Tu, Domena K.; Kang, S. Y. Catherine; Singh, Hansmeet; Baillie, David L.; Hutter, Harald; Goodman, Miriam B.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Leroux, Michel R.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of metazoans from their choanoflagellate-like unicellular ancestor coincided with the acquisition of novel biological functions to support a multicellular lifestyle, and eventually, the unique cellular and physiological demands of differentiated cell types such as those forming the nervous, muscle and immune systems. In an effort to understand the molecular underpinnings of such metazoan innovations, we carried out a comparative genomics analysis for genes found exclusively in, and widely conserved across, metazoans. Using this approach, we identified a set of 526 core metazoan-specific genes (the ‘metazoanome’), approximately 10% of which are largely uncharacterized, 16% of which are associated with known human disease, and 66% of which are conserved in Trichoplax adhaerens, a basal metazoan lacking neurons and other specialized cell types. Global analyses of previously-characterized core metazoan genes suggest a prevalent property, namely that they act as partially redundant modifiers of ancient eukaryotic pathways. Our data also highlights the importance of exaptation of pre-existing genetic tools during metazoan evolution. Expression studies in C. elegans revealed that many metazoan-specific genes, including tubulin folding cofactor E-like (TBCEL/coel-1), are expressed in neurons. We used C. elegans COEL-1 as a representative to experimentally validate the metazoan-specific character of our dataset. We show that coel-1 disruption results in developmental hypersensitivity to the microtubule drug paclitaxel/taxol, and that overexpression of coel-1 has broad effects during embryonic development and perturbs specialized microtubules in the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In addition, coel-1 influences the migration, neurite outgrowth and mechanosensory function of the TRNs, and functionally interacts with components of the tubulin acetylation/deacetylation pathway. Together, our findings unveil a conserved molecular toolbox fundamental to metazoan

  15. Metazoan Gene Families from Metazome

    DOE Data Explorer

    Metazome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst metazoans. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of version 2.0.4, Metazome provides access to twenty-four sequenced and annotated metazoan genomes, clustered at nine evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, Ensembl, and JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. The included organisms (by common name) are: Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Opossum, Chicken, Frog, Stickleback, Medaka, Fugu pufferfish; Zebrafish, Seasquirt - savignyi, Seasquirt - intestinalis, Amphioxus, Sea Urchin, Fruitfly, Mosquite, Yellow Fever Mosquito, Silkworm, Red Flour Beetle, Worm, Briggsae Worm, Owl limpet (snail), and Sea anemone. [Copied from Metazome Overview at http://www.metazome.net/Metazome_info.php

  16. The rise of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis as a model system to investigate development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Layden, Michael J; Rentzsch, Fabian; Röttinger, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Reverse genetics and next-generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model system, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc.) could be compared. Studies in Nematostella have accomplished this goal and informed our understanding of the evolution of key bilaterian features. However, Nematostella is now going beyond its intended utility with potential as a model to better understand other areas such as regenerative biology, EcoDevo, or stress response. This review intends to highlight key EvoDevo insights from Nematostella that guide our understanding about the evolution of axial patterning mechanisms, mesoderm, and nervous systems in bilaterians, as well as to discuss briefly the potential of Nematostella as a model to better understand the relationship between development and regeneration. Lastly, the sum of research to date in Nematostella has generated a variety of tools that aided the rise of Nematostella to a viable model system. We provide a catalogue of current resources and techniques available to facilitate investigators interested in incorporating Nematostella into their research. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:408-428. doi: 10.1002/wdev.222 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26894563

  17. Fast Neurotransmission Related Genes Are Expressed in Non Nervous Endoderm in the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Matan; Brikner, Itzchak; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Cnidarian nervous systems utilize chemical transmission to transfer signals through synapses and neurons. To date, ample evidence has been accumulated for the participation of neuropeptides, primarily RFamides, in neurotransmission. Yet, it is still not clear if this is the case for the classical fast neurotransmitters such as GABA, Glutamate, Acetylcholine and Monoamines. A large repertoire of cnidarian Fast Neurotransmitter related Genes (FNGs) has been recently identified in the genome of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. In order to test whether FNGs are localized in cnidarian neurons, we characterized the expression patterns of eight Nematostella genes that are closely or distantly related to human central and peripheral nervous systems genes, in adult Nematostella and compared them to the RFamide localization. Our results show common expression patterns for all tested genes, in a single endodermal cell layer. These expressions did not correspond with the RFamide expressing nerve cell network. Following these results we suggest that the tested Nematostella genes may not be directly involved in vertebrate-like fast neurotransmission. PMID:24705400

  18. Paramecium tetraurelia basal body structure.

    PubMed

    Tassin, Anne-Marie; Lemullois, Michel; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium is a free-living unicellular organism, easy to cultivate, featuring ca. 4000 motile cilia emanating from longitudinal rows of basal bodies anchored in the plasma membrane. The basal body circumferential polarity is marked by the asymmetrical organization of its associated appendages. The complex basal body plus its associated rootlets forms the kinetid. Kinetids are precisely oriented within a row in correlation with the cell polarity. Basal bodies also display a proximo-distal polarity with microtubule triplets at their proximal ends, surrounding a permanent cartwheel, and microtubule doublets at the transition zone located between the basal body and the cilium. Basal bodies remain anchored at the cell surface during the whole cell cycle. On the opposite to metazoan, there is no centriolar stage and new basal bodies develop anteriorly and at right angle from the base of the docked ones. Ciliogenesis follows a specific temporal pattern during the cell cycle and both unciliated and ciliated docked basal bodies can be observed in the same cell. The transition zone is particularly well organized with three distinct plates and a maturation of its structure is observed during the growth of the cilium. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been performed in different organisms including Paramecium to understand the ciliogenesis process. The data have incremented a multi-organism database, dedicated to proteins involved in the biogenesis, composition and function of centrosomes, basal bodies or cilia. Thanks to its thousands of basal bodies and the well-known choreography of their duplication during the cell cycle, Paramecium has allowed pioneer studies focusing on the structural and functional processes underlying basal body duplication. Proteins involved in basal body anchoring are sequentially recruited to assemble the transition zone thus indicating that the anchoring process parallels the structural differentiation of the transition zone. This feature

  19. Expression and phylogenetic analysis of the zic gene family in the evolution and development of metazoans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background zic genes are members of the gli/glis/nkl/zic super-family of C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) transcription factors. Homologs of the zic family have been implicated in patterning neural and mesodermal tissues in bilaterians. Prior to this study, the origin of the metazoan zic gene family was unknown and expression of zic gene homologs during the development of early branching metazoans had not been investigated. Results Phylogenetic analyses of novel zic candidate genes identified a definitive zic homolog in the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, two gli/glis/nkl-like genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, confirmed the presence of three gli/glis/nkl-like genes in Porifera, and confirmed the five previously identified zic genes in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. In the cnidarian N. vectensis, zic homologs are expressed in ectoderm and the gastrodermis (a bifunctional endomesoderm), in presumptive and developing tentacles, and in oral and sensory apical tuft ectoderm. The Capitella teleta zic homolog (Ct-zic) is detectable in a subset of the developing nervous system, the foregut, and the mesoderm associated with the segmentally repeated chaetae. Lastly, expression of gli and glis homologs in Mnemiopsis. leidyi is detected exclusively in neural cells in floor of the apical organ. Conclusions Based on our analyses, we propose that the zic gene family arose in the common ancestor of the Placozoa, Cnidaria and Bilateria from a gli/glis/nkl-like gene and that both ZOC and ZF-NC domains evolved prior to cnidarian-bilaterian divergence. We also conclude that zic expression in neural ectoderm and developing neurons is pervasive throughout the Metazoa and likely evolved from neural expression of an ancestral gli/glis/nkl/zic gene. zic expression in bilaterian mesoderm may be related to the expression in the gastrodermis of a cnidarian-bilaterian common ancestor. PMID:21054859

  20. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Amy E.; Jones, Ian T.; Reitzel, Adam M.; Tarrant, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species. PMID:26772201

  1. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson.

    PubMed

    Maas, Amy E; Jones, Ian T; Reitzel, Adam M; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species. PMID:26772201

  2. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, Aldine R.; Johnston, Hereroa T.; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F.; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  3. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Amiel, Aldine R; Johnston, Hereroa T; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  4. Trace fossils of precambrian metazoans "Vendobionta" and "Mollusks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivantsov, A. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Metazoan trace fossils from the Upper Vendian are preserved together with remains of corresponding organisms. The traces belong to "Vendobionta", representing the Precambrian phylum Proarticulata and to a presumably trochophoran animal Kimberella quadrata. These organisms fed on microbial mats, which preserved fossil traces. Impressions of the mat surface structures, traces, and bodies of animals are preserved in marine terrigenous sediments on the basal surfaces of sandstone beds. Proarticulata grazing traces are represented by groups and chains of impressions left by the ventral side of a body or its central and posterior parts. Kimberella traces are represented by long ridges united into bundles, fans, and chains of fans. All these traces were largely formed mechanically, i.e., by mat scratching with cilia (Proarticulata) or teeth ( Kimberella). Proarticulata representatives destroyed only a thin upper layer of the mat, while Kimberella could possibly scratch the mat through its entire thickness or even tear off pieces from it.

  5. Molecular characterization of the apical organ of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Sinigaglia, Chiara; Busengdal, Henriette; Lerner, Avi; Oliveri, Paola; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Apical organs are sensory structures present in many marine invertebrate larvae where they are considered to be involved in their settlement, metamorphosis and locomotion. In bilaterians they are characterised by a tuft of long cilia and receptor cells and they are associated with groups of neurons, but their relatively low morphological complexity and dispersed phylogenetic distribution have left their evolutionary relationship unresolved. Moreover, since apical organs are not present in the standard model organisms, their development and function are not well understood. To provide a foundation for a better understanding of this structure we have characterised the molecular composition of the apical organ of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. In a microarray-based comparison of the gene expression profiles of planulae with either a wildtype or an experimentally expanded apical organ, we identified 78 evolutionarily conserved genes, which are predominantly or specifically expressed in the apical organ of Nematostella. This gene set comprises signalling molecules, transcription factors, structural and metabolic genes. The majority of these genes, including several conserved, but previously uncharacterized ones, are potentially involved in different aspects of the development or function of the long cilia of the apical organ. To demonstrate the utility of this gene set for comparative analyses, we further analysed the expression of a subset of previously uncharacterized putative orthologs in sea urchin larvae and detected expression for twelve out of eighteen of them in the apical domain. Our study provides a molecular characterization of the apical organ of Nematostella and represents an informative tool for future studies addressing the development, function and evolutionary history of apical organ cells. PMID:25478911

  6. Regulation of Nematostella neural progenitors by SoxB, Notch and bHLH genes.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gemma Sian; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    Notch signalling, SoxB and Group A bHLH 'proneural' genes are conserved regulators of the neurogenic program in many bilaterians. However, the ancestry of their functions and interactions is not well understood. We address this question in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a representative of the Cnidaria, the sister clade to the Bilateria. It has previously been found that the SoxB orthologue NvSoxB(2) is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in Nematostella and promotes the development of both neurons and nematocytes, whereas Notch signalling has been implicated in the negative regulation of neurons and the positive regulation of nematocytes. Here, we clarify the role of Notch by reporting that inhibition of Notch signalling increases the numbers of both neurons and nematocytes, as well as increasing the number of NvSoxB(2)-expressing cells. This suggests that Notch restricts neurogenesis by limiting the generation of NPCs. We then characterise NvAth-like (Atonal/Neurogenin family) as a positive regulator of neurogenesis that is co-expressed with NvSoxB(2) in a subset of dividing NPCs, while we find that NvAshA (Achaete-scute family) and NvSoxB(2) are co-expressed in non-dividing cells only. Reciprocal knockdown experiments reveal a mutual requirement for NvSoxB(2) and NvAth-like in neural differentiation; however, the primary expression of each gene is independent of the other. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signalling and NvSoxB(2) regulate Nematostella neural progenitors via parallel yet interacting mechanisms; with different aspects of these interactions being shared with Drosophila and/or vertebrate neurogenesis. PMID:26443634

  7. Molecular characterization of the apical organ of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Sinigaglia, Chiara; Busengdal, Henriette; Lerner, Avi; Oliveri, Paola; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2015-02-01

    Apical organs are sensory structures present in many marine invertebrate larvae where they are considered to be involved in their settlement, metamorphosis and locomotion. In bilaterians they are characterised by a tuft of long cilia and receptor cells and they are associated with groups of neurons, but their relatively low morphological complexity and dispersed phylogenetic distribution have left their evolutionary relationship unresolved. Moreover, since apical organs are not present in the standard model organisms, their development and function are not well understood. To provide a foundation for a better understanding of this structure we have characterised the molecular composition of the apical organ of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. In a microarray-based comparison of the gene expression profiles of planulae with either a wildtype or an experimentally expanded apical organ, we identified 78 evolutionarily conserved genes, which are predominantly or specifically expressed in the apical organ of Nematostella. This gene set comprises signalling molecules, transcription factors, structural and metabolic genes. The majority of these genes, including several conserved, but previously uncharacterized ones, are potentially involved in different aspects of the development or function of the long cilia of the apical organ. To demonstrate the utility of this gene set for comparative analyses, we further analysed the expression of a subset of previously uncharacterized putative orthologs in sea urchin larvae and detected expression for twelve out of eighteen of them in the apical domain. Our study provides a molecular characterization of the apical organ of Nematostella and represents an informative tool for future studies addressing the development, function and evolutionary history of apical organ cells. PMID:25478911

  8. Genomic survey of candidate stress-response genes in the estuarine anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Sullivan, James C; Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Finnerty, John R

    2008-06-01

    Salt marshes are challenging habitats due to natural variability in key environmental parameters including temperature, salinity, ultraviolet light, oxygen, sulfides, and reactive oxygen species. Compounding this natural variation, salt marshes are often heavily impacted by anthropogenic insults including eutrophication, toxic contamination, and coastal development that alter tidal and freshwater inputs. Commensurate with this environmental variability, estuarine animals generally exhibit broader physiological tolerances than freshwater, marine, or terrestrial species. One factor that determines an organism's physiological tolerance is its ability to upregulate "stress-response genes" in reaction to particular stressors. Comparative studies on diverse organisms have identified a number of evolutionarily conserved genes involved in responding to abiotic and biotic stressors. We used homology-based scans to survey the sequenced genome of Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, an estuarine specialist, to identify genes involved in the response to three kinds of insult-physiochemical insults, pathogens, and injury. Many components of the stress-response networks identified in triploblastic animals have clear orthologs in the sea anemone, meaning that they must predate the cnidarian-triploblast split (e.g., xenobiotic receptors, biotransformative genes, ATP-dependent transporters, and genes involved in responding to reactive oxygen species, toxic metals, osmotic shock, thermal stress, pathogen exposure, and wounding). However, in some instances, stress-response genes known from triploblasts appear to be absent from the Nematostella genome (e.g., many metal-complexing genes). This is the first comprehensive examination of the genomic stress-response repertoire of an estuarine animal and a member of the phylum Cnidaria. The molecular markers of stress response identified in Nematostella may prove useful in monitoring estuary health and evaluating coastal

  9. Hydra meiosis reveals unexpected conservation of structural synaptonemal complex proteins across metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Fraune, Johanna; Alsheimer, Manfred; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Busch, Karoline; Fraune, Sebastian; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Benavente, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a key structure of meiosis, mediating the stable pairing (synapsis) of homologous chromosomes during prophase I. Its remarkable tripartite structure is evolutionarily well conserved and can be found in almost all sexually reproducing organisms. However, comparison of the different SC protein components in the common meiosis model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Mus musculus revealed no sequence homology. This discrepancy challenged the hypothesis that the SC arose only once in evolution. To pursue this matter we focused on the evolution of SYCP1 and SYCP3, the two major structural SC proteins of mammals. Remarkably, our comparative bioinformatic and expression studies revealed that SYCP1 and SYCP3 are also components of the SC in the basal metazoan Hydra. In contrast to previous assumptions, we therefore conclude that SYCP1 and SYCP3 form monophyletic groups of orthologous proteins across metazoans. PMID:23012415

  10. Response of bacterial colonization in Nematostella vectensis to development, environment and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Mortzfeld, Benedikt M; Urbanski, Szymon; Reitzel, Adam M; Künzel, Sven; Technau, Ulrich; Fraune, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of host-bacterial colonization during development is a fundamental process influencing the fitness of many organisms, but the factors controlling community membership and influencing the establishment of the microbial ecosystem during development are poorly understood. The starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis serves as a cnidarian model organism due to the availability of laboratory cultures and its high tolerance for broad ranges of salinity and temperature. Here, we show that the anemone's epithelia are colonized by diverse bacterial communities and that the composition of its microbiota is tightly coupled to host development. Environmental variations led to robust adjustments in the microbial composition while still maintaining the ontogenetic core signature. In addition, analysis of bacterial communities of Nematostella polyps from five different populations revealed a strong correlation between host biogeography and bacterial diversity despite years of laboratory culturing. These observed variations in fine-scale community composition following environmental change and for individuals from different geographic origins could represent the microbiome's contribution to host acclimation and potentially adaptation, respectively, and thereby contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis due to environmental changes. PMID:26032917

  11. NF-κB is required for cnidocyte development in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Wolenski, Francis S; Bradham, Cynthia A; Finnerty, John R; Gilmore, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Nv) is a leading model organism for the phylum Cnidaria, which includes anemones, corals, jellyfishes and hydras. A defining trait across this phylum is the cnidocyte, an ectodermal cell type with a variety of functions including defense, prey capture and environmental sensing. Herein, we show that the Nv-NF-κB transcription factor and its inhibitor Nv-IκB are expressed in a subset of cnidocytes in the body column of juvenile and adult anemones. The size and distribution of the Nv-NF-κB-positive cnidocytes suggest that they are in a subtype known as basitrichous haplonema cnidocytes. Nv-NF-κB is primarily cytoplasmic in cnidocytes in juvenile and adult animals, but is nuclear when first detected in the 30-h post-fertilization embryo. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of Nv-NF-κB expression results in greatly reduced cnidocyte formation in the 5 day-old animal. Taken together, these results indicate that NF-κB plays a key role in the development of the phylum-specific cnidocyte cell type in Nematostella, likely by nuclear Nv-NF-κB-dependent activation of genes required for cnidocyte development. PMID:23063796

  12. FGFRL1 is a neglected putative actor of the FGF signalling pathway present in all major metazoan phyla

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Stephanie; Somorjai, Ildiko; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Lamonerie, Thomas; Escriva, Hector

    2009-01-01

    Background Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGF) and their receptors are well known for having major implications in cell signalling controlling embryonic development. Recently, a gene coding for a protein closely related to FGFRs (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors) called FGFR5 or FGFR-like 1 (FGFRL1), has been described in vertebrates. An orthologous gene was also found in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but no orthologous genes were found by the authors in other non-vertebrate species, even if a FGFRL1 gene was identified in the sea urchin genome, as well as a closely related gene, named nou-darake, in the planarian Dugesia japonica. These intriguing data of a deuterostome-specific gene that might be implicated in FGF signalling prompted us to search for putative FGFRL1 orthologues in the completely sequenced genomes of metazoans. Results We found FGFRL1 genes in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis as well as in many bilaterian species. Our analysis also shows that FGFRL1 orthologous genes are linked in the genome with other members of the FGF signalling pathway from cnidarians to bilaterians (distance < 10 Mb). To better understand the implication of FGFRL1 genes in chordate embryonic development, we have analyzed expression patterns of the amphioxus and the mouse genes by whole mount in situ hybridization. We show that some homologous expression territories can be defined, and we propose that FGFRL1 and FGF8/17/18 were already co-expressed in the pharyngeal endoderm in the ancestor of chordates. Conclusion Our work sheds light on the existence of a putative FGF signalling pathway actor present in the ancestor of probably all metazoans, the function of which has received little attention until now. PMID:19740411

  13. Panorama of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Cuihong; Borgeson, Blake; Phanse, Sadhna; Tu, Fan; Drew, Kevin; Clark, Greg; Xiong, Xuejian; Kagan, Olga; Kwan, Julian; Bezginov, Alexandr; Chessman, Kyle; Pal, Swati; Cromar, Graham; Papoulas, Ophelia; Ni, Zuyao; Boutz, Daniel R; Stoilova, Snejana; Havugimana, Pierre C; Guo, Xinghua; Malty, Ramy H; Sarov, Mihail; Greenblatt, Jack; Babu, Mohan; Derry, W Brent; Tillier, Elisabeth R; Wallingford, John B; Parkinson, John; Marcotte, Edward M; Emili, Andrew

    2015-09-17

    Macromolecular complexes are essential to conserved biological processes, but their prevalence across animals is unclear. By combining extensive biochemical fractionation with quantitative mass spectrometry, here we directly examined the composition of soluble multiprotein complexes among diverse metazoan models. Using an integrative approach, we generated a draft conservation map consisting of more than one million putative high-confidence co-complex interactions for species with fully sequenced genomes that encompasses functional modules present broadly across all extant animals. Clustering reveals a spectrum of conservation, ranging from ancient eukaryotic assemblies that have probably served cellular housekeeping roles for at least one billion years, ancestral complexes that have accrued contemporary components, and rarer metazoan innovations linked to multicellularity. We validated these projections by independent co-fractionation experiments in evolutionarily distant species, affinity purification and functional analyses. The comprehensiveness, centrality and modularity of these reconstructed interactomes reflect their fundamental mechanistic importance and adaptive value to animal cell systems. PMID:26344197

  14. Near intron pairs and the metazoan tree.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Jörg; Stadler, Peter F; Krauss, Veiko

    2013-03-01

    Gene structure data can substantially advance our understanding of metazoan evolution and deliver an independent approach to resolve conflicts among existing hypotheses. Here, we used changes of spliceosomal intron positions as novel phylogenetic marker to reconstruct the animal tree. This kind of data is inferred from orthologous genes containing mutually exclusive introns at pairs of sequence positions in close proximity, so-called near intron pairs (NIPs). NIP data were collected for 48 species and utilized as binary genome-level characters in maximum parsimony (MP) analyses to reconstruct deep metazoan phylogeny. All groupings that were obtained with more than 80% bootstrap support are consistent with currently supported phylogenetic hypotheses. This includes monophyletic Chordata, Vertebrata, Nematoda, Platyhelminthes and Trochozoa. Several other clades such as Deuterostomia, Protostomia, Arthropoda, Ecdysozoa, Spiralia, and Eumetazoa, however, failed to be recovered due to a few problematic taxa such as the mite Ixodesand the warty comb jelly Mnemiopsis. The corresponding unexpected branchings can be explained by the paucity of synapomorphic changes of intron positions shared between some genomes, by the sensitivity of MP analyses to long-branch attraction (LBA), and by the very unequal evolutionary rates of intron loss and intron gain during evolution of the different subclades of metazoans. In addition, we obtained an assemblage of Cnidaria, Porifera, and Placozoa as sister group of Bilateria+Ctenophora with medium support, a disputable, but remarkable result. We conclude that NIPs can be used as phylogenetic characters also within a broader phylogenetic context, given that they have emerged regularly during evolution irrespective of the large variation of intron density across metazoan genomes. PMID:23201572

  15. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  16. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  17. Initiating a regenerative response; cellular and molecular features of wound healing in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wound healing is the first stage of a series of cellular events that are necessary to initiate a regenerative response. Defective wound healing can block regeneration even in animals with a high regenerative capacity. Understanding how signals generated during wound healing promote regeneration of lost structures is highly important, considering that virtually all animals have the ability to heal but many lack the ability to regenerate missing structures. Cnidarians are the phylogenetic sister taxa to bilaterians and are highly regenerative animals. To gain a greater understanding of how early animals generate a regenerative response, we examined the cellular and molecular components involved during wound healing in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Results Pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling blocks regeneration and wound healing in Nematostella. We characterized early and late wound healing events through genome-wide microarray analysis, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization to identify potential wound healing targets. We identified a number of genes directly related to the wound healing response in other animals (metalloproteinases, growth factors, transcription factors) and suggest that glycoproteins (mucins and uromodulin) play a key role in early wound healing events. This study also identified a novel cnidarian-specific gene, for a thiamine biosynthesis enzyme (vitamin B synthesis), that may have been incorporated into the genome by lateral gene transfer from bacteria and now functions during wound healing. Lastly, we suggest that ERK signaling is a shared element of the early wound response for animals with a high regenerative capacity. Conclusions This research describes the temporal events involved during Nematostella wound healing, and provides a foundation for comparative analysis with other regenerative and non-regenerative species. We have shown that the same genes that

  18. Sequential actions of β-catenin and Bmp pattern the oral nerve net in Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kuhn, Anne; Fushiki, Manami; Agata, Kiyokazu; Özbek, Suat; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Holstein, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal evolution is closely linked to the emergence of the nervous system. At present it is unknown how the basic mechanisms of neural induction and formation of central nervous systems evolved. We addressed this question in Nematostella vectensis, a member of cnidarians, the ancient sister group of bilaterians. We found that β-catenin signalling is crucial for the early induction of the embryonic nervous system. β-Catenin activity at the blastopore induces specific neurogenic genes required for development of the oral nervous system. β-Catenin signalling induces also Bmp signalling, which, at later larval stages, becomes indispensible for the maintenance and asymmetric patterning of the oral nervous system along the primary and secondary (directive) axes. We hypothesize that the consecutive and functionally linked involvement of β-catenin and Bmp signalling in the formation of the cnidarian oral nervous system reflects an ancestral mechanism that evolved before the cnidarian/bilaterian split. PMID:25534229

  19. Evolution of the Metazoan Mitochondrial Replicase

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcos T.; Haukka, Jani; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2015-01-01

    The large number of complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences available for metazoan species makes it a good system for studying genome diversity, although little is known about the mechanisms that promote and/or are correlated with the evolution of this organellar genome. By investigating the molecular evolutionary history of the catalytic and accessory subunits of the mtDNA polymerase, pol γ, we sought to develop mechanistic insight into its function that might impact genome structure by exploring the relationships between DNA replication and animal mitochondrial genome diversity. We identified three evolutionary patterns among metazoan pol γs. First, a trend toward stabilization of both sequence and structure occurred in vertebrates, with both subunits evolving distinctly from those of other animal groups, and acquiring at least four novel structural elements, the most important of which is the HLH-3β (helix-loop-helix, 3 β-sheets) domain that allows the accessory subunit to homodimerize. Second, both subunits of arthropods and tunicates have become shorter and evolved approximately twice as rapidly as their vertebrate homologs. And third, nematodes have lost the gene for the accessory subunit, which was accompanied by the loss of its interacting domain in the catalytic subunit of pol γ, and they show the highest rate of molecular evolution among all animal taxa. These findings correlate well with the mtDNA genomic features of each group described above, and with their modes of DNA replication, although a substantive amount of biochemical work is needed to draw conclusive links regarding the latter. Describing the parallels between evolution of pol γ and metazoan mtDNA architecture may also help in understanding the processes that lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and to human disease-related phenotypes. PMID:25740821

  20. PCR Primers for Metazoan Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Kweskin, Matthew; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of the biodiversity of communities of small organisms is most readily done using PCR-based analysis of environmental samples consisting of mixtures of individuals. Known as metagenetics, this approach has transformed understanding of microbial communities and is beginning to be applied to metazoans as well. Unlike microbial studies, where analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence is standard, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In this study we designed a set of PCR primers for the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequence based on 64 complete mitochondrial genomes and then tested their efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of the 64 complete mitochondrial genome sequences representing all metazoan classes available in GenBank were downloaded using the NCBI Taxonomy Browser. Alignment of sequences was performed for the excised mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequences, and conserved regions were identified for all 64 mitochondrial genomes. These regions were used to design a primer pair that flanks a more variable region in the gene. Then all of the complete metazoan mitochondrial genomes available in NCBI's Organelle Genome Resources database were used to determine the percentage of taxa that would likely be amplified using these primers. Results suggest that these primers will amplify target sequences for many metazoans. Conclusions/Significance Newly designed 12S ribosomal DNA primers have considerable potential for metazoan metagenetic analysis because of their ability to amplify sequences from many metazoans. PMID:22536450

  1. Functional characterisation of a TRPM2 orthologue from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis in human cells.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Frank J P; Kühn, Cornelia; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The human non-selective cation channel TRPM2 represents a mediator of apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress. The principal agonist ADP-ribose binds to the cytosolic domain of TRPM2, which is homologous to the human ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase NUDT9. To further elucidate the structure-function relationship of this channel, we characterised a TRPM2 orthologue from the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, after its expression in a human cell line. This far distant relative shows only 31% total sequence similarity to hTRPM2, while its C-terminal domain has a greater resemblance to the NUDT9 enzyme. Current through nvTRPM2 was induced by ADPR, with a more pronounced sensitivity and faster kinetics than in hTRPM2. In contrast to hTRPM2, there was no response to H2O2 and hardly any modulatory effect by intracellular Ca(2+). The deletion of a stretch of 15 residues from the NUDT9 domain of nvTRPM2, which is absent in hTRPM2, did not change the response to ADPR but enabled activation of the channel by H2O2 and increased the effects of intracellular Ca(2+). These findings shed new light on the evolution of TRPM2 and establish nvTRPM2 as a promising tool to decipher its complex gating mechanisms. PMID:25620041

  2. Environmental sensing and response genes in Cnidaria: the chemical defensome in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis has been recently established as a new model system for the study of the evolution of developmental processes, as cnidaria occupy a key evolutionary position at the base of the bilateria. Cnidaria play important roles in estuarine and reef communities, but are exposed to many environmental stressors. Here I describe the genetic components of a ‘chemical defensome’ in the genome of N. vectensis, and review cnidarian molecular toxicology. Gene families that defend against chemical stressors and the transcription factors that regulate these genes have been termed a ‘chemical defensome,’ and include the cytochromes P450 and other oxidases, various conjugating enyzymes, the ATP-dependent efflux transporters, oxidative detoxification proteins, as well as various transcription factors. These genes account for about 1% (266/27200) of the predicted genes in the sea anemone genome, similar to the proportion observed in tunicates and humans, but lower than that observed in sea urchins. While there are comparable numbers of stress-response genes, the stress sensor genes appear to be reduced in N. vectensis relative to many model protostomes and deuterostomes. Cnidarian toxicology is understudied, especially given the important ecological roles of many cnidarian species. New genomic resources should stimulate the study of chemical stress sensing and response mechanisms in cnidaria, and allow us to further illuminate the evolution of chemical defense gene networks. PMID:18956243

  3. Mechanics and Patterning in Metazoan Epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Kevin K.

    In this dissertation we consider the effect of mechanical interactions on cell biology and how this translates into tissue-level properties in metazoan epithelia. We delineate three model-based approaches with different phenomenological aims and compare applicable results to experimental data. We first consider cellular vertex model simulations, which are used to represent the mechanics of two-dimensional epithelial cell arrays. We outline the assumptions, parameters, and outputs. Then we review a number of systems in which these simulations have been used. The second approach is the Mechanical Inverse, which is a vertex model-based approach to inferring mechanical stresses from cell boundary labeled images of epithelial tissue. We develop this inference method from the assumption of mechanical equilibrium and dominant stresses in the tissue. We then apply this computational method to experimental images and validate the performance. In the final part we consider avian cochlea development in epithelia where lateral inhibition plays a role in cell differentiation—a process which involves cell division, differentiation, and rearrangement in a two-dimensional epithelial layer. We develop a mean-field mathematical description of this process. The results provide a description of the observed hair cell patterns in the cochlea.

  4. The environmental genomics of metazoan thermal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, D; Butlin, R K; Gaston, K J; Joly, D; Snook, R R

    2015-01-01

    Continued and accelerating change in the thermal environment places an ever-greater priority on understanding how organisms are going to respond. The paradigm of ‘move, adapt or die', regarding ways in which organisms can respond to environmental stressors, stimulates intense efforts to predict the future of biodiversity. Assuming that extinction is an unpalatable outcome, researchers have focussed attention on how organisms can shift in their distribution to stay in the same thermal conditions or can stay in the same place by adapting to a changing thermal environment. How likely these respective outcomes might be depends on the answer to a fundamental evolutionary question, namely what genetic changes underpin adaptation to the thermal environment. The increasing access to and decreasing costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, which can be applied to both model and non-model systems, provide a much-needed tool for understanding thermal adaptation. Here we consider broadly what is already known from non-NGS studies about thermal adaptation, then discuss the benefits and challenges of different NGS methodologies to add to this knowledge base. We then review published NGS genomics and transcriptomics studies of thermal adaptation to heat stress in metazoans and compare these results with previous non-NGS patterns. We conclude by summarising emerging patterns of genetic response and discussing future directions using these increasingly common techniques. PMID:25735594

  5. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, A Yu; Wood, R A; Penny, A M

    2015-11-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635-541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera-Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550-541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  6. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate

    PubMed Central

    Zhuravlev, A. Yu.; Wood, R. A.; Penny, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635–541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera–Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550–541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  8. Individual Cell Longevity, 'Life's Timekeeper', and Metazoan Evolution.

    PubMed

    Neill, David

    2016-01-01

    It is proposed that a primary and fundamental aspect of metazoan evolution is an ability to control and extend the longevity of individual cells. This was achieved through an intracellular oscillator, dubbed 'Life's Timekeeper', which evolved in the hypothetical ancestor of all metazoans. Slower oscillatory frequencies directed metazoan evolution towards extended longevity of individual cells, enabling generation of many specialised types of terminally differentiated cells. As the longevity of these cells was still relatively short in more primitive metazoans, stem cells, capable of differentiating into all specialised cell types, were retained in order to replace senescent cells. With increasing cell longevity, continual replacement of all senescent cells was no longer necessary. Cells such as neurons could be sustained throughout life, enabling the evolution of brains, hence, complex behaviour and intelligence. In multicellular metazoans the oscillator remains synchronised across all cells. It coordinates the timing of all cell-cell signalling systems, hence controls the timing of development and aging/senescence. In advanced metazoans, where senescent cells are not continually replaced, it controls lifespan. With regards to morphological evolution the oscillator, through alterations to developmental timing, controls change in size and shape. With regards to life history theory it functions as the key variable mediating the correlation between life history traits. This theory is compatible with a prominent role for environmental selection but, as it implicates some degree of internal mediation and direction, it is not entirely compatible with the 'modern synthesis' view of natural selection. PMID:26777340

  9. A food's-eye view of the transition from basal metazoans to bilaterians.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2007-11-01

    Living things invariably consist of some kind of compartmentalized redox chemistry. Signaling pathways mediated by oxidation and reduction thus derive from the nature of life itself. The role of such redox or metabolic signaling broadened with major transitions in the history of life. Prokaryotes often use redox signals to deploy one or more variant electron carriers and associated enzymes to better utilize environmental energy sources. Eukaryotes transcend the strong surface-to-volume constraints inherent in prokaryotic cells by moving chemiosmotic membranes internally. As a consequence, eukaryotic redox signaling is frequently between these organelle membranes and the nucleus, thus potentially involving levels-of-selection synergies and antagonisms. Gradients of oxygen and substrate in simple multicellular organisms similarly associated metabolic signaling with levels of selection, now at the level of the cell and the organism. By allowing sequestration of large amounts of food, the evolution of the animal mouth was a pivotal event in metabolic signaling, leading to "multicellular" redox regulation. Because concentrated food resources may be patchy in time and space, long-lived sedentary animals with mouths employ such metabolic signaling and phenotypic plasticity in ways that adapt them to the changing availability of food. Alternatively, if the mouth is coupled to a battery of sensory equipment, the organism can actively seek out and sequester patches of food. In these early bilaterians, competition for food resources may have favored rapid development with little subsequent plasticity and metabolic signaling. With rapid dispersal and colonization, such "assembly-line" animals could effectively compete for patchy resources. Limiting metabolic signaling, however, resulted in a cascade of seemingly unrelated changes. These changes derive from the effectiveness of metabolic signaling in policing variation at the cellular level. If the signals an organism uses to control cellular replication are the same as the signals a cell uses to control its own metabolism, then cells that ignore these signals and carry out selfish replication will pay a fitness cost in terms of inefficient metabolism. Bilaterians with limited metabolic signaling thus require other mechanisms to police cell-level variation. Bilaterian features such as restricted somatic cell potency, a sequestered germ line, and determinate growth should be viewed in this context. Bilaterian senescence evolved as a by-product of restricted potency of somatic cells, itself a mechanism of cell policing required by limited metabolic signaling. PMID:21669753

  10. Long-term maintenance of species-specific bacterial microbiota in the basal metazoan Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Fraune, Sebastian; Bosch, Thomas C. G.

    2007-01-01

    Epithelia in animals are colonized by complex communities of microbes. Although a topic of long-standing interest, understanding the evolution of the microbial communities and their role in triggering innate immune responses has resisted analysis. Cnidaria are among the simplest animals at the tissue grade of organization. To obtain a better understanding of the microbiota associated with phylogenetically ancient epithelia, we have identified the epibiotic and endosymbiotic bacteria of two species of the cnidarian Hydra on the basis of rRNA comparisons. We analyzed individuals of Hydra oligactis and Hydra vulgaris from both laboratory cultures and the wild. We discovered that individuals from both species differ greatly in their bacterial microbiota. Although H. vulgaris polyps have a quite diverse microbiota, H. oligactis appears to be associated with only a limited number of microbes; some of them were found, unexpectedly, to be endosymbionts. Surprisingly, the microfauna showed similar characteristics in individuals of cultures maintained in the laboratory for >30 years and polyps directly isolated from the wild. The significant differences in the microbial communities between the two species and the maintenance of specific microbial communities over long periods of time strongly indicate distinct selective pressures imposed on and within the epithelium. Our analysis suggests that the Hydra epithelium actively selects and shapes its microbial community. PMID:17664430

  11. Early and late response of Nematostella vectensis transcriptome to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Elran, Ron; Raam, Maayan; Kraus, Roey; Brekhman, Vera; Sher, Noa; Plaschkes, Inbar; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-10-01

    Environmental contamination from heavy metals poses a global concern for the marine environment, as heavy metals are passed up the food chain and persist in the environment long after the pollution source is contained. Cnidarians play an important role in shaping marine ecosystems, but environmental pollution profoundly affects their vitality. Among the cnidarians, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is an advantageous model for addressing questions in molecular ecology and toxicology as it tolerates extreme environments and its genome has been published. Here, we employed a transcriptome-wide RNA-Seq approach to analyse N. vectensis molecular defence mechanisms against four heavy metals: Hg, Cu, Cd and Zn. Altogether, more than 4800 transcripts showed significant changes in gene expression. Hg had the greatest impact on up-regulating transcripts, followed by Cu, Zn and Cd. We identified, for the first time in Cnidaria, co-up-regulation of immediate-early transcription factors such as Egr1, AP1 and NF-κB. Time-course analysis of these genes revealed their early expression as rapidly as one hour after exposure to heavy metals, suggesting that they may complement or substitute for the roles of the metal-mediating Mtf1 transcription factor. We further characterized the regulation of a large array of stress-response gene families, including Hsp, ABC, CYP members and phytochelatin synthase, that may regulate synthesis of the metal-binding phytochelatins instead of the metallothioneins that are absent from Cnidaria genome. This study provides mechanistic insight into heavy metal toxicity in N. vectensis and sheds light on ancestral stress adaptations. PMID:25145541

  12. Bacteria–bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Augustin, René; Franzenburg, Sören; Knop, Mirjam; Schröder, Katja; Willoweit-Ohl, Doris; Bosch, Thomas CG

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial surfaces of most animals are colonized by diverse microbial communities. Although it is generally agreed that commensal bacteria can serve beneficial functions, the processes involved are poorly understood. Here we report that in the basal metazoan Hydra, ectodermal epithelial cells are covered with a multilayered glycocalyx that provides a habitat for a distinctive microbial community. Removing this epithelial microbiota results in lethal infection by the filamentous fungus Fusarium sp. Restoring the complex microbiota in gnotobiotic polyps prevents pathogen infection. Although mono-associations with distinct members of the microbiota fail to provide full protection, additive and synergistic interactions of commensal bacteria are contributing to full fungal resistance. Our results highlight the importance of resident microbiota diversity as a protective factor against pathogen infections. Besides revealing insights into the in vivo function of commensal microbes in Hydra, our findings indicate that interactions among commensal bacteria are essential to inhibit pathogen infection. PMID:25514534

  13. Bacteria-bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance.

    PubMed

    Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Augustin, René; Franzenburg, Sören; Knop, Mirjam; Schröder, Katja; Willoweit-Ohl, Doris; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial surfaces of most animals are colonized by diverse microbial communities. Although it is generally agreed that commensal bacteria can serve beneficial functions, the processes involved are poorly understood. Here we report that in the basal metazoan Hydra, ectodermal epithelial cells are covered with a multilayered glycocalyx that provides a habitat for a distinctive microbial community. Removing this epithelial microbiota results in lethal infection by the filamentous fungus Fusarium sp. Restoring the complex microbiota in gnotobiotic polyps prevents pathogen infection. Although mono-associations with distinct members of the microbiota fail to provide full protection, additive and synergistic interactions of commensal bacteria are contributing to full fungal resistance. Our results highlight the importance of resident microbiota diversity as a protective factor against pathogen infections. Besides revealing insights into the in vivo function of commensal microbes in Hydra, our findings indicate that interactions among commensal bacteria are essential to inhibit pathogen infection. PMID:25514534

  14. Domain analysis of the Nematostella vectensis SNAIL ortholog reveals unique nucleolar localization that depends on the zinc-finger domains

    PubMed Central

    Dattoli, Ada A.; Hink, Mark A.; DuBuc, Timothy Q.; Teunisse, Bram J.; Goedhart, Joachim; Röttinger, Eric; Postma, Marten

    2015-01-01

    SNAIL transcriptional factors are key regulators during development and disease. They arose early during evolution, and in cnidarians such as Nematostella vectensis, NvSNAILA/B are detected in invaginating tissues during gastrulation. The function of SNAIL proteins is well established in bilaterians but their roles in cnidarians remain unknown. The structure of NvSNAILA and B is similar to the human SNAIL1 and 2, including SNAG and zinc-finger domains. Here, we performed a molecular analysis on localization and mobility of NvSNAILA/B using mammalian cells and Nematostella embryos. NvSNAILA/B display nuclear localization and mobility similar to HsSNAIL1/2. Strikingly, NvSNAILA is highly enriched in the nucleoli and shuttles between the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. Truncation of the N-terminal SNAG domain, reported to contain Nuclear Localization Signals, markedly reduces nucleolar levels, without effecting nuclear localization or mobility. Truncation of the C-terminal zinc-fingers, involved in DNA binding in higher organisms, significantly affects subcellular localization and mobility. Specifically, the zinc-finger domains are required for nucleolar enrichment of NvSNAILA. Differently from SNAIL transcriptional factors described before, NvSNAILA is specifically enriched in the nucleoli co-localizing with nucleolar markers even after nucleolar disruption. Our findings implicate additional roles for SNAG and zinc-finger domains, suggesting a role for NvSNAILA in the nucleolus. PMID:26190255

  15. Microinjection of mRNA or morpholinos for reverse genetic analysis in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Layden, Michael J; Röttinger, Eric; Wolenski, Francis S; Gilmore, Thomas D; Martindale, Mark Q

    2016-01-01

    We describe a protocol for microinjection of embryos for an emerging model system, the cnidarian sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. In addition, we provide protocols for carrying out overexpression and knockdown of gene function through microinjection of in vitro–translated mRNAs or gene-specific oligonucleotide morpholinos (Mos), respectively. our approach is simple, and it takes advantage of the natural adherence properties of the early embryo to position them in a single layer on a polystyrene dish. embryos are visualized on a dissecting microscope equipped with epifluorescence and injected with microinjection needles using a picospritzer forced-air injection system. a micromanipulator is used to guide the needle to impale individual embryos. Injection takes ∼1.5 h, and an experienced researcher can inject ∼2,000 embryos in a single session. With the availability of the published Nematostella genome, the entire protocol, including cloning and transcription of mRNAs, can be carried out in ∼1 week. PMID:23579781

  16. Domain analysis of the Nematostella vectensis SNAIL ortholog reveals unique nucleolar localization that depends on the zinc-finger domains.

    PubMed

    Dattoli, Ada A; Hink, Mark A; DuBuc, Timothy Q; Teunisse, Bram J; Goedhart, Joachim; Röttinger, Eric; Postma, Marten

    2015-01-01

    SNAIL transcriptional factors are key regulators during development and disease. They arose early during evolution, and in cnidarians such as Nematostella vectensis, NvSNAILA/B are detected in invaginating tissues during gastrulation. The function of SNAIL proteins is well established in bilaterians but their roles in cnidarians remain unknown. The structure of NvSNAILA and B is similar to the human SNAIL1 and 2, including SNAG and zinc-finger domains. Here, we performed a molecular analysis on localization and mobility of NvSNAILA/B using mammalian cells and Nematostella embryos. NvSNAILA/B display nuclear localization and mobility similar to HsSNAIL1/2. Strikingly, NvSNAILA is highly enriched in the nucleoli and shuttles between the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. Truncation of the N-terminal SNAG domain, reported to contain Nuclear Localization Signals, markedly reduces nucleolar levels, without effecting nuclear localization or mobility. Truncation of the C-terminal zinc-fingers, involved in DNA binding in higher organisms, significantly affects subcellular localization and mobility. Specifically, the zinc-finger domains are required for nucleolar enrichment of NvSNAILA. Differently from SNAIL transcriptional factors described before, NvSNAILA is specifically enriched in the nucleoli co-localizing with nucleolar markers even after nucleolar disruption. Our findings implicate additional roles for SNAG and zinc-finger domains, suggesting a role for NvSNAILA in the nucleolus. PMID:26190255

  17. The initiation of metamorphosis as an ancient polyphenic trait and its role in metazoan life-cycle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Sandie M.; Degnan, Bernard M.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative genomics of representative basal metazoans leaves little doubt that the most recent common ancestor to all modern metazoans was morphogenetically complex. Here, we support this interpretation by demonstrating that the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica has a biphasic pelagobenthic life cycle resembling that present in a wide range of bilaterians and anthozoan cnidarians. The A. queenslandica life cycle includes a compulsory planktonic larval phase that can end only once the larva develops competence to respond to benthic signals that induce settlement and metamorphosis. The temporal onset of competence varies between individuals as revealed by idiosyncratic responses to inductive cues. Thus, the biphasic life cycle with a dispersing larval phase of variable length appears to be a metazoan synapomorphy and may be viewed as an ancestral polyphenic trait. Larvae of a particular age that are subjected to an inductive cue either maintain the larval form or metamorphose into the post-larval/juvenile form. Variance in the development of competence dictates that only a subset of a larval cohort will settle and undergo metamorphosis at a given time, which in turn leads to variation in dispersal distance and in location of settlement. Population divergence and allopatric speciation are likely outcomes of this conserved developmental polyphenic trait. PMID:20083639

  18. The metazoan protein disaggregase and amyloid depolymerase system

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Shorter, James

    2013-01-01

    A baffling aspect of metazoan proteostasis is the lack of an Hsp104 ortholog that rapidly disaggregates and reactivates misfolded polypeptides trapped in stress induced disordered aggregates, preamyloid oligomers, or amyloid fibrils. By contrast, in bacteria, protozoa, chromista, fungi, and plants, Hsp104 orthologs are highly conserved and confer huge selective advantages in stress tolerance. Moreover, in fungi, the amyloid remodeling activity of Hsp104 has enabled deployment of prions for various beneficial modalities. Thus, a longstanding conundrum has remained unanswered: how do metazoan cells renature aggregated proteins or resolve amyloid fibrils without Hsp104? Here, we highlight recent advances that unveil the metazoan protein-disaggregase machinery, comprising Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, which synergize to dissolve disordered aggregates, but are unable to rapidly solubilize stable amyloid fibrils. However, Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40 exploit the slow monomer exchange dynamics of amyloid, and can slowly depolymerize amyloid fibrils from their ends in a manner that is stimulated by small heat shock proteins. Upregulation of this system could have key therapeutic applications in various protein-misfolding disorders. Intriguingly, yeast Hsp104 can interface with metazoan Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40 to rapidly eliminate disease associated amyloid. Thus, metazoan proteostasis is receptive to augmentation with exogenous disaggregases, which opens a number of therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24401655

  19. Metazoan cell biology of the HOPS tethering complex.

    PubMed

    Zlatic, Stephanie A; Tornieri, Karine; L'hernault, Steven W; Faundez, Victor

    2011-05-01

    Membrane fusion with vacuoles, the lysosome equivalent of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is among the best understood membrane fusion events. Our precise understanding of this fusion machinery stems from powerful genetics and elegant in vitro reconstitution assays. Central to vacuolar membrane fusion is the multi-subunit tether the HO motypic fusion and Protein Sorting (HOPS) complex, a complex of proteins that organizes other necessary components of the fusion machinery. We lack a similarly detailed molecular understanding of membrane fusion with lysosomes or lysosome-related organelles in metazoans. However, it is likely that fundamental principles of how rabs, SNAREs and HOPS tethers work to fuse membranes with lysosomes and related organelles are conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and metazoans. Here, we discuss emerging differences in the coat-dependent mechanisms that govern HOPS complex subcellular distribution between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and metazoans. These differences reside upstream of the membrane fusion event. We propose that the differences in how coats segregate class C Vps/HOPS tethers to organelles and domains of metazoan cells are adaptations to complex architectures that characterize metazoan cells such as those of neuronal and epithelial tissues. PMID:21922076

  20. Metazoan cell biology of the HOPS tethering complex

    PubMed Central

    Zlatic, Stephanie A; Tornieri, Karine; L'Hernault, Steven W

    2011-01-01

    Membrane fusion with vacuoles, the lysosome equivalent of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is among the best understood membrane fusion events. Our precise understanding of this fusion machinery stems from powerful genetics and elegant in vitro reconstitution assays. Central to vacuolar membrane fusion is the multi-subunit tether the HO motypic fusion and Protein Sorting (HOPS) complex, a complex of proteins that organizes other necessary components of the fusion machinery. We lack a similarly detailed molecular understanding of membrane fusion with lysosomes or lysosome-related organelles in metazoans. However, it is likely that fundamental principles of how rabs, SNAREs and HOPS tethers work to fuse membranes with lysosomes and related organelles are conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and metazoans. Here, we discuss emerging differences in the coat-dependent mechanisms that govern HOPS complex subcellular distribution between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and metazoans. These differences reside upstream of the membrane fusion event. We propose that the differences in how coats segregate class C Vps/HOPS tethers to organelles and domains of metazoan cells are adaptations to complex architectures that characterize metazoan cells such as those of neuronal and epithelial tissues. PMID:21922076

  1. Independent elaboration of steroid hormone signaling pathways in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Markov, Gabriel V; Tavares, Raquel; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Demeneix, Barbara A; Baker, Michael E; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-07-21

    Steroid hormones regulate many physiological processes in vertebrates, nematodes, and arthropods through binding to nuclear receptors (NR), a metazoan-specific family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The main steps controlling the diversification of this family are now well-understood. In contrast, the origin and evolution of steroid ligands remain mysterious, although this is crucial for understanding the emergence of modern endocrine systems. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed complete metazoan genomes to provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of major enzymatic players implicated in steroidogenesis at the whole metazoan scale. Our analysis reveals that steroidogenesis has been independently elaborated in the 3 main bilaterian lineages, and that steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes descended from those that detoxify xenobiotics. PMID:19571007

  2. Metazoan Hsp70-based protein disaggregases: emergence and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nillegoda, Nadinath B.; Bukau, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Proteotoxic stresses and aging cause breakdown of cellular protein homeostasis, allowing misfolded proteins to form aggregates, which dedicated molecular machines have evolved to solubilize. In bacteria, fungi, protozoa and plants protein disaggregation involves an Hsp70•J-protein chaperone system, which loads and activates a powerful AAA+ ATPase (Hsp100) disaggregase onto protein aggregate substrates. Metazoans lack cytosolic and nuclear Hsp100 disaggregases but still eliminate protein aggregates. This longstanding puzzle of protein quality control is now resolved. Robust protein disaggregation activity recently shown for the metazoan Hsp70-based disaggregases relies instead on a crucial cooperation between two J-protein classes and interaction with the Hsp110 co-chaperone. An expanding multiplicity of Hsp70 and J-protein family members in metazoan cells facilitates different configurations of this Hsp70-based disaggregase allowing unprecedented versatility and specificity in protein disaggregation. Here we review the architecture, operation, and adaptability of the emerging metazoan disaggregation system and discuss how this evolved. PMID:26501065

  3. Metazoan Hsp70-based protein disaggregases: emergence and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nillegoda, Nadinath B; Bukau, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Proteotoxic stresses and aging cause breakdown of cellular protein homeostasis, allowing misfolded proteins to form aggregates, which dedicated molecular machines have evolved to solubilize. In bacteria, fungi, protozoa and plants protein disaggregation involves an Hsp70•J-protein chaperone system, which loads and activates a powerful AAA+ ATPase (Hsp100) disaggregase onto protein aggregate substrates. Metazoans lack cytosolic and nuclear Hsp100 disaggregases but still eliminate protein aggregates. This longstanding puzzle of protein quality control is now resolved. Robust protein disaggregation activity recently shown for the metazoan Hsp70-based disaggregases relies instead on a crucial cooperation between two J-protein classes and interaction with the Hsp110 co-chaperone. An expanding multiplicity of Hsp70 and J-protein family members in metazoan cells facilitates different configurations of this Hsp70-based disaggregase allowing unprecedented versatility and specificity in protein disaggregation. Here we review the architecture, operation, and adaptability of the emerging metazoan disaggregation system and discuss how this evolved. PMID:26501065

  4. An ancient protein-DNA interaction underlying metazoan sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mark W.; Lee, John K.; Rojo, Sandra; Gearhart, Micah D.; Kurahashi, Kayo; Banerjee, Surajit; Loeuille, Guy-André; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Kenneth; Zarkower, David; Aihara, Hideki; Bardwell, Vivian J.

    2015-01-01

    DMRT transcription factors are deeply conserved regulators of metazoan sexual development. They share the DM DNA binding domain, a unique intertwined double zinc-binding module followed by a C-terminal recognition helix, which binds to a pseudopalindromic target DNA. Here we show that DMRT proteins employ a unique binding interaction, inserting two adjacent antiparallel recognition helices into a widened DNA major groove to make base-specific contacts. Versatility in how specific base contacts are made allows human DMRT1 to employ multiple DNA binding modes (tetramer, trimer, dimer). ChIP-Exo indicates that multiple DNA binding modes also are used in vivo. We show that mutations affecting residues crucial for DNA recognition are associated with an intersex phenotype in flies and in male-to-female sex reversal in humans. Our results illuminate an ancient molecular interaction that underlies much of metazoan sexual development. PMID:26005864

  5. Transposable Elements: From DNA Parasites to Architects of Metazoan Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Piskurek, Oliver; Jackson, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most unexpected insights that followed from the completion of the human genome a decade ago was that more than half of our DNA is derived from transposable elements (TEs). Due to advances in high throughput sequencing technologies it is now clear that TEs comprise the largest molecular class within most metazoan genomes. TEs, once categorised as "junk DNA", are now known to influence genomic structure and function by increasing the coding and non-coding genetic repertoire of the host. In this way TEs are key elements that stimulate the evolution of metazoan genomes. This review highlights several lines of TE research including the horizontal transfer of TEs through host-parasite interactions, the vertical maintenance of TEs over long periods of evolutionary time, and the direct role that TEs have played in generating morphological novelty. PMID:24704977

  6. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  7. An epithelial tissue in Dictyostelium challenges the traditional origin of metazoan multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Daniel J; Nelson, W James; Weis, William I

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesize that aspects of animal multicellularity originated before the divergence of metazoans from fungi and social amoebae. Polarized epithelial tissues are a defining feature of metazoans and contribute to the diversity of animal body plans. The recent finding of a polarized epithelium in the non-metazoan social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum demonstrates that epithelial tissue is not a unique feature of metazoans, and challenges the traditional paradigm that multicellularity evolved independently in social amoebae and metazoans. An alternative view, presented here, is that the common ancestor of social amoebae, fungi, and animals spent a portion of its life cycle in a multicellular state and possessed molecular machinery necessary for forming an epithelial tissue. Some descendants of this ancestor retained multicellularity, while others reverted to unicellularity. This hypothesis makes testable predictions regarding tissue organization in close relatives of metazoans and provides a novel conceptual framework for studies of early animal evolution. PMID:22930590

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  9. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur in younger people who have had extensive sun exposure. You are more likely to get basal cell ... severe sunburns early in life Long-term daily sun exposure (such as the sun exposure received by people ...

  10. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure rate of more than 95%, but regular examination ...

  11. Molecular evolution of the MAGUK family in metazoan genomes

    PubMed Central

    te Velthuis, Aartjan JW; Admiraal, Jeroen F; Bagowski, Christoph P

    2007-01-01

    Background Development, differentiation and physiology of metazoans all depend on cell to cell communication and subsequent intracellular signal transduction. Often, these processes are orchestrated via sites of specialized cell-cell contact and involve receptors, adhesion molecules and scaffolding proteins. Several of these scaffolding proteins important for synaptic and cellular junctions belong to the large family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK). In order to elucidate the origin and the evolutionary history of the MAGUKs we investigated full-length cDNA, EST and genomic sequences of species in major phyla. Results Our results indicate that at least four of the seven MAGUK subfamilies were present in early metazoan lineages, such as Porifera. We employed domain sequence and structure based methods to infer a model for the evolutionary history of the MAGUKs. Notably, the phylogenetic trees for the guanylate kinase (GK)-, the PDZ- and the SH3-domains all suggested a matching evolutionary model which was further supported by molecular modeling of the 3D structures of different GK domains. We found no MAGUK in plants, fungi or other unicellular organisms, which suggests that the MAGUK core structure originated early in metazoan history. Conclusion In summary, we have characterized here the molecular and structural evolution of the large MAGUK family. Using the MAGUKs as an example, our results show that it is possible to derive a highly supported evolutionary model for important multidomain families by analyzing encoded protein domains. It further suggests that larger superfamilies encoded in the different genomes can be analyzed in a similar manner. PMID:17678554

  12. Glypican1/2/4/6 and sulfated glycosaminoglycans regulate the patterning of the primary body axis in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Bause, Markus; van der Horst, Roddy; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2016-06-01

    Glypicans are members of the heparan sulfate (HS) subfamily of proteoglycans that can function in cell adhesion, cell crosstalk and as modulators of the major developmental signalling pathways in bilaterians. The evolutionary origin of these multiple functions is not well understood. In this study we investigate the role of glypicans in the embryonic and larval development of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a member of the non-bilaterian clade Cnidaria. Nematostella has two glypican (gpc) genes that are expressed in mutually exclusive ectodermal domains, NvGpc1/2/4/6 in a broad aboral domain, and NvGpc3/5 in narrow oral territory. The endosulfatase NvSulf (an extracellular modifier of HS chains) is expressed in a broad oral domain, partially overlapping with both glypicans. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of NvGpc1/2/4/6 leads to an expansion of the expression domains of aboral marker genes and a reduction of oral markers at gastrula stage, strikingly similar to knockdown of the Wnt receptor NvFrizzled5/8. We further show that treatment with sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sulfation, phenocopies knockdown of NvGpc1/2/4/6 at gastrula stage. At planula stage, knockdown of NvGpc1/2/4/6 and sodium chlorate treatment result in alterations in aboral marker gene expression that suggest additional roles in the fine-tuning of patterning within the aboral domain. These results reveal a role for NvGpc1/2/4/6 and sulfated GAGs in the patterning of the primary body axis in Nematostella and suggest an ancient function in regulating Frizzled-mediated Wnt signalling. PMID:27090806

  13. Deep metazoan phylogeny: when different genes tell different stories.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, Tetyana; Schreiber, Fabian; Adamska, Maja; Adamski, Marcin; Eitel, Michael; Hammel, Jörg; Maldonado, Manuel; Müller, Werner E G; Nickel, Michael; Schierwater, Bernd; Vacelet, Jean; Wiens, Matthias; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-04-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses have produced a plethora of controversial hypotheses regarding the patterns of diversification of non-bilaterian animals. To unravel the causes for the patterns of extreme inconsistencies at the base of the metazoan tree of life, we constructed a novel supermatrix containing 122 genes, enriched with non-bilaterian taxa. Comparative analyses of this supermatrix and its two non-overlapping multi-gene partitions (including ribosomal and non-ribosomal genes) revealed conflicting phylogenetic signals. We show that the levels of saturation and long branch attraction artifacts in the two partitions correlate with gene sampling. The ribosomal gene partition exhibits significantly lower saturation levels than the non-ribosomal one. Additional systematic errors derive from significant variations in amino acid substitution patterns among the metazoan lineages that violate the stationarity assumption of evolutionary models frequently used to reconstruct phylogenies. By modifying gene sampling and the taxonomic composition of the outgroup, we were able to construct three different yet well-supported phylogenies. These results show that the accuracy of phylogenetic inference may be substantially improved by selecting genes that evolve slowly across the Metazoa and applying more realistic substitution models. Additional sequence-independent genomic markers are also necessary to assess the validity of the phylogenetic hypotheses. PMID:23353073

  14. Unleashing the force of cladistics? Metazoan phylogenetics and hypothesis testing.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2003-02-01

    The accumulation of multiple phylogenetic hypotheses for the Metazoa invites an evaluation of current progress in the field. I discuss three case studies from the recent literature to assess how cladistic analyses of metazoan morphology have contributed to our understanding of animal evolution. The first case study on cleavage cross patterns examines whether a decade of unanimous character scoring across different cladistic studies can be considered a reliable indicator of accumulated wisdom. The two remaining case studies illustrate how the unique strength of cladistic analyses to arbitrate between competing hypotheses can be crippled when insufficient attention is directed towards the construction of the data matrix. The second case study discusses a recent morphological cladistic analysis aimed at providing insight into the evolution of larval ciliary bands (prototrochs) in the Spiralia, and the third case study evaluates how four subsequent morphological cladistic analyses have contributed to our understanding of the phylogenetic placement of a problematicum, the Myzostomida. I conclude that current phylogenetic analyses of the Metazoa have not fully exploited the power of cladistics to test available alternative hypotheses. If our goal is to generate genuine progress in understanding rather than stochastic variation of opinions through time, we have to shift our attention from using cladistics as an easy tool to generate "novel" hypotheses of metazoan relationships, towards employing cladistics more critically as an effective instrument to test the relative merit of available multiple alternative hypotheses. PMID:21680424

  15. Sea urchin neural development and the metazoan paradigm of neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Burke, Robert D; Moller, Daniel J; Krupke, Oliver A; Taylor, Valerie J

    2014-03-01

    Summary:Urchin embryos continue to prove useful as a means of studying embryonic signaling and gene regulatory networks, which together control early development. Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the patterning of ectoderm has renewed interest in urchin neurogenesis. We have employed an emerging model of neurogenesis that appears to be broadly shared by metazoans as a framework for this review. We use the model to provide context and summarize what is known about neurogenesis in urchin embryos. We review morphological features of the differentiation phase of neurogenesis and summarize current understanding of neural specification and regulation of proneural networks. Delta-Notch signaling is a common feature of metazoan neurogenesis that produces committed progenitors and it appears to be a critical phase of neurogenesis in urchin embryos. Descriptions of the differentiation phase of neurogenesis indicate a stereotypic sequence of neural differentiation and patterns of axonal growth. Features of neural differentiation are consistent with localized signals guiding growth cones with trophic, adhesive, and tropic cues. Urchins are a facile, postgenomic model with the potential of revealing many shared and derived features of deuterostome neurogenesis. PMID:25368883

  16. Prolonged decay of molecular rate estimates for metazoan mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Simon Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary timescales can be estimated from genetic data using the molecular clock, often calibrated by fossil or geological evidence. However, estimates of molecular rates in mitochondrial DNA appear to scale negatively with the age of the clock calibration. Although such a pattern has been observed in a limited range of data sets, it has not been studied on a large scale in metazoans. In addition, there is uncertainty over the temporal extent of the time-dependent pattern in rate estimates. Here we present a meta-analysis of 239 rate estimates from metazoans, representing a range of timescales and taxonomic groups. We found evidence of time-dependent rates in both coding and non-coding mitochondrial markers, in every group of animals that we studied. The negative relationship between the estimated rate and time persisted across a much wider range of calibration times than previously suggested. This indicates that, over long time frames, purifying selection gives way to mutational saturation as the main driver of time-dependent biases in rate estimates. The results of our study stress the importance of accounting for time-dependent biases in estimating mitochondrial rates regardless of the timescale over which they are inferred. PMID:25780773

  17. Shedding light on ovothiol biosynthesis in marine metazoans.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Merlino, Antonello; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ovothiol, isolated from marine invertebrate eggs, is considered one of the most powerful antioxidant with potential for drug development. However, its biological functions in marine organisms still represent a matter of debate. In sea urchins, the most accepted view is that ovothiol protects the eggs by the high oxidative burst at fertilization. In this work we address the role of ovothiol during sea urchin development to give new insights on ovothiol biosynthesis in metazoans. The gene involved in ovothiol biosynthesis OvoA was identified in Paracentrotus lividus genome (PlOvoA). PlOvoA embryo expression significantly increased at the pluteus stage and was up-regulated by metals at concentrations mimicking polluted sea-water and by cyclic toxic algal blooms, leading to ovothiol biosynthesis. In silico analyses of the PlOvoA upstream region revealed metal and stress responsive elements. Structural protein models highlighted conserved active site residues likely responsible for ovothiol biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OvoA evolved in most marine metazoans and was lost in bony vertebrates during the transition from the aquatic to terrestrial environment. These results highlight the crucial role of OvoA in protecting embryos released in seawater from environmental cues, thus allowing the survival under different conditions. PMID:26916575

  18. Shedding light on ovothiol biosynthesis in marine metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; D’Aniello, Salvatore; Merlino, Antonello; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ovothiol, isolated from marine invertebrate eggs, is considered one of the most powerful antioxidant with potential for drug development. However, its biological functions in marine organisms still represent a matter of debate. In sea urchins, the most accepted view is that ovothiol protects the eggs by the high oxidative burst at fertilization. In this work we address the role of ovothiol during sea urchin development to give new insights on ovothiol biosynthesis in metazoans. The gene involved in ovothiol biosynthesis OvoA was identified in Paracentrotus lividus genome (PlOvoA). PlOvoA embryo expression significantly increased at the pluteus stage and was up-regulated by metals at concentrations mimicking polluted sea-water and by cyclic toxic algal blooms, leading to ovothiol biosynthesis. In silico analyses of the PlOvoA upstream region revealed metal and stress responsive elements. Structural protein models highlighted conserved active site residues likely responsible for ovothiol biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OvoA evolved in most marine metazoans and was lost in bony vertebrates during the transition from the aquatic to terrestrial environment. These results highlight the crucial role of OvoA in protecting embryos released in seawater from environmental cues, thus allowing the survival under different conditions. PMID:26916575

  19. Shedding light on ovothiol biosynthesis in marine metazoans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Merlino, Antonello; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ovothiol, isolated from marine invertebrate eggs, is considered one of the most powerful antioxidant with potential for drug development. However, its biological functions in marine organisms still represent a matter of debate. In sea urchins, the most accepted view is that ovothiol protects the eggs by the high oxidative burst at fertilization. In this work we address the role of ovothiol during sea urchin development to give new insights on ovothiol biosynthesis in metazoans. The gene involved in ovothiol biosynthesis OvoA was identified in Paracentrotus lividus genome (PlOvoA). PlOvoA embryo expression significantly increased at the pluteus stage and was up-regulated by metals at concentrations mimicking polluted sea-water and by cyclic toxic algal blooms, leading to ovothiol biosynthesis. In silico analyses of the PlOvoA upstream region revealed metal and stress responsive elements. Structural protein models highlighted conserved active site residues likely responsible for ovothiol biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OvoA evolved in most marine metazoans and was lost in bony vertebrates during the transition from the aquatic to terrestrial environment. These results highlight the crucial role of OvoA in protecting embryos released in seawater from environmental cues, thus allowing the survival under different conditions.

  20. Core flexibility of a truncated metazoan mitochondrial tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Frazer-Abel, Ashley A.; Hagerman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary and tertiary structures of tRNAs are remarkably preserved from bacteria to humans, the notable exception being the mitochondrial (m) tRNAs of metazoans, which often deviate substantially from the canonical cloverleaf (secondary) or ‘L’-shaped (tertiary) structure. Many metazoan mtRNAs lack either the TψC (T) or dihydrouridine (D) loops of the canonical cloverleaf, which are known to confer structural rigidity to the folded structure. Thus, the absence of canonical TψC–D interactions likely results in greater dispersion of anticodon-acceptor interstem angle than for canonical tRNAs. To test this hypothesis, we have assessed the dispersion of the anticodon-acceptor angle for bovine mtRNASer(AGY), which lacks the canonical D arm and is thus incapable of forming stabilizing interarm interactions. Using the method of transient electric birefringence (TEB), and by changing the helical torsion angle between a core mtRNA bend and a second bend of known angle/rigidity, we have demonstrated that the core of mtRNASer(AGY) has substantially greater flexibility than its well-characterized canonical counterpart, yeast cytoplasmic tRNAPhe. These results suggest that increased flexibility, in addition to a more open interstem angle, would allow both noncanonical and canonical mtRNAs to utilize the same protein synthetic apparatus. PMID:18718926

  1. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  2. Annual Killifish Transcriptomics and Candidate Genes for Metazoan Diapause.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew W; Ortí, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    Dormancy has evolved in all major metazoan lineages. It is critical for survival when environmental stresses are not conducive to growth, maturation, or reproduction. Embryonic diapause is a form of dormancy where development is reversibly delayed and metabolism is depressed. We report the diapause transcriptome of the annual killifish Nematolebias whitei, and compare gene expression between diapause embryos and free-living larvae to identify a candidate set of 945 differentially expressed "diapause" genes for this species. Similarity of transcriptional patterns among N. whitei and other diapausing animals is striking for a small set of genes associated with stress resistance, circadian rhythm, and metabolism, while other genes show discordant patterns. Although convergent evolution of diapause may require shared molecular mechanisms for fundamental processes, similar physiological phenotypes also may arise through modification of alternative pathways. Annual killifishes are a tractable model system for comparative transcriptomic studies on the evolution of diapause. PMID:27297470

  3. Modify or die? - RNA modification defects in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, L Peter; Leidel, Sebastian A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical RNA modifications are present in all kingdoms of life and many of these post-transcriptional modifications are conserved throughout evolution. However, most of the research has been performed on single cell organisms, whereas little is known about how RNA modifications contribute to the development of metazoans. In recent years, the identification of RNA modification genes in genome wide association studies (GWAS) has sparked new interest in previously neglected genes. In this review, we summarize recent findings that connect RNA modification defects and phenotypes in higher eukaryotes. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of aberrant tRNA modification in various human diseases including metabolic defects, mitochondrial dysfunctions, neurological disorders, and cancer. As the molecular mechanisms of these diseases are being elucidated, we will gain first insights into the functions of RNA modifications in higher eukaryotes and finally understand their roles during development. PMID:25692999

  4. Biodiversity and body size are linked across metazoans

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig R.; Boyer, Alison G.

    2009-01-01

    Body size variation across the Metazoa is immense, encompassing 17 orders of magnitude in biovolume. Factors driving this extreme diversification in size and the consequences of size variation for biological processes remain poorly resolved. Species diversity is invoked as both a predictor and a result of size variation, and theory predicts a strong correlation between the two. However, evidence has been presented both supporting and contradicting such a relationship. Here, we use a new comprehensive dataset for maximum and minimum body sizes across all metazoan phyla to show that species diversity is strongly correlated with minimum size, maximum size and consequently intra-phylum variation. Similar patterns are also observed within birds and mammals. The observations point to several fundamental linkages between species diversification and body size variation through the evolution of animal life. PMID:19324730

  5. Second-generation environmental sequencing unmasks marine metazoan biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Vera G.; Carvalho, Gary R.; Sung, Way; Johnson, Harriet F.; Power, Deborah M.; Neill, Simon P.; Packer, Margaret; Blaxter, Mark L.; Lambshead, P. John D.; Thomas, W. Kelley; Creer, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity is of crucial importance for ecosystem functioning, sustainability and resilience, but the magnitude and organization of marine diversity at a range of spatial and taxonomic scales are undefined. In this paper, we use second-generation sequencing to unmask putatively diverse marine metazoan biodiversity in a Scottish temperate benthic ecosystem. We show that remarkable differences in diversity occurred at microgeographical scales and refute currently accepted ecological and taxonomic paradigms of meiofaunal identity, rank abundance and concomitant understanding of trophic dynamics. Richness estimates from the current benchmarked Operational Clustering of Taxonomic Units from Parallel UltraSequencing analyses are broadly aligned with those derived from morphological assessments. However, the slope of taxon rarefaction curves for many phyla remains incomplete, suggesting that the true alpha diversity is likely to exceed current perceptions. The approaches provide a rapid, objective and cost-effective taxonomic framework for exploring links between ecosystem structure and function of all hitherto intractable, but ecologically important, communities. PMID:20981026

  6. Molecular clocks and the early evolution of metazoan nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Wray, Gregory A

    2015-12-19

    The timing of early animal evolution remains poorly resolved, yet remains critical for understanding nervous system evolution. Methods for estimating divergence times from sequence data have improved considerably, providing a more refined understanding of key divergences. The best molecular estimates point to the origin of metazoans and bilaterians tens to hundreds of millions of years earlier than their first appearances in the fossil record. Both the molecular and fossil records are compatible, however, with the possibility of tiny, unskeletonized, low energy budget animals during the Proterozoic that had planktonic, benthic, or meiofaunal lifestyles. Such animals would likely have had relatively simple nervous systems equipped primarily to detect food, avoid inhospitable environments and locate mates. The appearance of the first macropredators during the Cambrian would have changed the selective landscape dramatically, likely driving the evolution of complex sense organs, sophisticated sensory processing systems, and diverse effector systems involved in capturing prey and avoiding predation. PMID:26554040

  7. Regeneration across metazoan phylogeny: lessons from model organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao; Yang, Hao; Zhong, Tao P

    2015-02-20

    Comprehending the diversity of the regenerative potential across metazoan phylogeny represents a fundamental challenge in biology. Invertebrates like Hydra and planarians exhibit amazing feats of regeneration, in which an entire organism can be restored from minute body segments. Vertebrates like teleost fish and amphibians can also regrow large sections of the body. While this regenerative capacity is greatly attenuated in mammals, there are portions of major organs that remain regenerative. Regardless of the extent, there are common basic strategies to regeneration, including activation of adult stem cells and proliferation of differentiated cells. Here, we discuss the cellular features and molecular mechanisms that are involved in regeneration in different model organisms, including Hydra, planarians, zebrafish and newts as well as in several mammalian organs. PMID:25697100

  8. Length constraints of multi­domain proteins in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Sarah; Song, Timothy; Nayak, Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of annotated genome sequences in public databases has made it possible to study the length distributions and domain composition of proteins at unprecedented resolution. To identify factors that influence protein length in metazoans, we performed an analysis of all domain­annotated proteins from a total of 49 animal species from Ensembl (v.56) or EnsemblMetazoa (v.3). Our results indicate that protein length constraints are not fixed as a linear function of domain count and can vary based on domain content. The presence of repeating domains was associated with relaxation of the constraints that govern protein length. Conversely, for proteins with unique domains, length constraints were generally maintained with increased domain counts. It is clear that mean (and median) protein length and domain composition vary significantly between metazoans and other kingdoms; however, the connections between function, domain content, and length are unclear. We incorporated Gene Ontology (GO) annotation to identify biological processes, cellular components, or molecular functions that favor the incorporation of multi­domain proteins. Using this approach, we identified multiple GO terms that favor the incorporation of multi-domain proteins; interestingly, several of the GO terms with elevated domain counts were not restricted to a single gene family. The findings presented here represent an important step in resolving the complex relationship between protein length, function, and domain content. The comparison of the data presented in this work to data from other kingdoms is likely to reveal additional differences in the regulation of protein length. PMID:20975906

  9. Hippo pathway genes developed varied exon numbers and coevolved functional domains in metazoans for species specific growth control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Hippo pathway controls growth by mediating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dysregulation of Hippo signaling causes abnormal proliferation in both healthy and cancerous cells. The Hippo pathway receives inputs from multiple developmental pathways and interacts with many tissue-specific transcription factors, but how genes in the pathway have evolved remains inadequately revealed. Results To explore the origin and evolution of Hippo pathway, we have extensively examined 16 Hippo pathway genes, including upstream regulators and downstream targets, in 24 organisms covering major metazoan phyla. From simple to complex organisms, these genes are varied in the length and number of exons but encode conserved domains with similar higher-order organization. The core of the pathway is more conserved than its upstream regulators and downstream targets. Several components, despite existing in the most basal metazoan sponges, cannot be convincingly identified in other species. Potential recombination breakpoints were identified in some genes. Coevolutionary analysis reveals that most functional domains in Hippo genes have coevolved with interacting functional domains in other genes. Conclusions The two essential upstream regulators cadherins fat and dachsous may have originated in the unicellular organism Monosiga brevicollis and evolved more significantly than the core of the pathway. Genes having varied numbers of exons in different species, recombination events, and the gain and loss of some genes indicate alternative splicing and species-specific evolution. Coevolution signals explain some species-specific loss of functional domains. These results significantly unveil the structure and evolution of the Hippo pathway in distant phyla and provide valuable clues for further examination of Hippo signaling. PMID:23547742

  10. C2H2 zinc finger proteins of the SP/KLF, Wilms tumor, EGR, Huckebein, and Klumpfuss families in metazoans and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-11-15

    Specificity proteins (SPs) and Krüppel-Like Factors (KLFs) are C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factors that play essential roles in differentiation, development, proliferation and cell death. SP/KLF proteins, similarly to Wilms tumor protein 1 (WT1), Early Growth Response (EGR), Huckebein, and Klumpfuss, prefer to bind GC-rich sequences such as GC-box and CACCC-box (GT-box). We searched various genomes and transcriptomes of metazoans and single-cell holozoans for members of these families. Seven groups of KLFs (KLFA-G) and three groups of SPs (SPA-C) were identified in the three lineages of Bilateria (Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa). The last ancestor of jawed vertebrates was inferred to have at least 18 KLFs (group A: KLF1/2/4/17, group B: KLF3/8/12; group C: KLF5/5l; group D: KLF6/7; group E: KLF9/13/16; group F: KLF10/KLF11; group G: KLF15/15l) and 10 SPs (group A: SP1/2/3/4; group B: SP5/5l; group C: SP6/7/8/9), since they were found in both cartilaginous and boned fishes. Placental mammals have added KLF14 (group E) and KLF18 (group A), and lost KLF5l (KLF5-like) and KLF15l (KLF15-like). Multiple KLF members were found in basal metazoans (Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, and Cnidaria). Ctenophora has the least number of KLFs and no SPs, which could be attributed to its proposed sister group relationship to other metazoans or gene loss. While SP, EGR and Klumpfuss were only detected in metazoans, KLF, WT1, and Huckebein are present in nonmetazoan holozoans. Of the seven metazoan KLF groups, only KLFG, represented by KLF15 in human, was found in nonmetazoans. In addition, two nonmetazoan groups of KLFs are present in Choanoflagellatea and Filasterea. WT1 could be evolutionarily the earliest among these GC/GT-box-binding families due to its sole presence in Ichthyosporea. PMID:26187067

  11. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this disorder is a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma , that develops around the time of puberty. Other ... if: You or any family members have nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, especially if you are planning to have ...

  12. Dynamics, mechanisms, and functional implications of transcription factor binding evolution in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Transcription factor binding differences can contribute to organismal evolution by altering downstream gene expression programmes. Recent genome-wide studies in Drosophila and mammals have revealed common quantitative and combinatorial properties of in vivo DNA-binding, as well as significant differences in the rate and mechanisms of metazoan transcription factor binding evolution. Here, we review the recently-discovered, rapid re-wiring of in vivo transcription factor binding between related metazoan species and summarize general principles underlying the observed patterns of evolution. We then consider what might explain genome evolution differences between metazoan phyla, and outline the conceptual and technological challenges facing the field. PMID:24590227

  13. Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Scarmeas, N; Chin, S S; Marder, K

    2001-10-01

    In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms. PMID:14602941

  14. The chromatin insulator CTCF and the emergence of metazoan diversity.

    PubMed

    Heger, Peter; Marin, Birger; Bartkuhn, Marek; Schierenberg, Einhard; Wiehe, Thomas

    2012-10-23

    The great majority of metazoans belong to bilaterian phyla. They diversified during a short interval in Earth's history known as the Cambrian explosion, ~540 million years ago. However, the genetic basis of these events is poorly understood. Here we argue that the vertebrate genome organizer CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) played an important role for the evolution of bilaterian animals. We provide evidence that the CTCF protein and a genome-wide abundance of CTCF-specific binding motifs are unique to bilaterian phyla, but absent in other eukaryotes. We demonstrate that CTCF-binding sites within vertebrate and Drosophila Hox gene clusters have been maintained for several hundred million years, suggesting an ancient origin of the previously known interaction between Hox gene regulation and CTCF. In addition, a close correlation between the presence of CTCF and Hox gene clusters throughout the animal kingdom suggests conservation of the Hox-CTCF link across the Bilateria. On the basis of these findings, we propose the existence of a Hox-CTCF kernel as principal organizer of bilaterian body plans. Such a kernel could explain (i) the formation of Hox clusters in Bilateria, (ii) the diversity of bilaterian body plans, and (iii) the uniqueness and time of onset of the Cambrian explosion. PMID:23045651

  15. Evidence of inherent spontaneous polarization in the metazoan integument epithelia.

    PubMed Central

    Athenstaedt, H; Claussen, H

    1983-01-01

    The live integument epithelia of the metazoa have an inherent spontaneous polarization (an inherent permanent electric dipole moment) of corresponding direction perpendicular to the integument surface. The existence of the inherent polarization was proved by their temperature dependence, i.e., by the pyroelectric (PE) effect. Quantitative PE measurements were carried out on a number of integument epithelia of vertebrates (a) in vivo, (b) on fresh epidermis preparations, and (c) on dead, air-dried epidermis specimens of the same species. The demonstrated spontaneous polarization is not dependent on the living state and not caused by a potential difference between the outer and inner integument surface. Dead, dry epidermis samples (potential difference less than 0.01 mV) as well as dead, dry integument appendages (bristles, hairs), and dead cuticles (of arthropoda, annelida, nematoda) showed an inherent dipole moment of the same orientation as the live epidermis. The findings reveal a relationship between the direction (vector) of inherent spontaneous polarization and that of growth (morphogenesis) in the animal epidermis, their appendages, and cuticles. We conclude (a) that the inherent spontaneous polarization is present in live individual epithelial cells of the metazoan integument, and (b) that this physical property is related to the structural and functional cell polarity of integument epithelia and possibly of other epithelia. Images FIGURE 10 PMID:6838974

  16. PCR Primers for Metazoan Nuclear 18S and 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Metagenetic analyses, which amplify and sequence target marker DNA regions from environmental samples, are increasingly employed to assess the biodiversity of communities of small organisms. Using this approach, our understanding of microbial diversity has expanded greatly. In contrast, only a few studies using this approach to characterize metazoan diversity have been reported, despite the fact that many metazoan species are small and difficult to identify or are undescribed. One of the reasons for this discrepancy is the availability of universal primers for the target taxa. In microbial studies, analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA is standard. In contrast, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In the present study, we have designed primers that amplify the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of most metazoan species with the goal of providing effective approaches for metagenetic analyses of metazoan diversity in environmental samples, with a particular emphasis on marine biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Conserved regions suitable for designing PCR primers were identified using 14,503 and 1,072 metazoan sequences of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA regions, respectively. The sequence similarity of both these newly designed and the previously reported primers to the target regions of these primers were compared for each phylum to determine the expected amplification efficacy. The nucleotide diversity of the flanking regions of the primers was also estimated for genera or higher taxonomic groups of 11 phyla to determine the variable regions within the genes. Conclusions/Significance The identified nuclear ribosomal DNA primers (five primer pairs for 18S and eleven for 28S) and the results of the nucleotide diversity analyses provide options for primer combinations for metazoan metagenetic analyses. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of not only the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, but also other marker regions as targets

  17. Mitochondrial genome data support the basal position of acoelomorpha and the polyphyly of the platyhelminthes

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Trillo, Inaki; Riutort, Marta; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Baguna, Jaume; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-01

    We determined 9.7, 5.2, and 6.8 kb, respectively, of the mitochondrial genomes of the acoel Paratomella rubra, the nemertodermatid Nemertoderma westbladi and the free-living rhabditophoran platyhelminth Microstomum lineare. The identified gene arrangements are unique among metazoans, including each other, sharing no more than one or two single gene boundaries with a few distantly related taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences inferred from the sequenced genes confirms that the acoelomorph flatworms (acoels + nemertodermatids) do not belong to the Platyhelminthes, but are, instead, the most basal extant bilaterian group. Therefore, the Platyhelminthes, as traditionally constituted, is a polyphyletic phylum.

  18. Development of the aboral domain in Nematostella requires β-catenin and the opposing activities of Six3/6 and Frizzled5/8

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Lucas; Bause, Markus; Sinigaglia, Chiara; Steger, Julia; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of the oral pole in cnidarians and the posterior pole in bilaterians is regulated by canonical Wnt signaling, whereas a set of transcription factors, including Six3/6 and FoxQ2, controls aboral development in cnidarians and anterior identity in bilaterians. However, it is poorly understood how these two patterning systems are initially set up in order to generate correct patterning along the primary body axis. Investigating the early steps of aboral pole formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, we found that, at blastula stage, oral genes are expressed before aboral genes and that Nvβ-catenin regulates both oral and aboral development. In the oral hemisphere, Nvβ-catenin specifies all subdomains except the oral-most, NvSnailA-expressing domain, which is expanded upon Nvβ-catenin knockdown. In addition, Nvβ-catenin establishes the aboral patterning system by promoting the expression of NvSix3/6 at the aboral pole and suppressing the Wnt receptor NvFrizzled5/8 at the oral pole. NvFrizzled5/8 expression thereby gets restricted to the aboral domain. At gastrula stage, NvSix3/6 and NvFrizzled5/8 are both expressed in the aboral domain, but they have opposing activities, with NvSix3/6 maintaining and NvFrizzled5/8 restricting the size of the aboral domain. At planula stage, NvFrizzled5/8 is required for patterning within the aboral domain and for regulating the size of the apical organ by modulation of a previously characterized FGF feedback loop. Our findings suggest conserved roles for Six3/6 and Frizzled5/8 in aboral/anterior development and reveal key functions for Nvβ-catenin in the patterning of the entire oral-aboral axis of Nematostella. PMID:26989171

  19. Development of the aboral domain in Nematostella requires β-catenin and the opposing activities of Six3/6 and Frizzled5/8.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Lucas; Bause, Markus; Sinigaglia, Chiara; Steger, Julia; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2016-05-15

    The development of the oral pole in cnidarians and the posterior pole in bilaterians is regulated by canonical Wnt signaling, whereas a set of transcription factors, including Six3/6 and FoxQ2, controls aboral development in cnidarians and anterior identity in bilaterians. However, it is poorly understood how these two patterning systems are initially set up in order to generate correct patterning along the primary body axis. Investigating the early steps of aboral pole formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, we found that, at blastula stage, oral genes are expressed before aboral genes and that Nvβ-catenin regulates both oral and aboral development. In the oral hemisphere, Nvβ-catenin specifies all subdomains except the oral-most, NvSnailA-expressing domain, which is expanded upon Nvβ-catenin knockdown. In addition, Nvβ-catenin establishes the aboral patterning system by promoting the expression of NvSix3/6 at the aboral pole and suppressing the Wnt receptor NvFrizzled5/8 at the oral pole. NvFrizzled5/8 expression thereby gets restricted to the aboral domain. At gastrula stage, NvSix3/6 and NvFrizzled5/8 are both expressed in the aboral domain, but they have opposing activities, with NvSix3/6 maintaining and NvFrizzled5/8 restricting the size of the aboral domain. At planula stage, NvFrizzled5/8 is required for patterning within the aboral domain and for regulating the size of the apical organ by modulation of a previously characterized FGF feedback loop. Our findings suggest conserved roles for Six3/6 and Frizzled5/8 in aboral/anterior development and reveal key functions for Nvβ-catenin in the patterning of the entire oral-aboral axis of Nematostella. PMID:26989171

  20. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens. PMID:26981235

  1. DNA Barcoding of Metazoan Zooplankton Copepods from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kim, Sang Ki; Lee, Jin Hee; Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Jimin; Jun, Jumin; Kwak, Myounghai; Lee, Young-Sup; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar; Chang, Cheon Young; Kim, Il-Hoi; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-01-01

    Copepods, small aquatic crustaceans, are the most abundant metazoan zooplankton and outnumber every other group of multicellular animals on earth. In spite of ecological and biological importance in aquatic environment, their morphological plasticity, originated from their various lifestyles and their incomparable capacity to adapt to a variety of environments, has made the identification of species challenging, even for expert taxonomists. Molecular approaches to species identification have allowed rapid detection, discrimination, and identification of cryptic or sibling species based on DNA sequence data. We examined sequence variation of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene (COI) from 133 copepod individuals collected from the Korean Peninsula, in order to identify and discriminate 94 copepod species covering six copepod orders of Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida, Monstrilloida, Poecilostomatoida and Siphonostomatoida. The results showed that there exists a clear gap with ca. 20 fold difference between the averages of within-specific sequence divergence (2.42%) and that of between-specific sequence divergence (42.79%) in COI, suggesting the plausible utility of this gene in delimitating copepod species. The results showed, with the COI barcoding data among 94 copepod species, that a copepod species could be distinguished from the others very clearly, only with four exceptions as followings: Mesocyclops dissimilis–Mesocyclops pehpeiensis (0.26% K2P distance in percent) and Oithona davisae–Oithona similis (1.1%) in Cyclopoida, Ostrincola japonica–Pseudomyicola spinosus (1.5%) in Poecilostomatoida, and Hatschekia japonica–Caligus quadratus (5.2%) in Siphonostomatoida. Thus, it strongly indicated that COI may be a useful tool in identifying various copepod species and make an initial progress toward the construction of a comprehensive DNA barcode database for copepods inhabiting the Korean Peninsula. PMID:27383475

  2. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  3. A comparative analysis of spindle morphometrics across metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Marina E.; Strzelecka, Magdalena; Wilbur, Jeremy D.; Good, Matthew C.; von Dassow, George; Heald, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cell division in all eukaryotes depends on function of the spindle, a microtubule-based structure that segregates chromosomes to generate daughter cells in mitosis or haploid gametes in meiosis. Spindle size adapts to changes in cell size and shape, which vary dramatically across species and within a multicellular organism, but the nature of scaling events and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cell size variations are most pronounced in early animal development, as egg diameters range from tens of microns up to millimeters across animal phyla, and decrease several orders of magnitude during rapid reductive divisions. During early embryogenesis in the model organisms X. laevis and C. elegans, the spindle scales with cell size [1,2], a phenomenon regulated by molecules that modulate microtubule dynamics [3–6], as well as by limiting cytoplasmic volume [7,8]. However, it is not known to what extent spindle scaling is conserved across organisms and among different cell types. Here we show that in a range of metazoan phyla, mitotic spindle length decreased with cell size across a ~30 fold difference in zygote size. Maximum spindle length varied, but linear spindle scaling occurred similarly in all species once embryonic cell diameter reduced to 140 μm. In contrast, we find that the female meiotic spindle does not scale as closely to egg size, adopting a more uniform size across species that likely reflects its specialized function. Our analysis reveals that spindle morphometrics change abruptly, within one cell cycle, at the transition from meiosis to mitosis in most animals. PMID:26004761

  4. Crucial HSP70 co–chaperone complex unlocks metazoan protein disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Nillegoda, Nadinath B.; Kirstein, Janine; Szlachcic, Anna; Berynskyy, Mykhaylo; Stank, Antonia; Stengel, Florian; Arnsburg, Kristin; Gao, Xuechao; Scior, Annika; Aebersold, Ruedi; Guilbride, D. Lys; Wade, Rebecca C.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Mayer, Matthias P.; Bukau, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregates are the hallmark of stressed and ageing cells, and characterize several pathophysiological states1,2. Healthy metazoan cells effectively eliminate intracellular protein aggregates3,4, indicating that efficient disaggregation and/or degradation mechanisms exist. However, metazoans lack the key heat-shock protein disaggregase HSP100 of non-metazoan HSP70-dependent protein disaggregation systems5,6, and the human HSP70 system alone, even with the crucial HSP110 nucleotide exchange factor, has poor disaggregation activity in vitro4,7. This unresolved conundrum is central to protein quality control biology. Here we show that synergic cooperation between complexed J-protein co-chaperones of classes A and B unleashes highly efficient protein disaggregation activity in human and nematode HSP70 systems. Metazoan mixed-class J-protein complexes are transient, involve complementary charged regions conserved in the J-domains and carboxy-terminal domains of each J-protein class, and are flexible with respect to subunit composition. Complex formation allows J-proteins to initiate transient higher order chaperone structures involving HSP70 and interacting nucleotide exchange factors. A network of cooperative class A and B J-protein interactions therefore provides the metazoan HSP70 machinery with powerful, flexible, and finely regulatable disaggregase activity and a further level of regulation crucial for cellular protein quality control. PMID:26245380

  5. Sequential development of apical-basal and planar polarities in aggregating epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. PMID:26921448

  6. Metazoan parasites of Brama australis from southern Chile: a tool for stock discrimination?

    PubMed

    Oliva, M E; Espinola, J F; Ñacari, L A

    2016-03-01

    The metazoan parasites of 403 specimens of the southern ray's bream Brama australis from three localities in southern Chile (Lebu 36° 70' S; 73° 40' W, Calbuco 41° 50' S; 73° 08' W and Punta Arenas 53° 10' S; 70° 50' W) were recorded. More than 23 400 parasite specimens belonging to 12 taxa were registered. Metazoan parasites were dominated by the copepod Hatschekia conifera, constituting 97% of the total number of parasites; the larval cestode Hepatoxylon trichiuri was the second most important parasite (2·1% of the total number of parasites). The remaining 10 species constituted <1% of the metazoan parasites. Parasitological evidence, based on univariate and multivariate analysis, does not support the existence of discrete stocks in the studied zone. PMID:26813161

  7. MicroRNAs and metazoan macroevolution: insights into canalization, complexity, and the Cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kevin J; Dietrich, Michael R; McPeek, Mark A

    2009-07-01

    One of the most interesting challenges facing paleobiologists is explaining the Cambrian explosion, the dramatic appearance of most metazoan animal phyla in the Early Cambrian, and the subsequent stability of these body plans over the ensuing 530 million years. We propose that because phenotypic variation decreases through geologic time, because microRNAs (miRNAs) increase genic precision, by turning an imprecise number of mRNA transcripts into a more precise number of protein molecules, and because miRNAs are continuously being added to metazoan genomes through geologic time, miRNAs might be instrumental in the canalization of development. Further, miRNAs ultimately allow for natural selection to elaborate morphological complexity, because by reducing gene expression variability, miRNAs increase heritability, allowing selection to change characters more effectively. Hence, miRNAs might play an important role in shaping metazoan macroevolution, and might be part of the solution to the Cambrian conundrum. PMID:19472371

  8. Metazoans evolved by taking domains from soluble proteins to expand intercellular communication network.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Inhae; Bowie, James U; Kim, Sanguk

    2015-01-01

    A central question in animal evolution is how multicellular animals evolved from unicellular ancestors. We hypothesize that membrane proteins must be key players in the development of multicellularity because they are well positioned to form the cell-cell contacts and to provide the intercellular communication required for the creation of complex organisms. Here we find that a major mechanism for the necessary increase in membrane protein complexity in the transition from non-metazoan to metazoan life was the new incorporation of domains from soluble proteins. The membrane proteins that have incorporated soluble domains in metazoans are enriched in many of the functions unique to multicellular organisms such as cell-cell adhesion, signaling, immune defense and developmental processes. They also show enhanced protein-protein interaction (PPI) network complexity and centrality, suggesting an important role in the cellular diversification found in complex organisms. Our results expose an evolutionary mechanism that contributed to the development of higher life forms. PMID:25923201

  9. Horizontal gene transfer in the acquisition of novel traits by metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Boto, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is accepted as an important evolutionary force modulating the evolution of prokaryote genomes. However, it is thought that horizontal gene transfer plays only a minor role in metazoan evolution. In this paper, I critically review the rising evidence on horizontally transferred genes and on the acquisition of novel traits in metazoans. In particular, I discuss suspected examples in sponges, cnidarians, rotifers, nematodes, molluscs and arthropods which suggest that horizontal gene transfer in metazoans is not simply a curiosity. In addition, I stress the scarcity of studies in vertebrates and other animal groups and the importance of forthcoming studies to understand the importance and extent of horizontal gene transfer in animals. PMID:24403327

  10. Seawater pH at the advent of metazoan calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Justin; Gonzalez-Roubaud, Cécile; Douville, Eric; Montagna, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of bulk limestones provides a potentially powerful tool for reconstructing seawater pH deep into the geologic past (Kasemann et al., 2005; Paris et al., 2010; Ohnemueller et al., 2014). Here, we present δ11B of 35 calcitic limestones derived from a ca. 9 m.y. interval of the terminal Proterozoic Nama Group of southern Namibia. These units immediately precede the so-called Cambrian Radiation - the greatest diversification of metazoans in Earth history marked by the near-simultaneous advent of calcification across most animal phyla. The Nama Group represents one of the best preserved (average [Sr] = 1805 ppm; Mn/Sr < 2; δ18O > -10‰) and most continuous terminal Proterozoic limestone sequences known in the world. The carbonate units investigated here were deposited between ca. 552 and 543 Ma in a semi-divided foreland basin of the Kalahari Craton (Grotzinger and Miller, 2008). Depositional environments were shore-associated and ranged from upper shoreline/tidal flats to below-wave-base lower shoreface, and comprise calcisiltites, calcarenites, heterolithic interbeds, grainstones, and microbialites (Saylor et al., 1998; Grotzinger and Miller, 2008). The δ11B of the 35 sampled Nama Group carbonates were obtained via MC-ICP-MS. Samples were screened for contamination of the δ11B signal by clays (using [Al] as a proxy for clay content) (Paris et al., 2010) and by open-system meteoric diagenesis (δ11B-δ18O correlation). The δ11B values of the limestones ranged from 0.5 to 10.8‰ (avg. = 5.3‰), which is consistent with the previously observed increasing trend in carbonate δ11B (Paris et al., 2010) from the -6.2 to 2.7‰ values reported for Neoproterozoic cap carbonate dolostones (Kasemann et al., 2005) to the ca. 25‰ value reported for most modern marine carbonates. B/Ca ratios for the sampled limestones ranged from 3.4 to 24.0 ppm (avg. = 11.0). Assuming a seawater temperature of 25° C, a salinity of 35, a depth of 10

  11. [Basal and spinous cell epitheliomas].

    PubMed

    Shaw, M; Sanguinetti, O; de Kaminsky, A R; Kaminsky, C A

    1975-01-01

    A study on 502 epithelial cutaneous cancers was carried out by the authors. The study included 377 basal cell carcinomas (57,5% in males and 42,4% in females) and 125 squamous cell carcinomas (78,4% in males and 21,6% in females). The basal cell carcinomas in both sexs had an earlier onset than the squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:1241706

  12. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  13. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae) in the lower Amazon River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea); Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda); Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea); and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea). The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus. PMID:27304520

  14. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae) in the lower Amazon River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea); Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda); Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea); and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea). The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus. PMID:27334815

  15. Horizontal transfer of the msp130 gene supported the evolution of metazoan biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Ettensohn, Charles A

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that biomineralized structures appeared independently in many metazoan clades during the Cambrian. How this occurred, and whether it involved the parallel co-option of a common set of biochemical and developmental pathways (i.e., a shared biomineralization "toolkit"), are questions that remain unanswered. Here, I provide evidence that horizontal gene transfer supported the evolution of biomineralization in some metazoans. I show that Msp130 proteins, first described as proteins expressed selectively by the biomineral-forming primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, have a much wider taxonomic distribution than was previously appreciated. Msp130 proteins are present in several invertebrate deuterostomes and in one protostome clade (molluscs). Surprisingly, closely related proteins are also present in many bacteria and several algae, and I propose that msp130 genes were introduced into metazoan lineages via multiple, independent horizontal gene transfer events. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the introduction of an ancestral msp130 gene occurred in the sea urchin lineage more than 250 million years ago and that msp130 genes underwent independent, parallel duplications in each of the metazoan phyla in which these genes are found. PMID:24735463

  16. Teaching the Toolkit: A Laboratory Series to Demonstrate the Evolutionary Conservation of Metazoan Cell Signaling Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClair, Elizabeth E.

    2008-01-01

    A major finding of comparative genomics and developmental genetics is that metazoans share certain conserved, embryonically deployed signaling pathways that instruct cells as to their ultimate fate. Because the DNA encoding these pathways predates the evolutionary split of most animal groups, it should in principle be possible to clone…

  17. Exploring metazoan evolution through dynamic and holistic changes in protein families and domains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding proteome evolution is important for deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation. Herein, the dynamics of change in protein families and protein domains over the course of metazoan evolution was explored. Change, as defined by birth/death and duplication/deletion ...

  18. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  19. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  20. Multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Lee, J; Hong, S H; Oh, C H; Kim, W K; Bhawan, J

    1998-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common of all skin cancers and the most prevalent one among Caucasians. Rarely, these tumors are seen in other races. We report a 77-year-old Korean woman who presented with multiple darkly pigmented enlarging nodules on her scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had first noted a 6-mm pigmented lesion on her left eyebrow 10 years previously. Since then, other lesions had appeared in many locations on her body. She had been otherwise healthy and without a history of exposure to arsenic or radiation. There was no family history of skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum, or basal cell nevus syndrome. On physical examination, multiple darkly pigmented dome-shaped papules and nodules were present on her scalp, face, right forearm, lower abdomen, and inguinal areas. They ranged in size from 0.5 mm to 2 cm. The larger ones showed central ulceration. Multiple biopsy specimens from different sites showed pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, there was no evidence of nevus sebaceus, xeroderma pigmentosum, basal cell nevus syndrome, or immunodeficiency. Clinical workup including chest radiography, abdominal ultrasound, bone scan, and brain computerized axial tomography scan did not demonstrate primary or secondary tumors. The results of serologic and hematologic tests were also within normal limits. This is an unusual case report of multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas in an Asian woman without any predisposing risk factors. PMID:9557792

  1. A manual collection of Syt, Esyt, Rph3a, Rph3al, Doc2, and Dblc2 genes from 46 metazoan genomes - an open access resource for neuroscience and evolutionary biology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Synaptotagmin proteins were first identified in nervous tissue, residing in synaptic vesicles. Synaptotagmins were subsequently found to form a large family, some members of which play important roles in calcium triggered exocytic events. These members have been investigated intensively, but other family members are not well understood, making it difficult to grasp the meaning of family membership in functional terms. Further difficulty arises as families are defined quite legitimately in different ways: by common descent or by common possession of distinguishing features. One definition does not necessarily imply the other. The evolutionary range of genome sequences now available, can shed more light on synaptotagmin gene phylogeny and clarify family relationships. The aim of compiling this open access collection of synaptotagmin and synaptotagmin-like sequences, is that its use may lead to greater understanding of the biological function of these proteins in an evolutionary context. Results 46 metazoan genomes were examined and their complement of Syt, Esyt, Rph3a, Rph3al, Doc2 and Dblc2 genes identified. All of the sequences were compared, named, then examined in detail. Esyt genes were formerly named Fam62. The species in this collection are Trichoplax, Nematostella, Capitella, Helobdella, Lottia, Ciona, Strongylocentrotus, Branchiostoma, Ixodes, Daphnia, Acyrthosiphon, Tribolium, Nasonia, Apis, Anopheles, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis, Takifugu, Tetraodon, Gasterosteus, Oryzias, Danio, Xenopus, Anolis, Gallus, Taeniopygia,Ornithorhynchus, Monodelphis, Mus and Homo. All of the data described in this paper is available as additional files. Conclusions Only a subset of synaptotagmin proteins appear able to function as calcium triggers. Syt1, Syt7 and Syt9 are ancient conserved synaptotagmins of this type. Some animals carry extensive repertoires of synaptotagmin genes. Other animals of no less complexity, carry only a small repertoire. Current

  2. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Węklar, Daria; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  3. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  4. Dorsoventral patterning by the Chordin-BMP pathway: a unified model from a pattern-formation perspective for Drosophila, vertebrates, sea urchins and Nematostella.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Conserved from Cnidarians to vertebrates, the dorsoventral (DV) axis is patterned by the Chordin-BMP pathway. However, the functions of the pathway's components are very different in different phyla. By modeling it is shown that many observations can be integrated by the assumption that BMP, acting as an inhibitory component in more ancestral systems, became a necessary and activating component for the generation of a secondary and antipodal-located signaling center. The different realizations seen in vertebrates, Drosophila, sea urchins and Nematostella allow reconstruction of a chain of modifications during evolution. BMP-signaling is proposed to be based on a pattern-forming reaction of the activator-depleted substrate type in which BMP-signaling acts via pSmad as the local self-enhancing component and the depletion of the highly mobile BMP-Chordin complex as the long-ranging antagonistic component. Due to the rapid removal of the BMP/Chordin complex during BMP-signaling, an oriented transport and "shuttling" results, although only ordinary diffusion is involved. The system can be self-organizing, allowing organizer formation even from near homogeneous initial situations. Organizers may regenerate after removal. Although connected with some losses of self-regulation, for large embryos as in amphibians, the employment of maternal determinants is an efficient strategy to make sure that only a single organizer of each type is generated. The generation of dorsoventral positional information along a long-extended anteroposterior (AP) axis cannot be achieved directly by a single patch-like organizer. Nature found different solutions for this task. Corresponding models provide a rationale for the well-known reversal in the dorsoventral patterning between vertebrates and insects. PMID:26054700

  5. Inorganic phosphate export by the retrovirus receptor XPR1 in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Donatella; Touhami, Jawida; Charnet, Pierre; Sitbon, Marc; Battini, Jean-Luc

    2013-06-27

    Inorganic phosphate uptake is a universal function accomplished by transporters that are present across the living world. In contrast, no phosphate exporter has ever been identified in metazoans. Here, we show that depletion of XPR1, a multipass membrane molecule initially identified as the cell-surface receptor for xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia retroviruses (X- and P-MLV), induced a decrease in phosphate export and that reintroduction of various XPR1 proteins, from fruit fly to human, rescued this defect. Inhibition of phosphate export was also obtained with a soluble ligand generated from the envelope-receptor-binding domain of X-MLV in all human cell lines tested, as well as in diverse stem cells and epithelial cells derived from renal proximal tubules, the main site of phosphate homeostasis regulation. These results provide new insights on phosphate export in metazoans and the role of Xpr1 in this function. PMID:23791524

  6. Guide to the identification of fish protozoan and metazoan parasites in stained tissue sections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    The identification of protozoan and metazoan parasites is traditionally carried out using a series of classical keys based upon the morphology of the whole organism. However, in stained tissue sections prepared for light microscopy, taxonomic features will be missing, thus making parasite identification difficult. This work highlights the characteristic features of representative parasites in tissue sections to aid identification. The parasite examples discussed are derived from species affecting finfish, and predominantly include parasites associated with disease or those commonly observed as incidental findings in disease diagnostic cases. Emphasis is on protozoan and small metazoan parasites (such as Myxosporidia) because these are the organisms most likely to be missed or mis-diagnosed during gross examination. Figures are presented in colour to assist biologists and veterinarians who are required to assess host/parasite interactions by light microscopy.

  7. A chancelloriid-like metazoan from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xianguang; Williams, Mark; Siveter, David J.; Siveter, Derek J.; Gabbott, Sarah; Holwell, David; Harvey, Thomas H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Nidelric pugio gen. et sp. nov. from the Cambrian Series 2 Heilinpu Formation, Chengjiang Lagerstätte, Yunnan Province, China, is an ovoid, sac-like metazoan that bears single-element spines on its surface. N. pugio shows no trace of a gut, coelom, anterior differentiation, appendages, or internal organs that would suggest a bilateral body plan. Instead, the sac-like morphology invites comparison with the radially symmetrical chancelloriids. However, the single-element spines of N. pugio are atypical of the complex multi-element spine rosettes borne by most chancelloriids and N. pugio may signal the ancestral chancelloriid state, in which the spines had not yet fused. Alternatively, N. pugio may represent a group of radial metazoans that are discrete from chancelloriids. Whatever its precise phylogenetic position, N. pugio expands the known disparity of Cambrian scleritome-bearing animals, and provides a new model for reconstructing scleritomes from isolated microfossils. PMID:25487514

  8. LRPPRC is a mitochondrial matrix protein that is conserved in metazoans

    SciTech Connect

    Sterky, Fredrik H.; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Samuelsson, Tore; Larsson, Nils-Goeran

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} LRPPRC orthologs are restricted to metazoans. {yields} LRPPRC is imported to the mitochondrial matrix. {yields} No evidence of nuclear isoform. -- Abstract: LRPPRC (also called LRP130) is an RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat protein. LRPPRC has been recognized as a mitochondrial protein, but has also been shown to regulate nuclear gene transcription and to bind specific RNA molecules in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We here present a bioinformatic analysis of the LRPPRC primary sequence, which reveals that orthologs to the LRPPRC gene are restricted to metazoan cells and that all of the corresponding proteins contain mitochondrial targeting signals. To address the subcellular localization further, we have carefully analyzed LRPPRC in mammalian cells and identified a single isoform that is exclusively localized to mitochondria. The LRPPRC protein is imported to the mitochondrial matrix and its mitochondrial targeting sequence is cleaved upon entry.

  9. Metazoan Scc4 Homologs Link Sister Chromatid Cohesion to Cell and Axon Migration Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Seitan, Vlad C; Banks, Peter; Laval, Steve; Majid, Nazia A; Dorsett, Dale; Rana, Amer; Smith, Jim; Bateman, Alex; Krpic, Sanja; Hostert, Arnd; Rollins, Robert A; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Benard, Claire Y; Hekimi, Siegfried; Newbury, Sarah F

    2006-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Scc2 binds Scc4 to form an essential complex that loads cohesin onto chromosomes. The prevalence of Scc2 orthologs in eukaryotes emphasizes a conserved role in regulating sister chromatid cohesion, but homologs of Scc4 have not hitherto been identified outside certain fungi. Some metazoan orthologs of Scc2 were initially identified as developmental gene regulators, such as Drosophila Nipped-B, a regulator of cut and Ultrabithorax, and delangin, a protein mutant in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. We show that delangin and Nipped-B bind previously unstudied human and fly orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans MAU-2, a non-axis-specific guidance factor for migrating cells and axons. PSI-BLAST shows that Scc4 is evolutionarily related to metazoan MAU-2 sequences, with the greatest homology evident in a short N-terminal domain, and protein–protein interaction studies map the site of interaction between delangin and human MAU-2 to the N-terminal regions of both proteins. Short interfering RNA knockdown of human MAU-2 in HeLa cells resulted in precocious sister chromatid separation and in impaired loading of cohesin onto chromatin, indicating that it is functionally related to Scc4, and RNAi analyses show that MAU-2 regulates chromosome segregation in C. elegans embryos. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knock down Xenopus tropicalis delangin or MAU-2 in early embryos produced similar patterns of retarded growth and developmental defects. Our data show that sister chromatid cohesion in metazoans involves the formation of a complex similar to the Scc2-Scc4 interaction in the budding yeast. The very high degree of sequence conservation between Scc4 homologs in complex metazoans is consistent with increased selection pressure to conserve additional essential functions, such as regulation of cell and axon migration during development. PMID:16802858

  10. Bacterial α2-macroglobulins: colonization factors acquired by horizontal gene transfer from the metazoan genome?

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Aidan; Blandin, Stephanie; Levashina, Elena A; Gibson, Toby J

    2004-01-01

    Background Invasive bacteria are known to have captured and adapted eukaryotic host genes. They also readily acquire colonizing genes from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Closely related species such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter hepaticus, which exploit different host tissues, share almost none of their colonization genes. The protease inhibitor α2-macroglobulin provides a major metazoan defense against invasive bacteria, trapping attacking proteases required by parasites for successful invasion. Results Database searches with metazoan α2-macroglobulin sequences revealed homologous sequences in bacterial proteomes. The bacterial α2-macroglobulin phylogenetic distribution is patchy and violates the vertical descent model. Bacterial α2-macroglobulin genes are found in diverse clades, including purple bacteria (proteobacteria), fusobacteria, spirochetes, bacteroidetes, deinococcids, cyanobacteria, planctomycetes and thermotogae. Most bacterial species with bacterial α2-macroglobulin genes exploit higher eukaryotes (multicellular plants and animals) as hosts. Both pathogenically invasive and saprophytically colonizing species possess bacterial α2-macroglobulins, indicating that bacterial α2-macroglobulin is a colonization rather than a virulence factor. Conclusions Metazoan α2-macroglobulins inhibit proteases of pathogens. The bacterial homologs may function in reverse to block host antimicrobial defenses. α2-macroglobulin was probably acquired one or more times from metazoan hosts and has then spread widely through other colonizing bacterial species by more than 10 independent horizontal gene transfers. yfhM-like bacterial α2-macroglobulin genes are often found tightly linked with pbpC, encoding an atypical peptidoglycan transglycosylase, PBP1C, that does not function in vegetative peptidoglycan synthesis. We suggest that YfhM and PBP1C are coupled together as a periplasmic defense and repair system. Bacterial α2-macroglobulins might

  11. Early and middle(?) Cambrian metazoan and protistan fossils from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culver, S.J.; Repetski, J.E.; Pojeta, J., Jr.; Hunt, D.

    1996-01-01

    Supposed Upper Proterozoic strata in the southwest Taoudeni Basin, Guinea and Senegal, and from the Mauritanide fold belt, Mauritania, have yielded mostly poorly preserved small skeletal fossils of metazoan and protistan origin. Problematic, but possible echinoderm material and spicules of the heteractinid sponge Eiffelia dominate the Taoudeni Basin assemblage. The age of the material is not certain but the paleontologic data suggest an Early Cambrian age for the stratigraphically lowest faunas, and a Middle Cambrian age is possible for the stratigraphically highest collections.

  12. Metazoan Scc4 homologs link sister chromatid cohesion to cell and axon migration guidance.

    PubMed

    Seitan, Vlad C; Banks, Peter; Laval, Steve; Majid, Nazia A; Dorsett, Dale; Rana, Amer; Smith, Jim; Bateman, Alex; Krpic, Sanja; Hostert, Arnd; Rollins, Robert A; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Benard, Claire Y; Hekimi, Siegfried; Newbury, Sarah F; Strachan, Tom

    2006-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Scc2 binds Scc4 to form an essential complex that loads cohesin onto chromosomes. The prevalence of Scc2 orthologs in eukaryotes emphasizes a conserved role in regulating sister chromatid cohesion, but homologs of Scc4 have not hitherto been identified outside certain fungi. Some metazoan orthologs of Scc2 were initially identified as developmental gene regulators, such as Drosophila Nipped-B, a regulator of cut and Ultrabithorax, and delangin, a protein mutant in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. We show that delangin and Nipped-B bind previously unstudied human and fly orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans MAU-2, a non-axis-specific guidance factor for migrating cells and axons. PSI-BLAST shows that Scc4 is evolutionarily related to metazoan MAU-2 sequences, with the greatest homology evident in a short N-terminal domain, and protein-protein interaction studies map the site of interaction between delangin and human MAU-2 to the N-terminal regions of both proteins. Short interfering RNA knockdown of human MAU-2 in HeLa cells resulted in precocious sister chromatid separation and in impaired loading of cohesin onto chromatin, indicating that it is functionally related to Scc4, and RNAi analyses show that MAU-2 regulates chromosome segregation in C. elegans embryos. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knock down Xenopus tropicalis delangin or MAU-2 in early embryos produced similar patterns of retarded growth and developmental defects. Our data show that sister chromatid cohesion in metazoans involves the formation of a complex similar to the Scc2-Scc4 interaction in the budding yeast. The very high degree of sequence conservation between Scc4 homologs in complex metazoans is consistent with increased selection pressure to conserve additional essential functions, such as regulation of cell and axon migration during development. PMID:16802858

  13. Mitome: dynamic and interactive database for comparative mitochondrial genomics in metazoan animals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seok; Oh, Jeongsu; Kim, Young Uk; Kim, Namchul; Yang, Sungjin; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2008-01-01

    Mitome is a specialized mitochondrial genome database designed for easy comparative analysis of various features of metazoan mitochondrial genomes such as base frequency, A+T skew, codon usage and gene arrangement pattern. A particular function of the database is the automatic reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans selected by a user from a taxonomic tree menu based on nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences or gene arrangement patterns. Mitome also enables us (i) to easily find the taxonomic positions of organisms of which complete mitochondrial genome sequences are publicly available; (ii) to acquire various metazoan mitochondrial genome characteristics through a graphical genome browser; (iii) to search for homology patterns in mitochondrial gene arrangements; (iv) to download nucleotide or amino acid sequences not only of an entire mitochondrial genome but also of each component; and (v) to find interesting references easily through links with PubMed. In order to provide users with a dynamic, responsive, interactive and faster web database, Mitome is constructed using two recently highlighted techniques, Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) and Web Services. Mitome has the potential to become very useful in the fields of molecular phylogenetics and evolution and comparative organelle genomics. The database is available at: http://www.mitome.info. PMID:17940090

  14. Activated Acinus boosts basal autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Nilay; Tyra, Lauren K; Krämer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Acinus (Acn) is a nuclear protein that participates in the regulation of autophagy. Loss of Acn function prevents autophagy in starving cells. Conversely, Acn activation induces basal autophagy. This enhances the quality control functions of autophagy such as the removal of misfolded proteins, thereby reducing neurodegeneration and prolonging lifespan. Acn activity is enhanced by Akt1-mediated phosphorylation, which counteracts the cleavage of Acn by a caspase-3 homolog. PMID:27308482

  15. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  16. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  17. ADP-Ribose Activates the TRPM2 Channel from the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Independently of the NUDT9H Domain

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Frank J. P.; Kühn, Cornelia; Winking, Mathis; Hoffmann, Daniel C.; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The human redox-sensitive Transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (hTRPM2) channel contains the C-terminal Nudix hydrolase domain NUDT9H which most likely binds ADP-ribose. During oxidative stress, the intracellular release of ADP-ribose triggers the activation of hTRPM2. The TRPM2 orthologue from Nematostella vectensis (nv) is also stimulated by ADP-ribose but not by the oxidant hydrogen peroxide. For further clarification of the structure-function relationships of these two distantly related channel orthologues, we performed whole-cell as well as single channel patch-clamp recordings, Ca2+-imaging and Western blot analysis after heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated channels in HEK-293 cells. We demonstrate that the removal of the entire NUDT9H domain does not disturb the response of nvTRPM2 to ADP-ribose. The deletion, however, created channels that were activated by hydrogen peroxide, as did mutations within the NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 that presumably suppress its enzymatic function. The same findings were obtained with the nvTRPM2 channel when the NUDT9H domain was replaced by the corresponding sequences of the original hNUDT9 enzyme. Whenever the enzyme domain was mutated to presumably inactive variants, channel activation by hydrogen peroxide could be achieved. Moreover, we found strong evidences for ADPRase activity of the isolated NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 in co-expression experiments with the C-terminally truncated nvTRPM2 channel. Thus, there is a clear correlation between the loss of enzymatic activity and the capability of nvTRPM2 to respond to oxidative stress. In striking contrast, the channel function of the hTRPM2 orthologue, in particular its sensitivity to ADP-ribose, was abrogated by already small changes of the NUDT9H domain. These findings establish nvTRPM2 as a channel gated by ADP-ribose through a novel mechanism. We conclude that the endogenous NUDT9H domain does not directly affect ADP-ribose-dependent gating of the nv

  18. ADP-Ribose Activates the TRPM2 Channel from the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Independently of the NUDT9H Domain.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Frank J P; Kühn, Cornelia; Winking, Mathis; Hoffmann, Daniel C; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The human redox-sensitive Transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (hTRPM2) channel contains the C-terminal Nudix hydrolase domain NUDT9H which most likely binds ADP-ribose. During oxidative stress, the intracellular release of ADP-ribose triggers the activation of hTRPM2. The TRPM2 orthologue from Nematostella vectensis (nv) is also stimulated by ADP-ribose but not by the oxidant hydrogen peroxide. For further clarification of the structure-function relationships of these two distantly related channel orthologues, we performed whole-cell as well as single channel patch-clamp recordings, Ca2+-imaging and Western blot analysis after heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated channels in HEK-293 cells. We demonstrate that the removal of the entire NUDT9H domain does not disturb the response of nvTRPM2 to ADP-ribose. The deletion, however, created channels that were activated by hydrogen peroxide, as did mutations within the NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 that presumably suppress its enzymatic function. The same findings were obtained with the nvTRPM2 channel when the NUDT9H domain was replaced by the corresponding sequences of the original hNUDT9 enzyme. Whenever the enzyme domain was mutated to presumably inactive variants, channel activation by hydrogen peroxide could be achieved. Moreover, we found strong evidences for ADPRase activity of the isolated NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 in co-expression experiments with the C-terminally truncated nvTRPM2 channel. Thus, there is a clear correlation between the loss of enzymatic activity and the capability of nvTRPM2 to respond to oxidative stress. In striking contrast, the channel function of the hTRPM2 orthologue, in particular its sensitivity to ADP-ribose, was abrogated by already small changes of the NUDT9H domain. These findings establish nvTRPM2 as a channel gated by ADP-ribose through a novel mechanism. We conclude that the endogenous NUDT9H domain does not directly affect ADP-ribose-dependent gating of the nv

  19. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  20. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  1. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  2. Metazoan circadian rhythm: toward an understanding of a light-based zeitgeber in sponges.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Pisignano, Dario; Markl, Julia S; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-07-01

    In all eukaryotes, the 24-h periodicity in the environment contributed to the evolution of the molecular circadian clock. We studied some elements of a postulated circadian clock circuit in the lowest metazoans, the siliceous sponges. First, we identified in the demosponge Suberites domuncula the enzyme luciferase that generates photons. Then (most likely), the photons generated by luciferase are transmitted via the biosilica glass skeleton of the sponges and are finally harvested by cryptochrome in the same individual; hence, cryptochrome is acting as a photosensor. This information-transduction system, generation of light (luciferase), photon transmission (through the siliceous spicules), and photon reception (cryptochrome), all occur in the same individual. Therefore, we propose that this photoreception/phototransduction process might function as a nerve-cell-like signal transmitting system. This was corroborated by the fact that S. domuncula reacts to different wavelengths of light, originating from the sponge environment, with a differential gene expression of the transcription factor SOX. Recently, we succeeded in demonstrating that in sponges a light/dark controlled gene is expressed, which encodes for nocturnin, a protein showing poly(A)-specific 3'-exoribonuclease activity. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that primmorphs, 3D cell aggregates of sponge cells, after transfer from light to dark, show a 10-fold increased expression of the nocturnin gene. In contrast, the expression level of the gene encoding glycogenin decreases in the dark by three- to four-fold. It is concluded that sponges are provided with the molecular circadian clock protein nocturnin which is highly expressed in the dark. This finding together with the proposed light-transduction and spicule-based signaling system strongly supports the view that already the lowest metazoans, the sponges, have elements of a circadian rhythm, characteristic of higher

  3. The challenge of proving the existence of metazoan life in permanently anoxic deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, Roberto; Gambi, Cristina; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Neves, Ricardo Cardoso; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2016-01-01

    The demonstration of the existence of metazoan life in absence of free oxygen is one of the most fascinating and difficult challenges in biology. Danovaro et al. (2010) discovered three new species of the Phylum Loricifera, living in the anoxic sediments of the L'Atalante, a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Multiple and independent analyses based on staining, incorporation of radiolabeled substrates, CellTracker Green incorporation experiments and ultra-structure analyses, allowed Danovaro et al. (2010) to conclude that these animals were able to spend their entire life cycle under anoxic conditions. Bernhard et al. (2015) investigated the same basin. Due to technical difficulties in sampling operations, they could not collect samples from the permanently anoxic sediment, and sampled only the redoxcline portion of the L'Atalante basin. They found ten individuals of Loricifera and provided alternative interpretations of the results of Danovaro et al. (2010). Here we analyze these interpretations, and present additional evidence indicating that the Loricifera encountered in the anoxic basin L'Atalante were actually alive at the time of sampling. We also discuss the reliability of different methodologies and approaches in providing evidence of metazoans living in anoxic conditions, paving the way for future investigations.This paper is a response to Bernhard JM, Morrison CR, Pape E, Beaudoin DJ, Todaro MA, Pachiadaki MG, Kormas KAr, Edgcomb VG. 2015. Metazoans of redoxcline sediments in Mediterranean deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins. BMC Biology 2015 13:105.See research article at http://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-015-0213-6. PMID:27267928

  4. Comparisons of Allergenic and Metazoan Parasite Proteins: Allergy the Price of Immunity.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Nidhi; Farnell, Edward J; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Ryan, Stephanie; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Maizels, Rick M; Dunne, David W; Thornton, Janet M; Furnham, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Allergic reactions can be considered as maladaptive IgE immune responses towards environmental antigens. Intriguingly, these mechanisms are observed to be very similar to those implicated in the acquisition of an important degree of immunity against metazoan parasites (helminths and arthropods) in mammalian hosts. Based on the hypothesis that IgE-mediated immune responses evolved in mammals to provide extra protection against metazoan parasites rather than to cause allergy, we predict that the environmental allergens will share key properties with the metazoan parasite antigens that are specifically targeted by IgE in infected human populations. We seek to test this prediction by examining if significant similarity exists between molecular features of allergens and helminth proteins that induce an IgE response in the human host. By employing various computational approaches, 2712 unique protein molecules that are known IgE antigens were searched against a dataset of proteins from helminths and parasitic arthropods, resulting in a comprehensive list of 2445 parasite proteins that show significant similarity through sequence and structure with allergenic proteins. Nearly half of these parasite proteins from 31 species fall within the 10 most abundant allergenic protein domain families (EF-hand, Tropomyosin, CAP, Profilin, Lipocalin, Trypsin-like serine protease, Cupin, BetV1, Expansin and Prolamin). We identified epitopic-like regions in 206 parasite proteins and present the first example of a plant protein (BetV1) that is the commonest allergen in pollen in a worm, and confirming it as the target of IgE in schistosomiasis infected humans. The identification of significant similarity, inclusive of the epitopic regions, between allergens and helminth proteins against which IgE is an observed marker of protective immunity explains the 'off-target' effects of the IgE-mediated immune system in allergy. All these findings can impact the discovery and design of molecules

  5. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Beevi, M Razia; Radhakrishnan, S

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence and mean intensity of metazoan parasite infection, the community characteristics (richness index, dominance index, evenness index and Shannon index of diversity) and the qualitative similarity of the metazoan parasite fauna among the species and families of the fishes were determined of 13 fish species of freshwater fishes of Kerala belonging to seven families. The metazoan parasite fauna of this geographical area is very diverse; it consisted of 33 species of parasites belonging to seven major taxa: ten species of Monogenea, nine Digenea, two Cestoda, six Nematoda, three Acanthocephala, two Copepoda and one Isopoda. Prevalence of infection ranged from 32.9% (Puntius vittatus) to 87.1% (Mystus oculatus) and mean intensity from 3.8 (Puntius vittatus) to 27.6 (Aplocheilus lineatus). The infra- and component communities of parasites were somewhat characteristic. The dominance pattern of the major taxa was in the order Digenea > Nematoda > Monogenea = Acanthocephala > Cestoda = Copepoda > Isopoda. Macropodus cupanus harboured the richest fauna and Puntius vittatus had the least rich fauna. The parasite fauna of A. lineatus was the most heterogeneous and that of M. cavasius, the most homogeneous. The diversity of the parasite fauna was the greatest in M. cavasius and the least in A. lineatus. The parasite faunas of A. lineatus and M. cupanus and of M. cavasius and M. oculatus were similar. However, in spite of the taxonomic nearness and the similarity of the habits and habitats of the four species of cyprinids (P. amphibius, P. filamentosus, P. sarana and P. vittatus), their parasite fauna were qualitatively very dissimilar-of the seven species of parasites encountered in them only one was shared by the four host species. The cyprinid, Rasbora daniconius, had its own characteristic component community of parasites consisting of six species none of which was shared by the other four cyprinids. The richest parasite fauna was that of the family

  6. Modular genes with metazoan-specific domains have increased tissue specificity.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gihon, Inbar; Lancet, Doron; Yanai, Itai

    2005-04-01

    We have systematically examined the domain composition across a comprehensive set of tissue-specific, midrange and housekeeping genes as defined by their mode of expression in 52 normal mouse tissues. We show a definite correlation between the number of domains and the degree of tissue specificity. This trend is further supported by a novel analysis involving the time of origin of each domain. Genes containing metazoan-specific domains are more prevalent in signal transduction and cell-communication pathways, and are depleted in primary metabolism. Our analyses suggest that highly modular gene products have been recruited for tissue-specific functions that are required in complex organisms. PMID:15797615

  7. Early colonization of metazoans in the deep-water: Evidences from the lowermost Cambrian black shales of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.-Y.; Yang, A.-H.; Zhang, J.-M.; Li, G.-X.; Yang, X.-L.

    2003-04-01

    Diversity of metazoans is high in the deep-water of the present ocean. But it is unknown that when the metazoans began to colonize in the deep-water and what kinds of metazoans first colonized in the deep-water since origin and radiation of metazoans during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition interval. Up to the present, colonization of the deep-sea began in the Ordovician. Although it is suggested that animals were penetrated into the intermediate water depth during the Precambrian, evidences support such suggestion are based on the problematic Ediacaran-grade fossils. However, almost fossil materials that support the Cambrian Explosion hypothesis were discovered from the lowermost Cambrian shallow-water deposits. The abundant earliest Cambrian mineralized small shelly fossils (SSF) are globally from the shallow-water deposits, and the well-known Chengjiang fauna that may records most complete features of metazoans in the ocean after the Cambrian Explosion, occurs as well in the shallow basin near an old land on the Yangtze Platform. In order to understand ecology of the Cambrian Explosion time interval and how happened of the onshore-offshore trends of metazoans, we focused our attention on collecting fossils in the lowermost Cambrian deposits under the varied facies on the Yangtze Platformm during recent years. Investigations of the shallow-water carbonate facies and the oxygen-depleted deep-water black shale facies revealed additional biological and ecological information that are not recorded in the Chengjiang fauna in the siliclastic shallow-water facies. Here we report our discovery of a particular fossil association from more than 10 sections in the deep-water black shales (Qiongzhusian) in the out shelf and slope area of the Yangtze Platform. The fossil association is composed of pelagic and sessile organisms, including abundant sponges, 3 types of bivalved arthropods, 3 types of tubular animals and few problematic organisms. The fossils have either

  8. Constraints on genes shape long-term conservation of macro-synteny in metazoan genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many metazoan genomes conserve chromosome-scale gene linkage relationships (“macro-synteny”) from the common ancestor of multicellular animal life [1-4], but the biological explanation for this conservation is still unknown. Double cut and join (DCJ) is a simple, well-studied model of neutral genome evolution amenable to both simulation and mathematical analysis [5], but as we show here, it is not sufficent to explain long-term macro-synteny conservation. Results We examine a family of simple (one-parameter) extensions of DCJ to identify models and choices of parameters consistent with the levels of macro- and micro-synteny conservation observed among animal genomes. Our software implements a flexible strategy for incorporating genomic context into the DCJ model to incorporate various types of genomic context (“DCJ-[C]”), and is available as open source software from http://github.com/putnamlab/dcj-c. Conclusions A simple model of genome evolution, in which DCJ moves are allowed only if they maintain chromosomal linkage among a set of constrained genes, can simultaneously account for the level of macro-synteny conservation and for correlated conservation among multiple pairs of species. Simulations under this model indicate that a constraint on approximately 7% of metazoan genes is sufficient to constrain genome rearrangement to an average rate of 25 inversions and 1.7 translocations per million years. PMID:22151646

  9. Trichinella spiralis, potential model nematode for epigenetics and its implication in metazoan parasitism.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Rui; Liu, Mingyuan

    2014-01-10

    The recent discovery of DNA methylation in the nematode T.spiralis may raise the possibility of using it as a potential model organism for epigenetic studies instead of C. elegans, which is deficient in this important epigenetic modification. In contrast to the free-living nematode C. elegans, T. spiralis is a parasitic worm that possesses a complicated life cycle and undergoes a complex developmental regulation of genes. We emphasize that the differential methylomes in the different life-history stages of T. spiralis can provide insight on how DNA methylation is triggered and regulated. In particular, we have demonstrated that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of its parasitism-related genes. Further computational analyses indicated that the regulatory machinery for DNA methylation can also be found in the T. spiralis genome. By a logical extension of this point, we speculate that comprehensively addressing the epigenetic machinery of T. spiralis may help to understand epigenetics in invertebrates. Furthermore, considering the implication of epigenetics in metazoan parasitism, using T. spiralis as an epigenetic model organism may further contribute to drug development against metazoan parasites. PMID:24454291

  10. Metazoan parasite assemblages of wild Seriola lalandi (Carangidae) from eastern and southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Kate S; Ernst, Ingo; Mooney, Allan J; Whittington, Ian D

    2007-06-01

    Yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi support significant commercial and recreational fisheries as well as aquaculture operations throughout the world. Metazoan parasite infections of S. lalandi are of considerable economic and ecological importance, yet very little is known about wild parasite assemblages. S. lalandi were collected from the east coast and south coast of Australia and examined for metazoan parasites. Forty-three parasite taxa were identified, including 26 new host records. Four of the parasite species recovered have been previously associated with disease or mortality in Seriola aquaculture. Comparisons are made between ectoparasite and endoparasite prevalence and intensity of S. lalandi from New South Wales and Victoria. S. lalandi sampled from the east coast of Australia shared ectoparasites previously documented from this species in New Zealand, providing support that S. lalandi in the Tasman Sea comprise a single stock. Based on previously used criteria to evaluate the suitability of parasites as biological tags, the monogenean Paramicrocotyloides reticularis Rohde and the copepod Parabrachiella seriolae Yamaguti and Yamasu may be potentially useful for stock discrimination. PMID:17267264

  11. Metazoan parasite infracommunities of Menticirrhus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae): an amphi-oceanic approximation.

    PubMed

    Luque, J L; Oliva, M E

    1999-04-01

    Metazoan infracommunities of Menticirrhus ophicephalus from the south Pacific Ocean and M. americanus from the south Atlantic Ocean were analyzed and compared. The metazoan parasite infracommunities of M. ophicephalus showed higher values of total number of parasite individuals/host and parasite species richness than that of M americanus, but M. americanus showed higher values of parasite species diversity. The infracommunities of ectoparasites showed higher values of total number of parasite individuals/host, richness, and frequency of dominance in M. ophicephalus; in contrast, endoparasites showed higher values of these infracommunity descriptors in M. americanus. Ecological analysis of the marine fish parasite infracommunities using the total number of components (ecto- and endoparasites) could hide some patterns of the community structure; thus, a separate analysis of only ecto- or endoparasites is recommended. Additional studies monitoring the influence of the "upwelling ecosystem" and the El Niño-Southern oscillation event on the fish parasite communities are necessary to determine the real influence of these ecological disturbances on the structure of fish parasite communities in South America. PMID:10219326

  12. Taxonomic distribution of cryptic diversity among metazoans: not so homogeneous after all.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Poulin, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Cryptic diversity plagues estimates of biodiversity, conservation efforts and attempts to control diseases and invasive species. Here, we re-visit a decade-old assessment of whether or not cryptic species are homogeneously reported among higher metazoan taxa. We compiled information from an extensive survey of the literature to recover all reports of cryptic species among metazoans. After correcting for currently known species richness and research effort per taxon, we find that cryptic species are over-reported in some taxa and under-reported in others. Although several taxa showing either a lack or an excess of reported cryptic species were poorly studied invertebrate groups, we found that cryptic species were over-reported in amphibians, reptiles and crustaceans, all relatively well-studied groups. The observed heterogeneity in the distribution of reported cryptic species may reflect taxon-specific properties affecting either the propensity for cryptic species to be formed or their likelihood of being detected by conventional taxonomy. Either way, the implications of cryptic diversity may not apply equally across all taxonomic groups. PMID:27555648

  13. Standing stock of deep-sea metazoan meiofauna in the Sulu Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimanaga, Motohiro; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Suetsugu, Kishiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Standing stocks of deep-sea metazoan meiofauna were investigated in the Sulu Sea, one of the most isolated marginal basins with comparably warm bottom-water temperatures (˜10 °C) at depths below 1000 m. A decline in the abundance and biomass of organisms with increasing water depth occurred in the basin, but the abundances at bathyal and abyssal sites in the Sulu Basin appeared to be lower than standard values worldwide when adjusted for water depth. There is no significant correlation between meiofaunal abundance and the concentration of chloroplastic pigment equivalents (CPE) in the sediment, an indicator of the amount of organic matter derived from primary production. The ratios of meiofaunal abundance to CPE concentration at the sampling sites were as small as those observed at comparable depths in the Red Sea. These suggest that the quantity of "food" is not a primary factor limiting the density of organisms in the basin. It is hypothesized that a higher respiratory activity of benthos caused by warm bottom water and a lower food quality could be important factors regulating the metazoan meiofaunal standing stocks in the Sulu Sea.

  14. Neuropeptides and epitheliopeptides: structural and functional diversity in an ancestral metazoan Hydra.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshio

    2013-06-01

    Peptides are known to play important developmental and physiological roles in signaling. The rich diversity of peptides, with functions as diverse as intercellular communication, neurotransmission and signaling that spatially and temporally controls axis formation and cell differentiation, hints at the wealth of information passed between interacting cells. Little is known about peptides that control developmental processes such as cell differentiation and pattern formation in metazoans. The cnidarian Hydra is one of the most basic metazoans and is a key model system for study of the peptides involved in these processes. We developed a novel peptidomic approach for the isolation and identification of functional peptide signaling molecules from Hydra (the Hydra Peptide Project). Over the course of this project, a wide variety of novel neuropeptides were identified. Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and their functions include induction of contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Moreover, epitheliopeptides that are produced by epithelial cells were originally identified in Hydra. Some of these epitheliopeptides exhibit morphogen-like activities, whereas others are involved in regulating neuron differentiation, possibly through neuron-epithelial cell interactions. We also describe below our high-throughput reverse-phase nano-flow LCMALDI- TOF-MS/MS approach, which has proved a powerful tool for the discovery of novel peptide signaling molecules in Hydra. PMID:23030717

  15. Pellet microfossils: Possible evidence for metazoan life in Early Proterozoic time

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Eleanora Iberall; Porter, Karen Glaus; Haberyan, Kurt A.

    1985-01-01

    Microfossils resembling fecal pellets occur in acid-resistant residues and thin sections of Middle Cambrian to Early Proterozoic shale. The cylindrical microfossils average 50 × 110 μm and are the size and shape of fecal pellets produced by microscopic animals today. Pellets occur in dark gray and black rocks that were deposited in the facies that also preserves sulfide minerals and that represent environments analogous to those that preserve fecal pellets today. Rocks containing pellets and algal microfossils range in age from 0.53 to 1.9 gigayears (Gyr) and include Burgess Shale, Greyson and Newland Formations, Rove Formation, and Gunflint Iron-Formation. Similar rock types of Archean age, ranging from 2.68 to 3.8 Gyr, were barren of pellets. If the Proterozoic microfossils are fossilized fecal pellets, they provide evidence of metazoan life and a complex food chain at 1.9 Gyr ago. This occurrence predates macroscopic metazoan body fossils in the Ediacaran System at 0.67 Gyr, animal trace fossils from 0.9 to 1.3 Gyr, and fossils of unicellular eukaryotic plankton at 1.4 Gyr. Images PMID:16593599

  16. Extensive conservation of ancient microsynteny across metazoans due to cis-regulatory constraints

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Manuel; Tena, Juan J.; Alexis, Maria S.; Fernandez-Miñan, Ana; Maeso, Ignacio; Bogdanović, Ozren; de la Calle-Mustienes, Elisa; Roy, Scott W.; Gómez-Skarmeta, José L.; Fraser, Hunter B.

    2012-01-01

    The order of genes in eukaryotic genomes has generally been assumed to be neutral, since gene order is largely scrambled over evolutionary time. Only a handful of exceptional examples are known, typically involving deeply conserved clusters of tandemly duplicated genes (e.g., Hox genes and histones). Here we report the first systematic survey of microsynteny conservation across metazoans, utilizing 17 genome sequences. We identified nearly 600 pairs of unrelated genes that have remained tightly physically linked in diverse lineages across over 600 million years of evolution. Integrating sequence conservation, gene expression data, gene function, epigenetic marks, and other genomic features, we provide extensive evidence that many conserved ancient linkages involve (1) the coordinated transcription of neighboring genes, or (2) genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs) in which transcriptional enhancers controlling developmental genes are contained within nearby bystander genes. In addition, we generated ChIP-seq data for key histone modifications in zebrafish embryos, which provided further evidence of putative GRBs in embryonic development. Finally, using chromosome conformation capture (3C) assays and stable transgenic experiments, we demonstrate that enhancers within bystander genes drive the expression of genes such as Otx and Islet, critical regulators of central nervous system development across bilaterians. These results suggest that ancient genomic functional associations are far more common than previously thought—involving ∼12% of the ancestral bilaterian genome—and that cis-regulatory constraints are crucial in determining metazoan genome architecture. PMID:22722344

  17. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  18. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    PubMed

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  19. sine oculis in basal Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Bebenek, Ilona G; Gates, Ruth D; Morris, Joshua; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K

    2004-07-01

    We report the recovery of homologs of Six1/2/sine oculis (so), a homeodomain-containing member of the Six-gene family, from a diverse set of basal Metazoa, including representatives of the poriferan classes Demospongia, Calcarea and Hexactinellida, the cnidarian classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa, as well as a ctenophore. so sequences were also recovered from a platyhelminth, an echiurid and two bivalve molluscs, members of the super-phyletic group Lophotrochozoa. In the case of the platyhelminth, multiple distinct so sequences were recovered, as well as a member of the related group Six4/5/D-Six4. Extended sequences of the so gene were recovered from the demosponge, Haliclona sp., and the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita via PCR, and 3' RACE. The affinities of all recovered sequences were assessed using a parsimony analysis based on both nucleic and amino acid sequence and using successive character weighting. Our results indicate that so is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Preliminary expression data for Aurelia reveal that transcripts of the so homolog are present in the manubrium as well as in the rhopalia, which contain the statocyst and eyes, in the free-swimming ephyra and juvenile stages of these jellyfish. PMID:15221378

  20. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  1. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  2. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  3. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  4. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  5. The Unicellular Ancestry of Groucho-Mediated Repression and the Origins of Metazoan Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Copley, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Groucho is a co-repressor that interacts with many transcription factors playing a crucial role in animal development. The evolutionary origins of Groucho are not clear. It is generally regarded as being a distinct animal-specific protein, although with similarities to the yeast Tup-like proteins. Here, it is shown that Groucho has true orthologs in unicellular relatives of animals. Based on their phylogenetic distribution, and an analysis of ligand-binding residues, these genes are unlikely to be orthologs of the fungal Tup-like genes. By identifying conserved candidate Groucho interaction motifs (GIMs) in nonmetazoan transcription factors, it is demonstrated that the details of molecular interactions between Groucho and transcription factors are likely to have been established prior to the origin of animals, but that the association of GIMs with many transcription factor types can be regarded as a metazoan innovation. PMID:27189982

  6. The Unicellular Ancestry of Groucho-Mediated Repression and the Origins of Metazoan Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Copley, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Groucho is a co-repressor that interacts with many transcription factors playing a crucial role in animal development. The evolutionary origins of Groucho are not clear. It is generally regarded as being a distinct animal-specific protein, although with similarities to the yeast Tup-like proteins. Here, it is shown that Groucho has true orthologs in unicellular relatives of animals. Based on their phylogenetic distribution, and an analysis of ligand-binding residues, these genes are unlikely to be orthologs of the fungal Tup-like genes. By identifying conserved candidate Groucho interaction motifs (GIMs) in nonmetazoan transcription factors, it is demonstrated that the details of molecular interactions between Groucho and transcription factors are likely to have been established prior to the origin of animals, but that the association of GIMs with many transcription factor types can be regarded as a metazoan innovation. PMID:27189982

  7. Non-autonomous consequences of cell death and other perks of being metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster remains a foremost genetic model to study basic cell biological processes in the context of multi-cellular development. In such context, the behavior of one cell can influence another. Non-autonomous signaling among cells occurs throughout metazoan development and disease, and is too vast to be covered by a single review. I will focus here on non-autonomous signaling events that occur in response to cell death in the larval epithelia and affect the life-death decision of surviving cells. I will summarize the use of Drosophila to study cell death-induced proliferation, apoptosis-induced apoptosis, and apoptosis-induced survival signaling. Key insights from Drosophila will be discussed in the context of analogous processes in mammalian development and cancer biology. PMID:26069889

  8. LRPPRC is a mitochondrial matrix protein that is conserved in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Sterky, Fredrik H; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Gustafsson, Claes M; Samuelsson, Tore; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2010-08-01

    LRPPRC (also called LRP130) is an RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat protein. LRPPRC has been recognized as a mitochondrial protein, but has also been shown to regulate nuclear gene transcription and to bind specific RNA molecules in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We here present a bioinformatic analysis of the LRPPRC primary sequence, which reveals that orthologs to the LRPPRC gene are restricted to metazoan cells and that all of the corresponding proteins contain mitochondrial targeting signals. To address the subcellular localization further, we have carefully analyzed LRPPRC in mammalian cells and identified a single isoform that is exclusively localized to mitochondria. The LRPPRC protein is imported to the mitochondrial matrix and its mitochondrial targeting sequence is cleaved upon entry. PMID:20633537

  9. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters.

    PubMed

    Hermida, M; Pereira, A; Correia, A T; Cruz, C; Saraiva, A

    2016-07-01

    Blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus, is a carangid fish which constitutes an important commercial resource in the north-east Atlantic. Its metazoan parasite community from Portuguese mainland waters was investigated here for the first time. Nine parasite taxa were found, most of which are common parasites of Trachurus spp. The parasite community was broadly similar to that of the Atlantic horse mackerel, T. trachurus, from the same region, but two digenean species were detected in blue jack mackerel, Monascus filiformis and Tergestia sp., which did not occur in horse mackerel from this region. A comparison with the two previous studies of T. picturatus parasite communities shows that continental-shelf regions are characterized by higher prevalences of digenean trematodes and an absence of trypanorhynch cestodes, in contrast with oceanic regions. PMID:26121918

  10. Metazoan parasite community of blue sea catfish, Sciades guatemalensis (Ariidae), from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Guerrero, Salvador Gil

    2009-10-01

    The seasonal dynamic of the metazoan parasite community of the blue sea catfish (Sciades guatemalensis) from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico, was studied at the component community and infracommunity levels. A total of 382 fish were collected during the regional dry and rainy seasons (a total of seven seasons) between April 2000 and September 2007. Nine helminths were collected: Neotetraonchus sp., Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum complanatum, Metadena sp., Pseudoleptorhynchoides lamothei, Neoechinorhynchus cf. golvani, Hysterothylacium perezi, and Contracaecum sp. The infection dynamics of some dominant helminths was influenced by environmental changes generated by the dry/rainy season cycle. Nested (non-random) species composition was observed in the infracommunities during almost all of the sample period. Variation in the intensity of nestedness was attributed to a sequential colonization process over time by the dominant helminths. PMID:19548005

  11. Methuselah/Methuselah-like G protein-coupled receptors constitute an ancient metazoan gene family

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Alexandre; Jones, Jeffery W.; Friedrich, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the phylogenetic age of the Methuselah/Methuselah-like (Mth/Mthl) gene family of G protein-coupled receptors, the founding member of which regulates development and lifespan in Drosophila. Here we report the results from a targeted homolog search of 39 holozoan genomes and phylogenetic analysis of the conserved seven transmembrane domain. Our findings reveal that the Mth/Mthl gene family is ancient, has experienced numerous extinction and expansion events during metazoan evolution, and acquired the current definition of the Methuselah ectodomain during its exceptional expansion in arthropods. In addition, our findings identify Mthl1, Mthl5, Mthl14, and Mthl15 as the oldest Mth/Mthl gene family paralogs in Drosophila. Future studies of these genes have the potential to define ancestral functions of the Mth/Mthl gene family. PMID:26915348

  12. Metazoan tRNA introns generate stable circular RNAs in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhipeng; Filonov, Grigory S.; Noto, John J.; Schmidt, Casey A.; Hatkevich, Talia L.; Wen, Ying; Jaffrey, Samie R.; Matera, A. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a class of abundant circular noncoding RNAs that are produced during metazoan tRNA splicing. These transcripts, termed tRNA intronic circular (tric)RNAs, are conserved features of animal transcriptomes. Biogenesis of tricRNAs requires anciently conserved tRNA sequence motifs and processing enzymes, and their expression is regulated in an age-dependent and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, we exploited this biogenesis pathway to develop an in vivo expression system for generating “designer” circular RNAs in human cells. Reporter constructs expressing RNA aptamers such as Spinach and Broccoli can be used to follow the transcription and subcellular localization of tricRNAs in living cells. Owing to the superior stability of circular vs. linear RNA isoforms, this expression system has a wide range of potential applications, from basic research to pharmaceutical science. PMID:26194134

  13. Diversity of symbioses between chemosynthetic bacteria and metazoans at the Guiness cold seep site (Gulf of Guinea, West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Duperron, Sébastien; Rodrigues, Clara F; Léger, Nelly; Szafranski, Kamil; Decker, Carole; Olu, Karine; Gaudron, Sylvie M

    2012-01-01

    Fauna from deep-sea cold seeps worldwide is dominated by chemosymbiotic metazoans. Recently, investigation of new sites in the Gulf of Guinea yielded numerous new species for which symbiosis was strongly suspected. In this study, symbioses are characterized in five seep-specialist metazoans recently collected from the Guiness site located at ∼600 m depth. Four bivalve and one annelid species belonging to families previously documented to harbor chemosynthetic bacteria were investigated using bacterial marker gene sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and stable isotope analyses. Results support that all five species display chemosynthetic, sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria. Bacteria are abundant in the gills of bivalves, and in the trophosome of the siboglinid annelid. As observed for their relatives occurring at deeper sites, chemoautotrophy is a major source of carbon for animal nutrition. Although symbionts found in each host species are related to symbionts found in other metazoans from the same families, several incongruencies are observed among phylogenetic trees obtained from the different bacterial genes, suggesting a certain level of heterogeneity in symbiont strains present. Results provide new insights into the diversity, biogeography, and role of symbiotic bacteria in metazoans from the Gulf of Guinea, at a site located at an intermediate depth between the continental shelf and the deep sea. PMID:23233246

  14. GCM Simulations of Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" Conditions: Implications for the Environmental Limits on Terrestrial Metazoans and Their Extraterrestrial Analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth intervals provide excellent opportunities to examine the environmental limits on terrestrial metazoans. A series of GCM simulations was run in order to quantify climatic conditions during these intervals. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Extensive metazoan reefs from the Ediacaran Nama Group, Namibia: the rise of benthic suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Wood, R; Curtis, A

    2015-03-01

    We describe new, ecologically complex reef types from the Ediacaran Nama Group, Namibia, dated at ~548 million years ago (Ma), where the earliest known skeletal metazoans, Cloudina riemkeae and Namacalathus, formed extensive reefs up to 20 m in height and width. C. riemkeae formed densely aggregating assemblages associated with microbialite and thrombolite, each from 30 to 100 mm high, which successively colonised former generations to create stacked laminar or columnar reef frameworks. C. riemkeae individuals show budding, multiple, radiating attachment sites and cementation between individuals. Isolated Namacalathus either intergrew with C. riemkeae or formed dense, monospecific aggregations succeeding C. riemkeae frameworks, providing a potential example of environmentally mediated ecological succession. Cloudina and Namacalathus also grow cryptically, either as pendent aggregations from laminar crypt ceilings in microbial framework reefs or as clusters associated with thrombolite attached to neptunian dyke walls. These reefs are notable for their size, exceeding that of the succeeding Lower Cambrian archaeocyath-microbial communities. The repeated colonisation shown by C. riemkeae of former assemblages implies philopatric larval aggregation to colonise limited favourable substrates. As such, not only were skeletal metazoans more important contributors to reef building in the Ediacaran, but there were also more variable reef types with more complex ecologies, than previously thought. Such an abundance of inferred suspension feeders with biomineralised skeletons indicates the efficient exploitation of new resources, more active carbon removal with a strengthened energy flow between planktic and benthic realms, and the rise of biological control over benthic carbonate production. These mark the prelude to the Cambrian Explosion and the modernisation of the global carbon cycle. PMID:25556318

  16. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing) loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians). The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i) rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii) compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa. PMID:20836842

  17. Phylogenetic and Biological Significance of Evolutionary Elements from Metazoan Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianbo; Zhu, Qingming; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary history of living species is usually inferred through the phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological information using various mathematical models. New challenges in phylogenetic analysis are centered mostly on the search for accurate and efficient methods to handle the huge amounts of sequence data generated from newer genome sequencing. The next major challenge is the determination of relationships between the evolution of structural elements and their functional implementation, which is largely ignored in previous analyses. Here, we described the discovery of structural elements in metazoan mitochondrial genomes, termed key K-strings, that can serve as a basis for phylogenetic tree construction. Although comprising only a small fraction (0.73%) of all K-strings, these key K-strings are pivotal to the tree construction because they allow for a significant reduction in the computational time required to construct phylogenetic trees, and more importantly, they make significant improvement to the results of phylogenetic inference. The trees constructed from the key K-strings were consistent overall to our current view of metazoan phylogeny and exhibited a more rational topology than the trees constructed by using other conventional methods. Surprisingly, the key K-strings tended to accumulate in the conserved regions of the original sequences, which were most likely due to strong selection pressure. Furthermore, the special structural features of the key K-strings should have some potential applications in the study of the structures and functions relationship of proteins and in the determination of evolutionary trajectory of species. The novelty and potential importance of key K-strings lead us to believe that they are essential evolutionary elements. As such, they may play important roles in the process of species evolution and their physical existence. Further studies could lead to discoveries regarding the relationship between

  18. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  19. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  20. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  1. Thermodynamic significance of human basal metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuncheng

    1993-06-01

    The human basal state, a non-equilibrium steady state, is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified. The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  2. Characterization of the micrites in the Late Miocene vermetid carbonate bioconstructions, Salento Peninsula, Italy: Record of a microbial/metazoan association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, A.; Vescogni, A.; Mastandrea, A.; Demasi, F.; Tosti, F.; Naccarato, A.; Tagarelli, A.; Russo, F.

    2012-07-01

    Small carbonate bioconstructions, composed of micrite and vermetids, occur in the Salento Peninsula (southern Italy) at the base of the reefal early Messinian Novaglie Formation. These lens-shaped bioconstructions are tens of meters in length and up to 2.5 m in thickness, and crop out patchily along the South-Eastern Salento coast line. Micrite is the most abundant component. Its origin and role in this association have been investigated by means of microfacies, epifluorescence, and organic matter analyses. Three different types of micrite were recognized: (I) not/weakly fluorescent detrital micrite with a few fine bioclasts; (II) fluorescent micrite rich in fine bioclasts; (III) fluorescent clotted peloidal micrite (automicrite). The first type of micrite, mainly present in the basal layer of the carbonate bioconstructions surrounds vermetids in life position. The type (II) and type (III) micrites occur in the overlying deposits, characterized by sub-horizontally isooriented vermetid shells. The high fluorescence of the type (II) and (III) micrite can be related to organic matter derived respectively from decaying metazoan and microbial organisms. Twofold organic matter origin was supported by FT-IR and GC-MS analyses, carried out on the extracted organic matter. Micrite (I) shows very low intensity of organic matter functional groups, confirming its abiotic origin. The spectra of the automicrite (III) are characterized by the presence of stretching C=C vibrations attributable to alkene and/or unsaturated carboxylic acids, that may be synthesized by microbes. GC-MS investigations indicate the presence of extended hopane series, straight chain saturated (C14, Cl6), monounsaturated (C16, C18), and diunsaturated Cl8-acids, diagnostic of microbial activity. Microbial communities appear to have played a prominent role in the deposition and stabilization of Salento micrite-vermetid carbonate bioconstructions. The type (III) micrite, classifiable as microbialite or

  3. Evolution of a family of metazoan active-site-serine enzymes from penicillin-binding proteins: a novel facet of the bacterial legacy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and β-lactamases (PBP-βLs) constitute a large family of serine proteases that perform essential functions in the synthesis and maintenance of peptidoglycan. Intriguingly, genes encoding PBP-βL homologs occur in many metazoan genomes including humans. The emerging role of LACTB, a mammalian mitochondrial PBP-βL homolog, in metabolic signaling prompted us to investigate the evolutionary history of metazoan PBP-βL proteins. Results Metazoan PBP-βL homologs including LACTB share unique structural features with bacterial class B low molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins. The amino acid residues necessary for enzymatic activity in bacterial PBP-βL proteins, including the catalytic serine residue, are conserved in all metazoan homologs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that metazoan PBP-βL homologs comprise four alloparalogus protein lineages that derive from α-proteobacteria. Conclusion While most components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery were dumped by early eukaryotes, a few PBP-βL proteins were conserved and are found in metazoans including humans. Metazoan PBP-βL homologs are active-site-serine enzymes that probably have distinct functions in the metabolic circuitry. We hypothesize that PBP-βL proteins in the early eukaryotic cell enabled the degradation of peptidoglycan from ingested bacteria, thereby maximizing the yield of nutrients and streamlining the cell for effective phagocytotic feeding. PMID:18226203

  4. Functional Characterization of Cnidarian HCN Channels Points to an Early Evolution of Ih

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Emma C.; Layden, Michael J.; van Rossum, Damian B.; Kamel, Bishoy; Medina, Monica; Simpson, Eboni; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence. We functionally characterized two HCN channel orthologs from Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) to determine which properties of HCN channels were established prior to the emergence of bilaterians. We find Nematostella HCN channels share all the major functional features of bilaterian HCNs, including reversed voltage-dependence, activation by cAMP and PIP2, and block by extracellular Cs+. Thus bilaterian-like HCN channels were already present in the common parahoxozoan ancestor of bilaterians and cnidarians, at a time when the functional diversity of voltage-gated K+ channels was rapidly expanding. NvHCN1 and NvHCN2 are expressed broadly in planulae and in both the endoderm and ectoderm of juvenile polyps. PMID:26555239

  5. Functional Characterization of Cnidarian HCN Channels Points to an Early Evolution of Ih.

    PubMed

    Baker, Emma C; Layden, Michael J; van Rossum, Damian B; Kamel, Bishoy; Medina, Monica; Simpson, Eboni; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence. We functionally characterized two HCN channel orthologs from Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) to determine which properties of HCN channels were established prior to the emergence of bilaterians. We find Nematostella HCN channels share all the major functional features of bilaterian HCNs, including reversed voltage-dependence, activation by cAMP and PIP2, and block by extracellular Cs+. Thus bilaterian-like HCN channels were already present in the common parahoxozoan ancestor of bilaterians and cnidarians, at a time when the functional diversity of voltage-gated K+ channels was rapidly expanding. NvHCN1 and NvHCN2 are expressed broadly in planulae and in both the endoderm and ectoderm of juvenile polyps. PMID:26555239

  6. Plant basal resistance to nematodes: an update.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Julia; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2016-03-01

    Most plant-parasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs feeding on the roots of their hosts. Whereas ectoparasites remain on the root surface and feed on the outer cell layers, endoparasitic nematodes enter the host to parasitize cells around or within the central cylinder. Nematode invasion and feeding causes tissue damage which may, in turn, lead to the activation of host basal defence responses. Hitherto, research interests in plant-nematode interaction have emphasized effector-triggered immunity rather than basal plant defence responses. However, some recent investigations suggest that basal defence pathways are not only activated but also play an important role in determining interaction outcomes. In this review we discuss the major findings and point out future directions to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying plant basal defence to nematodes further. PMID:26842982

  7. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  8. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa V.; Labbok, Miriam H.; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity. PMID:17578664

  9. Reassessing Domain Architecture Evolution of Metazoan Proteins: Major Impact of Gene Prediction Errors

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Alinda; Szláma, György; Szarka, Eszter; Trexler, Mária; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that appearance of novel protein domain architectures (DA) is closely associated with biological innovations, there is a growing interest in the genome-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the domain architectures of multidomain proteins. In such analyses, however, it is usually ignored that a significant proportion of Metazoan sequences analyzed is mispredicted and that this may seriously affect the validity of the conclusions. To estimate the contribution of errors in gene prediction to differences in DA of predicted proteins, we have used the high quality manually curated UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database as a reference. For genome-scale analysis of domain architectures of predicted proteins we focused on RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted sequences of Metazoan species with completely sequenced genomes. Comparison of the DA of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences of worm, fly, zebrafish, frog, chick, mouse, rat and orangutan with those of human Swiss-Prot entries have identified relatively few cases where orthologs had different DA, although the percentage with different DA increased with evolutionary distance. In contrast with this, comparison of the DA of human, orangutan, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, worm and fly RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with those of the corresponding/orthologous human Swiss-Prot entries identified a significantly higher proportion of domain architecture differences than in the case of the comparison of Swiss-Prot entries. Analysis of RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with DAs different from those of their Swiss-Prot orthologs confirmed that the higher rate of domain architecture differences is due to errors in gene prediction, the majority of which could be corrected with our FixPred protocol. We have also demonstrated that contamination of databases with incomplete, abnormal or mispredicted sequences introduces a bias in DA

  10. Reassessing domain architecture evolution of metazoan proteins: major impact of gene prediction errors.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alinda; Szláma, György; Szarka, Eszter; Trexler, Mária; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that appearance of novel protein domain architectures (DA) is closely associated with biological innovations, there is a growing interest in the genome-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the domain architectures of multidomain proteins. In such analyses, however, it is usually ignored that a significant proportion of Metazoan sequences analyzed is mispredicted and that this may seriously affect the validity of the conclusions. To estimate the contribution of errors in gene prediction to differences in DA of predicted proteins, we have used the high quality manually curated UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database as a reference. For genome-scale analysis of domain architectures of predicted proteins we focused on RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted sequences of Metazoan species with completely sequenced genomes. Comparison of the DA of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences of worm, fly, zebrafish, frog, chick, mouse, rat and orangutan with those of human Swiss-Prot entries have identified relatively few cases where orthologs had different DA, although the percentage with different DA increased with evolutionary distance. In contrast with this, comparison of the DA of human, orangutan, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, worm and fly RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with those of the corresponding/orthologous human Swiss-Prot entries identified a significantly higher proportion of domain architecture differences than in the case of the comparison of Swiss-Prot entries. Analysis of RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with DAs different from those of their Swiss-Prot orthologs confirmed that the higher rate of domain architecture differences is due to errors in gene prediction, the majority of which could be corrected with our FixPred protocol. We have also demonstrated that contamination of databases with incomplete, abnormal or mispredicted sequences introduces a bias in DA

  11. Conservation of the positions of metazoan introns from sponges to humans.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Böhm, Markus; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Skorokhod, Alexander; Müller, Isabel M; Gamulin, Vera

    2002-08-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are the phylogenetic oldest Metazoa still extant. They can be considered as reference animals (Urmetazoa) for the understanding of the evolutionary processes resulting in the creation of Metazoa in general and also for the metazoan gene organization in particular. In the marine sponge Suberites domuncula, genes encoding p38 and JNK kinases contain nine and twelve introns, respectively. Eight introns in both genes share the same positions and the identical phases. One p38 intron slipped for six bases and the JNK gene has three more introns. However, the sequences of the introns are not conserved and the introns in JNK gene are generally much longer. Introns interrupt most of the conserved kinase subdomains I-XI and are found in all three phases (0, 1 and 2). We analyzed in details p38 and JNK genes from human, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster and found in most genes introns at the positions identical to those in sponge genes. The exceptions are two p38 genes from D. melanogaster that have lost all introns in the coding sequence. The positions of 11 introns in each of four human p38 genes are fully conserved and ten introns occupy identical positions as the introns in sponge p38 or JNK genes. The same is true for nine, out of ten introns in the human JNK-1 gene. The introns in human p38 and JNK genes are on average more than ten times longer than corresponding introns in sponges. It was proposed that yeast HOG1-like kinases (from i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Emericella nidulans) and metazoan p38 and JNK kinases are orthologues. p38 and JNK genes were created after the split from fungi by the duplication and diversification of the HOG1-like progenitor gene. Our results further support the common origin of p38 and JNK genes and speak in favor of a very early time of duplication. The ancestral gene contained at least ten introns, which are still present at the very conserved positions in p38 and JNK genes of extant

  12. A fragmented metazoan organellar genome: the two mitochondrial chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Oliver; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial (mt) genomes are characteristically circular molecules of ~16–20 kb. Medusozoa (Cnidaria excluding Anthozoa) are exceptional in that their mt genomes are linear and sometimes subdivided into two to presumably four different molecules. In the genus Hydra, the mt genome comprises one or two mt chromosomes. Here, we present the whole mt genome sequence from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata, comprising the first sequence of a fragmented metazoan mt genome encoded on two linear mt chromosomes (mt1 and mt2). Results The H. magnipapillata mt chromosomes contain the typical metazoan set of 13 genes for respiratory proteins, the two rRNA genes and two tRNA genes. All genes are unidirectionally oriented on mt1 and mt2, and several genes overlap. The gene arrangement suggests that the two mt chromosomes originated from one linear molecule that separated between nd5 and rns. Strong correlations between the AT content of rRNA genes (rns and rnl) and the AT content of protein-coding genes among 24 cnidarian genomes imply that base composition is mainly determined by mt genome-wide constraints. We show that identical inverted terminal repeats (ITR) occur on both chromosomes; these ITR contain a partial copy or part of the 3' end of cox1 (54 bp). Additionally, both mt chromosomes possess identical oriented sequences (IOS) at the 5' and 3' ends (5' and 3' IOS) adjacent to the ITR. The 5' IOS contains trnM and non-coding sequences (119 bp), whereas the 3' IOS comprises a larger part (mt2) with a larger partial copy of cox1 (243 bp). Conclusion ITR are also documented in the two other available medusozoan mt genomes (Aurelia aurita and Hydra oligactis). In H. magnipapillata, the arrangement of ITR and 5' IOS and 3' IOS suggest that these regions are crucial for mt DNA replication and/or transcription initiation. An analogous organization occurs in a highly fragmented ichthyosporean mt genome. With our data, we can reject a model of mt replication

  13. How do environmental factors influence life cycles and development? An experimental framework for early-diverging metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Adamska, Maja; Augustin, René; Domazet-Loso, Tomislav; Foret, Sylvain; Fraune, Sebastian; Funayama, Noriko; Grasis, Juris; Hamada, Mayuko; Hatta, Masayuki; Hobmayer, Bert; Kawai, Kotoe; Klimovich, Alexander; Manuel, Michael; Shinzato, Chuya; Technau, Uli; Yum, Seungshic; Miller, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological developmental biology (eco-devo) explores the mechanistic relationships between the processes of individual development and environmental factors. Recent studies imply that some of these relationships have deep evolutionary origins, and may even predate the divergences of the simplest extant animals, including cnidarians and sponges. Development of these early diverging metazoans is often sensitive to environmental factors, and these interactions occur in the context of conserved signaling pathways and mechanisms of tissue homeostasis whose detailed molecular logic remain elusive. Efficient methods for transgenesis in cnidarians together with the ease of experimental manipulation in cnidarians and sponges make them ideal models for understanding causal relationships between environmental factors and developmental mechanisms. Here, we identify major questions at the interface between animal evolution and development and outline a road map for research aimed at identifying the mechanisms that link environmental factors to developmental mechanisms in early diverging metazoans. PMID:25205353

  14. Living on a volcano's edge: genetic isolation of an extremophile terrestrial metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, L; Montiel, R; Novo, M; Orozco-terWengel, P; Rodrigues, A; Morgan, A J; Kille, P

    2014-01-01

    Communities of organisms inhabiting extreme terrestrial environments provide a unique opportunity to study evolutionary forces that drive population structure and genetic diversity under the combined challenges posed by multiple geogenic stressors. High abundance of an invasive pantropical earthworm (and the absence of indigenous lumbricid species) in the Furnas geothermal field (Sao Miguel Island, Azores) indicates its remarkable tolerance to high soil temperature, exceptionally high carbon dioxide and low oxygen levels, and elevated metal bioavailability, conditions which are lethal for the majority of terrestrial metazoans. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were used to analyze the relationship between populations living inside and outside the geothermal field. Results showed that Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Glossoscolecidae) to be a genetically heterogeneous complex within the Sao Miguel landscape and is probably differentiated into cryptic species. The population exposed to the hostile soil conditions within the volcanic caldera possesses the lowest within-population mitochondrial diversity but an unexpectedly high degree of nuclear variability with several loci evidencing positive selection, parameters indicative of a genetically unique population only distantly related to conspecifics living outside the caldera. In conclusion, P. corethrurus inhabiting active volcanic soil is a discrete extremophile population that has evolved by tolerating a mixture of non-anthropogenic chemical and physical stressors. PMID:24045291

  15. Cleavage patterns and the topology of the metazoan tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Several major alliances of metazoan phyla have been identified by small subunit rRNA sequence comparisons. It is possible to arrange the phyla to produce a parsimonious distribution of cleavage types, requiring only one change from a radial ancestral condition to spiral cleavage and one other to “idiosyncratic” cleavage; this arrangement is consistent with most of the recent molecular phylogenies. The cleavage shifts are correlated with changes in many of the features that once were used to distinguish Protostomia and Deuterostomia. It is hypothesized that changes in cleavage direction are causally associated with changes in blastomere fates and thus that cleavage type correlates with such features as the identity of mesoderm founder cells, which in turn can constrain the mode of origination of the eucelom. Cleavage changes may also affect the timing of cell fate specification. In a tree that emphasizes cleavage parsimony, radial cleavage, regulative development, and enterocely are ancestral within the Bilateria, and spiral or idiosyncratic cleavages, mosaic development, and schizocely are associated with a change in cleavage direction. Deuterostomy is presumably ancestral and is correlated with radial cleavage for this reason, rather than mechanistically. PMID:9223303

  16. Metazoan parasites from herring (Clupea harengus L.) as biological indicators in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Klimpel, Sven; Lang, Thomas; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Zoographical distribution of metazoan fish parasites in herring, Clupea harengus, from the Baltic Sea was analysed in order to use them as potential biological indicators. A total of 210 herring from six different sampling sites were investigated, harbouring 12 different parasite species [five digeneans (D), one cestode (C), three nematodes (N) and three acanthocephalans (A)]. The distribution of the parasite species differed according to region, with a distinct gradient of decreasing species richness towards the east of the Baltic Sea. The western localities at Kiel Bay, Rügen and Poland had the highest parasite diversity, including the marine parasite species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) (N), Brachyphallus crenatus and Hemiurus luehei (both D). The eastern localities had low parasite species richness, predominated by the freshwater digenean Diplostomum spathaceum. We could identify three different Baltic herring stocks, the spring-spawning herring of the western Baltic reaching from the Kattegat to the German and Polish coast, the stock of the central Baltic proper and the northern stock of C. harengus var. membras of the Gulf of Finland. The limited distribution of the herring parasites within the Baltic Sea enables their use as biological indicators for migration patterns and stock separation. The acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis that has already been used as an accumulation bioindicator for heavy metals was only recorded for the western herring stocks. However, the presence of mainly generalistic parasites and their uneven distribution patterns make their use as indicators for regional environmental and global change more difficult. PMID:25119368

  17. Fungal Rtt109 Histone Acetyltransferase is an Unexpected Structural Homolog of Metazoan p300/CBP

    SciTech Connect

    Tang,Y.; Holbert, M.; Wurtele, H.; Meeth, K.; Rocha, W.; Gharib, M.; Jiang, E.; Thibault, P.; Verreault, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Rtt109, also known as KAT11, is a recently characterized fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that modifies histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) to promote genome stability. Rtt109 does not show sequence conservation with other known HATs and depends on association with either of two histone chaperones, Asf1 or Vps75, for HAT activity. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of an Rtt109-acetyl coenzyme A complex and carry out structure-based mutagenesis, combined with in vitro biochemical studies of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex and studies of Rtt109 function in vivo. The Rtt109 structure reveals noteworthy homology to the metazoan p300/CBP HAT domain but exhibits functional divergence, including atypical catalytic properties and mode of cofactor regulation. The structure reveals a buried autoacetylated lysine residue that we show is also acetylated in the Rtt109 protein purified from yeast cells. Implications for understanding histone substrate and chaperone binding by Rtt109 are discussed.

  18. Living on a volcano's edge: genetic isolation of an extremophile terrestrial metazoan.

    PubMed

    Cunha, L; Montiel, R; Novo, M; Orozco-terWengel, P; Rodrigues, A; Morgan, A J; Kille, P

    2014-02-01

    Communities of organisms inhabiting extreme terrestrial environments provide a unique opportunity to study evolutionary forces that drive population structure and genetic diversity under the combined challenges posed by multiple geogenic stressors. High abundance of an invasive pantropical earthworm (and the absence of indigenous lumbricid species) in the Furnas geothermal field (Sao Miguel Island, Azores) indicates its remarkable tolerance to high soil temperature, exceptionally high carbon dioxide and low oxygen levels, and elevated metal bioavailability, conditions which are lethal for the majority of terrestrial metazoans. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were used to analyze the relationship between populations living inside and outside the geothermal field. Results showed that Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Glossoscolecidae) to be a genetically heterogeneous complex within the Sao Miguel landscape and is probably differentiated into cryptic species. The population exposed to the hostile soil conditions within the volcanic caldera possesses the lowest within-population mitochondrial diversity but an unexpectedly high degree of nuclear variability with several loci evidencing positive selection, parameters indicative of a genetically unique population only distantly related to conspecifics living outside the caldera. In conclusion, P. corethrurus inhabiting active volcanic soil is a discrete extremophile population that has evolved by tolerating a mixture of non-anthropogenic chemical and physical stressors. PMID:24045291

  19. Ernst Haeckel's discovery of Magosphaera planula: a vestige of metazoan origins?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew; Hülsmann, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    In September of 1869, while studying sponges off the Norwegian island of Gisoe, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) discovered a tiny, flagellated ball-shaped organism swimming about in his samples. Appearing first to be the planula larva of an invertebrate marine animal further observation revealed it to be a colony of flagellated cells with a complex life cycle transitioning between multicellular and single-cell stages and several distinct forms of protozoa. Haeckel named it Magosphaera planula (the "magician's ball") and it eventually assumed a central role in his theories of animal evolution, appearing as the modern exemplar of the blastaea stage in his gastraea theory of metazoan evolution. Throughout the latter half of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth it was an object of considerable scientific interest, and yet it was only ever observed by Haeckel himself and then only the once. Eventually it faded altogether from scientific discussion. This paper traces the rise and fall of Magosphaera as an important epistemic object in the theories of Haeckel and other biologists, and an attempt is made to identify what exactly the organism (or organisms!) was that Haeckel observed in the fall of 1869. PMID:19579709

  20. Metazoan meiofauna within the oxygen-minimum zone off Chile: Results of the 2001-PUCK expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Gerdes, Dieter; Quiroga, Eduardo; Hebbeln, Dierk; Sellanes, Javier

    2009-07-01

    A quantitative study of metazoan meiofauna was carried out at continental shelf and slope stations affected by the oxygen-minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific off Chile. Densities of meiobenthos at the investigated stations off Antofagasta (22°S), Concepción (36°S), and Chiloé (42°S) ranged from 1282.1 to 8847.8 ind 10 cm -2. Oxygen deficiency led only to average abundances, despite higher food availability and freshness at the corresponding sites. Sediment organic carbon, chlorophyll- a, and phaeopigment contents were used as measures of the input from water-column primary production, which accumulated at the oxygen-minimum zone stations. The highest abundances were found at a station with an oxygen content of 0.79 mL L -1, which was slightly elevated from what is defined as oxygen minimum (0.5 mL L -1). The most oxygenated site yielded the lowest densities. Meiofauna assemblages became more diverse with increasing bottom-water oxygenation, whereas nematodes were the most abundant taxon at every station, followed by annelids, copepods, and nauplii.

  1. Composition and diversity patterns in metazoan parasite communities and anthropogenic disturbance in stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, A D; Bunnell, J F; Sukhdeo, M V K

    2007-01-01

    The composition and diversity of metazoan parasite communities in naturally depauperate ecosystems are rarely studied. This study describes the composition of helminth endoparasite communities infecting fish that are part of naturally acidic stream ecosystems in the coastal-plains region of the State of New Jersey (USA) known as the Pinelands, and compares the diversity of parasites between six streams that differ in anthropogenic disturbance. A total of 514 fish were examined representing 6 species native but restricted to the Pinelands region, 5 species native and widespread throughout the region and State, and 6 species introduced to the Pinelands and State. Fish (prevalence: 78%) were infected with 18 helminth endoparasite species. In most streams, prevalence of infection, mean abundance, and total number of individuals for the 5 most common parasites were higher in pirate perch, a native fish species. The diversity of helminth endoparasite communities measured as species richness and Shannon index was higher in degraded streams, and especially in native or introduced fish at these sites. Parasite diversity was positively correlated with anthropogenic disturbance, which was measured by water pH, water conductance, and the proportion of agricultural and developed land surrounding streams. Helminth community composition included parasites intimately tied to trophic interactions in food webs, and disturbance to these ecosystems results in changes to these communities. Understanding structure and function of animal communities from these naturally depauperate ecosystems is important before continued anthropogenic changes result in the extirpation or extinction of their unique fauna. PMID:17032473

  2. Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, Brad J.; Costello, John H.; Colin, Sean P.; Stewart, Colin J.; Dabiri, John O.; Tafti, Danesh; Priya, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton populations are well known for their ability to take over perturbed ecosystems. The ability of these animals to outcompete and functionally replace fish that exhibit an effective visual predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mechanism of passive energy recapture, which is exploited to allow them to travel 30% further each swimming cycle, thereby reducing metabolic energy demand by swimming muscles. By accounting for large interspecific differences in net metabolic rates, we demonstrate, contrary to prevailing views, that the jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) is one of the most energetically efficient propulsors on the planet, exhibiting a cost of transport (joules per kilogram per meter) lower than other metazoans. We estimate that reduced metabolic demand by passive energy recapture improves the cost of transport by 48%, allowing jellyfish to achieve the large sizes required for sufficient prey encounters. Pressure calculations, using both computational fluid dynamics and a newly developed method from empirical velocity field measurements, demonstrate that this extra thrust results from positive pressure created by a vortex ring underneath the bell during the refilling phase of swimming. These results demonstrate a physical basis for the ecological success of medusan swimmers despite their simple body plan. Results from this study also have implications for bioinspired design, where low-energy propulsion is required. PMID:24101461

  3. Distinctive features of cilia in metazoans and their significance for systematics.

    PubMed

    Tyler, S

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of epidermal cilia in the Turbellaria and Nemertea has revealed features in these organelles that are specific to certain taxonomic groups. Turbellarians of the order Acoela, in particular, have a characteristic pattern of axonemal filament termination in the distal tips of their cilia and a characteristic ciliary rootlet system that is not seen in other turbellarian orders nor in other metazoans. Each epidermal cilium in acoels has a typical 9 + 2 axonemal pattern through the main part of its length, but near its distal tip there is an abrupt shelf-life narrowing at which filaments 4-7 terminate; filaments 1, 2, 8 and 9 continue into the thinner distal-most part of the shaft along with singlet microtubules from the axonemal center. The rootlet system in acoel cilia involves an interconnecting pattern with lateral connectives. The unique structure of these cilia has systematic and phylogenetic significance for the Acoela, and it is argued that ultrastructural characters in general, including characters of organelles, can be validly applied to the phylogeny and systematics of the Metazoa. PMID:494232

  4. Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, Brad J; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P; Stewart, Colin J; Dabiri, John O; Tafti, Danesh; Priya, Shashank

    2013-10-29

    Gelatinous zooplankton populations are well known for their ability to take over perturbed ecosystems. The ability of these animals to outcompete and functionally replace fish that exhibit an effective visual predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mechanism of passive energy recapture, which is exploited to allow them to travel 30% further each swimming cycle, thereby reducing metabolic energy demand by swimming muscles. By accounting for large interspecific differences in net metabolic rates, we demonstrate, contrary to prevailing views, that the jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) is one of the most energetically efficient propulsors on the planet, exhibiting a cost of transport (joules per kilogram per meter) lower than other metazoans. We estimate that reduced metabolic demand by passive energy recapture improves the cost of transport by 48%, allowing jellyfish to achieve the large sizes required for sufficient prey encounters. Pressure calculations, using both computational fluid dynamics and a newly developed method from empirical velocity field measurements, demonstrate that this extra thrust results from positive pressure created by a vortex ring underneath the bell during the refilling phase of swimming. These results demonstrate a physical basis for the ecological success of medusan swimmers despite their simple body plan. Results from this study also have implications for bioinspired design, where low-energy propulsion is required. PMID:24101461

  5. 5S rRNA sequences from four marine invertebrates and implications for base pairing models of metazoan sequences.

    PubMed

    Walker, W F; Doolittle, W F

    1983-08-11

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from the starfish Asterias vulgaris, the squid Illex illecebrosus, the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii and the jellyfish Aurelia aurita were determined. The sequence from Asterias lends support for one of two previous base pairing models for helix E in metazoan sequences. The Aurelia sequence differs by five nucleotides from that previously reported and does not violate the consensus secondary structure model for eukaryotic 5S rRNA. PMID:6136024

  6. Schwann cell basal lamina and nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ide, C; Tohyama, K; Yokota, R; Nitatori, T; Onodera, S

    1983-12-12

    Nerve segments approximately 7 mm long were excised from the predegenerated sciatic nerves of mice, and treated 5 times by repetitive freezing and thawing to kill the Schwann cells. Such treated nerve segments were grafted into the original places so as to be in contact with the proximal stumps. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after the grafting. The grafts were examined by electron microscopy in the middle part of the graft, i.e. 3-4 mm distal to the proximal end and/or near the proximal and distal ends of the graft. In other instances, the predegenerated nerve segments were minced with a razor blade after repetitive freezing and thawing. Such minced nerves were placed in contact with the proximal stumps of the same nerves. The animals were sacrificed 10 days after the grafting. Within 1-2 days after grafting, the dead Schwann cells had disintegrated into fragments. They were then gradually phagocytosed by macrophages. The basal laminae of Schwann cells, which were not attacked by macrophages, remained as empty tubes (basal lamina scaffolds). In the grafts we examined, no Schwann cells survived the freezing and thawing process. The regenerating axons always grew out through such basal lamina scaffolds, being in contact with the inner surface of the basal lamina (i.e. the side originally facing the Schwann cell plasma membrane). No axons were found outside of the scaffolds. One to two days after grafting, the regenerating axons were not associated with Schwann cells, but after 5-7 days they were accompanied by Schwann cells which were presumed to be migrating along axons from the proximal stumps. Ten days after grafting, proliferating Schwann cells observed in the middle part of the grafts had begun to sort out axons. In the grafts of minced nerves, the fragmented basal laminae of the Schwann cells re-arranged themselves into thicker strands or small aggregations of basal laminae. The regenerating axons, without exception, attached to one side

  7. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  8. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Protein Expression in Basal Cell Adenomas and Basal Cell Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tesdahl, Brennan A; Wilson, Thomas C; Hoffman, Henry T; Robinson, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell adenomas and basal cell adenocarcinomas show marked histomorphologic similarity and are separated microscopically primarily by the invasive characteristics of the adenocarcinomas. We wished to explore potential differences in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated proteins in these two tumor types. A tissue microarray was constructed utilizing 29 basal cell adenomas and 16 basal cell adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, Twist 1 and vimentin were investigated. Both tumors expressed all proteins in a relatively similar manner. Nuclear beta-catenin was essentially limited to the abluminal cell populations in both tumor types. E-cadherin was limited largely to luminal locations but was more prevalent in the adenocarcinomas as compared to the adenomas. Primarily abluminal expression for vimentin was seen, sometimes present in an apical dot-like pattern. Distinct populations of cellular expression of these four markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition were present but were similar in locations in both tumors with no patterns discerned to separate basal cell adenoma from basal cell adenocarcinoma. Given these findings, the mechanisms by which basal cell adenocarcinoma is able to invade while its counterpart, basal cell adenoma can not, may be more complex than in other tumor types. PMID:26442856

  9. Shaping Action Sequences in Basal Ganglia Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Costa, Rui M

    2015-01-01

    Many behaviors necessary for organism survival are learned anew and become organized as complex sequences of actions. Recent studies suggest that cortico-basal ganglia circuits are important for chunking isolated movements into precise and robust action sequences that permit the achievement of particular goals. During sequence learning many neurons in the basal ganglia develop sequence-related activity - related to the initiation, execution, and termination of sequences - suggesting that action sequences are processed as action units. Corticostriatal plasticity is critical for the crystallization of action sequences, and for the development of sequence-related neural activity. Furthermore, this sequence-related activity is differentially expressed in direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the symptoms associated with movement and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26189204

  10. Can basal magma oceans generate magnetic fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D. R.; Ziegler, L. B.; Davies, C.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is very old, with recent data now showing the field possibly extended back to 4.1 billion years ago (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). Yet, based upon our current knowledge there are difficulties in sustained a core dynamo over most of Earth's history. Moreover, recent estimates of thermal and electrical conductivity of liquid iron at core conditions from mineral physics experiments indicate that adiabatic heat flux is approximately 15 TW, nearly 3 times larger than previously thought, exacerbating difficulties for driving a core dynamo by convective core cooling alone throughout Earth history. A long-lived basal magma ocean in the lowermost mantle has been proposed to exist in the early Earth, surviving perhaps into the Archean. While the modern, solid lower mantle is an electromagnetic insulator, electrical conductivities of silicate melts are known to be higher, though as yet they are unconstrained for lowermost mantle conditions. Here we explore the geomagnetic consequences of a basal magma ocean layer for a range of possible electrical conductivities. For the highest electrical conductivities considered, we find a basal magma ocean could be a primary dynamo source region. This would suggest the proposed three magnetic eras observed in paleomagnetic data originate from distinct sources for dynamo generation: from 4.5-2.45 Ga within a basal magma ocean, from 2.25-0.4 Ga within a superadiabatically cooled liquid core, and from 0.4-present within a quasi-adiabatic core that includes a solidifying inner core. We have extended this work by developing a new code, Dynamantle, which is a model with an entropy-based approach, similar to those commonly used in core dynamics models. We present new results using this code to assess the conditions under which basal magma oceans can generate positive ohmic dissipation. This is more generally useful than just considering the early Earth, but also for many silicate exoplanets in which basal magma oceans

  11. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  12. Geochronological constraints on terminal Neoproterozoic events and the rise of Metazoan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, S.; Myrow, P.; Landing, E.; Ramezani, J.; Grotzinger, J.

    2003-04-01

    A full understanding of Neoproterozoic history has been plagued by a lack of precise geochronological constraints. In particular the correlation and duration of global or "Snowball" glaciations has relied on physical stratigraphy and chemostratigraphy which has given rise to much debate about the number, magnitude, and duration of glacial deposits. New U-Pb constraints on the age of the Gaskiers Formation glacial deposits in Newfoundland, an age for the oldest Ediacaran fossils in the same area, and the age and significance of the Cambrian/Precambrian boundary in Oman have important implications for global correlation and the timing of the rise of Metazoans. In the central and eastern parts of the Avalon Peninsula, southeastern Newfoundland, the oldest rocks are arc-related tuffs, agglomerates, and flows of the Harbour Main Group (>1.5 km thick) that have published dates from 606-630 Ma. These are overlain by approximately 7.5 km of marine siliciclastic rocks of the Conception Group. Over 2,300 m of deep-water deposits of the Mall Bay and Drook formations are separated by the regionally extensive glacial diamictite of the Gaskiers Formation (up to 300 m-thick). This unit is often described as a Varanger-age glaciomarine deposit and is locally overlain by a thin cap carbonate bed with a highly negative C isotopic signature. Thin (1-15 cm) silicic ash beds are found interlayered with turbidites just below and above the glacial deposits and the glacial deposits locally contain volcanic bombs, pyroclastic debris, and lavas. U-Pb geochronology of zircons separated from ash-beds below, within, and above the glacial deposits indicates that they are ca 580 Ma. This is considerably younger than previous estimates and calls into question many of the global correlations with similar rocks. An ash-bed within the overlying Drook formation is preserved in depositional contact with spectacular surfaces exposing Ediacaran fossils. Zircons separated from it yield an age of 575 Ma

  13. Analysis of a Drosophila amplicon in follicle cells highlights the diversity of metazoan replication origins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane C; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the properties of metazoan replication origins, recent studies in cell culture have adopted the strategy of identifying origins using genome-wide approaches and assessing correlations with such features as transcription and histone modifications. Drosophila amplicon in follicle cells (DAFCs), genomic regions that undergo repeated rounds of DNA replication to increase DNA copy number, serve as powerful in vivo model replicons. Because there are six DAFCs, compared with thousands of origins activated in the typical S phase, close molecular characterization of all DAFCs is possible. To determine the extent to which the six DAFCs are different or similar, we investigated the developmental and replication properties of the newly identified DAFC-34B. DAFC-34B contains two genes expressed in follicle cells, although the timing and spatial patterns of expression suggest that amplification is not a strategy to promote high expression at this locus. Like the previously characterized DAFC-62D, DAFC-34B displays origin activation at two separate stages of development. However, unlike DAFC-62D, amplification at the later stage is not transcription-dependent. We mapped the DAFC-34B amplification origin to 1 kb by nascent strand analysis and delineated cis requirements for origin activation, finding that a 6-kb region, but not the 1-kb origin alone, is sufficient for amplification. We analyzed the developmental localization of the origin recognition complex (ORC) and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM)2-7 complex, the replicative helicase. Intriguingly, the final round of origin activation at DAFC-34B occurs in the absence of detectable ORC, although MCMs are present, suggesting a new amplification initiation mechanism. PMID:21933960

  14. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  15. Cardiolipin binds selectively but transiently to conserved lysine residues in the rotor of metazoan ATP synthases

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    The anionic lipid cardiolipin is an essential component of active ATP synthases. In metazoans, their rotors contain a ring of eight c-subunits consisting of inner and outer circles of N- and C-terminal α-helices, respectively. The beginning of the C-terminal α-helix contains a strictly conserved and fully trimethylated lysine residue in the lipid head-group region of the membrane. Larger rings of known structure, from c9-c15 in eubacteria and chloroplasts, conserve either a lysine or an arginine residue in the equivalent position. In computer simulations of hydrated membranes containing trimethylated or unmethylated bovine c8-rings and bacterial c10- or c11-rings, the head-groups of cardiolipin molecules became associated selectively with these modified and unmodified lysine residues and with adjacent polar amino acids and with a second conserved lysine on the opposite side of the membrane, whereas phosphatidyl lipids were attracted little to these sites. However, the residence times of cardiolipin molecules with the ring were brief and sufficient for the rotor to turn only a fraction of a degree in the active enzyme. With the demethylated c8-ring and with c10- and c11-rings, the density of bound cardiolipin molecules at this site increased, but residence times were not changed greatly. These highly specific but brief interactions with the rotating c-ring are consistent with functional roles for cardiolipin in stabilizing and lubricating the rotor, and, by interacting with the enzyme at the inlet and exit of the transmembrane proton channel, in participation in proton translocation through the membrane domain of the enzyme. PMID:27382158

  16. Cardiolipin binds selectively but transiently to conserved lysine residues in the rotor of metazoan ATP synthases.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Anna L; Robinson, Alan J; Walker, John E

    2016-08-01

    The anionic lipid cardiolipin is an essential component of active ATP synthases. In metazoans, their rotors contain a ring of eight c-subunits consisting of inner and outer circles of N- and C-terminal α-helices, respectively. The beginning of the C-terminal α-helix contains a strictly conserved and fully trimethylated lysine residue in the lipid head-group region of the membrane. Larger rings of known structure, from c9-c15 in eubacteria and chloroplasts, conserve either a lysine or an arginine residue in the equivalent position. In computer simulations of hydrated membranes containing trimethylated or unmethylated bovine c8-rings and bacterial c10- or c11-rings, the head-groups of cardiolipin molecules became associated selectively with these modified and unmodified lysine residues and with adjacent polar amino acids and with a second conserved lysine on the opposite side of the membrane, whereas phosphatidyl lipids were attracted little to these sites. However, the residence times of cardiolipin molecules with the ring were brief and sufficient for the rotor to turn only a fraction of a degree in the active enzyme. With the demethylated c8-ring and with c10- and c11-rings, the density of bound cardiolipin molecules at this site increased, but residence times were not changed greatly. These highly specific but brief interactions with the rotating c-ring are consistent with functional roles for cardiolipin in stabilizing and lubricating the rotor, and, by interacting with the enzyme at the inlet and exit of the transmembrane proton channel, in participation in proton translocation through the membrane domain of the enzyme. PMID:27382158

  17. Metazoan parasites in intertidal cockles Cerastoderma edule from the northern Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten

    2006-11-01

    At four intertidal sites near the island of Sylt (eastern North Sea), 13 metazoan parasite taxa were found in 1400 cockles investigated, with digenean trematodes being dominant. Almost all cockles were infected by parasites and most individuals harboured more than one parasite species. We observed four conspicuous patterns: (1) Adult cockles harboured a two times higher species richness (2003: 6.1 ± 0.7 species/host; 2004: 7.1 ± 0.7) than juveniles (2003: 2.9 ± 0.8; 2004: 3.4 ± 0.8) and total parasite community composition significantly differed between age groups. (2) Infection levels were 2-52 times higher in adult cockles than in juveniles both in trematode species and in non-trematode species. In the dominant trematodes, species utilising cockles as first intermediate host ( Gymnophallus choledochus, Labratrema minimus, Monorchis parvus) only occurred in adult cockles, and prevalences were low (2-12%). Prevalences of up to 100% were reached by trematodes using cockles as second intermediate host ( Himasthla elongata, H. continua, H. interrupta, Renicola roscovita, Psilostomum brevicolle, Meiogymnophallus minutus, Gymnophallus gibberosus). Metacercariae of these species were segregated between body parts within cockles. (3) High spatial heterogeneity in parasite community composition and infection levels occurred between sampling sites. However, communities in juveniles were more similar than communities in adults. (4) Temporal variation in parasite community composition was low between two consecutive years, especially for adult cockles. The omnipresence of parasites in this dominant bivalve species has important implications for sampling designs and as a potentially confounding variable in e.g. physiological studies. It suggests strong and cumulative negative effects on the cockle hosts.

  18. Global isolation by distance despite strong regional phylogeography in a small metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Scott; Lunt, David H; Gómez, Africa

    2007-01-01

    Background Small vagile eukaryotic organisms, which comprise a large proportion of the Earth's biodiversity, have traditionally been thought to lack the extent of population structuring and geographic speciation observed in larger taxa. Here we investigate the patterns of genetic diversity, amongst populations of the salt lake microscopic metazoan Brachionus plicatilis s. s. (sensu stricto) (Rotifera: Monogononta) on a global scale. We examine the phylogenetic relationships of geographic isolates from four continents using a 603 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene to investigate patterns of phylogeographic subdivision in this species. In addition we investigate the relationship between genetic and geographic distances on a global scale to try and reconcile the paradox between the high vagility of this species and the previously reported patterns of restricted gene flow, even over local spatial scales. Results Analysis of global sequence diversity of B. plicatilis s. s. reveals the presence of four allopatric genetic lineages: North American-Far East Asian, Western Mediterranean, Australian, and an Eastern Mediterranean lineage represented by a single isolate. Geographically orientated substructure is also apparent within the three best sampled lineages. Surprisingly, given this strong phylogeographic structure, B. plicatilis s. s. shows a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance on a global scale ('isolation by distance' – IBD). Conclusion Despite its cosmopolitan distribution and potential for high gene flow, B. plicatilis s. s. is strongly structured at a global scale. IBD patterns have traditionally been interpreted to indicate migration-drift equilibrium, although in this system equilibrium conditions are incompatible with the observed genetic structure. Instead, we suggest the pattern may have arisen through persistent founder effects, acting in a similar fashion to geographic barriers for larger organisms. Our data indicates

  19. Metazoan parasite communities of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluridae) in Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Tossavi, Nounagnon Darius; Gbankoto, Adam; Adité, Alphonse; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Grunau, Christoph; Sakiti, Gilbert Nestor

    2014-11-01

    The need for more precise information on the effect of dry season on fish parasite communities in Benin lead us to undergo a focus during this season in one of the major sites of collection fry by fish farmers.Metazoan parasites were then inventoried in 166 specimens of catfishes which constituted of C larias gariepinus, Clarias ebriensis, Synodontis schall, Synodontis nigrita, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Teleostei: Siluridae). Those fishes were collected from fishermen of Agonlin-Lowé at the side of Oueme River in south Benin from November 2011 to March 2012. In total, 12 parasite species were listed comprising three Monogena (Gyrodactylus sp., Synodontella sp., and Protoancylodiscoides chrysichthes), three Cestoda (Stoeksia pujehuni, Lytocestus sp., and Cestode indeterminate), five Nematoda (Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Procamallanus laevionchus, Cithariniella petterae, Synodontisia thelastomoides, and nematode indeterminate), and one indeterminated Copepod species. Total infestation rate varied between 83.87 and 100% for the different fish species. This was high but independent of fish sex (χ(2) = 1.669, df = 4, nonsignificant). The highest mean intensity and mean abundance were, respectively, 44 and 13.33. Monogenea and Nematoda have elevated frequency of dominance, and their presence in the host is significantly correlated (r = -0.999; p < 0.05). Clariids were highly infected by Nematoda. Except for P. laevionchus and Proteoancylodiscoides, respectively, in C. gariepinus and in C. nigrodigitatus, the parasites showed clumped distribution. The component community diversity, as measured by the Shannon index (H'), revealed that S. schall had the most parasite diversity. PMID:25106838

  20. Structure, Transcription, and Variability of Metazoan Mitochondrial Genome: Perspectives from an Unusual Mitochondrial Inheritance System

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, Fabrizio; Milani, Liliana; Guerra, Davide; Chang, Peter L.; Breton, Sophie; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Passamonti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Despite its functional conservation, the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) presents strikingly different features among eukaryotes, such as size, rearrangements, and amount of intergenic regions. Nonadaptive processes such as random genetic drift and mutation rate play a fundamental role in shaping mtDNA: the mitochondrial bottleneck and the number of germ line replications are critical factors, and different patterns of germ line differentiation could be responsible for the mtDNA diversity observed in eukaryotes. Among metazoan, bivalve mollusc mtDNAs show unusual features, like hypervariable gene arrangements, high mutation rates, large amount of intergenic regions, and, in some species, an unique inheritance system, the doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). The DUI system offers the possibility to study the evolutionary dynamics of mtDNAs that, despite being in the same organism, experience different genetic drift and selective pressures. We used the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum to study intergenic mtDNA functions, mitochondrial transcription, and polymorphism in gonads. We observed: 1) the presence of conserved functional elements and novel open reading frames (ORFs) that could explain the evolutionary persistence of intergenic regions and may be involved in DUI-specific features; 2) that mtDNA transcription is lineage-specific and independent from the nuclear background; and 3) that male-transmitted and female-transmitted mtDNAs have a similar amount of polymorphism but of different kinds, due to different population size and selection efficiency. Our results are consistent with the hypotheses that mtDNA evolution is strongly dependent on the dynamics of germ line formation, and that the establishment of a male-transmitted mtDNA lineage can increase male fitness through selection on sperm function. PMID:23882128

  1. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  2. Hierarchical partitioning of metazoan protein conservation profiles provides new functional insights.

    PubMed

    Witztum, Jonathan; Persi, Erez; Horn, David; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Chor, Benny

    2014-01-01

    The availability of many complete, annotated proteomes enables the systematic study of the relationships between protein conservation and functionality. We explore this question based solely on the presence or absence of protein homologues (a.k.a. conservation profiles). We study 18 metazoans, from two distinct points of view: the human's and the fly's. Using the GOrilla gene ontology (GO) analysis tool, we explore functional enrichment of the "universal proteins", those with homologues in all 17 other species, and of the "non-universal proteins". A large number of GO terms are strongly enriched in both human and fly universal proteins. Most of these functions are known to be essential. A smaller number of GO terms, exhibiting markedly different properties, are enriched in both human and fly non-universal proteins. We further explore the non-universal proteins, whose conservation profiles are consistent with the "tree of life" (TOL consistent), as well as the TOL inconsistent proteins. Finally, we applied Quantum Clustering to the conservation profiles of the TOL consistent proteins. Each cluster is strongly associated with one or a small number of specific monophyletic clades in the tree of life. The proteins in many of these clusters exhibit strong functional enrichment associated with the "life style" of the related clades. Most previous approaches for studying function and conservation are "bottom up", studying protein families one by one, and separately assessing the conservation of each. By way of contrast, our approach is "top down". We globally partition the set of all proteins hierarchically, as described above, and then identify protein families enriched within different subdivisions. While supporting previous findings, our approach also provides a tool for discovering novel relations between protein conservation profiles, functionality, and evolutionary history as represented by the tree of life. PMID:24594619

  3. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-06-21

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny.

  4. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Mónica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey D.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino–Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira–Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of a monophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny. PMID:11504944

  5. Enhancing Basal Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenfest, Ashleigh; Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This article addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to…

  6. Basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, E; Robertson, R L; du Plessis, A; Pomeroy, S L

    1999-04-01

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. PMID:10328283

  7. Basal Ganglia Germinoma in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Vialatte de Pémille, Clément; Bielle, Franck; Mokhtari, Karima; Kerboua, Esma; Alapetite, Claire; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Intracranial germinoma is a rare primary brain cancer, usually located within the midline and mainly affecting Asian pediatric patients. Interestingly, we report here the peculiar case of a young North-African adult patient suffering from a basal ganglia germinoma without the classical ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy associated with this location. PMID:27241091

  8. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  9. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  10. How Basal Reading Texts Affect Children's Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Barbara L.

    A study investigated how children's writing reflects the syntactic complexity, style, and format of their basal readers. Subjects were 116 students drawn from 10 second, third, and fourth grade classrooms in two different schools located near Boston, Massachusetts. A matched group design was used, and students using a form of the "Ginn" basal…