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Sample records for basalt sulfide saturation

  1. Controls on Highly Siderophile Element Concentrations in Martian Basalt: Sulfide Saturation and Under-Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au and the platinum group elements) in shergottites exhibit a wide range from very high, similar to the terrestrial mantle, to very low, similar to sulfide saturated mid ocean ridge basalt (e.g., [1]). This large range has been difficult to explain without good constraints on sulfide saturation or under-saturation [2]. A new model for prediction of sulfide saturation places new constraints on this problem [3]. Shergottite data: For primitive shergottites, pressure and temperature estimates are between 1.2-1.5 GPa, and 1350-1470 C [4]. The range of oxygen fugacities is from FMQ-2 to IW, where the amount of Fe2O3 is low and thus does not have a significant effect on the S saturation values. Finally, the bulk compositions of shergottites have been reported in many recent studies (e.g., [5]). All of this information will be used to test whether shergottites are sulfide saturated [3]. Modeling values and results: The database for HSE partition coefficients has been growing with many new data for silicates and oxides [6-8] to complement a large sulfide database [9- 11]. Combining these data with simple batch melting models allows HSE contents of mantle melts to be estimated for sulfide-bearing vs. sulfide-free mantle. Combining such models with fractional crystallization modeling (e.g., [12]) allows HSE contents of more evolved liquids to be modeled. Most primitive shergottites have high HSE contents (and low S contents) that can be explained by sulfide under-saturated melting of the mantle. An exception is Dhofar 019 which has high S contents and very low HSE contents suggesting sulfide saturation. Most evolved basaltic shergottites have lower S contents than saturation, and intermediate HSE contents that can be explained by olivine, pyroxene, and chromite fractionation. An exception is EET A79001 lithology B, which has very low HSE contents and S contents higher than sulfide saturation values . evidence for sulfide saturation

  2. Interpreting HSE Contents of Planetary Basalts: The Importance of Sulfide Saturation and Under-Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.

    2000-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements provide important constraints on planetary differentiation due to their siderophile behavior. Their interpretation in terms of planetary differentiation models has so far overlooked the importance of sulfide saturation and under-saturation.

  3. Sulfide Stability of Planetary Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiazza, C. M.; Righter, K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Chesley, J. T.; Ruiz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic system, 187Re 187Os, can be used to determine the role of crust and mantle in magma genesis. In order to apply the system to natural samples, we must understand variations in Re/Os concentrations. It is thought that low [Os] and [Re] in basalts can be attributed to sulfide (FeS) saturation, as Re behaves incompatibly to high degrees of evolution until sulfide saturation occurs [1]. Previous work has shown that lunar basalts are sulfide under-saturated, and mid-ocean ridge, ocean-island and Martian (shergottites) basalts are saturated [2,3]. However, little is known about arc basalts. In this study, basaltic rocks were analyzed across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

  4. Sulfur release from the Columbia River Basalts and other flood lava eruptions constrained by a model of sulfide saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, S.; Self, S.; Sharma, K.; Sephton, S.

    2010-11-01

    A very likely cause of widespread environmental impacts of flood basalt eruptions is the emission of sulfur, chlorine, and possibly fluorine from the erupting magma. We present new data on the S contents of rare glass inclusions and matrix glasses preserved in quenched lava selvages from lava fields of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG; Ginkgo, Sand Hollow and Sentinel Gap flows, Wanapum Basalt Formation). We compare these results with published data from Neral and Jawar Formation lavas (Deccan Traps, India) and the Roza flow (CRBG). CRBG glass inclusions have up to 2000 ppm S and 15-16 wt.% FeO total. By contrast, the Deccan examples have about 1400 ppm S and 10 wt.% FeO total. Several of the glass inclusions are partly degassed, indicating entrapment during magma rise, and matrix glasses are typically more evolved than glass inclusions due to small amounts of in situ crystallization. Using only the highest S inclusions and taking account of the effect of in situ crystallization and degassing on the S content of the residual matrix glasses indicates S yields of about 0.07 to 0.1 wt.% from Deccan eruptions and about 0.15 wt.% from Wanapum (CRBG) eruptions. The pre-eruptive S contents of these magmas correlate with weight% FeO total in the same way as undegassed sulfide-saturated mid-ocean ridge basalts. Using oceanic basalts to define a sulfide saturation line, and data on S contents of degassed basalts, we propose an equation to estimate the weight% S yield (ΔS) from initially sulfide-saturated basalt liquid without the need to find well-preserved, rare, undegassed glass inclusions and matrix glasses: ΔS=(0.01418×FeO-0.06381)±0.02635. This compares well with independent estimates derived from the petrologic method by taking the difference in S concentration of glass inclusions and matrix glass. Applying our method to the aphyric Grande Ronde Basalts of the CRBG implies a total yield of about 1000 Gt SO 2 delivered into the Miocene atmosphere in

  5. Sulfide saturation of basalt and andesite melts at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendlandt, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    When the sulfur content of an Fe-bearing magma exceeds the saturation limit for the bulk composition, an immiscible iron sulfide melt fraction separates. For an understanding of the geochemistry of sulfur-bearing magmatic systems, more information is needed regarding the solubility of metal sulfide in silicate melt at its source and the solubility changes as a function of changing intensive and extensive variables. In the present investigation, the sulfur saturation surface is determined for the pressure range from 12.5 to 30 kbar and the temperature range from 1300 to 1460 C for three silicate melt compositions representing a range of SiO2 and FeO compositions.

  6. Sulfur Concentration of High-FeO* Basalts at Sulfide Saturation at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Deep Sulfur Cycle on Mars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Ding, S.

    2013-12-01

    One of the chief influences of magma in the mantles terrestrial planets is its role in outgassing and ingassing of key volatiles and thus affecting planetary dynamics and climate over long timescales. For Mars, magmatic release of greenhouse gases has been argued to be a major factor in creating warm ancient climate. However, the responsible magmatic gas has not been unequivocally identified. SO2 or H2S could have been the main greenhouse gases, yet the magmatic outflux of S from the martian mantle is poorly constrained. Righter et al. [1] showed that the use of sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) models based on low-FeO*, high-alumina terrestrial basalts to martian basalts leads to significant error. However, experiments on high-FeO* basalts remain limited to ≤0.8 GPa [1], although the onset of melting in the martian mantle may take place at 250-400 km depth (3-5 GPa) [2]. To constrain SCSS of martian magmas at mantle conditions, we simulated basalt-sulfide melt equilibria using two synthesized meteorite compositions, i.e., Yamato980459 (FeO* ˜17 wt.%; Al2O3 ˜6 wt.%) and NWA2990 (FeO* ˜16 wt.%; Al2O3 ˜9 wt.%) in both anhydrous and hydrous conditions at 1-3 GPa and 1500-1700 °C. Experiments were conducted in graphite capsules, using an end-loaded piston cylinder device. Sulfur contents of sulfide melt-saturated experimental quenched basalts were determined using electron microprobe. Our experimental results show that SCSS decreases with increasing pressure and increases with increasing temperature and melt hydration. Based on our experimental SCSS and those from previous low-pressure experiments on high-FeO* martian basalts [2], we developed a new parameterization to predict martian basalt SCSS as a function of depth, temperature, and melt composition. Our model suggests that at the conditions of last equilibration with the sulfide-saturated mantle [2], martian basalts may contain as high as 3500-4700 ppm S and thus S-rich gases might have caused the

  7. Elastic laboratory measurements and modeling of saturated basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Ludmila; Otheim, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the elastic behavior of basalt is important to seismically monitor volcanoes, subsea basalts, and carbon sequestration in basalt. We estimate the elastic properties of basalt samples from the Snake River Plain, Idaho, at ultrasonic (0.8 MHz) and seismic (2-300 Hz) frequencies. To test the sensitivity of seismic waves to the fluid content in the pore structure, measurements are performed at three saturation conditions: saturated with liquid CO2, water, and dry. When CO2 replaces water, the P-wave velocity drops, on average, by 10%. Vesicles and cracks, observed in the rock microstructure, control the relaxation of pore-fluid pressures in the rock as a wave propagates. The bulk and shear moduli of basalts saturated with liquid CO2 are not frequency dependent, suggesting that fluid pore pressures are in equilibrium between 2 Hz and 0.8 MHz. However, when samples are water saturated, the bulk modulus of the rock is frequency dependent. Modeling with Gassmann's equations predicts the measured saturated rock bulk modulus for all fluids for frequencies below 20 Hz but underpredicts the water-saturated basalt bulk modulus for frequencies greater than 20 Hz. The most likely reason is that the pore-fluid pressures are unrelaxed. Instead, the ultrasonic frequency rock moduli are modeled with high-frequency elastic theories of squirt flow and Kuster-Toksöz (KT). Although KT's model is based on idealized pore shapes, a combination of spheres (vesicles) and penny-shaped cracks (fractures) interpreted and quantified from petrographical data predicts the ultrasonic dry and saturated rock moduli for the measured basalts.

  8. Empirical equations to predict the sulfur content of mafic magmas at sulfide saturation and applications to magmatic sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.

    2005-03-01

    Empirical equations to predict the sulfur content of a mafic magma at the time of sulfide saturation have been developed based on several sets of published experimental data. The S content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) can be expressed as: ln X_{text S} = 1.229 - 0.74(10^4/T) - 0.021(P) - 0.311 ln X_{{text{FeO}}} - 6.166X_{{text{SiO}}_{text{2}}} - 9.153X_{{text{Na}}_{text{2}} {text{O + K}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}} - 1.914X_{{text{MgO}}} + 6.594X_{{text{FeO}}} where T is in degrees Kelvin, X is mole fraction and P is in kbar. The squared multiple correlation coefficient ( r 2) for the equation is 0.88. Application of the equation to data from sulfide-saturated mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) samples show that the SCSS is closely predicted for primitive MORBs, but that accuracy decreases for lower T (<1,130°C) and more evolved MORB samples. This suggests that because the calibrations are based on anhydrous experimental runs done at temperatures of 1,200°C and above, it is not possible to extrapolate them to significantly lower temperatures and hydrous conditions. Because the SCSS of a primitive MORB magma increases with decreasing P, sulfide saturation in MORB appears to be a function of the degree of en route assimilation of S from country rocks as well as the degree of fractional crystallization in shallow staging chambers. Application of the equation to the high- T impact melt sheet that produced the Sudbury Igneous Complex and associated Ni-Cu sulfide ores indicates that sulfide-saturation was reached at 1,500°C, well above the start of orthopyroxene crystallization at 1,190°C. This would permit ample time for the gravitational settling and collection of immiscible sulfide liquid that produced the high-grade ore bodies. The development of a platinum group element (PGE)-enriched layer in the Sonju Lake Intrusion of the Duluth Complex is thought to be due to the attainment of sulfide saturation in the magma after a period of fractional crystallization. Using the

  9. The Role of Oxygen Fugacity in Fractionating Parent-Daughter Pairs between Basaltic and Sulfidic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mershon, R. B.; Jackson, C.; Fei, Y.; Elardo, S. M.; Bennett, N.

    2015-12-01

    Here we examine the effect of oxygen fugacity on trace element partitioning between basaltic and sulfidic liquids. We specifically focus on parent-daughter pairs (Sm-Nd, Re-Os, Lu-Hf, Hf-W, U-Pb, and Th-Pb), such that the isotopic effects associated with sulfide fractionation can be predicted. This work is motivated by recent experiments and observations that suggest Earth experienced massive sequestration of a sulfide liquid to its core during the accretion phase, possibly under extremely reduced conditions. Experiments were run in graphite capsules using a piston-cylinder apparatus (1500°C, 1GPa). Starting compositions comprised ~2/3 of a synthetic MORB and ~1/3 FeS by weight. Oxygen fugacity was varied by adding the Fe component of the MORB starting composition as either FeO or FeSi2. Trace elements were added either as solutions or metal powders. Run durations ranged between one and four hours. The recovered samples were polished using either water or ethanol for lubrication, and then carbon-coated prior to analysis. Major elements were analyzed using a combination of EDS and WDS techniques. Trace element analyses are currently underway. Experiments with iron added as FeSi2 have relatively lower concentrations of O in the sulfide, lower concentrations of Fe in the basalt, and higher concentrations of S in the basalt. These same experiments contained sub-micron CaS and MgS phases within the FeS phase. These observations are consistent with the achievement of very low oxygen fugacity for experiments with FeSi2 added compared to experiments with FeO added. Once trace element partition coefficients are determined, they will be coupled to radiogenic isotope evolution models associated with sulfide fractionation under varying redox conditions.

  10. Sulfides from Martian and Lunar Basalts: Comparative Chemistry for Ni Co Cu and Se

    SciTech Connect

    J Papike; P Burger; C Shearer; S Sutton; M Newville; Y Choi; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Here Mars and Moon are used as 'natural laboratories' with Moon displaying lower oxygen fugacities ({approx}IW-1) than Mars ({approx}IW to FMQ). Moon has lower concentrations of Ni and Co in basaltic melts than does Mars. The major sulfides are troilite (FeS) in lunar basalts and pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S) in martian basalts. This study focuses on the concentrations of Ni, Co, Cu, and Se. We chose these elements because of their geochemical importance and the feasibility of analyzing them with a combination of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and electron microprobe (EPMA) techniques. The selenium concentrations could only be analyzed, at high precision, with SXRF techniques as they are <150 ppm, similar to concentrations seen in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Nickel and Co are in higher concentrations in martian sulfides than lunar and are higher in martian olivine-bearing lithologies than olivine-free varieties. The sulfides in individual samples show very large ranges in concentration (e.g., Ni ranges from 50 000 ppm to <5 ppm). These large ranges are mainly due to compositional heterogeneities within individual grains due to diffusion and phase separation. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive (WDS) mapping of Ni, Co, and Cu show the diffusion trajectories. Nickel and Co have almost identical diffusion trajectories leading to the likely nucleation of pentlandite (Ni,Co,Fe){sub 9}S{sub 8}, and copper diffuses along separate pathways likely toward chalcopyrite nucleation sites (CuFeS{sub 2}). The systematics of Ni and Co in lunar and martian sulfides clearly distinguish the two parent bodies, with martian sulfides displaced to higher Ni and Co values.

  11. Platinum-Group Elements in Kerguelen Plateau Basalts: a Tale of Crystal Fractionation, the Core-Mantle Boundary, and no Sulfide Segregation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazey, W. J.; Neal, C. R.

    2001-12-01

    Basalt samples from the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean (ODP Leg 183) were analyzed for major and trace elements including the platinum-group elements (PGEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd). PGE abundances range from 0.1 (Os-, Ir, Ru) to 5 times primitive mantle (i.e., Pt). Olivine and Cr-spinel were fractionating phases, which probably accentuated the depletion of Os, Ir, and Ru relative to Rh, Pt, and Pd in primitive mantle-normalized profiles. Primitive mantle-normalized profiles show a relatively flat transition form Pt and Pd to Y, although a slight negative Pd anomaly is present in some samples. Sulfide immiscibility has the potential to preferentially remove Pd, but would also deplete all of the PGEs relative to Y. Plots of PGE/Y vs. Y/Cu demonstrate that the Pd anomaly was not caused by separation of a sulfide-rich fluid. Downhole variation of Pt in the Site 1138 basalt sequence is similar to that of other incompatible elements demonstrating that Pt is behaving as a lithophile element and from which we infer that the magma is undersaturated with respect to S. Finally, if sulfide immiscibility had occurred, Ru/Ir ratios would increase due to the greater affinity of Ir for sulfide liquid (vs. silicate melt), but these ratios are within error of the primitive mantle value. The depletion in Pd is attributed to it being preferentially removed during secondary alteration of the KP basalts. There seems to be very little consistent variation in PGE concentrations between ODP Sites 1136, 1137, 1138, 1141 and 1142. The PGEs in Sites 1136, 1141, and 1142 samples are generally lower in abundance than those from Sites 1137 and 1138. Overall, the PGEs in the Kerguelen plateau basalts are present in relatively high abundances. When plotted with MORBs, for example, all of the Kerguelen basalts are much higher in abundance, even though the KP basalts are derived from a much higher degree of partial melting. Most MORBs, however, appear to have experienced sulfide

  12. Partitioning of palladium, iridium, platinum, and gold between sulfide liquid and basalt melt at 1200°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, W. E.; Crockett, J. H.; Fleet, M. E.

    1990-08-01

    Iron-nickel monosulfide and basalt glass containing trace amounts of PGE equilibrated at 1200°C, and fo2= 10 -9.2 (close to the wustite-magnetite buffer) and fs2= 10 -0.9, have been analyzed for noble metals by radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The average contents of PGE in coexisting Fe-Ni sulfide and basalt glass, respectively, are Pd, 50 ppm and 0.5 ppb; Ir, 50 ppm and 0.5 ppb; Pt, 100 ppm and 10 ppb; and Au, 0.7 ppm and 0.8 ppb. The sulfide liquid-silicate melt partition coefficients ( D values) for the noble metals are (9 ± 7) × 10 4 for Pd, (1 ± 0.7) × 10 5 for Ir, (9 ± 6) × 10 3for Pt, and (1 ± 0.9) × 10 3 for Au. The noble metals are strongly partitioned into sulfide liquid, but the affinity of Pd and Ir for sulfide liquid is about 50 times greater than that of Pt and about 500 times greater than that of Au. The D values indicate that equilibrium partitioning between immiscible sulfide liquid and basalt magma would result in fractionation of the noble metals, which differs significantly from that generally observed in nature.

  13. Rhenium - osmium heterogeneity of enriched mantle basalts explained by composition and behaviour of mantle-derived sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Dale, C. W.; Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Analyses of enriched mantle (EM) -basalts, using lithophile element-based isotope systems have long provided evidence for discrete, but variable mantle reservoirs [1]. Upon partial melting, the isotopic fingerprint of each reservoir is imparted upon the partial melt produced. However, recent work involving the Re-Os isotope systematics of EM-basalts [2] suggests that it may not be so simple to delimit these previously well defined mantle reservoirs; the “mantle zoo” [3] may contain more reservoirs than previously envisaged. However, a simple model, with varying contributions from two populations of compositionally distinct mantle sulfides can readily account for the observed heterogeneities in Re-Os isotope systematics of such basalts without additional mantle reservoirs. Rhenium-osmium elemental and isotopic analyses of individual sulfide grains separated from spinel lherzolites from Kilbourne Hole, NM, USA demonstrate that two discrete populations of mantle sulfide exist in terms of both Re-Os systematics and textural relationship with co-existing silicates. One population, with a rounded morphology, is preserved in silicate grains and typically possesses high [Os], low [Re] with unradiogenic, typically sub-chondritic, 187Os/188Os attributable to long term isolation in a low-Re environment. By contrast, irregular-shaped sulfides, preserved along silicate grain boundaries, possess low [Os], higher [Re] and a wider range of, but generally supra-chondritic, 187Os/188Os ([Os] typically ≤ 1-2 ppm, 187Os/188Os ≤ 0.3729; this study). This population is thought to represent metasomatic sulfide (e.g. [4,5]). Uncontaminated silicate phases contain negligible Os (<100 ppt) therefore the Os elemental and isotope composition of basalts is dominated by volumetrically insignificant sulfide ([Os] ≤ 37 ppm, this study). During the early stages of partial melting, supra-chondritic interstitial sulfides are mobilized and incorporated into the melt, adding their radiogenic

  14. Water under-saturated phase equilibria of basaltic andesites from Westdahl volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, E. L.; Larsen, J.

    2008-12-01

    The two most abundant gases released from magmatic systems are typically H2O and CO2, however, most phase equilibria studies examining crystallization applied to natural magmatic systems over the past 200 years have relied on H2O-saturated conditions. We will present the results of new phase equilibria experiments run using natural basaltic andesite starting materials from the 1991-1992 eruption of Westdahl volcano, Alaska, examining both H2O-saturated and undersaturated conditions, using a fixed ratio of XH2O ~0.7 and XCO2 ~0.3 in the total volatile budget. The experiments were conducted at total pressures (PTotal) of 0-200 MPa and 900-1050 °C, and fO2 set to the Ni-NiO buffer. Experiments were loaded into gold and Au75Pd25 capsules, and run in a TZM alloy pressure vessel for 48 hours before rapid quenching while still at pressure. After quenching, samples were polished and examined by microprobe and reflective microscopy. Identified mineral phases include plagioclase, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, and minor orthopyroxene in both water-saturated and under- saturated experiments. A ~25 to 50 °C shift in temperature, at similar pressures is observed in the plagioclase and pyroxene stability curves when CO2 is added. Solubility models predict relatively low amounts of CO2 dissolved in the melt at similar conditions. Thus, our experiments indicate a significant effect of CO2 on the crystallization of mafic magmas at crustal pressures in volcanic arcs.

  15. Iron and sulfide oxidation within the basaltic ocean crust: implications for chemolithoautotrophic microbial biomass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2003-10-01

    Microbial processes within the ocean crust are of potential importance in controlling rates of chemical reactions and thereby affecting chemical exchange between the oceans and lithosphere. We here assess the oxidation state of altered ocean crust and estimate the magnitude of microbial biomass production that might be supported by oxidative and nonoxidative alteration. Compilations of Fe 2O 3, FeO, and S concentrations from DSDP/ODP drill core samples representing upper basaltic ocean crust suggest that Fe 3+/ΣFe increases from 0.15 ± 0.05 to 0.45 ± 0.15 within the first 10-20 Myr of crustal evolution. Within the same time frame 70 ± 25% of primary sulfides in basalt are oxidized. With an annual production of 4.0 ± 1.8 × 10 15 g of upper (500 ± 200 m) crust and average initial concentrations of 8.0 ± 1.3 wt% Fe and 0.125 ± 0.020 wt% S, we estimate annual oxidation rates of 1.7 ± 1.2 × 10 12 mol Fe and 1.1 ± 0.7 × 10 11 mol S. We estimate that 50% of Fe oxidation may be attributed to hydrolysis, producing 4.5 ± 3.0 × 10 11 mol H 2/yr. Thermodynamic and bioenergetic calculations were used to estimate the potential chemolithoautotrophic microbial biomass production within ridge flanks. Combined, aerobic and anaerobic Fe and S oxidation may support production of up to 48 ± 21 × 10 10 g cellular carbon (C). Hydrogen-consuming reactions may support production of a similar or larger microbial biomass if iron reduction, nitrate reduction, or hydrogen oxidation by O 2(aq) are the prevailing metabolic reactions. If autotrophic sulfate reduction or methanogenesis prevail, the potential biomass production is 9 ± 7 × 10 10 g C/yr and 3 ± 2 × 10 10 g C/yr, respectively. Combined primary biomass production of up to ˜1 × 10 12 g C/yr may be similar to that fueled by anaerobic oxidation of organic matter in deep-seated heterotrophic systems. These estimates suggest that water-rock reactions may support significant microbial life within ridge flank

  16. The effect of anhydrite saturation on the fate of sulfur during fluid-present melting of subducting basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jego, S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2012-12-01

    The apparent sulfur enrichment of sub-arc mantle is thought to derive from an oxidized downgoing slab, and it has been suggested that the slab-derived sulfate species is responsible for oxidizing the mantle wedge [1]. However, the conditions and extent of sulfur transfer from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge are poorly understood. In particular, the relative mobility of sulfur as a function of oxygen fugacity (fO2) is unconstrained at sub-arc depths. To add to our recent study on sulfur mobility during fluid-present melting of a sulfide-bearing basaltic crust [2], here we constrain the fate of sulfur during similar melting at relatively oxidizing conditions, i.e., at sulfate saturation. Experiments were performed using a piston cylinder device at P = 2-3 GPa, T = 950-1050 °C. A synthetic MORB + 6.8 wt.% H2O doped with 1 wt% S (added as pyrite) was contained in AuPd inner capsules and hematite-magnetite (HM: ~FMQ+3.9 to +4.6) mixture used as fO2 buffer was housed in Pt outer capsules, following the recently proposed design of ref. [3]. Sulfur concentration in quenched silicate glasses, the major element phase compositions, and fO2 of the experiments based on dissolved Fe contents in AuPd and added Pt sensor [4, 5], were determined using EPMA. All experiments contain silicate melt, cpx, garnet, anhydrite, rutile and/or Ti-magnetite, and are fluid saturated. The partial melt compositions are rhyolitic to rhyodacitic with increasing T and melting degree. Sulfur contents in the melt range from ~700 to 3000 ppm, and increase with increasing P and T, in agreement with published SCAS models [6, 7]. Mass balance calculations show that the proportion of sulfur dissolved in silicate melt can be >13% of the bulk sulfur at 1050 °C. However, at slab surface (<900 °C), the major part of the bulk sulfur present in the slab is dissolved in the aqueous fluid phase, the rest being stored as anhydrite crystals. Moreover, our results suggest that sulfur partition coefficient

  17. Sequence of magma emplacement and sulfide saturation in the Gaojiacun-Lengshuiqing intrusive complex (SW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Marian; Wilson, Allan H.; Yao, Yong; Chunnett, Gordon; Luo, Yaonan

    2010-08-01

    The Lengshuiqing area contains several small intrusions made up of peridotite ± quartz diorite ± granite spatially associated with the Gaojiacun pluton (gabbroids + peridotite + diorite). Ni-Cu sulfide ore occur at Lengshuiqing, hosted in peridotite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating produced the ages of 803 ± 4.2 Ma (peridotite), 807 ± 2.6 Ma (oikocrystic hornblende gabbro), 809 ± 4.3 Ma (hornblende gabbronorites) for the Gaojiacun pluton and 807 ± 3.8 Ma (diorite, intrusion I), 817 ± 6.3 Ma (quartz diorite, intrusion II) and 817 ± 5 Ma (peridotite, intrusion 101) for Lengshuiqing. These ages suggest the emplacement of the Gaojiacun pluton later than the intrusions from Lengshuiqing. The olivine from Lengshuiqing does not contain sulfide inclusions and is relatively Ni-rich (1,150-1,550 ppm Ni), suggesting its crystallisation before the sulfide saturation that generated the Ni-Cu deposits. The olivine of the gabbros in the Gaojiacun pluton is Ni-poor (250-800 ppm), which indicates crystallisation from a severely metal-depleted magma after a sulfide saturation event. The olivine in the peridotites from the Gaojiacun pluton has 800-1,150 ppm Ni and contains sulfide inclusions. Moreover, geological evidence suggests the genesis of the peridotites from Gaojiacun in conduits that were ascending through the gabbroids. A sequence of at least three stages of magma emplacement is proposed: (1) Lengshuiqing; (2) gabbroids from Gaojiacun; (3) peridotites from Gaojiacun. Given the age differences, the intrusions at Lengshuiqing and the Gaojiacun pluton might have been produced by different magmatic events.

  18. Experimental determination of Pb partitioning between sulfide melt and basalt melt as a function of P, T and X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Stanley R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.

    2016-07-01

    We have measured the partition coefficient of Pb (KdPb) between FeS melt and basalt melt at temperatures of 1250-1523 °C, pressures of 1.0-3.5 GPa and oxygen fugacities at iron-wustite and wustite-magnetite. The total observed range of KdPb is 4.0-66.6, with a strong negative dependence on pressure and a strong negative dependence on FeO of the silicate melt (Fe+2 only). The FeO control was constrained over a wide range of FeO (4.2-39.5%). We found that the effect of oxygen fugacity can be subsumed under the FeO control parameter. Prior work has established the lack of a significant effect of temperature (Kiseeva and Wood, 2015; Li and Audétat, 2015). Our data are parameterized as: KdPb = 4.8 + (512 - 119*P in GPa)*(1/FeO - 0.021). We also measured a single value of KdPb between clinopyroxene and basalt melt at 2.0 GPa of 0.020 ± 0.001. This experimental data supports the "natural" partitioning of Pb measured on sulfide globules in MORB (Patten et al., 2013), but not the low KdPb of ∼3 inferred from sulfides in abyssal peridotites by Warren and Shirey (2012). It also quantitatively affirms the modeling of Hart and Gaetani (2006) with respect to using sulfide to buffer the canonical Nd/Pb ratio for MORB and OIB (Hofmann, 2003). For the low FeO and pressure of segregation typical of MORB, KdPb ∼ 45, and the Nd/Pb ratio of erupted basalts will be the same as the Nd/Pb ratio of the mantle source. The remaining puzzle is why MORB and OIB have the same Nd/Pb when they clearly have different FeO and pressure of melt segregation.

  19. Mineralogical studies of sulfide samples and volatile concentrations of basalt glasses from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brett, Robin; Evans, Howard T., Jr.; Wandless, M. V.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfide samples obtained from Alvin dives on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge were examined, showing the presence of two previously undiscovered minerals, both formed at low temperatures. The first detection of lizardite, starkeyite, and anatase in such an environment is also reported. Sulfide geothermometry involving the Cu-Fe-S system shows a vent temperature of less than 328 C for one sample. Ice-melting temperatures on inclusions from this sample are about -2.8 C, and fluid inclusion studies on crystals near this sample show pressure-corrected homogenization temperatures of 268 and 285 C. Volatile concentrations from vesicle-free basalt glass from the vent field are found to be about 0.0013 wt pct CO2 and 0.16 wt pct H2O.

  20. Basalt Reactivity in the Presence of H2O-Saturated Supercritical CO2 Containing Gaseous Sulfur Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, H. T.; McGrail, P.; Owen, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Future impacts of climate change may be minimized by capture of emissions, primarily CO2 from fossil-fueled electric generating stations and subsequent sequestration in deep geologic formations. Injection of dry liquid CO2 into porous geologic reservoirs for long term storage is expected to eventually form a buoyant water-saturated bubble of supercritical fluid. Depending on purification processes and underground injection control regulations, the injected CO2 also could contain trace compounds associated with flue gas streams (SO2, N2, and O2). Once injected, the scCO2 will absorb water (1500 to 3000 ppmw) until becoming immobilized by reservoir trapping mechanisms. Reactivity of the water-bearing scCO2 with silicate minerals is relatively unknown and could have impacts on long term reservoir seal integrity and trapping by mineralization. To examine the reactivity of H2O-saturated scCO2, basalt experiments were conducted at pressures and temperatures relevant to geologic sequestration. Reaction products differed considerably depending on the gas mixtures used and type of basalt. In the presence of H2O-saturated CO2, the Newark Basin basalt reacted to produce secondary mineralization with needle-like morphologies and chemistries similar to aragonite. Exposing the same basalt to a CO2-H2S mixture (H2O saturated) produced two types of reaction products: carbonates in the form of small discrete nodules or needles and metallic-like circular areas similar in chemistry to pyrite and marcarsite. Tests conducted in the presence of CO2-SO2 produced the most extensive surface reaction products observed during the experiments. Some basalts were completely coated in white precipitate identified as a mixture of gypsum, sulfate bearing minerals (rozenite and melanterite), and a magnesium sulfate compound (MgSO4 ●5H2O). Hawaiian flow top basalts contained extensive reaction products including magnesium sulfate (MgSO4●6H2O), which formed on the large olivine crystals present

  1. Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes in basalts and sulfides from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Hegner, E.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1987-10-10

    Pb, Sr, Nd isotopes of seven basalt glasses collected by the submersible Alvin from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge (SJFR) are almost identical (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pbapprox.18.45, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pbapprox.15.47, /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pbapprox.37.81, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Srapprox.0.70249, /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Ndapprox.0.51315). Whereas all basalts appear cogenetic, four of the samples have uniform abundances of U, Th, Rb, Nd, Sm, Pb, and Sr, indicating that they are also comagmatic. Two basalt glasses dredged previously at the SJFR have similar isotopic compositions but higher concentrations of U, Th, and Pb. The /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios are intermediate between generally less radiogenic ridge basalts from south of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) and often more radiogenic basalts from the northern JFR and NE Pacific seamounts. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions closely resemble data of other ridge basalts from the northernmost East Pacific Rise and are intermediate between isotopically more diverse seamount basalts produced nearby.

  2. Major element chemistry of surface- and ground waters in basaltic terrain, N-Iceland.: I. primary mineral saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnórsson, Stefán; Gunnarsson, Ingvi; Stefánsson, Andri; Andrésdóttir, Audur; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árny E.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution describes primary basalt mineral saturation in surface- and up to 90°C ground waters in a tholeiite flood basalt region in northern Iceland. It is based on data on 253 water samples and the mineralogical composition of the associated basalts. Surface waters are significantly under-saturated with plagioclase and olivine of the compositions occurring in the study area, saturation index (SI) values ranging from -1 to -10 and -5 to -20, respectively. With few exceptions these waters are also significantly under-saturated with pigeonite and augite of all compositions (SI = -1 to -7) and with ilmenite (SI = -0.5 to -6). The surface waters are generally over-saturated with respect to the titano-magnetite of the compositions occurring in the basalts of the study area, the range in SI being from -2 to +10. For crystalline OH-apatite, SI values in surface waters range from strong under-saturation (-10) to strong over-saturation (+5) but for crystalline F-apatite they lie in the range 0 to 15. Systematic under-saturation is, on the other hand, observed for "amorphous apatite," i.e. an apatite of the kind Clark (1955) prepared by mixing Ca(OH) 2 and H 3PO 4 solutions. Like surface waters, ground waters are under-saturated with plagioclase and olivine, its degree increasing with increasing Ca content of the plagioclase and increasing Fe content of the olivine, the SI values being -2 to -7 and 0 to -4 for the Ca-richest and Ca-poorest plagioclase, respectively, and about -3 to -18 and 0 to -15 for forsterite and fayalite, respectively. Ground waters are generally close to saturation with pigeonite and augite of all compositions. However, some non-thermal ground waters in highland areas are strongly under-saturated. Above 25°C the ground waters are ilmenite under-saturated but generally over-saturated at lower temperatures. These waters are titano-magnetite over-saturated at temperatures below 70°C, the SI values decreasing with increasing temperature from

  3. Partitioning of platinum-group elements and Au between sulfide liquid and basalt and the origins of mantle-crust fractionation of the chalcophile elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungall, James E.; Brenan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au between sulfide melt and silicate melt (i.e., DPGEsul) exerts a critical control on the PGE composition of the Earth’s crust and mantle, but previous estimates have been plagued by experimental uncertainties and vary through several orders of magnitude. Here we present direct experimental measurements of DPGEsul, based on in situ microanalysis of the sulfide and silicate melt, with values ranging from ∼4 × 105 (Ru) to ∼2-3 × 106 (Ir, Pt). Our measurements of DPGEsul are >100 times larger than previous results but smaller than anticipated based on comparison of alloy solubilities in sulfide melts and S-free silicate melts. The presence of S in the silicate melt greatly increases alloy solubility. We use our new set of partition coefficients to develop a fully constrained model of PGE behavior during melting which accurately predicts the abundances of PGE in mantle-derived magmas and their restites, including mid-ocean ridge basalts, continental picrites, and the parental magmas of the Bushveld Complex of South Africa. Our model constrains mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to be the products of pooled low and high degree fractional melts. Within-plate picrites are pooled products of larger degrees of fractional melting in columnar melting regimes. A significant control on PGE fractionation in mantle-derived magmas is exerted by residual alloy or platinum group minerals in their source. At low pressures (e.g., MORB genesis) the mantle residual to partial melting retains primitive mantle inter-element ratios and abundances of PGE until sulfide has been completely dissolved but then evolves to extremely high Pt/Pd and low Pd/Ir because Pt and Ir alloys form in the restite. During melting at high pressure to form picrites or komatiites Ir alloy appears as a restite phase but Pt alloy is not stable due to the large effect of pressure on fS2, and of temperature on fO2 along an internal

  4. Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes in basalts and sulfides from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegner, E.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1987-01-01

    Isotopic Pb, Sr, and Nd data were collected by the Alvin submersible from seven basalt glasses in the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR), giving similar ratios for Pb-206/Pb-204 of about 18.45, for Pb-207/Pb-204 of about 15.47, for Pb-208/Pb-204 of about 37.81, for Sr-87/Sr-86 of about 0.70249, and for Nd-143/Nd-144 of about 0.51315. Data suggest that the basalts are all cogenetic, and that four of the samples are also comagmatic. It is concluded that isotopic data for the JFR and seamount basalts provide additional support for the mantle blob cluster model (Allegre et al., 1984), suggesting the involvement of multiple components in the genesis of ridge basalts, and including an unusual end-member that has nonradiogenic Sr and variable Pb-206/Pb-204 isotopic compositions.

  5. Siderophile and chalcophile metal variations in Tertiary picrites and basalts from West Greenland with implications for the sulphide saturation history of continental flood basalt magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keays, Reid R.; Lightfoot, Peter C.

    2007-04-01

    much more severe than that of the West Greenland contaminated basalts. Moreover, the volumes of the contaminated and metal-depleted volcanic rocks in West Greenland pale is significant when compared to the Nadezhdinsky Formation; local centers rarely contain more than 15 thin flows with a combined thickness of <50 m and more typically 10-20 m, so the volume of the eruptive portions of each system is probably two orders of magnitude smaller than the Nadezhdinsky edifice. The West Greenland centres are juxtaposed along fault zones that appear to be linked to the subsidence of the Tertiary delta, and so emplacement along N-S structures appears to be a principal control on the distribution of lavas and feeder intrusions. This leads us to suggest that the Greenland system is small and segregation of sulphide took place at high levels in the crust, whereas at Noril’sk, the saturation event took place at depth with subsequent emplacement of sulphide-bearing magmas into high levels of the crust. As a consequence, it may be unreasonable to expect that the West Greenland flood basalts experienced mineralizing processes on the scale of the Noril’sk system.

  6. Sulfur Concentration of Martian Magmas at Sulfide Saturation at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Martian Magma Ocean and Magmatic Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfur is critical for a wide range of processes of terrestrial planets including thermal evolution of core and atmosphere and geochemistry of mantle and crust. For Mars, sulfur is particularly important because it may be abundant in the core [1] while SO 2 and H2 S might have exerted a strong greenhouse climate in the past [2]. A critical parameter that affects sulfur distribution during differentiation is the sulfur carrying capacity of mantle melts. However, most experiments constraining sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) are conducted on FeO poor (~5-12 wt.%) basalts [3] and recent experiments on high-FeO (~16-22 wt.%, [4]) Martian basalts are restricted to ≤0.8 GPa [5]. To constrain SCSS of Martian magmas at mantle conditions, we simulated basalt-sulfide melt equilibria (S added as 15-30 wt.% FeS) in Gr capsules using a piston cylinder at 1-3 GPa and 1500-1700 °C. Two starting compositions, equivalent to olivine-phyric shergottites Yamato980459 (Y98; ~17.53 wt.% FeO) and NWA 2990 (NWA; ~16.42 wt.% FeO) and thought to be primary magma [6] were used. A composition Y98+1.4 wt.% H2O was also explored to constrain the effect of water on SCSS. All experiments produced quenched sulfide and silicate melts ± opx . FeS species in the NWA glasses was confirmed from peaks at 300-400 cm-1 in Raman spectra [7]. At 1600 °C, SCSS, measured using EPMA, decreases with pressure, 4800 to 3500 ppm from 1 to 2.5 GPa for Y98, ~5440 to 4380 ppm from 1 to 2 GPa for Y98+1.4 wt.% H2O, and 5000 to 3000 ppm from 1 to 3 GPa for NWA. At 2 GPa, SCSS of NWA increases with temperature, 3300 to 4600 ppm from 1500 to 1700 °C. Combining new and previous experiments on Martian basalts [5] (a total of 28 SCSS data with FeO* of 9.3-32.78 wt.%), a preliminary equation of the form LnS (ppm) = a + b.P + c/T +d.XSiO2 + e.XAl2O3 + f.LnXFeO was fitted, where P is in GPa, T in K, and X represents mole fraction of a given oxide. Our study suggests that at conditions of final melt

  7. Transport of Sulfide-Reduced Graphene Oxide in Saturated Quartz Sand: Cation-Dependent Retention Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tianjiao; Fortner, John D; Zhu, Dongqiang; Qi, Zhichong; Chen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    We describe how the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) via environmentally relevant pathways affects its transport behavior in porous media. A pair of sulfide-reduced GOs (RGOs), prepared by reducing 10 mg/L GO with 0.1 mM Na2S for 3 and 5 days, respectively, exhibited lower mobility than did parent GO in saturated quartz sand. Interestingly, decreased mobility cannot simply be attributed to the increased hydrophobicity and aggregation upon GO reduction because the retention mechanisms of RGOs were highly cation-dependent. In the presence of Na(+) (a representative monovalent cation), the main retention mechanism was deposition in the secondary energy minimum. However, in the presence of Ca(2+) (a model divalent cation), cation bridging between RGO and sand grains became the most predominant retention mechanism; this was because sulfide reduction markedly increased the amount of hydroxyl groups (a strong metal-complexing moiety) on GO. When Na(+) was the background cation, increasing pH (which increased the accumulation of large hydrated Na(+) ions on grain surface) and the presence of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) significantly enhanced the transport of RGO, mainly due to steric hindrance. However, pH and SRHA had little effect when Ca(2+) was the background cation because neither affected the extent of cation bridging that controlled particle retention. These findings highlight the significance of abiotic transformations on the fate and transport of GO in aqueous systems. PMID:26348539

  8. Mineralogical studies of sulfide samples and volatile concentrations of basalt glasses from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Brett, R; Evans, H T; Gibson, E K; Hedenquist, J W; Wandless, M V; Sommer, M A

    1987-10-10

    Sulfide samples obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey's DSRV Alvin dives on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge closely resemble those from the same area described by Koski et al. (1984). Major minerals include sphalerite, wurtzite, pyrite, marcasite, isocubanite, anhydrite, and chalcopyrite. Equilibrium, if attained at all, during deposition of most sulfides was a transient event over a few tens of micrometers at most and was perturbed by rapid temperature and compositional changes of the circulating fluid. Two new minerals were found: one, a hydrated Zn, Fe hydroxy-chlorosulfate, and the other, a (Mn, Mg, Fe) hydroxide or hydroxy-hydrate. Both were formed at relatively low temperatures. Lizardite, starkeyite, and anatase were found for the first time in such an environment. Sulfide geothermometry involving the system Cu-Fe-S indicates a vent temperature of <328 degrees C for one sample. Fluid inclusion studies on crystals from the same vicinity of the same sample give pressure-corrected homogenization temperatures of 268 degrees and 285 degrees C. Ice-melting temperatures on inclusions from the same sample are about -2.8 degrees C, indicating that the equivalent salinity of the trapped fluid is about 50% greater than that of seawater. Volatile concentrations from vesicle-free basalt glass from the vent field are about 0.013 wt% CO2 and 0.16 wt% H2O, CO2 contents in these samples yield an entrapment depth of 2200 m of seawater, which is the depth from which the samples were collected. PMID:11542121

  9. Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-01-15

    Co-sequestered CO2 with H2S impurities could affect geologic storage, causing changes in pH and oxidation state that affect mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions and the mobility of metals present in the reservoir rocks. We have developed a variable component, non-isothermal simulator, STOMP-COMP (Water, Multiple Components, Salt and Energy), which simulates multiphase flow gas mixtures in deep saline reservoirs, and the resulting reactions with reservoir minerals. We use this simulator to model the co-injection of CO2 and H2S into brecciated basalt flow top. A 1000 metric ton injection of these supercritical fluids, with 99% CO2 and 1% H2S, is sequestered rapidly by solubility and mineral trapping. CO2 is trapped mainly as calcite within a few decades and H2S is trapped as pyrite within several years.

  10. Metal-saturated sulfide assemblages in NWA 2737: Evidence for impact-related sulfur devolatilization in Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Chevrier, Vincent; Sautter, Violaine; Pont, Sylvain

    2012-11-01

    Abstract-NWA 2737, a Martian meteorite from the Chassignite subclass, contains minute amounts (0.010 ± 0.005 vol%) of metal-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> Fe-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. These latter bear evidence of the strong shock effects documented by abundant Fe nanoparticles and planar defects in Northwest Africa (NWA) 2737 olivine. A Ni-poor troilite (Fe/S = 1.0 ± 0.01), sometimes Cr-bearing (up to 1 wt%), coexists with micrometer-sized taenite/tetrataenite-type native Ni-Fe alloys (Ni/Fe = 1) and Fe-Os-Ir-(Ru) alloys a few hundreds of nanometers across. The troilite has exsolved flame-like pentlandite (Fe/Fe + Ni = 0.5-0.6). Chalcopyrite is almost lacking, and no pyrite has been found. As a hot desert find, NWA 2737 shows astonishingly fresh <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The composition of troilite coexisting with Ni-Fe alloys is completely at odds with Chassigny and Nahkla <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (pyrite + metal-deficient monoclinic-type pyrrhotite). It indicates strongly reducing crystallization conditions (close to IW), several log units below the fO2 conditions inferred from chromites compositions and accepted for Chassignites (FMQ-1 log unit). It is proposed that reduction in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> into base and precious metal alloys is operated via sulfur degassing, which is supported by the highly resorbed and denticulated shape of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs and their spongy textures. Shock-related S degassing may be responsible for considerable damages in magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> assemblages, with concomitant loss of magnetic properties as documented in some other Martian meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039408&hterms=mineral+crystallization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmineral%2Bcrystallization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039408&hterms=mineral+crystallization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmineral%2Bcrystallization"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystallization kinetics in a multiply <span class="hlt">saturated</span> <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma - An experimental study of Luna 24 ferrobasalt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Grove, T. L.; Bence, A. E.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The paper deals with the effects of kinetics on mineral/melt partitioning and on fractional crystallization for a Luna-24 ferrobasalt. The composition is nearly multiply <span class="hlt">saturated</span> under lunar surface conditions, making it possible to study the response of several mineral phases to kinetic factors during cooling. The differential suppression of the temperature of appearance of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase causes changes in the liquid line of descent. The course of liquid line of descent is mapped as a function of the cooling rate, and the partitioning of elements between pyroxene/liquid and olivine/liquid is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1179/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1179/"><span id="translatedtitle">Magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich nickel-copper deposits related to picrite and (or) tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dike-sill complexes-A preliminary deposit model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schulz, Klaus J.; Chandler, Val W.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Zientek, Michael L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (?) platinum-group elements (PGEs), account for approximately 60 percent of the world's Ni production and are active exploration targets in the United States and elsewhere. On the basis of their principal metal production, magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in mafic rocks can be divided into two major types: those that are <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich, typically with 10 to 90 percent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals, and have economic value primarily because of their Ni and Cu contents; and those that are <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-poor, typically with 0.5 to 5 percent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals, and are exploited principally for PGE. Because the purpose of this deposit model is to facilitate the assessment for undiscovered, potentially economic magmatic Ni-Cu?PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in the United States, it addresses only those deposits of economic significance that are likely to occur in the United States on the basis of known geology. Thus, this model focuses on deposits hosted by small- to medium-sized mafic and (or) ultramafic dikes and sills that are related to picrite and tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magmatic systems generally emplaced in continental settings as a component of large igneous provinces (LIPs). World-class examples (those containing greater than 1 million tons Ni) of this deposit type include deposits at Noril'sk-Talnakh (Russia), Jinchuan (China), Pechenga (Russia), Voisey's Bay (Canada), and Kabanga (Tanzania). In the United States, this deposit type is represented by the Eagle deposit in northern Michigan, currently under development by Kennecott Minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979485','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979485"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbonate Mineralization of Volcanic Province <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.</p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p> precipitates suggest changes in fluid chemistry unique to the dissolution behavior of each <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sample reacted with CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> water. The Karoo <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from South Africa appeared the least reactive, with very limited mineralization occurring during the testing with CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> water. The relative reactivity of different <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples were unexpectedly different in the experiments conducted using aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixtures versus those reacted with aqueous dissolved CO2 mixtures. For example, the Karoo <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was highly reactive in the presence of aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S, as evident by small nodules of carbonate coating the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> grains after 181 days of testing. However the most reactive <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in CO2-H2O, Newark Basin, formed limited amounts of carbonate precipitates in the presence of aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixture. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> reactivity in CO2-H2O mixtures appears to be controlled by the composition of the glassy mesostasis, which is the most reactive component in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock. With the addition of H2S to the CO2-H2O system, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> reactivity appears to be controlled by precipitation of coatings of insoluble Fe <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V34C..04W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V34C..04W"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Sulfur Degassing in Oceanic <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wetzel, D. T.; Saal, A. E.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hauri, E. H.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Sulfur concentration in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas is highly dependent on pressure, temperature, fO2, fS2, and bulk composition and therefore undergoes a complex history during melting, melt transport, degassing, and eruption. It was first recognized as a volatile in submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by Moore and Fabbi (1971) when the S content in glassy pillow rims was higher than the amount of S measured in degassed lavas at the surface. Subsequent studies concluded that degassing of S is not expected to occur in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas erupting deeper than 500m below sea level (~50 bars). Therefore, once <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> (Liu et al, 2007) and fractionation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melts have been considered, pre-eruptive sulfur concentrations in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas have been used to estimate the primitive S content in the melts and their mantle sources. Based on a large compilation of submarine glasses, we will show that <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas have lost not only CO2 and H2O but also S during degassing at pressures greater than 50 bars. Melt inclusion and glass compositions from submarine oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were compiled to examine sulfur variations. Data was filtered for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> undersaturated samples using Liu et al.’s (2007) calculation since H2O content was available. A positive correlation between S and Dy was expected as seen by previous studies, which considered S for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> undersaturated <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to behave similar to HREE (Dy) during melting and crystal fractionation (Morgan, 1986; Saal et al, 2002). A S/Dy ratio of 240±20 ppm was determined for the data compilation of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glasses. A subgroup of samples, dominantly glasses enriched in incompatible trace elements, showed lower S/Dy than the ratio determined above. This lower S/Dy would be controlled either by a change in S or Dy. A simple melting model was used to confirm that the change in S/Dy was not controlled by Dy variation due to the effect of garnet during mantle melting, but by the decrease in S content. The most likely explanation for this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MinDe..47...23L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MinDe..47...23L"><span id="translatedtitle">S <span class="hlt">saturation</span> history of Nain Plutonic Suite mafic intrusions: origin of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Labrador, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lightfoot, Peter C.; Keays, Reid R.; Evans-Lamswood, Dawn; Wheeler, Robert</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p> ores have higher Ni and Pd tenor than the Eastern Deeps massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>; this is consistent with both a higher R factor and greater degree of silicate parental magma evolution in the Ovoid than the Eastern Deeps. The disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> surrounding the Eastern Deeps deposit have some of the highest Ni and Pd tenors at Voisey's Bay, which are indicative of not only more primitive magmas but also higher R factors than the Ovoid or the Eastern Deeps. VTT and normal-textured troctolite of the Eastern Deeps that contain trace <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> have 0.1-3 ppb Pt and 0.1-3 ppb Pd, whereas weakly to heavily mineralized variable troctolites in the same unit have one to two orders of magnitude higher abundances of Pt and Pd. Troctolites and olivine gabbros from other parts of the Voisey's Bay Intrusion and other Nain Plutonic Suite Intrusions, including the Kiglapait, Newark Bay, Barth Island, Mushua, and Nain Bay South Intrusion, also have low platinum group element abundances. Although it is possible that this is a signature of a widespread <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> event that pre-dated ore formation at Voisey's Bay, it is more likely that platinum group element (PGE) depletion is a product of the source melting process where low degrees of melting resulted in the retention of PGE in the mantle source. If so, this indicates that PGE depletion should be used with caution as an exploration tool in the Nain Plutonic Suite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B11B0366M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B11B0366M"><span id="translatedtitle">Aqueous Iron-<span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Clusters in Variably <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Soil Systems: Implications for Iron Cycling and Fluid Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Iron and sulfur cycling is an important control on contaminant fate and transport, the availability of micronutrients and the physics of water flow. This study explores the effects of soil structure (i.e. layers, lenses, macropores, or fractures) on linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes involving Fe and S cycling in the vadose zone using packed soil columns. Three laboratory soil columns were constructed: a homogenized medium-grained sand, homogenized organic-rich loam, and a sand-over-loam layered column. Both upward and downward infiltration of water was evaluated during experiments to simulate rising water table and rainfall events respectively. Water samples extracted by lysimeter were analyzed for reduced species (including total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, Fe(II), and FeSaq) voltammetrically using a mercury drop electrode. In addition to other reduced species, aqueous FeS clusters (FeSaq) were observed in two of the columns, with the greatest concentrations of FeSaq occurring in close proximity to the soil interface in the layered column. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of aqueous FeS clusters in partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sediments. The aqueous nature of FeSaq allows it to be transported instead of precipitating and suggests that current conceptual models of iron-sulfur cycling may need to be adapted to account for an aqueous phase. The presence of iron-rich soil aggregates near the soil interface may indicate that FeS clusters played a critical role in the formation of soil aggregates that subsequently caused up to an order of magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Litho.258..163Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Litho.258..163Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Using chalcophile elements to constrain crustal contamination and xenolith-magma interaction in Cenozoic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of eastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zeng, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Chen, Li-Hui; Xu, Xi-Sheng</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Continental <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have complicated petrogenetic processes, and their chemical compositions can be affected by multi-staged geological evolution. Compared to lithophile elements, chalcophile elements including Ni, platinum-group elements (PGEs) and Cu are sensitive to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation and fractional crystallization during the evolution of mantle-derived magmas and can provide constraints on the genesis of continental <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Cenozoic intra-continental alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the Nanjing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> field, eastern China, include high-Ca and low-Ca varieties. All these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have poor PGE contents with Ir ranging from 0.016 ppb to 0.288 ppb and high Cu/Pd ratios from 0.7 × 105 to 4.7 × 105 (5.7 × 103 for DMM), indicating that they were derived from <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> mantle sources with variable amounts of residual <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during melting or might undergo an early-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation in the mantle. Relatively high Cu/Pd ratios along with high Pd concentrations for the high-Ca alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> indicate an additional removal of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during magma ascent. Because these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have high, variable Pd/Ir ratios (2.8-16.8) with low Ce/Pb (9.9-19.7) ratios and εNd values (+ 3.6-+6.4), crustal contamination is proposed to be a potential process to induce the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and removal. Significantly increased Pd/Ir ratios for few high-Ca <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can be explained by the fractionation of laurite or Ru-Os-Ir alloys with olivine or chromite. For low-Ca alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, their PGE contents are well correlated with the MgO, Sc contents, incompatible element ratios (Lu/Hf, Na/Ti and Ca/Al) and Hf isotopes. Good correlations are also observed between Pd/Ir (or Rh/Ir) and Na/Ti (or Ca/Al) ratios. Variations of these elemental ratios and Hf isotopes is previously documented to be induced by the mixing of peridotite xenolith-released melts during ascent. Therefore, we suggest that such xenolith-magma interaction are also responsible for the variable PGE compositions of low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009MinDe..44..303S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009MinDe..44..303S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemistry of the Kalatongke Ni-Cu-(PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, NW China: implications for the formation of magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization in a postcollisional environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Xie-Yan; Li, Xiang-Ren</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Kalatongke (also spelt as Karatungk) Ni-Cu-(platinum-group element, PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, containing 33 Mt <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore with a grade of 0.8 wt.% Ni and 1.3 wt.% Cu, is located in the Eastern Junggar terrane, Northern Xinjiang, NW China. The largest <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore body, which occupies more than 50 vol.% of the intrusion Y1, is dominantly comprised of disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with a massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> inner zone. Economic disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> also occur at the base of the intrusions Y2 and Y3. The main host rock types are norite in the lower part and diorite in the upper part of each intrusion. Enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements relative to mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalt</span> indicate that the mafic intrusions were produced from magmas derived from a metasomatized garnet lherzolite mantle. The average grades of the disseminated ores are 0.6 wt.% Ni and 1.1 wt.% Cu, whereas those of the massive ores are 2 wt.% Ni and 8 wt.% Cu. The PGE contents of the disseminated ores (14-69 ppb Pt and 78-162 ppb Pd) are lower than those of the massive ores (120-505 ppb Pt and 30-827 ppb Pd). However, on the basis of 100% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, PGE contents of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are lower than those of the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Very high Cu/Pd ratios (>4.5 × 104) indicate that the Kalatongke <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> segregated from PGE-depleted magma produced by prior <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and separation. A negative correlation between the Cu/Pd ratio and the Pd content in 100% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> indicates that the PGE content of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is controlled by both the PGE concentrations in the parental silicate magma and the ratio of the amount of silicate to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> magma. The negative correlations between Ir and Pd indicate that the massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> experienced fractionation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V32F..08J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V32F..08J"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation of Sulfur-rich, Sulfur-undersaturated <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melts in Oxidized Arc Sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jugo, P. J.; Luth, R. W.; Richards, J. P.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Although sulfur is a minor element in the Earth, it has a disproportionate impact because it commonly occurs as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> largely control the behavior of chalcophile (e.g., Cu, Ni) and highly siderophile elements (Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au) that are of interest because either they are economically important or because they provide valuable information about geochemical processes. Island arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are more oxidized than <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from other tectonic settings and therefore, in these settings, sulfur maybe present not as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> but as sulfate. In addition to the impact on the behavior of chalcophile and siderophile elements, sulfur speciation as sulfate may have a role on the occurrence of sulfur-rich explosive volcanism, which has been linked to significant short-term variations in global climate. However, little is known about the range in oxygen fugacity for the transition from solubility as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to solubility as sulfate. We used experimental data on the solubility of sulfur in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with either <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or sulfate at different oxygen fugacities to model this transition. Our model shows that the ten-fold increase in the solubility of sulfur (from 0.14 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%) observed experimentally occurs at oxygen fugacities between ˜FMQ+1 and ˜FMQ+2, conditions under which many arc magmas are thought to be generated. The increase in the solubility of sulfur with increasing oxygen fugacity implies that in oxidized arc sources very low degrees of partial melting are sufficient to generate <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts that are simultaneously sulfur-rich and sulfur-undersaturated. In the absence of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, oxides and metallic alloys may influence the behavior of some (but not all) the highly siderophile elements whereas the chalcophile and some siderophile elements become incompatible. As a consequence, melting of oxidized sources in which <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are not stable would favor incorporation of metals such as Cu, Ni, Au and Pd in the melts and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.105..155Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.105..155Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Magmatic Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization of the Huangshannan mafic-untramafic intrusion, Eastern Tianshan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, YongQiang; Ke, Junjun</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The Huangshannan Ni-Cu (-PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, a new discovery from geological prospecting in Eastern Tianshan, is in a belt of magmatic Ni-Cu (-PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits along the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The host intrusion of the Huangshannan deposit is composed of a layered ultramafic sequence and a massive gabbro-diorite unit. The major <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> orebodies occur mainly within websterite and lherzolite in the layered ultramafic sequence. In-situ zircon U-Pb dating analyses yielded a crystallization age of 282.5 ± 1.4 Ma, similar to the ages of the Permian Tarim mantle plume. Samples from the Huangshannan intrusion are characterized by nearly flat rare earth elements patterns, negative Zr, Ti and Nb anomalies, arc-like Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios, and significantly lower rare earth element and immobile trace element contents than the Tarim <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. These characteristics suggest that the Huangshannan intrusion was not generated from the Tarim mantle plume. The primary magma for the Huangshannan intrusion and its associated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization were formed from different pulses of picritic magma with different degrees of crustal contamination. The first pulse underwent an initial removal of 0.016% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the deep magma chamber. The evolved magma reached <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> again in the shallow magma chamber and formed <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores in lherzolite. The second pulse of magma reached a level of 0.022% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation at staging chamber before ascending up to the shallow magma chamber. In the shallow conduit system, this <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-unsaturated magma mixed with the first pulse of magma and with contamination from the country rocks, leading to the formation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores in websterite. The third magma pulse from the deep chamber formed the unmineralized massive gabbro-diorite unit of the Huangshannan intrusion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019780','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019780"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamics of magmatic Cu-Ni-PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits: new insights from the Re-Os isotope system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lambert, D.D.; Foster, J.G.; Frick, L.R.; Ripley, E.M.; Zientek, M.L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we reassess crustal contamination and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore-forming processes in some of the largest magmatic ore deposits, using published Re-Os isotope data and a modeling methodology that incorporates the R factor, defined as the effective mass of silicate magma with which a given mass of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> magma has equilibrated, in an Re-Os isotope mixing equation. We show that there is less disparity between conclusions based on Re-Os isotope data compared to other isotopic systems if the R factor is considered, Komatiite-associated Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore systems typically have high Os concentrations, low Re/Os ratios, and near-chondritic initial Os isotope compositions. For magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores that are interpreted to have experienced relatively low R factors (2,000). <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in these ore systems may, therefore, have been achieved via changes in intensive parameters of the komatiite lavas (cooling or decompression) or changes in compositional parameters transparent to the Re-Os isotope system (e.g., fo2/fs2/fH2O)- <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-gabbro-associated Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore systems at Duluth, Sudbury, and Stillwater are quite distinct from those at Kambalda by having comparatively low Os concentrations, high Re/Os ratios, and high initial Os isotope compositions, These chemical and isotopic characteristics are indicative of significant interactions between their parental <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas and old crust because there are no known mantle reservoirs with such extreme geocheinical characteristics. Our modeling suggests that for Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores at Duluth, Sudbury, and Stillwater to maintain the observed high initial Os isotope compositions inherited from a crustal contaminant, R factors for these systems must have been low (< 10,000), consistent with their low metal concentrations. Thus, we interpret this style of base metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization to be derived from crustally contaminated but less dynamic magmatic systems that did not permit extensive equilibration of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> magma</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682258.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682258.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Selenium <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010231','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010231"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduction of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by sulfur loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brett, R.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Metallic Fe content and S abundance are inversely correlated in mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Either S volatilization from the melt results in reduction of Fe2+ to Fe0 or else high S content decreases Fe0 activity in the melt, thus explaining the correlation. All considerations favor the model that metallic iron in mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is due to sulfur loss. The Apollo 11 and 17 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melts were probably <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with S at the time of eruption; the Apollo 12 and 15 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were probably not <span class="hlt">saturated</span>. Non-mare rocks show a positive correlation of S abundance with metallic Fe content; it is proposed that this is due to the addition of meteoritic material having a fairly constant Fe0/S ratio. If true, metallic Fe content or S abundance in non-mare rocks provides a measure of degree of meteoritic contamination. ?? 1976.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Litho..18..151B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Litho..18..151B"><span id="translatedtitle">Vapor deposition in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.248....1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.248....1L"><span id="translatedtitle">The significance of PGE variations with Sr-Nd isotopes and lithophile elements in the Emeishan flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province from SW China to northern Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Tao, Yan; Hu, Ruizhong</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>New analyses of siderophile-lithophile elements and Sr-Nd isotopes in the Permian <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and picrites from northern Vietnam, the southernmost occurrence of the Emeishan flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province, together with previously published data, are used to address the question of whether any meaningful correlation between these elements and isotopes exists at a province scale. The available data show that negative correlations between εNd, (87Sr/86Sr)i and mantle-normalized (Nb/Th)n are present in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> but not in the associated picrites. This indicates that crustal contamination is negligible in the picrites but significant in some of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The picrites and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the entire province show negative correlations between (Rh/Ru)n, (Pt/Ru)n, (Pd/Ru)n and Mg-number. This indicates that Ru behaves compatibly whereas Rh, Pt and Pd behave incompatibly during magma differentiation. The incompatible behavior of Rh in natural <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> systems is also supported by the fact that (Pt/Rh)n remains constant with decreasing Mg-number in the lavas. Depletions of Pd and Pt, and to a lesser degree Cu, in some <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> samples characterized by relatively low εNd and (Nb/Th)n support the notion that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in the magmas was triggered by a combination of siliceous crustal contamination and addition of external sulfur. Within the entire flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province only the picrites from Song Da, northern Vietnam show clear depletion in Ir relative to Ru. These picrites are also characterized higher Al2O3/TiO2 and lower mantle-normalized La/Yb (0.2-2.4) than those from elsewhere in the province, possibly due to the involvement of an Ir-depleted, fertile mantle component in magma generation at this location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUSM.V74B..02Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUSM.V74B..02Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Bubble Growth in Lunar <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFMGP52A..09P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFMGP52A..09P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced Mantle Conductivity from <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> beneath the Sierra Nevada?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, S. K.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>A region of enhanced mantle conductivity (0.03-0.1 S/m) beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, where elevations of over 4000 m are found, has been attributed previously to 3-5% <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt (Park et al., 1996) and to a mix of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt (Ducea and Park, 2000). Because the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt is assumed to have similar conductivities to its solid counterpart (10,000 S/m), very small amounts (< 0.1%) of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> are needed in order to reduce the bulk conductivity from matrix values of about 0.003 S/m or even that of the matrix-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt mix to the values observed. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> melt percentages of less than 1% are needed in the presence of ~0.1% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt in order to match the observed mantle values. Xenoliths from the Holocene <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the Big Pine Volcanic Field contain 0.06-0.4% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, so the estimated values are reasonable. Given the lack of evidence for volumetrically extensive, young (< 10 Ma) <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism, calculated residence times of approximately 100 Ka for 3-5% partial melt, the short (about 300 Ka) times needed to develop connected pathways for the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and the young extension of the adjacent Basin and Range province, a mixed melt with both <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> seems more reasonable. This conclusion presupposes that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt is somehow interconnected in the mantle. Models in which the matrix, the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt, and the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt each form interconnected, interlaced networks leads to much higher predictions of mantle conductivity; the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt fraction must be discontinuous in order to lower bulk conductivity. Petrological studies of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-silicate systems confirm this conclusion; <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melts form isolated blebs on the surfaces of olivine within interconnected <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt channels (Holzheid et al., 2000). Simple series-parallel models of ~1% continuous <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt and ~0.01% discontinuous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt provide bulk conductivities comparable to the observed mantle values. More complicated equivalent media and Hashin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V42C0371L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V42C0371L"><span id="translatedtitle">Platinum-Group Element Variations in Hawaiian Lavas: Constraints on the Role of <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> during Melt Generation and Fractional Crystallization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lassiter, J. C.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Platinum-group elements (PGE) are highly compatible in mantle and magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt/silicate melt partition coefficients typically on the order of 104 or higher. PGE abundances in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts are therefore very sensitive to the presence or absence of residual <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> during melt generation and the fractionation of magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> during crystallization. PGE abundances (Ir, Os, Ru, Pt, Pd) were measured in lavas from Mauna Kea and Koolau volcanoes, Hawaiian Islands to constrain the abundance of residual <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the Hawaiian plume during melt generation as well as the role of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> fractionation during melt evolution. Iridium, Os, and Ru are positively correlated with MgO content in lavas ranging from ˜6-28 wt.% MgO. Bulk partition coefficients during fractional crystallization range from ˜4 (Ir) to ˜7 (Os). The compatible behavior of Ir, Os and Ru in Hawaiian melts likely reflects the high compatibility of these elements in Cr-spinel, which coprecipitates with olivine in most Hawaiian lavas. In contrast, no significant trend is observed in Pt or Pd abundances with MgO content, indicating bulk partition coefficients for these elements of ˜1. Pt and Pd are predicted to be incompatible in Cr-spinels, but are highly compatible in magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (Dsulfide/silicate = 4.5x104) . The low bulk partition coefficients for Pt and Pd in the Koolau and Mauna Kea lavas indicate that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation was insignificant during fractional crystallization, even in lavas that have experienced up to 25% olivine fractionation. Lack of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>/segregation could reflect sulfur degassing in shallow magma chambers. However, deep submarine lavas from the HSDP-2 Mauna Kea drillcore display similar PGE trends. Therefore, it is likely that primary Hawaiian magmas (with ˜15-16 wt.% MgO) are at least ˜20-25% sulfur undersaturated when they reach crustal levels. If the source of Hawaiian lavas contains residual <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, primary Hawaiian melts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Litho.212...16T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Litho.212...16T"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrogenesis of the Ni-Cu-PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing Tamarack Intrusive Complex, Midcontinent Rift System, Minnesota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p> MRS, and are indicative of significant crustal contamination. Differences in textures, whole-rock and mineral compositions, and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> distribution are consistent with the emplacement of at least two distinct <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturated</span> magmatic pulses. Ni-enrichment in the TIC indicates that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> was attained prior to the sequestration of major proportions of Ni by olivine, possibly at a deeper chamber in the magmatic system. The addition of crustal S from the Thomson Formation <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> country rocks is thought to have been the principal process which drove the early attainment of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in the magmas. The CGO Intrusion carried the greater abundance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid, but both the CGO and FGO intrusive sequences represent the accumulation of dense silicate minerals and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid in a conduit system. The genetic processes that were operative in the formation of Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization in the Tamarack Intrusive Complex appear to be typical of conduit-style magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits associated with large continental <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> provinces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682258.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682258.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Selenium <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> usually is used twice a week for the first ... it is irritating. Rinse off all of the lotion.Do not use this medication on children younger ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V73A..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V73A..04H"><span id="translatedtitle">Gold-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt inclusions in xenocrysts from a mid-crustal magma chamber, Mt. Milligan porphyry deposit, British Columbia, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hanley, J. J.; Guillong, M.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Very coarse-grained amphibole xenocrysts (potassian magnesiohastingsite) hosted in an early monzonite stock at the Mt Milligan Cu-Au porphyry deposit, British Columbia, Canada contain coeval <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and silicate melt inclusions of primary origin. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt inclusions have a bulk composition comparable to Cu-rich ISS. Late growth zones in the amphibole are devoid of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> inclusions and contain only low salinity, chalcopyrite-bearing fluid inclusions(average 7.4 wt% NaCleq.). Thermobarometry constrains the minimum conditions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> entrapment (amphibole crystallization) to ˜8 kbar and ˜700°C. LA-ICPMS analyses of 22 <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt inclusions show that it was highly enriched in Au (50± 20 ppm, 1σ), Ag (140± 70 ppm, 1σ) and Ni (5000 ± 3000 ppm, 1σ). Ratios of Cu/Au (7500± 2500, 1σ) and Au/Ag (0.45± 0.24, 1σ) are identical to metal ratios in porphyry- stage veins, demonstrating that these metals were not fractionated from one another during suspected volatile exsolution, fluid-melt partitioning, and subsequent transport and precipitation of ore metals. The extremely Au- rich composition of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt may reflect fractional crystallization of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid prior to entrapment in the amphibole. Both the xenocrysts and rare, high Mg, alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> xenoliths hosted in the intrusions are depleted in Cr, Co, Ni and Cu, reflecting the sequestering of the base metals into a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid in a mid- crustal magma chamber where amphibole and Cr-spinel were cumulus phases. The results of this study show that a Cu-Au-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt coexisted with a amphibole-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> alkalic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquid in mid-crustal magma chamber prior to the emplacement of the main intrusions and associated porphyry stage mineralization at Mt. Milligan. This <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt appears to have destabilized with the appearance (exsolution) of a single-phase low salinity aqueous fluid. Identification and analysis of ore metals in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt inclusions in relatively common</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1991EOSTr..72Q..12.&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1991EOSTr..72Q..12.&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental Flood <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have been receiving considerable scientific attention lately. Recent publications have focused on several particular flood-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> provinces (Brito-Arctic, Karoo, Parana', Deccan, and Columbia Plateau), and much attention has been given to the proposed connection between flood-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism, bolide impacts, and mass extinctions. The editor of Continental Flood <span class="hlt">Basalts</span>, J. D. Macdougall, conceived the book to assemble in a single volume, from a vast and scattered literature, an overview of each major post-Cambrian flood-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> province.Continental Flood <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> has 10 chapters; nine treat individual flood-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> provinces, and a summary chapter compares and contrasts continental flood-<span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mid-oceanic ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Specifically, the chapters address the Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, the northwest United States including the Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, the Ethiopian Province, the North Atlantic Tertiary Province, the Deccan Traps, the Parana' Basin, the Karoo Province, the Siberian Platform, and Cenozoic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks in eastern China. Each chapter is written by one or more individuals with an extensive background in the province.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MinDe..45..419M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MinDe..45..419M"><span id="translatedtitle">The Kabanga Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Tanzania: I. Geology, petrography, silicate rock geochemistry, and sulfur and oxygen isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maier, Wolfgang D.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Sarkar, Arindam; Ripley, Ed; Li, Chusi; Livesey, Tim</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The Kabanga Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit represents one of the most significant Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> discoveries of the last two decades, with current indicated mineral resources of 23.23 Mt at 2.64% Ni and inferred mineral resources of 28.5 Mt at 2.7% Ni (Nov. 2008). The <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are hosted by a suite of ˜1.4 Ga ultramafic-mafic, sill-like, and chonolithic intrusions that form part of the approximately 500 km long Kabanga-Musongati-Kapalagulu igneous belt in Tanzania and Burundi. The igneous bodies are up to about 1 km thick and 4 km long. They crystallized from several compositionally distinct magma pulses emplaced into <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing pelitic schists. The first magma was a siliceous high-magnesium <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (approximately 13.3% MgO) that formed a network of fine-grained acicular-textured gabbronoritic and orthopyroxenitic sills (Mg# opx 78-88, An plag 45-88). The magma was highly enriched in incompatible trace elements (LILE, LREE) and had pronounced negative Nb and Ta anomalies and heavy O isotopic signatures (δ18O +6 to +8). These compositional features are consistent with about 20% contamination of primitive picrite with the <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> pelitic schists. Subsequent magma pulses were more magnesian (approximately 14-15% MgO) and less contaminated (e.g., δ18O +5.1 to +6.6). They injected into the earlier sills, resulting in the formation of medium-grained harzburgites, olivine orthopyroxenites and orthopyroxenites (Fo 83-89, Mg# opx 86-89), and magmatic breccias consisting of gabbronorite-orthopyroxenite fragments within an olivine-rich matrix. All intrusions in the Kabanga area contain abundant <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and minor chalcopyrite and pyrite). In the lower portions and the immediate footwall of two of the intrusions, namely Kabanga North and Kabanga Main, there occur numerous layers, lenses, and veins of massive Ni <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> reaching a thickness of several meters. The largest amount of high grade, massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> occurs in the smallest intrusion (Kabanga North</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.119..117M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.119..117M"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marrocchi, Yves; Libourel, Guy</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The nature and distribution of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> within type I PO, POP and PP chondrules of the carbonaceous chondrite Vigarano (CV3) have been studied by secondary electron microscopy and electron microprobe. They occur predominantly as spheroidal blebs composed entirely of low-Ni iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (troilite, FeS) or troilite + magnetite but in less abundance in association with metallic Fe-Ni beads in opaque assemblages. Troilites are mainly located within the low-Ca pyroxene outer zone and their amounts increase with the abundance of low-Ca pyroxene within chondrules, suggesting co-crystallization of troilite and low-Ca pyroxene during high-temperature events. We show that sulfur concentration and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> occurrence in chondrules obey high temperature sulfur solubility and <span class="hlt">saturation</span> laws. Depending on the fS2 and fO2 of the surrounding gas and on the melt composition, mainly the FeO content, sulfur dissolved in chondrule melts may eventually reach a concentration limit, the sulfur content at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> (SCSS), at which an immiscible iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid separates from the silicate melt. The occurrence of both a silicate melt and an immiscible iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid is further supported by the non-wetting behavior of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on silicate phases in chondrules due to the high interfacial tension between their precursor iron-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid droplets and the surrounding silicate melt during the high temperature chondrule-forming event. The evolution of chondrule melts from PO to PP towards more silicic compositions, very likely due to high PSiO(g) of the surrounding nebular gas, induces <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of FeS at much lower S content in PP than in PO chondrules, leading to the co-crystallization of iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and low-Ca pyroxenes. Conditions of co-<span class="hlt">saturation</span> of low-Ca pyroxene and FeS are only achieved in non canonical environments characterized by high partial pressures of sulfur and SiO and redox conditions more oxidizing than IW-3. Fe and S mass balance calculations also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=458','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=458"><span id="translatedtitle">Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ; CASRN 7446 - 34 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=61','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=61"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ; 7783 - 06 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=617','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=617"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ; CASRN 463 - 58 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR41A1982O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR41A1982O"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2 sequestration in <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: laboratory measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; van Wijk, K.; McLing, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Geologic sequestration of CO2 is proposed as the only promising large-scale method to help reduce CO2 gas emission by its capture at large point sources and subsequent long-term storage in deep geologic formations. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be important aspect of ensuring geological sequestration is a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 emissions mitigation. Once CO2 injection starts, seismic methods can be used to monitor the migration of the carbon dioxide plume. To calibrate changes in rock properties from field observations, we propose to first analyze changes in elastic properties on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> cores. Carbon dioxide sequestration in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rocks results in fluid substitution and mixing of CO2 with water and rock mineralizations. Carbon dioxide sequestration in mafic rocks creates reactions such as Mg2SiO 4 + CaMgSi2O 6 + 4CO2 = Mg 3Ca(CO 3) 4 + 3SiO2 whereby primary silicate minerals within the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> react with carbonic acid laden water to creating secondary carbonate minerals and silicates. Using time-lapse laboratory scale experiments, such as laser generated ultrasonic wave propagation; it is possible to observe small changes in the physical properties of a rock. We will show velocity and modulus measurements on three <span class="hlt">basalt</span> core samples for different <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The ultimate goal of the project is to track seismic changes due to fluid substitution and mineralization. The porosity of our <span class="hlt">basalts</span> ranges from 8% to 12%, and the P-wave velocity increases by 20% to 40% from dry to water <span class="hlt">saturated</span> conditions. Petrographic analysis (CT-scans, thin sections, XRF, XRf) will aid in the characterization of the mineral structure in these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and its correlation to seismic properties changes resulting from fluid substitution and mineralization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23647923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23647923"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking geology, fluid chemistry, and microbial activity of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>- and ultramafic-hosted deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perner, M; Hansen, M; Seifert, R; Strauss, H; Koschinsky, A; Petersen, S</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal fluids passing through <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks along mid-ocean ridges are known to be enriched in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, while those circulating through ultramafic mantle rocks are typically elevated in hydrogen. Therefore, it has been estimated that the maximum energy in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted systems is available through <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation and in ultramafic-hosted systems through hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, thermodynamic models suggest that the greatest biomass potential arises from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted and from hydrogen oxidation in ultramafic-hosted systems. We tested these predictions by measuring biological <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and hydrogen removal and subsequent autotrophic CO2 fixation in chemically distinct hydrothermal fluids from <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted and ultramafic-hosted vents. We found a large potential of microbial hydrogen oxidation in naturally hydrogen-rich (ultramafic-hosted) but also in naturally hydrogen-poor (<span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted) hydrothermal fluids. Moreover, hydrogen oxidation-based primary production proved to be highly attractive under our incubation conditions regardless whether hydrothermal fluids from ultramafic-hosted or <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted sites were used. Site-specific hydrogen and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> availability alone did not appear to determine whether hydrogen or <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation provides the energy for primary production by the free-living microbes in the tested hydrothermal fluids. This suggests that more complex features (e.g., a combination of oxygen, temperature, biological interactions) may play a role for determining which energy source is preferably used in chemically distinct hydrothermal vent biotopes. PMID:23647923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U51A..09C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U51A..09C"><span id="translatedtitle">The biological consequences of flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clapham, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions are among the largest environmental perturbations of the Phanerozoic. The rapid release of CO2 from a large igneous province would have triggered a chain of events that can include climate warming, ocean acidification, reduced seawater carbonate <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, and expanded oceanic anoxia. Those stressors have widely negative impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcified taxa, by affecting their respiratory physiology and reducing energy available for growth and reproduction. Many Phanerozoic extinctions, most notably the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, coincided with flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions and shared distinctive patterns of taxonomic and ecological selectivity. In these extinctions, highly active organisms were more likely to survive because they possess physiological adaptations for maintaining internal pH during activity, which also proves useful when buffering pH against ocean acidification. In contrast, species that did not move and had low metabolic rates, such as brachiopods and sponges, suffered considerable losses during these extinctions. Heavily-calcified organisms, especially corals, were particularly vulnerable; as a result, ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">saturation</span> state changes from flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions often triggered crises in reef ecosystems. This characteristic pattern of selectivity during "physiological" extinctions that closely coincided with flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> provides a template for assessing the causes of other extinction events. Because these crises also provide deep time analogues for the ongoing anthropogenic crisis of warming, ocean acidification, and expanded anoxia, the selectivity patterns can also help constrain "winners" and "losers" over upcoming decades.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011692','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011692"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry and isotope ratios of sulfur in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and volcanic gases at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sakai, H.; Casadevall, T.J.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Eighteen <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and some volcanic gases from the submarine and subaerial parts of Kilauea volcano were analyzed for the concentration and isotope ratios of sulfur. By means of a newly developed technique, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate sulfur in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were separately but simultaneously determined. The submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> has 700 ?? 100 ppm total sulfur with ??34S??s of 0.7 ?? 0.1 ???. The sulfate/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> molar ratio ranges from 0.15 to 0.56 and the fractionation factor between sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is +7.5 ?? 1.5???. On the other hand, the concentration and ??34S??s values of the total sulfur in the subaerial <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are reduced to 150 ?? 50 ppm and -0.8 ?? 0.2???, respectively. The sulfate to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ratio and the fractionation factor between them are also smaller, 0.01 to 0.25 and +3.0???, respectively. Chemical and isotopic evidence strongly suggests that sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are in chemical and isotopic equilibria with each other at magmatic conditions. Their relative abundance and the isotope fractionation factors may be used to estimate the f{hook}o2 and temperature of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> at the time of their extrusion onto the sea floor. The observed change in sulfur chemistry and isotopic ratios from the submarine to subaerial <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can be interpreted as degassing of the SO2 from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> thereby depleting sulfate and 34S in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The volcanic sulfur gases, predominantly SO2, from the 1971 and 1974 fissures in Kilauea Crater have ??34S values of 0.8 to 0.9%., slightly heavier than the total sulfur in the submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and definitely heavier than the subaerial <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, in accord with the above model. However, the ??34S value of sulfur gases (largely SO2) from Sulfur Bank is 8.0%., implying a secondary origin of the sulfur. The ??34S values of native sulfur deposits at various sites of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanos, sulfate ions of four deep wells and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from a geothermal well along the east rift zone are also reported. The high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011998','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011998"><span id="translatedtitle">Seawater sulfate reduction and sulfur isotope fractionation in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> systems: interaction of seawater with fayalite and magnetite at 200–350°C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shanks, Wayne C., III; Bischoff, James L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Systematics of sulfur isotopes in the 250 and 350°C experiments indicate that isotopic equilibrium is reached, and can be modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process. Isotopic composition of hydrothermally produced H2S in natural systems is strongly dependent upon the seawater/<span class="hlt">basalt</span> ratio in the geothermal system, which controls the relative <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> contributions from the two important sulfur sources, seawater sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Anhydrite precipitation during geothermal heating severely limits sulfate ingress into high temperature interaction zones. Quantitative sulfate reduction can thus be accomplished without producing strongly oxidized rocks and resultant <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sulfur isotope values represent a mixture of seawater and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sulfur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014023','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014023"><span id="translatedtitle">Concentrations and isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sakai, H.; Marais, D.J.D.; Ueda, A.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Fresh submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glasses from Galapagos Ridge, FAMOUS area, Cayman Trough and Kilauea east rift contain 22 to 160 ppm carbon and 0.3 to 2.8 ppm nitrogen, respectively, as the sums of dissolved species and vesicle-filling gases (CO2 and N2). The large range of variation in carbon content is due to combined effect of depth-dependency of the solubility of carbon in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt and varying extents of vapour loss during magma emplacement as well as in sample crushing. The isotopic ratios of indigenous carbon and nitrogen are in very narrow ranges,-6.2 ?? 0.2% relative to PDB and +0.2 ?? 0.6 %. relative to atmospheric nitrogen, respectively. In <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from Juan de Fuca Ridge, however, isotopically light carbon (??13C = around -24%.) predominates over the indigenous carbon; no indigenous heavy carbon was found. Except for Galapagos Ridge samples, these ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain 670 to 1100 ppm sulfur, averaging 810 ppm, in the form of both <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate, whereas <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Galapagos Ridge are higher in both sulfur (1490 and 1570 ppm) and iron (11.08% total iron as FeO). The ??34S values average +0.3 ?? 0.5%. with average fractionation factor between sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> of +7.4 ?? 1.6%.. The sulfate/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ratios tend to increase with increasing water content of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, probably because the oxygen fugacity increases with increasing water content in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt. ?? 1984.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5533801','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5533801"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> meter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gregurech, S.</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">saturation</span> meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of <span class="hlt">saturation</span> prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5444956','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5444956"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burns, R.G.; Fisher, D.S. )</p> <p>1990-08-30</p> <p>The presence of komatiitic igneous rocks on Marks, based on geochemical evidence from SNC meteorites and Viking X ray fluorescence analyses of the regolith, suggests that massive and disseminated iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization occurs near the Martian surface. Analogies are drawn between possible ultramafic Fe-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on Mars and terrestrial pyrrhotite-pentlandite ore deposits associated with Archean komatiites formed during early crustal development on Earth. Partial melting of the mantle as a result of high radiogenic heat production then, extrusion of turbulent high-temperature ultramafic lavas, segregation of immiscible FeS melts during cooling, gravitational settling and fractional crystallization of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals in magma chambers or lava flows produced massive and disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization associated with terrestrial komatiites. Comparable processes probably occurred on Mars where, on account of the inferred higher Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio of the X ray mantle (estimated to contain {approximately}4.5 wt % S), iron-rich <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas were produced by partial melting at depths and temperatures exceeding 165 km and 1,400{degree}C, respectively. Adiabatic diapiric emplacement of these iron-rich, very low viscosity <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts transported significant concentrations of dissolved sulfur as S{sup 2{minus}} and HS{sup {minus}} from the mantle. Ensuing <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization may have been either thinly disseminated within ultramafic lavas erupting over large areas of Mars or concentrated locally at the base of structural depressions. Cumulate ore deposits several meters thick may occur at the base of intrusions or in near-surface magma chambers. The evidence for insignificant plate tectonic activity on Mars and minimal interactions of Martian mantle with crust, hydrosphere and atmosphere has restricted the evolution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore deposits there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5691381','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5691381"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> island sand provenance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865685','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865685"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> chemiluminescence detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A method of chemiluminescently determining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> which is either hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or methyl mercaptan by reacting the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7148124','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7148124"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> chemiluminescence detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.</p> <p>1985-11-26</p> <p>A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> which is either hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or methyl mercaptan by reacting the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/897684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/897684"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McGrail, B. PETER; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ho, Anita M.; Chien, Yi-Ju; Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> pore water with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to form stable carbonate minerals. Calculations suggest a sufficiently short time frame for onset of carbonate precipitation after CO2 injection that verification of in situ mineralization rates appears feasible in field pilot studies. If proven viable, major flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the U.S. and India would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in certain regions where more conventional storage options are limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V23G..05N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V23G..05N"><span id="translatedtitle">Volatiles in Submarine HIMU <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from the Austral Islands, South Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nichols, A. R.; Hanyu, T.; Shimizu, K.; Dosso, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have been collected from the slopes of Rurutu and Tubuai in the Austral Islands, South Pacific with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500. Previous work on the bulk radiogenic isotope and trace element chemistry of these samples suggests that the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were generated from a HIMU reservoir derived from an ancient subducted slab that was entrained and mixed with the depleted asthenospheric mantle. Olivines and glasses from the submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> show lower 3He/4He than MORB, similar to subaerial <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from these islands. Sixteen glass chips from the same submarine samples have now undergone in-situ analysis for major elements (including S and Cl) by EPMA, trace elements by LA-ICP-MS, H2O and CO2 by FTIR, and bulk volatile analysis (S, Cl, F) by ion chromatography combined with pyrohydrolysis. H2O ranges from 0.62-2.44 wt%, while CO2 is below detection (<20 ppm). S measured by EPMA ranges from 612-1889 ppm and by bulk analysis from 582-1301 ppm and, with the exception of one sample, concentrations agree well. Cl measured by EPMA ranges from 151-538 ppm, and by bulk analysis from 188-980 ppm. The higher values suggest that the bulk samples may be contaminated by seawater; otherwise Cl correlates strongly with incompatible elements. F measured in the bulk samples ranges from 221-1243 ppm. S correlates positively with FeO and Cu, but not with incompatible elements, suggesting <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. While the highest H2O contents may reflect late-stage hydration and are oversaturated at the depth of collection, the low H2O contents (11 samples with 0.62-0.96 wt%) are undersaturated, and there is a positive correlation between the H2O contents of all chips and their incompatible element concentrations. This suggests that H2O/Ce and Cl/Ce filtered for shallow level processes may reflect source compositions, providing constraints on volatiles in the sources of Rurutu and Tubuai, and indications about the efficiency of subduction-related volatile-loss in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LPICo1819.1016L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LPICo1819.1016L"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Speciation and Solubility in Graphite-<span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Reduced Silicate Melt: Implications for the Degassing of Martian Mantle and Carbon in Martian Magma Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Y.; Dasgupta, R.; Tsuno, K.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Experiments were performed to study carbon solubility and speciation in graphite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt as a function of melt water content and oxygen fugacity. Results show that a considerable CH4 may have been dissolved in martian <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5147918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5147918"><span id="translatedtitle">Massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Janecky, D.R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> samples from the seafloor and massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit minerals and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in feeder zones is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MinDe..49..279Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MinDe..49..279Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> mineralization associated with arc magmatism in the Qilian Block, western China: zircon U-Pb age and Sr-Nd-Os-S isotope constraints from the Yulonggou and Yaqu gabbroic intrusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhao-Wei; Li, Wen-Yuan; Gao, Yong-Bao; Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Kamo, Sandra</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing Yulonggou and Yaqu mafic intrusions are located in the southern margin of the Qilian Block, Qinghai Province, western China. They are small dike-like bodies mainly composed of gabbros and diorites. Disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite) are present as concordant lenses within the intrusions. Precise CA-ID-TIMS zircon U-Pb dating yields the crystallization ages of 443.39 ± 0.42 and 440.74 ± 0.33 Ma for the Yulonggou and Yaqu intrusions, respectively. Whole rock samples from both intrusions show light rare earth element (REE) enrichments relative to heavy REE and pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies relative to Th and La, which are consistent with the products of arc <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmatism. The Yulonggou intrusion has negative ɛ Nd values from -5.7 to -7.7 and elevated (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios from 0.711 to 0.714. In contrast, the Yaqu intrusion has higher ɛ Nd values from -4.1 to +8.4 and lower (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios from 0.705 to 0.710. The δ34S values of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> separates from the Yulonggou and Yaqu deposits vary from 0.8 to 2.4 ‰ and from 2 to 4.3 ‰, respectively. The γ Os values of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> separates from the Yulonggou and Yaqu deposits vary between 80 and 123 and between 963 and 1,191, respectively. Higher γ Os values coupled with higher δ34S values for the Yaqu deposit relative to the Yulonggou deposit indicate that external sulfur played a bigger role in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization in the Yaqu intrusion than in the Yulonggou intrusion. Mixing calculations using Sr-Nd isotope data show that contamination with siliceous crustal materials is more pronounced in the Yulonggou intrusion (up to 20 wt%) than in the Yaqu intrusion (<15 wt%). The distribution of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in both intrusions is consistent with multiple emplacements of <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> magmas from depth. The Yulonggou and Yaqu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits are not economically valuable under current market condition due to small sizes and low Ni grades, which can be explained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868376','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868376"><span id="translatedtitle">Cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.</p> <p>1992-07-07</p> <p>A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868034','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868034"><span id="translatedtitle">Cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.</p> <p>1991-10-22</p> <p>A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.179..257Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.179..257Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of anorthite dissolution in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Yi; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Yang; Xu, Zhengjiu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We report convection-free anorthite dissolution experiments in a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt at 1280-1500 °C and 0.5 GPa on two different crystallographic surfaces, (1 2 1 bar) and (3 bar 0 2) to investigate dissolution kinetics. The anisotropy of the anorthite dissolution rate along these two surfaces is negligible. Time series experiments at ∼1280 °C show that anorthite dissolution is mainly controlled by diffusion in the melt within experimental uncertainty. Analytical solutions were used to model the dissolution and diffusion processes, and to obtain the diffusivities and the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> concentrations of the equilibrium-determining component (Al2O3) for anorthite dissolution into the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt. For the first time, we are able to show the physical and chemical characteristics of quench growth effect on the near-interface melt using high spatial resolution (0.3 μm) EDS analyses. For anorthite (An# ⩾ 90) <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in a melt with 39-53 wt% SiO2 and ⩽0.4 wt% H2O, the concentration of Al2O3 in wt% depends on temperature as follows:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017995','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017995"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributed <span class="hlt">Saturation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Ming-Ying; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Siminiceanu, Radu I.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> algorithm for symbolic state-space generation, has been a recent break-through in the exhaustive veri cation of complex systems, in particular globally-asyn- chronous/locally-synchronous systems. The algorithm uses a very compact Multiway Decision Diagram (MDD) encoding for states and the fastest symbolic exploration algo- rithm to date. The distributed version of <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> uses the overall memory available on a network of workstations (NOW) to efficiently spread the memory load during the highly irregular exploration. A crucial factor in limiting the memory consumption during the symbolic state-space generation is the ability to perform garbage collection to free up the memory occupied by dead nodes. However, garbage collection over a NOW requires a nontrivial communication overhead. In addition, operation cache policies become critical while analyzing large-scale systems using the symbolic approach. In this technical report, we develop a garbage collection scheme and several operation cache policies to help on solving extremely complex systems. Experiments show that our schemes improve the performance of the original distributed implementation, SmArTNow, in terms of time and memory efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V53A4840F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V53A4840F"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of Magnetic High at <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Vent Field in the Central Indian Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Sato, T.; Sato, H.; Nakamura, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal alteration processes can change crustal magnetization by destruction and creation of magnetic minerals. In the Yokoniwa hydrothermal vent field (YHVF), located at the NTO-massif in the Central Indian Ridge, a high magnetization zone (with ~12 A/m in ~200 m-scale) was discovered by previous deepsea AUV survey. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and ultramafic rocks were found around the YHVF, however the origin of magnetic high and its relationship with hydrothermal activity are remains to be investigated. Therefore, we conducted additional magnetic field measurement, rock sampling, and geological observation using submersible Shinkai 6500 during the YK09-13 and YK13-03 cruises. Vector geomagnetic field were obtained along the dive tracks at an altitude of ~ 10 m. The crustal absolute magnetization is estimated using the 2D and 3D forward modeling technique. The values of magnetization show ~10 A/m just around the YHVF. This value is consistent with that of equivalent magnetization deduced from AUV data. Rock magnetic characters were measured for 8 <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, 4 dolerites, 5 <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, and 30 serpentinized peridotites (SPs). The measurements of NRM, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic hysteresis, low (6-300K) and high (50-700°C) temperature magnetization curves were performed. The estimated magnetization values are 0.1-6 A/m in <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, 0.2-0.6 A/m in dolerites, and <0.1 A/m in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The SPs show strong magnetization of 0.4-11 A/m. The magnetic grain sizes ranges over single domain to pseudo-single domain. The temperature-magnetization curves clearly show the Verway transition and Currie temperature of 580 °C, therefore magnetic carrier of SPs is supposed as pure magnetite, which is created during serpentinization process. Serpentinization degree (Sd) was also estimated by grain density measurement based on empirical formula from Oufi et al., 2002. Amount of magnetite was also estimated from <span class="hlt">saturation</span> magnetization. The results show that the values of Sd vary in a range from 17</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoOD..49..467S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoOD..49..467S"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal alteration and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization in gabbroids of the Markov Deep (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6° N)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharkov, E. V.; Abramov, S. S.; Simonov, V. A.; Krinov, D. I.; Skolotnev, S. G.; Bel'Tenev, V. E.; Bortnikov, N. S.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>A new type of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> occurrence related to metasomatically altered brecciated gabbroids has been studied at the Sierra Leone site situated in the axial rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Markov Deep, 6° N). Two associations of plutonic, subvolcanic, and volcanic rocks were dredged: (1) mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORB) and their intrusive analogues and (2) rocks of the silicic Fe-Ti-oxide series with dominating gabbronorites and sporadic trondhjemites. Almost all igneous rocks at the Sierra Leone site are enriched in Pb, Cu, U, Ga, Ta, Nb, Cs, and Rb and depleted in Zr, Th, and Hf. The rocks of the Fe-Ti-oxide series are enriched in Zn, Sn, and Mo and depleted in Ni and Cr. The main ore-bearing zone is situated at the foot of the eastern wall of the deep, where it is hosted in cataclastic hornblende gabbro and gabbronorite of the Fe-Ti-oxide series. Ore mineralization in metasomatically altered rocks is composed of quartz-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and prehnite-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> veinlets, disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, and veined copper <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore. The ore consists of pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, bornite, chalcocite, and digenite. The δ34S value of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> varies from 3.0 to 15.3‰. At the foot of the eastern wall of the Markov Deep, directly downslope from the ore-bearing zone, loose sediments contain grains of native Cu, Pb, Zn, and Sn and intermetallic compounds (isoferroplatinum, tetraferroplatinum, and brass) apparently derived from the ore. Mineral assemblages of ore-bearing metasomatic rocks and fluid inclusions therein were studied. Ore metasomatism developed under a low oxygen potential within a temperature interval from 400 to 160°C, though initial hydrothermal alteration of rocks proceeded at temperatures of 800-450°C. The temperature of stringer-disseminated ore mineralization is estimated at 170-280°C. The hydrothermal fluids are considered to be of magmatic origin; as the hydrothermal system evolved, they became diluted with seawater that was contained in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014380','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014380"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralization, alteration, and hydrothermal metamorphism of the ophiolite-hosted Turner-Albright <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, southwestern Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zierenberg, R.A.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Seyfried, W.E., Jr.; Koski, R.A.; Strickler, M.D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Turner-Albright <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, part of the Josephine ophiolite, formed on and below the seafloor during Late Jurassic volcanism at a back arc spreading center. Ore fluids were probably localized by faults which were active on the seafloor at the time of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposition. The uppermost massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> formed on the seafloor at hydrothermal vents. The bulk of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization formed below the seafloor within olivine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> hyaloclastite erupted near the time of mineralization. Infiltration of hydrothermal fluid into the hyaloclastite altered the rock. The fluid responsible for the hydrothermal alteration was evolved seawater with low pH and Mg and high Fe. The average value of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and the difference between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and contemporaneous seawater sulfate values are similar to ophiolite-hosted <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in Cyprus. Mudstone and clinopyroxene <span class="hlt">basalt</span> above the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> horizons were not altered by the ore-transporting hydrothermal fluid, but these rocks were hydrothermally metamorphosed by altered seawater heated by deep circulation into hot oceanic crust. This subseafloor metamorphism produced a mineral assemblage typical of prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism. Exchange with altered seawater increased the whole-rock ??18O of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to values of 9.4-11.2%. -from Authors</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035314&hterms=potassium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpotassium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035314&hterms=potassium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpotassium"><span id="translatedtitle">Very high potassium (VHK) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> - Complications in mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The first comprehensive report on the petrology and geochemistry of Apollo 14 VHK (Very High Potassium) <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and their implications for lunar evolution is presented. The reported data are most consistent with the hypothesis that VHK <span class="hlt">basalts</span> formed through the partial assimilation of granite by a normal low-Ti, high-Al mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma. Assimilation was preceded by the diffusion-controlled exchange of alkalis and Ba between <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma and the low-temperature melt fraction of the granite. Hypotheses involving volatile/nonvolatile fractionations or long-term enrichment of the source regions in K are inconsistent with the suprachondritic Ba/La ratios and low initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of VHK <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. An important implication of this conclusion is that granite should be a significant component of the lunar crust at the Apollo 14 site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616300K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616300K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mantle derived economic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivolutskaya, Nadezda; Gongalskiy, Bronislav; Svirskaya, Natalia</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> ores of the unique Pt-Cu-Ni Noril'sk deposits are characterized by heavy sulfur isotopic composition (d34S = 6-18 ‰ ; Grinenko, 1985). These data are traditionally explained by the crustal contamination of the mantle melts by Devonian sedimentary rocks with anhydrites at certain depths or in a chamber of crystallization (Naldrett, 1992; Li et al., 2009). However, data on the distribution of major and trace elements and isotopic composition (their eNd, 87Sr/86Sr, d34S) in the contact zones of the intrusions with the host rocks are at variance with any significant in-situ contamination. Moreover , the mechanism of the "digestion" of this high-temperature material (Tm = 1430ºC) by the lower temperature magma (1250ºC) has never been analyzed and questioned. Our pioneering data on the sulfur radiogenic isotopes in the anhydrite are in conflict with the hypothesis that this mineral could serve as a sulfur source for the Noril'sk ores. The fact that the average composition of the intrusions is independent on the stratigraphic setting of these intrusions, which can be hosted by limestone, sandstone, and/or <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, provides further support for the idea that no assimilation took place at the depths of the chambers in which the melts crystallized.The reason for the heavy sulfur isotopic composition of ores in the Noril'sk district is still uncertain. Last data obtained on the sulfur isotopic composition of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and ores from some intrusions in the Taimyr Peninsula likely provide a clue to this problem. The highest d34S values in rocks of all of the trap formations were detected in the Gudchikhinsky picrites (d34S = +8,7; Ripley et al., 2003) formed from a primitive mantle magma. They are geochemically similar to the rocks from the Dyumtaleysky Massif (d34S = 12.2; Krivolutskaya and Gongalsky, 2013) which crystallized from a primitive mantle-derived magma (with no Ta-Nb and Pb anomalies and high Gd/Yb ratio) too. This intrusion comprises economic important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V33F..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V33F..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfate <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Hydrous Magmas Associated with Hydrothermal Gold Ores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chambefort, I.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal ore deposits associated with arc magmatism represent important sulfur anomalies. During degassing of magmatic systems the volatile may transport metals and sulfur and produce deposits. The ultimate origin of the magma-derived sulfur is still uncertain. The Yanacocha high-<span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> epithermal Au deposit, Peru, is hosted by a Miocene volcanic succession (ca. 16 to 8 Ma). Magmatic rocks are highly oxidized >NNO+2 and show a range of composition from andesite to dacite. Two populations of amphibole occur in the Yanacocha dacitic ignimbrite deposits (~7 and 12 wt% Al2O3). Low Al amphiboles crystallized at ~ 1.5-2 kbar and 800°C (Plag-Hb thermobarometry) in equilibrium with plagioclase and pyroxene. High Al amphiboles only contain inclusions of anhydrite associated with apatite (up to 1.2 wt% SO3), and have a higher Cr2O3 content (up to 1000 ppm). We estimate these amphiboles form near the magma's liquidus at P(H2O)> 3kbar and 950 to 1000°C of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span>, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite ascending magma. Low Al amphibole presents an REE pattern with negative anomalies in Sr, Ti and Eu, characteristic of plagioclase and titanite fractionation in the magma. High Al amphiboles are less enriched in REE and have no Sr, Ti, or Eu anomaly. Rare crystals of high Al amphibole display a low Al rim marked by higher REE contents compared to the core and a negative Eu anomaly. Magmatic sulfate occurrences have been discovered through the 8 m.y. volcanic sequence. Rounded anhydrite crystals are found included within clinopyroxene and both high and low Al amphibole. The rare high Al amphiboles (from the sample RC6) contain up to ~10 vol.%, ~5-80 micrometer-long anhydrite as irregularly shaped (amoeboid) blebs that do not show crystallographic forms and do not follow host cleavages. Extremely rare <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> inclusions are found in plagioclase (Brennecka, 2006). The major and trace element contents of Yanacocha magmatic anhydrite have been analyzed by electron microprobe and LA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientimages/000307.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientimages/000307.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> fat (image)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fats. Vegetable sources of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fats. Vegetable sources of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550724','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550724"><span id="translatedtitle">Why Hexagonal <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Columns?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hofmann, Martin; Anderssohn, Robert; Bahr, Hans-Achim; Weiß, Hans-Jürgen; Nellesen, Jens</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> columns with their preferably hexagonal cross sections are a fascinating example of pattern formation by crack propagation. Junctions of three propagating crack faces rearrange such that the initial right angles between them tend to approach 120°, which enables the cracks to form a pattern of regular hexagons. To promote understanding of the path on which the ideal configuration can be reached, two periodically repeatable models are presented here involving linear elastic fracture mechanics and applying the principle of maximum energy release rate. They describe the evolution of the crack pattern as a transition from rectangular start configuration to the hexagonal pattern. This is done analytically and by means of three-dimensional finite element simulation. The latter technique reproduces the curved crack path involved in this transition. PMID:26550724</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/977337','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/977337"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-CO2-H2O Interactions and Variability in Carbonate Mineralization Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are receiving increasing attention as possible host formations for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2, with studies underway in the U.S., India, Iceland, and Canada. Our previous laboratory studies with Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalts</span> showed relative quick precipitation of carbonate minerals compared to other siliclastic rocks when batch reacted with water and supercritical CO2. In this study, our prior work with Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was extended to tests with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the eastern U.S., India, and Africa. The <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are all similar in bulk chemistry and share common minerals such as plagioclase, augite, and a glassy mesostasis. Single pass flow through dissolution experiments under dilute solution and mildly acidic conditions indicate similar cation release behavior among the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples tested. Despite similar bulk chemistry and apparent dissolution kinetics, long-term static experiments with CO2 <span class="hlt">saturated</span> water show significant differences in rates of mineralization as well as precipitate chemistry and morphology. For example, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from the Newark Basin in the U.S. is by far the most reactive of any <span class="hlt">basalt</span> tested to date. Carbonate reaction products for the Newark Basin <span class="hlt">basalt</span> were globular in form and contained significantly more Fe than the secondary carbonates that precipitated on the other <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples. Calcite grains with classic “dogtooth spar” morphology and trace cation substitution (Mg and Mn) were observed in post-reacted samples associated with the Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Other <span class="hlt">basalts</span> produced solid precipitates with compositions that varied chemically throughout the entire testing period. Polished cross sections of the reacted grains show precipitate overgrowths with irregular regions outlined by dark and bright layers indicative of zonations of different compositions. For example, SEM-EDX analysis across carbonate precipitates, which resulted from 854 days of reaction of the Central Atlantic Mafic Province (CAMP</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43A0675G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43A0675G"><span id="translatedtitle">H2S Injection and Sequestration into <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> - The SulFix Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gudbrandsson, S.; Moola, P.; Stefansson, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric H2S emissions are among major environmental concern associated with geothermal energy utilization. It is therefore of great importance for the geothermal power sector to reduce H2S emissions. Known solutions for H2S neutralization are both expensive and include production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid that needs to be disposed of. Icelandic energy companies that utilize geothermal power for electricity production have decided to try to find an environmentally friendly and economically feasible solution to reduce the H2S emission, in a joint venture called SulFix. The aim of SulFix project is to explore the possibilities of injecting H2S dissolved in water into <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> formations in close proximity to the power plants for permanent fixation as <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The formation of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> is a natural process in geothermal systems. Due to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> being rich in iron and dissolving readily at acidic conditions, it is feasible to re-inject the H2S dissolved in water, into <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> formations to form pyrite. To estimate the mineralization rates of H2S, in the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> formation, flow through experiments in columns were conducted at various H2S concentrations, temperatures (100 - 240°C) and both fresh and altered <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass. The results indicate that pyrite rapidly forms during injection into fresh <span class="hlt">basalt</span> but the precipiation in altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is slower. Three different alteration stages, as a function of distance from inlet, can be observed in the column with fresh <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass; (1) dissolution features along with precipitation, (2) precipitation increases, both <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and other secondary minerals and (3) the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> looks to be unaltered and little if any precipitation is observed. The sulfur has precipitated in the first half of the column and thereafter the solution is possibly close to be supersaturated with respect to the rock. These results indicate that the H2S sequestration into <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is possible under geothermal conditions. The rate limiting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V41G..02N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V41G..02N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Weathering Rates Across Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, λ, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5718010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5718010"><span id="translatedtitle">Limitations in determining redox chemistry in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwaters at the Hanford site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dill, J.A.; Jones, T.E.; Marcy, A.D.; West, M.H.</p> <p>1986-03-01</p> <p>The oxidation-reduction (redox) chemistry of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwater system will be an important factor governing both the design and performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Although the redox state of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwater system is inherently difficult to measure, there are a number of types of measurements that provide valuable information on this subject. These measurements include concentrations of dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, ferrous iron, electrode redox potential, and groundwater reducing capacity. These measurements have been made on a limited basis in a number of different repository test horizons. Taken collectively, the results of these measurements suggest that both <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and ferrous iron play an important role in the establishment of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwater redox condition. Thermodynamic calculations of redox potential (E/sub h/) based on these measurements are indicative of an E/sub h/ of -0.4 V. Additional measurements are proposed that will provide a more complete understanding of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwater redox conditions. The proposed measurements include a more in-depth analysis of redox active species as well as quantification of dissolved gas species such as oxygen and methane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..112D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..112D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Mineralogy and Geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dilles, John</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, Volume 61 David J. Vaughan, Editor Geochemical Society and Mineralogical Society of America; ISBN 0-939950-73-1 xiii + 714 pp.; 2006; $40. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> minerals as a class represent important minor rock-forming minerals, but they are generally known as the chief sources of many economic metallic ores. In the past two decades, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> research has been extended to include important roles in environmental geology of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> weathering and resultant acid mine drainage, as well as in geomicrobiology in which bacteria make use of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> for metabolic energy sources. In the latter respect, <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> played an important role in early evolution of life on Earth and in geochemical cycling of elements in the Earth's crust and hydrosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7049377','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7049377"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology, mineralogy, and chemistry of sediment-hosted clastic massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in shallow cores, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goodfellow, W.D.; Franklin, J.M. )</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>Middle Valley is a sediment-covered rift near the northern end of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Hydrothermal fluids are presently being discharged at two vent fields about 3 km apart, Bent Hill and the area of active venting. The hydrothermally active chimneys at both Bent Hill and the area of active venting consist of anhydrite and Mg-rich silicates with minor pyrite, Cu-Fe <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, sphalerite, and galena. Hydrothermal discharge in these areas appears to be focused along extensional faults. At the Bent Hill massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, clastic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> layers are interbedded with hydrothermally altered and unaltered hemipelagic and turbiditic sediment along the flanks of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mound. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> textures and mineralogy suggest that the Bent Hill <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mound formed by the build-up and collapse of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chimneys, the resedimentation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> debris and the formation of clastic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> layers, and the infilling and replacement of clastic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> by hydrothermal fluids near vents. Sulfur isotope values that are consistently more positive than <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sulfur support the addition of seawater sulfur. Pb isotope values for the Bent Hill deposit that are transitional between midocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (MORB) and Middle Valley sediments indicate that the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> probably formed from fluids which originated in the oceanic crust but which have been modified by reaction with lower temperature (<274 C) fluids generated in the sedimentary pile, similar to those now venting in Middle Valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7177372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7177372"><span id="translatedtitle">Pb isotopes in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LeHuray, A.P.; Church, S.E.; Koski, R.A.; Bouse, R.M.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>The authors report Pb isotope ratios of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> deposited at seven recently active mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal vents. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> from three sediment-starved sites on the Juan de Fuca Ridge contain Pb with isotope ratios identical to their local <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sources. Lead in two deposits from the sediment-covered Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge, is derived from the sediments and does not appear to contain any <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> component. There is a range of isotope ratios in a Guaymas Basin deposit, consistent with a mixture of sediment and MOR <span class="hlt">basalt</span> Pb. Lead in a Galapagos deposit differs slightly from known Galapagos <span class="hlt">basalt</span> Pb isotope values. The faithful record of Pb isotope signatures of local sources in MOR <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> indicates that isotope ratios from ancient analogues ca be used as accurate reflections of ancient oceanic crustal values in ophiolite-hosted deposits and continental crustal averages in sediment-hosted deposits. The preservation of primary ophiolitic or continental crustal Pb isotope signatures in ancient MOR <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> provides a powerful tool for investigation of crustal evolution and for fingerprinting ancient terranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6637288','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6637288"><span id="translatedtitle">Hanford <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow mineralogy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ames, L.L.</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>Mineralogy of the core samples from five core wells was examined in some detail. The primary mineralogy study included an optical examination of polished mounts, photomicrographs, chemical analyses of feldspars, pyroxenes, metallic oxides and microcrystalline groundmasses and determination from the chemical analyses of the varieties of feldspars, pyroxenes and metallic oxides. From the primary mineralogy data, a firm understanding of the average Hanford <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow primary mineralogy emerged. The average primary feldspar was a laboradorite, the average pyroxene was an augite and the average metallic oxide was a solid solution of ilmenite and magnetite. Secondary mineralization consisted of vug filling and joint coating, chiefly with a nontronite-beidellite clay, several zeolites, quartz, calcite, and opal. Specific flow units also were examined to determine the possibility of using the mineralogy to trace flows between core wells. These included units of the Pomona, the Umatilla and a high chromium flow just below the Huntzinger. In the Umatilla, or high barium flow, the compositional variation of the feldspars was unique in range. The pyroxenes in the Pomona were relatively highly zoned and accumulated chromium. The high chromium flow contained chromium spinels that graded in chromium content into simple magnetites very low in chromium content. A study of the statistical relationships of flow unit chemical constituents showed that flow unit constituents could be roughly correlated between wells. The probable cause of the correlation was on-going physical-chemical changes in the source magma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011989"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mass extinctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, W. Jason</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>There appears to be a correlation between the times of flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mass-extinction events. There is a correlation of flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and hotspot tracks--flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> appear to mark the beginning of a new hotspot. Perhaps there is an initial instability in the mantle that bursts forth as a flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> but then becomes a steady trickle that persists for many tens of millions of years. Suppose that flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and not impacts cause the environmental changes that lead to mass-extinctions. This is a very testable hypothesis: it predicts that the ages of the flows should agree exactly with the times of extinctions. The Deccan and K-T ages agree with this hypothesis; An iridium anomaly at extinction boundaries apparently can be explained by a scaled-up eruption of the Hawaiian type; the occurrence of shocked-quartz is more of a problem. However if the flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are all well dated and their ages indeed agree with extinction times, then surely some mechanism to appropriately produce shocked-quartz will be found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019930','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019930"><span id="translatedtitle">Thickness of western mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dehon, R. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>An isopach map of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average <span class="hlt">basalt</span> thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18218894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18218894"><span id="translatedtitle">Enriched Pt-Re-Os isotope systematics in plume lavas explained by metasomatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luguet, Ambre; Graham Pearson, D; Nowell, Geoff M; Dreher, Scott T; Coggon, Judith A; Spetsius, Zdislav V; Parman, Stephen W</p> <p>2008-01-25</p> <p>To explain the elevated osmium isotope (186Os-187Os) signatures in oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, the possibility of material flux from the metallic core into the crust has been invoked. This hypothesis conflicts with theoretical constraints on Earth's thermal and dynamic history. To test the veracity and uniqueness of elevated 186Os-187Os in tracing core-mantle exchange, we present highly siderophile element analyses of pyroxenites, eclogites plus their <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, and new 186Os/188Os measurements on pyroxenites and platinum-rich alloys. Modeling shows that involvement in the mantle source of either bulk pyroxenite or, more likely, metasomatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> derived from either pyroxenite or peridotite melts can explain the 186Os-187Os signatures of oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. This removes the requirement for core-mantle exchange and provides an effective mechanism for generating Os isotope diversity in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source regions. PMID:18218894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009776','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009776"><span id="translatedtitle">Nickel in high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hedge, C.E.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>New analyses of high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalts</span> reveal an average nickel content higher than previously indicated. Ni in high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalts</span> correlates with magnesium in the same way as it does in other <span class="hlt">basalt</span> types. There is therefore no reason, based on Ni contents, to hypothesize a special origin for high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and it is permissible (based on Ni contents) to form andesites by fractional crystallization from high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. ?? 1971.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B23J..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B23J..02P"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy and Carbon Flow: Comparing ultramafic- and <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted vents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perner, M.; Bach, W.; Seifert, R.; Strauss, H.; Laroche, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In deep-sea vent habitats hydrothermal fluids provide the grounds for life by supplying reduced inorganic compounds (e.g. H2, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>). Chemolithoautotrophs can oxidize these substrates hereby yielding energy, which can then be used to fuel autotrophic CO2 fixation. Depending on the type of host rocks (and the degree of admixed ambient seawater) the availability of inorganic electron donors can vary considerably. While in ultramafic-hosted vents H2 levels are high and H2-oxidizing metabolisms are thought to dominate, in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted vents, H2 is much lower and microbial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation is considered to prevail [1, 2]. We have investigated the effect of H2 and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> availability on the microbial community of distinct H2-rich and H2-poor vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Hydrothermally influenced samples were collected from the H2-rich ultramafic-hosted Logatchev field (15°N) and the comparatively H2-poor <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted vents from 5°S and 9°S. We conducted catabolic energy calculations to estimate the potential of various electron donors to function as microbial energy sources. We performed incubation experiments with hydrothermal fluids amended with H2 or <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and radioactively labelled bicarbonate and determined H2 and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> consumption and carbon incorporation rates. We constructed metagenomic libraries for sequence-based screening of genes encoding key enzymes for H2 uptake (NiFe uptake hydrogenases, group 1), <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation (<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> quinone oxidoreductase, sqr) and CO2 fixation pathways (RubisCOs of the Calvin cycle [CBB] and beta-subunit of the ATP citrate lyase of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle [rTCA]). We evaluated parts of the metagenomes from <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted sites by pyrosequencing. Based on our incubation experiments - under the conditions applied - we could not confirm that generally H2 consumption rates and biomass syntheses in fluids derived from ultramafic-hosted locations are significantly enhanced over those from <span class="hlt">basalt</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004AGUFM.V31D..01C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004AGUFM.V31D..01C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Lava Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p> or channel bends that exposes more core lava to cooling than simply that of the shear zones. Thus the channel geometry plays a major role in the thermal history of a flow. As lava flows rarely flow through pre-existing channels of prescribed geometry, we have performed an additional set of analog laboratory experiments to determine the relationship between flow rate, slope, and channel formation in solidifying flows. All flows develop stable uniform channels within solidified levees except when the flow rate is sufficiently low to permit flow front solidification, inflation, and tube formation. On constant slopes, increasing flow rates result in increases in both the rate of flow advance rate and the channel width, and a decrease in levee width. At constant flow rates, both channel width and levee width decrease with increasing slope while flow advance rate increases. Limited data on the geometry of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava channels indicate that experimental data are consistent with field observations, however, both additional field data and scaling relationships are required to fully utilize the laboratory experiments to predict channel development in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientimages/000307.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientimages/000307.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> fat (image)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fat. Sources of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fat include whole-milk dairy ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9964D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9964D"><span id="translatedtitle">Snowball Earth and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> traps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dupre, B.; Godderis, Y.; Nedelec, A.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dessert, C.; Francois, L. M.; Grard, A.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The causes of the Neo-Proterozoic glaciations is still a matter of debate. One potential trigger for those glaciations is a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle, leading to the consumption of atmospheric CO_2, and finally to the cooling of the global climate. The first glacial episode is characterized by intense rift formations. The Proto-Pacific ocean starts to open within the Sturtian stage (800-750 Ma). The onset of rifts cutting through continental surfaces might have been coeval with the spreading of continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. As demonstrated by Dessert et al (2001) for the K-T boundary, such events might severely impacts the long term evolution of the global climate, through intense consumption of atmospheric CO_2 by fresh <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surfaces, leading to non negligible global cooling at the million year timescale. Based on weathering laws for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and granitic surfaces, we estimate that the onset of continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> over 6 million km^2 along the equator (crossed by the Proto-Pacific rift) will drive the Earth into global glaciation 1.5 My after the event, assuming a pre-perturbation level of 280 ppmv of CO_2 and a solar luminosity reduced by 6%. The δ13C of carbonates accumulating between the start of the continental plume and the onset of the global glaciation is expected to fall by about 3 ppm in response to the degassing of large amount of mantle carbon into the atmosphere, in agreement with data. This hypothesis raises the question of the cyclicity of the glaciations. Once the glaciation ends, the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surface starts again to weather, and plunge the Earth into a new deep glaciation. Within 30 My, the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> trap, originally located at the equator, might have migrated 3500 km southward, within the dryer tropical area. Such migration reduces the consumption of CO_2 by the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surface, preventing the Earth from a new global glaciation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178502"><span id="translatedtitle">Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Pilot Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> pore water with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> supercritical CO2 show that mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1178502-injection-monitoring-wallula-basalt-pilot-project','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1178502-injection-monitoring-wallula-basalt-pilot-project"><span id="translatedtitle">Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Pilot Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> pore water with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> supercritical CO2 show thatmore » mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6157440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6157440"><span id="translatedtitle">Solubility of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in n-methylpyrrolidone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yarym-Agaev, N.L.; Matvienko, V.G.; Povalyaeva, N.V.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The solubility of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in N-methylpyrrolidone was investigated over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The dynamic variant of the gravimetric method was used at hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> pressures equal to or below atmospheric, and the static variant at higher pressures. In the dynamic variant of the gravimetric method hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is passed through a known amount of solvent until <span class="hlt">saturation</span> is reached, and the amount of gas dissolved is found from the weight increase. This method is particularly convenient in studies of highly soluble gases when the solvent has a low vapor pressure. If the vapor pressure of the solvent exceeded this value a correction for entrainment of solvent vapor by undissolved gas was applied. The study showed that the solubility of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in N-methylpyrrolidone rose steeply with increase of pressure and decrease of temperature and that it can be used as an effective absorbent of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in highly sulfurous natural gas. Since the solubility of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> under atmospheric pressure is fairly high even at elevated temperatures, effective regeneration of N-methylpyrrolidone is possible by a combination of heating and blowing with an inert gas or by application of vacuum for removal of the hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRE..120.1646K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRE..120.1646K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of Mare Frigoris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kramer, G. Y.; Jaiswal, B.; Hawke, B. R.; Öhman, T.; Giguere, T. A.; Johnson, K.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the methodology and results of a detailed investigation of Mare Frigoris using remote sensing data from Clementine, Lunar Prospector, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, with the objective of mapping and characterizing the compositions and eruptive history of its volcanic units. With the exception of two units in the west, Mare Frigoris and Lacus Mortis are filled with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> having low-TiO2 to very low TiO2, low-FeO, and high-Al2O3 abundances. These compositions indicate that most of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in Frigoris are high-Al basalts—a potentially undersampled, yet important group in the lunar sample collection for its clues about the heterogeneity of the lunar mantle. Thorium abundances of most of the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in Frigoris are also low, although much of the mare surface appears elevated due to contamination from impact gardening with the surrounding high-Th Imbrium ejecta. There are, however, a few regional thorium anomalies that are coincident with cryptomare units in the east, the two youngest mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> units, and some of the scattered pyroclastic deposits and volcanic constructs. In addition, Mare Frigoris lies directly over the northern extent of the major conduit for a magma plumbing system that fed many of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> that filled Oceanus Procellarum, as interpreted by Andrews-Hanna et al. (2014) using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission. The relationship between this deep-reaching magma conduit and the largest extent of high-Al <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on the Moon makes Mare Frigoris an intriguing location for further investigation of the lunar mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.B11E0416L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.B11E0416L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> of silver nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levard, C.; Michel, F. M.; Brown, G. E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Rapid development of nanotechnologies that exploit the properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) raises questions concerning the impact of Ag on the environment. Ag-NPs are currently among the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry and the amount released into the environment is expected to increase along with production (1). When present in geochemical systems, Ag-NPs may undergo a variety of changes due to varying redox, pH, and chemical conditions. Expected changes range from surface modification (e.g., oxidation, <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span>, chloridation etc.) to complete dissolution and re-precipitation. In this context, the focus of our work is on understanding the behavior of synthetic Ag-NPs with different particle sizes under varying conditions relevant to the environment. <span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> of Ag-NPs is of particular interest since it among the processes most likely to occur in aqueous systems, in particular under reducing conditions. Three sizes of Ag-NPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone were produced using the polyol process (2) (7 ±1; 20 ±4, and 40 ±9 nm). Batch solutions containing the different Ag-NPs were subsequently reacted with Na2S solutions of different concentrations. The <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> process was followed step-wise for 24 hours and the corrosion products formed were characterized by electron microscopy (TEM/SEM), diffraction (XRD), and photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface charge (pHPZC) of the products formed during this process was also measured, as were changes in solubility and reactivity. Based on experimental observations we infer that the <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> process is the result of dissolution-precipitation and find that: (i) acanthite (Ag2S) is formed as a corrosion product; (ii) Ag-NPs aggregation increased with <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> rate; (iii) pHPZC increases with the rate of <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span>; and (iv) the solubility of the corrosion products formed from <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> appears lower than that of non-<span class="hlt">sulfidated</span> Ag-NPs. We observe size-dependent differences in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009928"><span id="translatedtitle">Shock Experiments on <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> - Ferric Sulfate Mixes at 21 GPa & 49 GPa and their Relevance to Martian Meteorite Impact Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rao, M. N.; Ross, D. K.; See, T. H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Sutton, S.; Asimow, P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Large abundance of Martian atmospheric gases and neutron-induced isotopic excesses as well as Rb-Sr isotopic variations determined in some impact glasses in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites (e.g., Shergotty #DBS, Zagami #H1 and EET79001 #27, #8 and #104) provide definitive evidence for the occurrence of a Martian regolith component in their constituent mineral assemblages. Some of these glass-es, known as gas-rich impact-melts (GRIM), contain numerous micron-sized iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs along with minor amounts of iron sulfate particulates. As these GRIM glasses contain a Martian regolith component and as iron sulfates (but not <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>) are found to occur abundantly on the Mars surface, we suggested that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs in GRIMs were likely generated by shock-reduction of the parental iron sulfate bearing regolith material that had been incorporated into the cavities/crevices of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> host rock prior to the impact event on Mars. To test whether the sulfates could be reduced to <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> by impact shock, we carried out laboratory shock experiments on a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> plus ferric sulfate mixture at 49 GPa at the Caltech Shock Wave Laboratory and at 21 GPa at Johnson Space Center (JSC) Experimental Impact Laboratory. The experimental details and the preliminary results for the Caltech 49 GPa experiment were presented at LPSC last year. Here, we report the results for the 21 GPa experiment at JSC and compare these results to obtain further insight into the mechanism of the bleb formation in the GRIM glasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014366','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014366"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral and whole-rock compositions of seawater-dominated hydrothermal alteration at the Arctic volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> prospect, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schmidt, J.M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Arctic volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> prospect, located in the Ambler mineral district of northwestern Alaska, includes three types of hydrothermally altered rocks overlying, underlying, and interlayered with semimassive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration of wall rocks and deposition of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and gangue minerals were contemporaneous with Late Devonian of Early Mississippian <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-rhyolite volcanism. Alteration developed asymmetrically around a linear fissure, suggesting fracture control of ore fluids rather than a point source. Microprobe analyses of phyllosilicates from the Arctic area indicate two discrete mineral populations. These differences in mineral chemistry are the result of differences in protolith composition caused by hydrothermal alteration-metasomatism. -from Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.443...59L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.443...59L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Gaojun; Hartmann, Jens; Derry, Louis A.; West, A. Joshua; You, Chen-Feng; Long, Xiaoyong; Zhan, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Li, Gen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Tao; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Ji, Junfeng; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jun</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The homeostatic balance of Earth's long-term carbon cycle and the equable state of Earth's climate are maintained by negative feedbacks between the levels of atmospheric CO2 and the chemical weathering rate of silicate rocks. Though clearly demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory dissolution experiments, the temperature dependence of silicate weathering rates, hypothesized to play a central role in these weathering feedbacks, has been difficult to quantify clearly in natural settings at landscape scale. By compiling data from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> catchments worldwide and considering only inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), here we show that the rate of CO2 consumption associated with the weathering of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks is strongly correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) as predicted by chemical kinetics. Relations between temperature and CO2 consumption rate for active volcanic fields (AVFs) are complicated by other factors such as eruption age, hydrothermal activity, and hydrological complexities. On the basis of this updated data compilation we are not able to distinguish whether or not there is a significant runoff control on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering rates. Nonetheless, the simple temperature control as observed in this global dataset implies that <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering could be an effective mechanism for Earth to modulate long-term carbon cycle perturbations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/938158','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/938158"><span id="translatedtitle">Removal of copper from carbon-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> iron with an aluminum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ferrous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> flux.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cohen, A.; Blander, M.; Energy Technology</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Scrap iron and steel have long been considered as resources in the steelmaking industry, and their value is largely determined by the impurity content. Copper is a particularly troublesome impurity because of its role in causing hot shortness and should be kept below ==0.1 wt pct. A method for reducing copper content in steel to <0.1 wt pct could lead to increased use of lower-quality scrap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4329797','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4329797"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Duffield, R.B.</p> <p>1958-08-12</p> <p>A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoOD..57..197S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoOD..57..197S"><span id="translatedtitle">Banded <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-magnetite ores of Mauk copper massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Central Urals: Composition and genesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Safina, N. P.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Kotlyarov, V. A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Large, R. R.; Blinov, I. A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The results of investigation of metamorphosed <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-magnetite ores from the Mauk deposit located within the Main Ural Fault at the junction of Tagil and Magnitogorsk massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> zones are discussed. The ore-hosting sequence comprises metamorphic rocks formed from <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, carbonaceous and carbonaceous-cherty siltstone, and lenticular serpentinized ultramafic bodies. The ores of the deposit are represented by banded varieties and less frequent breccia. The clastic origin of the banded ore is indicated by load casts at the bottom of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> beds, alternation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and barren beds, and the truncation of the growth zones of pyrite crystals. Pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite are the major minerals of the banded ores. The internal structure of the listed minerals testifies to the deep metamorphic recrystallization of primary hydrothermal-sedimentary ores accompanied with deformation. Cubanite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, greigite, and gold are enclosed in metacrysts of pyrite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite. The accessory minerals of the Pb-Bi-Te, Bi-Te, and Ag-Te systems as well as uraninite have been found at the Mauk deposit for the first time. Magnetite predominantly replaces pyrite and less frequently chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and gangue minerals. It was established that the major carriers of As and Co are crystals of metamorphic pyrite. Chalcopyrite is the major carrier of Zn, Sn, Te, Pb, Bi, and Ag. Admixture of Fe and Cu is typical of sphalerite, and Se and Ni are characteristic of pyrrhotite. Ti, V, Mn, Sb, As, Ba, and U are concentrated in magnetite. The banded ores of the Mauk deposit are suggested as having been transformed in several stages: diagenesis, anadiagenesis, epidiagenesis ( t < 300°C), and amphibolite facies metamorphism ( t > 500°C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4750033','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4750033"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a newly isolated strain Pseudomonas sp. C27 for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation: Reaction kinetics and stoichiometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Xi-Jun; Chen, Chuan; Guo, Hong-liang; Wang, Ai-jie; Ren, Nan-qi; Lee, Duu-Jong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> biooxidation by the novel <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. C27, which could perform autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification in mixotrophic medium, was studied in batch and continuous systems. Pseudomonas sp. C27 was able to oxidize <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> at concentrations as high as 17.66 mM. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> biooxidation occurred in two distinct stages, one resulting in the formation of sulfur with nitrate reduction to nitrite, followed by thiosulfate formation with nitrite reduction to N2. The composition of end-products was greatly impacted by the ratio of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to nitrate initial concentrations. At a ratio of 0.23, thiosulfate represented 100% of the reaction products, while only 30% with a ratio of 1.17. In the continuous bioreactor, complete removal of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was observed at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration as high as 9.38 mM. Overall <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal efficiency decreased continuously upon further increases in influent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations. Based on the experimental data kinetic parameter values were determined. The value of maximum specific growth rate, half <span class="hlt">saturation</span> constant, decay coefficient, maintenance coefficient and yield were to be 0.11 h−1, 0.68 mM <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, 0.11 h−1, 0.21 mg <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/mg biomass h and 0.43 mg biomass/mg <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, respectively, which were close to or comparable with those reported in literature by other researches. PMID:26864216</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864945','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864945"><span id="translatedtitle">Zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquefaction catalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Garg, Diwakar</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678586"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> kinetics of silver nanoparticles reacted with metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thalmann, Basilius; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaegi, Ralf</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Recent studies have documented that the <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP), possibly released to the environment from consumer products, occurs in anoxic zones of urban wastewater systems and that <span class="hlt">sulfidized</span> Ag-NP exhibit dramatically reduced toxic effects. However, whether Ag-NP <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> also occurs under oxic conditions in the absence of bisulfide has not been addressed, yet. In this study we, therefore, investigated whether metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> that are more resistant toward oxidation than free <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, could enable the <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of Ag-NP under oxic conditions. We reacted citrate-stabilized Ag-NP of different sizes (10-100 nm) with freshly precipitated and crystalline CuS and ZnS in oxygenated aqueous suspensions at pH 7.5. The extent of Ag-NP <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> was derived from the increase in dissolved Cu(2+) or Zn(2+) over time and linked with results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of selected samples. The <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of Ag-NP followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate coefficients increasing with decreasing Ag-NP diameter and increasing metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration and depending on the type (CuS and ZnS) and crystallinity of the reacting metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Results from analytical electron microscopy revealed the formation of complex <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> patterns that seemed to follow preexisting subgrain boundaries in the pristine Ag-NP. The kinetics of Ag-NP <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> observed in this study in combination with reported ZnS and CuS concentrations and predicted Ag-NP concentrations in wastewater and urban surface waters indicate that even under oxic conditions and in the absence of free <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, Ag-NP can be transformed into Ag2S within a few hours to days by reaction with metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. PMID:24678586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.6695K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.6695K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy and geochemistry of a sediment-hosted hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit from the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koski, Randolph A.; Lonsdale, Peter F.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Berndt, Michael E.; Howe, Stephen S.</p> <p>1985-07-01</p> <p>Samples dredged from a 15-m-high hydrothermal mound atop the flat turbidite pond in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin consist of pyrrhotite-rich massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, barite, barite + calcite, talc, and opaline silica as well as substrate material composed of fossiliferous, clay-rich ooze. An 11-m-long sediment core taken near the dredge site shows increasing hydrothermal alteration with depth; anhydrite-filled fractures near the base of the core appear to be channels for hydrothermal discharge. Oxidation of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich samples to an assemblage of geothite, lepidocrocite, and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide is ubiquitous. Compared to other massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits on sediment-starved oceanic ridges, the hydrothermal deposit dredged in Guaymas Basin has a high pyrrhotite/pyrite ratio, a low Zn <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and combined ore metal (Cu + Zn + Pb + Ag + Cd) content, and a greater abundance of sulfate, carbonate, and silicate phases. Venting hydrothermal solutions are alkaline with moderately high pH; high Ca, Ba, and SiO2 content; low ƒS2 and ƒo2; and very low transition metal content. Disequilibrium assemblages of pyrrhotite and sulfate minerals form during rapid mixing of this evolved vent fluid with ambient bottom waters at the discharge site. Talc is formed at a temperature near 270°C by mixing or entrainment of Mg-rich bottom water or pore fluid with upwelling hydrothermal fluid that is <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with silica. Calcite may precipitate from the alkaline, Ca-rich fluid during degassing of CO2. The minimum temperature range for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and nonsulfide deposition is approximately 190°-326°C. The composition of hydrothermal deposits, vent solutions, and altered sediment requires that circulating fluids evolve during deep penetration into the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> basement complex, further interaction with the organic-and carbonate-rich sediment pile, and near-surface mixing with ambient seawater. Although the stable assemblage albite-epidote-clinochlore present at depth in the sediment</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V11B2755S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V11B2755S"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of Withdrawal and Backflow of <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Liquids and the Formation of Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Deposits: Theory and Analogue Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saumur, B. M.; Cruden, A. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> liquids precipitated from silicate magmas after <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> represent a volumetrically small portion of magmatic systems, but are responsible for the formation of orthomagmatic Ni-Cu-PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits. Compared to silicate melts, immiscible magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids have lower viscosities (by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude), higher densities ( >1500 kg/m3 higher; also significantly higher than surrounding crust) and lower solidus temperatures (>150°C lower). These properties hinder the withdrawal of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid from magma staging chambers and its ascent to higher structural levels, and allow for late-stage mobility and downward percolation along grain boundaries and fractures within wall rocks. Prior to emplacement towards higher crustal levels, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid will have a tendency to accumulate and pond at the bottom of staging chambers. Later mobilization and upward or lateral withdrawal of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> can occur by viscous entrainment within relatively buoyant (mafic) magma. Analytical solutions (e.g., Blake and Ivey, 1986, JVGR, 27, 153-178) applied to the low viscosities, high densities and the likely relatively high volumetric flow rates (Q) in mafic melt-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid systems predicts that significant draw-up of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid within mafic magmas can occur at high, yet realistic flow rates (10-1000 m3/s), at reasonable Reynolds (>1000) and Weber numbers (0.07-700). At lower Q and Re draw up is hindered by interfacial tension, as indicated by the low capillary numbers of the system. We evaluate the dynamics of withdrawal and entrainment of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid using analogue models scaled to mafic-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> system, focusing on flow rates and the viscosity and density ratios between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and mafic magmas, in order to further explore the conditions under which <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids can be effectively entrained to promote the generation of deposits elsewhere in the magma system. The dynamics of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> percolation are analogous to the behavior of dense non</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeCoA..71.1170O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeCoA..71.1170O"><span id="translatedtitle">S-33 constraints on the seawater sulfate contribution in modern seafloor hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ono, Shuhei; Shanks, Wayne C.; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Rumble, Douglas</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> sulfur in mid-oceanic ridge hydrothermal vents is derived from leaching of <span class="hlt">basaltic-sulfide</span> and seawater-derived sulfate that is reduced during high temperature water rock interaction. Conventional sulfur isotope studies, however, are inconclusive about the mass-balance between the two sources because 34S/ 32S ratios of vent fluid H 2S and chimney <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals may reflect not only the mixing ratio but also isotope exchange between sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Here, we show that high-precision analysis of S-33 can provide a unique constraint because isotope mixing and isotope exchange result in different Δ 33S (≡δ 33S-0.515 δ 34S) values of up to 0.04‰ even if δ 34S values are identical. Detection of such small Δ 33S differences is technically feasible by using the SF 6 dual-inlet mass-spectrometry protocol that has been improved to achieve a precision as good as 0.006‰ (2 σ). <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> minerals (marcasite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite) and vent H 2S collected from four active seafloor hydrothermal vent sites, East Pacific Rise (EPR) 9-10°N, 13°N, and 21°S and Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) 37°N yield Δ 33S values ranging from -0.002 to 0.033 and δ 34S from -0.5‰ to 5.3‰. The combined δ 34S and Δ 33S systematics reveal that 73 to 89% of vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are derived from leaching from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and only 11 to 27% from seawater-derived sulfate. Pyrite from EPR 13°N and marcasite from MAR 37°N are in isotope disequilibrium not only in δ 34S but also in Δ 33S with respect to associated sphalerite and chalcopyrite, suggesting non-equilibrium sulfur isotope exchange between seawater sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during pyrite precipitation. Seafloor hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are characterized by low Δ 33S values compared with biogenic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, suggesting little or no contribution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from microbial sulfate reduction into hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> at sediment-free mid-oceanic ridge systems. We conclude that 33S is an effective new tracer for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032178','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032178"><span id="translatedtitle">S-33 constraints on the seawater sulfate contribution in modern seafloor hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ono, Shuhei; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Rouxel, O.J.; Rumble, D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> sulfur in mid-oceanic ridge hydrothermal vents is derived from leaching of <span class="hlt">basaltic-sulfide</span> and seawater-derived sulfate that is reduced during high temperature water rock interaction. Conventional sulfur isotope studies, however, are inconclusive about the mass-balance between the two sources because 34S/32S ratios of vent fluid H2S and chimney <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals may reflect not only the mixing ratio but also isotope exchange between sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Here, we show that high-precision analysis of S-33 can provide a unique constraint because isotope mixing and isotope exchange result in different ??33S (?????33S-0.515 ??34S) values of up to 0.04??? even if ??34S values are identical. Detection of such small ??33S differences is technically feasible by using the SF6 dual-inlet mass-spectrometry protocol that has been improved to achieve a precision as good as 0.006??? (2??). <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> minerals (marcasite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite) and vent H2S collected from four active seafloor hydrothermal vent sites, East Pacific Rise (EPR) 9-10??N, 13??N, and 21??S and Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) 37??N yield ??33S values ranging from -0.002 to 0.033 and ??34S from -0.5??? to 5.3???. The combined ??34S and ??33S systematics reveal that 73 to 89% of vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are derived from leaching from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and only 11 to 27% from seawater-derived sulfate. Pyrite from EPR 13??N and marcasite from MAR 37??N are in isotope disequilibrium not only in ??34S but also in ??33S with respect to associated sphalerite and chalcopyrite, suggesting non-equilibrium sulfur isotope exchange between seawater sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during pyrite precipitation. Seafloor hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are characterized by low ??33S values compared with biogenic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, suggesting little or no contribution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from microbial sulfate reduction into hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> at sediment-free mid-oceanic ridge systems. We conclude that 33S is an effective new tracer for interplay among</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7369540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7369540"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistivity logging of fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stefansson, V.; Axelsson, G.; Sigurdsson, O.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A lumped double porosity model was studied in order to estimate the effect of fractures on resistivity - porosity relations. It is found that the relationship between resistivity and porosity for fractured rock is in general not simple and depends both on the amounts of matrix porosity as well as the fracture orientation. However, when fractures dominate over matrix porosity the exponent <m> is close to 1.0. Resistivity-porosity relations have been determined for large amounts of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> formations in Iceland. An exponent close to 1.0 is found in all cases investigated. This is interpreted as fractures constitute a considerable part of the porosity of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. In the IRDP-hole in Eastern Iceland it is found that the ratio of fracture porosity to total porosity decreases with depth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998RvGeo..36..143F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998RvGeo..36..143F"><span id="translatedtitle">Permeability within <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> oceanic crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Andrew T.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>Water-rock interactions within the seafloor are responsible for significant energy and solute fluxes between <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> oceanic crust and the overlying ocean. Permeability is the primary hydrologic property controlling the form, intensity, and duration of seafloor fluid circulation, but after several decades of characterizing shallow oceanic basement, we are still learning how permeability is created and distributed and how it changes as the crust ages. Core-scale measurements of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> oceanic crust yield permeabilities that are quite low (generally 10-22 to 10-17 m²), while in situ measurements in boreholes suggest an overlapping range of values extending several orders of magnitude higher (10-18 to 10-13 m²). Additional indirect estimates include calculations made from borehole temperature and flow meter logs (10-16 to 10-11 m²), numerical models of coupled heat and fluid flow at the ridge crest and within ridge flanks (10-16 to 10-9 m²), and several other methods. Qualitative indications of permeability within the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> oceanic crust come from an improved understanding of crustal stratigraphy and patterns of alteration and tectonic modification seen in ophiolites, seafloor samples and boreholes. Difficulties in reconciling the wide range of estimated permeabilities arise from differences in experimental scale and critical assumptions regarding the nature and distribution of fluid flow. Many observations and experimental and modeling results are consistent with permeability varying with depth into basement and with primary basement lithology. Permeability also seems to be highly heterogeneous and anisotropic throughout much of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust, as within crystalline rocks in general. A series of focused experiments is required to resolve permeability in shallow oceanic basement and to directly couple upper crustal hydrogeology to magmatic, tectonic, and geochemical crustal evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1095/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1095/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>May, Rodd James</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009psrd.reptE.133T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009psrd.reptE.133T"><span id="translatedtitle">Mars Crust: Made of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, G. J.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>By combining data from several sources, Harry Y. (Hap) McSween (University of Tennessee), G. Jeffrey Taylor (University of Hawaii) and Michael B. Wyatt (Brown University) show that the surface of Mars is composed mostly of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> not unlike those that make up the Earth's oceanic crust. McSween and his colleagues used data from Martian meteorites, analyses of soils and rocks at robotic landing sites, and chemical and mineralogical information from orbiting spacecraft. The data show that Mars is composed mostly of rocks similar to terrestrial <span class="hlt">basalts</span> called tholeiites, which make up most oceanic islands, mid-ocean ridges, and the seafloor beneath sediments. The Martian samples differ in some respects that reflect differences in the compositions of the Martian and terrestrial interiors, but in general are a lot like Earth <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Cosmochemistst have used the compositions of Martian meteorites to discriminate bulk properties of Mars and Earth, but McSween and coworkers' synthesis shows that the meteorites differ from most of the Martian crust (the meteorites have lower aluminum, for example), calling into question how diagnostic the meteorites are for understanding the Martian interior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067226&hterms=Cenozoic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCenozoic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067226&hterms=Cenozoic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCenozoic"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and extinction events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stothers, Richard B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The largest known effusive eruptions during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras, the voluminous flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, have long been suspected as being associated with major extinctions of biotic species. Despite the possible errors attached to the dates in both time series of events, the significance level of the suspected correlation is found here to be 1 percent to 4 percent. Statistically, extinctions lag eruptions by a mean time interval that is indistinguishable from zero, being much less than the average residual derived from the correlation analysis. Oceanic flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, however, must have had a different biological impact, which is still uncertain owing to the small number of known examples and differing physical factors. Although not all continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can have produced major extinction events, the noncorrelating eruptions may have led to smaller marine extinction events that terminated at least some of the less catastrophically ending geologic stages. Consequently, the 26 Myr quasi-periodicity seen in major marine extinctions may be only a sampling effect, rather than a manifestation of underlying periodicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009916','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009916"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2-filled vesicles in mid-ocean <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.; Batchelder, J.N.; Cunningham, C.G.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Volatile-filled vesicles are present in minor amounts in all samples of mid-ocean <span class="hlt">basalt</span> yet collected (and presumably erupted) down to depths of 4.8 km. When such vesicles are pierced in liquid under standard conditions, the volume expansion of the gas is 0.2 ?? 0.05 times the eruption pressure in bars or 20 ?? 5 times the eruption depth in km. Such expansion could be used as a measure of eruption depth. A variety of techniques: (1) vacuum crushing and gas chromatographic, freezing separation, and mass spectrographic analyses; (2) measurements of phase changes on a freezing microscope stage; (3) microscopic chemical and solubility observations; and (4) volume change measurements, all indicate that CO2 comprises more than 95% by volume of the vesicle gas in several submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from the Atlantic and Pacific. The CO2 held in vesicles is present in quantities about equal to or greater than that presumed to be dissolved in the glass (melt) and amounts to 400-900 ppm of the rock. The rigid temperature of the glass is 800-1000??C and increases for shallower samples. A sulfur gas was originally present in subordinate amounts in the vesicles, but has largely reacted with iron in the vesicle walls to produce <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> spherules. ?? 1977.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815664S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815664S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composition on the solubility of sulfur in coexisting silicate melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smythe, Duane; Wood, Bernard; Kiseeva, Ekaterina</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The extent to which sulfur dissolves in silicate melts <span class="hlt">saturated</span> in an immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phase is a fundamental question in igneous petrology and plays a primary role in the generation of magmatic ore deposits, volcanic degassing and planetary differentiation. Terrestrial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melts often contain over 20 weight percent Ni + Cu, however, most experimental studies investigating sulfur solubility in silicate melt have been primarily concerned with the effects of silicate melt composition, and pure FeS has been use as the immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt (O'Neill and Mavrogenes, 2002; Li and Ripley, 2005). To investigation of the effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composition, in addition to those of temperature, pressure and silicate melt composition, on sulfur solubility in silicate melts, we have carried out a series of experiments done at pressures between 1.5 and 3 GPa and temperatures from 1400 to 1800C over a range of compositions of both the silicate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt. We find that the solubility of sulfur in silicate melts drops significantly with the substitution of Ni and Cu for Fe in the immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt, decreasing by approximately 40% at mole fractions of NiS + Cu2S of 0.4. Combining our results with those from the previous studies investigating sulfur solubility in silicate melts we have also found that solubility increases with increasing temperature and decreases pressure. These results show that without considering the composition of the immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phase the sulfur content of silicate melts can be significantly overestimated. This may serve to explain the relatively low sulfur concentrations in MORB melts, which previous models predict to be undersaturated in a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phase despite showing chemical and textural evidence for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Li, C. & Ripley, E. M. (2005). Empirical equations to predict the sulfur content of mafic magmas at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and applications to magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits. Mineralium Deposita 40, 218-230. O'Neill, H. S. C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP42B..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP42B..01H"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and Neoproterozoic Glaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halverson, G. P.; Cox, G. M.; Kunzmann, M.; Strauss, J. V.; Macdonald, F. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Large igneous provinces (LIPs), which are commonly associated with supercontinental break-up, are the product of the emplacement of >106 km3 of mafic rocks in less than a few million years. LIP magmatism, in particular continental flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (CFB) volcanism, perturbs global climate on shorter time scales through the radiative effects of degassed SO2 and CO2. On longer time scales, CFBs alter climate through the effect of the high weatherabilty of mafic rocks (5-10 times greater than average continental crust) on global silicate weathering. A link between flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering, Rodinia break-up, and Neoproterozoic snowball glaciation has been postulated. Here we present a new compilation of Nd isotope data on Neoproterozoic mudstones from Laurentia, Australia, and South China along with a new seawater strontium isotope record from well preserved carbonates that support this hypothesis. These datasets are consistent with an outsized role of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering on the global silicate weathering budget during the second half of the Tonian period (~850 to 725 Ma). Along with Os isotope data, they also suggest that an additional pulse of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering at the end of the Tonian may have initiated the Sturtian snowball glaciation. CFBs have relatively high concentrations of phosphorous. Hence, the drawdown in atmospheric CO2 required to trigger the Sturtian snowball Earth was likely accomplished through a combination of increased silicate weathering rates and enhanced biological productivity driven by greater nutrient supply to the oceans. CFBs were also the likely source of the iron in Neoproterozoic iron formation (IF), all significant occurrences of which are restricted to Sturtian-aged glacial successions. Dramatic declines in ɛNd following the Cryogenian snowball glaciations are mirrored by stepwise increases in 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting the scouring of the continents by global ice sheets. This continental resurfacing removed the extensive <span class="hlt">basalt</span> carapace as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25747485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25747485"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detoxification in plant mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Birke, Hannah; Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In contrast to animals, which release the signal molecule <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in small amounts from cysteine and its derivates, phototrophic eukaryotes generate <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as an essential intermediate of the sulfur assimilation pathway. Additionally, iron-sulfur cluster turnover and cyanide detoxification might contribute to the release of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in mitochondria. However, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria. Thus, efficient <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> detoxification mechanisms are required in mitochondria to ensure adequate energy production and consequently survival of the plant cell. Two enzymes have been recently described to catalyze <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> detoxification in mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana, O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase C (OAS-TL C), and the sulfur dioxygenase (SDO) ethylmalonic encephalopathy protein 1 (ETHE1). Biochemical characterization of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> producing and consuming enzymes in mitochondria of plants is fundamental to understand the regulatory network that enables mitochondrial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> homeostasis under nonstressed and stressed conditions. In this chapter, we provide established protocols to determine the activity of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> releasing enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase as well as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-consuming enzymes OAS-TL and SDO. Additionally, we describe a reliable and efficient method to purify OAS-TL proteins from plant material. PMID:25747485</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6388569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6388569"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Urban, P.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003M%26PS...38.1849T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003M%26PS...38.1849T"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical compositions of martian <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (shergottites): Some inferences on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formation, mantle metasomatism, and differentiation on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Treiman, A. H.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Bulk chemical compositions of the shergottite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> provide important constraints on magma genesis and mantle processes in Mars. Abundances of many major and trace elements in the shergottites covary in 2 distinct groups: Group 1 (G1) includes mostly highly incompatible elements (e.g., La, Th), and Group 2 (G2) includes mostly moderately incompatible elements (e.g., Ti, Lu, Al, Hf). Covariations of G2 elements (not necessarily linear) are consistent with partitioning between <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma and orthopyroxene + olivine. This fractionation represents partial melting to form the shergottites and their crystallization; the restite minerals cannot include aluminous phase(s), phosphate, ilmenite, zircon, or <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Overall, abundances of G1 elements are decoupled from those of G2. In graphing abundances of a G1 element against those of a G2 element, G1/G2 abundance ratios do not appear to be random but are restricted to 4 values. Shergottites with a given G1/G2 value need not have the same crystallization age and need not fall on a single fractionation trajectory involving compatible elements (e.g., Ti versus Fe*). These observations imply that the G1/G2 families were established before <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formation and suggest metasomatic enrichment of their source region (major carrier of G2 elements) by a component rich in G1 elements. Group 1 elements were efficiently separated from G2 elements very early in Mars' history. Such efficient fractionation is not consistent with simple petrogenesis; it requires multiple fractionations, "complex" petrogenetic processes, or minerals with unusual geochemistry. The behavior of phosphorus in this early fractionation event is inexplicable by normal petrogenetic processes and minerals. Several explanations are possible, including significant compatibility of P in majoritic garnet and the presence of P-bearing iron metal (or a phosphide phase) in the residual solid assemblage (carrier of G2 elements). If the latter, Mars' mantle is more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T21B0422R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T21B0422R"><span id="translatedtitle">What lies below the Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reidel, S.; Kauffman, J.; Garwood, D.; Bush, J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>More than 200,000 sq km of the Pacific Northwest are covered by the Miocene Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group (CRB). The lavas were erupted onto a complex structural setting dominated by cratonic rocks, and accreted terranes at a convergent plate margin. Few boreholes penetrate the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> so the sub-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> structure must be deduced from geophysical data, the surrounding area and structures within the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. In Oregon (OR) and Idaho (ID) the eastern edge of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> follows the boundary between the craton and accreted terranes but the suture zone becomes lost beneath the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in eastern WA. In northern OR and Washington (WA), a thick <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sequence in the western part of the province overlies an early Tertiary basin with kms of sediment fill which, in turn, overlies accreted terranes. In eastern WA and western ID, a much thinner <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sequence overlies cratonic and accreted terrane rocks without thick intervening Tertiary sediments. This basin began in the Eocene and continued into the present; the sediment now controls the location of the Yakima fold belt (YFB). Prior to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions, a rugged mountainous terrane existed in eastern WA and ID that probably extended to the west. NW faults and folds (e.g. the Orofino fault zone ID, and Chiwaukum graben and White River-Naches River fault zone, Cascade Range) dominate the prebasalt rocks and must extend under the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Remanents of this NW trend are present in YFB (e.g. Rattlesnake-Wallula fault zone) but these are less prominent than the large <span class="hlt">basalt</span> anticlinal folds that are decoupled from the basement. CRB dikes have a NW to N trend and are thought to reflect a basement structural weakness. In the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province many folds and faults follow this dike trend. Major NE trending faults in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> do not have major counterparts beyond the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. One fault, the Hite Fault, must form a significant sub-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> boundary. Dikes to the east of the Hite fault trend N-N20W whereas dikes to the west trend N40-50W</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MinPe.109..161S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MinPe.109..161S"><span id="translatedtitle">PGE geochemical constraints on the origin of the Ni-Cu-PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization in the Suoi Cun intrusion, Cao Bang province, Northeastern Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Svetlitskaya, Tatyana V.; Tolstykh, Nadezhda D.; Izokh, Andrey E.; Thi, Phuong Ngo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Permian (266-262 Ma) Suoi Cun intrusion in the Song Hien Rift Zone (NE Vietnam) consists of a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing mafic-ultramafic unit and a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-free mafic unit. The Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization is represented by disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> throughout the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing unit containing ~0.5 wt.% Ni, ~0.05 wt.% Cu, and ~0.2 ppm PGE. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> schlieren have a limited distribution and contain ~2.6 wt.% Ni, ~0.5 wt.% Cu, and ~2.6 ppm PGE. The Suoi Cun rocks containing disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> display moderately fractionated mantle-normalized PGE patterns with positive Pd and negative Ru anomalies. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> schlieren show enrichment in Ru with lower contents of other PGE except Pd. The low Cu/Pd ratios (1,385-11,529) throughout the intrusion indicate that all <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> were separated from a PGE-undepleted magma as a result of a single <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation event. We suggest that <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> segregated from Mg-rich <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas in a deep-seated magma chamber due to crustal contamination with country rocks. Then, the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid along with early crystallizing olivines and Cr-spinels were pushed out upwards into an upper magma chamber by new pulses of magma. Two processes were important for understanding the PGE distribution: 1) fractionation of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid gave rise to PGE distribution observed in the disseminated ore and, 2) the interaction of oxidized silicate melts with the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid was the responsible for the low PGE contents in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> schlieren due to PGE transfer from the oxidized <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid to the silicate melt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/377194','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/377194"><span id="translatedtitle">Biotreatment of refinery spent <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> caustics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sublette, K.L.; Rajganesh, B.; Woolsey, M.; Plato, A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Caustics are used in petroleum refinering to remove hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from various hydrocarbon streams. Spent <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> caustics from two Conoco refineries have been successfully biotreated on bench and pilot scale, resulting in neutralization and removal of active <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> were completely oxidized to sulfate by Thiobacillus denitrificans. Microbial oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> produced acid, which at least partially neutralized the caustic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeCoA..75.4728G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeCoA..75.4728G"><span id="translatedtitle">CO 2-water-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO 2 sequestration into <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gysi, Alexander P.; Stefánsson, Andri</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The interaction between CO 2-rich waters and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass was studied using reaction path modeling in order to get insight into the water-rock reaction process including secondary mineral composition, water chemistry and mass transfer as a function of CO 2 concentration and reaction progress ( ξ). The calculations were carried out at 25-90 °C and pCO 2 to 30 bars and the results were compared to recent experimental observations and natural systems. A thermodynamic dataset was compiled from 25 to 300 °C in order to simulate mineral <span class="hlt">saturations</span> relevant to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> alteration in CO 2-rich environment including revised key aqueous species for mineral dissolution reactions and apparent Gibbs energies for clay and carbonate solid solutions observed to form in nature. The dissolution of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass in CO 2-rich waters was found to be incongruent with the overall water composition and secondary mineral formation depending on reaction progress and pH. Under mildly acid conditions in CO 2 enriched waters (pH <6.5), SiO 2 and simple Al-Si minerals, Ca-Mg-Fe smectites and Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates predominated. Iron, Al and Si were immobile whereas the Mg and Ca mobility depended on the mass of carbonate formed and water pH. Upon quantitative CO 2 mineralization, the pH increased to >8 resulting in Ca-Mg-Fe smectite, zeolites and calcite formation, reducing the mobility of most dissolved elements. The dominant factor determining the reaction path of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> alteration and the associated element mobility was the pH of the water. In turn, the pH value was determined by the concentration of CO 2 and extent of reaction. The composition of the carbonates depended on the mobility of Ca, Mg and Fe. At pH <6.5, Fe was in the ferrous oxidation state resulting in the formation of Fe-rich carbonates with the incorporation of Ca and Mg. At pH >8, the mobility of Fe and Mg was limited due to the formation of clays whereas Ca was incorporated into calcite, zeolites and clays. Competing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22293456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22293456"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>, <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gulik, V.I.; Biland, A.B.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-based materials, including <span class="hlt">basalt</span> roving chopped <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber strands, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> roving, chopped <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber strands and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4840759','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4840759"><span id="translatedtitle">CORE <span class="hlt">SATURATION</span> BLOCKING OSCILLATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spinrad, R.J.</p> <p>1961-10-17</p> <p>A blocking oscillator which relies on core <span class="hlt">saturation</span> regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a <span class="hlt">saturable</span> portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6149929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6149929"><span id="translatedtitle">Mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma source region and mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma genesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Binder, A.B.</p> <p>1982-11-15</p> <p>Given the available data, we find that the wide range of mare <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> material characteristics can be explained by a model in which: (1) The mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma source region lies between the crust-mantle boundary and a maximum depth of 200 km and consists of a relatively uniform peridotite containing 73--80% olivine, 11--14% pyroxene, 4--8% plagioclase, 0.2--9% ilmenite and 1--1.5% chromite. (2) The source region consists of two or more density-graded rhythmic bands, whose compositions grade from that of the very low TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (0.2% ilmenite) to that of the very high TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (9% ilmenite). These density-graded bands are proposed to have formed as co-crystallizing olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, ilmenite, and chromite settled out of a convecting magma (which was also parental to the crust) in which these crystals were suspended. Since the settling rates of the different minerals were governed by Stoke's law, the heavier minerals settled out more rapidly and therefore earlier than the lighter minerals. Thus the crystal assemblages deposited nearest the descending side of each convection cell were enriched in heavy ilmenite and chromite with respect to lighter olivine and pyroxene and very much lighter plagioclase. The reverse being the case for those units deposited near the ascending sides of the convection cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.B13C0477I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.B13C0477I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> as fungal habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/618157','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/618157"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> isotopic compositions in shergottites and ALH84001, and possible implications for life on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greenwood, J.P.; McSween, H.Y. Jr.; Riciputi, L.R.</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>The shergottite and ALH84001 meteorites hold keys for understanding geologic and possibly biologic processes on Mars. Recently, it has been proposed that carbonates in ALH84001, and the Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfides</span> they contain, are products of extraterrestrial biogenic activity. Here we report ion microprobe analyses of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in shergottites and ALH84001. The sulfur isotope ratios of igneous pyrrhotites in shergottites (mean {delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT}: Shergotty = -0.4{per_thousand}, Zagami = +2.7{per_thousand}, EETA79001A = 1.9{per_thousand}, EETA79001B = -1.7{per_thousand}, LEW88516 = -1.9{per_thousand}, QUE94201 = +0.8{per_thousand}) are similar to those of terrestrial ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, suggesting that the sulfur isotopic composition of the Martian mantle may be similar to that of the mantle of the Earth. The sulfur isotopic systematics of ALH84001 <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are distinct from the shergottites. Measured sulfur isotope ratios of eight pyrite grains ({delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} = +2.0 to +7.3{per_thousand}) in crushed zones confirm previously reported analyses of isotopically heavy <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and are indistinguishable from an Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> zone within a carbonate globule ({delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} = +6.0{per_thousand}). Analyses of synthesized, fine-grained mixtures of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, carbonate, and magnetite indicate than the measured sulfur isotope ratio is independent of the presence of carbonate and magnetite in the sputtered volume, confirming the accuracy of the analysis of the fine-grained <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the carbonate globule. Terrestrial biogenic sulfate reduction typically results in light isotopic enrichments. The similarity of {delta}{sup 34}S values of the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in ALH84001 imply that the Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> zones within ALH84001 carbonates are probably not the result of bacterial reduction of sulfate. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.2241W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.2241W"><span id="translatedtitle">Re-Os geochronology on <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from the Tudun Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Eastern Tianshan, and its geological significance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Minfang; Wang, Wei; Gutzmer, Jens; Liu, Kun; Li, Chao; Michałak, Przemysław P.; Xia, Qinlin; Guo, Xiaonan</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Tudun deposit is a medium-sized Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, located at the westernmost edge of the Huangshan-Jing'erquan Belt in the northern part of Eastern Tianshan, NW China. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> separates including pentlandite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite from the Tudun deposit, contain Re, common Os and 187Os ranging from 40.46 to 201.2, 0.8048 to 6.246 and 0.1709 to 0.9977 ppb, respectively. They have very low 187Os/188Os ratios of 1.224-2.352. The <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> yield a Re-Os isochron age of 270.0 ± 7.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.3), consistent within uncertainty with the SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age for the Tudun mafic intrusion (gabbro) of 280.0 ± 3.0 Ma. The calculated initial 187Os/188Os ratio is 0.533 ± 0.022, and γOs values range from 283 to 307, with a mean of 297, indicating significant crustal contamination of the parent melt prior to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The Tudun deposit shares the same age and Re-Os isotopic compositions with other orthomagmatic Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in Huangshan-Jing'erquan Belt, suggesting that they have formed in Early Permian.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+film&pg=3&id=EJ178305','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+film&pg=3&id=EJ178305"><span id="translatedtitle">Substoichiometry and <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Willett, J. E.; Servant, D. M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Two experiments are described and appropriate discussion is given to illustrate the use of substoichiometry and <span class="hlt">saturation</span> analysis techniques with undergraduates. The first experiment is the determination of silver content in photographic film. The second is the estimation of a hormone concentration using <span class="hlt">saturation</span> analysis and a commercially…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26563786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26563786"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> intoxication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guidotti, Tee L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) is a hazard primarily in the oil and gas industry, agriculture, sewage and animal waste handling, construction (asphalt operations and disturbing marshy terrain), and other settings where organic material decomposes under reducing conditions, and in geothermal operations. It is an insoluble gas, heavier than air, with a very low odor threshold and high toxicity, driven by concentration more than duration of exposure. Toxicity presents in a unique, reliable, and characteristic toxidrome consisting, in ascending order of exposure, of mucosal irritation, especially of the eye ("gas eye"), olfactory paralysis (not to be confused with olfactory fatigue), sudden but reversible loss of consciousness ("knockdown"), pulmonary edema (with an unusually favorable prognosis), and death (probably with apnea contributing). The risk of chronic neurcognitive changes is controversial, with the best evidence at high exposure levels and after knockdowns, which are frequently accompanied by head injury or oxygen deprivation. Treatment cannot be initiated promptly in the prehospital phase, and currently rests primarily on supportive care, hyperbaric oxygen, and nitrite administration. The mechanism of action for sublethal neurotoxicity and knockdown is clearly not inhibition of cytochrome oxidase c, as generally assumed, although this may play a role in overwhelming exposures. High levels of endogenous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> are found in the brain, presumably relating to the function of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as a gaseous neurotransmitter and immunomodulator. Prevention requires control of exposure and rigorous training to stop doomed rescue attempts attempted without self-contained breathing apparatus, especially in confined spaces, and in sudden release in the oil and gas sector, which result in multiple avoidable deaths. PMID:26563786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.U53B0056F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.U53B0056F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Central American <span class="hlt">basalts</span> using the Arc <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feigenson, M.; Carr, M. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We have used the Arc <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Simulator (ABS), developed by JI Kimura, to explore the conditions and components of melting beneath the Central American volcanic front. ABS is a comprehensive forward model that incorporates slab dehydration and melting and mantle wedge fluxing and melting using realistic P-T conditions and experimentally determined phase relations. We have applied ABS versions 3 and 4 to model representative magma types in Nicaragua, which span a broad geochemical range including proximal high- and low-Ti lavas in Nicaragua. Sr-Nd-Pb data require appropriate selection of previously identified sources, including: separate carbonate and hemipelagic sediments, DMM, an enriched mantle isotopically similar to the alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of Yojoa, a Himu-influenced mantle derived from Galapagos material and altered oceanic crust (AOC) derived from both MORB and Galapagos seamounts. Following the dry solidus, the dominant arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, exemplified by Cerro Negro lavas, can be generated at about 80-90 km where lawsonite and zoisite break down, releasing LILEs into a hydrous fluid that travels into the wedge. The fluid-triggered melting occurs just above the garnet stability field in the wedge to fit the HREEs. Below 90 Km, slab melting begins and the AOC component dominates, generating a fluid with little or no HFSE depletions, consistent with the unusual high-Ti lavas found in Nicaragua. However, the isotopic data require a much lower sediment input for the high-Ti lavas (consistent with 10Be results on the high-Ti lavas) and an enriched component for the AOC and/or mantle wedge. Following the wet solidus, fits to the Cerro Negro magma only occur in the absence of phengite in the AOC and with the presence of HFSE attracting minerals, rutile, zircon and allanite. The depth of the best fit is 135 km, consistent with current best estimates of the depth to the seismic zone beneath Cerro Negro. Below 150 km, the high-Ti lavas can be generated if the HFSE retaining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608231"><span id="translatedtitle">Gluon <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in a <span class="hlt">saturated</span> environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1350..254K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1350..254K"><span id="translatedtitle">Gluon <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in a <span class="hlt">saturated</span> environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of QsA2, in AA compared with pA collisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17779603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17779603"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Deposits from the East Pacific Rise Near 21{degrees}N.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hekinian, R; Fevrier, M; Bischoff, J L; Picot, P; Shanks, W C</p> <p>1980-03-28</p> <p>Massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits were discovered from the diving saucer Cyana on the accreting plate boundary region of the East Pacific Rise near 21 degrees N. The deposits form conical and tubular structures lying on a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> basement. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses showed two main types of intimately associated products: a polymetallic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich material composed of pyrite and marcasite in association, zinc-rich phases, and copper-rich compounds, and an iron-rich oxide and hydroxide material (also called gossan) composed largely of goethite and limonite. Silicate phases such as opaline, silica, iron-silicon clay, and trace amounts of mica and zeolite are encountered in both types of material. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits on the East Pacific Rise are discussed. PMID:17779603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5275332','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5275332"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> deposits from the east Pacific rise near 21/sup 0/N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hekinian, R.; Fevrier, M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Picot, P.; Shanks, W.C.</p> <p>1980-03-28</p> <p>Massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits were discovered from the diving saucer Cyana on the accreting plate boundary region of the East Pacific Rise near 21/sup 0/N. The deposits form conical and tubular structures lying on a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> basement. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses showed two main types of intimately associated products: a polymetallic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich material composed of pyrite and marcasite in association, zinc-rich phases, and copper-rich compounds, and an iron-rich oxide and hydroxide material (also called gossan) composed largely of goethite and limonite. Silicate phases such as opaline, silica, iron-silicon clay, and trace amounts of mica and zeolite are encountered in both types of material. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits on the East Pacific Rise are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MinDe..47..731G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MinDe..47..731G"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous Os isotope compositions in the Kalatongke <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, NW China: the role of crustal contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Jian-Feng; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Lightfoot, Peter C.; Qu, Wenjun</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Re-Os isotope compositions of mantle-derived magmas are highly sensitive to crustal contamination because the crust and mantle have very different Os isotope compositions. Crustal contamination may trigger S <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and thus the formation of magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits. The ˜287-Ma Kalatongke norite intrusion of NW China are hosted in carboniferous tuffaceous rocks and contain both disseminated and massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization. The Re-Os isotope compositions in the intrusion are highly variable. Norite and massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores have γ Os values ranging from +59 to +160 and a Re-Os isochron age of 239 ± 51 Ma, whereas disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores have γ Os values from +117 to +198 and a Re-Os isochron age of 349 ± 34 Ma. The variability of Os isotope compositions can be explained as the emplacement of two distinct magma pulses. Massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores and barren norite in the intrusion formed from the same magma pulse, whereas the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores with more radiogenic Os isotopes formed from another magma pulse which underwent different degrees of crustal contamination. Re-Os isotopes may not be suitable for dating <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing intrusions that underwent variable degrees of crustal contamination to form magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26995325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26995325"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport of engineered nanoparticles in partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sand columns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yecheskel, Yinon; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The vadose zone is a critical region controlling fate and transport of contaminants in soils and, ultimately, groundwater. It is therefore important to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in this zone, as a potential group of emerging contaminants. Soil is a significant sink for ENPs; however, only a few studies have considered the fate and transport of ENPs in partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> systems, representative of the vadose zone. Here, transport behavior of three commonly used ENPs - gold (Au-NPs), silver (Ag-NPs) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs) - is investigated in partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sand columns. High mobilities of Au-NPs and Ag-NPs under different water <span class="hlt">saturation</span> levels and concentrations were observed. The presence of CaCl2 reduces Ag-NP mobility through chemical interactions, similar to behavior reported in <span class="hlt">saturated</span> systems. Furthermore, transformation of Ag-NPs in the environment may influence their mobility; aging of Ag-NPs following <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> was investigated. The silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (Ag2S-NPs) remained stable in aqueous suspension, and mobile in the partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sand column. In contrast, the positively-charged ZnO-NPs were completely immobilized in the sand column. Significantly, though, addition of humic acid (HA) to the ZnO-NP suspension reverses particle surface charge and thus increases their mobility. Moreover, remobilization of entrapped ZnO-NPs by HA was demonstrated. PMID:26995325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5213665','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5213665"><span id="translatedtitle">Field method for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, B L; Schwarser, R R; Chukwuenye, C O</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A simple and rapid method was developed for determining the total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration in water in the field. Direct measurements were made using a silver/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ion selective electrode in conjunction with a double junction reference electrode connected to an Orion Model 407A/F Specific Ion Meter. The method also made use of a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anti-oxidant buffer (SAOB II) which consists of ascorbic acid, sodium hydroxide, and disodium EDTA. Preweighed sodium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystals were sealed in air tight plastic volumetric flasks which were used in standardization process in the field. Field standards were prepared by adding SAOB II to the flask containing the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystals and diluting it to the mark with deionized deaerated water. Serial dilutions of the standards were used to prepare standards of lower concentrations. Concentrations as low as 6 ppB were obtained on lake samples with a reproducibility better than +- 10%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057748&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057748&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism"><span id="translatedtitle">Shock metamorphism of lunar and terrestrial <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schaal, R. B.; Hoerz, F.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Lonar Crater (India) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 75035 were shock loaded under controlled laboratory conditions up to 1000 kbar, generally in a CO/CO2 (1:1) environment evacuated to 10 to the minus seventh power torr. The Kieffer et al. (1976) classification scheme of progressive shock metamorphism is found to apply to lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The major shock features of the five classes that span the range 0 to 1000 kbar are described. Only three out of 152 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> specimens show shock effects in their natural state as severe as Class 2 features. The scarcity of shocked <span class="hlt">basalt</span> hand samples in contrast to the abundance of shock-produced agglutinates and homogeneous glass spheres in the lunar regolith indicates the dominant role of micrometeorite impact in the evolution of the lunar regolith. The overall glass content in asteroidal and Mercurian regoliths is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MinDe.tmp...12T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MinDe.tmp...12T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Chalcophile element (Ni, Cu, PGE, and Au) variations in the Tamarack magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit in the Midcontinent Rift System: implications for dynamic ore-forming processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p> correlation between Pt and Pd, and between individual IPGE. At a given Pt or Pd content, however, the semi-massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores have higher IPGE contents than the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> samples. Modeling results show that the variations in PGE tenors (metals in recalculated 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>) in the Tamarack magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit are mainly controlled by variable R factors (magma/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-liquid mass ratios) during <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-liquid segregation and subsequent monosulfide solid solution (MSS) fractionation during cooling. The initial contents of Ir, Pt, and Pd in the parental magma, estimated from the metal tenors of the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, are 0.2, 2, and 1.8 ppb, respectively, which are ˜1/5 of the values for the PGE-undepleted primitive <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the Midcontinent Rift System. The variations of PGE tenors in the semi-massive and massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores can be explained by MSS fractional crystallization from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids. Extreme variations in the PGE contents of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> may also in part reflect metal mobility during post-crystallization hydrothermal processes. The higher PGE tenors for the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the CGO dike relative to those in the FGO Intrusion are consistent with formation in a dynamic conduit where the early <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids left in the conduit by the FGO magma were subsequently upgraded by the subsequent surge of the CGO magma. The relatively low PGE tenors for the semi-massive and massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> can be explained by lack of such an upgrading process for the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> due to their distal locations in a migrating conduit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760045244&hterms=Dunite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDunite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760045244&hterms=Dunite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDunite"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneity in titaniferous lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walker, D.; Longhi, J.; Hays, J. F.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Small but real chemical differences exist between subsamples of fine-grained quench-textured titaniferous lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The existence of different textural domains with different chemistries is thought to account for most of this variation. In addition to the textural domains, lunar sample 74275 has a population of olivine 'megacrysts' as well as dunite fragments. These materials are thought to be extraneous and to compromise the primary nature of 74275. Recognition of the small chemical variations present may aid in understanding some discrepancies in the experimental-petrology literature. However, these small variations have a distressing petrogenetic significance since they severely limit resolution in recognizing the number and depth of origin of primary magmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.2303A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.2303A"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency and fluid effects on elastic properties of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>: Experimental investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adelinet, M.; Fortin, J.; Guéguen, Y.; Schubnel, A.; Geoffroy, L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In order to investigate the effects of fluid and frequency on the elastic properties, we performed hydrostatic experiments on an Icelandic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> specimen under both dry and <span class="hlt">saturated</span> conditions. This <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is characterized by a bimodal porosity, i.e., cracks and equant pores. The elastic properties -bulk moduli in our case- were investigated under high pressure through two experimental methods: (1) a classical one using ultrasonic P- and S-waves velocities (frequency 106 Hz), (2) and a new one, using oscillation tests (frequency 10-2 Hz). In dry condition, experimental data show no significant difference between high (HF) and low (LF) frequency bulk moduli. However, in <span class="hlt">saturated</span> conditions, two effects are highlighted: a physico-chemical effect emphasized by a difference between drained and dry moduli, and a squirt-flow effect evidenced by a difference between HF and LF undrained moduli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T51B2570D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T51B2570D"><span id="translatedtitle">Rhyolite, dacite, andesite, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite, and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism on the Alarcon Rise spreading-center, Gulf of California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dreyer, B. M.; Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Castillo, P. R.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> glasses (~56% SiO2), and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glasses, more typical of the rest of the ridge, occur within 100m of the dome. Flow(s) with andesite glass compositions (~62 wt % SiO2) are exposed in fault scarps ~1km SW of the dome. Minor seawater contamination in evolved lavas (> 53 wt % SiO2) is indicated by generally increasing Cl-/K2O with decreasing MgO and increasing SiO2. Three preliminary Sr-isotopic analyses indicate that crustal assimilation and assimilation of altered crustal rocks has been minimal. Major element trends, and a preliminary subset of laser-ablation ICP-MS data, are consistent with extended fractional crystallization from a multiply-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> parental liquid(s) of limited compositional range. Rare earth element abundances range from 15-150x chondritic, and patterns are coarsely described as flat with moderate LREE-depletion (LaN/CeN ~ 0.8- 0.9). Differentiated lavas have distinct negative Eu-anomalies documenting extensive crystal fractionation of plagioclase in the generation of the more evolved lavas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..310..225L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..310..225L"><span id="translatedtitle">Relating <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral zonation and trace element chemistry to subsurface processes in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Libbey, R. B.; Williams-Jones, A. E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The nature and distribution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals and their trace element chemistry in the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system was determined through the study of cuttings and core from wells that intersect different regions of the hydrothermal cell, from the near surface to depths of > 3000 m. The observed <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral zonation and trace element enrichment correlate well with the present-day thermal structure of the system. Isocubanite and pyrrhotite are confined to the deep, low permeability regions, whereas an assemblage of chalcopyrite and pyrite predominates in the main convective upflow path. The presence of marcasite in the uppermost regions of the system reflects weakly acidic conditions (pH < 5) marginal to the upflow, where outflow and downward percolating fluids have dissolved deeply exsolved CO2. The presence of "chalcopyrite disease" in sphalerite may be an indication that the system is experiencing a heating trend, following the logic of "zone-refining" in volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> systems. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> sulfur at all analyzed depths in the Reykjanes geothermal system was derived from a mixture of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and reduced seawater sources. Petrographic evidence suggests that seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids have altered primary igneous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the host rocks, a process that has been proposed as a major control of aqueous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production in mid-ocean ridge environments. Calculations show that igneous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the host <span class="hlt">basalts</span> likely account for less than 5% of the total available ore metal budget in the system, however, their contribution to fluid metal budgets is probably significant because of their relatively high solubility. The processes documented by this study are likely analogous to those operating in the feeder and deep reaction zones of mid-ocean ridge seafloor hydrothermal systems. The results show that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral zonation and trace element chemistry vary as a function of physicochemical parameters that are relevant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.2277I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.2277I"><span id="translatedtitle">Subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> as fungal habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, M.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, next to nothing is known about this deep, concealed biosphere. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (~50-200 μm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few μm:s to ∼20 μm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma, and probably still is. It is suggested that near future ocean drilling programs prioritize sampling of live species to better understand this concealed biosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.3625I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.3625I"><span id="translatedtitle">Subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> as fungal habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, M.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50-200 µm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/894861','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/894861"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Mineral Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals organized by structure type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1083396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1083396"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralization of <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> in the CO<sub>2</sub>-H<sub>2</sub>O-H<sub>2</sub>S System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.; Arey, Bruce W.</p> <p>2013-05-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> samples representing five different formations were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical carbon dioxide containing 1% hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) at reservoir conditions (100 bar, 90°C) for up to 3.5 years. Surface coatings in the form of pyrite and metal cation substituted carbonates were identified as reaction products associated with all five <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. In some cases, high pressure tests contained excess H2S, which produced the most corroded <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and largest amount of secondary products. In comparison, tests containing limited amounts of H2S appeared least reacted with significantly less concentrations of reaction products. In all cases, pyrite appeared to precede carbonation, and in some instances, was observed in the absence of carbonation such as in cracks, fractures, and within the porous glassy mesostasis. Armoring reactions from pyrite surface coatings observed in earlier shorter duration tests were found to be temporary with carbonate mineralization observed with all the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> tested in these long duration experiments. Geochemical simulations conducted with the geochemical code EQ3/6 accurately predicted early pyrite precipitation followed by formation of carbonates. Reactivity with H2S was correlated with measured Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with more facile pyrite formation occurring with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> containing more Fe(III) phases. These experimental and modeling results confirm potential for long term sequestration of acid gas mixtures in continental flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24289348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24289348"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen evolution from water through metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan</p> <p>2013-11-28</p> <p>Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> cluster anions M2S(X)(-) (M = Mo and W, X = 4-6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions have ground state isomers with two bridging <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo2S4(-) isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W2S4(-) and M2S5(-) isomers. In all the lowest energy H2 elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H2 elimination step involve a thiol (-SH) and a hydroxyl (-OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M2S4(-) and M2S5(-) clusters with water to liberate H2 are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M2S6(-) is highly endothermic with a considerable barrier due to <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of the local bonding environment. PMID:24289348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V11B2265S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V11B2265S"><span id="translatedtitle">The mantle and <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-crust interaction below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Schmidt, M. E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans ~3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar, Perry et al., 1990). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor (Perry et al., 1990). Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato (Crumpler, 1980) and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of cone-building. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative (Perry et al., 1990), on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF <span class="hlt">basalts</span> show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other <span class="hlt">basalts</span> peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Si-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> vs. undersaturated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008787','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008787"><span id="translatedtitle">The Mantle and <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF <span class="hlt">basalts</span> show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other <span class="hlt">basalts</span> peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Si-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039412&hterms=solubility&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolubility','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039412&hterms=solubility&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolubility"><span id="translatedtitle">The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JAESc..27..523A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JAESc..27..523A"><span id="translatedtitle">Metamorphic textures and geochemistry of the Cyprus-type massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lenses at Zurabad, Khoy, Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aftabi, A.; Ghodrati, Z.; MacLean, W. H.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The Upper Cretaceous volcanogenic-exhalative Fe-Cu massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lenses at Zurabad, Iran occur within spilitized <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the Khoy ophiolite. Both the host rocks and the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lenses are metamorphosed to greenschist facies and have been subjected to weak deformation causing textural changes in the ore. The presence of preserved banded pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite in a matrix rich in chlorite indicates that the ore was a primary facies of synvolcanic hydrothermal massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization, similar to those formed in modern seafloor environments and in Cyprus-type ophiolite deposits. Coarse-grained pyrite porphyroblasts or crystalloblasts, recrystallized pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite, together with regional silicate-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> foliation were produced by sub-seafloor metamorphism followed by regional metamorphism and ophiolite obduction. Brittle deformation and shearing produced cataclastic textures in pyrite, which were filled by chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. Post-obduction and or post-metamorphic events produced late veinlets of pyrite-chalcopyrite and gangue minerals. Supergene processes related to gossan formation converted pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite to marcasite and birdseye pyrite. Primary sphalerite contains an average of 14 mole % FeS, which shows equilibration at temperatures below 240 °C, and a pressure less than 1 kilobar. Based on its equilibrated textures with other <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and silicates in the foliation, pyrrhotite was a primary mineral in the Zurabad volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lenses. Therefore, pyrrhotite can be primary, and with pyrite forms a buffer that constrains sulphur fugacity during regional metamorphism. On the evidence of textures, mineralogy and geochemistry, pyrite is stable in the greenschist facies, provided that the activity of sulphur remains high. Of prime importance in exploration of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lenses in the Zurabad area has been the recognition of banded gossans and coarse pyrite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054170&hterms=Pyrites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPyrites','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054170&hterms=Pyrites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPyrites"><span id="translatedtitle">The mineralogy and the isotopic composition of sulfur in hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/sulfate deposits on the East Pacific Rise, 21 deg N latitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Styrt, M. M.; Brackmann, A. J.; Holland, H. D.; Clark, B. C.; Pisutha-Arnond, V.; Eldridge, C. S.; Ohmoto, H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The mineralogy and isotopic composition of sulfur found in hydrothermal deposits associated with five groups of vents along the ridge axis of the East Pacific Rise near 21 deg N latitude are investigated. Solid samples of mixed <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and sulfates from mounds, chimneys and the surrounding sediment as well as fresh <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass were examined with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron microprobe analysis. For the three vents of exit temperature close to 350 C, the chimneys are found to be rich in copper <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, while for those of temperatures around 300 C, zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is found to predominate. The major <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> found in the chimneys include wurtzite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and cubanite, with anhydrite the dominant sulfate. Significant mineralogical differences are found between active and inactive vents. The isotopic composition of sulfur in anhydrites from active vents is observed to be close to that of sea water and consistent with a derivation from sea water sulfate. The isotopic composition of sulfur in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals is explained in terms of precipitation from solutions with reduced sulfur derived from <span class="hlt">basalts</span> or <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas, and sea water sulfate. Finally, the deposits are interpreted as the results of the mixing of H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids with cold sea water near the sea floor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V51C1703M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V51C1703M"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrogenesis of Mt. Baker <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and Andesites: Constraints From Mineral Chemistry and Phase Equilibria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mullen, E.; McCallum, I. S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>; however, the two methods do not give consistent results. The water content and redox state of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are inversely correlated, inconsistent with data from andesites that show the reverse correlation. Using published experimental data and the BATCH algorithm (Longhi, 2002) we constructed an array of phase diagrams in the multi-component <span class="hlt">basalt</span> system relevant to arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and andesites ranging from 0 to 3 GPa and variable water contents. Projections of Mt. Baker lava compositions (corrected for loss or gain of olivine and plag where appropriate) on these diagrams reveal: (1) with the exception of Sulphur Cr., primary <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> compositions equilibrated with depleted hydrous mantle harzburgite/lherzolite at pressures from 1 to 1.5 GPa, coincident with the crust-mantle boundary in the Mt. Baker region, (2) except for Sulphur Cr., melt fractions were >10%; Sulphur Cr. <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is alkalic and formed by smaller degrees of partial melting comparable to <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the northern Garibaldi belt, (3) evidence for shallow fractionation of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (5-10 km), (4) Mt. Baker andesites delineate a low pressure fractionation trend coincident with the 0.2 GPa, water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span>, oliv+cpx+plag and cpx+amph+plag cotectics (Sisson and Grove, 1993, Grove et al., 2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8872B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8872B"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Evidence for Polybaric Intracrustal Differentiation of Primitive Arc <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> beneath St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blundy, Jon; Melekhova, Lena; Robertson, Richard</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present experimental phase equilibria for a primitive, high-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Experimental details were presented in Melekhova et al (Nature Geosci, 2013); the objective here is to compare experimental phase compositions to those of erupted lavas and cumulates from St. Vincent. Starting material with 4.5 wt% H2O is multiply-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> with a lherzolite assemblage at 1.3 GPa and 1180 ° C, consistent with mantle wedge derivation. Experimental glasses from our study, in addition to those of Pichavant et al (GCA, 2002) and Pichavant & Macdonald (CMP 2007) on a similar high-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, encompass a compositional range from high-magnesian <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to dacite, with a systematic dependence on H2O content, temperature and pressure. We are able to match the glasses from individual experiments to different lava types, so as to constrain the differentiation depths at which these magmas could be generated from a high-Mg parent, as follows: Composition wt% H2OP (GPa) T (° C) High-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 3.9-4.8 1.45-1.751180-1200 Low-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 2.3-4.5 1.0-1.3 1065-1150 High alumina <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 3.0-4.5 0.4 1050-1080 <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> andesite 0.6-4.5 0.7-1.0 1050-1130 Andesite 0.6 1.0 1060-1080 The fact that St. Vincent andesites (and some <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesites) appear to derive from a low-H2O (0.6 wt%) parent suggest that they are products of partial melting of older, high-Mg gabbroic rocks, as 0.6 wt% H2O is approximately the amount that can be stored in amphibole-bearing gabbros. The higher H2O contents of parents for the other lava compositions is consistent with derivation by crystallization of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with H2O contents that accord with those of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from St. Vincent (Bouvier et al, J Petrol, 2008). The generation of evolved melts both by <span class="hlt">basalt</span> crystallization and gabbro melting is consistent with the hot zone concept of Annen et al (J Petrol, 2006) wherein repeated intrusion of mantle-derived <span class="hlt">basalt</span> simultaneously crystallize by cooling and melt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992MTB....23....5N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992MTB....23....5N"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrobioleaching of base metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Natarajan, K. A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Bioleaching of base metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, under the influence of applied direct current (DC) potentials is discussed. Contributions toward mineral dissolution from three effects, namely, galvanic, applied potential, and microbiological, are analyzed and compared. Sphalerite could be selectively bioleached in the presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans under an applied potential of -500 mV (SCE) from mixed <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> containing sphalerite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite. Bacterial activity and growth were found to be promoted under electrobioleaching conditions. Probable mechanisms involved in the bioleaching of different <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> under positive and negative applied potentials are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999nvm..conf...62S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999nvm..conf...62S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Mineralogy of the Youngest Lunar <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Staid, M. I.; Pieters, C. M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The last stage of lunar volcanism produced spectrally distinct <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on the western nearside of the Moon, which remain unsampled by landing missions. The spectral properties of these late-stage <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are examined using high-spatial-resolution Clementine images to constrain their mineralogic composition. The young high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the western Procellarum and Imbrium Basins display a significantly stronger ferrous absorption than earlier mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, suggesting that they may be the most Fe-rich deposits on the Moon. The distinct long-wavelength shape of this ferrous absorption is found to be similar for surface soils and materials excavated from depth. The pervasive character of this absorption feature supports the interpretation of abundant olivine within these late-stage lunar deposits. Important distinctions exist between the early-stage eastern maria and the late-stage western <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, even though both appear to be Ti-rich. For example, the western maria are more radiogenic than eastern deposits. Telescopic spectra of the high-Ti western maria also exhibit a unique combination of a strong 1 micron feature and a relatively weak or attenuated 2-micron absorption. Pieters et al. concluded that the unusual strength and shape of the 1-micron absorption in western <span class="hlt">basalts</span> results from an additional absorption from abundant olivine and/or Fe-bearing glass. Either mineralogy could produce the strong long wavelength 1-micron band, but a glassy Fe-rich surface could only form by rapid cooling along the exterior surfaces of flows. Clementine UV-VIS data of late-stage <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are examined for regions in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium. The spectral properties of western regions are compared to the sampled Apollo 11 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in Mare Tranquillitatis, which contain similar albedos and UV-VIS spectral properties. For reference, the western <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are also compared to the low-Ti and Fe-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in Mare Serenitatis (mISP). Serenitatis <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have the strongest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770031734&hterms=chemistry+context&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchemistry%2Bcontext','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770031734&hterms=chemistry+context&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchemistry%2Bcontext"><span id="translatedtitle">Mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> - Crystal chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Papike, J. J.; Hodges, F. N.; Bence, A. E.; Cameron, M.; Rhodes, J. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The paper attempts a synthesis of the major-element chemistry, petrography, mineral chemistry, and crystal chemistry of the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> returned by Apollo and Luna missions. A classification of the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> based on major-element chemistry is given, and textural sequences within each major-element group are identified. The mineral chemistry and crystal chemistry of each mineral group are considered within the framework of the major-element groups and the textural sequences. The various classes of models for the origin of the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the nature of their source regions are discussed in the context of the major- and trace-element chemistries and experimental investigations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMMM..23..609F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMMM..23..609F"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel method for improving cerussite <span class="hlt">sulfidization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Qi-cheng; Wen, Shu-ming; Zhao, Wen-juan; Cao, Qin-bo; Lü, Chao</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Evaluation of flotation behavior, solution measurements, and surface analyses were performed to investigate the effects of chloride ion addition on the <span class="hlt">sulfidization</span> of cerussite in this study. Micro-flotation tests indicate that the addition of chloride ions prior to <span class="hlt">sulfidization</span> can significantly increase the flotation recovery of cerussite, which is attributed to the formation of more lead <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> species on the mineral surface. Solution measurement results suggest that the addition of chloride ions prior to <span class="hlt">sulfidization</span> induces the transformation of more <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ions from pulp solution onto the mineral surface by the formation of more lead <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> species. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy indicate that more lead <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> species form on the mineral surface when chloride ions are added prior to <span class="hlt">sulfidization</span>. These results demonstrate that the addition of chloride ions prior to <span class="hlt">sulfidization</span> can significantly improve the <span class="hlt">sulfidization</span> of cerussite, thereby enhancing the flotation performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V23D2593C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V23D2593C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> mineralization in magmas: Investigating the effect of re-equilibrating olivine xenocrysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Currier, R. M.; Marsh, B. D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Large amounts of entrained olivine xenocrysts are common features of many mafic magmas. It is only natural that mantle derived melts mechanically destabilize and incorporate disaggregated wall rock material during ascension and transport. Bowen noticed this in 1928 and many subsequent studies at, for example, Kilauea have noted an abundance of these 'Tramp Crystals' in proportion to the eruptive flux. These olivines are distinguished by their high, nonequilibrium magnesium contents (Fo:88-92), and, due to the very fast interdiffusion rates of iron and magnesium in olivine (~10-7-10-9 mm2/s), these crystals are often rimmed in iron-rich olivine, or, if given enough time, become completely re-equilibrated with the surrounding melt. Because this exchange occurs in a finite volume of liquid, the composition of the liquid during xenocryst re-equilibration may be strongly affected and driven from its normal course of evolution. The magnitude of this change is clearly a function of the relative amount of xenocrysts and the compositional difference between liquid and crystals. Because mantle olivine is always more forsteritic than the equilibrium olivine composition of the liquid, re-equilibration of olivine increases the magnesium content and decreases the iron content of the liquid. A possible outcome is a decrease in the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in magmas is sensitive to the concentration of iron. This is a fundamentally important consideration, given the fact that the PGE content of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> reflects the cumulative amount of magma the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> "sees," and higher temperature <span class="hlt">saturation</span> greatly increases the odds of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> existence and longevity. Presented is a model predicting <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> with varying loads of xenocrystic olivine within a solidifying body. Even at high temperatures, reasonable fractions of xenocrysts can lower the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> concentration over 200 ppm. The model is then compared to a world</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010820','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010820"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition and origin of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma of the Hawaiian Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Powers, H.A.</p> <p>1955-01-01</p> <p>Silica-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02762&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02762&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span id="translatedtitle">Anaglyph: <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina show an unusual and striking pattern of erosion. Stereoscopic observation helps to clarify the landform changing processes active here. Many of the cliffs appear to be rock staircases that have the same color as the plateau's <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cap rock. Are these the edges of lower layers in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> or are they a train of slivers that are breaking off from, then sliding downslope and away from, the cap rock. They appear to be the latter. Close inspection shows that each stair step is too laterally irregular to be a continuous sheet of bedrock like the cap rock. Also, the steps are not flat but instead are little ridges, as one might expect from broken, tilted, and sliding slices of the cap rock. Stream erosion has cut some gullies into the cliffs and vegetation (appears bright in this infrared image) shows that water springs from and flows down some channels, but land sliding is clearly a major agent of erosion here.<p/>This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.<p/>Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.<p/>Elevation data used in this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1713768N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1713768N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevention of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich waste rock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nyström, Elsa; Alakangas, Lena</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The ability to reduce <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation in waste rock after mine closure is a widely researched area, but to reduce and/or inhibit the oxidation during operation is less common. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>-rich (ca 30 % sulfur) waste rock, partially oxidized, was leached during unsaturated laboratory condition. Trace elements such as As and Sb were relatively high in the waste rock while other <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-associated elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn were low compared to common <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich waste rock. Leaching of unsaturated waste rock lowered the pH, from around six down to two, resulting in continuously increasing element concentrations during the leaching period of 272 days. The concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6.9 mg/L), Sb (1.2 mg/L), Zn (149 mg/L) and S (43 g/L) were strongly elevated at the end of the leaching period. Different alkaline industrial residues such as slag, lime kiln dust and cement kiln dust were added as solid or as liquid to the waste rock in an attempt to inhibit <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation through neo-formed phases on <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> surfaces in order to decrease the mobility of metals and metalloids over longer time scale. This will result in a lower cost and efforts of measures after mine closure. Results from the experiments will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06818&hterms=Andesite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAndesite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06818&hterms=Andesite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAndesite"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Crater in Color IR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>[figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/> Released August 6, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image near Nili Fosse in the the Isidis region of Mars. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations. In many cases craters trap sand in their topographic depressions, interrupting the sand's migration across the Martian surface. This image is particularly interesting because there appears to be more than 1 type of sand in the bottom of this crater and in the hummocky terrain near the bottom of the image. The pink/magenta areas are characteristic of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> composition, but there are also orange areas that are likely caused by the presence of andesite. These two compositions, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and andesite, are some of the most common found on Mars. <p/> Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 24, Longitude 80.7 East (297.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. <p/> Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. <p/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7004386','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7004386"><span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus for use in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chemiluminescence detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.</p> <p>1987-01-06</p> <p>A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> which is either hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or methyl mercaptan by reacting the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866101','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866101"><span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus for use in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chemiluminescence detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A method of chemiluminescently determining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> which is either hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or methyl mercaptan by reacting the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770054089&hterms=types+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtypes%2Brocks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770054089&hterms=types+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtypes%2Brocks"><span id="translatedtitle">Apollo 17 KREEPy <span class="hlt">basalt</span> - A rock type intermediate between mare and KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Wood, J. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The Apollo 17 KREEPy <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is a unique lunar volcanic rock, observed only as clasts in the light friable breccia matrix (72275) of Boulder 1, Station 2 at Taurus-Littrow. Its status as a volcanic rock is confirmed by the absence of any meteoritic contamination, a lack of cognate inclusions or xenocrystal material, and low Ni contents in metal grains. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was extruded 4.01 + or - 0.04 b.y. ago, approximately contemporaneously with the high-alumina mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> at Fra Mauro; shortly afterwards it was disrupted, probably by the Serenitatis impact, and its fragments emplaced in the South Massif. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, which is quartz-normative and aluminous, is chemically and mineralogically intermediate between the Apollo 15 KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the high-alumina mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in most respects. It consists mainly of plagioclase and pigeonitic pyroxene in approximately equal amounts, and 10-30% of mesostatis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7375E..6CZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7375E..6CZ"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental research on continuous <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber and <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-fibers-reinforced polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xueyi; Zou, Guangping; Shen, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The interest for continuous <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibers and reinforced polymers has recently grown because of its low price and rich natural resource. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> fiber was one type of high performance inorganic fibers which were made from natural <span class="hlt">basalt</span> by the method of melt extraction. This paper discusses basic mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber. The other work in this paper was to conduct tensile testing of continuous <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber-reinforced polymer rod. Tensile strength and stress-strain curve were obtained in this testing. The strength of rod was fairly equal to rod of E-glass fibers and weaker than rod of carbon fibers. Surface of crack of rod was studied. An investigation of fracture mechanism between matrix and fiber was analyzed by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) method. A poor adhesion between the matrix and fibers was also shown for composites analyzing SEM photos. The promising tensile properties of the presented <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibers composites have shown their great potential as alternative classical composites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20047830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20047830"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of various nitrogenous electron acceptors on the anaerobic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jing, Cai; Ping, Zheng; Mahmood, Qaisar</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The effect of nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptors on the performance of anaerobic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidizing process (ASO process) was investigated. For nitrate-ASO process, the maximum influent nitrogen concentration was lower than that in nitrite-ASO process, but the maximum influent sulfur concentration was higher than that of nitrite-ASO process. The half <span class="hlt">saturation</span> values for nitrogen and sulfur in both processes were similar. The minimum reaction time taken for nitrite and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was relatively shorter than in nitrite-ASO reactor. As indicated by sensitivity ratio, activated sludge was more tolerant to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, which had no significant differences between two processes; while it was relatively more sensitive to nitrite over nitrate. PCR-DGGE fingerprints, Dice and Shannon similarity indices and sequencing results all suggested that the microbial communities in both reactors were similar. The use of nitrate as an electron acceptor may be preferable over nitrite to treat <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich wastewaters. PMID:20047830</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010053613&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010053613&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span id="translatedtitle">The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>,Ocean island <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GeCoA.162...25L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GeCoA.162...25L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of temperature, silicate melt composition, and oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au, Pb, and Bi between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases and silicate melt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yuan; Audétat, Andreas</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p> application of this equation to natural samples of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> to rhyolitic composition yields DMSS/SM and DSL/SM values that agree with the measured values within ±0.5 log units for most of the elements, indicating the validity of the application of this equation to natural systems. Our partitioning data imply that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in low-temperature intermediate to felsic melts causes a strong depletion in Cu, Au, Bi, and potentially Ag in the silicate melt, whereas MSS <span class="hlt">saturation</span> may cause a depletion in Cu and potentially Au. Other elements including W, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, and Pb are much less or not affected by the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid or MSS. These results place important constrains on the potential of magmas in forming porphyry-type ore deposits and the origin of the observed variability in metal ratios in porphyry-type ore deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ42010R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ42010R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> in coupled oscillators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roman, Ahmed; Hanna, James</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We consider a weakly nonlinear system consisting of a resonantly forced oscillator coupled to an unforced oscillator. It has long been known that, for quadratic nonlinearities and a 2:1 resonance between the oscillators, a perturbative solution of the dynamics exhibits a phenomenon known as <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. At low forcing, the forced oscillator responds, while the unforced oscillator is quiescent. Above a critical value of the forcing, the forced oscillator's steady-state amplitude reaches a plateau, while that of the unforced oscillator increases without bound. We show that, contrary to established folklore, <span class="hlt">saturation</span> is not unique to quadratically nonlinear systems. We present conditions on the form of the nonlinear couplings and resonance that lead to <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Our results elucidate a mechanism for localization or diversion of energy in systems of coupled oscillators, and suggest new approaches for the control or suppression of vibrations in engineered systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000017&hterms=lanthanum&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlanthanum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000017&hterms=lanthanum&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlanthanum"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoelectric Properties of Lanthanum <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, C.; Lockwood, R.; Parker, J. B.; Zoltan, A.; Zoltan, L. D.; Danielson, L.; Raag, V.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Report describes measurement of Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and Hall effect in gamma-phase lanthanum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with composition of La3-x S4. Results of study, part of search for high-temperature thermoelectric energy-conversion materials, indicate this <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> behaves like extrinsic semiconductor over temperature range of 300 to 1,400 K, with degenerate carrier concentration controlled by stoichiometric ratio of La to S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MinDe..47..911M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MinDe..47..911M"><span id="translatedtitle">Age and tectonic setting of the Bavanat Cu-Zn-Ag Besshi-type volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, southern Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mousivand, Fardin; Rastad, Ebrahim; Meffre, Sebastien; Peter, Jan M.; Mohajjel, Mohammad; Zaw, Khin; Emami, Mohammad Hashem</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Bavanat Cu-Zn-Ag Besshi-type volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (VMS) deposit occurs within the Surian volcano-sedimentary complex in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) of southern Iran. The Surian complex is comprised of pelite, sandstone, calcareous shale, <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, gabbro sills, and thin-bedded limestone. Mineralization occurs as stratiform sheet-like and tabular orebodies hosted mainly by greenschist metamorphosed feldspathic and quartz feldspathic sandstone, <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and pelites. The <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the Surian complex show predominantly tholeiitic to transitional affinities, with a few samples that are alkalic in composition. Primitive mantle-normalized trace and rare earth element (REE) patterns of the Surian <span class="hlt">basalts</span> display depletions in light REE, negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, and Ti, and positive anomalies of P. Positive P anomalies are indicative of minor crustal contamination. Furthermore, Th enrichments in the mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-normalized patterns of the Surian <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are characteristic of rifted arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span> emplaced in continental margin subduction zones. The high MgO content (>6 wt.%) of most Surian <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and low TiO2 content of two samples (0.53 and 0.62 wt.%) are characteristic of boninites. The aforementioned features of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> indicate arc tholeiites emplaced in intra-arc rift environments and continental margin subduction zones. U-Pb dating by laser ablation- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of detrital zircons extracted from the host feldspathic and quartz feldspathic sandstone yields various ages that are predominantly Permian and Triassic; however, the youngest zircons give a mean Early Jurassic concordant U-Pb age of 191 ± 12 Ma. This age, together with geological and petrochemical data, indicate that VMS mineralization formed in the Early Jurassic in pull-apart basins within the SSZ. These basins and the VMS mineralization may be temporally related to an intra-arc volcano-plutonic event associated with Neo-Tethyan oblique</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039538&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039538&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism"><span id="translatedtitle">Shock metamorphism of granulated lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schaal, R. B.; Thompson, T. D.; Hoerz, F.; Bauer, J. F.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The paper deals with an extensive series of shock-recovery experiments performed on both nonporous crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and its granulated and sieved counterpart to study the role of porosity and grain size in shock motomorphic effects under otherwise identical conditions. Shocked samples are compared with unshocked starting material in terms of textural and mineralogical modifications attributable to shock. A comparative petrographic and chemical characterization is presented of pulverized and sieved lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 75035 shocked between 6 and 75 GPa in comparison with holocrystalline disks of the same <span class="hlt">basalts</span> shocked in 10 earlier experiments. Specifically, a petrographic classification of shock features is given, along with an estimation of relative amounts of shock glasses and a chemical characterization of shock glasses in each shocked granular <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17802173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17802173"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basalts</span> Dredged from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engel, C G; Engel, A E</p> <p>1963-06-21</p> <p>Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. In addition, aluminous <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and diabasic theoleiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. The distribution of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope. PMID:17802173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010784','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010784"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basalts</span> dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Engel, C.G.; Engel, A.E.J.</p> <p>1963-01-01</p> <p>Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43A4856H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43A4856H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crustal material into a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma, is thought to be uncommon because <span class="hlt">basalt</span> requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, thus allowing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio < 1.7) with disequilibrium textures and low Ba/Sr ratios while Population Two is elongate (aspect ratio > 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate <span class="hlt">basaltic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009989"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Soil of Gale Crater: Crystalline Component Compared to Martian <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and Meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Treiman, A. H.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Schmidt, M.; Downs, R. T.; Stolper, E. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Farmer, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Rampe, E. B.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A. S.; Anderosn, R. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Spanovich, N.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A significant portion of the soil of the Rocknest dune is crystalline and is consistent with derivation from unweathered <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Minerals and their compositions are identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument on MSL Curiosity. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> minerals in the soil include plagioclase, olivine, low- and high-calcium pyroxenes, magnetite, ilmenite, and quartz. The only minerals unlikely to have formed in an unaltered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are hematite and anhydrite. The mineral proportions and compositions of the Rocknest soil are nearly identical to those of the Adirondack-class <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of Gusev Crater, Mars, inferred from their bulk composition as analyzed by the MER Spirit rover.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27310035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27310035"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Oxidation by Myoglobin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bostelaar, Trever; Vitvitsky, Victor; Kumutima, Jacques; Lewis, Brianne E; Yadav, Pramod K; Brunold, Thomas C; Filipovic, Milos; Lehnert, Nicolai; Stemmler, Timothy L; Banerjee, Ruma</p> <p>2016-07-13</p> <p>Enzymes in the sulfur network generate the signaling molecule, hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S), from the amino acids cysteine and homocysteine. Since it is toxic at elevated concentrations, cells are equipped to clear H2S. A canonical <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation pathway operates in mitochondria, converting H2S to thiosulfate and sulfate. We have recently discovered the ability of ferric hemoglobin to oxidize <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to thiosulfate and iron-bound hydropolysulfides. In this study, we report that myoglobin exhibits a similar capacity for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation. We have trapped and characterized iron-bound sulfur intermediates using cryo-mass spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Further support for the postulated intermediates in the chemically challenging conversion of H2S to thiosulfate and iron-bound catenated sulfur products is provided by EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopy in addition to density functional theory computational results. We speculate that the unusual sensitivity of skeletal muscle cytochrome c oxidase to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> poisoning in ethylmalonic encephalopathy, resulting from the deficiency in a mitochondrial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation enzyme, might be due to the concentration of H2S by myoglobin in this tissue. PMID:27310035</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860061866&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528radioactive%2Bdecay%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860061866&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528radioactive%2Bdecay%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Partitioning of K, U, and Th between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and silicate liquids - Implications for radioactive heating of planetary cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Experimental partitioning studies are reported of K, U, and Th between silicate and FeFeS liquids designed to test the proposal that actinide partitioning into <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids is more important then K partitioning in the radioactive heating of planetary cores. For a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquid at 1450 C and 1.5 GPa, U partitioning into FeFeS liquids is five times greater than K partitioning. A typical value for the liquid partition coefficient for U from a granitic silicate liquid at one atmosphere at 1150 C and low fO2 is about 0.02; the coefficient for Th is similar. At low fO2 and higher temperature, experiments with <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquids produce strong Ca and U partitioning into the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid with U coefficient greater than one. The Th coefficient is less strongly affected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1191809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1191809"><span id="translatedtitle">Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–<span class="hlt">basalt</span> caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.</p> <p>2014-08-07</p> <p>Composite Portland cement-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoMP..169...59M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoMP..169...59M"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace-element fingerprints of chromite, magnetite and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from the 3.1 Ga ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Nuggihalli greenstone belt, Western Dharwar craton (India)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; González-Jiménez, José M.; Griffin, William L.; Pearson, Norman J.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli greenstone belt in the Western Dharwar craton is comprised of chromitite-bearing sill-like ultramafic-mafic rocks that are surrounded by metavolcanic schists (compositionally komatiitic to komatiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>) and a suite of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneissic rocks. The sill-like plutonic unit consists of a succession of serpentinite (after dunite)-peridotite-pyroxenite and gabbro with bands of titaniferous magnetite ore. The chromitite ore-bodies (length ≈30-500 m; width ≈2-15 m) are hosted by the serpentinite-peridotite unit. Unaltered chromites from massive chromitites (>80 % modal chromite) of the Byrapur and Bhaktarhalli chromite mines in the greenstone belt are characterized by high Cr# (100Cr/(Cr + Al)) of 78-86 and moderate Mg# (100 Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)) of 45-55. In situ trace-element analysis (LA-ICPMS) of unaltered chromites indicates that the parental magma of the chromitite ore-bodies was a komatiite lacking nickel-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization. In the Ga/Fe3+# versus Ti/Fe3+# diagram, the Byrapur chromites plot in the field of suprasubduction zone (SSZ) chromites while those from Bhaktarhalli lie in the MOR field. The above results corroborate our previous results based on major-element characteristics of the chromites, where the calculated parental melt of the Byrapur chromites was komatiitic to komatiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and the Bhaktarhalli chromite was derived from Archean high-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The major-element chromite data hinted at the possibility of a SSZ environment existing in the Archean. Altered and compositionally zoned chromite grains in our study show a decrease in Ga, V, Co, Zn, Mn and enrichments of Ni and Ti in the ferritchromit rims. Trace-element heterogeneity in the altered chromites is attributed to serpentinization. The trace-element patterns of magnetite from the massive magnetite bands in the greenstone belt are similar to those from magmatic Fe-Ti-V-rich magnetite bands in layered intrusions, and magnetites from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GGG....11.3003D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GGG....11.3003D"><span id="translatedtitle">The Eagle and East Eagle <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Midcontinent Rift System, upper Michigan: Geochronology and petrologic evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Xin; Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Rossell, Dean; Kamo, Sandra</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The Eagle and East Eagle intrusions are small, subvertical dike-like mafic-ultramafic bodies that cut Proterozoic sedimentary strata in the Baraga Basin in northern Michigan. The Eagle intrusion hosts a newly discovered magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE deposit. The nearby East Eagle intrusion also contains <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization, but the extent of this mineralization has yet to be determined by further drilling. Both intrusions contain olivine-bearing rocks such as feldspathic peridotite, melatroctolite, and olivine melagabbro. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> accumulations range from disseminated at both Eagle and East Eagle to semimassive and massive at Eagle. U-Pb baddeleyite dating gives a crystallization age of 1107.2 ± 5.7 Ma for the Eagle intrusion, coeval with eruption of picritic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> at the base of the volcanic succession in the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS). The Fo contents of olivine cores in the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions vary between 75 and 85 mol %, higher than those of olivine in larger layered intrusions in the MRS such as the Duluth Complex. The FeO/MgO ratios and Al2O3 contents of the parental magmas for the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions inferred from olivine and spinel compositions are similar to those of picritic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the base of the MRS volcanic succession. These petrochemical data suggest that the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions are the intrusive equivalents of high-MgO <span class="hlt">basalts</span> that erupted in the early stages of continental magmatism associated with the development of the rift. Variations in mineral compositions and incompatible trace element ratios suggest that at least three major pulses of magmas were involved in the formation of low-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> rocks in the Eagle intrusion. Lower Fo contents of olivine associated with semimassive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> as compared to that of olivine in low-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> rocks suggest that the magma associated with the semimassive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was more fractionated than the parental magmas of the low-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> rocks in the Eagle intrusion. Accumulation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000275&hterms=jet+pumps&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Djet%2Bpumps','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000275&hterms=jet+pumps&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Djet%2Bpumps"><span id="translatedtitle">Pump for <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elliott, D. G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding <span class="hlt">saturated</span> liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970025445','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970025445"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies of Magmatic Inclusions in the <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Martian Meteorites Shergotty, Zagami, EETA 79001 and QUE 94201</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harvey, Ralph P.; McKay, Gordon A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p> inclusions; those found within early-forming pigeonite, intermediate and late-forming Ti, Fe-oxides and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, and intermediate to late-forming phosphates. In this summer' s study we have made a detailed study of all of the various forms of inclusions found within the 4 <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> martian meteorites listed above. Glasses and minerals within the inclusions were analyzed using the Camera SX-100 Electron Microprobe in Building 31. The mineralogy and textural context of the inclusions will then be used to explore the crystallization history of these specimens, and to investigate any differences in crystallization history or parental magma compositions between these rocks. In this manner, the magmatic inclusions provide a road map backwards toward the 'parental' compositions for the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> martian meteorites and provide significant insight into the igneous processes found within the crust of Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000094538&hterms=microflora&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmicroflora','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000094538&hterms=microflora&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmicroflora"><span id="translatedtitle">Alteration of Rock Fragments from Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Microcosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Velbel, Michael A.; McKay, David S.; Stevens, Todd O.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>During an earlier study, microorganisms were grown microcosms consisting of sterilized chips of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (CRB) and natural CRB ground water with its natural microflora; environmental conditions simulated a deep subsurface, anaerobic, dark environment. Subsequent scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM and TEM) studies revealed the presence of several types of bacteria and biofilm, some of which were mineralized. Some of these biological features are very similar to possible biogenic features found in two meteorites from Mars, ALH84001 (found in Antarctica) and Nakhla (observed to fall in Egypt). Both ALH84001 and Nakhla contain traces of low-temperature aqueous alteration of silicates, oxides, and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The goals of this study are to use high-resolution field-emission SEM (FE-SEM) to examine the CRB samples for evidence of alteration features similar to those in the martian meteorites, to determine the extent of alteration during the CRB microcosm experiments, and to determine whether effects of biological activity can be distinguished from inorganic effects.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMDI13D2454Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMDI13D2454Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Solubility of Molten <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> at 2-3 GPa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> is molten through much of Earth's upper mantle and so could have an important influence on geochemical and geophysical properties. For example, liquid <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> could dissolve appreciable carbon, and thereby be a significant sink for reduced carbon in the mantle and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Here we present experimental data on the phase relations and carbon solubility of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> at 2-3 GPa in graphite capsules. Carbon was analyzed by EMPA using an LDE2 crystal and a 10 kV, 80 nA beam, and secondary steel and carbide standards. Repeated analyses of 99.995 wt% Fe indicate a C blank of 0.47 ± 0.12 wt.% (n=38), which was subtracted from the analyses. The limit of detection is therefore likely near 0.1-0.15 wt.%, but we take a more conservative value of 0.27 wt.%, which is the concentration in NIST C1248 steel, the lowest standard for which we unambiguously measure C. FeS monosulfide melts coexist with crystalline <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> at 2GPa and 1100°C, and at 3GPa and 1200°C, respectively. Lower temperatures are subsolidus and higher temperatures produce only liquids (+graphite). For Fe-S liquids at 2GPa,1500-1600°C and 3GPa, 1600°C, at low bulk S content (5-10 wt.%), a carbide melt coexists with the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. More sulfur-rich bulk compositions produce two immiscible liquids which are approximately (Fe~93%S2~3%C2~4%) and (Fe~70%S~30%)., but Ni addition diminishes the miscibility gap. Carbon solubility in (Fe0.5,Ni0.5)-S liquids diminishes with decreasing metal/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ratio; up to 10 wt.% S, solubility is 2 wt.% C, but diminishes to <1 wt.% at 15 wt% S and is below detection at >20 wt.% S. At 2GPa and 1600°C, other graphite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> monosulfide compositions, (Fe1-x,Nix)S (x=0.33,0.50,0.67), FeCuS2 NiS, CuS, and CoS, dissolve less C than detection limit. We detect <0.5 wt.% C in Ni metal and Cu metal in graphite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> compositions. In the shallow mantle, where <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid approximates monosulfide stoichiometry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V52A..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V52A..05D"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Partitioning of Chalcophile Elements between Mantle Silicate Minerals and <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melt at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Sulfur Geochemistry of Mantle and Crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dasgupta, R.; Jego, S.; Ding, S.; Li, Y.; Lee, C. T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The behavior of chalcophile elements during mantle melting, melt extraction, and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> differentiation is critical for formation of ore deposits and geochemical model and evolution of crust-mantle system. While chalcophile elements are strongly partitioned into <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, their behavior with different extent of melting, in particular, in the absence of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, can only be modeled with complete knowledge of the partitioning behavior of these elements between dominant mantle minerals and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt with or without dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (S2-). However, experimental data on mineral-melt partitioning are lacking for many chalcophile elements. Crystallization experiments were conducted at 3 GPa and 1450-1600 °C using a piston cylinder and synthetic silicate melt compositions similar to low-degree partial melt of peridotite. Starting silicate mixes doped with 100-300 ppm of each of various chalcophile elements were loaded into Pt/graphite double capsules. To test the effect of dissolved sulfur in silicate melt on mineral-melt partitioning of chalcophile elements, experiments were conducted on both sulfur-free and sulfur-bearing (1100-1400 ppm S in melt) systems. Experimental phases were analyzed by EPMA (for major elements and S) and LA-ICP-MS (for trace elements). All experiments produced an assemblage of cpx + melt ± garnet ± olivine ± spinel and yielded new partition coefficients (D) for Sn, Zn, Mo, Sb, Bi, Pb, and Se for cpx/melt, olivine/melt, and garnet/melt pairs. Derived Ds (mineral/<span class="hlt">basalt</span>) reveal little effect of S2- in the melt on mineral-melt partition coefficients of the measured chalcophile elements, with Ds for Zn, Mo, Bi, Pb decreasing by less than a factor of 2 from S-free to S-bearing melt systems or remaining similar, within error, between S-free and S-bearing melt systems. By combining our data with existing partitioning data between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases and silicate melt we model the fractionation of these elements during mantle melting and <span class="hlt">basalt</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23A1556M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23A1556M"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Sequestration and Storage in Geothermal System: New Mitigation Strategy to Reduce H2S from the Atmosphere and Detect its Mineralization with Multiple Sulfur Isotopic Systematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marieni, C.; Stefansson, A.; Gudbrandsson, S.; Gunnarsson, I.; Aradottir, E. S.; Gunnarsson Robin, J.; Ono, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) is one of the major components in geothermal fluids and is commonly emitted into the atmosphere from geothermal power plants causing potential environmental problems. Among several mitigation methods proposed to reduce the H2S emissions, is H2S sequestration into geothermal systems. Reykjavík Energy is undertaking a pilot project at Hellisheidi geothermal system (SW Iceland) called Sulfix project where H2S is being injected into the geothermal reservoir for permanent sequestration into pyrite. The SulFix project started its operation in June 2014: the soluble geothermal gases are dissolved in geothermal waste water, and injected at 8 bars into the high temperature reservoir (>200˚C) at 750 m below the wellhead. The reactions involving sulfur in the geothermal reservoir may be traced using sulfur fluid chemistry and multiple sulfur isotope systematics (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S), including mixing between the reservoir geothermal fluid and the injection fluid, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization and oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to sulfate. In this study we investigated the multiple sulfur isotope systematics upon <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization under geothermal conditions. High temperature flow through experiments were carried out in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass at 200-250°C and ~5 mmol/kg H2S to study the fluid-rock interaction. The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization occurs rapidly under geothermal conditions, highlighting the leaching rate of iron from the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass as the mineralization rate determining factor. Moreover, the formation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> may be traced using the δ34S-Δ33S relationship in the fluids and pyrite formation - for example to determine if non-reactive mixing between the injection fluids and reservoir fluids occurs at Hellisheidi. The experimental results have been further supported by geochemical modeling involving multiple sulfur isotope fractionation between aqueous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> species and rocks upon <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dissolution and secondary pyrite formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045791&hterms=COBALT&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCOBALT','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045791&hterms=COBALT&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCOBALT"><span id="translatedtitle">Nickel and Cobalt Partitioning Between Spinel and <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melt: Applications to Planetary <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Suites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Righter, K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>New experimental spinel/melt partition coefficients for Ni and Co have been measured in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples with natural levels of Ni and Co, are lower than previous high doping experiments, and are applied to several planetary <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2838418','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2838418"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhaled Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Volpato, Gian Paolo; Searles, Robert; Yu, Binglan; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito; Zapol, Warren M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Breathing hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) has been reported to induce a suspended animation–like state with hypothermia and a concomitant metabolic reduction in rodents. However, the impact of H2S breathing on cardiovascular function remains incompletely understood. In this study, the authors investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of inhaled H2S in a murine model. Methods The impact of breathing H2S on cardiovascular function was examined using telemetry and echocardiography in awake mice. The effects of breathing H2S on carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption were measured at room temperature and in a warmed environment. Results Breathing H2S at 80 parts per million by volume at 27°C ambient temperature for 6 h markedly reduced heart rate, core body temperature, respiratory rate, and physical activity, whereas blood pressure remained unchanged. Echocardiography demonstrated that H2S exposure decreased both heart rate and cardiac output but preserved stroke volume. Breathing H2S for 6 h at 35°C ambient temperature (to prevent hypothermia) decreased heart rate, physical activity, respiratory rate, and cardiac output without altering stroke volume or body temperature. H2S breathing seems to induce bradycardia by depressing sinus node activity. Breathing H2S for 30 min decreased whole body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production at either 27° or 35°C ambient temperature. Both parameters returned to baseline levels within 10 min after the cessation of H2S breathing. Conclusions Inhalation of H2S at either 27° or 35°C reversibly depresses cardiovascular function without changing blood pressure in mice. Breathing H2S also induces a rapidly reversible reduction of metabolic rate at either body temperature. PMID:18362598</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V42H..08T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V42H..08T"><span id="translatedtitle">Magma Genesis in the Hawaiian Hot Spot: From melting experiments on <span class="hlt">basalt</span>/peridotite hybrid source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takahashi, E.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Melting mantle peridotite is one of the central themes in experimental petrology. Melting studies in CMAS, NCMAS and natural peridotites have extensively documented the magma genesis process at Mid Oceanic Ridges (e.g., Presnall et al., 1979). Magma genesis in OIBs and LIPs, on the other hand, has been poorly constrained by experiments. Evidences from isotope geochemistry indicate that the source materials for <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magmas in these provinces are not peridotite alone. Based on a geological and geochemical reconstruction of 3 Ma old Koolau volcano, I proposed that the size of eclogite blocks in the Hawaiian plume would exceed 1000km3 (Takahashi and Nakajima, 2002) and therefore the melting interaction of eclogite blocks and the surrounding peridotite would play essential roles in magma genesis in the Hawaiian hot spot. Melting experiments on <span class="hlt">basalt</span>/peridotite composite starting materials were carried out at 2.5 to 3.0 GPa at temperatures from the peridotite dry solidus to that of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> for 20 to 100 hours. Three layered starting materials consisting of 1 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to 2 peridotite (in volume) were placed in graphite/Pt double capsules. Peridotite KLB-1 (Fo89.6) and two <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-starting materials (CLG-46 and CRB72-31) were used as starting materials. In temperatures ca.50-100 degrees below the peridotite solidus, silica-rich partial melts are produced in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> zone and the boundaries between the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and peridotite are coated with a 10 to 50 micron thick opx reaction band. The chemical reactions between the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and peridotite domains are controlled by solid diffusions across the opx reaction band and are very slow. In temperatures within 50 degrees of the peridotite dry solidus, a time dependent reaction process takes place. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span>/peridotite boundary gradually partial melts as the chemical reaction lowers the peridotite solidus locally. At 2.8 GPa and 1450-1470C after 50-100 hours, resultant melt in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> layer becomes <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with oliv + opx + cpx</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25725513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25725513"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanistic chemical perspective of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> signaling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagy, Péter</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is now a well-appreciated master regulator in a diverse array of physiological processes. However, as a consequence of the rapid growth of the area, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> biology suffers from an increasing number of controversial observations and interpretations. A better understanding of the underlying molecular pathways of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>'s actions is key to reconcile controversial issues, which calls for rigorous chemical/biochemical investigations. Protein sulfhydration and coordination/redox chemical interactions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with heme proteins are the two most extensively studied pathways in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> biochemistry. These pathways are important mediators of protein functions, generate bioactive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> metabolites, contribute to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> storage/trafficking and carry antioxidant functions. In addition, inorganic polysulfides, which are oxidative <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> metabolites, are increasingly recognized as important players in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> biology. This chapter provides an overview of our mechanistic perspective on the reactions that govern (i) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>'s bioavailability (including the delicate enzyme machineries that orchestrate <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production and consumption and the roles of the large <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-storing pools as biological buffers), (ii) biological significance and mechanisms of persulfide formation (including the reduction of disulfides, condensation with sulfenic acids, oxidation of thiols with polysulfides and radical-mediated pathways), (iii) coordination and redox chemical interactions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with heme proteins (including cytochrome c oxidase, hemoglobins, myoglobins and peroxidases), and (iv) the chemistry of polysulfides. PMID:25725513</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999nvm..conf...55R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999nvm..conf...55R"><span id="translatedtitle">Naming Lunar Mare <span class="hlt">Basalts</span>: Quo Vadimus Redux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryder, G.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B43G0500O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B43G0500O"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen consumption in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orcutt, B. N.; Wheat, C. G.; Hulme, S.; Edwards, K. J.; Bach, W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass, yet little is known about the form and function of life in this vast subseafloor realm that covers nearly two-thirds of the Earth's surface. A deep biosphere hosted in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> has been suggested from several lines of evidence; yet, empirical analysis of metabolic reaction rates in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust is lacking. Here we report the first measure of oxygen consumption in young (~ 8 Ma) and cool (<25 degrees C) <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust, calculated from modeling oxygen and strontium profiles in basal sediments collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 336 to 'North Pond', a sediment 'pond' on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where vigorous fluid circulation within <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust occurs. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased towards the sediment-basement interface, indicating an upward diffusional supply from oxic fluids circulating within the crust. A parametric reaction-transport model suggests oxygen consumption rates on the order of 0.5-500 nmol per cubic centimeter fluid per day in young and cool <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust, providing sufficient energy to support a subsurface crustal biosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23676779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23676779"><span id="translatedtitle">Can we identify source lithology of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Zong-Feng; Zhou, Jun-Hong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The nature of source rocks of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas plays a fundamental role in understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the solid earth. However, identification of source lithology of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> remains uncertainty. Using a parameterization of multi-decadal melting experiments on a variety of peridotite and pyroxenite, we show here that a parameter called FC3MS value (FeO/CaO-3*MgO/SiO2, all in wt%) can identify most pyroxenite-derived <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The continental oceanic island <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-like volcanic rocks (MgO>7.5%) (C-OIB) in eastern China and Mongolia are too high in the FC3MS value to be derived from peridotite source. The majority of the C-OIB in phase diagrams are equilibrium with garnet and clinopyroxene, indicating that garnet pyroxenite is the dominant source lithology. Our results demonstrate that many reputed evolved low magnesian C-OIBs in fact represent primary pyroxenite melts, suggesting that many previous geological and petrological interpretations of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> based on the single peridotite model need to be reconsidered. PMID:23676779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4268Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4268Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Micromechanics of brittle faulting and cataclastic flow in Mount Etna <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Wei; Baud, Patrick; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Wong, Teng-fong</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Understanding how the strength of volcanic rocks varies with stress state, pressure, and microstructural attributes is fundamental to understanding the dynamics and tectonics of a volcanic system and also very important in applications such as geothermics or reservoir management in volcanic environments. In this study we investigated the micromechanics of deformation and failure in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, focusing on samples from Mount Etna. We performed 65 uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments on nominally dry and water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> samples covering a porosity range between 5 and 16%, at effective pressures up to 200 MPa. Dilatancy and brittle faulting were observed in all samples with porosity of 5%. Water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> samples were found to be significantly weaker than comparable dry samples. Shear-enhanced compaction was observed at effective pressures as low as 80 MPa in samples of 8% porosity. Microstructural data revealed the complex interplay of microcracks, pores, and phenocrysts on dilatant failure and inelastic compaction in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The micromechanics of brittle failure is controlled by wing crack propagation under triaxial compression and by pore-emanated cracking under uniaxial compression especially in the more porous samples. The mechanism of inelastic compaction in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is cataclastic pore-collapse in agreement with a recent dual-porosity model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92f3023H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92f3023H"><span id="translatedtitle">Capillary <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and desaturation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hilfer, R.; Armstrong, R. T.; Berg, S.; Georgiadis, A.; Ott, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting <span class="hlt">saturation</span> defined through the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=potassium&pg=5&id=EJ339350','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=potassium&pg=5&id=EJ339350"><span id="translatedtitle">A Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hill, William D. Jr.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes a procedure for oxygen generation by thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate in presence of manganese dioxide, reacted with various <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Provides a table of sample product yields for various <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. (JM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JAESc.126....1Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JAESc.126....1Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Permian Hulu Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit is located at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northern Xinjiang, Northwestern China. The host intrusion of the Hulu deposit is composed of a layered mafic-ultramafic sequence and a dike-like unit. The layered sequence is composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbro, gabbrodiorite and diorite. The dike-like body comprises lherzolite and gabbro. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> orebodies occur mainly within the harzburgite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at the base of the layered sequence and within the lherzolite in the dike-like body. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> mineralization from the Hulu deposit shows significant depletion of PGE relative to Cu and Ni. These elements show good positive correlations with S in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization from the dike-like unit but relatively weak correlations in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization from the layered sequence. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization from the layered unit shows excellent positive correlations between Ir and Os, Ru or Rh, and poor relationships between Ir and Pt or Pd. On the contrary, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization from the dike-like unit shows good correlations in the diagrams of Os, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd against Ir. Both high Cu/Pd ratios (8855-481,398) and our modeling indicate that PGE depletion resulted from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal in a deep staging magma chamber. The evolved PGE-depleted magmas then ascended to the shallower magma chamber and became <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> due to crustal contamination. Both low Se/S ratios (33.5 × 10-6-487.5 × 10-6) and a negative correlation between Se/S and Cu/Pd ratios are consistent with the addition of crustal S. A large number of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids segregated with minor crystallization of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) in the shallower magma chamber. When new magma pulses with unfractionated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> droplets entered the shallower magma chamber, the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> slurry containing crystallized MSS may be disrupted and mixed with the unfractionated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> droplets. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183568','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183568"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystems in deep <span class="hlt">basalt</span> aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stevens, T.O.; McKinley, J.P.</p> <p>1995-10-20</p> <p>Bacterial communities were detected in deep crystalline rock aquifers within the Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group (CRB). CRB ground waters contained up to 60 {mu}M dissolved H{sub 2} and autotrophic microorganisms outnumbered heterotrophs. Stable carbon isotope measurements implied that autotrophic methanogenesis dominated this ecosystem and was coupled to the depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon. In laboratory experiments, H{sub 2} a potential energy source for bacteria, was produced by reactions between crushed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and anaerobic water. Microcosms containing only crushed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and ground water supported microbial growth. These results suggest that the CRB contains a lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem that is independent of photosynthetic primary production. 38 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930058083&hterms=david+joy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddavid%2Bc.%2Bjoy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930058083&hterms=david+joy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddavid%2Bc.%2Bjoy"><span id="translatedtitle">Sintering of lunar glass and <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Carlton C.; Hines, Joy A.; Mckay, David S.; Morris, Richard V.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Experiments were conducted to study the sintering behavior of glass and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lunar soil simulants. The degree of sintering was assessed by compressive strength testing and microanalysis. Both crushed glass and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sinter significantly at 1000 C, with the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> attaining its maximum strength at 1100 C. Initial sintering occurs in less than 15 min, and the degree of sintering does not increase significantly with time after about 30 min. Glass sinters more readily than crystalline material. Sintering and devitrification both occur on a time scale of minutes in the heated glass, but sintering is apparently more rapid. The processes of sintering and oxygen release by hydrogen reduction of lunar soil are synergistic, and could be combined to produce two extremely useful products at a lunar base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.604 Section 250.604...-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.504 Section 250.504...-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25073046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25073046"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanostructured metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> for energy storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, such as iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, copper <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, cobalt <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, nickel <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, manganese <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, tin <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-based LIB and SC devices. PMID:25073046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-490.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-490.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.490 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.490 Section 250.490 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> § 250.490 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019890','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019890"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Volcanism and Ancient Planetary Crusts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shervais, John W.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project is to decipher the origin of rocks which form the ancient lunar crust. Our goal is to better understand how the moon evolved chemically and, more generally, the processes involved in the chemical fractionation of terrestrial planetoids. This research has implications for other planetary bodies besides the Moon, especially smaller planetoids which evolved early in the history of the solar system and are now thermally stable. The three main areas focused on in our work (lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and plutonic rocks of the lunar highlands) provide complementary information on the lunar interior and the processes that formed it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21A4735K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21A4735K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralizing conditions and source fluid composition of base metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the Lon District, southeastern Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kremer, C. H.; Thomas, D.; García del Real, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Bird, D. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal base metal mineralization is rare in Iceland due to the scarcity of evolved magma bodies that discharge metal-rich aqueous fluids into bedrock. One exception is the Lon District of southeastern Iceland, where explosively emplaced rhyolitic breccias host base metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals. We performed petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses on samples collected in Lon to constrain the conditions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral formation. Based on outcrop and hand sample observations, hot, early-stage hydrothermal fluids precipitated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals, quartz, and epidote in rhyolitic breccia and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows. Cooler late-stage fluids precipitated carbonates and quartz in rhyolitic breccia and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows. The order of precipitation of the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> was: galena, sphalerite, then chalcopyrite. Homogenization temperatures of liquid-dominated multi-phase fluid inclusions in hydrothermal early-stage quartz coeval with chalcopyrite cluster around 303 °C and 330 °C, indicating precipitation of metallic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in two main hydrothermal fluid pulses early in the period of hydrothermal activity in the Lon District. Freezing point depression analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz show that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals precipitated from a solution that was 4 wt. % NaCl. The 𝛿34S values of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> indicate that early-stage hydrothermal sulfur was derived from igneous rocks, either through leaching by non-magmatic hydrothermal fluids or by exsolution of magmatic waters. Early stage epidote 𝛿D values were on average -65.96 per mil, about 14 per mil higher than reported values in epidotes from elsewhere in southeastern Iceland. The 𝛿13C and 𝛿18O values of late-stage carbonates indicate that late stage hydrothermal fluids were meteoric in origin. Collectively, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses suggest that early-stage aqueous fluids derived from a mixture of magmatic waters exsolved from the proximal Geitafell intrusion and meteoric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V31D0622L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V31D0622L"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead Isotopic Compositions of the Endeavour <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span>, Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Labonte, F.; Hannington, M. D.; Cousens, B. L.; Blenkinsop, J.; Gill, J. B.; Kelley, D. S.; Lilley, M. D.; Delaney, J. R.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p> reference line for the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs in plots of 206Pb/204Pb versus 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb, suggesting relatively little contribution from buried sediment compared to deposits at sedimented ridges. Alternatively, systematic differences in the Pb isotope compositions of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> along the length of the ridge segment could be attributed to variable leaching of previously altered <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust or interaction between hydrothermal fluids and enriched Mid-Ocean Ridge <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> (MORB) sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1009042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1009042"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur and iron speciation in gas-rich impact-melt glasses from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites determined by microXANES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sutton, S.R.; Rao, M.N.; Nyquist, L.E.</p> <p>2008-04-28</p> <p>Sulfur and iron K XANES measurements were made on GRIM glasses from EET 79001. Iron is in the ferrous state. Sulfur speciation is predominately <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> coordination but is Fe coordinated in Lith B and, most likely, Ca coordinated in Lith A. Sulfur is abundantly present as sulfate near Martian surface based on chemical and mineralogical investigations on soils and rocks in Viking, Pathfinder and MER missions. Jarosite is identified by Moessbauer studies on rocks at Meridian and Gusev, whereas MgSO{sub 4} is deduced from MgO-SO{sub 3} correlations in Pathfinder MER and Viking soils. Other sulfate minerals such as gypsum and alunogen/S-rich aluminosilicates and halides are detected only in martian meteorites such as shergottites and nakhlites using SEM/FE-SEM and EMPA techniques. Because sulfur has the capacity to occur in multiple valence states, determination of sulfur speciation (<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/sulfate) in secondary mineral assemblages in soils and rocks near Mars surface may help us understand whether the fluid-rock interactions occurred under oxidizing or reducing conditions. On Earth, volcanic rocks contain measurable quantities of sulfur present as both <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate. Carroll and Rutherford showed that oxidized forms of sulfur may comprise a significant fraction of total dissolved sulfur, if the oxidation state is higher than {approx}2 log fO{sub 2} units relative to the QFM buffer. Terrestrial samples containing sulfates up to {approx}25% in fresh <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Galapagos Rift on one hand and high <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> contents present in oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on the other indicate that the relative abundance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate varies depending on the oxygen fugacity of the system. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> shergottites (bulk) such as Shergotty, EET79001 and Zagami usually contain small amounts of sulfur ({approx}0.5%) as pyrrhotite. But, in isolated glass pockets containing secondary salts (known as GRIM glasses) in these meteorites, sulfur is present in high abundance ({approx}1-12%). To</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=37215&keyword=boeing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64227812&CFTOKEN=18985383','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=37215&keyword=boeing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64227812&CFTOKEN=18985383"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> PRECIPITATION OF HEAVY METALS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The research program was initiated with the objective of evaluating a new process, the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. The process was expected to effect a more complete removal of heavy metals than conventional lime processing because of the mu...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=623','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=623"><span id="translatedtitle">p-Chlorophenyl methyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>p - Chlorophenyl methyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ; CASRN 123 - 09 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for N</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869259','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869259"><span id="translatedtitle">Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> loaded catalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Maroni, Victor A.; Iton, Lennox E.; Pasterczyk, James W.; Winterer, Markus; Krause, Theodore R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17796685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17796685"><span id="translatedtitle">Platinum metals magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naldrett, A J; Duke, J M</p> <p>1980-06-27</p> <p>Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example. PMID:17796685</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GGG....17.2054P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GGG....17.2054P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Pore water chemistry reveals gradients in mineral transformation across a model <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> hillslope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pohlmann, Michael; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Robert; Ruiz, Joaquin; Troch, Peter; Chorover, Jon</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The extent of weathering incongruency during soil formation from rock controls local carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, as well as the evolution of hydrologic flow paths. Prior studies of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering, including those that have quantified the dynamics of well-mixed, bench-scale laboratory reactors or characterized the structure and integrated response of field systems, indicate a strong influence of system scale on weathering rate and trajectory. For example, integrated catchment response tends to produce lower weathering rates than do well mixed reactors, but the mechanisms underlying these disparities remain unclear. Here we present pore water geochemistry and physical sensor data gathered during two controlled rainfall-runoff events on a large-scale convergent model hillslope mantled with 1 m uniform depth of granular <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> porous media. The dense sampler and sensor array (1488 samplers and sensors embedded in 330 m3 of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>) showed that rainfall-induced dissolution of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass produced supersaturation of pore waters with respect to multiple secondary solids including allophane, gibbsite, ferrihydrite, birnessite and calcite. The spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">saturation</span> state was heterogeneous, suggesting an accumulation of solutes leading to precipitation of secondary solids along hydrologic flow paths. Rapid dissolution of primary silicates was widespread throughout the entire hillslope, irrespective of up-gradient flowpath length. However, coherent spatial variations in solution chemistry and <span class="hlt">saturation</span> indices were observed in depth profiles and between distinct topographic regions of the hillslope. Colloids (110-2000 nm) enriched in iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and phosphorus (P) were mobile in soil pore waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.2661W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.2661W"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for <span class="hlt">basalt</span> hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/783924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/783924"><span id="translatedtitle">Equilibration of Leachants with <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Rock for Repository Simulation Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jantzen, C.M.</p> <p>2001-07-02</p> <p>In a nuclear waste repository in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, the groundwater will have a low redox potential (Eh) which may affect the leach rate of SRP waste glass. Accurate laboratory simulations of conditions in a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> reposition must maintain low Eh values throughout the course of the experiment. In this report, important parameters affecting the ability of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to maintain appropriate Eh-pH conditions are examined, in particular <span class="hlt">basalt</span> type and groundwater simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019213','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019213"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal models for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism on Io</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Keszthelyil, L.; McEwen, A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the thermal emissions from active <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions on Io. While our methodology shares many similarities with previous work, it is significantly different in that (1) it uses a field tested cooling model and (2) the model is more applicable to pahoehoe flows and lava lakes than fountain-fed, channelized, 'a'a flows. This model demonstrates the large effect lava porosity has on the surface cooling rate (with denser flows cooling more slowly) and provides a preliminary tool for examining some of the hot spots on Io. The model infrared signature of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruption is largely controlled by a single parameter, ??, the average survival time for a lava surface. During an active eruption surfaces are quickly covered or otherwise destroyed and typical values of ?? for a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruption are expected to be on the order of 10 seconds to 10 minutes. Our model suggests that the Galileo SSI eclipse data are consistent with moderately active to quiescent <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava lakes but are not diagnostic of such activity. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910016716&hterms=crushing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcrushing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910016716&hterms=crushing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcrushing"><span id="translatedtitle">Utilization of lunar ilmenite: <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> or regolith?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kawatra, S. K.; Delao, K. L.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A critical discussion of whether lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> or regolith should be used as a resource for mineral processing schemes on the lunar surface, with pros and cons for each argument is presented. A literature review has shown that the majority of authors feel that mining the lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, crushing it, and then processing to remove the desired minerals, would be the route to take. The argument that this method would not be a sound mineral processing practice is presented. Mining and crushing are difficult propositions even on Earth; to attempt such processes in the hostile lunar environment would be a phenomenal task. It would be better to start with a simpler scheme, such as processing the regolith, which can be adapted to the multitude of unknowns facing the first lunar production plant. If, however, the lunar mining trend is followed, it must be kept in mind that mining and processing technology which is radically different from what is currently available and used on Earth will have to be developed. Podnieks and Roepke (1987) and Lindroth and Podnieks (1987) have summarized the new technology that may be applicable, but this technology is very similar to the current, 99 percent inefficient technology used on Earth. One such possible technique is sodium vapor fragmentation of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Initial testwork was conducted at Michigan Technological University on terrestrial <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with extremely promising results, though much time and effort will be needed to fully develop this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000762&hterms=heat+storage&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bstorage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000762&hterms=heat+storage&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bstorage"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-Block Heat-Storage Plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sullivan, Thomas A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Concept for storage of solar heat for later use based on use of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, cast into blocks and stacked in inflatable gas-tight enclosure serving as heat-storage chamber. Heat flows to blocks from solar collector during day and from blocks to heat engine at night.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491390','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491390"><span id="translatedtitle">Pressure grouting of fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74....1W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74....1W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> injections into floored silicic magma chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiebe, R. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that many large accumulations of silicic volcanic rocks erupted from long-lasting, floored chambers of silicic magma that were repeatedly injected by <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma. These <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> infusions are commonly thought to play an important role in the evolution of the silicic systems: they have been proposed as a cause for explosive silicic eruptions [Sparks and Sigurdsson, 1977], compositional variation in ash-flow sheets [Smith, 1979], mafic magmatic inclusions in silicic volcanic rocks [Bacon, 1986], and mixing of mafic and silicic magmas [Anderson, 1976; Eichelberger, 1978]. If, as seems likely, floored silicic magma chambers have frequently been invaded by <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, then plutonic bodies should provide records of these events. Although plutonic evidence for mixing and commingling of mafic and silicic magmas has been recognized for many years, it has been established only recently that some intrusive complex originated through multiple <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> injections into floored chambers of silicic magma [e.g., Wiebe, 1974; Michael, 1991; Chapman and Rhodes, 1992].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013727','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013727"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The primary ??D values of -80 for most <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51A0924O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51A0924O"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical Signatures to Monitor Fluids and Mineralization for CO2 Sequestration in <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; Van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M. L.; Mcling, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide sequestration in large reservoirs can reduce emissions of this green house gas into the atmosphere. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> are promising host rocks due to their volumetric extend, worldwide distribution, and recent observations that CO2-water mixtures react with <span class="hlt">basalt</span> minerals to precipitate as carbonate minerals, trapping the CO2. The chemical reaction between carbonic acid and minerals rich in calcium, magnesium and iron precipitates carbonates in the pore space. This process would increase the elastic modulus and velocity of the rock. At the same time, the higher compressibility of CO2 over water changes the elastic properties of the rock, decreasing the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> rock bulk modulus and the P-wave velocity. Reservoirs where the rock properties change as a result of fluid or pressure changes are commonly monitored with seismic methods. Here we present experiments to study the feasibility of monitoring CO2 migration in a reservoir and CO2-rock reactions for a sequestration scenario in <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Our goal is to measure the rock's elastic response to mineralization with non-contacting ultrasonic lasers, and the effect of fluid substitution at reservoir conditions at seismic and ultrasonic frequencies. For the fluid substitution experiment we observe changes in the P- and S-wave velocities when <span class="hlt">saturating</span> the sample with super-critical (sc) CO2, CO2-water mixtures and water alone for different pore and confining pressures. The bulk modulus of the rock is significantly dependent on frequency in the 2~to 106~Hz range, for CO2-water mixtures and pure water <span class="hlt">saturations</span>. Dry and pure CO2 (sc or gas) do not show a frequency dependence on the modulus. Moreover, the shear wave modulus is not dispersive for either fluid. The frequency dependence of the elastic parameters is related to the attenuation (1/Q) of the rock. We will show the correlation between frequency dependent moduli and attenuation data for the different elastic moduli of the rocks. Three other <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031131&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031131&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span id="translatedtitle">Coatings on Atacama Desert <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>: A Possible Analog for Coatings on Gusev Plains <span class="hlt">Basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Amundson, R.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Ming, D. W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Surface coatings on Gusev Plains <span class="hlt">basalt</span> have been observed and may contain hematite and nanophase Fe-oxides along with enrichments in P, S, Cl, and K relative to the underlying rock. The Gusev coatings may be derived from the dissolution of adhering soil and/or parent rock along with the addition of S and Cl from outside sources. Transient water for dissolution could be sourced from melting snow during periods of high obliquity, acid fog, and/or ground water (Haskin et al., 2005). Coatings on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in the hyper-arid (less than 2mm y(sup -1)) Atacama Desert may assist in understanding the chemistry, mineralogy and formation mechanisms of the Gusev <span class="hlt">basalt</span> coatings. The Atacama Desert climate is proposed to be analogous to a paleo-Mars climate that was characterized by limited aqueous activity when the Gusev coatings could have formed. The objectives of this work are to (i) determine the chemical nature and extent of surface coatings on Atacama Desert <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and (ii) assess coating formation mechanisms in the Atacama Desert. Preliminary backscattered electron imaging of Atacama <span class="hlt">basalt</span> thin-sections indicated that the coatings are as thick as 20 m. The boundary between the coating and the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> labradorite, ilmenite, and augite grains was abrupt indicating that the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> minerals underwent no chemical dissolution. The Atacama coatings have been added to the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> instead of being derived from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> chemical weathering. Semi-quantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy shows the coatings to be chemically homogeneous. The coating is depleted in Ca (0.9 wt% CaO) and enriched in K (1.3 wt.% K2O) and Si (69.1 wt.% SiO2) relative to the augite and labradorite grains. A dust source enriched in Si (e.g., poorly crystalline silica) and K and depleted in Ca appears to have been added to the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> surface. Unlike the Gusev coatings, no P, S, and Cl enrichment was observed. However, Fe (3.2 wt.% FeO) was present in the Atacama coatings suggesting the present of Fe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/839520','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/839520"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Zone Colloid Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>H. S. Viswanathan</p> <p>2004-10-07</p> <p>This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993E%26PSL.117..619S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993E%26PSL.117..619S"><span id="translatedtitle">H 2O in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite glass inclusions from four subduction-related volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sisson, T. W.; Layne, G. D.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Total dissolved H 2O and major element abundances were measured in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite glass inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Quaternary eruptions of four subduction-related volcanoes to test the hypothesis that low-MgO high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain high H 2O at depth [1] and to reveal any petrogenetically significant correlations between arc <span class="hlt">basalt</span> compositions and H 2O contents. Total dissolved H 2O (combined molecular H 2O and OH groups) measured by ion microprobe in mafic glass inclusions from the 1974 eruption of Fuego, Guatemala, reaches 6.2 wt.%. Dissolved H 2O contents decrease in more evolved Fuego glasses. Correlations of H 2O with MgO, Na 2O, K 2O, S and Cl indicate that aqueous fluid exsolution during magma ascent forced crystallization and differentiation of residual liquids. Low-K 2O magnesian high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glass inclusions from the 3 ka eruption of Black Crater (Medicine Lake volcano, California) have low H 2O contents, near 0.2 wt.%, which are consistent with the MORB-like character of these and other primitive lavas of the Medicine Lake region. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite glass inclusions from Copco Cone and Goosenest volcano on the Cascade volcanic front north of Mt. Shasta have H 2O contents of up to 3.3 wt.%. The range of H 2O contents in Cascade mafic magmas is too large to have resulted solely from enrichment by crystallization and indicates the participation of an H 2O-rich component in magma generation or crustal-level modification. Whereas fluid-absent melting of amphibole-bearing peridotite can account for the H 2O in most mafic arc liquids, the very high H 2O/alkali ratios of the 1974 Fuego eruptives suggest that an aqueous fluid was involved in the generation of Fuego <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DPS....38.5923M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DPS....38.5923M"><span id="translatedtitle">Searching for Non-Vestoid <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moskovitz, Nicholas; Jedicke, R.; Willman, M.; Gaidos, E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We present an observational campaign designed to target Main Belt asteroids that: (1) have a photometric signature similar to that of 4 Vesta and the Vestoid family, i.e. a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surface indicative of past mineral differentiation, and (2) are dynamically distinct from this family so that they lie outside of the domain of orbital element phase space occupied by the V-type asteroids. The only known non-vestoid asteroid with a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surface is 1459 Magnya (Lazzaro et al. 2000). This is a paradox; collected meteorites include representatives from tens or even hundreds of past or present differentiated parent bodies in the Main Belt, a number that is at least an order of magnitude larger than the two known occurrences of Main Belt differentiation (Scott 2002). Asteroids with potentially <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surfaces are chosen based on their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ugriz photometric magnitudes. Ten different ugriz color combinations, including two principal component colors (Nesvorny et al. 2005), are used to select asteroids that show similarity to Vestoid colors. Objects with colors that meet these criteria are then prioritized based on their dynamical dissimilarity to Vesta. Low-resolution spectroscopy of the highest priority objects is performed using the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) on Keck II in order to unambiguously determine whether or not our candidates have <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surfaces. The 0.4-1.0 micron wavelength coverage of this instrument is well suited to resolving both the 0.9 micron olivine/pyroxene absorption feature and the 0.5-0.7 micron slope that are indicative of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surface and thus that a given asteroid derives from a parent body that has experienced either partial melting or differentiation. Preliminary results from two observing runs in August and September of this year are presented here. This research is supported in part by NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST04-07134, P.I. R. Jedicke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GeCoA.170..266W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GeCoA.170..266W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur isotope homogeneity of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wing, Boswell A.; Farquhar, James</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a new set of high precision measurements of relative 33S/32S, 34S/32S, and 36S/32S values in lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The measurements are referenced to the Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale, on which the international reference material, IAEA-S-1, is characterized by δ33S = -0.061‰, δ34S ≡ -0.3‰ and δ36S = -1.27‰. The present dataset confirms that lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are characterized by a remarkable degree of sulfur isotopic homogeneity, with most new and published SF6-based sulfur isotope measurements consistent with a single mass-dependent mean isotopic composition of δ34S = 0.58 ± 0.05‰, Δ33S = 0.008 ± 0.006‰, and Δ36S = 0.2 ± 0.2‰, relative to V-CDT, where the uncertainties are quoted as 99% confidence intervals on the mean. This homogeneity allows identification of a single sample (12022, 281) with an apparent 33S enrichment, possibly reflecting cosmic-ray-induced spallation reactions. It also reveals that some mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have slightly lower δ34S values than the population mean, which is consistent with sulfur loss from a reduced <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt prior to eruption at the lunar surface. Both the sulfur isotope homogeneity of the lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the predicted sensitivity of sulfur isotopes to vaporization-driven fractionation suggest that less than ≈1-10% of lunar sulfur was lost after a potential moon-forming impact event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251366"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen evolution from water through metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan</p> <p>2013-11-28</p> <p>Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> cluster anions M{sub 2}S{sub X}{sup −} (M = Mo and W, X = 4–6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions have ground state isomers with two bridging <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} and M{sub 2}S{sub 5}{sup −} isomers. In all the lowest energy H{sub 2} elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H{sub 2} elimination step involve a thiol (–SH) and a hydroxyl (–OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} and M{sub 2}S{sub 5}{sup −} clusters with water to liberate H{sub 2} are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M{sub 2}S{sub 6}{sup −} is highly endothermic with a considerable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4420S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4420S"><span id="translatedtitle">Does the presence of bacteria effect <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass dissolution rates? 1: Dead Pseudomonas reactants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stockmann, Gabrielle J.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Oelkers, Eric H.; Benezeth, Pascale</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> glass and crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations in Iceland have been suggested for industrial CO2 storage due to their porous and permeable properties and high reactivity. Acid CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> waters in contact with <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass will lead to rapid dissolution of the glass and release of divalent cations, (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+) that can react to form stable carbonates and thereby trap the CO2. However, the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations in Iceland not only contains glass and mineral assemblages, but also host microbiological communities that either by their presence or by active involvement in chemical reactions could affect the amount of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass being dissolved and CO2 being trapped. Samples of natural bacteria communities from the CO2 storage grounds in Iceland were collected, separated, and purified using agar plate technique and cultured under laboratory conditions in nutrient broth-rich media. Heterotrophic aerobic Gram-negative strain of Pseudomonas reactants was selected for a series of flow-through experiments aimed at evaluation of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass dissolution rate in the presense of increasing amounts of dead bacteria and their lysis products. The experiments were carried out using mixed-flow reactors at pH 4, 6, 8 and 10 at 25 °C. Each of the four reactors contained 1 gram of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass of the size fraction 45-125 μm. This glass was dissolved in ~ 0.01 M buffer solutions (acetate, MES, bicarbonate and carbonate+bicarbonate mixture) of the desired pH. All experiments ran 2 months, keeping the flowrate and temperature stable and only changing the concentration of dead bacteria in the inlet solutions (from 0 to 430 mg/L). Experiments were performed in sterile conditions, and bacterial growth was prevented by adding NaN3 to the inlet solutions. Routine culturing of bacteria on the agar plates confirmed the sterility of experiments. Samples of outlet solutions were analyzed for major cations and trace elements by ICP-MS. Results demonstrate a slight decrease in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042594','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042594"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Fluorine on Near-Liquidus Phase Equilibria of <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Filiberto, Justin; Wood, Justin; Loan, Le; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Treiman, Allan H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Volatile species such as H2O, CO2, F, and Cl have significant impact in generation and differentiation of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts. Thus far experimental work has primarily focused on the effect of water and carbon dioxide on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> crystallization, liquid-line of descent, and mantle melting [e.g., 1, 2] and the effects of halogens have received far less attention [3-4]. However, melts in the planetary interiors can have non-negligible chlorine and fluorine concentrations. Here, we explore the effects of fluorine on near-liquidus phase equilibria of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. We have conducted nominally anhydrous piston cylinder experiments using graphite capsules at 0.6 - 1.5 GPa on an Fe-rich model <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composition. 1.75 wt% fluorine was added to the starting mix in the form of AgF2. Fluorine in the experimental glass was measured by SIMS and major elements of glass and minerals were analyzed by EPMA. Nominally volatile free experiments yield a liquidus temperature from 1330 C at 0.8GPa to 1400 at 1.6GPa and an olivine(Fo72)-pyroxene(En68)-liquid multiple <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point at 1.25 GPa and 1375 C. The F-bearing experiments yield a liquiudus temperature from 1260 C at 0.6GPa to 1305 at 1.5GPa and an ol(Fo66)-pyx(En64)-MSP at 1 GPa and 1260 C. This shows that F depresses the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> liquidus, extends the pyroxene stability field to lower pressure, and forces the liquidus phases to be more Fe-rich. KD(Fe-Mg/mineral-melt) calculated for both pyroxenes and olivines show an increase with increasing F content of the melt. Therefore, we infer that F complexes with Mg in the melt and thus increases the melt s silica activity, depressing the liquidus and changing the composition of the crystallizing minerals. Our study demonstrates that on a weight percent basis, the effect of fluorine is similar to the effect of H2O [1] and Cl [3] on freezing point depression of <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. But on an atomic fraction basis, the effect of F on liquidus depression of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is xxxx compared to the effect of H. Future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.6174H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.6174H"><span id="translatedtitle">Partitioning of Se, As, Sb, Te and Bi between monosulfide solid solution and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt - Application to magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helmy, Hassan M.; Ballhaus, Chris; Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Laurenz, Vera</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The chalcogenes (S, Se, Te), semimetals (As, Sb) and the metal Bi are important ligands for noble metals and form a wide range of compositionally diverse minerals with the platinum-group elements (PGE). With the exception of S, few experimental data exist to quantify the behavior of these elements in magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> systems. Here we report experimental partition coefficients for Se, Te, As, Sb, and Bi between monosulfide solid solution (mss) and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt, determined at 950 °C at a range of sulfur fugacities ( fS2) bracketed by the Fe-FeS (metal-troilite) and the Fe 1-×S-S x (mss-sulfur) equilibria. Selenium is shown to partition in mss-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt as an anion replacing S 2-. Arsenic changes its oxidation state with fS 2 from predominantly anionic speciation at low fS 2, to cationic speciation at high fS 2. The elements Sb, Te, and Bi are so highly incompatible with mss that they can only be present in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt as cations and/or as neutral metallic species. The partition coefficients derived fall with increasing atomic radius of the element. They also reflect the positions of the respective elements in the Periodic Table: within a group (e.g., As, Sb, Bi) the partition coefficients fall with increasing atomic radius, and within a period the elements of the 15th group are more incompatible with mss than the neighboring elements of the 16th group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036424"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Reactivity Variability with Reservoir Depth in Supercritical CO2 and Aqueous Phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Long term storage of CO{sub 2} in geologic formations is currently considered the most attractive option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while continuing to utilize fossil fuels for energy production. Injected CO{sub 2} is expected to reside as a buoyant water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> supercritical fluid in contact with reservoir rock, the caprock system, and related formation waters. As was reported for the first time at the GHGT-9 conference, experiments with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> demonstrated surprisingly rapid carbonate mineral formation occurring with samples suspended in the scCO{sub 2} phase. Those experiments were limited to a few temperatures and CO{sub 2} pressures representing relatively shallow (1 km) reservoir depths. Because continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can extend to depths of 5 km or more, in this paper we extend the earlier results across a pressure-temperature range representative of these greater depths. Different <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples, including well cuttings from the borehole used in a pilot-scale <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sequestration project (Eastern Washington, U.S.) and core samples from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), were exposed to aqueous solutions in equilibrium with scCO{sub 2} and water-rich scCO{sub 2} at six different pressures and temperatures for select periods of time (30 to 180 days). Conditions corresponding to a shallow injection of CO{sub 2} (7.4 MPa, 34 C) indicate limited reactivity with <span class="hlt">basalt</span>; surface carbonate precipitates were not easily identified on post-reacted <span class="hlt">basalt</span> grains. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> exposed under identical times appeared increasingly more reacted with simulated depths. Tests, conducted at higher pressures (12.0 MPa) and temperatures (55 C), reveal a wide variety of surface precipitates forming in both fluid phases. Under shallow conditions tiny clusters of aragonite needles began forming in the wet scCO{sub 2} fluid, whereas in the CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">saturated</span> water, cation substituted calcite developed thin radiating coatings. Although these types of coatings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V22A1003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V22A1003M"><span id="translatedtitle">Platinum-Group Elements in <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> Derived From the Icelandic Mantle Plume -Past and Present.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Momme, P.; Oskarsson, N.; Gronvold, K.; Tegner, C.; Brooks, K.; Keays, R.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Paleogene <span class="hlt">basalts</span> ( ~55Ma) derived from the ancestral Iceland mantle plume and extruded during continental rifting are exposed along the Blosseville Kyst in central East Greenland. These <span class="hlt">basalts</span> comprise three intercalated series, viz: a low-Ti, high-Ti and a very high-Ti series. The two Ti-rich series are interpreted to represent continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> formed by low degrees of partial melting (degree of melting F=3-9%) while the low-Ti series are believed to have formed by higher degrees of partial melting (F:15-25%). All three of the East Greenland <span class="hlt">basalt</span> series are enriched in the PGE, relative to normal MORB. During differentiation of the low-Ti series, Pd increase from 11 to 24 ppb whereas Pt and Ir decrease from 12 and 0.6 ppb to 3 and <0.05 ppb respectively. The primitive <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (molar Mg#60) of the dominant high-Ti series contain ~6-10 ppb Pd, ~7-10 ppb Pt and ~0.2 ppb Ir whereas the most evolved <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Mg#43) contain 25 ppb Pd, 5 ppb Pt and <0.05 ppb Ir. The PGE-rich nature of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is surprising because low degree partial melts are generally S-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> and hence strongly depleted in the PGE (cf, Keays, 1995). However, our data indicates that all of the East Greenland magmas were S-undersaturated and as they underwent differentiation, Pd behaved incompatibly while Ir and Pt behaved compatibly. Primitive Holocene Icelandic olivine tholeiites contain 120 ppm Cu, 6 ppb Pd, 4 ppb Pt and 0.2 ppb Ir while their picritic counterparts contain 74 ppm Cu, 17 ppb Pd, 7 ppb Pt and 0.3 ppb Ir. Both the olivine tholeiites and the picrites are believed to have formed by high degrees of partial melting (15-25%) which would have exhausted all of the sulphides in the mantle source region and produced S-undersaturated magmas. In Icelandic samples with 10-14wt% MgO, Cu and the PGEs vary systematically between the primitive picrite and olivine tholeiite compositions given above i.e there is an inverse correlation between Cu and the PGEs. This is best explained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000305','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000305"><span id="translatedtitle">Additive Construction using <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Regolith Fines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent <span class="hlt">basalt</span> quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> regolith and comparative work with lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925545"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of sulfate reduction and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation rates in sediments of a bar-built estuary (Pescadero, California).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richards, Chandra M; Pallud, Céline</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The bar-built Pescadero Estuary in Northern California is a major fish rearing habitat, though recently threatened by near-annual fish kill events, which occur when the estuary transitions from closed to open state. The direct and indirect effects of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> are suspected to play a role in these mortalities, but the spatial variability of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production and its link to fish kills remains poorly understood. Using flow-through reactors containing intact littoral sediment slices, we measured potential sulfate reduction rates, kinetic parameters of microbial sulfate reduction (Rmax, the maximum sulfate reduction rate, and Km, the half-<span class="hlt">saturation</span> constant for sulfate), potential <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation rates, and potential hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> export rates to water at four sites in the closed and open states. At all sites, the Michaelis-Menten kinetic rate equation adequately describes the utilization of sulfate by the complex resident microbial communities. We estimate that 94-96% of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> produced through sulfate reduction precipitates in the sediment and that only 4-6% is exported to water, suggesting that elevated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations in water, which would affect fish through toxicity and oxygen consumption, cannot be responsible for fish deaths. However, the indirect effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitates, which chemically deplete, contaminate, and acidify the water column during sediment re-suspension and re-oxidation in the transition from closed to open state, can be implicated in fish mortalities at Pescadero Estuary. PMID:26925545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17731364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17731364"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemistry of apollo 15 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and soil 15531.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schnetzler, C C; Philpotts, J A; Nava, D F; Schuhmann, S; Thomas, H H</p> <p>1972-01-28</p> <p>Major and trace element concentrations have been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and isotope dilution in Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 from the Hadley Rille area; trace element concentrations have also been determined in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and in soil 15531 from the same area. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> 15555 most closely resembles in composition the Apollo 12 olivine-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The concentrations of lithium, potassium, rubidium, barium, rare-earth elements, and zirconium in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 are the lowest, and the negative europium anomaly is the smallest, reported for lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>; this <span class="hlt">basalt</span> might be the least differentiated material yet returned from the moon. Crystallization and removal of about 6 percent of plagioclase similar to that contained in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> would account for the observed europium anomaly; if plagioclase is not on the liquidus of this <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, a multistage origin is indicated. Mineral data indicate that plagioclase and pyroxene approached quasi-equilibrium. Most of the chemical differences between <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and soil 15531 would be accounted for if the soil were a mixture of 88 percent <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, 6 percent KREEP (a component, identified in other Apollo soils, rich in potassium, rare-earth elements, and phosphorus) and 6 percent plagioclase (anorthosite?). PMID:17731364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5024619','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5024619"><span id="translatedtitle">Marine diagenesis of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moammar, M.O.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An attempt is made to discuss the artificial and natural oxidation and hydrolysis of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> upon interaction with normal seawater. Synthetic and natural ferrosphalerite particles used in kinetic oxidation and hydrolysis studies in seawater develop dense, crystalline coatings consisting of ordered and ferrimagnetic delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH. Due to the formation of this reactive diffusion barrier, the release of Zn into solution decreases rapidly, and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation is reduced to a low rate determined by the diffusion of oxygen through the oxyhydroxide film. This also acts as an efficient solvent for ions such as Zn/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and possibly Cd/sup 2 +/, which contribute to the stabilization of the delta-FeOOH structure. The oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> occurs in many seafloor spreading areas, such as 21/sup 0/N on the East Pacific Ridge. In these areas the old surface of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chimneys are found to be covered by an orange stain, and sediment near the base of nonactive vents is also found to consist of what has been referred to as amorphous iron oxide and hydroxide. This thesis also discusses the exceedingly low solubility of zinc in seawater, from delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH and the analogous phase (zinc-ferrihydroxide) and the zinc exchange minerals, 10-A manganate and montmorillonite. The concentrations of all four are of the same magnitude (16, 36.4, and 12 nM, respectively) as the zinc concentration in deep ocean water (approx. 10 nM), which suggests that manganates and montmorillonite with iron oxyhydroxides control zinc concentration in the deep ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211138"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>-Driven Microbial Electrosynthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gong, YM; Ebrahim, A; Feist, AM; Embree, M; Zhang, T; Lovley, D; Zengler, K</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Microbial electrosynthesis, the conversion of carbon dioxide to organic molecules using electricity, has recently been demonstrated for acetogenic microorganisms, such as Sporomusa ovata. The energy for reduction of carbon dioxide originates from the hydrolysis of water on the anode, requiring a sufficiently low potential. Here we evaluate the use of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as an electron source for microbial electrosynthesis. Abiotically oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on the anode yields two electrons. The oxidation product, elemental sulfur, can be further oxidized to sulfate by Desulfobulbus propionicus, generating six additional electrons in the process. The eight electrons generated from the combined abiotic and biotic steps were used to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate on a graphite cathode by Sporomusa ovata at a rate of 24.8 mmol/day.m(2). Using a strain of Desulfuromonas as biocatalyst on the anode resulted in an acetate production rate of 49.9 mmol/day.m(2), with a Coulombic efficiency of over 90%. These results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> can serve effectively as an alternative electron donor for microbial electrosynthesis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010649','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010649"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystallization of tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in Alae Lava Lake, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Peck, D.L.; Wright, T.L.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>. Ferric-ferrous ratios suggest that oxidation with maximum intensity between 550??C and 610??C moved downward in the crust as it cooled; this was followed by reduction at a temperature of about 100??C. The crystallized <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is a homogeneous fine-grained rock containing on the average 48.3 percent by volume intergranular pyroxene (augite > pigeonite), 34.2 percent plagioclase laths (An60 70), 7.9 percent interstitial glass, 6.9 percent opaques (ilmenite > magnetite), 2.7 percent olivine (Fo70 80), and a trace of apatite. Chemical analyses of 18 samples, ranging from initially quenched pumice to lava cored more than a year after the eruption from the center and from near the base of the lake, show little variation from silica-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> containing 50.4 percent SiO2, 2.4 percent Na2O, and 0.54 percent K2O. Apparently there was no significant crystal settling and no appreciable vapor-phase transport of these components during the year of crystallization. However, seven samples of interstitial liquid that had been filter-pressed into gash fractures and drill holes from partly crystalline mush near the base of the crust show large differences from the bulk composition of the solidified crust-lower MgO, CaO, and Al2O3; and higher total iron, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, and F, and, in most samples, SiO2. The minor elements Ba, Ga, Li, Y, and Yb and possibly Cu tend to be enriched in the filter-pressed liquids, and Cr and possibly Ni tend to be depleted. ?? 1966 Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936965','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936965"><span id="translatedtitle">Uranium-lead isotope systematics of Mars inferred from the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottite QUE 94201</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaffney, A M; Borg, L E; Connelly, J N</p> <p>2006-12-22</p> <p> amount of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystallization may generate large extents of U-Pb fractionation during formation of the mantle sources of martian <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P43B1928N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P43B1928N"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Lunar <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and Gabbros with those of the Terrestrial Ocean Crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Natland, J. H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Initial studies of lunar samples returned from the Apollo and Luna missions took place before rocks of the Earth's lower ocean crust, chiefly varieties of gabbro cumulates, were widely known or understood. Continuing exploration of the ocean crust invites some new comparisons. When volcanic rocks and glass from Apollo 11 and 17 were discovered to have very high TiO2 contents (8-14%), nothing comparable was known from Earth. The high-TiO2 lunar samples were soon described as primary melts derived from considerable depths in the lunar mantle. Other lunar samples have only very low TiO2 contents (~0.2%) and very low concentrations of highly incompatible elements such as Zr and Sr. Today, dredging and drilling results indicate that oxide gabbros rich in magmatic oxides and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and with up to 12% TiO2 comprise a significant percentage of the gabbroic portion of the ocean crust especially at slowly spreading ridges. These are very late stage differentiates, and are commonly juxtaposed by high-temperature deformation processes with more primitive olivine gabbros and troctolites having only ~0.2% TiO2 and low concentrations of Zr and other incompatible elements. The rocks are mainly adcumulates, with very low concentrations of incompatible elements set by proportions of cumulus minerals, and with little contribution from the liquids that produced them. In addition, some lunar gabbros with highly calcic plagioclase (~An93-98) are similar to gabbros and troctolites found in island arcs. All of these similarities suggest that very few lunar <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks are pristine; instead they all could be nearly complete shock fusion products produced by meteorite impact into a diverse assemblage of lunar gabbros that included both low- and high-TiO2 gabbroic facies. On this hypothesis, no lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is a primary melt derived from the Moon's mantle. Although magmatic environments on the ancient Moon and in the modern ocean crust were different in important ways, the general</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479566','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479566"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogenic Mn-Oxides in Subseafloor <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Gustafsson, Håkan; Holm, Nils G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The deep biosphere of the subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is recognized as a major scientific frontier in disciplines like biology, geology, and oceanography. Recently, the presence of fungi in these environments has involved a change of view regarding diversity and ecology. Here, we describe fossilized fungal communities in vugs in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from a depth of 936.65 metres below seafloor at the Detroit Seamount, Pacific Ocean. These fungal communities are closely associated with botryoidal Mn oxides composed of todorokite. Analyses of the Mn oxides by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR) indicate a biogenic signature. We suggest, based on mineralogical, morphological and EPR data, a biological origin of the botryoidal Mn oxides. Our results show that fungi are involved in Mn cycling at great depths in the seafloor and we introduce EPR as a means to easily identify biogenic Mn oxides in these environments. PMID:26107948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090012290','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090012290"><span id="translatedtitle">Northwest Africa 5298: A <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Shergottite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hui, Hejiu; Peslier, Anne; Lapen, Thomas J.; Brandon, Alan; Shafer, John</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>NWA 5298 is a single 445 g meteorite found near Bir Gandouz, Morocco in March 2008 [1]. This rock has a brown exterior weathered surface instead of a fusion crust and the interior is composed of green mineral grains with interstitial dark patches containing small vesicles and shock melts [1]. This meteorite is classified as a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottite [2]. A petrologic study of this Martian meteorite is being carried out with electron microprobe analysis and soon trace element analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Oxygen fugacity is calculated from Fe-Ti oxides pairs in the sample. The data from this study constrains the petrogenesis of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057737&hterms=Thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DThorium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057737&hterms=Thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DThorium"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead isotope studies of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 70017</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mattinson, J. M.; Tilton, G. R.; Todt, W.; Chen, J. H.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Uranium, thorium, and isotopic lead data for components of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 70017 are reported, and it is found that the whole rock, pyroxene, and ilmenite points in a concordia diagram plot along a chord intersecting the curve at 3.7 and 4.33 eons. The plagioclase data do not seem to lie on this line. The data for 70017 appear to plot along a distinctly different chord in a concordia diagram than do the data for 75055 and 75035, two other Apollo 17 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The lead data are in accord with Sm-Nd results. A 3.7 eon crystallization age for 70017 would be consistent with the same kind of parentless lead that is indicated by previous studies of soils and soil breccias from stations at Taurus-Littrow. The Th/U ratio in ilmenite is 2.2, and the concentrations of these two elements are approximately twice those in pyroxene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107948"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogenic Mn-Oxides in Subseafloor <span class="hlt">Basalts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Gustafsson, Håkan; Holm, Nils G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The deep biosphere of the subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is recognized as a major scientific frontier in disciplines like biology, geology, and oceanography. Recently, the presence of fungi in these environments has involved a change of view regarding diversity and ecology. Here, we describe fossilized fungal communities in vugs in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from a depth of 936.65 metres below seafloor at the Detroit Seamount, Pacific Ocean. These fungal communities are closely associated with botryoidal Mn oxides composed of todorokite. Analyses of the Mn oxides by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR) indicate a biogenic signature. We suggest, based on mineralogical, morphological and EPR data, a biological origin of the botryoidal Mn oxides. Our results show that fungi are involved in Mn cycling at great depths in the seafloor and we introduce EPR as a means to easily identify biogenic Mn oxides in these environments. PMID:26107948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/834910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/834910"><span id="translatedtitle">Pb isotopic heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> phenocrysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bryce, Julia G.; DePaolo, Donald J.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>The Pb isotopic compositions of phenocrystic phases in young <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas have been investigated using the Getty-DePaolo method (Getty S. J. and DePaolo D. J. [1995] Quaternary geochronology by the U-Th-Pb method. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59, 3267 3272), which allows for the resolution of small isotopic differences. Phenocryst, matrix, and whole rock analyses were made on samples from the 17 Myr-old Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the Columbia River Group, a zero-age MORB from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and a ca. 260 kyr-old tholeiite from Mount Etna. Plagioclase feldspar phenocrysts have low-(U, Th)/Pb, and in each sample the plagioclase has significantly lower 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb values than whole rock, matrix, and magnetite-rich separates. The Pb isotopic contrast between plagioclase and matrix/whole rock is found in three samples with varying grain sizes (0.5 2 cm for the Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and MORB and <1 mm for the Etna sample) from different tectonic settings, suggesting that these results are not unique. The isotopic contrasts are only slightly smaller in magnitude than the variations exhibited by whole rock samples from the region. The Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalts</span> also have Sr isotopic heterogeneity evident only in plagioclase phenocrysts, but the MORB and Etna lavas do not. The isotopic heterogeneities reflect magma mixing, and indicate that isotopically diverse magmas were mixed together just prior to eruption. The results reinforce indications from melt inclusion studies that magma source region isotopic heterogeneities have large amplitudes at short length scales, and that the isotopic variations imparted to the magmas are not entirely homogenized during segregation and transport processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..177..857V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..177..857V"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanoes — Processes and problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valentine, G. A.; Gregg, T. K. P.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Monogenetic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanoes are the most common volcanic landforms on the continents. They encompass a range of morphologies from small pyroclastic constructs to larger shields and reflect a wide range of eruptive processes. This paper reviews physical volcanological aspects of continental <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions that are driven primarily by magmatic volatiles. Explosive eruption styles include Hawaiian and Strombolian ( sensu stricto) and violent Strombolian end members, and a full spectrum of styles that are transitional between these end members. The end-member explosive styles generate characteristic facies within the resulting pyroclastic constructs (proximal) and beyond in tephra fall deposits (medial to distal). Explosive and effusive behavior can be simultaneous from the same conduit system and is a complex function of composition, ascent rate, degassing, and multiphase processes. Lavas are produced by direct effusion from central vents and fissures or from breakouts (boccas, located along cone slopes or at the base of a cone or rampart) that are controlled by varying combinations of cone structure, feeder dike processes, local effusion rate and topography. Clastogenic lavas are also produced by rapid accumulation of hot material from a pyroclastic column, or by more gradual welding and collapse of a pyroclastic edifice shortly after eruptions. Lava flows interact with — and counteract — cone building through the process of rafting. Eruption processes are closely coupled to shallow magma ascent dynamics, which in turn are variably controlled by pre-existing structures and interaction of the rising magmatic mixture with wall rocks. Locations and length scales of shallow intrusive features can be related to deeper length scales within the magma source zone in the mantle. Coupling between tectonic forces, magma mass flux, and heat flow range from weak (low magma flux <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> fields) to sufficiently strong that some <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> fields produce polygenetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551199"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoparticulate mineral matter from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dust wastes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Querol, Xavier; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Moreno, Teresa; Silva, Luis F O</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been the subject of some concern recently around the world for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the mining district of Nova Prata in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and could so present a health hazard in the urban areas around the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in typical BDW samples highlights the need to develop cleaning procedures to minimise exposure to these natural fertilizing <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dust wastes and is thus of direct relevance to both the industrial sector of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> mining and to agriculture in the region. PMID:26551199</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.107...12T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.107...12T"><span id="translatedtitle">Iron isotopic systematics of oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teng, Fang-Zhen; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Marty, Bernard</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The iron isotopic compositions of 93 well-characterized <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from geochemically and geologically diverse mid-ocean ridge segments, oceanic islands and back arc basins were measured. Forty-three MORBs have homogeneous Fe isotopic composition, with δ56Fe ranging from +0.07‰ to +0.14‰ and an average of +0.105 ± 0.006‰ (2SD/√n, n = 43, MSWD = 1.9). Three back arc basin <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have similar δ56Fe to MORBs. By contrast, OIBs are slightly heterogeneous with δ56Fe ranging from +0.05‰ to +0.14‰ in samples from Koolau and Loihi, Hawaii, and from +0.09‰ to +0.18‰ in samples from the Society Islands and Cook-Austral chain, French Polynesia. Overall, oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are isotopically heavier than mantle peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths, reflecting Fe isotope fractionation during partial melting of the mantle. Iron isotopic variations in OIBs mainly reflect Fe isotope fractionation during fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene, enhanced by source heterogeneity in Koolau samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055271&hterms=ghosts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dghosts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055271&hterms=ghosts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dghosts"><span id="translatedtitle">How thick are lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoerz, F.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770020109','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770020109"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar sample studies. [breccias <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and anorthosites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17359262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17359262"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for hydrothermal Archaea within the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> flanks of the East Pacific Rise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Haymon, Rachel M; Lamontagne, Michael G; Holden, Patricia A</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Little is known about the fluids or the microbial communities present within potentially vast hydrothermal reservoirs contained in still-hot volcanic ocean crust beneath the flanks of the mid-ocean ridge. During Alvin dives in 2002, organic material attached to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was collected at low, near-ambient temperatures from an abyssal hill fault scarp in 0.5 Ma lithosphere on the western ridge flank of the East Pacific Rise. Mineral analysis by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy revealed high-temperature (> 110 degrees C) phases chalcopyrite (Cu(5)FeS(4)) and 1C pyrrhotite (Fe(1-x)S) within the fault scarp materials. A molecular survey of archaeal genes encoding 16S rRNA identified a diverse hyperthermophilic community, including groups within Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and Korarchaeota. We propose that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, metals and archaeal communities originated within a <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted subseafloor hydrothermal habitat beneath the East Pacific Rise ridge flank and were transported to the seafloor during a recent episode of hydrothermal venting from the abyssal hill fault. Additionally, inferred metabolisms from the fault scarp community suggest that an ecologically unique high-temperature archaeal biosphere may thrive beneath the young East Pacific Rise ridge flank and that abyssal hill fault scarps may present new opportunities for sampling for this largely unexplored microbial habitat. PMID:17359262</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JVGR...39..211G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JVGR...39..211G"><span id="translatedtitle">Degassing of carbon dioxide from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma at spreading centers: I. Afar transitional <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerlach, Terrence M.</p> <p>1989-11-01</p> <p>This study investigates the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the CO 2 in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> supplied to axial volcanic ranges of spreading centers in the Afar depression, escapes by degassing during residence in crustal magma reservoirs. The investigation employs volcanic gas data to test the degassing hypothesis. Volcanic gases emitted from source vents at Erta'Ale lava lake are used to represent volatiles present in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> supplied to magma reservoirs underlying Afar spreading centers. For comparison, volcanic gases from a large fissure eruption at Ardoukoba are used to represent volatiles in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> after a period of storage in the Afar magma reservoirs. The results confirm the hypothesis. Gases from the lava lake and fissure eruption are the same except for CO 2. They lie along a common CO 2 control line. The fissure eruption gases are six-fold depleted in CO 2 compared to gases from the continuously supplied lava lake. This difference corresponds to a loss of approximately 85% of the initial CO 2. Moreover, gases from the fissure eruption are nearly identical to those emitted by Kilauea <span class="hlt">basalts</span> that have lost CO 2 by magma reservoir degassing. Mass balance modeling indicates an initial CO 2 content for Afar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of 0.12 wt.% compared to CO 2 concentrations as low as 0.02 wt.% after degassing at depth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.504 Section 250.504... § 250.504 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.604 Section 250.604... § 250.604 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.504 Section 250.504... § 250.504 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.604 Section 250.604... § 250.604 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.604 Section 250.604... § 250.604 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.504 Section 250.504... § 250.504 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000012&hterms=lanthanum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlanthanum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000012&hterms=lanthanum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlanthanum"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid Synthesis of Nonstoichiometric Lanthanum <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Matsuda, S.; Shapiro, E.; Danielson, L.; Hardister, H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>New process relatively fast and simple. Improved method of synthesizing nonstoichiometric lanthanum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> faster and simpler. Product purer because some of prior sources of contamination eliminated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5057161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5057161"><span id="translatedtitle">Computed solid phases limiting the concentration of dissolved constituents in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> aquifers of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington. Geochemical modeling and nuclide/rock/groundwater interaction studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deutsch, W.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Krupka, K.M.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>A speciation-solubility geochemical model, WATEQ2, was used to analyze geographically-diverse, ground-water samples from the aquifers of the Columbia Plateau <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in eastern Washington. The ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with calcite, which provides both a solubility control for dissolved calcium and a pH buffer. Amorphic ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)/sub 3/(A), is at <span class="hlt">saturation</span> or modestly oversaturated in the few water samples with measured redox potentials. Most of the ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with amorphic silica (glass) and wairakite, a zeolite, and are <span class="hlt">saturated</span> to oversaturated with respect to allophane, an amorphic aluminosilicate. The water samples are <span class="hlt">saturated</span> to undersaturated with halloysite, a clay, and are variably oversaturated with regard to other secondary clay minerals. Equilibrium between the ground water and amorphic silica presumably results from the dissolution of the glassy matrix of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The oversaturation of the clay minerals other than halloysite indicates that their rate of formation lags the dissolution rate of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass. The modeling results indicate that metastable amorphic solids limit the concentration of dissolved silicon and suggest the same possibility for aluminum and iron, and that the processes of dissolution of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass and formation of metastable secondary minerals are continuing even though the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are of Miocene age. The computed solubility relations are found to agree with the known assemblages of alteration minerals in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fractures and vesicles. Because the chemical reactivity of the bedrock will influence the transport of solutes in ground water, the observed solubility equilibria are important factors with regard to chemical-retention processes associated with the possible migration of nuclear waste stored in the earth's crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.9988E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.9988E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Making rhyolite in a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> crucible</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eichelberger, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Iceland has long attracted the attention of those concerned with the origin of rhyolitic magmas and indeed of granitic continental crust, because it presents no alternative for such magmas other than deriving them from a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> source. Hydrothermally altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> has been identified as the progenitor. The fact that rhyolite erupts as pure liquid requires a process of melt-crustal separation that is highly efficient despite the high viscosity of rhyolite melt. Volcanoes in Iceland are foci of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma injection along the divergent plate boundary. Repeated injection produces remelting, digestion, and sometimes expulsion or lateral withdrawal of material resulting in a caldera, a "crucible" holding down-dropped and interlayered lava flows, tephras, and injected sills. Once melting of this charge begins, a great deal of heat is absorbed in the phase change. Just 1% change in crystallinity per degree gives a melt-present body an effective heat capacity >5 times the subsolidus case. Temperature is thus buffered at the solidus and melt composition at rhyolite. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> inputs are episodic ("fires") so likely the resulting generation of rhyolite by melting is too. If frequent enough to offset cooling between events, rhyolite melt extractions will accumulate as a rhyolite magma reservoir rather than as discrete crystallized sills. Evidently, such magma bodies can survive multiple firings without themselves erupting, as the 1875 eruption of Askja Caldera of 0.3 km3 of rhyolite equilibrated at 2-km depth without previous leakage over a ten-millennium period and the surprise discovery of rhyolite magma at 2-km depth in Krafla suggest. Water is required for melting; otherwise melting cannot begin at a temperature lower than that of the heat source. Because the solubility of water in melt is pressure-dependent and almost zero at surface pressure, there must be a minimum depth at which <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-induced melting can occur and a rhyolite reservoir sustained. In practice, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5888540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5888540"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> melt evolution of the Hengill volcanic system, SW Iceland, and evidence for clinopyroxene assimilation in primitive tholeiitic magmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Troennes, R.G. )</p> <p>1990-09-10</p> <p>The thick oceanic crust of Iceland is formed by tholeiitic central volcanoes arranged in en echelon patterns along the 40-50 km wide rift zones. The Hengill central volcano in the southwestern rift zone has produced 25-30 km{sup 3} of hyaloclastites and lava during the last 0.11 m.y., with maximum productivity during the isostatic rebound following the degalciations 0.13 and 0.01 m.y. ago. The petrographic relations of pillow rim and hyaloclastite glass indicate that the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts were <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with olivine and plagioclase, except for the most primitive ones that were undersaturated with plagioclase. <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> with clinopyroxene was reached in some of the intermediate and evolved <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts. Corroded and partly resorbed crystals of clinopyroxene and partly disintegrated gabbro nodules with resorbed clinopyroxene indicate that selective assimilation contributed to the evolution of the most primitive melts. The intermediate and evolved <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass compositions fall along the low-pressure cotectic for mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (MORB) compositions <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene, but the primitive glasses fall well inside the low-pressure olivine + plagioclase primary phase volume. The dense picritic magmas were driven to the surface by magmatic overpressure in the mantle at an early deglaciation stage characterized by the absence of large, trapping magma chambers in the lower crust. The assimilation of clinopyroxene in these melts could proceed by direct contact with the solidified cumulate sequences and gabbro intrusions. Clinopyroxene assimilation in combination with olivine fractionation may also contribute to the chemical evolution of some of the most primitive MORB magmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036318"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Shock Experiments on <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> - Iron Sulfate Mixes at ~ 40 - 50 GPa and their Relevance to the Martian Reolith Component Present in Shergotties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rao, M N; Nyquist, L E; Ross, D K; Asimow, P D; See, T; Sutton, S; Cardernas, F; Montes, R; Cintala, M</p> <p>2012-03-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> shergottites such as Shergotty, Zagami and EET79001 contain impact melt glass pockets that are rich in Martian atmospheric gases and are known as gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses. These glasses show evidence for the presence of a Martian regolith component based on Sm and Kr isotopic studies. The GRIM glasses are sometimes embedded with clusters of innumerable micron-sized iron-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs associated with minor amounts of iron sulfate particles. These <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs are secondary in origin and are not related to the primary igneous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> occurring in Martian meteorites. The material comprising these glasses arises from the highly oxidizing Martian surface and sulfur is unlikely to occur as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the Martian regoilith. Instead, sulfur is shown to occur as sulfate based on APXS and Mossbauer results obtained by the Opportunity and Spirit rovers at Meridiani and Gusev. We have earlier suggested that the micron-sized iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> globules in GRIM glasses were likely produced by shock-reduction of iron sulfate occurring in the regolith at the time when the GRIM glasses were produced by the meteoroid impact that launched the Martian meteorites into space. As a result of high energy deposition by shock (~ 40-60 GPa), the iron sulfate bearing phases are likely to melt along with other regolith components and will get reduced to immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> fluid under reducing conditions. On quenching, this generates a dispersion of micron-scale <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs. The reducing agents in our case are likely to be H<sub>2</sub> and CO which were shock-implanted from the Martian atmosphere into these glasses along with the noble gases. We conducted lab simulation experiments in the Lindhurst Laboratory of Experimental Geophysics at Caltech and the Experimental Impact Laboratory at JSC to test whether iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> globules can be produced by impact-driven reduction of iron sulfate by subjecting Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (CRB) and ferric sulfate mixtures to shock pressures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001831','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001831"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Shock Experiments on <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> - Iron Sulfate Mixes at Approximately 40-50 GPa and Their Relevance to the Martian Regolith Component Present in Shergottites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Ross, D. K.; Asimow, P. D.; See, T.; Sutton, S.; Cardernas, F.; Montes, R.; Cintala, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> shergottites such as Shergotty, Zagami and EET79001 contain impact melt glass pockets that are rich in Martian atmospheric gases [1] and are known as gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses. These glasses show evidence for the presence of a Martian regolith component based on Sm and Kr isotopic studies [2]. The GRIM glasses are sometimes embedded with clusters of innumerable micron-sized iron-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs associated with minor amounts of iron sulfate particles [3, 4]. These <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs are secondary in origin and are not related to the primary igneous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> occurring in Martian meteorites. The material comprising these glasses arises from the highly oxidizing Martian surface and sulfur is unlikely to occur as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the Martian regoilith. Instead, sulfur is shown to occur as sulfate based on APXS and Mossbauer results obtained by the Opportunity and Spirit rovers at Meridiani and Gusev [5]. We have earlier suggested that the micron-sized iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> globules in GRIM glasses were likely produced by shock-reduction of iron sulfate occurring in the regolith at the time when the GRIM glasses were produced by the meteoroid impact that launched the Martian meteorites into space [6]. As a result of high energy deposition by shock (approx. 40-60 GPa), the iron sulfate bearing phases are likely to melt along with other regolith components and will get reduced to immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> fluid under reducing conditions. On quenching, this generates a dispersion of micron-scale <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs. The reducing agents in our case are likely to be H2 and CO which were shock-implanted from the Martian atmosphere into these glasses along with the noble gases. We conducted lab simulation experiments in the Lindhurst Laboratory of Experimental Geophysics at Caltech and the Experimental Impact Laboratory at JSC to test whether iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> globules can be produced by impact-driven reduction of iron sulfate by subjecting Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (CRB) and ferric sulfate mixtures to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26676357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26676357"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive dynamics of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> polymorphisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kisdi, Éva; Geritz, Stefan A H</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such <span class="hlt">saturated</span> systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily <span class="hlt">saturated</span>) polymorphic singularity and show that <span class="hlt">saturated</span> evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case [Formula: see text], we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> dimorphism. PMID:26676357</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1984/4304/plate-1.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1984/4304/plate-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical controls on dissolved sodium in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> aquifers of the Columbia Plateau, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hearn, P.P.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Drost, B.W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Miocene <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> aquifers of the Columbia Plateau are the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, and municipal use in Washington State. Irrigation with groundwaters with relatively high sodium concentrations has been cause for concern in recent years, because of the tendency of such waters to reduce soil permeability. Chemical reactions involving groundwater and the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are the primary mechanisms responsible for the input of sodium to groundwater in the plateau. This conclusion is supported by the sequence of secondary alteration products found and by progressive changes in groundwater chemistry with depth and position along regional flow paths. Upgradient and shallow groundwaters have low sodium concentrations and sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR's), and are predominantly calcium sodium bicarbonate waters. Groundwaters from deeper and downgradient locations have higher sodium concentrations and SAR 's and are predominantly sodium bicarbonate water. Volcanic glass and cryptocrystalline matrix are the major sources of groundwater sodium, and are dissolved by a combination of silicate hydrolysis and dissolution by carbonic acid. Magnesium, iron, and calcium are removed from solution by the formation of an iron magnesium smectite, calcite , and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The addition of sodium, silicon, and potassium by dissolution of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> exceeds their removal by the precipitation of secondary minerals, and their concentrations increase in the initial stages of this process. In later stages, these continued increases produce a water <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with clinoptilolite and silica phases, and these begin to precipitate. While the timing of these processes is unclear, the mineralogy of secondary alteration and estimated cooling rates of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows suggest that observed alteration products formed primarily at low temperature, under conditions similar to those existing at the present time. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909425','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909425"><span id="translatedtitle">Molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/carbide catalysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.; Fuentes, Sergio; Torres, Brenda</p> <p>2007-05-29</p> <p>The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175980','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175980"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of amorphous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sieves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Siadati, Mohammad H.; Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.</p> <p>2006-11-07</p> <p>The present invention involves methods and compositions for synthesizing catalysts/porous materials. In some embodiments, the resulting materials are amorphous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sieves that can be mass-produced for a variety of uses. In some embodiments, methods of the invention concern any suitable precursor (such as thiomolybdate salt) that is exposed to a high pressure pre-compaction, if need be. For instance, in some cases the final bulk shape (but highly porous) may be same as the original bulk shape. The compacted/uncompacted precursor is then subjected to an open-flow hot isostatic pressing, which causes the precursor to decompose and convert to a highly porous material/catalyst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17741173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17741173"><span id="translatedtitle">Hotspots, <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and the evolution of the mantle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, D L</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>The trace element concentration patterns of continental and ocean island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and of mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are complementary. The relative sizes of the source regions for these fundamentally different <span class="hlt">basalt</span> types can be estimated from the trace element enrichment-depletion patterns. Their combined volume occupies most of the mantle above the 670 kilometer discontinuity. The source regions separated as a result of early mantle differentiation and crystal fractionation from the resulting melt. The mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> source evolved from an eclogite cumulate that lost its late-stage enriched fluids at various times to the shallower mantle and continental crust. The mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> source is rich in garnet and clinopyroxene, whereas the continental and ocean island <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source is a garnet peridotite that has experienced secondary enrichment. These relationships are consistent with the evolution of a terrestrial magma ocean. PMID:17741173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol31-sec425-03.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol31-sec425-03.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 425.03 - <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> analytical methods and applicability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... Provisions § 425.03 <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> analytical methods and applicability. (a) The potassium ferricyanide titration... the potassium ferricyanide titration method for the determination of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in wastewaters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/946362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/946362"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and Optical Properties of <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Nanoparticles Prepared in Dimethylsulfoxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Yuebin; Ma, Lun; Zhang, Xing; Joly, Alan G.; Liu, Zuli; Chen, Wei</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Many methods have been reported for the formation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles by the reaction of metallic salts with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chemical sources in aqueous solutions or organic solvents. Here, we report the formation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) by boiling metallic salts without <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sources. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sources are generated from the boiling of DMSO and react with metallic salts to form <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles. In this method DMSO functions as a solvent and a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> source as well as a stabilizer for the formation of the nanoparticles. The recipe is simple and economical making <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles formed in this way readily available for many potential applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21997848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21997848"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>:quinone oxidoreductase to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exposure in the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Yu-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Shao, Ming-Yu; Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Shi, Xiao-Li; Dong, Ying-Ping; Li, Jin-Long</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> is a natural, widely distributed, poisonous substance, and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is responsible for the initial oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in mitochondria. In this study, we examined the response of SQR to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exposure (25, 50, and 150 μM) at mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels in the body wall and hindgut of the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus, a benthic organism living in marine sediments. The results revealed SQR mRNA expression during <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exposure in the body wall and hindgut increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner that increased significantly at 12 h and continuously increased with time. At the protein level, SQR expression in the two tissues showed a time-dependent relationship that increased significantly at 12 h in 50 μM <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and 6 h in 150 μM, and then continued to increase with time while no significant increase appeared after 25 μM <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exposure. SQR enzyme activity in both tissues increased significantly in a time-dependent manner after 50 μM <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exposure. We concluded that SQR expression could be induced by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exposure and that the two tissues studied have dissimilar <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> metabolic patterns. A U. unicinctus <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-induced detoxification mechanism was also discussed. PMID:21997848</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000141','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000141"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> current spikes eliminated in <span class="hlt">saturable</span> core transformers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schwarz, F. C.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Unsaturating composite magnetic core transformer, consisting of two separate parallel cores designed so impending core <span class="hlt">saturation</span> causes signal generation, terminates high current spike in converter primary circuit. Simplified waveform, demonstrates transformer effectiveness in eliminating current spikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=348820','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=348820"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation in <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Tolerance of Photosystem II in Phylogenetically Diverse Cyanobacteria from <span class="hlt">Sulfidic</span> Habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Physiological and molecular phylogenetic approaches were used to investigate variation among 12 cyanobacterial strains in their tolerance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, an inhibitor of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria from <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> habitats were found to be phylogenetically diverse and exhibited an approximately 50-fold variation in photosystem II performance in the presence of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Whereas the degree of tolerance was positively correlated with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> levels in the environment, a strain's phenotype could not be predicted from the tolerance of its closest relatives. These observations suggest that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> tolerance is a dynamic trait primarily shaped by environmental variation. Despite differences in absolute tolerance, similarities among strains in the effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on chlorophyll fluorescence induction indicated a common mode of toxicity. Based on similarities with treatments known to disrupt the oxygen-evolving complex, it was concluded that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> toxicity resulted from inhibition of the donor side of photosystem II. PMID:14766549</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087409&hterms=Cyanobacteria&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCyanobacteria','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087409&hterms=Cyanobacteria&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCyanobacteria"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> tolerance of photosystem II in phylogenetically diverse cyanobacteria from <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Physiological and molecular phylogenetic approaches were used to investigate variation among 12 cyanobacterial strains in their tolerance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, an inhibitor of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria from <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> habitats were found to be phylogenetically diverse and exhibited an approximately 50-fold variation in photosystem II performance in the presence of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Whereas the degree of tolerance was positively correlated with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> levels in the environment, a strain's phenotype could not be predicted from the tolerance of its closest relatives. These observations suggest that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> tolerance is a dynamic trait primarily shaped by environmental variation. Despite differences in absolute tolerance, similarities among strains in the effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on chlorophyll fluorescence induction indicated a common mode of toxicity. Based on similarities with treatments known to disrupt the oxygen-evolving complex, it was concluded that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> toxicity resulted from inhibition of the donor side of photosystem II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6848837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6848837"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> precipitates at 21/sup 0/N on the East Pacific Rise: /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Finkel, R.C.; Macdougall, J.D.; Chung, Y.C.</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> samples collected by the deep submersible ALVIN from hydrothermal vents at 21/sup 0/N on the East Pacific Rise have extremely variable contents of uranium series nuclides. In samples we have analyzed, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po activities vary by more than an order of magnitude within the same vent. In two out of three samples measured /sup 210/Po activities are hgiher than the parent /sup 210/Pb activities. Consideration of /sup 210/Pb/Pb in particulate <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> filtered from hot vent water indicates that the lead in these deposits has a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> as opposed to a seawater origin. Comparison of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb contents of active and inactive vent particulates suggests that the cycle of buildup, cessation and decay by oxidation of these <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chimneys is measured in tens to a few hundreds of years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6313636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6313636"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalyst and process for oxidizing hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hass, R.H.; Fullerton; Ward, J.W.; Yorba, L.</p> <p>1984-04-24</p> <p>Catalysts comprising bismuth and vanadium components are highly active and stable, especially in the presence of water vapor, for oxidizing hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to sulfur or SO/sub 2/. Such catalysts have been found to be especially active for the conversion of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to sulfur by reaction with oxygen or SO/sub 2/.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24115650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24115650"><span id="translatedtitle">New biologically active hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> donors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roger, Thomas; Raynaud, Francoise; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Ransy, Céline; Simonet, Serge; Crespo, Christine; Bourguignon, Marie-Pierre; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Artaud, Isabelle; Galardon, Erwan</p> <p>2013-11-25</p> <p>Generous donors: The dithioperoxyanhydrides (CH3 COS)2 , (PhCOS)2 , CH3 COSSCO2 Me and PhCOSSCO2 Me act as thiol-activated hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> donors in aqueous buffer solution. The most efficient donor (CH3 COS)2 can induce a biological response in cells, and advantageously replace hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in ex vivo vascular studies. PMID:24115650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=323222','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=323222"><span id="translatedtitle">Ammonia and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal using biochar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Reducing ammonia and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is highly toxic at elev...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14..489G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14..489G"><span id="translatedtitle">The mean composition of ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gale, Allison; Dalton, Colleen A.; Langmuir, Charles H.; Su, Yongjun; Schilling, Jean-Guy</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>mean composition of mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORB) is determined using a global data set of major elements, trace elements, and isotopes compiled from new and previously published data. A global catalog of 771 ridge segments, including their mean depth, length, and spreading rate enables calculation of average compositions for each segment. Segment averages allow weighting by segment length and spreading rate and reduce the bias introduced by uneven sampling. A bootstrapping statistical technique provides rigorous error estimates. Based on the characteristics of the data, we suggest a revised nomenclature for MORB. "ALL MORB" is the total composition of the crust apart from back-arc basins, N-MORB the most likely <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composition encountered along the ridge >500 km from hot spots, and D-MORB the depleted end-member. ALL MORB and N-MORB are substantially more enriched than early estimates of normal ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The mean composition of back-arc spreading centers requires higher extents of melting and greater concentrations of fluid-mobile elements, reflecting the influence of water on back-arc petrogenesis. The average data permit a re-evaluation of several problems of global geochemistry. The K/U ratio reported here (12,340 ± 840) is in accord with previous estimates, much lower than the estimate of Arevalo et al. (2009). The low Sm/Nd and 143Nd/144Nd ratio of ALL MORB and N-MORB provide constraints on the hypothesis that Earth has a non-chondritic primitive mantle. Either Earth is chondritic in Sm/Nd and the hypothesis is incorrect or MORB preferentially sample an enriched reservoir, requiring a large depleted reservoir in the deep mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13A3101H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13A3101H"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace Element Diffusion in <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holycross, M.; Watson, E. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We conducted high pressure, high temperature experiments to determine simultaneously the diffusivities of 24 trace elements (Sc, V, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, U) in liquids of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> composition. Pre-synthesis runs were conducted in graphite capsules in a piston-cylinder apparatus to create two glasses having relatively high and low trace element contents. These glasses were then powdered and paired in diffusion couples by repacking in graphite capsules. All diffusion experiments were executed in a piston cylinder apparatus at 1 GPa pressure and temperatures ranging from 1250-1500º C. Concentration gradients that developed in the glasses were characterized using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). Diffusion coefficients were determined from concentration profiles and show Arrhenian behavior within experimental error. Errors were assigned based on the linear fit of five time series experiments conducted over 500-9000 s to accurately represent the total experimental reproducibility of our results. Data show the highest activation energies are obtained for high field strength elements. Values for the pre-exponential factor, D0, also peak for the high field strength elements. We suggest that trace element diffusion in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts follows the compensation law (Winchell, 1969), with log D0 exhibiting linear dependence on activation energy. Calculated diffusivities indicate that transport through <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt could be an effective mechanism for fractionating high field strength elements over geologically relevant time scales. Winchell (1969) High Temp. Sci. 1: 200-215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1985LPSC...16...19B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1985LPSC...16...19B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Binder, A. B.</p> <p>1985-11-01</p> <p>Various types of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source region and mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770051883&hterms=pearson+correlation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpearson%2Bcorrelation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770051883&hterms=pearson+correlation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpearson%2Bcorrelation"><span id="translatedtitle">Variations in chemical composition of Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, J. C.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Chemical analyses of 30 different Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were examined to evaluate the effects of closure on the pearson moment correlation coefficient. It is shown possible to describe the Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in terms of an opaque, an olivine/pyroxene, an anorthite, and a KREEP component, if significant correlations are identified using the expected correlations as null values. Using Q-mode cluster analysis and nonlinear mapping, it is possible to recognize three groups of the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, groups 1 and 2 belonging to the olivine normative <span class="hlt">basalt</span> cluster and group 3 to the quartz normative cluster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001527','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001527"><span id="translatedtitle">An estimate of the juvenile sulfur content of <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.; Fabbi, Brent P.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Sulfur analyses by X-ray fluorescence give an average content of 107 ppm for 9 samples of fresh subaerially-erupted oceanic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and 680 ppm for 38 samples of submarine erupted <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. This difference is the result of retention of sulfur in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> quenched on the sea floor and loss of sulfur in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> by degassing at the surface. The outer glassy part of submarine erupted <span class="hlt">basalt</span> contains 800??150 ppm sulfur, and this amount is regarded as an estimate of the juvenile sulfur content of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt from the mantle. The slower cooled interiors of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> pillows are depleted relative to the rims owing to degassing and escape through surface fractures. Available samples of deep-sea <span class="hlt">basalts</span> do not indicate a difference in original sulfur content between low-K tholeiite, Hawaiian tholeiite, and alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The H2O/S ratio of analyzed volcanic gases is generally lower than the H2O/S ratio of gases presumed lost from surface lavas as determined by chemical differences between pillow rims and surface lavas. This enrichment of volcanic gases in sulfur relative to water may result from a greater degassing of sulfur relative to water from shallow intrusive bodies beneath the volcano. ?? 1971 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812912M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812912M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying glassy and crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> partitioning in the oceanic crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy <span class="hlt">basalts</span> while the potential habitability of crystalline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fractionation: a pillow <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...71a2015O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...71a2015O"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber is not subject to destruction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880020278&hterms=Pyrites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPyrites','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880020278&hterms=Pyrites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPyrites"><span id="translatedtitle">Weathering of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks may have contributed significantly to the chemical weathering reactions that produce degradation products in the Martian regolith. By analogy and terrestrial processes, a model is proposed whereby supergene alteration of these primary Fe-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on Mars has generated secondary <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (e.g., pyrite) below the water table and produced acidic groundwater containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Ni, and sulfate ions. The low pH solutions also initiated weathering reactions of igneous feldspars and ferromagnesian silicates to form clay silicate and ferric oxyhydroxide phases. Near-surface oxidation and hydrolysis of ferric sulfato-and hydroxo-complex ions and sols formed gossan above the water table consisting of poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates (e.g., jarosite), oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite), and silica (opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost contains hydroxo sulfato complexes of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, which may be stabilized in frozen acidic solutions beneath the surface of Mars. Sublimation of permafrost may replenish colloidal ferric oxides, sulfates, and phyllosilicates during dust storms on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6721585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6721585"><span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous absorption of selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Farley, J.; Skelly, E.M.; Weber, C.B.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine selenium levels in the urine of Tinea patients before and after overnight application of a 2.5% selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lotion. Selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Hydride generation and carbon rod atomization were studied. It was concluded from this study that selenium is absorbed through intact skin. Selenium is then excreted, at least partially, in urine, for at least a week following treatment. The data show that absorption and excretion of selenium vary on an individual basis. Selenium levels in urine following a single application of selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lotion do not indicate that toxic amounts of selenium are being absorbed. Repeated treatments with SeS/sub 2/ result in selenium concentrations in urine which are significantly higher than normal. Significant matrix effects are observed in the carbon rod atomization of urine samples for selenium determinations, even in the presence of a matrix modifier such as nickel. The method of standard additions is required to obtain accurate results in the direct determination of selenium in urine by carbon rod AAS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006BGD.....3..273E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006BGD.....3..273E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial colonization and alteration of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the vast abundance of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009641','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009641"><span id="translatedtitle">Plagioclase mineralogy of olivine alkaline <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffer, J. M.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A geological and mineralogical study of the Potrillo volcanics is reported. The investigation consisted first of field mapping to establish and identify the different rock types and volcanic features in order to determine the geological history. Next, samples were collected and analyzed petrographically to determine suitable rocks from the various stratigraphic units for study of plagioclase. Samples selected for further study were crushed and the plagioclase extracted for the determination of composition and structural state. These results were then related to the petrology and crystallization of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21062197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21062197"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of low dimensional molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Camacho-Bragado, G. Alejandra; Elechiguerra, Jose Luis; Yacaman, Miguel Jose</p> <p>2008-03-15</p> <p>It is presented a detailed structural characterization of a nanostructured form of molybdenum disulfide. The material consists of a layer of highly textured molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> growing off a molybdenum dioxide core. The structure and chemical composition of the synthesized nanostructured <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was compared to two well-known forms of molybdenum disulfide, i.e. a commercial molybdenite sample and a poorly crystalline <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction showed that the material reported here presents crystalline nanodomains with a crystal structure corresponding to the 2H polytype of molybdenum disulfide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to demonstrate the differences between our <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and other materials such as amorphous MoS{sub 3}, oxysulfides and poorly crystalline MoS{sub 2}, corroborating the molybdenite-2H stacking in this form of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The material under study showed a high proportion of crystalline planes different from the basal plane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JMMM..321.3311T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JMMM..321.3311T"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of magnetic rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composite nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Naimei; Tu, Weixia</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles are associated with magnetic iron oxide through coprecipitation of iron salts with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Sizes of the formed magnetic rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composite particles are in the range 5.5-12.5 nm. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays spectra demonstrate the coexistence of Fe 3O 4 and ReS 2 in the composite particle, which confirm the formation of the magnetic rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composite nanoparticles. The association of rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with iron oxide not only keeps electronic state and composition of the rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles, but also introduces magnetism with the level of 24.1 emu g -1 at 14 kOe. Surface modification with monocarboxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG-COOH) has the role of deaggregating the composite nanoparticles to be with average hydrodynamic size of 27.3 nm and improving the dispersion and the stability of the composite nanoparticles in water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5103090','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5103090"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> pollution in wastewater treatment facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>AlDhowalia, K.H. )</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015E%26PSL.422..126E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015E%26PSL.422..126E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrogenesis of primitive and evolved <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in a cooling Moon: Experimental constraints from the youngest known lunar magmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elardo, Stephen M.; Shearer, Charles K.; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Bell, Aaron S.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We have conducted high-temperature experiments over a range of pressures to constrain the petrogenesis of the youngest sampled lunar magmas, which have contrasting primitive and evolved compositions. Our results indicate that at ∼3 Ga, melting still occurred within the same mantle depth range that produced crystalline mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> for the previous ∼1 Ga, although our data cannot support or confirm that the shallowest extents of melting moved deeper into the mantle by ∼3 Ga, as is predicted by most thermal evolution models. Furthermore, melting still occurred in regions with low abundances of heat-producing elements. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> lunar meteorite NEA 003A has some of the lowest abundances of incompatible trace elements among all mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and no negative Eu anomaly. Our experiments show that NEA 003A is multiply <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with olivine and low-Ca pyroxene on its liquidus at ∼1.1 GPa (∼215 km) and ∼1330 °C. If the primitive NEA 003A liquid composition is a minimally-modified melt, the relatively low Mg# of its source region (73-75), its lack of a Eu anomaly, and its chondritic initial Nd isotopic composition indicate its source region likely escaped mixing during mantle overturn with later-stage magma ocean cumulates that formed after plagioclase <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. This condition would require the sources of the ultramafic glasses to have experienced cumulate mixing, or for assimilation of later-stage magma ocean cumulates by the ultramafic glass parental magmas before eruption in order to account for their higher Mg#'s and deeper negative Eu anomalies. Alternatively, NEA 003A may have undergone some fractional crystallization, in which case its more primitive source region would be deeper than 215 km and may approach the depth range of the ultramafic glass source regions. Iron- and incompatible trace element-rich <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lunar meteorites LAP 02205, NWA 032/479, and NWA 4734 have nearly identical bulk compositions and have a multiple <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point on their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016996','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016996"><span id="translatedtitle">East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate <span class="hlt">basalts</span> or rift <span class="hlt">basalts</span> related to the Ontong Java plume?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Studies of seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns suggest the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in a large area in the western Pacific that includes the East Mariana, Nauru and Pigafetta Basins. Sampling of the igneous crust in this area by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) allows direct evaluation of the age and petrogenesis of this crust. ODP Leg 129 drilled a 51 m sequence of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> pillows and massive flows in the central East Mariana Basin. 40Ar 39Ar ages determined in this study for two Leg 129 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> average 114.6 ?? 3.2 Ma. This age is in agreement with the Albian-late Aptian paleontologic age of the overlying sediments, but is distinctively younger than the Jurassic age predicted by magnetic anomaly patterns in the basin. Compositionally, the East Mariana Basin <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are uniformly low-K tholeiites that are depleted in highly incompatible elements compared to moderately incompatible ones, which is typical of mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORB) erupted near hotspots. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the tholeiites ( 87Sr 86Srinit = 0.70360-0.70374; 143Nd 144Ndinit = 0.512769-0.512790; 206Pb 204Pbmeas = 18.355-18.386) also overlap with some Indian Ocean Ridge MORB, although they are distinct from the isotopic compositions of Jurassic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> drilled in the Pigafetta Basin, the oldest Pacific MORB. The isotopic compositions of the East Mariana Basin tholeiites are also similar to those of intraplate <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and in particular, to the isotopic signature of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the nearby Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. The East Mariana Basin tholeiites also share many petrologic and isotopic characteristics with the oceanic basement drilled in the Nauru Basin at DSDP Site 462. In addition, the new 110.8 ?? 1.0 Ma 40Ar 39Ar age for two flows from the bottom of Site 462 in the Nauru Basin is indistinguishable from the age of the East Mariana Basin flows. Thus, while magnetic anomaly patterns predict that the igneous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.P51A1725L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.P51A1725L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Silicate <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> and chemical differences between enstatite chondrites and Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehner, S. W.; Petaev, M. I.; Buseck, P. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>-sensitive material and contains minor elements such as Na, Ca, Mg, or Fe, which also occur in the adjacent minerals. Its high S content and vesicular nature point to formation by quenching of a high-temperature melt <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with a gaseous phase. The porous silica occurs in ~50% of chondrules [12], metal-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nodules, and as inter-chondrule clasts, suggesting it is a good tracer of silicate <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span>. Refs: [1] Javoy M. (1995) GRL 22: 2219-2222. [2] Javoy M. et al. (2010) EPSL 293: 259-268. [3] Kaminski E. & Javoy M. (2013) EPSL 365: 97-107. [4] Jacobsen S.B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44: #2344. [5] Weisberg M.K. et al. (2011) GCA 75: 6556-6569. [6] Lehner S.W. et al. (2013) GCA 101: 34-56. [7] Simon S.B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44: #2270. [8] Lehner S.W. et al. (2012) LPSC 43: #2252. [9] Shahar A. et al. (2011) GCA 75: 7688-7697. [10] Kempl J. et al. (2013) EPSL 368: 61-68. [11] Fitoussi C. & Bourdon B. (2012) Science 335: 1477-1480. [12] Piani L. et al. (2013) MetSoc 76: # 5178.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012939','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012939"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal Stratigraphy of Two <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from Apollo 16: Unique Crystallization of Picritic <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> 606063,10-16 and Very-Low-Titanium <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> 65703,9-13</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Donohue, P. H.; Neal, C. R.; Stevens, R. E.; Zeigler, R. A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A geochemical survey of Apollo 16 regolith fragments found five <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> samples from among hundreds of 2-4 mm regolith fragments of the Apollo 16 site. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (65703,9-13). Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria (approx. 200 km). Identification of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> samples at the site not from the ancient regolith breccia indicates input of material via lateral transport by post-basin impacts. The presence of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocklets and glass at the site is not unprecedented and is required to satisfy mass-balance constraints of regolith compositions. However, preliminary characterization of olivine and plagioclase crystal size distributions indicated the sample textures were distinct from other known mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and instead had affinities to impact melt textures. Impact melt textures can appear qualitatively similar to pristine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and quantitative analysis is required to distinguish between the two in thin section. The crystal stratigraphy method is a powerful tool in studying of igneous systems, utilizing geochemical analyses across minerals and textural analyses of phases. In particular, trace element signatures can aid in determining the ultimate origin of these samples and variations document subtle changes occurring during their petrogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035661','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035661"><span id="translatedtitle">Landsliding in partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>[1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is <span class="hlt">saturated</span> and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016172&hterms=graphics+texture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgraphics%2Btexture','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016172&hterms=graphics+texture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgraphics%2Btexture"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Part 2: An open system model to explain the pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalt</span> compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Original petrogenetic models suggested that the pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were the evolved equivalents of the olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Rhodes et al. concluded that the olivine and pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were co-magmatic, but Neal et al. have demonstrated that these two <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> groups are distinct and unrelated. The pigeonite suite is comprised of porphyritic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with a fine-grained ground mass and range continuously to coarse-grained microgabbros with ophitic to graphic textures. Although it was generally recognized that the pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were derived from the olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by olivine + minor Cr-spinel fractionation, the compositional gap between these groups is difficult to reconcile with such a model. Indeed, Baldridge et al. concluded that these two <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> groups could not have been co-magmatic. In this paper, we suggest an open system AFC model for pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis. The assimilant is lunar anorthositic crust and the r value used is 0.6. While the choice of assimilant composition is difficult to constrain, the modeling demonstrates the feasibility of this model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016171&hterms=Clive+James&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DClive%2BJames','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016171&hterms=Clive+James&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DClive%2BJames"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Part 1: Multiple melts and fractional crystallization to explain olivine and ilmenite <span class="hlt">basalt</span> compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> returned by the Apollo 12 mission have been divided into 4 groups on the basis of mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry: olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>; pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span>; ilmenite <span class="hlt">basalts</span>; and feldspathic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. James and Wright and Rhodes et al. concluded that the olivine and pigeonite groups were co-magmatic and that the within group variations are due to fractional crystallization of olivine and minor Cr-spinel, with pigeonite replacing olivine in the pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Rhodes et al. concluded that the parental compositions for these suites were probably represented by the vitrophyres, and the olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are comprised essentially of cumulates and the pigeonites of evolved end-members. However, Neal et al. have demonstrated, using trace-element considerations, that the Apollo 12 olivine and pigeonite suites are not related. The ilmenite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were studied extensively by Dungan and Brown who noted that both cumulates and evolved fractionates were present within this group. In their modeling, Dungan and Brown used the vitrophyre compositions as parents. Neal et al. demonstrated that the feldspathic suite was probably comprised of only one member - 12038. Herein, the ilmenite and olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are demonstrated to be the products of several non-modal partial melting events of a single source followed by closed-system fractional crystallization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P12A..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P12A..08H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> caves at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve as analogs for Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hinman, N. W.; Richardson, C. D.; McHenry, L.; Scott, J. R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> minerals were not included as no iron was detected in solution. Results compared well with evaporation of solutions generated by simulating chemical weathering of minerals found in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>; this approach allowed iron minerals to precipitate during evaporation because minerals in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> contained iron. The minerals modeled upon evaporation included the minerals observed in the actual deposits - hematite, calcite, and quartz. Na-minerals neared <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in simulations but were normally not <span class="hlt">saturated</span>, leaving open the question of their origin. One possible explanation for the presence of Na-minerals could be seasonal ice formation in the caves followed by sublimation, leaving more concentrated solutions behind than were sampled here. A seasonal model for mineral deposition in caves could be relevant to deposits in martian caves. While the formation mechanism for the secondary minerals at COM is not completely understood, the presence of secondary minerals that harbor organic compounds in a cave environment that may be analogous to Mar has implications for where to search for signs of martian life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3657818','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3657818"><span id="translatedtitle">Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wetzel, Diane T.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Hauri, Erik H.; Saal, Alberto E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Degassing of planetary interiors through surface volcanism plays an important role in the evolution of planetary bodies and atmospheres. On Earth, carbon dioxide and water are the primary volatile species in magmas. However, little is known about the speciation and degassing of carbon in magmas formed on other planets (i.e., Moon, Mars, Mercury), where the mantle oxidation state [oxygen fugacity (fO2)] is different from that of the Earth. Using experiments on a lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0.55 relative to the iron wustite oxygen buffer (IW-0.55), whereas at a lower fO2, we discover that carbon is present mainly as iron pentacarbonyl and in smaller amounts as methane in the melt. The transition of carbon speciation in mantle-derived melts at fO2 less than IW-0.55 is associated with a decrease in carbon solubility by a factor of 2. Thus, the fO2 controls carbon speciation and solubility in mantle-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of reduced carbon from Fe-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on planetary bodies would produce methane-bearing, CO-rich early atmospheres with a strong greenhouse potential. PMID:23569260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005104','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005104"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Ishtar Terra a thickened <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arkani-Hamed, Jafar</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra and the surrounding tesserae are interpreted as compressional regions. The gravity and surface topography of western Ishtar Terra suggest a thick crust of 60-110 km that results from crustal thickening through tectonic processes. Underthrusting was proposed for the regions along Danu Montes and Itzpapalotl Tessera. Crustal thickening was suggested for the entire Ishtar Terra. In this study, three lithospheric models with total thicknesses of 40.75 and 120 km and initial crustal thicknesses of 3.9 and 18 km are examined. These models could be produced by partial melting and chemical differentiation in the upper mantle of a colder, an Earth-like, and a hotter Venus having temperatures of respectively 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C at the base of their thermal boundary layers associated with mantle convection. The effects of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-granulite-eclogite transformation (BGET) on the surface topography of a thickening <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust is investigated adopting the experimental phase diagram and density variations through the phase transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23569260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23569260"><span id="translatedtitle">Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wetzel, Diane T; Rutherford, Malcolm J; Jacobsen, Steven D; Hauri, Erik H; Saal, Alberto E</p> <p>2013-05-14</p> <p>Degassing of planetary interiors through surface volcanism plays an important role in the evolution of planetary bodies and atmospheres. On Earth, carbon dioxide and water are the primary volatile species in magmas. However, little is known about the speciation and degassing of carbon in magmas formed on other planets (i.e., Moon, Mars, Mercury), where the mantle oxidation state [oxygen fugacity (fO2)] is different from that of the Earth. Using experiments on a lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0.55 relative to the iron wustite oxygen buffer (IW-0.55), whereas at a lower fO2, we discover that carbon is present mainly as iron pentacarbonyl and in smaller amounts as methane in the melt. The transition of carbon speciation in mantle-derived melts at fO2 less than IW-0.55 is associated with a decrease in carbon solubility by a factor of 2. Thus, the fO2 controls carbon speciation and solubility in mantle-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of reduced carbon from Fe-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on planetary bodies would produce methane-bearing, CO-rich early atmospheres with a strong greenhouse potential. PMID:23569260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001453','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001453"><span id="translatedtitle">Emplacement of Columbia River flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reidel, Stephen P.)</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/304238','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/304238"><span id="translatedtitle">Emplacement of Columbia River flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reidel, S.P.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/935042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/935042"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> of CVD Diamond Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucile S. Dauffy; Richard A. Lerche; Greg J. Schmid; Jeffrey A. Koch; Christopher Silbernagel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A 5 x 0.25 mm Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond detector, with a voltage bias of + 250V, was excited by a 400 nm laser (3.1 eV photons) in order to study the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of the wafer and its surrounding electronics. In a first experiment, the laser beam energy was increased from a few tens of a pJ to about 100 µJ, and the signal from the diamond was recorded until full <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of the detection system was achieved. Clear <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of the detection system was observed at about 40 V, which corresponds with the expected <span class="hlt">saturation</span> at 10% of the applied bias (250V). The results indicate that the interaction mechanism of the 3.1 eV photons in the diamond (Ebandgap = 5.45 eV) is not a multi-photon process but is linked to the impurities and defects of the crystal. In a second experiment, the detector was irradiated by a <span class="hlt">saturating</span> first laser pulse and then by a delayed laser pulse of equal or smaller amplitude with delays of 5, 10, and 20 ns. The results suggest that the diamond and associated electronics recover within 10 to 20 ns after a strong <span class="hlt">saturating</span> pulse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.P33D..05L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.P33D..05L"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen Isotope Variations in Lunar Mare <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> through Fractional Crystallization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Spicuzza, M.; Day, J. M.; Valley, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, derived from partial melts from the lunar mantle, provide information on the early differentiation and evolution of the Moon. Highly precise and accurate oxygen isotope ratios were obtained on mg-size samples of low-Ti and high-Ti mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Apollo 11, 12, 15 and 17 missions. Low-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> studied include Apollo 12 pigeonite and ilmenite <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, Apollo 15 olivine- and quartz-norm <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. High-Ti mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> studied include seven chemical groups (Apollo 11 Types A, B1, B3, and Apollo 17 Types A, B1, B2 and C) largely defined on the basis of trace elements, indicative of different mantle sources. High-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> display significant variation in δ18O, correlating with major elements. Values of δ18O in these high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> increase by ~0.3‰ from Mg# = 53 to Mg# = 34, suggesting a fractional crystallization control. The variation within a given chemical group can be successfully modeled by mass-balance involving ~32% fractionation of olivine+ armalcolite + pyroxene + ilmenite+ plagioclase. This model demonstrates that high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with >12 wt% TiO2 and high Mg# are more primitive than those with 7-12 wt% TiO2. A weaker correlation of oxygen isotopes with major elements in low-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is also observed. From Mg# of 48 to 38, values of δ18O increase by up to 0.1‰, consistent with removal of a minor quantity of olivine. Low-Ti mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with the highest Mg# (55) have slightly lower 18O values than those with Mg# of 48, consistent with possible olivine accumulation. More primitive samples in low-Ti and high-Ti groups still display distinct δ18O values.18O versus major-element plots. This implies that low- and high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are derived from separate sources, each with homogeneous oxygen isotopic compositions. The hypothesis that high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were generated from the assimilation of ilmenite-bearing rocks by low-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is not supported by oxygen isotope compositions. The major-element and δ18O variations of low- and high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V23A..02Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V23A..02Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithium Isotope Systematics in Azores <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, H.; Widom, E.; Qiu, L.; Rudnick, R.; Gelinas, A.; Franca, Z.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from the Azores archipelago and MORB from the nearby Azores Platform exhibit extreme chemical and isotopic variations attributed to the influence of a heterogeneous mantle plume, with compositions ranging from depleted mantle (DMM) to strong HIMU, EMI and EMII signatures. In order to assess the utility of Li isotopes as a mantle source tracer and to better constrain the origin of heterogeneous mantle beneath the Azores, we have analyzed Li isotopes in a suite of young, fresh, MgO-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from São Miguel and three Central Group islands including Pico, Faial and Terceira. Despite large variations in radiogenic isotope signatures (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 19.3 to 20.1), δ7Li varies only slightly (3.1-4.7‰), and is within the range for global and North Atlantic MORB [1, 2]. More extreme δ7Li values such as those reported previously for some EMII, EMI and HIMU ocean island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (-17‰ to +10‰; [3-5]) were not observed. Nevertheless, <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Central Group islands with EMI-type signatures are, on average, slightly heavier in δ7Li than the São Miguel samples, and they exhibit positive correlations with 87Sr/86Sr and negative correlations with 206Pb/204Pb, Nd, and Hf isotopes. Li isotopes do not correlate with indices of fractionation such as MgO, suggesting that the δ7Li correlations with radiogenic isotopes may represent subtle variations in mantle source signatures. Positive and negative correlations of δ7Li with 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, and relatively unradiogenic Os (187Os/188Os = 0.1244-0.1269), may reflect old, slab-fluid metasomatized mantle beneath the Central Group islands. In contrast, δ7Li signatures in the São Miguel <span class="hlt">basalts</span> do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. Rather, δ7Li is essentially constant despite extremely high 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb and low ΔɛHf signatures that have been attributed to 3.5 Ga recycled E-MORB or evolved oceanic crust [6; 7]. This suggests either that the São Miguel source</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318450"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Oxidation Catalyzed by Human <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Quinone Oxidoreductase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mishanina, Tatiana V; Yadav, Pramod K; Ballou, David P; Banerjee, Ruma</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The first step in the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation pathway is catalyzed by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be -123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation. PMID:26318450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.V11D2794H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.V11D2794H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The geochemical characteristics of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and acidic volcanics around the Myojin depression in the Izu arc, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haraguchi, S.; Tamaki, K.; Kato, Y.; Machida, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Around the Myojin Depression, westside of the Myojin-sho caldera in the Izu arc, seamounts are circular distributed and hydrothermal activity with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposition are found from the Baiyonneise Caldera, one of seamounts at the northern side. Some knoll chains distribute in the eastside of the Myojin Depression, and connect between these knolls. This circulator distribution of seamounts and connected knoll chains considered to the dykes are similar to the geographical features of the Kuroko Depositions in the Hokuroku Region, Northwest Japan (Tanahashi et al., 2008). Hydrothermal activities are also found from the other rifts (Urabe and Kusakabe 1990). Based on these observations, the cruise KT09-12 by R/V Tansei-Maru, Ocean Research Institute (ORI), University of Tokyo, investigated in the Myojin Rift. During the cruise, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> to dacitic volcanic rocks and some acidic plutonic rocks were recovered by dredge system. Herein, we present petrographical and chemical analyses of these rock samples with sample dredged by the cruise MW9507 by R/V MOANA WAVE, and consider the association with hydrothermal activities and depositions. Dredges during the cruise KT09-12 were obtained at the Daini-Beiyonneise Knoll at the northern side, Daisan-Beiyonneise Knoll at the southern side, and the Dragonborn Hill, small knoll chains, at the southeastern side of the depression. Many volcanic rocks are <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and recovered mainly from the Dragonborn Hill. Andesite and dacite was recovered from the Daini- and the Daini-Bayonneise Knoll. Tonalites were recovered from the Daisan-Bayonneise Knoll. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from the Dragonborn Hill show less than 50% of SiO2 and more than 6 wt% and 0.88 wt% of MgO and TiO2 content. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from the rift zone show depleted in the volcanic front (VF) side and enriched in the reararc (RA) side. The Dragonborn Hill is distributed near the VF, and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> show depleted geochemical characteristics. However, these characteristics are different from the <span class="hlt">basalts</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5067396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5067396"><span id="translatedtitle">Space-time relations of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-sulfate-silica deposits at the northern Cleft Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koski, R.A.; Smith, V.K. ); Embley, R.W. ); Jonasson, I.R. ); Kadko, D.C. . Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science)</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>Submersible investigations along the northern Cleft Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicate that a newly erupted sheet flow and two recent megaplume events are spatially related to a NNE-trending fissure system that is now the locus for active hydrothermal venting and deposition of massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mounds and chimneys. Samples from active high-temperature vent sites located east and north of the sheet flow terrain include zoned Cu-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich chimneys (Type 1), bulbous anhydrite-rich chimneys (Type 2), and columnar Zn-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich chimneys (Type 3). Type 1 chimneys with large open channelways result from the focused discharge of fluid at temperatures between 310 and 328 C from the Monolith <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mound. Type 2 chimneys are constructed on the Monolith and Fountain mounds where discharge of fluid at temperatures between 293 and 315 C is diffuse and sluggish. Type 3 chimneys, characterized by twisting narrow channelways, are deposited from focused and relatively low-temperature fluid discharging directly from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> substrate. Inactive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chimneys (Type 4) located within 100 m of the fissure system have bulk compositions, mineral assemblages, colloform and bacteroidal textures, and oxygen isotope characteristics consistent with low-temperature (< 250 C ) deposition from less robust vents. Field relations and [sup 210]Pb ages (> 100 years) indicate that the Type 4 chimneys formed prior to the sheet flow eruption. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mounds and Type 1 and Type 2 chimneys at the Monolith and Fountain vents, however, are an expression of the same magmatic event that caused the sheet flow eruption and megaplume events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.534L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.534L"><span id="translatedtitle">Primordial Xenon in Allende <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, J. T.; Manuel, O. K.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>The Allende C3V carbonaceous chondrite incorporated isotopically anomalous components of several medium-heavy elements (Z=36-62) from nucleosynthesis [1]. Isotopically distinct Xe (Z=54) has been found in grains ranging from several _ to a few mm in size. Diamond [2] is the host of Xe that is enriched in isotopes produced by the very rapid p- and r-processes in a supernova explosion [3]. Silicon carbide [4] is the host of Xe that is enriched in the middle isotopes, 128-132Xe, produced by slow neutron capture [3] before a star reaches the supernova stage. The present study was undertaken to identify the isotopic composition of primitive Xe initially trapped in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> of the Allende meteorite. Two FeS mineral separates were analyzed by stepwise heating. One sample was first irradiated in a neutron flux to generate a tracer isotope, 131*Xe, by the 130Te(n, gamma beta-)131*Xe reaction. The release pattern of this tracer isotope, 131*Xe, closely paralleled the release of primordial 132Xe up to 950 degrees C, when the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melted and released the bulk of its trapped Xe (Figure 1). The Xe released from both samples at 950 deg C was terrestrial in isotopic composition, except for enrichments from spallogenic and radiogenic components (Figure 2). From the results of this and earlier analyses of Xe in meteoritic FeS [5, 6, 7], we conclude that terrestrial-type Xe was dominant in the central region of the protoplanetary nebula, and it remains a major component in the FeS of diverse meteorites and in the terrestrial planets that are rich in Fe, S [8]. References: [1] Begemann F. (1993) Origin and Evolution of the Elements (N. Prantzos et al., eds.), 518-527, Cambridge Univ. [2] Lewis R. S. and Anders E. (1988) LPS XIX, 679-680. [3] Burbidge et al. (1957) Rev. Modern Phys., 29, 547-650. [4] Tang M. and Anders E. (1988) GCA, 52, 1235-1244. [5] Niemeyer S. (1979) GCA, 43, 843-860. [6] Lewis et al. (1979) GCA, 43, 1743-1752. [7] Hwaung G. and Manuel O. K. (1982) Nature, 299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MinDe..49..381Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MinDe..49..381Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Re-Os isotope and platinum-group element geochemistry of the Pobei Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing mafic-ultramafic complex in the northeastern part of the Tarim Craton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Sheng-Hong; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Lightfoot, Peter C.; Xu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Christina Yan; Jiang, Chang-Yi; Qu, Wen-Jun</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A number of mafic-ultramafic intrusions that host Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization occur in the northeastern Tarim Craton and the eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NW China). The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-mineralized Pobei mafic-ultramafic complex is located in the northeastern part of the Tarim Craton. The complex is composed of gabbro and olivine gabbro, cut by dunite, wehrlite, and melatroctolite of the Poyi and Poshi intrusions. Disseminated Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization is present towards the base of the ultramafic bodies. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization is typically low grade (<0.5 wt.% Ni and <2 wt.% S) with low platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations (<24.5 ppb Pt and <69 ppb Pd); the abundance of Cu in 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is 1-8 wt.%, and Ni abundance in 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is typically >4 wt.%. Samples from the Pobei complex have ɛNd (at 280 Ma) values up to +8.1, consistent with the derivation of the magma from an asthenospheric mantle source. Fo 89.5 mol.% olivine from the ultramafic bodies is consistent with a primitive parental magma. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>-bearing dunite and wehrlite have high Cu/Pd ratios ranging from 24,000 to 218,000, indicating a magma that evolved under conditions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The grades of Ni, Cu, and PGE in 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> show a strong positive correlation. A model for these variations is proposed where the mantle source of the Pobei magma retained ~0.033 wt.% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during the production of a PGE-depleted parental magma. The parental magma migrated from the mantle to the crust and underwent further S <span class="hlt">saturation</span> to generate the observed mineralization along with its high Cu/Pd ratio at an R-factor varying from 100 to 1,200. The mineralization at Poshi and Poyi has very high γOs (at 280 Ma) values (+30 to +292) that are negatively correlated with the abundance of Os in 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (5.81-271 ppb) and positively correlated with the Re/Os ratios; this indicates that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> was triggered by the assimilation of crustal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with both high γOs and Re</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16375402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16375402"><span id="translatedtitle">Transferable potentials for phase equilibria. 8. United-atom description for thiols, <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, disulfides, and thiophene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lubna, Nusrat; Kamath, Ganesh; Potoff, Jeffrey J; Rai, Neeraj; Siepmann, J Ilja</p> <p>2005-12-22</p> <p>An extension of the transferable potentials for phase equilibria united-atom (TraPPE-UA) force field to thiol, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, and disulfide functionalities and thiophene is presented. In the TraPPE-UA force field, nonbonded interactions are governed by a Lennard-Jones plus fixed point charge functional form. Partial charges are determined through a CHELPG analysis of electrostatic potential energy surfaces derived from ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31g+(d,p) level. The Lennard-Jones well depth and size parameters for four new interaction sites, S (thiols), S(<span class="hlt">sulfides</span>), S(disulfides), and S(thiophene), were determined by fitting simulation data to pure-component vapor-equilibrium data for methanethiol, dimethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, dimethyl disulfide, and thiophene, respectively. Configurational-bias Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble combined with histogram-reweighting methods were used to calculate the vapor-liquid coexistence curves for methanethiol, ethanethiol, 2-methyl-1-propanethiol, 2-methyl-2-propanethiol, 2-butanethiol, pentanethiol, octanethiol, dimethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, diethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, ethylmethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, dimethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide, and thiophene. Excellent agreement with experiment is achieved, with unsigned errors of less than 1% for <span class="hlt">saturated</span> liquid densities and less than 3% for critical temperatures. The normal boiling points were predicted to within 1% of experiment in most cases, although for certain molecules (pentanethiol) deviations as large as 5% were found. Additional calculations were performed to determine the pressure-composition behavior of ethanethiol+n-butane at 373.15 K and the temperature-composition behavior of 1-propanethiol+n-hexane at 1.01 bar. In each case, a good reproduction of experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium separation factors is achieved; both of the coexistence curves are somewhat shifted because of overprediction of the pure-component vapor pressures. PMID:16375402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023387','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023387"><span id="translatedtitle">Density of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13J..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13J..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of microorganisms/<span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust interactions at hydrothermal vents and abyssal environments by an in situ experimental approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henri, P. A.; Rommevaux, C.; Menez, B.; Lesongeur, F.; Godfroy, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In the dark ocean, microbial communities must thrive on organic matter coming from the photic zone or on redox reaction through chemosynthesis. Chemosynthetic microorganisms need to couple oxidized compounds, which are abundant in seawater, to reduced compounds. Near ocean ridges, newly formed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is enriched in these compounds. Even if the bioavailability is weak in glassy <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, organisms can potentially alter the rock directly or indirectly by the use of these compounds (e.g. Fe2+, Mn2+) for their metabolisms. Moreover, the oceanic crust is highly hydrated by the oceanic circulation, and abiotic alteration, by hydration and redox reactions, contribute to make compounds bioavailable for organisms. To better discern abiotic and biotic implications and contribution in the early <span class="hlt">basalt</span> alteration, we conducted an in situ experiment. Microbial incubators and abiotic controls containing synthetic MORB glasses of various compositions have been deployed since 2006 off-axis and in the vicinity of various vents of the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (LS; 37°N-32°W, MAR) and recovered annually. This allows us to compare the biodiversity and the associated level of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> alteration, according to the duration of in situ incubation (from only few weeks to more than two years) and the environmental parameters (particularly the level of hydrothermal fluid influence). The nature and the level of the microbial colonization of each sample are explored by pyrosequencing targeting the 16S RNAr gene. In parallel, the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> alteration is characterized at the appropriate microscale using electronic, fluorescence and Raman microscopy/spectroscopy. These approaches allow to identify microbial species specifically associated with the alteration phases and to link alteration processes and microbial metabolisms and activity. We first evidence a close association between the different alteration phases at the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> surface, and the presence of microbial cells, in favor of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004AGUSMNS13A..01W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004AGUSMNS13A..01W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Microbe-Induced <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Precipitation Under Dynamic Flow Conditions Using Multiple Geophysical Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Banfield, J.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>A laboratory study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of using minimally invasive geophysical techniques to monitor microbe-induced <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation in <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sand-packed columns under dynamic flow conditions. Specifically, the effect of zinc and iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation on geophysical signatures was evaluated during stimulated sulfate-reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Four inoculated columns and one non-inoculated control were operated under a continuous upward flow velocity of 50cm/day with the following measurements made: multi-port fluid sampling, cross-column acoustic wave propagation, induced polarization, time domain reflectometry and <span class="hlt">saturated</span> hydraulic conductivity. Over a period of seven weeks, the onset and progression of sulfate reduction within the columns was confirmed through decreasing substrate and aqueous metals concentrations, increased biomass, and visible regions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> accumulation. Decreases in initial lactate and sulfate concentrations (2.8mM and 4.0mM, respectively) followed predicted stoichiometric relationships and soluble Zn(II) and Fe(II) concentrations (0.31mM and 0.36mM, respectively) were reduced to levels below detection through sequestration as insoluble <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases. The areas where <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation and accumulation occurred resulted in significant changes in two of the three geophysical measurements. High frequency (400-600kHz) acoustic wave amplitudes were reduced by nearly an order of magnitude over the course of the experiment with no significant accompanying change in wave velocity. Neither the wave amplitudes nor the velocities changed significantly in the downgradient portions of the column where microbial activity and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation were depressed due to depleted substrate and metals concentrations. The frequency content of the transmitted waves remained unchanged throughout the course of the experiment. Over the frequency range of the induced polarization measurements (0.1-1000Hz</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870046782&hterms=molar+calculations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmolar%2Bcalculations','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870046782&hterms=molar+calculations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmolar%2Bcalculations"><span id="translatedtitle">On the connection between mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and picritic volcanic glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Longhi, John</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The liquid lines of descent were calculated for low-pressure equilibrium and fractional crystallization of mare <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquids in order to examine the postulated link between picritic volcanic glasses and mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The models of Longhi (1977, 1982) were modified by including expressions for the armalcolite/ilmenite surface boundary and the Cr-spinel liquidus surface, average molar partition coefficients for armalcolite/liquid pairs, and new experimental data of Longhi and Pan (1987). The results indicate that, with two exceptions, mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and picritic volcanic glasses are not related by simple, linear-surface crystallization processes. However, the compositions of Luna 24 ferrobasalt and Apollo 11 high-K <span class="hlt">basalts</span> could be closely matched with the lines of liquid descent of certain green and orange picritic glasses, respectively. The calculations also show that the picritic magmas would have fractionated to produce <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with bulk and mineral compositions similar to those of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, supporting the hypothesis that mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have fractionated compositions and that the small number of observed linkages between <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and picritic parents is a consequence of limited sampling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5375875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5375875"><span id="translatedtitle">Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turner, D.A.</p> <p>1981-12-04</p> <p>This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described. (DMC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6227118','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6227118"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>/groundwater interactions on radionuclide migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vandegrift, G.F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The work presented here is a partial summary of the experimental results obtained in the Laboratory Analog Program. Two aspects of this effort are (1) the interaction between simulated <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> groundwater and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fissures that were either freshly cleaved or laboratory altered by hydrothermal treatment with the simulated groundwater and (2) the effect of this interaction on radionuclide migration through these <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fissures. The following conclusions of this study bear heavily on the predicted safety of a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> repository: Sorption properties of freshly fissured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and naturally aged <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are quite different for different chemical species. Analog experiments predict that aged <span class="hlt">basalt</span> would be an effective retarder of cesium, but would be much less so for actinide elements. Distribution ratios measured from batch experiments with finely ground rock samples (presenting unaltered rock surfaces) are not a reliable means of predicting radionuclide migration in geological repositories. As the near-repository area is resaturated by groundwater, its ability to retard actinide migration will be degraded with time. Disturbing the natural flow of groundwater through the repository area by constructing and backfilling the repository will modify the composition of groundwater. This modified groundwater is likely to interact with and to modify naturally aged <span class="hlt">basalt</span> surfaces downstream from the repository.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6495577','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6495577"><span id="translatedtitle">Germanium abundances in lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: Evidence of mantle metasomatism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dickinson, T.; Taylor, G.J.; Keil, T.K.; Bild, R.W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>To fill in gaps in the present Ge data base, mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were analyzed for Ge and other elements by RNAA and INAA. Mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Apollo 11, 12, 15, 17 landing sites are rather uniform in Ge abundance, but Apollo 14 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and KREEP are enriched in Ge by factors of up to 300 compared to typical mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. These Ge enrichments are not associated with other siderophile element enrichments and, thus, are not due to differences in the amount of metal segregated during core formation. Based on crystal-chemical and inter-element variations, it does not appear that the observed Ge enrichments are due to silicate liquid immiscibility. Elemental ratios in Apollo 14 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, green and orange glass, average <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and KREEP suggest that incorporation of late accreting material into the source regions or interaction of the magmas with primitive undifferentiated material is not a likely cause for the observed Ge enrichments. We speculate that the most plausible explanation for these Ge enrichments is complexing and concentration of Ge by F, Cl or S in volatile phases. In this manner, the KREEP <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source regions may have been metasomatized and Apollo 14 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magmas may have become enriched in Ge by interacting with these metasomatized areas. The presence of volatile- and Ge-rich regions in the Moon suggests that the Moon was never totally molten. 71 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012642','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012642"><span id="translatedtitle">Vesicularity of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> erupted at Reykjanes Ridge crest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duffield, W.A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Average vesicularity of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> drilled at three sites on the west flank of the Reykjanes Ridge increases with decreasing age. This change apparently records concomitant decrease in water depth at the ridge crest where the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was erupted and suggests substantial upward growth of the crest during the past 35 Myr. ?? 1978 Nature Publishing Group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178157','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178157"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural studies in limestone <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fenouil, L.A.; Lynn, S.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>This study investigates the <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of limestone at high temperatures (700--900{degree}C) as the first step in the design of a High-Temperature Coal-Gas Clean-Up system using millimeter-size limestone particles. Several workers have found that the rate of this reaction significantly decreases after an initial 10 to 15% conversion of CaCO{sub 3} to CaS. The present work attempts to explain this feature. It is first established that millimeter-size limestone particles do not sinter at temperatures up to the CaCO{sub 3} calcination point (899{degree}C at 1.03 bar CO{sub 2} partial pressure). It is then shown that CaS sinters rapidly at 750 to 900{degree}C if CO{sub 2} is present in the gas phase. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) data reveal that the CaS product layer sinters and forms a quasi-impermeable coating around the CaCO{sub 3} grains that greatly hinders more H{sub 2}S from reaching the still unreacted parts of the stone. Moreover, most of the pores initially present within the limestone structure begin to disappear or, at least, are significantly reduced in size. From then on, subsequent conversion is limited by diffusion of H{sub 2}S through the CaS layer, possibly by S{sup 2{minus}} ionic diffusion. The kinetics is then adequately described by a shrinking-core model, in which a sharp front of completely converted limestone is assumed to progress toward the center of the pellet. Finally, experimental evidence and computer simulations using simple sintering models suggest that the CaS sintering, responsible for the sharp decrease in the <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> rate, is surface-diffusion controlled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=50352&keyword=tanning+AND+plant&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76723435&CFTOKEN=52019558','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=50352&keyword=tanning+AND+plant&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76723435&CFTOKEN=52019558"><span id="translatedtitle">REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF <span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> FROM TANNERY WASTEWATER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recovery of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from tannery waste was accomplished through acidification with sulfuric acid in a closed system and removing hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> formed by blowing with air. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> was then absorbed in caustic solution to produce re-usable sodium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/sulfhydrate liquor for t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/270489','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/270489"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial control of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016RuCRv..85..731S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016RuCRv..85..731S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanostructured lead <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>: synthesis, structure and properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.; Rempel, A. A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The theoretical and experimental results of recent studies dealing with nanostructured lead <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> are summarized and analyzed. The key methods for the synthesis of nanostructured lead <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> are described. The crystal structure of PbS in nanopowders and nanofilms is discussed. The influence of the size of nanostructure elements on the optical and thermal properties of lead <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is considered. The dependence of the band gap of PbS on the nanoparticle (crystallite) size for powders and films is illustrated. The bibliography includes 222 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770743"><span id="translatedtitle">Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Steiger, Michael; Long, Jane C.S.; Wood, Tom; Jacobsen, Janet; Lore, Jason; Zawislanski, Peter T.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the <span class="hlt">saturation</span>-desaturation behavior of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> matrix occurs. Fractures that are <span class="hlt">saturated</span> early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060009026','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060009026"><span id="translatedtitle">Ibitira: A <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> achondrite from a distinct parent asteroid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mittlefehldt, David W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>I have done detailed petrologic study of Ibitira, nominally classified as a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eucrite. The Fe/Mn ratio of Ibitira pyroxenes with <10 mole % wollastonite component is 36.4 0.4, and is well-resolved from those of five <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eucrites studied for comparison; 31.2-32.2. Data for the latter completely overlap. Ibitira pyroxenes have lower Fe/Mg than the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eucrite pyroxenes. Thus, the higher Fe/Mn ratio does not reflect a simple difference in oxidation state. Ibitira also has an oxygen isotopic composition, alkali element contents and a Ti/Hf ratio that distinguish it from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eucrites. These differences support derivation from a distinct parent asteroid. Ibitira is the first recognized representative of the fifth known asteroidal <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840043296&hterms=Lutetium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLutetium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840043296&hterms=Lutetium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLutetium"><span id="translatedtitle">Lu-Hf constraints on the evolution of lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fujimaki, H.; Tatsumoto, M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>It is shown that a cumulate-remelting model best explains the recently acquired data on the Lu-Hf systematics of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The model is constructed using Lu and Hf concentration data and is strengthened by Hf isotopic evidence of Unruh et al. (1984). It is shown that the similarity in MgO/FeO ratios and Cr2O3 content in high-Ti and low-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are not important constraints on lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis. The model demonstrates that even the very low Ti or green glass samples are remelting products of a cumulate formed after at least 80-90 percent of the lunar magma ocean had solidified. In the model, all the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and green glasses were derived from 100-150 km depth in the lunar mantle. The Lu-Hf systematics of KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> clearly indicate that they would be the final residual liquid of the lunar magma ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010683','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010683"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, andesite, and dacite magmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hamilton, W.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalt</span> differs from tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17794034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17794034"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of High-Alumina <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>, Andesite, and Dacite Magmas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamilton, W</p> <p>1964-10-30</p> <p>The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalt</span> differs from tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it. PMID:17794034</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023145"><span id="translatedtitle">Use and Features of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Formations for Geologic Sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McGrail, B. Peter; Ho, Anita M.; Reidel, Steve P.; Schaef, Herbert T.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Extrusive lava flows of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are a potential host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and other large igneous provinces occur worldwide near population and power-producing centers and could securely sequester a significant fraction of global CO2 emissions. We describe the location, extent, and general physical and chemical characteristics of large igneous provinces that satisfy requirements as a good host medium for CO2 sequestration. Most lava flows have vesicular flow tops and bottoms as well as interflow zones that are porous and permeable and serve as regional aquifers. Additionally, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is iron-rich, and, under the proper conditions of groundwater pH, temperature, and pressure, injected CO2 will react with iron released from dissolution of primary minerals in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to form stable ferrous carbonate minerals. Conversion of CO2 gas into a solid form was confirmed in laboratory experiments with supercritical CO2 in contact with <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from Washington state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26672315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26672315"><span id="translatedtitle">[Determination of Total Iron and Fe2+ in <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jian-xun; Chen, Mei-rong; Jian, Zheng-guo; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhi-shen</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> is the raw material of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber. The content of FeO and Fe2O3 has a great impact on the properties of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibers. ICP-OES and dichromate method were used to test total Fe and Fe(2+) in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Suitable instrument parameters and analysis lines of Fe were chosen for ICP-OES. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ICP-OES is 2.2%, and the recovery is in the range of 98%~101%. The method shows simple, rapid and highly accurate for determination of total Fe and Fe(2+) in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The RSD of ICP-OES and dichromate method is 0.42% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26672315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010817','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010817"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Engel, A.E.J.; Engel, C.G.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>Studies of volcanic rocks in dredge hauls from the submerged parts of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggest that it consists largely of tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with low values of K, Ti, and P. In contrast, the volcanic islands which form the elevated caps on the Ridge are built of alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with high values of Ti, Fe3+, P, Na, and K. This distinct correlation between the form of the volcanic structures, elevation above the sea floor, and composition suggests that the islands of alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are derived from a parent tholeiitic magma by differentiation in shallow reservoirs. The volume of low-potassium tholeiites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and elsewhere in the oceans appears to be many times that of the alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> exposed on oceanic islands. Tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with about 0.2 K2O appear to be the primary and predominant magma erupted on the oceanic floor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.V43D2883S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.V43D2883S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Megacrystic Clinopyroxene <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> Sample A Deep Crustal Underplate To The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The alkaline and compositionally diverse (basanite to high-Si rhyolite) Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico comprises 4 regions that cover ~75 x 40 km2: (1) Mount Taylor, a large composite volcano and a surrounding field of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> vents; (2) Grants Ridge, constructed of topaz rhyolitic ignimbrite and coulees; (3) Mesa Chivato, a plateau of alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mugearitic to trachytic domes; and (4) the Rio Puero <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> necks. Distributed throughout its history (~3.6 to 1.26 Ma; Crumpler and Goff, 2012) and area (excepting Rio Puerco Necks) is a texturally distinct family of differentiated <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Mg# 43.2-53.4). These <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain resorbed and moth-eaten megacrysts (up to 2 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ±Ti-magnetite ±ilmenite ±rare orthopyroxene. Some megacrystic lava flows have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. For instance, gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form linear positive arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt%). The lowest Al clinopyroxenes are found in a gabbroic inclusion and are associated with partially melted intercumulus orthopyroxene. Megacrystic and gabbroic plagioclase (An 41-80) in 4 representative thin sections were analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by Laser Ablation ICP-MS. 87Sr/86Sr values for the suite range from 0.7036 to 0.7047. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, these megacrysts track the differentiation of an intrusive body (or related bodies) from alkaline to Si-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. The intrusive body likely underplates portions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas (Mount Taylor, Grants Ridge, Mesa Chivato). Although disequilibrium is implied by resorbed</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011MinDe..46..905B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011MinDe..46..905B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology, mineralogy, and sulfur isotope geochemistry of the Sargaz Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Badrzadeh, Zahra; Barrett, Timothy J.; Peter, Jan M.; Gimeno, Domingo; Sabzehei, Mossaieb; Aghazadeh, Mehraj</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Sargaz Cu-Zn massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit is situated in the southeastern part of Kerman Province, in the southern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone of Iran. The stratigraphic footwall of the Sargaz deposit is Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic (?) pillowed <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, whereas the stratigraphic hanging wall is andesite. Mafic volcanic rocks are overlain by andesitic volcaniclastics and volcanic breccias and locally by heterogeneous debris flows. Rhyodacitic flows and volcaniclastics overlie the sequence of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and andesitic rocks. Based on the bimodal nature of volcanism, the regional geologic setting and petrochemistry of the volcanic rocks, we suggest massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization in the Sargaz formed in a nascent ensialic back-arc basin. The current reserves (after ancient mining) of the Sargaz deposit are 3 Mt at 1.34% Cu, 0.38% Zn, 0.08%Pb, 0.24 g/t Au, and 7 g/t Ag. The structurally dismembered massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lens is zoned from a pyrite-rich base, to a pyrite ± chalcopyrite-rich central part, and a sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich upper part, with a sphalerite-rich zone lateral to the upper part. The main <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral is pyrite, with lesser chalcopyrite and sphalerite. The feeder zone, comprised of a vein stockwork consists of quartz-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-sericite pesudobreccia and, in the deepest part, chlorite-quartz-pyrite pesudobreccia. Footwall hydrothermal alteration extends at least 70-80 m below the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lens and more than a hundred meters along strike from the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> lens. Jasper and Fe-Mn bearing chert horizons lateral to the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit represent low-temperature hydrothermal precipitates of the evolving hydrothermal system. Based on mineral textures and paragenetic relationships, the growth history of the Sargaz deposit is complex and includes: (1) early precipitation of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (protore) on the seafloor as precipitation of fine-grained anhedral pyrite, sphalerite, quartz, and barite; (2) anhydrite precipitation in open spaces and mineral interstices</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008MinDe..43..849T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008MinDe..43..849T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of the Limahe mafic-ultramatic intrusion and associated Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores, SW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, Yan; Li, Chusi; Song, Xie-Yan; Ripley, Edward M.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The Limahe Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit is hosted by a small mafic-ultramafic intrusion (800 × 200 × 300 m) that is temporally associated with the voluminous Permian flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in SW China. The objective of this study is to better understand the origin of the deposit in the context of regional magmatism which is important for the ongoing mineral exploration in the region. The Limahe intrusion is a multiphase intrusion with an ultramafic unit at the base and a mafic unit at the top. The two rock units have intrusive contacts and exhibit similar mantle-normalized trace element patterns and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions but significantly different cumulus mineralogy and major element compositions. The similarities suggest that they are related to a common parental liquid, whereas the differences point to magma differentiation by olivine crystallization at depth. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> mineralization is restricted to the ultramafic unit. The abundances of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the ultramafic unit generally increase towards the basal contacts with sedimentary footwall. The δ 34S values of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals from the Limahe deposit are elevated, ranging from +2.4 to +5.4‰. These values suggest the involvement of external S with elevated δ 34S values. The mantle-normalized platinum-group element (PGE) patterns of bulk <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores are similar to those of picrites associated with flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the region. The abundances of PGE in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores, however, are significantly lower than that of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid expected to segregate from undepleted picrite magma. Cr-spinel and olivine are present in the Limahe ultramafic rocks as well as in the picrites. Mantle-normalized trace element patterns of the Limahe intrusion generally resemble those of the picrites. However, negative Nb-Ta anomalies, common features of contamination with the lower or middle crust, are present in the intrusion but absent in the picrites. Sr-Nd isotopes suggest that the Limahe intrusion experienced higher degrees of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OptSp.106..881S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OptSp.106..881S"><span id="translatedtitle">Slow light and <span class="hlt">saturable</span> absorption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selden, A. C.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Quantitative analysis of slow light experiments utilising coherent population oscillation (CPO) in a range of <span class="hlt">saturably</span> absorbing media, including ruby and alexandrite, Er3+:Y2SiO5, bacteriorhodopsin, semiconductor quantum devices and erbium-doped optical fibres, shows that the observations may be more simply interpreted as <span class="hlt">saturable</span> absorption phenomena. A basic two-level model of a <span class="hlt">saturable</span> absorber displays all the effects normally associated with slow light, namely phase shift and modulation gain of the transmitted signal, hole burning in the modulation frequency spectrum and power broadening of the spectral hole, each arising from the finite response time of the non-linear absorption. Only where hole-burning in the optical spectrum is observed (using independent pump and probe beams), or pulse delays exceeding the limits set by <span class="hlt">saturable</span> absorption are obtained, can reasonable confidence be placed in the observation of slow light in such experiments. Superluminal (“fast light”) phenomena in media with reverse <span class="hlt">saturable</span> absorption (RSA) may be similarly explained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRA..109.9203S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRA..109.9203S"><span id="translatedtitle">Transpolar potential <span class="hlt">saturation</span> models compared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siscoe, G.; Raeder, J.; Ridley, A. J.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>We compare four explanations of transpolar potential <span class="hlt">saturation</span>: (1) the magnetic field at the stagnation point weakens, thereby limiting magnetic reconnection; (2) a dimple develops at the stagnation point, which limits the inflow rate to the reconnection line; (3) the magnetopause becomes blunt and the bow shock recedes, thus giving more room for the solar wind to flow around the magnetosphere, thereby reducing the need for magnetic reconnection; (4) the region 1 current system usurps the Chapman-Ferraro current system and <span class="hlt">saturates</span> when the J × B force it generates balances solar wind ram pressure. The paper's point is that all four mechanisms involve a limit on the strength of the region 1 current system and that the criterion for the onset of transpolar potential <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in each mechanism is that the region 1 current system generates a magnetic field that is about as strong as the dipole field at the dayside magnetopause. This circumstance prevents tests to discriminate between the four mechanisms based on predictions that relate to their dependencies on the region 1 current system. The group as a whole, however, can be tested to see whether their common criterion that relates the onset of transpolar potential <span class="hlt">saturation</span> to the total current flowing in the region 1 system holds. The criterion can be formulated in terms of predictions that relate transpolar potential <span class="hlt">saturation</span> to the strength of the interplanetary electric field, solar wind ram pressure, and ionospheric conductance. Published data analyses and MHD simulations reasonably confirm these predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012001','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012001"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions, comet showers, and mass extinction events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A chronology of initiation dates of the major continental flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> episodes has been established from compilation of published K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> flows and related basic intrusions. The dating is therefore independent of the biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic time scales, and the estimated errors of the inititation dates are approximately + or - 4 pct. There are 11 distinct episodes of continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> known during the past 250 Myr. The data show that flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> episodes are generally relatively brief geologic events, with intermittent eruptions during peak output periods lasting ony 2 to 3 Myr or less. Statistical analyses suggest that these episodes may have occurred quasi-periodically with a mean cycle time of 32 + or - 1 Myr. The initiation dates of the flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are close to the estimated dates of marine mass extinctions and impact-crater clusters. Although a purely internal forcing might be argued for the flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism, quasi-periodic comet impacts may be the trigger for both the flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the extinctions. Impact cratering models suggest that large-body impactors lead to deep initial cratering, and therefore may cause mantle disturbances and initiate mantle plume activity. The flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> episodes commonly mark the initiation or jump of a mantle hotspot, and are often followed by continental rifting and separation. Evidence from dynamical studies of impacts, occurrences of craters and hotspots, and the geochemistry of boundary layers is synthesized to provide a possible model of impact-generated volcanism. Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions may themselves have severe effects on climate, and possibly on life. Impacts might, as a result, have led to mass extinctions through direct atmospheric disturbances, and/or indirectly through prolonged flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015CP....453....7L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015CP....453....7L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A computational study of adhesion between rubber and metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> at rubber-brass interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ling, Chian Ye; Hirvi, Janne T.; Suvanto, Mika; Bazhenov, Andrey S.; Ajoviita, Tommi; Markkula, Katriina; Pakkanen, Tapani A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Computational study at level of density functional theory has been carried out in order to investigate the adhesion between rubber and brass plated steel cord, which has high importance in tire manufacturing. Adsorption of natural rubber based adsorbate models has been studied on zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, ZnS(1 1 0), and copper <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, Cu2S(1 1 1) and CuS(0 0 1), surfaces as the corresponding phases are formed in adhesive interlayer during rubber vulcanization. <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> hydrocarbons exhibited weak interactions, whereas unsaturated hydrocarbons and sulfur-containing adsorbates interacted with the metal atoms of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> surfaces more strongly. Sulfur-containing adsorbates interacted with ZnS(1 1 0) surface stronger than unsaturated hydrocarbons, whereras both Cu2S(1 1 1) and CuS(0 0 1) surfaces showed opposite adsorption preference as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed stronger than sulfur-containing adsorbates. The different interaction strength order can play role in rubber-brass adhesion with different relative <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations. Moreover, Cu2S(1 1 1) surface exhibits higher adsorption energies than CuS(0 0 1) surface, possibly indicating dominant role of Cu2S in the adhesion between rubber and brass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5985627','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5985627"><span id="translatedtitle">Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kanagawa, T.; Mikami, E.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>Methanethiol, dimethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> per g (dry cell weight) per day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007554&hterms=Concrete+Compressive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DConcrete%2BCompressive','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007554&hterms=Concrete+Compressive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DConcrete%2BCompressive"><span id="translatedtitle">Cold press sintering of simulated lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Altemir, D. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In order to predict the conditions for which the lunar regolith may be adequately sintered, experiments were conducted in which samples of simulated lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (MLS-1) were pressed at high pressures and then heated in an electric furnace. This sintering process may be referred to as cold press sintering since the material is pressed at room temperature. Although test articles were produced which possessed compressive strengths comparable to that of terrestrial concrete, the cold press sintering process requires very high press pressures and sintering temperatures in order to achieve that strength. Additionally, the prospect of poor internal heat transfer adversely affecting the quality of sintered lunar material is a major concern. Therefore, it is concluded that cold press sintering will most likely be undesirable for the production of lunar construction materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100008444','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100008444"><span id="translatedtitle">Molybdenum Valence in <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Silicate Melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980007460','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980007460"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Weathering Kinetics of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fegley, Bruce, Jr.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project was to experimentally measure the kinetics for chemical weathering reactions involving <span class="hlt">basalt</span> on Venus. The thermochemical reactions being studied are important for the CO2 atmosphere-lithosphere cycle on Venus and for the atmosphere-surface reactions controlling the oxidation state of the surface of Venus. These reactions include the formation of carbonate and scapolite minerals, and the oxidation of Fe-bearing minerals. These experiments and calculations are important for interpreting results from the Pioneer Venus, Magellan, Galileo flyby, Venera, and Vega missions to Venus, for interpreting results from Earth-based telescopic observations, and for the design of new Discovery class (e.g., VESAT) and New Millennium missions to Venus such as geochemical landers making in situ elemental and mineralogical analyses, and orbiters, probes and balloons making spectroscopic observations of the sub-cloud atmosphere of Venus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MMTB...44..483T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MMTB...44..483T"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of Copper <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Artifacts During Electrolytic Dissolution of Steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Jia; Pistorius, P. Chris</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Based on equilibrium considerations, copper <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is not expected to form in manganese-containing steel, yet previous workers reported finding copper <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in transmission electron microscope samples which had been prepared by electropolishing. It is proposed that copper <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> can form during electrolytic dissolution because of the much greater stability of copper <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> relative to manganese <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in contact with an electrolyte containing copper and manganese cations. This mechanism has been demonstrated with aluminum-killed steel samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeCoA..67..185K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeCoA..67..185K"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotope geochemistry of caliche developed on <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knauth, L. Paul; Brilli, Mauro; Klonowski, Stan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Enormous variations in oxygen and carbon isotopes occur in caliche developed on < 3 Ma <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in 3 volcanic fields in Arizona, significantly extending the range of δ 18O and δ 13C observed in terrestrial caliche. Within each volcanic field, δ 18O is broadly co-variant with δ 13C and increases as δ 13C increases. The most 18O and 13C enriched samples are for subaerial calcite developed on pinnacles, knobs, and flow lobes that protrude above tephra and soil. The most 18O and 13C depleted samples are for pedogenic carbonate developed in soil atmospheres. The pedogenic caliche has δ 18O fixed by normal precipitation in local meteoric waters at ambient temperatures and has low δ 13C characteristic of microbial soil CO 2. Subaerial caliche has formed from 18O-rich evapoconcentrated meteoric waters that dried out on surfaces after local rains. The associated 13C enrichment is due either to removal of 12C by photosynthesizers in the evaporating drops or to kinetic isotope effects associated with evaporation. Caliche on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lava flows thus initially forms with the isotopic signature of evaporation and is subsequently over-layered during burial by calcite carrying the isotopic signature of the soil environment. The large change in carbon isotope composition in subsequent soil calcite defines an isotopic biosignature that should have developed in martian examples if Mars had a "warm, wet" early period and photosynthesizing microbes were present in the early soils. The approach can be similarly applied to terrestrial Precambrian paleocaliche in the search for the earliest record of life on land. Large variations reported for δ 18O of carbonate in Martian meteorite ALH84001 do not necessarily require high temperatures, playa lakes, or flood runoff if the carbonate is an example of altered martian caliche.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V13C2614D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V13C2614D"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Mapping of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Flows: Implications for Petrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T. L.; Champion, D. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> lava flows can display a variety of compositional signatures that hold clues to P, T, and composition of the mantle from which they originated. Compositional variation within <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows records individual histories of mantle and crustal processes. At the Cascades rear-arc Newberry and Medicine Lake volcanoes, detailed geologic mapping of compositionally-zoned <span class="hlt">basalts</span> indicates clearly that "drive-through" sampling of such lava flows would fail to capture the full geochemical story. For these flows, the internal stratigraphy captures the eruptive sequence that took place as the magma reservoir was tapped. Given a range of composition, or exposures of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> that have different compositions, how does one know whether different eruptions have occurred, or whether a single compositionally-zoned eruption took place? Geologic mapping today goes well beyond traditional approaches using petrography and morphology. In addition to those basic tools, iterative use of multiple chemical analyses and, most critically, paleomagnetic sampling are essential to identifying individual <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptive events. At Medicine Lake volcano in N. CA, 4 compositionally-zoned <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows have been documented (see Donnelly-Nolan, 2011, USGS map SIM 2927): (1) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Black Crater and Ross Chimneys; this very small eruptive event produced 0.001 km3 of lava that covers 0.4 km2. SiO2 content increased from 48.3 to 50.6% as the eruption progressed; composition also correlates with latitude; (2) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Giant Crater, 200-sq-km postglacial <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> that is characterized by strong variation in a variety of elements (e.g. 47.7-53.2% SiO2, 0.07-1.1% K2O) [Baker et al. 1991 JGR; Donnelly-Nolan et al. 1991 JGR]; (3) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Mammoth Crater, 250-sq-km <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> also having strong SiO2 variation (48.2-56.0%), but in addition a lobe enriched in FeO and TiO2; (4) 300-sq-km <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Yellowjacket Butte displays limited SiO2 variation, but linear variation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MinDe..50...65M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MinDe..50...65M"><span id="translatedtitle">A modified genetic model for the Huangshandong magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Xinjiang, western China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Chusi; Tang, Dong-Mei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p> platinum-group elements (PGE) tenors of disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores in the dyke (phase III) and the ultramafic sheet (phase II) are remarkably similar. These observations, together with the sequence of magma emplacement, suggest that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids entrapped in the magma of the dyke formed at depth by a previous pulse of more primitive magma. The estimated parental magma for the most primitive lherzolites in the Huangshandong intrusion contains 10 wt% MgO. Modeling shows that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in the parental magma of the Huangshandong lherzolites could have resulted from fractional crystallization. Significant PGE depletions relative to Ni and Cu in the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores of the Huangshandong deposit may be due to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> retention in the source mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNS42A..03V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNS42A..03V"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> electrical resistivity under deep oceanic crustal conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Violay, M. E.; Gibert, B.; Azais, P.; Pezard, P. A.; Flovenz, O. G.; Asmundsson, R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>For sixty years, electrical resistivity soundings have been used to explore geothermal resources in Iceland. They have generally revealed two zones of high electrical conductivity, one at shallow depths (Flovenz et al., 1985) and another at 10-30 km depth (Beblo and Björnsson, 1978). The interpretation of these conductive zones in terms of composition and in-situ physical conditions is often ambiguous, as various parameters can explain these observations like temperature, partial melting, change in minerals and type of pore fluid. Accurate interpretations of resistivity data needed for geothermal exploration require laboratory measurements of electrical conductivities performed on rock samples at different conditions. We present here a method to measure electrical conductivity of rocks under deep crustal conditions for oceanic crustal rock, i.e. at temperatures up to 600°C, confining pressures up to 200 MPa and pore fluid pressures up to 50 MPa. The method has been developed in a internally heated, gas pressure apparatus (Paterson press). Electrical conductivity is measured on large cylindrical samples (15 to 22 mm in diameter and 10 to 15 mm in length) in a two parallel electrodes geometry. Such experiments require that the fluid <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sample is sleeved in an impermeable and deformable jacket serving to separate the confining pressure medium (high pressure argon) from the pore fluid <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sample. At temperature above 200°C a metal sleeve must be used, although it induces high leakage currents that could affect electrical measurements. The leakage currents are reduced using addition of 2 guard-ring parallel electrodes (Glover, 1995). The electrical impedance of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> has been measured over a frequency range from 10 -1 to 106 Hertz. Five different types of low porosity <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were selected to cover a range in alteration grade, from albitic to granulite facies. Application of this method will provide data on electrical conductivity of fresh and altered</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aeration&id=EJ198607','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aeration&id=EJ198607"><span id="translatedtitle">Ridding Groundwater of Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>. Part 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lochrane, Thomas G.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This article is the first in a series reviewing the problems associated with hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in drinking water sources. Discussion centers on identification of a cost-effective balance between aeration and chlorination treatment operations. (AS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......312D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......312D"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin and evolution of high-titanium mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donohue, Patrick H.</p> <p></p> <p>The Moon is the sole known locality of exposed high-titanium (high-Ti) <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the solar system, but their occurrence has implications for the early evolution of the terrestrial planets. High-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> derive from partial melts of cumulates in the lunar upper mantle. The ilmenite, clinopyroxene, and olivine cumulates from which these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> form are late-stage products of crystallization of the lunar magma ocean, a planetary-scale melting event that also likely occurred early on in the evolution of Venus, Mercury, the Earth and Mars. Fortunately, despite the ancient nature of mare volcanism, pristine high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are preserved on the relatively inert lunar surface, and the lunar sample collection contains abundant high-Ti <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> material. Crystals are quantifiable components of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> system, and are a record of the compositional and temporal history of magmatic evolution. Complementary techniques of textural and in-situ trace element geochemical analyses comprise the crystal stratigraphy method used to investigate this history. I use crystal size distributions and spatial distribution profiles to identify crystal populations and quantitatively evaluate rock textures. I use EPMA and LA-ICP-MS analysis of major crystallizing phases to identify processes affecting evolving magmas. I first show that LA-ICP-MS can determine accurate and precise trace elements for ilmenite, which is a major crystallizing phase in high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The Taurus-Littrow Valley on the Moon contains high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from multiple distinct magmatic source regions. I propose multiple flow events of some regions were sampled during the Apollo missions, and magma partially crystallized for short residence times at shallow depths. Textural characterization of a high-Ti olivine cumulate shows no other samples experienced crystal accumulation. Finally, I investigate two rocklets found in the lunar highlands that were recently classified as <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. I confirm their <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> nature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238796','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238796"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> and pulsed FEL dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giannessi, L.; Mezi, L.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The behavior of a FEL operating in the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> pulsed regime, may be reproduced by the linear FEL integral equation, suitably modified to include <span class="hlt">saturation</span> effects through a gain depression coefficient depending on the laser intensity. This simple method allows to evaluate several FEL parameters like gain, efficiency, band-width and optical pulse duration as functions of the optical cavity length, only with a numerical integration. The predictions have been compared with available experimental and numerical data, and the method has been applied to estimate the operating characteristics of some planned FEL experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310240','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310240"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory studies of Aedes aegypti (L.) attraction to ketones, <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and primary chloroalkanes tested alone and in combination with l-lactic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The attraction of female Aedes aegypti to single compounds and binary compositions comprised of L-lactic acid and an additional <span class="hlt">saturated</span> compound from a set of ketones, <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, and chloroalkanes was studied using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. These chemical classes were studied because o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6229306','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6229306"><span id="translatedtitle">Photooxidation of methyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, ethyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, and methanethiol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grosjean, D.</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>Products of sunlight-irradiated mixtures of oxides of nitrogen and alkyl <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (RSR, R = CH/sub 3/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) and methanethiol (CH/sub 3/SH) in air include formaldehyde (R = CH/sub 3/), acetaldehyde and PAN (R = C/sub 2/H/sub 5/), sulfur dioxide, and alkyl nitrates (RONO/sub 2/) as well as particulate alkanesulfonic acids (RSO/sub 2/OH) and inorganic sulfate. The nature and yields of gaseous and particulate products are discussed in terms of OH-initiated reaction pathways, including C-S bond scission, and subsequent reactions of alkythiyl radicals (RS), including those leading to photolabile RSNO and stable RSNO/sub 2/ products for which indirect evidence is presented. SO/sub 2/ yields are found to vary according to the relative importance of the competing pathways RS + O/sub 2/ (a) and RS + NO/sub 2/ (b), for which a ratio k/sub b/ / k/sub a/ approx. 2 x 10/sup 6/ is derived from data for irradiated RSR-NO/sub x/, RSH-Cl/sub 2/, and RSH-Cl/sub 2/-NO/sub 2/ mixtures.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069717&hterms=Molybdenum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DMolybdenum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069717&hterms=Molybdenum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DMolybdenum"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper critical field of copper molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The upper critical field of sintered and sputtered copper molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> Cu(x)Mo6S8 was measured and found to exceed the Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (1966) value for a type II superconductor characterized by dirty limit, weak isotropic electron phonon coupling, and no paramagnetic limiting. It is suggested that the enhancement results from anisotropy or clean limit or both. Other ternary molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> appear to show similar anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=239045','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=239045"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Nitrate on Biogenic <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jenneman, Gary E.; McInerney, M. J.; Knapp, Roy M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The addition of 59 mM nitrate inhibited biogenic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production in dilute sewage sludge (10% [vol/vol]) amended with 20 mM sulfate and either acetate, glucose, or hydrogen as electron donors. Similar results were found when pond sediment or oil field brines served as the inoculum. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> production was inhibited for periods of at least 6 months and was accompanied by the oxidation of resazurin from its colorless reduced state to its pink oxidized state. Lower amounts of nitrate (6 or 20 mM) and increased amounts of sewage sludge resulted in only transient inhibition of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production. The addition of 156 mM sulfate to bottles with 59 mM nitrate and 10% (vol/vol) sewage sludge or pond sediment resulted in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production. Nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide were detected during periods where <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production was inhibited, whereas nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide were below detectable levels at the time <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production began. The oxidation of resazurin was attributed to an increase in nitrous oxide which persisted in concentration of about 1.0 mM for up to 5 months. The numbers of sulfate-reducing organisms decreased from 106 CFU ml−1 sludge to less than detectable levels after prolonged incubation of oxidized bottles. The addition of 10 mM glucose to oxidized bottles after 14.5 weeks of incubation resulted in rereduction of the resazurin and subsequent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production. The prolonged inhibition of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production was attributed to an increase in oxidation-reduction potential due to biogenic production of nitrous oxide, which appeared to have a cytotoxic effect on sulfate-reducing populations. PMID:16347078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042561','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042561"><span id="translatedtitle">The Search for Interstellar <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Grains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, Lindsay P.; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The lifecycle of sulfur in the galaxy is poorly understood. Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> grains are abundant in early solar system materials (e.g. meteorites and comets) and S is highly depleted from the gas phase in cold, dense molecular cloud environments. In stark contrast, sulfur is essentially undepleted from the gas phase in the diffuse interstellar medium, indicating that little sulfur is incorporated into solid grains in this environment. It is widely believed that sulfur is not a component of interstellar dust grains. This is a rather puzzling observation unless Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are not produced in significant quantities in stellar outflows, or their lifetime in the ISM is very short due to rapid destruction. Fe <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> grains are ubiquitous in cometary samples where they are the dominant host of sulfur. The Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (primarily pyrrhotite; Fe(1-x)S) are common, both as discrete 0.5-10 micron-sized grains and as fine (5-10 nm) nanophase inclusions within amorphous silicate grains. Cometary dust particles contain high abundances of well-preserved presolar silicates and organic matter and we have suggested that they should contain presolar <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> as well. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of abundant Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfides</span> grains in dust around pre- and post-main sequence stars inferred from astronomical spectra showing a broad 23 micron IR feature due to FeS. Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> grains also occur as inclusions in bona fide circumstellar amorphous silicate grains and as inclusions within deuterium-rich organic matter in cometary dust samples. Our irradiation experiments show that FeS is far more resistant to radiation damage than silicates. Consequently, we expect that Fe <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> stardust should be as abundant as silicate stardust in solar system materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6530205','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6530205"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalytic dehydroxylation of phenols. [Metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pieters, W.J.M.</p> <p>1984-05-29</p> <p>Phenolic compounds are dehydroxylated in the vapor phase by contacting with a reducing atmosphere substantially comprising hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as the reducing agent in the presence of a sulfur-tolerant metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> catalyst. The additional presence of hydrogen gas helps to desulfurize the catalyst and maintain catalytic activity. The process is useful in the treatment of phenolic naphtha fractions present in coal liquids, produced by pyrolysis or direct coal liquefaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V21A3015Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V21A3015Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemistry, Petrology, and Provenance of Magnetite-Rich Ortaklar Cu Deposit Hosting <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from Koçali Complex, Gaziantep, Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yun, E.; Lee, I.; Kang, J.; Dönmez, C.; Yildirim, N.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Magnetite-rich Cyprus type VMS deposit has been recently discovered from the Ortaklar-Gaziantep region within Koçali complex, SE Turkey. Magnetite rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore bodies are in close contact with underlying footwall spilitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. These <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are part of Koçali mélange, which represents an accreted oceanic complex during closing of southern Neotethys. These extrusives are low-K, low alkali tholeiites with Ca rich, partially sericitized plagioclase subophitically enclosed by augite with disseminated Fe-Ti oxides and pyrite. Mineral crystallization sequence of plagioclase followed by augite and opaque is typical of MORB. Major and trace element analyses for least altered <span class="hlt">basalts</span> based on LOI (1.5~3.6 wt%), Ce/Ce* (0.9~1.1) exhibit limited range of element abundances. Low Mg# (59~60) suggests that <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were derived from moderately evolved magma with fractional crystallization. HFSE (Th, Nb, Hf, Zr) were used for tectonic discrimination and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were plotted within MORB end spectrum, near MORB-IAT boundary. N-MORB normalized La to Lu ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 times N-MORB with LREE depletion [(La/Sm)N = 0.58~0.67] and flat HREE [(Tb/Lu)N = 0.95~1.05]. Chondrite normalized REE patterns resemble those of N-MORB but characterized by severe LREE depletion [(La/Sm)CN = 0.35~0.45]. LREE depletion coupled with high Sm/Nd (0.36~0.43), high CaO/Na2O (5.0~6.2) and low Nb/Yb (0.23~0.39) suggest depleted N-MORB composition derived from the refractory mantle source. Analyzed <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are similar to those found from other rift (Costa Rica Rift Hole 504b) and intra-transform fault (Siqueiros transform). Magnetite emplacement occurring close to the ore-host boundary and lack of pyrrhotite from hosting <span class="hlt">basalts</span> imply an involvement of oxidized hydrothermal fluids. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> probably have formed by late stage, partial melting of the refractory mantle at low pressure, shallow depth, and H2O rich environment. Possible source of mantle heterogeneity can be identified by isotope</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011785','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011785"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrologic models of 15388, a unique Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hughes, S. S.; Dasch, E. J.; Nyquist, L. E.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15388, a feldspathic microgabbro from the Apennine Front, is chemically and petrographically distinct from Apollo 15 picritic, olivine-normative (ON), and quartz-normative <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The evolved chemistry, coarse texture, lack of olivine, and occurrence of cristobalite in 15388 argue for derivation by a late-stage magmatic process that is significantly removed from parental magma. It either crystallized from a magma evolved from the more mafic Apollo 15 <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, or it crystallized from a currently unrepresented magma. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics yield isochron ages of 3.391 plus or minus 0.036 and 3.42 plus or minus 0.07 Ga, respectively, and epsilon(sub Nd) = 8.6 plus or minus 2.4, which is relatively high for Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. In contrast to chemical patterns of average Apollo 15 ON <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and Apollo 15 picritic <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, 15388 has a strongly positive LREE slope, high Ti, shallower HREE slope and a slightly positive Eu anomaly. These features argue against 15388 evolution by simple olivine fractionation of a parental ON or picritic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma, although olivine is a dominant liquidus phase in both potential parents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17803778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17803778"><span id="translatedtitle">The phylogeny of endolithic microbes associated with marine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mason, Olivia U; Stingl, Ulrich; Wilhelm, Larry J; Moeseneder, Markus M; Di Meo-Savoie, Carol A; Fisk, Martin R; Giovannoni, Stephen J</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>We examined the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities associated with marine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, using over 300 publicly available 16S rDNA sequences and new sequence data from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> enrichment cultures. Phylogenetic analysis provided support for 11 monophyletic clades originating from ocean crust (sediment, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and gabbro). Seven of the ocean crust clades (OCC) are bacterial, while the remaining four OCC are in the Marine Group I (MGI) Crenarchaeota. Most of the OCC were found at diverse geographic sites, suggesting that these microorganisms have cosmopolitan distributions. One OCC in the Crenarchaeota consisted of sequences derived entirely from <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The remaining OCC were found in both <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and sediments. The MGI Crenarchaeota were observed in all studies where archaeal diversity was evaluated. These results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are occupied by cosmopolitan clades of microorganisms that are also found in marine sediments but are distinct from microorganisms found in other marine habitats, and that one OCC in the ubiquitous MGI Crenarchaeota clade may be an ecotype specifically adapted to <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. PMID:17803778</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V41C3087B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V41C3087B"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep degassing and the eruptibility of flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Black, B. A.; Manga, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Individual flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lavas often exceed 103 km3 in volume, and many such lavas erupt during emplacement of flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> provinces. The large volume of individual flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lavas demands correspondingly large magma reservoirs within or at the base of the crust. To erupt, some fraction of this magma must become buoyant and overpressure must be sufficient to encourage failure and dike propagation. Because the overpressure associated with a new injection of magma is inversely proportional to the total reservoir volume, buoyancy overpressure has been proposed as a trigger for flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions. To test this hypothesis, we develop a new one-dimensional model for buoyancy overpressure-driven eruptions that combines volatile exsolution, bubble growth and rise, assimilation, and permeable fluid escape through the surrounding country rocks. Degassing during emplacement of flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> provinces may have major environmental repercussions. We investigate the temporal evolution of permeable degassing through the crust and degassing during eruptive episodes. We find that assimilation of volatile-rich country rocks strongly enhances flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptibility, implying that the eruptive dynamics of flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> may be intertwined with their climatic consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.3535C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.3535C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion activity products of iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in groundwaters: Implications from the Choshui fan-delta, Western Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Wen-Fu; Liu, Tsung-Kwei</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Precipitation of iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> is an important process in groundwater geochemistry because it reduces iron mobility in anaerobic aquifers. Iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> occur in various allotropic forms such as amorphous FeS and pyrite, and their solubility products differ up to 13 orders of magnitude. However, few data for ion activity products (IAP) of iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> defined by the equation: H + + FeS (S) = Fe 2+ + HS - in groundwater have been reported in the literature. We computed IAP values of iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> for 46 groundwater samples from the Choshui fan-delta of Taiwan and 65 samples from other areas of the world. The mean of -log(IAP) values obtained for the 46 samples is 3.07 ± 0.34 (1σ), which is consistent with the solubility constant 3.00 ± 0.12 ( Davison et al., 1999) of amorphous FeS, implying that the anaerobic aquifers in the Choshui fan-delta are still undergoing active sulfate-reduction processes and keeping the groundwater <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with amorphous FeS. We suggest that the -logKsp value 3.91 of amorphous FeS adopted in the databases for WATEQF and PHREEQC computer programs ought to be revised to 3.00. Otherwise, the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> indices (SI) calculated by the two computer programs will be an order of magnitude too high.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040075002','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040075002"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrogenesis of Mare <span class="hlt">Basalts</span>, Mg-Rich Suites and SNC Parent Magmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hess, Paul C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The successful models for the internal evolution of the Moon must consider the volume, distribution, timing, composition and, ultimately, the petrogenesis of mare <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism. Indeed, given the paucity of geophysical data, the internal state of the Moon in the past can be gleaned only be unraveling the petrogenesis of the various igneous products on the Moon and, particularly, the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. most useful in constraining the depth and composition of their source region [Delano, 1980] despite having undergone a certain degree of shallow level olivine crystallization.The bulk of the lunar volcanic glass suite can be modeled as the partial melting products of an olivine + orthopyroxene source region deep within the lunar mantle. Ti02 contents vary from 0.2 wt % -1 7.0wt [Shearer and Papike, 1993]. Values that extreme would seem to require a Ti- bearing phase such as ilmenite in the source of the high-Ti (but not in the VLT source) because a source region of primitive LMO olivine and orthopyroxene, even when melted in small degrees cannot account for the observed range of Ti02 compositions. The picritic glasses are undersaturated with respect to ilmenite at all pressures investigated therefore ilmenite must have been consumed during melting, leaving an ilmenite free residue and an undersaturated melt [Delano, 1980, Longhi, 1992, Elkins et al, 2000 among others]. Multi- <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressures for the glasses potentially represent the last depths at which the liquids equilibrated with a harzburgite residue before ascending to the surface. These occur at great depths within the lunar mantle. Because the liquids have suffered some amount of crystal fractionation, this is at best a minimum depth. If the melts are mixtures, then it is only an average depth of melting. Multisaturation, nevertheless, is still a strong constraint on source mineralogy, revealing that the generation of the lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> was dominated by melting of olivine and orthopyroxene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/837234','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/837234"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating infiltration tests in fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> at the Box Canyon Site, Idaho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Unger, Andre J.A.; Faybishenko, Boris; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Simmons, Ardyth M.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The results of a series of ponded infiltration tests in variably <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> at Box Canyon, Idaho, were used to build confidence in conceptual and numerical modeling approaches used to simulate infiltration in fractured rock. Specifically, we constructed a dual-permeability model using TOUGH2 to represent both the matrix and fracture continua of the upper <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow at the Box Canyon site. A consistent set of hydrogeological parameters was obtained by calibrating the model to infiltration front arrival times in the fracture continuum as inferred from bromide samples collected from fracture/borehole intersections observed during the infiltrating tests. These parameters included the permeability of the fracture and matrix continua, the interfacial area between the fracture and matrix continua, and the porosity of the fracture continuum. To calibrate the model, we multiplied the fracture-matrix interfacial area by a factor between 0.1 and 0.01 to reduce imbibition of water from the fracture continuum into the matrix continuum during the infiltration tests. Furthermore, the porosity of the fracture continuum, as calculated using the fracture aperture inferred from pneumatic-test permeabilities, was increased by a factor of 50 yielding porosity values for the upper <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow in the range of 0.01 to 0.02. The fracture-continuum porosity was a highly sensitive parameter controlling the arrival times of the simulated infiltration fronts. Porosity values are consistent with those determined during the Large-Scale Aquifer Pumping and Infiltration Test at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6451790','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6451790"><span id="translatedtitle">Geological perspectives of metalliferous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>: offshore exploration in the Gorda Ridge area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beauchamp, R.G.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>The Gorda Ridge is a submarine mountain range located between 86 nautical miles (160km) and 178 nautical miles (330km) off the coasts of northern California and Oregon. Preliminary results from recent investigations of samples from the Ridge suggest both low and high temperature hydrothermal activity. Sea Marc II (Sea Mapping and Remote Characterization) maps of the Gorda Ridge assist in the identification of the central rift valley, seamounts, continuous and discontinuous ridges, and ridge offsets. Volcanic samples dredged from the Gorda Ridge contain traces of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals (e.g., pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite). Fresh volcanic glass occurred in most of the dredge samples. Other samples showed evidence of hydrothermal activity including the occurrence of geothite and nontronite. Manganese minerals todorokite and birnessite occur as encrustations over <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Abundant worm tubes were found in association with nontronite. Agglutinated benthic foramifera, some with tests constructed of volcanic glass, are abundant and found in a majority of dredge hauls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1057951','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1057951"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbiological Leaching of Metallic <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Razzell, W. E.; Trussell, P. C.</p> <p>1963-01-01</p> <p>The percentage of chalcopyrite leached in percolators by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was dependent on the surface area of the ore but not on the amount. Typical examples of ore leaching, which demonstrate the role of the bacteria, are presented. In stationary fermentations, changes in KH2PO4 concentration above or below 0.1% decreased copper leaching as did reduction in the MgSO4·7H2O and increase in the (NH4)2SO4 concentration. Bacterial leaching of chalcopyrite was more effective than nonbiological leaching with ferric sulfate; ferric sulfate appeared to retard biological leaching, but this effect was likely caused by formation of an insoluble copper-iron complex. Ferrous sulfate and sodium chloride singly accentuated both bacterial and nonbiological leaching of chalcocite but jointly depressed bacterial action. Sodium chloride appeared to block bacterial iron oxidation without interfering with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation. Bacterial leaching of millerite, bornite, and chalcocite was greatest at pH 2.5. The economics of leaching a number of British Columbia ore bodies was discussed. PMID:16349627</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2965526','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2965526"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> as a Gasotransmitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gadalla, Moataz M.; Snyder, Solomon H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are well established as messenger molecules throughout the body, gasotransmitters, based on striking alterations in mice lacking the appropriate biosynthetic enzymes. Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) is even more chemically reactive, but till recently there was little definitive evidence for its physiologic formation. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, EC 4.2.1.22), and Cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE; EC 4.4.1.1), also known as cytathionase, can generate H2S from cyst(e)ine. Very recent studies with mice lacking these enzymes have established that CSE is responsible for H2S formation in the periphery, while in the brain CBS is the biosynthetic enzyme. Endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) activity is reduced 80% in the mesenteric artery of mice with deletion of CSE, establishing H2S as a major physiologic EDRF. H2S appears to signal predominantly by S-sulfhydrating cysteines in its target proteins, analogous to S-nitrosylation by NO. Whereas S-nitrosylation typically inhibits enzymes, S-sulfhydration activates them. S-nitrosylation basally affects 1–2% of its target proteins, while 10–25% of H2S target proteins are S-sulfhydrated. In summary, H2S appears to be a physiologic gasotransmitter of comparable importance to NO and CO. PMID:20067586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3791558','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3791558"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and translational medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guo, Wei; Cheng, Ze-yu; Zhu, Yi-zhun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule that has undergone large numbers of fundamental investigations. H2S is involved in various physiological activities associated with the regulation of homeostasis, vascular contractility, pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as pro- and anti-apoptotic activities etc. However, the actions of H2S are influenced by its concentration, reaction time, and cell/disease types. Therefore, H2S is a signaling molecule without definite effect. The use of existing H2S donors is limited because of the instant release and short lifetime of H2S. Thus, translational medicine involving the sustained and controlled release of H2S is of great value for both scientific and clinical uses. H2S donation can be manipulated by different ways, including where H2S is given, how H2S is donated, or the specific structures of H2S-releasing drugs and H2S donor molecules. This review briefly summarizes recent progress in research on the physiological and pathological functions of H2S and H2S-releasing drugs, and suggests hope for future investigations. PMID:24096643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..531G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..531G"><span id="translatedtitle">Thicknesses of Mare <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from Gravity and Topograhy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>GONG, S.; Wieczorek, M.; Nimmo, F.; Kiefer, W.; Head, J.; Smith, D.; Zuber, M.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are derived from partial melting of the lunar interior and are mostly located on the near side of the Moon [1, 2]. Their iron-rich composition gives rise to their dark color, but also causes their density to be substantially higher than normal crustal rocks. The total volume of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can provide crucial information about the Moon's thermal evolution and volcanic activity. Unfortunately, the thicknesses of the mare are only poorly constrained. Here we use gravity data from NASA's GRAIL mission to investigate the thickness of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.9778O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.9778O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Pliocene <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava plateaus and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism, we have started to study <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.P33B1769W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.P33B1769W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Cooling Rates of Martian Flood <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Columns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss, D. K.; Jackson, B.; Milazzo, M. P.; Barnes, J. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Columnar jointing in large <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows have been extensively studied and can provide important clues about the emplacement conditions and cooling history of a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow. The recent discovery of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> columns on Mars in crater walls near Marte Vallis provides an opportunity to infer conditions on early Mars when the Martian <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows were laid down. Comparison of the Martian columns to Earth analogs allows us to gain further insight into the early Martian climate, and among the best terrestrial analogs are the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> columns in the Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group (CRBG) in eastern Washington. The CRBG is one of the youngest (< 17 Myrs old) and most extensively studied <span class="hlt">basalt</span> provinces in the world, extending over 163,700 square km with total thickness exceeding 1 km in some places. The morphologies and textures of CRBG <span class="hlt">basalt</span> columns suggest that in many places flows ~100 m thick cooled at uniform rates, even deep in the flow interior. Such cooling seems to require the presence of water in the column joints since the flow interiors should have cooled much more slowly than the flow margins if conductive cooling dominated. Secondary features, such pillow <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, likewise suggest the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows were in direct contact with standing water in many places. At the resolution provided by the orbiting HiRISE camera (0.9 m), the Martian <span class="hlt">basalt</span> columns resemble the CRBG columns in many respects, and so, subject to important caveats, inferences linking the morphologies of the CRBG columns to their thermal histories can be extended in some respects to the Martian columns. In this presentation, we will describe our analysis of the HiRISE images of the Martian columns and what can be reasonably inferred about their thermal histories and the conditions under which they were emplaced. We will also report on a field expedition to the CRBG in eastern Washington State. During that expedition, we surveyed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> column outcrops on the ground and from the air using Unmanned Aerial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137669','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137669"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crowe, B.M.</p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JESS..121..525N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JESS..121..525N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral chemistry of Pangidi <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows from Andhra Pradesh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Swaroop, P. C.; Karimulla, Syed</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This paper elucidates the compositional studies on clinopyroxene, plagioclase, titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of Pangidi area to understand the geothermometry and oxybarometry conditions. Petrographic evidence and anorthite content (up to 85%) of plagioclase and temperature estimates of clinopyroxene indicate that the clinopyroxene is crystallized later than or together with plagioclase. The higher An content indicates that the parent magma is tholeiitic composition. The equilibration temperatures of clinopyroxene (1110-1190°C) and titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite coexisting mineral phases (1063-1103°C) are almost similar in lower <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow and it is higher for clinopyroxene (900-1110°C) when compared to titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite coexisting mineral phases (748-898°C) in middle and upper <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows. From this it can be inferred that the clinopyroxene is crystallized earlier than Fe-Ti oxide phases reequilibration, which indicates that the clinopyroxene temperature is the approximate eruption temperature of the present lava flows. The wide range of temperatures (900-1190°C) attained by clinopyroxene may point out that the equilibration of clinopyroxene crystals initiated from depth till closer to the surface before the melt erupted. Pangidi <span class="hlt">basalts</span> follow the QFM buffer curve which indicates the more evolved tholeiitic composition. This suggests the parent tholeiitic magma suffered limited fractionation at high temperature under increasing oxygen fugacity in lower <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow and more fractionation at medium to lower temperatures under decreasing oxygen fugacity conditions during cooling of middle and upper <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows. The variation of oxygen fugacity indicates the oxidizing conditions for lower <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow (9.48-10.3) and extremely reducing conditions for middle (12.1-15.5) and upper <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (12.4-15.54) flows prevailed at the time of cooling. Temperature vs. (FeO+Fe2O3)/(FeO+Fe2O3 +MgO) data plots for present <span class="hlt">basalts</span> suggested</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970022398','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970022398"><span id="translatedtitle">An Apollo 15 Mare <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Fragment and Lunar Mare Provinces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ryder, Graham; Burling, Trina Cox</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Lunar sample 15474,4 is a tiny fragment of olivine-augite vitrophyre that is a mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Although petroraphically distinct from all other Apollo 15 samples, it has been ignored since its first brief description. Our new petrographic and mineral chemical data show that the olivines and pyroxenes are distinct from those in other <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> cooled and solidified extremely rapidly; some of the olivine might be cumulate or crystallized prior to extrusion. Bulk-chemical data show that the sample is probably similar to an evolved Apollo 15 olivine-normative <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in major elements but is distinct in its rare earth element pattern. Its chemical composition and petrography both show that 15474,4 cannot be derived from other Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by shallow-level crystal fractionation. It represents a distinct extrusion of magma. Nonetheless, the chemical features that 15474,4 has in common with other Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, including the high FeO/Sc, the general similarity of the rare earth element pattern, and the common (and chondritic) TiO2/Sm ratio, emphasize the concept of a geochemical province at the Apollo 15 site that is distinct from <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and provinces elsewhere. In making a consistent picture for the derivation of all of the Apollo 15 <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, both the commonalities and the differences among the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> must be explained. The Apollo 15 commonalities and differences suggest that the sources must have consisted of major silicate phases with the same composition but with varied amounts of a magma trapped from a contemporary magma ocean. They probably had a high olivine/pyroxene ratio and underwent small and reasonably consistent degrees of partial melting to produce the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. These inferences may be inconsistent with models that suggest greatly different depths of melting among <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, primitive sources for the green glasses, or extensive olivine fractionation during ascent. An integrated approach to lunar mare provinces, of which the Apollo 15</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011E%26PSL.310...73A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011E%26PSL.310...73A"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial sulfate reduction and the sulfur budget for a complete section of altered oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, IODP Hole 1256D (eastern Pacific)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alt, Jeffrey C.; Shanks, Wayne C.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> mineralogy and the contents and isotope compositions of sulfur were analyzed in a complete oceanic volcanic section from IODP Hole 1256D in the eastern Pacific, in order to investigate the role of microbes and their effect on the sulfur budget in altered upper oceanic crust. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> in the 800 m thick volcanic section are affected by a pervasive low-temperature background alteration and have mean sulfur contents of 530 ppm, reflecting loss of sulfur relative to fresh glass through degassing during eruption and alteration by seawater. Alteration halos along fractures average 155 ppm sulfur and are more oxidized, have high SO 4/ΣS ratios (0.43), and lost sulfur through oxidation by seawater compared to host rocks. Although sulfur was lost locally, sulfur was subsequently gained through fixation of seawater-derived sulfur in secondary pyrite and marcasite in veins and in concentrations at the boundary between alteration halos and host rocks. Negative δ 34S <span class="hlt">sulfide-S</span> values (down to - 30‰) and low temperatures of alteration (down to ~ 40 °C) point to microbial reduction of seawater sulfate as the process resulting in local additions of <span class="hlt">sulfide-S</span>. Mass balance calculations indicate that 15-20% of the sulfur in the volcanic section is microbially derived, with the bulk altered volcanic section containing 940 ppm S, and with δ 34S shifted to - 6.0‰ from the mantle value (0‰). The bulk volcanic section may have gained or lost sulfur overall. The annual flux of microbial sulfur into oceanic basement based on Hole 1256D is 3-4 × 10 10 mol S yr - 1 , within an order of magnitude of the riverine sulfate source and the sedimentary pyrite sink. Results indicate a flux of bacterially derived sulfur that is fixed in upper ocean basement of 7-8 × 10 - 8 mol cm - 2 yr - 1 over 15 m.y. This is comparable to that in open ocean sediment sites, but is one to two orders of magnitude less than for ocean margin sediments. The global annual subduction of sulfur in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012224','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012224"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-velocity impact craters in ice and ice-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> sand with implications for Martian crater count ages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Croft, S.K.; Kieffer, S.W.; Ahrens, T.J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>We produced a series of decimeter-sized impact craters in blocks of ice near 0oC and -70oC and in ice-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> sand near -70oC as a preliminary investigation of cratering in materials analogous to those found on Mars and the outer solar satellites. Crater diameters in the ice-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> sand were 2 times larger than craters in the same energy and velocity range in competent blocks of granite, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and cement. Craters in ice were c.3 times larger. Martian impact crater energy versus diameter scaling may thus be a function of latitude. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V13F2676H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V13F2676H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Lithium Isotopic Signature of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recycling of oceanic crust and sediment is a common mechanism to account for the presence of chemical heterogeneities observed in oceanic island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (OIBs). On Hawai';i, a mantle plume-sourced OIB with a high mass flux, sampling of deep mantle heterogeneities accounts for the presence of two unique geochemical and geographical trends called the Loa and Kea trends. The Loa trend overlaps the Pacific large low shear velocity province and is distinctly more enriched [1] than the Kea trend with average Pacific mantle compositions [2]. Because of the sizeable fractionation of lithium isotopes in low temperature environments, lithium serves as a tracer for the presence of recycled material in OIB sources, including Hawai'i. In this study, we analyzed 87 samples of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from the pre-shield, shield, post-shield, and rejuvenated volcanic stages and 10 samples of altered oceanic crust from ODP Site 843 for lithium isotopes using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Correlations of lithium isotopes with the radiogenic isotopes Pb, Hf, Nd, and Sr indicate lithium isotopes may be used to trace components in mantle plumes such as Hawai';i. The measured range of lithium isotopes for shield stage lavas is δ7Li = 1.8 - 5.7‰ and for post-shield lavas is δ7Li = 0.8 - 4.7‰. Pre-shield stage lavas (Lo'ihi volcano only) and rejuvenated lavas are the least and most homogeneous volcanic stages, respectively, in lithium isotopes. The Loa and Kea geochemical trends have different lithium isotopic signatures, with Loa trend shield volcanoes exhibiting lighter lithium isotopic signatures (δ7Li = 3.5‰ [N=43]) than Kea trend shield volcanoes (δ7Li = 4.0‰ [N=31]) [3]. Similarly, post-shield lavas have systematically lighter δ7Li than shield lavas. The presence of systematic differences in lithium isotopic signatures may indicate: 1) the sampling of distinct components in the deep source, to account for variations between Kea and Loa trend</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.266..105B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.266..105B"><span id="translatedtitle">The case for old <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouvier, Audrey; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Gillet, Philippe; Albarède, Francis</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>The crystallization age of shergottites is currently not agreed upon. Although mineral 87Rb- 87Sr, 147Sm- 143Nd, 176Lu- 176Hf, and U-Pb isochrons all give very young ages, typically in the range of 160-180 Ma, 207Pb- 206Pb data support a much older crystallization age at 4.1 Ga, which is consistent with published whole-rock 87Rb- 87Sr data on <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites. Different isotopic systems present different complexities, but crater-counting chronology, which shows that a substantial fraction of the Martian surface was resurfaced during the late heavy bombardment, is in favor of an old Martian lithosphere with ages in accordance with Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr isotopic data. A ˜ 4.1 Ga Pb-Pb age of shergottites also agrees with the 142Nd and 182W anomalies found in these rocks and concur with the presence of an actively convecting mantle during the first 500 Myr of the planet's history. We here present new Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, and Pb-Pb mineral isochrons for the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites Shergotty and Los Angeles complementing our previous results on Zagami [Bouvier A., Blichert-Toft J., Vervoort J.D. and Albarède F. (2005). The age of SNC meteorites and the antiquity of the Martian surface, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 221-233]. The internal 147Sm- 143Nd and 176Lu- 176Hf isochrons give young ages of, respectively, 172 ± 40 (MSWD = 2.0) and 188 ± 91 (MSWD = 3.1) for Shergotty, and 181 ± 13 (MSWD = 0.14) and 159 ± 42 (MSWD = 0.01) for Los Angeles. In contrast, the Pb isotope compositions of the leached whole-rock fragments and maskelynite separates of Shergotty and Los Angeles fall on the whole-rock isochron previously established for Zagami and other shergottite samples and collectively yield a Pb-Pb age of 4050 ± 70 Ma for the crystallization of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottite suite. The contrast between the ˜ 170 Ma ages of internal isochrons and the 4.1 Ga age supported by Pb-Pb and 87Rb- 87Sr on whole-rocks simply reflects that the younger age dates the perturbation of a suite of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02763&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02763&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span id="translatedtitle">Stereo Pair: <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina show an unusual and striking pattern of erosion. Stereoscopic observation helps to clarify the landform changing processes active here. Many of the cliffs appear to be rock staircases that have the same color as the plateau's <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cap rock. Are these the edges of lower layers in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> or are they a train of slivers that are breaking off from, then sliding downslope and away from, the cap rock. They appear to be the latter. Close inspection shows that each stair step is too laterally irregular to be a continuous sheet of bedrock like the cap rock. Also, the steps are not flat but instead are little ridges, as one might expect from broken, tilted, and sliding slices of the cap rock. Stream erosion has cut some gullies into the cliffs and green vegetation shows that water springs from and flows down some channels, but landsliding is clearly a major agent of erosion here.<p/>This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.<p/>Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361702','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361702"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> response analysis for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villa-Gomez, D K; Cassidy, J; Keesman, K J; Sampaio, R; Lens, P N L</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4(2-) ratio (0.67) were applied to create <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> responses for the design of a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was measured using a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters. The experiments were performed in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with automated operation using the LabVIEW software version 2009(®). A rapid response and high <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> increment was obtained through a stepwise increase in the CODin concentration, while a stepwise decrease to the HRT exhibited a slower response with smaller <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> increment. Irrespective of the way the OLR was decreased, the pS response showed a time-varying behavior due to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> accumulation (HRT change) or utilization of substrate sources that were not accounted for (CODin change). The pS electrode response, however, showed to be informative for applications in sulfate reducing bioreactors. Nevertheless, the recorded pS values need to be corrected for pH variations and high <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations (>200 mg/L). PMID:24361702</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=128916&keyword=carbon+AND+capture&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77160861&CFTOKEN=58766537','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=128916&keyword=carbon+AND+capture&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77160861&CFTOKEN=58766537"><span id="translatedtitle">NEAR-CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF HYDROGEN <span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> AND CARBONYL <span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> BY AN AUTOMATIC GAS CHROMATOGRAPH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An automatic gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector that samples and analyzes hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> at 30-s intervals is described. Temperature programming was used to elute trace amounts of carbon disulfide present in each injection from a Supelpak-S...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CoMP..165..885S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CoMP..165..885S"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluid and melt inclusions in the Mesozoic Fangcheng <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from North China Craton: implications for magma evolution and fluid/melt-peridotite reaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, He; Xiao, Yilin; Gao, Yongjun; Lai, Jianqing; Hou, Zhenhui; Wang, Yangyang</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Melt inclusions and fluid inclusions in the Fangcheng <span class="hlt">basalt</span> were investigated to understand the magma evolution and fluid/melt-peridotite interaction. Primary silicate melt inclusions were trapped in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene phenocrysts in the Fangcheng <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Three types of melt inclusions (silicate, carbonate, and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>) coexisting with fluid inclusions occur in clinopyroxene xenocrysts and clinopyroxene in clinopyroxenite xenoliths. In situ laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of major and trace element compositions on individual melt inclusions suggest that the silicate melt inclusions in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene phenocrysts were trapped from the same <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma. The decoupling of major and trace elements in the melt inclusions indicates that the magma evolution was controlled by melt crystallization and contamination from entrapped ultramafic xenoliths. Trace element patterns of melt inclusions are similar to those of the average crust of North China Craton and Yangtze Craton, suggesting a considerable crustal contribution to the magma source. Calculated parental melt of the Fangcheng <span class="hlt">basalt</span> has features of low MgO (5.96 wt%), high Al2O3 (16.81 wt%), Sr (1,670 ppm), Y (>35 ppm), and high Sr/Y (>40), implying that subducted crustal material was involved in the genesis of the Fangcheng <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The coexisting fluid and melt inclusions in clinopyroxene xenocrysts and in clinopyroxene of xenoliths record a rare melt-peridotite reaction, that is olivine + carbonatitic melt1 (rich in Ca) = clinopyroxene + melt2 ± CO2. The produced melt2 is enriched in LREE and CO2 and may fertilize the mantle significantly, which we consider to be the cause for the rapid replacement of lithospheric mantle during the Mesozoic in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009994','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009994"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium Sulfate in Atacama Desert <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>: A Possible Analog for Bright Material in Adirondack <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>, Gusev Crater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Amundson, R.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Ming, D. W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Atacama Desert in northern Chile is one of the driest deserts on Earth (< 2mm/y). The hyper-arid conditions allow extraordinary accumulations of sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates in Atacama soils. Examining salt accumulations in the Atacama may assist understanding salt accumulations on Mars. Recent work examining sulfate soils on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> parent material observed white material in the interior vesicles of surface <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. This is strikingly similar to the bright-white material present in veins and vesicles of the Adirondack <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rocks at Gusev Crater which are presumed to consist of S, Cl, and/or Br. The abundance of soil gypsum/anhydrite in the area of the Atacama <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suggested that the white material consisted of calcium sulfate (Ca-SO4) which was later confirmed by SEM/EDS analysis. This work examines the Ca-SO4 of Atacama <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in an effort to provide insight into the possible nature of the bright material in the Adirondack <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Gusev Crater. The objectives of this work are to (i) discuss variations in Ca-SO4 crystal morphology in the vesicles and (ii) examine the Ca-SO4 interaction(s) with the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> interior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20228114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20228114"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and biodiversity in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures of active and inactive vents at deep-sea hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kato, Shingo; Takano, Yoshinori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Oba, Hironori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Chiyori; Utsumi, Motoo; Marumo, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Ito, Yuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Yamagishi, Akihiko</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The abundance, diversity, activity, and composition of microbial communities in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures both of active and inactive vents were investigated by culture-independent methods. These <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures were collected at four hydrothermal fields, both on- and off-axis of the back-arc spreading center of the Southern Mariana Trough. The microbial abundance and activity in the samples were determined by analyzing total organic content, enzymatic activity, and copy number of the 16S rRNA gene. To assess the diversity and composition of the microbial communities, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries including bacterial and archaeal phylotypes were constructed from the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures. Despite the differences in the geological settings among the sampling points, phylotypes related to the Epsilonproteobacteria and cultured hyperthermophilic archaea were abundant in the libraries from the samples of active vents. In contrast, the relative abundance of these phylotypes was extremely low in the libraries from the samples of inactive vents. These results suggest that the composition of microbial communities within <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures dramatically changes depending on the degree of hydrothermal activity, which was supported by statistical analyses. Comparative analyses suggest that the abundance, activity and diversity of microbial communities within <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures of inactive vents are likely to be comparable to or higher than those in active vent structures, even though the microbial community composition is different between these two types of vents. The microbial community compositions in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures of inactive vents were similar to those in seafloor <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks rather than those in marine sediments or the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures of active vents, suggesting that the microbial community compositions on the seafloor may be constrained by the available energy sources. Our findings provide helpful information for understanding the biogeography, biodiversity and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2863450','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2863450"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and Biodiversity in <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Structures of Active and Inactive Vents at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fields of the Southern Mariana Trough▿ †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kato, Shingo; Takano, Yoshinori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Oba, Hironori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Chiyori; Utsumi, Motoo; Marumo, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Ito, Yuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Yamagishi, Akihiko</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The abundance, diversity, activity, and composition of microbial communities in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures both of active and inactive vents were investigated by culture-independent methods. These <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures were collected at four hydrothermal fields, both on- and off-axis of the back-arc spreading center of the Southern Mariana Trough. The microbial abundance and activity in the samples were determined by analyzing total organic content, enzymatic activity, and copy number of the 16S rRNA gene. To assess the diversity and composition of the microbial communities, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries including bacterial and archaeal phylotypes were constructed from the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures. Despite the differences in the geological settings among the sampling points, phylotypes related to the Epsilonproteobacteria and cultured hyperthermophilic archaea were abundant in the libraries from the samples of active vents. In contrast, the relative abundance of these phylotypes was extremely low in the libraries from the samples of inactive vents. These results suggest that the composition of microbial communities within <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures dramatically changes depending on the degree of hydrothermal activity, which was supported by statistical analyses. Comparative analyses suggest that the abundance, activity and diversity of microbial communities within <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures of inactive vents are likely to be comparable to or higher than those in active vent structures, even though the microbial community composition is different between these two types of vents. The microbial community compositions in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures of inactive vents were similar to those in seafloor <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks rather than those in marine sediments or the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures of active vents, suggesting that the microbial community compositions on the seafloor may be constrained by the available energy sources. Our findings provide helpful information for understanding the biogeography, biodiversity and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814217P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814217P"><span id="translatedtitle">Spreading and collapse of big <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Among the different types of volcanoes, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019899','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019899"><span id="translatedtitle">Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and quartz-normative mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP <span class="hlt">basalt</span> clasts and 20% quartz-normative <span class="hlt">basalt</span> clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005AGUFM.P42B..02S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005AGUFM.P42B..02S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploration of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Volcanic Massive <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>: Results of the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Fernandez, D.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Biological systems on Earth require three key ingredients-- liquid water, an energy source, and a carbon source, that are found in very few extraterrestrial environments. Previous examples of independent subsurface ecosystems have been found only in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> aquifers. Such lithotrophic microbial ecosystems (LME) have been proposed as models for steps in the early evolution of Earth's biosphere and for potential biospheres on other planets where the surface is uninhabitable, such as Mars and Europa.. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has searched in a volcanic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit in Rio Tinto Spain for a subsurface biosphere capable of living without sunlight or oxygen and found a subsurface ecosystem driven by the weathering of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit (VMS) in which the rock matrix provides sufficient resources to support microbial metabolism, including the vigorous production of H2 by water-rock interactions. Microbial production of methane and sulfate occurred in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> orebody and microbial production of methane and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> continued in an anoxic plume downgradient from the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore. Organic carbon concentrations in the parent rock were too low to support microbes. The Rio Tinto system thus represents a new type of subsurface ecosystem with strong relevance for exobiological studies. Commercial drilling was used to reach the aquifer system at 100 m depth and conventional laboratory techniques were used to identify and characterize the biosphere. Then, the life search strategy that led to successful identification of this biosphere was applied to the development of a robotic drilling, core handling, inspection, subsampling, and life detection system built on a prototype planetary lander that was deployed in Rio Tinto Spain in September 2005 to test the capability of a robotic drilling system to search for subsurface life. A remote science team directed the simulation and analyzed the data from the MARTE robotic drill. The results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18309215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18309215"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous measurement of dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in sewer systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sutherland-Stacey, L; Corrie, S; Neethling, A; Johnson, I; Gutierrez, O; Dexter, R; Yuan, Z; Keller, J; Hamilton, G</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> are particularly problematic in the sewage industry. Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> causes corrosion of concrete infrastructure, is dangerous at high concentrations and is foul smelling at low concentrations. Despite the importance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> monitoring there is no commercially available system to quantify <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in waste water. In this article we report on our use of an in situ spectrometer to quantify bisulfide in waste water and additional analysis with a pH probe to calculate total dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Our results show it is possible to use existing commercially available and field proven sensors to measure <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to mg/l levels continuously with little operator intervention and no sample preparation. PMID:18309215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870538','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870538"><span id="translatedtitle">Process for producing cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on a cadmium telluride surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Levi, Dean H.; Nelson, Art J.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A process for producing a layer of cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9558453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9558453"><span id="translatedtitle">Animal adaptations for tolerance and exploitation of poisonous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grieshaber, M K; Völkel, S</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Many aquatic animal species can survive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exposure to some extent through oxidation of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, which results mainly in thiosulfate. In several species, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation is localized in the mitochondria and is accompanied by ATP synthesis. In addition, blood-based and intracellular compounds can augment <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation. The formation of thiosulfate requires oxygen, which results in an increase in oxygen consumption of some species. If not all <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is detoxified, cytochrome C oxidase is inhibited. Under these conditions, a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-dependent anaerobic energy metabolism commences. PMID:9558453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.118..247L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.118..247L"><span id="translatedtitle">Gold solubility and partitioning between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid, monosulfide solid solution and hydrous mantle melts: Implications for the formation of Au-rich magmas and crust-mantle differentiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yuan; Audétat, Andreas</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The solubility of Au in sulfur-free vs. <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> melts and its partitioning behavior between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid (SL), monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and hydrous basanite melt at variable Au activities was investigated in a fO2 range of FMQ-2 to FMQ+1.6 at 1200 °C/1.5 GPa using piston cylinder apparatus. Gold solubility in sulfur-free (<100 μg/g S) melt is low (0.6-1.6 μg/g) and increases with fO2 in a manner consistent with Au dissolution as AuO1/2, whereas in <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> melts it is high (13.6 ± 1.7 μg/g) and independent of fO2. Variations in the chlorine content of <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> melts (0.2-1.2 wt% Cl) had no measurable effect on Au solubility. Gold partition coefficients between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid and silicate melt (DAuSL/SM) are very high, ∼10,000 ± 3000, which is at the upper end of values reported in previous studies. Gold partition coefficients between MSS and silicate melt (DAuMSS/SM) are much lower, 60 ± 10, which is at the lower end of previous values. Both DAuSL/SM and DAuMSS/SM are independent of fO2. The new Au partition coefficients were used in conjunction with previously published Cu and Ag partition coefficients to investigate the role of MSS versus SL during partial melting in the source region of primitive potassic magmas and during crust-mantle differentiation. The high Au content of ore deposits associated with potassic magmas has commonly been explained by the dissolution of Au-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid, either during partial melting in the mantle source or during partial re-melting of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing cumulates at the crust-mantle boundary. We argue that MSS is the dominant <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phase in the mantle source region of these magmas, and thus that their high Au content is a consequence of low MSS-silicate melt partition coefficients rather than of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exhaustion or partial re-melting of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing cumulates. Continental crust is depleted in Au, Ag and Cu relative to mantle melts, which was thought to be due to removal of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17753148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17753148"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Cone Suggests Constructional Origin of Some Guyots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Christensen, M N; Gilbert, C M</p> <p>1964-01-17</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cinder cone was built beneath the waters of Mono Lake in Pleistocene time. This cone is now exposed. Its internal structure, external form, and petrography suggest that it was constructed with a flat top. PMID:17753148</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013332','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013332"><span id="translatedtitle">Lu-Hf CONSTRAINTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF LUNAR <span class="hlt">BASALTS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Tatsumoto, Mistunobu</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The authors show that a cumulate-remelting model best explains the recently acquired data on the Lu-Hf systematics of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The authors model is first constructed using the Lu and Hf concentration data and it is then further strengthened by the Hf isotopic evidence. The authors also show that the similarity of MgO/FeO ratios and the Cr//2O//3 contents between high-Ti and low-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, which have been given significance by A. E. Ringwood and D. H. Green are not important constraints for lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis. The authors principal aim is to revive the remelting model for further consideration with the powerful constraints of Lu-Hf systematics of lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2545547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2545547"><span id="translatedtitle">[Comparative carcinogenic properties of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber and chrysotile-asbestos].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nikitina, O V; Kogan, F M; Vanchugova, N N; Frash, V N</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>In order to eliminate asbestos adverse effect on workers' health it was necessary to use mineral rayon, primarily <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibre, instead of asbestos. During a chronic experiment on animals the oncogenicity of 2 kinds of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibre was studied compared to chrysotile asbestos. The dust dose of 25 mg was twice administered by intraperitonial route. All types of dust induced the onset of intraperitonial mesotheliomas but neoplasm rates were significantly lower in the groups exposed to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibre. There was no credible data on the differences between the groups exposed to various types of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibre. Since the latter produced some oncogenic effect, it was necessary to develop a complex of antidust measures, fully corresponding to the measures adopted for carcinogenic dusts. PMID:2545547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NIMPA.797...29K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NIMPA.797...29K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Computation of EABF and EBF for <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karabul, Yaşar; Amon Susam, Lidya; İçelli, Orhan; Eyecioğlu, Önder</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this study, certain photon absorption parameters including the energy absorption buildup factor (EABF) and exposure buildup factor (EBF) have been investigated for three different <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples collected from different parts of Van city. Radiation shielding properties of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples indicated a strong correlation between photon energy absorption parameters and values of EABF and EBF of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples. It was found that EABF and EBF parameters are related to radiation shielding properties of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples. A new method and algorithm based on ZXCOM was used. Instead of calculating G-P fitting parameters for every effective atomic number (Zeff), EABF and EBF were calculated for Zeff by interpolation, using ANSI/ANS 6.4.3 standard data available for Zeff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045838&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045838&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematics of Vanadium in Olivine from Planetary <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The systematics of vanadium in olivines from the Earth, Moon and Mars allows for the comparison of planetary <span class="hlt">basalt</span> origin and igneous setting and process. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081303&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081303&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span id="translatedtitle">A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>CIPW norms of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JGRE..117.0J12G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JGRE..117.0J12G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Low temperature aqueous alteration of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>: Mineral assemblages of Deccan <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and implications for Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenberger, R. N.; Mustard, J. F.; Kumar, P. S.; Dyar, M. D.; Breves, E. A.; Sklute, E. C.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Al-rich phyllosilicates (kaolinite, montmorillonite) have been found in layers overlying Fe/Mg-smectites on Mars, and it has been suggested that this stratigraphy formed through in situ leaching at the surface, similar to terrestrial weathering profiles. We are investigating the remotely sensed signatures of this type of weathering using ten samples from a vertical section of altered Deccan <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and four samples collected nearby as an analog for leaching resulting in Al-rich phyllosilicate over Fe/Mg-smectite stratigraphies. Samples were analyzed with reflectance spectroscopy from 0.28 to 25.0 μm, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for 10 major element concentrations (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Ti), loss on ignition for volatiles, x-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogies, and Mössbauer spectroscopy for Fe redox state. Spectra of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples were dominated by Fe2+ crystal field transitions with weak alteration bands near 1.4 and/or 1.9 μm. Reststrahlen bands in mid-infrared showed the convolution of plagioclase and pyroxene features typical of <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Saprolite samples were incompletely leached, and their spectra were dominated by complex Al- and Fe/Mg-bearing smectite clays and retained no original mafic signatures. XRD and Mössbauer detected pyroxene and plagioclase not visible by reflectance spectroscopy in some saprolite samples. Zeolites were present throughout the saprolite. The laterite was the most leached horizon, and all analyses showed kaolinite and iron oxide assemblages. This kaolinite and hematite association would be expected if kaolinite on Mars formed through leaching under conditions similar to those on Earth and has implications for abundant freshwater on the Martian surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JVGR...39..221G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JVGR...39..221G"><span id="translatedtitle">Degassing of carbon dioxide from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma at spreading centers: II. mid-oceanic ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerlach, Terrence M.</p> <p>1989-11-01</p> <p>This study examines the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the CO 2 in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> supplied to mid-oceanic spreading centers escapes by degassing from magma chambers of the oceanic crust. The approach employs mass balance calculations, stepped-heating data for carbon in sea-floor mid-oceanic ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORBs), and the CO 2 content determined in part I for transitional <span class="hlt">basalt</span> supplied to the Erta'Ale spreading center in the Afar depression. It is also shown as part of the analysis that carbon data acquired for sea-floor MORBs by single-heating techniques give systematically high values that are difficult to reconcile with solubility data for CO 2 in MORB liquid and the depths of subridge magma chambers. The results confirm the hypothesis. A conservative estimate of the average loss of CO 2 during degassing from subridge magma chambers is between 30 and 65% of the CO 2 initially present in the magma. The conservative estimate for CO 2 degassing at depth is between two and seven times greater than the maximum amount of volcanic CO 2 degassing from MORB. CO 2 degassing from subridge magma chambers is sufficient to supply much (perhaps most) of the mantle carbon discharged from the global mid-oceanic spreading system to the oceans. CO 2 degassing from subridge magma chambers has several important implications. It may be more important than hydrothermal stripping in supplying mantle carbon to mid-oceanic hydrothermal vents. It is an effective mechanism for removing most of the heavier rare gases (Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) and much of the He and Ne in magma supplied to mid-oceanic spreading centers and for transporting them and possibly other volatiles from subridge magma chambers to the ocean-atmosphere system. It should also be an effective mechanism for fractionating carbon isotopes in MORB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810033029&hterms=Lutetium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLutetium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810033029&hterms=Lutetium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLutetium"><span id="translatedtitle">Hafnium isotope variations in oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patchett, P. J.; Tatsumoto, M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Hafnium isotope ratios generated by the beta(-) decay of Lu-176 are investigated in volcanic rocks derived from the suboceanic mantle. Hf-176/Hf-177 and Lu/Hf ratios were determined to precisions of 0.01-0.04% and 0.5%, respectively, by routine, low-blank chemistry. The Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio is found to be positively correlated with the Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio and negatively correlated with the Sr-87/Sr-86 and Pb-206/Pb-204 ratios, and to increase southwards along the Iceland-Reykjanes ridge traverse. An approximate bulk earth Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio of 0.28295 is inferred from the bulk earth Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio, which requires a bulk earth Lu/Hf ratio of 0.25, similar to the Juvinas eucrite. Midocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are shown to account for 60% of the range of Hf isotope ratios, and it is suggested that Lu-Hf fractionation is decoupled from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr fractionation in very trace-element-depleted source regions as a result of partial melting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7279532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7279532"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Waste Isolation Project Reclamation Support Project:</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Reclamation Support Project began in the spring of 1988 by categorizing sites distributed during operations of the BWIP into those requiring revegetation and those to be abandoned or transferred to other programs. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory's role in this project was to develop plans for reestablishing native vegetation on the first category of sites, to monitor the implementation of these plans, to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, and to identify remediation methods where necessary. The Reclamation Support Project focused on three major areas: geologic hydrologic boreholes, the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF). A number of BWIP reclamation sites seeded between 1989 and 1990 were found to be far below reclamation objectives. These sites were remediated in 1991 using various seedbed treatments designed to rectify problems with water-holding capacity, herbicide activity, surficial crust formation, and nutrient imbalances. Remediation was conducted during November and early December 1991. Sites were examined on a monthly basis thereafter to evaluate plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites early plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites, early plant growth far exceeded any previously obtained using other methods and seedbed treatments. Seeded plants did best where amendments consisted of soil-plus-compost or fertilizer-only. Vegetation growth on Gable Mountain was less than that found on other areas nearby, but this difference is attributed primarily to the site's altitude and north-facing orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013psrd.reptE.171M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013psrd.reptE.171M"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnesium-rich <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> on Mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martel, L. M. V.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers on NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft are making key measurements regarding the composition and properties of the surface of Mercury, allowing researchers to more clearly decipher the planet's formation and geologic history. The origin of the igneous rocks in the crust of Mercury is the focus of recent research by Karen Stockstill-Cahill and Tim McCoy (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution), along with Larry Nittler and Shoshana Weider (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and Steven Hauck II (Case Western Reserve University). Using the well-known MELTS computer code Stockstill-Cahill and coauthors worked with MESSENGER-derived and rock-analog compositions to constrain petrologic models of the lavas that erupted on the surface of Mercury. Rock analogs included a partial melt of the Indarch meteorite and a range of Mg-rich terrestrial rocks. Their work shows the lavas on Mercury are most similar to terrestrial magnesian <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (with lowered FeO content). The implications of the modeling are that Mg-rich lavas came from high-temperature sources in Mercury's mantle and erupted at high temperature with exceptionally low viscosity into thinly bedded and laterally extensive flows, concepts open to further evaluation by laboratory experiments and by geologic mapping of Mercury's surface using MESSENGER's imaging system and laser altimeter to document flow features and dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001E%26PSL.194...31T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001E%26PSL.194...31T"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of life in ocean floor <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.; Torsvik, V.; Daae, F. L.; Pedersen, R. B.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Electron microscopy and biomolecular methods have been used to describe and identify microbial communities inhabiting the glassy margins of ocean floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The investigated samples were collected from a neovolcanic ridge and from older, sediment-covered lava flows in the rift valley of the Knipovich Ridge at a water depth around 3500 m and an ambient seawater temperature of -0.7°C. Successive stages from incipient microbial colonisation, to well-developed biofilms occur on fracture surfaces in the glassy margins. Observed microbial morphologies are various filamentous, coccoidal, oval, rod-shaped and stalked forms. Etch marks in the fresh glass, with form and size resembling the attached microbes, are common. Precipitation of alteration products around microbes has developed hollow subspherical and filamentous structures. These precipitates are often enriched in Fe and Mn. The presence of branching and twisted stalks that resemble those of the iron-oxidising Gallionella, indicate that reduced iron may be utilised in an energy metabolic process. Analysis of 16S-rRNA gene sequences from microbes present in the rock samples, show that the bacterial population inhabiting these samples cluster within the γ- and ɛ-Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides subdivision of the Bacteria, while the Archaea all belong to the Crenarchaeota kingdom. This microbial population appears to be characteristic for the rock and their closest relatives have previously been reported from cold marine waters in the Arctic and Antarctic, deep-sea sediments and hydrothermal environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055115&hterms=Thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DThorium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055115&hterms=Thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DThorium"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead isotope systematics of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 75075</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chen, J. H.; Tilton, G. R.; Mattinson, J. M.; Vidal, P.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Uranium, thorium and isotopic lead data are reported for two bulk samples and separated pyroxene, ilmenite and plagioclase from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 75075. In a concordia diagram the whole rock, ilmenite and four pyroxene samples define a chord intersecting the concordia curve at approximately 4.25 and 2.8 AE. Three plagioclase samples plot distinctly off the chord. The crystallization age of 75075 is accurately determined at 3.74 AE by Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar measurements from other laboratories. It is not possible to adjust the isotopic composition of initial lead so as to reconcile the U-Pb data with a crystallization age of 3.74 AE. The data therefore indicate some type of post-crystallization disturbance of the U-Pb system that is not detected by the other systems. The 75075 data are one of the few examples of this type of age pattern found on the moon. If the disturbance was a single event, it probably occurred around 2.8 AE ago, the time indicated by the pyroxene, whole rock and ilmenite data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6593898','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6593898"><span id="translatedtitle">Austin chalk yields oil near <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-09-03</p> <p>This paper reports on the completion of a Cretaceous Austin chalk horizontal oil well near a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cone in the Uvalde volcanic field area of Dimmit County, Tex. The well is the HDP Inc. 1 autumn Unit, about 9 miles northeast to Carrizo Springs HDP, which stands for horizontal development and production, of Palo Alto, Calif., drilled the well on a farmout from American Exploration Co., Houston. It initially pumped and flowed 1,600 b/d of oil without stimulation from openhole. HDP drilled about 1,500 ft of horizontal and deviated hole in Austin chalk B-1, the producing horizon. Production in late August was about 500 b/d of oil, pending determination of proration unit size and allowable. The well, in the greater Pearsall field Austin chalk play along the Dimmit-Savala county line, is the first horizontal chalk producer in Elaine field. The field has produced mainly from Escondido sand, Olmos sand and Anacacho limestone, all in the Upper Cretaceous.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP23B3602I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP23B3602I"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the Chemical Weathering Efficiency of <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Catchments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ibarra, D. E.; Caves, J. K.; Thomas, D.; Chamberlain, C. P.; Maher, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The geographic distribution and areal extent of rock type, along with the hydrologic cycle, influence the efficiency of global silicate weathering. Here we define weathering efficiency as the production of HCO3- for a given land surface area. Modern <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> catchments located on volcanic arcs and continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are particularly efficient, as they account for <5% of sub-aerial bedrock but produce ~30% of the modern global weathering flux. Indeed, changes in this weathering efficiency are thought to play an important role in modulating Earth's past climate via changes in the areal extent and paleo-latitude of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> catchments (e.g., Deccan and Ethiopian Traps, southeast Asia <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> terranes). We analyze paired river discharge and solute concentration data for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> catchments from both literature studies and the USGS NWIS database to mechanistically understand geographic and climatic influences on weathering efficiency. To quantify the chemical weathering efficiency of modern <span class="hlt">basalt</span> catchments we use solute production equations and compare the results to global river datasets. The weathering efficiency, quantified via the Damköhler coefficient (Dw [m/yr]), is calculated from fitting concentration-discharge relationships for catchments with paired solute and discharge measurements. Most <span class="hlt">basalt</span> catchments do not demonstrate 'chemostatic' behavior. The distribution of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> catchment Dw values (0.194 ± 0.176 (1σ)), derived using SiO2(aq) concentrations, is significantly higher than global river Dw values (mean Dw of 0.036), indicating a greater chemical weathering efficiency. Despite high Dw values and total weathering fluxes per unit area, many <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> catchments are producing near their predicted weathering flux limit. Thus, weathering fluxes from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> catchments are proportionally less responsive to increases in runoff than other lithologies. The results of other solute species (Mg2+ and Ca2+) are comparable, but are influenced both by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315425','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315425"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Inhibits Amyloid Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of misfolded proteins, which are often associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and vascular dementia. The amount of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) is known to be significantly reduced in the brain tissue of people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease relative to that of healthy individuals. These findings prompted us to investigate the effects of H2S on the formation of amyloids in vitro using a model fibrillogenic protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). HEWL forms typical β-sheet rich fibrils during the course of 70 min at low pH and high temperatures. The addition of H2S completely inhibits the formation of β-sheet and amyloid fibrils, as revealed by deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectroscopy and ThT fluorescence. Nonresonance Raman spectroscopy shows that disulfide bonds undergo significant rearrangements in the presence of H2S. Raman bands corresponding to disulfide (RSSR) vibrational modes in the 550–500 cm–1 spectral range decrease in intensity and are accompanied by the appearance of a new 490 cm–1 band assigned to the trisulfide group (RSSSR) based on the comparison with model compounds. The formation of RSSSR was proven further using a reaction with TCEP reduction agent and LC-MS analysis of the products. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence study shows a strong denaturation of HEWL containing trisulfide bonds. The presented evidence indicates that H2S causes the formation of trisulfide bridges, which destabilizes HEWL structure, preventing protein fibrillation. As a result, small spherical aggregates of unordered protein form, which exhibit no cytotoxicity by contrast with HEWL fibrils. PMID:25545790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9459K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9459K"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (OCS) burden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kloss, Corinna; Walker, Kaley A.; Deshler, Terry; von Hobe, Marc</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>An estimation of the global stratospheric burden of carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (OCS) calculated using satellite based measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) will be presented. OCS is the most abundant sulfur containing gas in the atmosphere in the absence of volcanic eruptions. With a long lifetime of 2-6 years it reaches the stratosphere where it is photolyzed and the sulfur oxidized and condensed to aerosols, contributing to the stratospheric aerosol layer. The aerosol layer is the one factor of the middle-atmosphere with a direct impact on the Earth's climate by scattering incoming solar radiation back to space. Therefore it is crucial to understand and estimate the different processes and abundances of the species contributing to the aerosol layer. However, the exact amount of OCS in the stratosphere has not been quantified yet. A study on the OCS mixing ratio distribution based on ACE-FTS data has already been made by Barkley et al. (2008), also giving an estimation for the total atmospheric OCS mass. ACE-FTS is an infrared solar occultation spectrometer providing high- resolution profile observations since 2004. In the scope of this work the focus lies on the stratospheric OCS burden, calculated by integrating the ACE profiles. A global overview on the stratospheric OCS amount in the past and present based on the ACE data as well as a look at regional and seasonal variability will be given. Furthermore, the results of this work will be useful for further studies on OCS fluxes and lifetimes, and in quantifying the contribution of OCS to the global stratospheric sulfur burden. Barkley et al., 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14810.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JMMM..402...76H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JMMM..402...76H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Criteria for <span class="hlt">saturated</span> magnetization loop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harres, A.; Mikhov, M.; Skumryev, V.; Andrade, A. M. H. de; Schmidt, J. E.; Geshev, J.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> (minor) from <span class="hlt">saturated</span> (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe3O4 and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710253I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710253I"><span id="translatedtitle">The source and longevity of sulfur in an Icelandic flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruption plume</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Edmonds, Marie; Mather, Tamsin; Schmidt, Anja; Hartley, Margaret; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pope, Francis; Donovan, Amy; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Maclennan, John; Shorttle, Oliver; Francis, Peter; Bergsson, Baldur; Barsotti, Sara; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Bali, Eniko; Keller, Nicole; Stefansson, Andri</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Holuhraun fissure eruption (Bárðarbunga volcanic system, central Iceland) has been ongoing since 31 August 2014 and is now the largest in Europe since the 1783-84 Laki event. For the first time in the modern age we have the opportunity to study at first hand the environmental impact of a flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fissure eruption (>1 km3 lava). Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions are one of the most hazardous volcanic scenarios in Iceland and have had enormous societal and economic consequences across the northern hemisphere in the past. The Laki eruption caused the deaths of >20% of the Icelandic population by environmental pollution and famine and potentially also increased European levels of mortality through air pollution by sulphur-bearing gas and aerosol. A flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruption was included in the UK National Risk Register in 2012 as one of the highest priority risks. The gas emissions from Holuhraun have been sustained since its beginning, repeatedly causing severe air pollution in populated areas in Iceland. During 18-22 September, SO2 fluxes reached 45 kt/day, a rate of outgassing rarely observed during sustained eruptions, suggesting that the sulfur loading per kg of erupted magma exceeds both that of other recent eruptions in Iceland and perhaps also other historic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions globally. This raises key questions regarding the origin of these prodigious quantities of sulphur. A lack of understanding of the source of this sulfur, the conversion rates of SO2 gas into aerosol, the residence times of aerosol in the plume and the dependence of these on meteorological factors is limiting our confidence in the ability of atmospheric models to forecast gas and aerosol concentrations in the near- and far-field from Icelandic flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions. In 2015 our group is undertaking a project funded by UK NERC urgency scheme to investigate several aspects of the sulfur budget at Holuhraun using a novel and powerful approach involving simultaneous tracking of sulfur and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740390','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740390"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiolytic Hydrogen Production in the Subseafloor <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Aquifer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dzaugis, Mary E.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Dunlea, Ann G.; Murray, Richard W.; D’Hondt, Steven</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen (H2) is produced in geological settings by dissociation of water due to radiation from radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium (238U, 235U), thorium (232Th) and potassium (40K). To quantify the potential significance of radiolytic H2 as an electron donor for microbes within the South Pacific subseafloor <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> aquifer, we use radionuclide concentrations of 43 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from IODP Expedition 329 to calculate radiolytic H2 production rates in basement fractures. The samples are from three sites with very different basement ages and a wide range of alteration types. U, Th, and K concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude from sample to sample at each site. Comparison of our samples to each other and to the results of previous studies of unaltered East Pacific Rise <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suggests that significant variations in radionuclide concentrations are due to differences in initial (unaltered <span class="hlt">basalt</span>) concentrations (which can vary between eruptive events) and post-emplacement alteration. However, there is no clear relationship between alteration type and calculated radiolytic yields. Local maxima in U, Th, and K produce hotspots of H2 production, causing calculated radiolytic rates to differ by up to a factor of 80 from sample to sample. Fracture width also greatly influences H2 production, where microfractures are hotspots for radiolytic H2 production. For example, H2 production rates normalized to water volume are 190 times higher in 1 μm wide fractures than in fractures that are 10 cm wide. To assess the importance of water radiolysis for microbial communities in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> aquifers, we compare electron transfer rates from radiolysis to rates from iron oxidation in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Radiolysis appears likely to be a more important electron donor source than iron oxidation in old (>10 Ma) basement <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Radiolytic H2 production in the volume of water adjacent to a square cm of the most radioactive SPG <span class="hlt">basalt</span> may support as many as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26870029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26870029"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiolytic Hydrogen Production in the Subseafloor <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Aquifer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzaugis, Mary E; Spivack, Arthur J; Dunlea, Ann G; Murray, Richard W; D'Hondt, Steven</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen (H2) is produced in geological settings by dissociation of water due to radiation from radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium ((238)U, (235)U), thorium ((232)Th) and potassium ((40)K). To quantify the potential significance of radiolytic H2 as an electron donor for microbes within the South Pacific subseafloor <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> aquifer, we use radionuclide concentrations of 43 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from IODP Expedition 329 to calculate radiolytic H2 production rates in basement fractures. The samples are from three sites with very different basement ages and a wide range of alteration types. U, Th, and K concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude from sample to sample at each site. Comparison of our samples to each other and to the results of previous studies of unaltered East Pacific Rise <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suggests that significant variations in radionuclide concentrations are due to differences in initial (unaltered <span class="hlt">basalt</span>) concentrations (which can vary between eruptive events) and post-emplacement alteration. However, there is no clear relationship between alteration type and calculated radiolytic yields. Local maxima in U, Th, and K produce hotspots of H2 production, causing calculated radiolytic rates to differ by up to a factor of 80 from sample to sample. Fracture width also greatly influences H2 production, where microfractures are hotspots for radiolytic H2 production. For example, H2 production rates normalized to water volume are 190 times higher in 1 μm wide fractures than in fractures that are 10 cm wide. To assess the importance of water radiolysis for microbial communities in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> aquifers, we compare electron transfer rates from radiolysis to rates from iron oxidation in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Radiolysis appears likely to be a more important electron donor source than iron oxidation in old (>10 Ma) basement <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Radiolytic H2 production in the volume of water adjacent to a square cm of the most radioactive SPG <span class="hlt">basalt</span> may support as</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P31A2031L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P31A2031L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basalt</span>: Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, D. S. S.; Abercromby, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Kobayashi, L.; Hughes, S. S.; Chappell, S.; Bramall, N. E.; Deans, M. C.; Heldmann, J. L.; Downs, M.; Cockell, C. S.; Stevens, A. H.; Caldwell, B.; Hoffman, J.; Vadhavk, N.; Marquez, J.; Miller, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Cohen, T.; Smith, T.; Lee, G.; Frank, J.; Colaprete, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This presentation will provide an overview of the <span class="hlt">BASALT</span> (Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains) program. <span class="hlt">BASALT</span> research addresses Science, Science Operations, and Technology. Specifically, <span class="hlt">BASALT</span> is focused on the investigation of terrestrial volcanic terrains and their habitability as analog environments for early and present-day Mars. Our scientific fieldwork is conducted under simulated Mars mission constraints to evaluate strategically selected concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities with respect to their anticipated value for the joint human and robotic exploration of Mars. a) Science: The <span class="hlt">BASALT</span> science program is focused on understanding habitability conditions of early and present-day Mars in two relevant Mars-analog locations (the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and the East Rift Zone (ERZ) flows on the Big Island of Hawai'i and the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in Idaho) to characterize and compare the physical and geochemical conditions of life in these environments and to learn how to seek, identify, and characterize life and life-related chemistry in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> environments representing these two epochs of martian history. b) Science Operations: The <span class="hlt">BASALT</span> team will conduct real (non-simulated) biological and geological science at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions (including communication latencies and bandwidth constraints) that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. We will identify which human-robotic ConOps and supporting capabilities enable science return and discovery. c) Technology: <span class="hlt">BASALT</span> will incorporate and evaluate technologies in to our field operations that are directly relevant to conducting the scientific investigations regarding life and life-related chemistry in Mars-analogous terrestrial environments. <span class="hlt">BASALT</span> technologies include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, display technologies, communication</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810041815&hterms=Ants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAnts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810041815&hterms=Ants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAnts"><span id="translatedtitle">Genesis of highland <span class="hlt">basalt</span> breccias - A view from 66095</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garrison, J. R., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Electron microprobe and defocused beam analyses of the lunar highland breccia sample 66095 show it consists of a fine-grained subophitic matrix containing a variety of mineral and lithic clasts, such as intergranular and cataclastic ANT, shocked and unshocked plagioclase, and <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Consideration of the chemistries of both matrix and clasts provides a basis for a qualitative three-component mixing model consisting of an ANT plutonic complex, a Fra Mauro <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and minor meteoric material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001561','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001561"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Content of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Erupted on the ocean floor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Deep sea pillow <span class="hlt">basalts</span> dredged from the ocean floor show that vesicularity changes with composition as well as with depth. Alkalic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are more vesicular than tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> erupted at the same depth. The vesicularity data, when related to experimentally determined solubility of water in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, indicate that K-poor oceanic tholeiites originally contained about 0.25 percent water, Hawaiian tholeiites of intermediate K-content, about 0.5 percent water, and alkali-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, about 0.9 percent water. Analyses of fresh <span class="hlt">basalt</span> pillows show a systematic increase of H2O+ as the rocks become more alkalic. K-poor oceanic tholeiites contain 0.06-0.42 percent H2O+, Hawaiian tholeiites, 0.31-0.60 percent H2O+, and alkali rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> 0.49-0.98 percent H2O+. The contents of K2O, P2O5, F, and Cl increase directly with an increase in H2O+ content such that at 1.0 weight percent H2O+, K2O is 1.58 percent, P2O5 is 0.55 percent, F is 0.07 percent, and Cl is 0.1 percent. The measured weight percent of deuterium on the rim of one Hawaiian pillow is -6.0 (relative to SMOW); this value, which is similar to other indications of magmatic water, suggests that no appreciable sea water was absorbed by the pillow during or subsequent to eruption on the ocean floor. Concentrations of volatile constituents in the alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melts relative to tholeiitic melts can be explained by varying degrees of partial melting of mantle material or by fractional crystallization of a magma batch. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770051881&hterms=gibbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgibbon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770051881&hterms=gibbon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgibbon"><span id="translatedtitle">Shocked <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from Lonar Impact Crater, India, and experimental analogues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kieffer, S. W.; Schaal, R. B.; Gibbons, R.; Horz, F.; Milton, D. J.; Dube, A.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Samples of Lonar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were experimentally shocked in vacuum to pressures between 200 and 650 kbar by a 20 mm, high-velocity gun. Plagioclase and palagonite in experimentally shocked samples show deformation similar to that in the naturally shocked rocks, but pyroxene does not show optically resolvable edge melting. It is estimated that pressures in excess of 800-1000 kbar are required for the formation of totally shock-melted rocks from nonporous <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21779334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21779334"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking hydrothermal geochemistry to organismal physiology: physiological versatility in Riftia pachyptila from sedimented and <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted vents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robidart, Julie C; Roque, Annelys; Song, Pengfei; Girguis, Peter R</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Much of what is known regarding Riftia pachyptila physiology is based on the wealth of studies of tubeworms living at diffuse flows along the fast-spreading, <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted East Pacific Rise (EPR). These studies have collectively suggested that Riftia pachyptila and its chemoautotrophic symbionts are physiologically specialized, highly productive associations relying on hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and oxygen to generate energy for carbon fixation, and the symbiont's nitrate reduction to ammonia for energy and biosynthesis. However, Riftia also flourish in sediment-hosted vents, which are markedly different in geochemistry than <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted systems. Here we present data from shipboard physiological studies and global quantitative proteomic analyses of Riftia pachyptila trophosome tissue recovered from tubeworms residing in the EPR and the Guaymas basin, a sedimented, hydrothermal vent field. We observed marked differences in symbiont nitrogen metabolism in both the respirometric and proteomic data. The proteomic data further suggest that Riftia associations in Guaymas may utilize different sulfur compounds for energy generation, may have an increased capacity for energy storage, and may play a role in degrading exogenous organic carbon. Together these data reveal that Riftia symbionts are far more physiologically plastic than previously considered, and that--contrary to previous assertions--Riftia do assimilate reduced nitrogen in some habitats. These observations raise new hypotheses regarding adaptations to the geochemical diversity of habitats occupied by Riftia, and the degree to which the environment influences symbiont physiology and evolution. PMID:21779334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.1046S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.1046S"><span id="translatedtitle">Absolute magnetization of the seafloor at a <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted hydrothermal site: Insights from a deep-sea submersible survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szitkar, Florent; Dyment, Jérôme; Fouquet, Yves; Choi, Yujin; Honsho, Chie</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The analysis of high-resolution vector magnetic data acquired by deep-sea submersibles (DSSs) requires the development of specific approaches adapted to their uneven tracks. We present a method that takes advantage of (1) the varying altitude of the DSS above the seafloor and (2) high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data acquired separately, at higher altitude, by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, to estimate the absolute magnetization intensity and the magnetic polarity of the shallow subseafloor along the DSS path. We apply this method to data collected by DSS Nautile on a small active <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted hydrothermal site. The site is associated with a lack of magnetization, in agreement with previous findings at the same kind of sites: the contrast between nonmagnetic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits/stockwork zone and strongly magnetized <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is sufficient to explain the magnetic signal observed at such a low altitude. Both normal and reversed polarities are observed in the lava flows surrounding the site, suggesting complex history of accumulating volcanic flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JSAES..69..171K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JSAES..69..171K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Chloritites of the Tocantins Group, Araguaia fold belt, central-northern Brazil: Vestiges of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmatism and metallogenetic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotschoubey, Basile; Villas, Raimundo Netuno; Aires, Benevides</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Chloritites from different localities (Arapoema, Couto Magalhães Velho, Juarina, Morro Grande, Morro do Jabuti, Morro do Pau Ferrado, Morro do Salto, Serra do Jacu, Serra do Quatipuru, Serra do Tapa, Serrinha) of the Araguaia fold belt, Tocantins geotectonic province, central-northern Brazil, have been investigated. Based on field work and petrographic, diffractometric, geochemical and mineral chemistry data, these rocks, commonly associated with metacherts and banded iron formations, have been interpreted as products of ocean-floor exhalative-hydrothermal activity on MORB <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements and diagrams of relatively immobile components in the hydrothermal environment highlight not only the genetic link between the chloritites and the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks that occur in the region (Serra do Tapa and Morro do Agostinho), but also some peculiar characteristics of the submarine environment. The rock association and anomalous contents of Cu, Zn, Ni, As, and Au are suggestive that the region was favorable to the formation of volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits, what makes it a potential target for mineral exploration programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26382506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26382506"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> of the turbulent dynamo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent <span class="hlt">saturation</span> model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The <span class="hlt">saturation</span> level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find <span class="hlt">saturation</span> levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence. PMID:26382506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27099950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27099950"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase Engineering of 2D Tin <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Tin <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432393','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432393"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturating</span> the holographic entropy bound</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Leichenauer, Stefan</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>The covariant entropy bound states that the entropy, S, of matter on a light sheet cannot exceed a quarter of its initial area, A, in Planck units. The gravitational entropy of black holes <span class="hlt">saturates</span> this inequality. The entropy of matter systems, however, falls short of <span class="hlt">saturating</span> the bound in known examples. This puzzling gap has led to speculation that a much stronger bound, S < or approx. A{sup 3/4}, may hold true. In this note, we exhibit light sheets whose entropy exceeds A{sup 3/4} by arbitrarily large factors. In open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, such light sheets contain the entropy visible in the sky; in the limit of early curvature domination, the covariant bound can be <span class="hlt">saturated</span> but not violated. As a corollary, we find that the maximum observable matter and radiation entropy in universes with positive (negative) cosmological constant is of order {Lambda}{sup -1} ({Lambda}{sup -2}), and not |{Lambda}|{sup -3/4} as had hitherto been believed. Our results strengthen the evidence for the covariant entropy bound, while showing that the stronger bound S < or approx. A{sup 3/4} is not universally valid. We conjecture that the stronger bound does hold for static, weakly gravitating systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6618228','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6618228"><span id="translatedtitle">Insulation from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> stamp sand. Final technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, F. D.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC24A..04Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC24A..04Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of geochemical monitoring for CO2 sequestration in <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zakharova, N. V.; Goldberg, D.; Herron, M.; Grau, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is a promising target for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage due to high storage capacity, presence of seals, and potential for geochemical trapping which results in binding CO2 into stable carbonate minerals. The success of long-term CO2 storage in igneous rocks highly depends on our ability to monitor mineralization under in situ conditions. The direct chemistry measurements on cores are costly and typically do not provide continuous coverage. In this study we investigate the potential of borehole geochemical logging for monitoring of CO2 mineralization in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Neutron-induced capture gamma ray spectroscopy tools allow obtaining in-situ concentration logs for up to 10 major elements which can be used to construct a quantitative mineralogical model. While this usually provides good bulk mineralogy estimates, detecting small-volume mineral alteration in volcanic rocks remains challenging, especially if borehole conditions are poor. We analyze Schlumberger Elemental Capture Spectroscopy logs and chemical core analysis from the pilot CO2 sequestration project in the Columbia River flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. We use the geochemical spectroscopy logs and quantitative modeling to quantify their sensitivity to secondary mineralization in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. We apply statistical analysis to explain the variance in elemental concentrations (and other logs) and establish detection limits for various mineral alteration products in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. We use these results to evaluate monitoring capabilities and limitations of geochemical logging for CO2 mineralization after underground injection in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and suggest areas for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017174','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017174"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">basalt</span> trigger for the 1991 eruptions of Pinatubo volcano?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pallister, J.S.; Hoblitt, R.P.; Reyes, A.G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>THE eruptive products of calc-alkaline volcanos often show evidence for the mixing of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and acid magmas before eruption (see, for example, refs 1, 2). These observations have led to the suggestion3 that the injection of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma into the base of a magma chamber (or the catastrophic overturn of a stably stratified chamber containing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma at its base) might trigger an eruption. Here we report evidence for the mixing of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and dacitic magmas shortly before the paroxysmal eruptions of Pinatubo volcano on 15 June 1991. Andesitic scoriae erupted on 12 June contain minerals and glass with disequilibrium compositions, and are considerably more mafic than the dacitic pumices erupted on 15 June. Differences in crystal abundance and glass composition among the pumices may arise from pre-heating of the dacite magma by the underlying <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquid before mixing. Degassing of this <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma may also have contributed to the climatologically important sulphur dioxide emissions that accompanied the Pinatubo eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030169','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030169"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal infrared spectroscopy and modeling of experimentally shocked <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, J. R.; Staid, M.I.; Kraft, M.D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>New measurements of thermal infrared emission spectra (250-1400 cm-1; ???7-40 ??m) of experimentally shocked <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite (17-56 GPa) exhibit changes in spectral features with increasing pressure consistent with changes in the structure of plagioclase feldspars. Major spectral absorptions in unshocked rocks between 350-700 cm-1 (due to Si-O-Si octahedral bending vibrations) and between 1000-1250 cm-1 (due to Si-O antisymmetric stretch motions of the silica tetrahedra) transform at pressures >20-25 GPa to two broad spectral features centered near 950-1050 and 400-450 cm-1. Linear deconvolution models using spectral libraries composed of common mineral and glass spectra replicate the spectra of shocked <span class="hlt">basalt</span> relatively well up to shock pressures of 20-25 GPa, above which model errors increase substantially, coincident with the onset of diaplectic glass formation in plagioclase. Inclusion of shocked feldspar spectra in the libraries improves fits for more highly shocked <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. However, deconvolution models of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite select shocked feldspar end-members even for unshocked samples, likely caused by the higher primary glass content in the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810063493&hterms=Peridotite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DPeridotite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810063493&hterms=Peridotite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DPeridotite"><span id="translatedtitle">Hotspots, <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and the evolution of the mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, D. L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>It is noted that the trace element concentration patterns of continental and ocean island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and of mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are complementary. Estimates of the relative sizes of the source regions for these fundamentally different <span class="hlt">basalt</span> types can be arrived at from the trace element enrichment-depletion patterns. Their combined volume occupies the greater part of the mantle above the 670 km discontinuity. It is pointed out that the source regions separated as a result of early mantle differentiation and crystal fractionation from the resulting melt. The mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> source evolved from an eclogite cumulate that gave up its late-stage enriched fluids at various times to the shallower mantle and continental crust. The mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> source is rich in garnet and clinopyroxene, while the continental and ocean island <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source is a garnet peridotite that has experienced secondary enrichment. These relationships are found to be consistent with the evolution of a terrestrial magma ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7011826','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7011826"><span id="translatedtitle">Meteoric water - <span class="hlt">basalt</span> interactions: a field and laboratory study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gislason, S.R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this study is to define and interpret the composition of the meteoric waters in N.E. Iceland in their cycle through the hydrosphere and the upper part of the crust, and to calibrate the natural process by dissolution experiments done in the laboratory. The composition of rain, snow, spring and geothermal waters from the rift zone of N.E. Iceland can be explained by sea-spray addition (1/10000), dissolution of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and buffering by alteration minerals. Rates, stoichiometry and activation energy of dissolution, pH vs. time and activity-activity paths were determined by dissolving <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks under simulated natural conditions at 25 to 60/sup 0/C. Dissolution follows a linear rate law, with <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass dissolving 10 times faster than the crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Rates are independent of pH from 7 to 10. The average activation energy for dissolution of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass is 31.8 kJ/mol (+/-3). For individual elements leached from crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> it ranges from 35 to 15 kJ/mol. This indicates that under the experimental conditions reactions on the surfaces of the solids are the rate determining step in the dissolution mechanism. Considerable differences (2 to 4 log units) exist in the calculated oxygen fugacities obtained from different redox species in the geothermal fluids. This is primarily caused by the nonequilibrium state of the sulfur redox pair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009074','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009074"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing the Origins of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Fragments fro Apollo 16</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Donohue, P. H.; Stevens, R. E.; Neal, C. R.; Zeigler, R. A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Several 2-4 mm regolith fragments of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from the Apollo 16 site were recently described by [1]. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (65703,9-13). As Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria, identification of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> samples at the site indicates input from remote sites via impact processes [1]. However, distinguishing between impact melt and pristine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> can be notoriously difficult and requires significant sample material [2-6]. The crystal stratigraphy method utilizes essentially non-destructive methods to make these distinctions [7,8]. Crystal stratigraphy combines quantitative petrography in the form of crystal size distributions (CSDs) coupled with mineral geochemistry to reveal the petrogenetic history of samples. The classic CSD plot of crystal size versus population density can reveal insights on growth/cooling rates, residence times, and magma history which in turn can be used to evaluate <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> vs impact melt origin [7-9]. Electron microprobe (EMP) and laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS analyses of mineral phases complement textural investigations. Trace element variations document subtle changes occurring during the formation of the samples, and are key in the interpretation and preservation of this rare lunar sample collection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013CoMP..166..351N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013CoMP..166..351N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Axum-Adwa <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-trachyte complex: a late magmatic activity at the periphery of the Afar plume</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Natali, C.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Siena, F.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The Axum-Adwa igneous complex consists of a <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-trachyte (syenite) suite emplaced at the northern periphery of the Ethiopian plateau, after the paroxysmal eruption of the Oligocene (ca 30 Ma) continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (CFB), which is related to the Afar plume activity. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages, carried out for the first time on felsic and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks, constrain the magmatic age of the greater part of the complex around Axum to 19-15 Ma, whereas trachytic lavas from volcanic centres NE of Adwa are dated ca 27 Ma. The felsic compositions straddle the critical SiO2-<span class="hlt">saturation</span> boundary, ranging from normative quartz trachyte lavas east of Adwa to normative (and modal) nepheline syenite subvolcanic domes (the obelisks stones of ancient axumites) around Axum. Petrogenetic modelling based on rock chemical data and phase equilibria calculations by PELE (Boudreau 1999) shows that low-pressure fractional crystallization processes, starting from mildly alkaline- and alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> comparable to those present in the complex, could generate SiO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> trachytes and SiO2-undersaturated syenites, respectively, which correspond to residual liquid fractions of 17 and 10 %. The observed differentiation processes are consistent with the development of rifting events and formation of shallow magma chambers plausibly located between displaced (tilted) crustal blocks that favoured trapping of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> parental magmas and their fractionation to felsic differentiates. In syenitic domes, late- to post-magmatic processes are sometimes evidenced by secondary mineral associations (e.g. Bete Giorgis dome) which overprint the magmatic parageneses, and mainly induce additional nepheline and sodic pyroxene neo-crystallization. These metasomatic reactions were promoted by the circulation of Na-Cl-rich deuteric fluids (600-400 °C), as indicated by mineral and bulk rock chemical budgets as well as by δ18O analyses on mineral separates. The occurrence of this magmatism post-dating the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24944036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24944036"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> diving; physiology and pathophysiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brubakk, Alf O; Ross, John A S; Thom, Stephen R</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">saturation</span> diving, divers stay under pressure until most of their tissues are <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with breathing gas. Divers spend a long time in isolation exposed to increased partial pressure of oxygen, potentially toxic gases, bacteria, and bubble formation during decompression combined with shift work and long periods of relative inactivity. Hyperoxia may lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that interact with cell structures, causing damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid. Vascular gas-bubble formation and hyperoxia may lead to dysfunction of the endothelium. The antioxidant status of the diver is an important mechanism in the protection against injury and is influenced both by diet and genetic factors. The factors mentioned above may lead to production of heat shock proteins (HSP) that also may have a negative effect on endothelial function. On the other hand, there is a great deal of evidence that HSPs may also have a "conditioning" effect, thus protecting against injury. As people age, their ability to produce antioxidants decreases. We do not currently know the capacity for antioxidant defense, but it is reasonable to assume that it has a limit. Many studies have linked ROS to disease states such as cancer, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and atherosclerosis as well as to old age. However, ROS are also involved in a number of protective mechanisms, for instance immune defense, antibacterial action, vascular tone, and signal transduction. Low-grade oxidative stress can increase antioxidant production. While under pressure, divers change depth frequently. After such changes and at the end of the dive, divers must follow procedures to decompress safely. Decompression sickness (DCS) used to be one of the major causes of injury in <span class="hlt">saturation</span> diving. Improved decompression procedures have significantly reduced the number of reported incidents; however, data indicate considerable underreporting of injuries</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.V51D3064A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.V51D3064A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Plumbing System of a Highly Explosive <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Volcano: Sunset Crater, AZ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allison, C. M.; Roggensack, K.; Clarke, A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We seek to better understand highly explosive <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions with specific focus on magmatic volatile solubility in alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the magma plumbing system. Sunset Crater, an alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (~3.7 wt.% alkalis) scoria cone volcano, erupted explosively in 1085 AD. We analyzed 125 primary melt inclusions (MIs) from Sunset Crater tephra deposited by 2 subplinian phases and 1 Strombolian explosion to compare magma volatiles and storage conditions. We picked rapidly quenched free olivine crystals and selected large volume MIs (50-180 μm) located toward crystal cores. MIs are faceted and exhibit little major element composition variability with minor post entrapment crystallization (2-10%). MIs are relatively dry but CO2-rich. Water content varies from 0.4 wt.% to 1.5 wt.% while carbon dioxide abundance ranges between 1,150 ppm and 3,250 ppm. Most MIs contain >1 wt.% H2O and >2,150 ppm CO2. All observed MIs contain a vapor bubble, so we are evaluating MI vapor bubbles with Raman spectroscopy and re-homogenization experiments to determine the full volatile budget. Because knowledge of volatile solubility is critical to accurately interpret results from MI analyses, we measured H2O-CO2 solubility in the Sunset Crater bulk composition. Fluid-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> experiments at 4 and 6 kbar indicate shallower entrapment pressures for these MIs than values calculated for this composition using existing models. Assuming fluid <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, MIs record depths from 6 km to 14 km, including groupings suggesting two pauses for longer-term storage at ~6 km and ~10.5 km. We do not observe any significant differences in MIs from phases exhibiting different eruptive styles, suggesting that while a high CO2 content may drive rapid magma ascent and be partly responsible for highly explosive eruptions, shallower processes may govern the final eruptive character. To track shallow processes during magma ascent from depth of MI-entrapment up to the surface, we are examining MI re-entrants.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010936','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010936"><span id="translatedtitle">87Sr/86Sr ratios in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from islands in the Indian Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hedge, C.E.; Watkins, N.D.; Hildreth, R.A.; Doering, W.P.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>87Sr/86Sr ratios of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from islands in the Indian Ocean (0.7040) are higher than those of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> dredged from the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge (0.7034). The sources of the island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have apparently not been in equilibrium with the source of the ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> for roughly 109 years. Both ridge and island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the Indian Ocean are higher in 87Sr/86Sr than are rocks from similar settings in the eastern Pacific. ?? 1973.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890023489&hterms=potassium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dpotassium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890023489&hterms=potassium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dpotassium"><span id="translatedtitle">Importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium (VHK) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of five very high potassium (VHK) <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Apollo 14 breccia 14303 shows the presence of a KREEP component. An assimilation and fractional crystallization model is presented to describe the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> evolution. The influence of granite assimilation on the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> evolution is discussed. The presence of VHK <span class="hlt">basalts</span> containing only a granite signature and those with both granite and KREEP signatures suggests that there are at least two different VHK <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows at the Apollo 14 site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJEaS.101.1503K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJEaS.101.1503K"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of Triassic advanced rifting-related Neotethyan submarine <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism of the Darnó Unit (NE-Hungary) with some Dinaridic and Hellenidic occurrences on the basis of volcanological, fluid-rock interaction, and geochemical characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiss, Gabriella; Molnár, Ferenc; Palinkaš, Ladislav A.; Kovács, Sándor; Horvatović, Hazim</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Comparative volcanological, mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of blocks of Triassic submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> occurrences hosted by the Jurassic mélange have been carried out. The studied localities are located in displaced parts of the Dinarides in NE-Hungary (Darnó Unit), in the Dinarides (Kalnik Mts., Croatia and Vareš-Smreka, Bosnia and Herzegovina), and in the Hellenides (Stragopetra, Greece). The common characteristic of the studied occurrences is the well observable result of the lava-water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> sediment mingling, i.e., the presence of the so-called carbonate peperitic facies. Mixing of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava with pelagic lime mud (representing the unconsolidated stage of the red, micritic limestone), as well as fluid inclusion and chlorite thermometry data support that the carbonate peperite was formed above CCD and at the Bosnian locality, a shallower water, about 1.4 km depth is proven. The igneous rocks show mainly within-plate <span class="hlt">basalt</span> geochemical characteristics; MORB signatures are not common. Low temperature (<200°C) hydrothermal alteration is characteristic to the pillow <span class="hlt">basalt</span> blocks with peperitic facies. The similarities in the volcanological, geochemical, and textural characteristics observed at the different localities support a strong genetic connection among them. The results of this study suggest to the advanced rifting stage origin of the Triassic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> suits and their distinction from the true oceanic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> pillow units of the Dinarides can be based on the occurrences of the peperite facies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507613"><span id="translatedtitle">Uniform yolk-shell iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-carbon nanospheres for superior sodium-iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> batteries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yun-Xiao; Yang, Jianping; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua Kun; Zhang, Wei-Xian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Dou, Shi Xue</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Sodium-metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> battery holds great promise for sustainable and cost-effective applications. Nevertheless, achieving high capacity and cycling stability remains a great challenge. Here, uniform yolk-shell iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-carbon nanospheres have been synthesized as cathode materials for the emerging sodium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> battery to achieve remarkable capacity of ∼ 545 mA h g(-1) over 100 cycles at 0.2 C (100 mA g(-1)), delivering ultrahigh energy density of ∼ 438 Wh kg(-1). The proven conversion reaction between sodium and iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> results in high capacity but severe volume changes. Nanostructural design, including of nanosized iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> yolks (∼ 170 nm) with porous carbon shells (∼ 30 nm) and extra void space (∼ 20 nm) in between, has been used to achieve excellent cycling performance without sacrificing capacity. This sustainable sodium-iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> battery is a promising candidate for stationary energy storage. Furthermore, this spatially confined sulfuration strategy offers a general method for other yolk-shell metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-carbon composites. PMID:26507613</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8689W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8689W"><span id="translatedtitle">Uniform yolk-shell iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-carbon nanospheres for superior sodium-iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yun-Xiao; Yang, Jianping; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua Kun; Zhang, Wei-Xian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Dou, Shi Xue</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Sodium-metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> battery holds great promise for sustainable and cost-effective applications. Nevertheless, achieving high capacity and cycling stability remains a great challenge. Here, uniform yolk-shell iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-carbon nanospheres have been synthesized as cathode materials for the emerging sodium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> battery to achieve remarkable capacity of ~545 mA h g-1 over 100 cycles at 0.2 C (100 mA g-1), delivering ultrahigh energy density of ~438 Wh kg-1. The proven conversion reaction between sodium and iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> results in high capacity but severe volume changes. Nanostructural design, including of nanosized iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> yolks (~170 nm) with porous carbon shells (~30 nm) and extra void space (~20 nm) in between, has been used to achieve excellent cycling performance without sacrificing capacity. This sustainable sodium-iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> battery is a promising candidate for stationary energy storage. Furthermore, this spatially confined sulfuration strategy offers a general method for other yolk-shell metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-carbon composites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V13C4799S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V13C4799S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Lava Flow vs. Welded <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Ignimbrite: Determining the Depositional Nature of a Volcanic Flow in the Akaroa Volcanic Complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sexton, E. A.; Hampton, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Welded <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> ignimbrites are one of the rarest forms of ignimbrites found on Earth and can often have characteristics that are indistinguishable from those of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava flows. This study evaluates a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanic flow in a coastal cliff sequence in Raupo Bay, Akaroa Volcanic Complex, Banks Peninsula, New Zealand. The Raupo Bay coastal cliff sequence is comprised of 4 units, termed L1, L2, L3, and A, capped by loess. L1 and L2 are <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas, L3 proximal scoria deposits, which thin inland, and Unit A, a flow with unusual characteristics, which is the focus of this study. Field mapping, sampling, geochemical analysis and petrology were utilized to characterize units. Further detailed structural analysis of Unit A was completed, to determine the nature of the basal contact, variations in welding throughout the unit and the relationship of the layer to the underlying topography. From these analyses it was found: Unit A is thickest in a paleo-valley and thins and mantles higher topography, welding in the unit increases downwards forming topographic controlled columnar jointing, the top of the unit is brecciated and grades into the lower welded/jointed portion, the basal contact is sharp overlying a regional airfall deposit, the unit has a notably distinct geochemical composition from the underlying stratigraphic units, Unit A contains flattened and sheared scoria clasts, has aligned bubbles, and lava lithics. Further thin section analysis of Unit A identified flattened clast boundaries and microlite rimming around phenocrysts. In comparing these features to previous studies on <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas and ignimbrites it is hypothesized that Unit A is a welded <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> ignimbrite that was channelized by paleo-topography on the outer flanks of the Akaroa Volcanic Complex. This study furthers the characterization of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> ignimbrites and is the first to recognize <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> ignimbrites within the Akaroa Volcanic Complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6604173','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6604173"><span id="translatedtitle">Labile <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfite in phytochelatin complexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eannetta, N.T.; Steffens, J.C. )</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>Heavy metals such as cadmium induce tomato cell cultures to synthesize the metal binding polypeptides ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 3} and ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly (phytochelatins). Tomato cells selected for growth on normally lethal concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} synthesize higher quantities of these polypeptides. Cd{sup r} cells are not cross-resistant to other heavy metals, and recent work suggests that metal detoxification by these peptides may be Cd-specific. The occurrence of labile sulfur as a component of the metal complex raises questions concerning possible functions of phytochelatins besides that of Cd binding. The presence of acid-labile <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ion in phytochelatin complexes has been reported by several groups. We report the additional finding that labile sulfite is also present in these complexes and in higher amounts than <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> and sulfite are both released from the metal binding complex by acidification or by treatment with EDTA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5392363','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5392363"><span id="translatedtitle">Icelandic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> geothermal field: A natural analog for nuclear waste isolation in <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E. . Dept. of Geology)</p> <p>1984-11-21</p> <p>Analog studies of Icelandic geothermal fields have shown that the design of nuclear waste repositories in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> can benefit by comparison to the data base already available from the development of these geothermal fields. A high degree of similarity exists between these two systems: their petrology, groundwater geochemistry, mineral solubilities, hydrologic parameters, temperature ranges, water-rock redox equilibria, hydrothermal pH values, and secondary mineralogies all show considerable overlap in the range of values. The experimentally-simulated hydrothermal studies of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> nuclear waste repository rocks have, at this time, produced a data base that receives a strong confirmation from the Icelandic analog. Furthermore, the Icelandic analog should eventually be employed to extrapolate into higher and lower temperatures, into longer time-base chemical comparisons, and into more realistic mineral deposition studies, than have been possible in the laboratory evaluations of the nuclear waste repository designs. This eventual use of the Icelandic analog will require cooperative work with the Icelandic Geological Survey. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000944','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000944"><span id="translatedtitle">Noril'sk/Siberian plateau <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and Bahama hot spot: Impact triggered?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deitz, R. S.; Mchone, J. F.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Twenty-eight years after one of us argued that Sudbury was an astrobleme, this interpretation has only recently attained wide acceptance; not so for the view that the Sudbury Cu/Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores are cosmogenic. Other research has provided the triggering of plateau <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by super-large impacts a modicum of respectability. The recent apparent successful tying in of the K/T extinctions to the Chicxulub astrobleme in the Yucatan encourages the search for an impact event that may have caused the other two major post-Paleozoic extinctions (P/Tr, Tr/J). This gives us heart to offer two further outrageous hypotheses. The cosmogenic concept for the Sudbury ore deposite remains viable because it is giant, nonultramafic, and unique (except for Noril'sk). The Triassic/Jurassic boundary catastrophic extinctions have been attributed to the Manicouagan asteroidal impact, but recent radiometric dating indicates these events are diachronous (Manicouagan astrobleme 212 +/- 2 Ma and Tr/J boundary 200 Ma).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680000271','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680000271"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of silver-activated zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feldman, C.; Swindells, F. E.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>Silver improves luminescence and reduces contamination of zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phosphors. The silver is added after the zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phosphors are deposited in thin films by vapor evaporation, but before calcining, by immersion in a solution of silver salt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4048854','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4048854"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to the rescue in obstructive kidney injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is a gasotransmitter with far reaching effects on cell function. Studies show that depending on the context hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> can function as an ameliorative agent or as a mediator of kidney injury. PMID:24875544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894171"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal with steel making slag.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Kyunghoi; Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Katayama, Misaki; Onoue, Takasumi</p> <p>2012-09-18</p> <p>In the present study, we experimentally investigated the removal of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> using steel-making slag (SMS) and clarified the mechanism of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal with the SMS. The results proved that SMS is able to remove hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> dissolved in water, and the maximum removal amount of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> per unit weight of the SMS for 8 days was estimated to be 37.5 mg S/g. The removal processes of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> were not only adsorption onto the SMS, but oxidation and precipitation as sulfur. The chemical forms of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> adsorbed onto the SMS were estimated to be sulfur and manganese <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the ratio of 81% and 19%, respectively. It is demonstrated here that the SMS is a promising material to remediate organically enriched coastal sediments in terms of removal of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Furthermore, using SMS is expected to contribute to development of a recycling-oriented society. PMID:22894171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031027','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031027"><span id="translatedtitle">Vapor segregation and loss in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Edmonds, M.; Gerlach, T.M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of volcanic gases at Pu'u'O??'o??, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, reveal distinct degassing regimes with respect to vapor segregation and loss during effusive activity in 2004-2005. Three styles of vapor loss are distinguished by the chemical character of the emitted volcanic gases, measured by open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: 1 persistent continuous gas emission, 2 gas piston events, and 3 lava spattering. Persistent continuous gas emission is associated with magma ascent and degassing beneath the crater vents, then eruption of the degassed magma from flank vents. Gas piston events are the result of static gas accumulation at depths of 400-900 m beneath Pu'u'O??'o??. A CO2-rich gas slug travels up the conduit at a few meters per second, displacing magma as it expands. Lava spattering occurs due to dynamic bubble coalescence in a column of relatively stagnant magma. The Large gas bubbles are H2O rich and are generated by open-system degassing at depths of <150 m. Static gas accumulation and dynamic bubble coalescence are both manifestations of vapor segregation in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts, but their implications differ. Accumulation and segregation of CO2-rich vapor at depth does not deplete the melt of H2O (required to drive lava fountains near to the surface) and therefore gas piston events can occur interspersed with lava fountaining activity. Lava spattering, however, efficiently strips H2O-rich vapor from magma beneath the crater vents; the magma must then erupt effusively from vents on the flank of the cone. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrEaS...3...29S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrEaS...3...29S"><span id="translatedtitle">Geomechanical rock properties of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schaefer, Lauren; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Oommen, Thomas; Chigna, Gustavo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability) and mechanical (strength) properties of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala) through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C), and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates) and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003477','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003477"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Microenvironments on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schwenzer, S. P.; Bridges, J. C.; McAdam, A.; Steer, E. D.; Conrad, P. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Grotzinger, J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Sutter, B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Yellowknife Bay (YKB; sol 124-198) is the second site that the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity investigated in detail on its mission in Gale Crater. YKB represents lake bed sediments from an overall neutral pH, low salinity environment, with a mineralogical composition which includes Ca-sulfates, Fe oxide/hydroxides, Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, amorphous material, and trioctahedral phyllosilicates. We investigate whether <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> alteration could be associated with ancient habitable microenvironments in the Gale mudstones. Some textural evidence for such alteration may be pre-sent in the nodules present in the mudstone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JOM....48k..37B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JOM....48k..37B"><span id="translatedtitle">Reviewing <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> corrosion—Yesterday and today</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bornstein, Norman S.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>At one time, <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> corrosion threatened to severely limit the use of gas turbines in marine applications, markedly reduce the life of industrial gas turbines, and affect the performance of aircraft engines. Today, gas turbine engines drive U.S. naval ships, produce electricity, and power aircraft. However, the problem of <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> corrosion has not disappeared. The rapid rate of degradation of airfoil materials in the presence of condensed sulfates is still a concern for gas turbine engines that operate in industrial and marine environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379303"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification of polytype structures of zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Laptev, V.I.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>It is suggested that the existing classification of polytype structures of zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> be supplemented with an additional criterion: the characteristic of regular point systems (Wyckoff positions) including their type, number, and multiplicity. The consideration of the Wyckoff positions allowed the establishment of construction principles of known polytype series of different symmetries and the systematization (for the first time) of the polytypes with the same number of differently packed layers. the classification suggested for polytype structures of zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is compact and provides a basis for creating search systems. The classification table obtained can also be used for numerous silicon carbide polytypes. 8 refs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......381S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......381S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sol-gel processing of metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stanic, Vesha</p> <p></p> <p>Metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> were synthesised via a sol-gel process using various metal alkoxides and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in toluene. Colloidal gels were prepared from germanium ethoxide, germanium isopropoxide, zinc tert-butoxide and tungsten (VI) ethoxide, whereas colloidal powder was produced from tungsten (V) dichloride ethoxide. Special precautions were necessary to protect the reaction mixture from water contamination which produced metal oxides. Results indicated that the main source of water is the hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> gas. In addition, synthesis of metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from a mixture of metal oxide and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was demonstrated by the example of monoclinic germanium disulfide. It was produced by reaction of the sol-gel product with sulfur. Heat treatment of the sol-gel product and sulfur yielded single phase GeSsb2. The sol-gel prepared materials and their heat treated products were characterized by various methods. A chemical kinetics study of the functional groups -OR, -SH and Ssp{2-} was carried out for the sol-gel processing of GeSsb2 from of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and two different alkoxides, germanium ethoxide and germanium isopropoxide. The study was performed for different concentrations of precursors at different molar ratios and temperatures. The results indicate that the proposed reaction mechanism was simplified under appropriate reaction conditions. Experimentally determined rate constants of thiolysis and condensations demonstrate that thiolysis is slow and that condensations are fast steps, regardless of the studied reaction conditions. A study of the temperature effect on the reaction rate constant shows that it increases with temperature in accord with both Arrhenius law and transition-state theory. Activation energies, Esba, and activation parameters DeltaSsp{ddagger}, DeltaHsp{ddagger} and DeltaGsp{ddagger}, were determined for thiolysis and condensation reactions. The potentiometric tiration method was used for quantitative determination of germanium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/381394','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/381394"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176045','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176045"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-containing material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.</p> <p>2006-12-26</p> <p>The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> taiulings, by coating the metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176072','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176072"><span id="translatedtitle">Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Agarwal, Pradeep K.</p> <p>2007-01-16</p> <p>A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to hydrogen and sulfur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015MinDe.tmp...40B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015MinDe.tmp...40B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple sulfur isotope and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of Ni-Cu-PGE magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization of the Monchegorsk Igneous Complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bekker, A.; Grokhovskaya, T. L.; Hiebert, R.; Sharkov, E. V.; Bui, T. H.; Stadnek, K. R.; Chashchin, V. V.; Wing, B. A.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We present the results of a pilot investigation of multiple sulfur isotopes for the Ni-Cu-PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization of the ˜2.5 Ga Monchegorsk Igneous Complex (MIC). Base Metal <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> (BMS) compositions, Platinum Group Element (PGE) distributions, and Platinum Group Mineral (PGM) assemblages were also studied for different types of Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization. The uniformly low S content of the country rocks for the MIC as well as variable Sm-Nd isotope systematics and low-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, PGE-rich mineralization of the MIC suggest that S <span class="hlt">saturation</span> was reached via assimilation of silicates rather than assimilation of sulfur-rich lithologies. R-factor modeling suggests that the mixing ratio for silicate-to-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt was very high, well above 15,000 for the majority of our mineralized samples, as might be expected for the low-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, PGE-rich mineralization of the MIC. Small, negative Δ33S values (from -0.23 to -0.04 ‰) for <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in strongly metamorphosed MIC-host rocks indicate that their sulfur underwent mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation (MIF) in the oxygen-poor Archean atmosphere before it was incorporated into the protoliths of the host paragneisses and homogenized during metamorphism. Ore minerals from the MIC have similar Δ33S values (from -0.21 to -0.06 ‰) consistent with country rock assimilation contributing to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, but, also importantly, our dataset suggests that Δ33S values decrease from the center to the margin of the MIC as well as from early to late magmatic phases, potentially indicating that both local assimilation of host rocks and S homogenization in the central part of the large intrusion took place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016264','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016264"><span id="translatedtitle">As, Bi, Hg, S, Sb, Sn and Te geochemistry of the J-M Reef, Stillwater Complex, Montana: constraints on the origin of PGE-enriched <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in layered intrusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zientek, M.L.; Fries, T.L.; Vian, R.W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals that form the reef may represent a cumulus <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phase that formed as the result of a magma-mixing event, achieved its high PGE contents at that time, and accumulated to form a layer. The rocks outside the reef may contain a large proportion of postcumulus <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals that formed as the last dregs of intercumulus liquids trapped in the interstitial spaces between the cumulus grains reached sulfur <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and exsolved a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid or precipitated a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral. The PGE contents of these <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> would be expected to be less than the cumulus <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> that form the reef since they would have equilibrated with a much smaller volume of silicate liquid. Another explanation is that some of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> droplets that formed as a result of the mixing event were trapped as inclusions in silicate minerals soon after they formed. This would reduce the amount of magma these <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> droplets could equilibrate with and effectively reduce their PGE tenor. ?? 1990.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9538L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9538L"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Oceanic and Continental Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Deposits under Slow-spreading Mid-ocean Ridge Setting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Honglin; Li, Jianghai; Zhang, Huatian</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Recently, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges have attracted lots of researchers, especially in the MAR (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and the Indian Ocean Ridge. People have found many hydrothermal vents or hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits around MAR, such as TAG, Rainbow and Lost City. The slow-spreading ridges are characterized by variations in magmatic, tectonic, and alteration processes along ridge segments. Because of the difficulties of the seafloor exploration, we need an example on the continent for compare with the hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits on mid-ocean ridge. So we found De'erni Cu (Co) ore deposit on the north of Tibet. De'erni Cu (Co) ore deposit is a typical VHMS developing in the north of Tibet, China. The ore body is hosted by the ultramafic rocks of the A'nyemagen ophiolite suite, which is the symbol of the residual crust of Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Through the detailed geological analysis to De'erni Cu (Co) ore deposit, lots of reminded geological records of submarine hydrothermal system, including: 1) thin-layer exhalative rock covering on the ore body; 2) the colloform structure, raspberry-like structure and breccia structure reserved in the porous-type ores; 3) the main mineral composition; 4) the calcite and felsic cement in the synchronization with the pyrite clast; 4) the ore zonality similar to the TAG hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit. According to the TiO2 content in the MORB <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, the approximate half-spreading rate is 1.1-2.5cm/a, of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean represented by the De'erni ophiolite. Comparing to the mineralization processes of present mid-ocean hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits, we insist that De'erni Cu (Co) deposit has experienced three stages: submarine exhalation stage, cooling deposition and subduction emplacement. And the OCC (Oceanic Core Complex) may be the host setting of the submarine hydrothermal exhalation stage. Compared to other similar <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits on the continent in the world, De'erni Cu (Co) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit has a younger age</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6113144','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6113144"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrotreating with catalysts comprising mixtures of an amorphous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or trivalent chromium and microcrystallites of molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or tungsten <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobson, A.J.; Ho, T.C.; Chianelli, R.R.; Steger, J.J.; Montagna, A.A.</p> <p>1989-03-14</p> <p>A process is described for hydrorefining a hydrocarbon feed to reduce the contents of nitrogen compounds and sulfur compounds in the feed which comprises contacting the feed at an elevated temperature of at least about 150/sup 0/C and in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a mixture of (i) an amorphous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> of trivalent chromium and (ii) microcrystallities of a metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> of a metal selected from the group consisting of Mo, W and mixture thereof, the contacting occurring for a time sufficient to hydrorefine at least a portion of the feed. The patent also describes a process for improving the oxidation stability of a nitrogen and sulfur containing lube oil feed which comprises contacting the feed at an elevated temperature of at least about 150/sup 0/C and in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a mixture of (i) an amorphous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> of trivalent chromium and (ii) microcrystallities of metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> of a metal selected from the group consisting of Mo, W and mixture thereof, the contacting occurring for a time sufficient to improve the oxidation stability of the lube oil feed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.173..352F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.173..352F"><span id="translatedtitle">A new lunar high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalt</span> type defined from clasts in Apollo 16 breccia 60639</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fagan, A. L.; Neal, C. R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the detailed examination of three <span class="hlt">basalt</span> clasts from Apollo 16 breccia 60639 that represent a new variant of high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalt</span> returned from the Moon by the Apollo 16 mission. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock analyses were conducted on aliquots from three clasts (breccia matrix, <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> + breccia matrix). The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> clasts, which are not overtly porphyritic, contain compositionally zoned pyroxene, olivine, and plagioclase crystals that represent the evolution of the magma during crystallization; ilmenite does not exhibit major-element compositional zoning within individual crystals. Mineral compositions are distinct between the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and breccia matrix lithologies. In addition, whole-rock analyses identify clear compositional differences between the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and breccia matrix lithologies in both major and trace element concentrations. The composition of the mixed lithology aliquots (i.e., <span class="hlt">basalt</span> + breccia matrix) do not indicate simple two component mixing (i.e., compositions are not intermediate to the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and breccia end-members); this apparent incongruity can be accounted for by adding ∼19-40% plagioclase to an amalgamation of the average <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and individual breccia clast compositions via impact mixing. Whole-rock analyses are consistent with previous analyses of one 60639 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> clast, which were interpreted to indicate chemical similarity with Apollo 11 and 17 <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. However, both major and trace elements suggest that the 60639 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> clasts examined here have compositions that are distinct from Apollo 11 and 17 high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Although the 60639 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> clasts have similar characteristics to a variety of previously identified <span class="hlt">basalt</span> types, the more extensive whole-rock analyses reported here indicate that they represent a type of Apollo high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalt</span> heretofore unrecognized in the Apollo and lunar meteorite collections. By placing these new analyses in the context of other mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> compositions, a petrogenetic model for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec872-1870.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec872-1870.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.1870 - <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1870 <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device. (a) Identification. A <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> detection device is a device consisting of an AC-powered control unit, probe handle, probe... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device. 872.1870 Section...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec872-1870.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec872-1870.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.1870 - <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1870 <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device. (a) Identification. A <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> detection device is a device consisting of an AC-powered control unit, probe handle, probe... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device. 872.1870 Section...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec872-1870.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec872-1870.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.1870 - <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1870 <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device. (a) Identification. A <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> detection device is a device consisting of an AC-powered control unit, probe handle, probe... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detection device. 872.1870 Section...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23273856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23273856"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> inhibition on the ANAMMOX process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Ren-Cun; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Chun; Yu, Jin-Jin; Xing, Bao-Shan</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The feasibility of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process to treat wastewaters containing <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was studied in this work. Serum bottles were used as experimental containers in batch tests to analyze the short-term response of the ANAMMOX process under <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> stress. The IC(50) of <span class="hlt">sulfide-S</span> for ANAMMOX biomass was substrates-dependent and was calculated to be 264 mg L(-1) at an initial total nitrogen level of 200 mg L(-1) (molar ratio of ammonium and nitrite was 1:1). The long-term effects and the performance recovery under <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> stress were continuously monitored and evaluated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. The performance of the ANAMMOX system was halved at an <span class="hlt">sulfide-S</span> level of 32 mg L(-1) within 13 days; however, the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) decreased by only 17.2% within 18 days at an <span class="hlt">sulfide-S</span> concentration of 40 mg L(-1) after long-time acclimatization of sludge in the presence of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The ANAMMOX performance recovered under <span class="hlt">sulfide-S</span> level of 8 mg L(-1) with a steady NRR increasing speed, linear relationship between the NRR and operation time. The synchronic reduce in the specific ANAMMOX activity and the biomass extended the apparent doubling time of the nitrogen removal capacity and decreased biomass growth rate. PMID:23273856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPhA...49GLT01H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPhA...49GLT01H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> of repeated quantum measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haapasalo, Erkka; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kuramochi, Yui</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We study sequential measurement scenarios where the system is repeatedly subjected to the same measurement process. We first provide examples of such repeated measurements where further repetitions of the measurement do not increase our knowledge on the system after some finite number of measurement steps. We also prove, however, that repeating the Lüders measurement of an unsharp two-outcome observable never <span class="hlt">saturates</span> in this sense, and we characterize the observable measured in the limit of infinitely many repetitions. Our result implies that a repeated measurement can be used to correct the inherent noise of an unsharp observable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993051','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993051"><span id="translatedtitle">Gluon Evolution and <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> Proceedings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McLerran, L.D.</p> <p>2010-05-26</p> <p>Almost 40 years ago, Gribov and colleagues at the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute developed the ideas that led to the Dokhsitzer-Gribov-Altarelli-Parisi the Baltisky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equations. These equations describe the evolution of the distributions for quarks and gluon inside a hadron to increased resolution scale of a probe or to smaller values of the fractional momentum of a hadronic constituent. I motivate and discuss the generalization required of these equations needed for high energy processes when the density of constituents is large. This leads to a theory of <span class="hlt">saturation</span> realized by the Color Glass Condensate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B33A0850W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B33A0850W"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of DNA Extraction from Deep-sea <span class="hlt">Basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, H.; Edwards, K. J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Studies on the microorganisms that inhabit deep-sea <span class="hlt">basalt</span> can provide information on this dark ecosystem, which will contribution to our understanding of mass transformation and energy flow in the deep ocean. However, molecular methods for use with metal- and clay-rich rock materials such as <span class="hlt">basalt</span> have not been suitably developed at present, yet are critically required in order to be able to fully evaluate the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> biotope. For example, inefficient DNA extraction might lead to loss of information about important components of this community, and misinterpretation about the total community diversity and function. In order to investigate the effects of sample pretreated method, particle size, different DNA extraction methods and cell density on extracted DNA yields, two <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples were collected from the East Pacific Rise 9° N during research cruise AT11- 20 in Nov 2004. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> samples were crushed to different particle size, washed with ddH2O and 100% ethanol respectively, and autoclaved. Marinobacter aquaeolei cultures with different cell densities were inoculated into differently treated <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples. Pure culture and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples without inoculation were used as positive and negative control to evaluate the extracting efficiency. FastDNA spin for soil kit, GeneClean for ancient DNA kit and UltraCleanTM soil DNA Kit are used for DNA extraction. Results showed that DNA yields increased with culture density. FastDNA spin for soil kit gave the highest DNA yields, which is almost 10 times more than that of UltraCleanTM soil DNA Kit. Ethanol washing and ddH2O washing did not make big difference to DNA yields. Mineral composition and surface areas might also affect DNA yields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP51B1074H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP51B1074H"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleosecular variation, geochemistry, correlation, and timing of Grande Ronde <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> lava flows, Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hagstrum, J. T.; Sawlan, M. G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Co-located paleomagnetic and geochemical sampling of lava flows at eight sections within the Grande Ronde <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (GRB) was undertaken across the Columbia Plateau in WA and OR. The GRB represents roughly 87% (151,000 km3) of the Miocene Columbia River flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province (174,000 km3) by volume (exclusive of the Steens Mountain <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>), and recently published 40Ar/39Ar age estimates indicate that it was most likely emplaced within a time interval of less than 400 ka [Barry et al., Lithos 118(3), 213-222, 2010]. GRB flows include four stratigraphic magnetozones within the formation (R1, N1, R2, N2), and the sections currently sampled are mostly within the upper two magnetozones. Because Plateau GRB flows have undergone pervasive low-temperature alteration to varying degrees [see M. Sawlan's abstract, this meeting], particular care has been taken to collect the freshest available rock. Several new flow units have been identified, and similar, but unusual, paleomagnetic directions in stratigraphically adjacent flows of different chemical composition indicate, with high probability, that these flows were emplaced contemporaneously relative to the rate of geomagnetic paleosecular variation (PSV). Thus, several magma sources and their vent systems apparently operated nearly simultaneously and produced a stratigraphic framework in which compositionally distinct flows are intercalated. In addition, transitional directions have been found in flows near the N1/R2 and R2/N2 geomagnetic reversal boundaries, and an excursion to low inclinations occurred during emplacement of the Winter Water member (N2) flows. The detail and sequential nature of the PSV curve recovered from the upper GRB lava flows (R2 & N2) so far indicate extraordinarily rapid eruption of these flows. Comparison of the rate of change shown by our nascent PSV curve for the upper GRB with a recently published one for the Holocene of western North America [Hagstrum and Blinman, G3 11(6), 2010], which covers in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B33C0442G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B33C0442G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for the Presence of Colloidal Metacinnabar in Mercury-DOM-<span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Systems as Determined by a Chromatographic-EXAFS Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerbig, C. A.; Kim, C. S.; Moreau, J. W.; Aiken, G. R.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Nagy, K. L.; Ryan, J. N.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Mercury speciation and bioavailability is frequently thought to be controlled by the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. However, the speciation of mercury in these systems is poorly understood due to the complex interactions of mercury, DOM, and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. We have developed a combined chromatographic-extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy approach to determine the speciation of the hydrophobic fraction of mercury species in both <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-free and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich (100 μM) experimental systems that also contain dissolved organic matter isolated from several locations, including the Florida Everglades. Chromatographic experiments were carried out with and without <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> at varied mercury concentrations ranging from 0.1 nM to 1 μM in the presence of 10 mg L-1 DOM. The method consists of equilibrating the mercury-DOM with or without <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> for 20 h (pH 6.5, I 0.1M) followed by chromatographic fractionation and concentration on a small column of C18 resin. Greater than 80% of the mercury in all solutions was found to be hydrophobic with respect to the resin when the mercury was interacting with the strong-binding DOM sites. The chromatographic behavior of solutions with and without <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was distinctly different. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>-free mercury-DOM systems exhibited typical chromatographic behavior exemplified by resin <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and subsequent breakthrough of mercury species. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich system exhibited very high resin affinity for almost all mercury species in solution and no apparent breakthrough, regardless of the ratio of mercury to DOM. Similar chromatographic experiments were carried out with and without <span class="hlt">sul