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Sample records for base extension technique

  1. A single base extension technique for the analysis of known mutations utilizing capillary gel electrophoreisis with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Brazill, Sara A; Kuhr, Werner G

    2002-07-15

    A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection system is described in which the accuracy of DNA polymerase and advantages of electrochemical detection are demonstrated. A model SNP system is presented to illustrate the potential advantages in coupling the single base extension (SBE) technique to capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) with electrochemical detection. An electrochemically labeled primer, with a ferrocene acetate covalently attached to its 5' end, is used in the extension reaction. When the Watson-Crick complementary ddNTP is added to the SBE reaction, the primer is extended by a single nucleotide. The reaction mixture is subsequently separated by CGE, and the ferrocene-tagged fragments are detected at the separation anode with sinusoidal voltammetry. This work demonstrates the first single base resolution separation of DNA coupled with electrochemical detection. The unextended primer (20-mer) and the 21-mer extension product are separated with a resolution of 0.8. PMID:12139049

  2. DNA Microarray Based on Arrayed-Primer Extension Technique for Identification of Pathogenic Fungi Responsible for Invasive and Superficial Mycoses▿

    PubMed Central

    Campa, Daniele; Tavanti, Arianna; Gemignani, Federica; Mogavero, Crocifissa S.; Bellini, Ilaria; Bottari, Fabio; Barale, Roberto; Landi, Stefano; Senesi, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    An oligonucleotide microarray based on the arrayed-primer extension (APEX) technique has been developed to simultaneously identify pathogenic fungi frequently isolated from invasive and superficial infections. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes complementary to the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) region were designed for 24 species belonging to 10 genera, including Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida famata, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida pulcherrima), Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus), Trichophyton species (Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans), Trichosporon cutaneum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Fusarium solani, Microsporum canis, Penicillium marneffei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The microarray was tested for its specificity with a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The APEX technique was proven to be highly discriminative, leading to unequivocal identification of each species, including the highly related ones C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Because of the satisfactory basic performance traits obtained, such as reproducibility, specificity, and unambiguous interpretation of the results, this new system represents a reliable method of potential use in clinical laboratories for parallel one-shot detection and identification of the most common pathogenic fungi. PMID:18160452

  3. A study of FM threshold extension techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Loch, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of three postdetection threshold extension techniques are evaluated with respect to the ability of such techniques to improve the performance of a phase lock loop demodulator. These techniques include impulse-noise elimination, signal correlation for the detection of impulse noise, and delta modulation signal processing. Experimental results from signal to noise ratio data and bit error rate data indicate that a 2- to 3-decibel threshold extension is readily achievable by using the various techniques. This threshold improvement is in addition to the threshold extension that is usually achieved through the use of a phase lock loop demodulator.

  4. Extension of an Itô-based general approximation technique for random vibration of a BBW general hysteris model part II: Non-Gaussian analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, H.; Noori, M.

    1990-07-01

    The work presented in this paper constitutes the second phase of on-going research aimed at developing mathematical models for representing general hysteretic behavior of structures and approximation techniques for the computation and analysis of the response of hysteretic systems to random excitations. In this second part, the technique previously developed by the authors for the Gaussian response analysis of non-linear systems with general hysteretic behavior is extended for the non-Gaussian analysis of these systems. This approximation technique is based on the approach proposed independently by Ibrahim and Wu-Lin. In this work up to fourth order moments of the response co-ordinates are obtained for the Bouc-Baber-Wen smooth hysteresis model. These higher order statistics previously have not been made available for general hysteresis models by using existing approximation methods. Second order moments obtained for the model by this non-Gaussian closure scheme are compared with equivalent linearization and Gaussian closure results via Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Higher order moments are compared with the simulation results. The study performed for a wide range of degradation parameters and input power spectral density ( PSD) levels shows that the non-Gaussian responses obtained by this approach are in better agreement with the MCS results than the linearized and Gaussian ones. This approximation technique can provide information on higher order moments for general hysteretic systems. This information is valuable in random vibration and the reliability analysis of hysteretically yielding structures.

  5. A comparison of four streamflow record extension techniques.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    One approach to developing time series of streamflow, which may be used for simulation and optimization studies of water resources development activities, is to extend an existing gage record in time by exploiting the interstation correlation between the station of interest and some nearby (long-term) base station. Four methods of extension are described, and their properties are explored. -from Author

  6. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  7. Arena Roof Technique for Complex Reconstruction After Extensive Chest Wall Resection.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Gaetano; La Rocca, Antonello; La Manna, Carmine; Martucci, Nicola; De Luca, Giuseppe; Accardo, Rosanna

    2015-10-01

    Extensive primary resections or redos may produce significant chest wall defects requiring creative reconstructions in order to avoid reduction of the intrathoracic volume. We describe the successful use of an innovative technique for chest wall reconstruction based on the concept of roof coverage of sport arenas. In fact, titanium plates are anchored to the residual rib stumps along the parasternal and paravertebral lines. The acellular collagen matrix prosthesis was sutured to the free edges of the same titanium plates to create a roof, reproducing the chest wall dome geometric configuration. A 36-year-old female patient was diagnosed with an extensive desmoid tumor involving the lateral segments of second to fifth ribs on the right side. The arena roof technique allowed for adequate expansion of the uninvolved lung and optimal chest wall functional recovery. PMID:26434458

  8. Percutaneous nephrostomy with extensions of the technique: step by step.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Raymond B; Regan, John D; Kavanagh, Peter V; Khatod, Elaine G; Chen, Michael Y; Zagoria, Ronald J

    2002-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy in the urinary tract begins with renal access by means of percutaneous nephrostomy. Indications for percutaneous nephrostomy include urinary diversion, treatment of nephrolithiasis and complex urinary tract infections, ureteral intervention, and nephroscopy and ureteroscopy. Bleeding complications can be minimized by entering the kidney in a relatively avascular zone created by branching of the renal artery. The specific site of renal entry is dictated by the indication for access with consideration of the anatomic constraints. Successful percutaneous nephrostomy requires visualization of the collecting system for selection of an appropriate entry site. The definitive entry site is then selected; ideally, the entry site should be subcostal and lateral to the paraspinous musculature. Small-bore nephrostomy tracks can be created over a guide wire coiled in the renal pelvis. A large-diameter track may be necessary for percutaneous stone therapy, nephroscopy, or antegrade ureteroscopy. The most common extension of percutaneous nephrostomy is placement of a ureteral stent for treatment of obstruction. Transient hematuria occurs in virtually every patient after percutaneous nephrostomy, but severe bleeding that requires transfusion or intervention is uncommon. In patients with an obstructed urinary tract complicated by infection, extensive manipulations pose a risk of septic complications. PMID:12006684

  9. Scan-Based Implementation of JPEG 2000 Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rountree, Janet C.; Webb, Brian N.; Flohr, Thomas J.; Marcellin, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    JPEG 2000 Part 2 (Extensions) contains a number of technologies that are of potential interest in remote sensing applications. These include arbitrary wavelet transforms, techniques to limit boundary artifacts in tiles, multiple component transforms, and trellis-coded quantization (TCQ). We are investigating the addition of these features to the low-memory (scan-based) implementation of JPEG 2000 Part 1. A scan-based implementation of TCQ has been realized and tested, with a very small performance loss as compared with the full image (frame-based) version. A proposed amendment to JPEG 2000 Part 2 will effect the syntax changes required to make scan-based TCQ compatible with the standard.

  10. Flexible use and technique extension of logistics management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Furong

    2011-10-01

    As we all know, the origin of modern logistics was in the United States, developed in Japan, became mature in Europe, and expanded in China. This is a historical development of the modern logistics recognized track. Due to China's economic and technological development, and with the construction of Shanghai International Shipping Center and Shanghai Yangshan International Deepwater development, China's modern logistics industry will attain a leap-forward development of a strong pace, and will also catch up with developed countries in the Western modern logistics level. In this paper, the author explores the flexibility of China's modern logistics management techniques to extend the use, and has certain practical and guidance significances.

  11. Biomechanical analysis of press-extension technique on degenerative lumbar with disc herniation and staggered facet joint.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong-Gen; Liao, Sheng-Hui; Jiang, Zhong; Huang, Huan-Ming; Ning, Xi-Tao; Jiang, Neng-Yi; Pei, Jian-Wei; Huang, Qin; Wei, Hui

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new Chinese massage technique named "press-extension" on degenerative lumbar with disc herniation and facet joint dislocation, and provides a biomechanical explanation of this massage technique. Self-developed biomechanical software was used to establish a normal L1-S1 lumbar 3D FE model, which integrated the spine CT and MRI data-based anatomical structure. Then graphic technique is utilized to build a degenerative lumbar FE model with disc herniation and facet joint dislocation. According to the actual press-extension experiments, mechanic parameters are collected to set boundary condition for FE analysis. The result demonstrated that press-extension techniques bring the annuli fibrosi obvious induction effect, making the central nucleus pulposus forward close, increasing the pressure in front part. Study concludes that finite element modelling for lumbar spine is suitable for the analysis of press-extension technique impact on lumbar intervertebral disc biomechanics, to provide the basis for the disease mechanism of intervertebral disc herniation using press-extension technique. PMID:27275119

  12. Extension and Home-Based Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loker, Suzanne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Building Home Businesses in Rural Communities" (Loker et al.); "Home-Based Business...A Means to Economic Growth in Rural Areas" (Bastow-Shoop et al.); "Business Not As Usual" (Millar, Mallilo); and "Economic Options for Farm Families" (Williams). (SK)

  13. Space-based observation of the extensive airshowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, T.

    2013-06-01

    Space based observations of extensive air showers constitute the next experimental challenge for the study of the universe at extreme energy. Space observation will allow a "quantum jump" in the observational area available to detect the UV light tracks produced by particles with energies higher than 1020 eV. These are thought to reach the Earth almost undeflected by the cosmic magnetic field. This new technique will contribute to establish the new field of astronomy and astrophysics performed with charged particles and neutrinos at the highest energies. This idea was created by the incredible efforts of three outstanding comic ray physicists: John Linsley, Livio Scarsi, and Yoshiyuki Takahashi. This challenging technique has four significant merits in comparison with ground-based observations: 1) Very large observational area, 2) Well constrained distances of the showers, 3) Clear and stable atmospheric transmission in the above half troposphere, 4) Uniform Exposure across both the north and south skies. Four proposed and planned missions constitute the roadmap of the community: TUS, JEM-EUSO, KLPVE, and Super-EUSO will contribute step-by-step to establish this challenging field of research.

  14. Research on Customer Value Based on Extension Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun-Yan, Yang; Wei-Hua, Li

    Extenics is a new discipline for dealing with contradiction problems with formulize model. Extension data mining (EDM) is a product combining Extenics with data mining. It explores to acquire the knowledge based on extension transformations, which is called extension knowledge (EK), taking advantage of extension methods and data mining technology. EK includes extensible classification knowledge, conductive knowledge and so on. Extension data mining technology (EDMT) is a new data mining technology that mining EK in databases or data warehouse. Customer value (CV) can weigh the essentiality of customer relationship for an enterprise according to an enterprise as a subject of tasting value and customers as objects of tasting value at the same time. CV varies continually. Mining the changing knowledge of CV in databases using EDMT, including quantitative change knowledge and qualitative change knowledge, can provide a foundation for that an enterprise decides the strategy of customer relationship management (CRM). It can also provide a new idea for studying CV.

  15. Primer Extension Reactions for the PCR- based α- complementation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Achuthan, Vasudevan; DeStefano, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    The PCR- based- α- complementation assay is an effective technique to measure the fidelity of polymerases, especially RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRP) and Reverse Transcriptases (RT). It has been successfully employed to determine the fidelity of the poliovirus polymerase 3D-pol (DeStefano, 2010) as well as the human immunodeficiency virus Reverse Transcriptase (HIV RT) (Achuthan et al., 2014). A major advantage of the assay is that since the PCR step is involved, even the low yield of products obtained after two rounds of low yield of RNA synthesis (for RDRP) or reverse transcription (for RT) can be measured using the assay. The assay also mimics the reverse transcription process, since both RNA- and DNA- directed RT synthesis steps are performed. We recently used this assay to show that the HIV RT, at physiologically relevant magnesium concentration, has accuracy in the same range as other reverse transcriptases (Achuthan et al., 2014). Here, we describe in detail how to prepare the inserts using the primer extension reactions. The prepared inserts are then processed further in the PCR- based- α- complementation assay.

  16. Availability analysis and design of storage extension based on CWDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Leihua; Yu, Yan

    2007-11-01

    As Fibre Channel becomes the key storage protocol of SAN (Storage Area Network), enterprises are increasingly deploying FC SANs in their data central. Meanwhile, organizations increasingly face an enormous influx of data that must be stored, protected, backed up and replicated for mitigating the risk of losing data. One of the best ways to achieve this goal is to deploy SAN extension based on CWDM(Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing). Availability is one of the key performance metrics for business continuity and disaster recovery and has to be well understood by IT departments when deploying SAN extension based on CWDM, for it determines accessibility to remotely located data sites. In this paper, several architecture of storage extension over CWDM is analyzed and the availability of this different storage extension architecture are calculated. Further more, two kinds of high availability storage extension architecture with 1:1 or 1:N protection is designed, and the availability of protection schema storage extension based on CWDM is calculated too.

  17. Epidural volume extension: A novel technique and its efficacy in high risk cases.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Ratan; Anupam, Rudra Pratap; Ganguly, S; Tomar, Gaurav Singh

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique case series restricting ourselves only to the high-risk case of different specialities who underwent successful surgery in our Institute by using epidural volume extension's technique using 1 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine and 25 μg of fentanyl. PMID:25885627

  18. Designing and application of SAN extension interface based on CWDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Leihua; Yu, Shengsheng; Zhou, Jingli

    2005-11-01

    As Fibre Channel (FC) becomes the protocol of choice within corporate data centers, enterprises are increasingly deploying SANs in their data central. In order to mitigate the risk of losing data and improve the availability of data, more and more enterprises are increasingly adopting storage extension technologies to replicate their business critical data to a secondary site. Transmitting this information over distance requires a carrier grade environment with zero data loss, scalable throughput, low jitter, high security and ability to travel long distance. To address this business requirements, there are three basic architectures for storage extension, they are Storage over Internet Protocol, Storage over Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH) and Storage over Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM). Each approach varies in functionality, complexity, cost, scalability, security, availability , predictable behavior (bandwidth, jitter, latency) and multiple carrier limitations. Compared with these connectiviy technologies,Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) is a Simplified, Low Cost and High Performance connectivity solutions for enterprises to deploy their storage extension. In this paper, we design a storage extension connectivity over CWDM and test it's electrical characteristic and random read and write performance of disk array through the CWDM connectivity, testing result show us that the performance of the connectivity over CWDM is acceptable. Furthermore, we propose three kinds of network architecture of SAN extension based on CWDM interface. Finally the credit-Based flow control mechanism of FC, and the relationship between credits and extension distance is analyzed.

  19. Extension and Home-Based Business: A Collaborative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn; Biers, Karen

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Home-Based Entrepreneurship at Oklahoma State University developed from collaborative efforts of extension, government agencies, business associations, and the vo-tech system. It provides education, directories, information services, and other assistance to people interested in establishing businesses in their homes. (SK)

  20. An Extension Dynamic Model Based on BDI Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wang; Feng, Zhu; Hua, Geng; WangJing, Zhu

    this paper's researching is based on the model of BDI Agent. Firstly, This paper analyze the deficiencies of the traditional BDI Agent model, Then propose an extension dynamic model of BDI Agent based on the traditional ones. It can quickly achieve the internal interaction of the tradition model of BDI Agent, deal with complex issues under dynamic and open environment and achieve quick reaction of the model. The new model is a natural and reasonable model by verifying the origin of civilization using the model of monkeys to eat sweet potato based on the design of the extension dynamic model. It is verified to be feasible by comparing the extended dynamic BDI Agent model with the traditional BDI Agent Model uses the SWARM, it has important theoretical significance.

  1. Attitudes of Purdue Extension Field-Based Professionals and County Extension Board Members towards the Internationalization of Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, William Charles

    2009-01-01

    Communities and counties in Indiana are continuing to become more diverse. An influx of immigrants over the past years is very evident in some locations. They come for good employment or because they have been displaced from their homelands. In any case, they soon become a part of the fabric of each community in which they settle. Extension has…

  2. Anterior Ridge Extension Using Modified Kazanjian Technique in Mandible- A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jagannadham Vijay; Chakravarthi, Pandi Srinivas; Sridhar, Meka; Devi, Kolli Naga Neelima; Lingamaneni, Krishna Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Good alveolar ridge is a prerequisite for successful conventional/ implant supported partial/complete denture. Extensively resorbed ridges with shallow vestibule and high insertion of muscles in to the ridge crest, leads to failure of prosthesis. Success of prosthesis depends on surgical repositioning of mucosa and muscle insertions, which increases the depth of vestibule and denture flange area for retention. So, the study was planned to provide good attached gingiva with adequate vestibular depth using Modified Kazanjian Vestibuloplasty (MKV). Aim To evaluate efficacy of MKV technique for increasing vestibular depth in anterior mandible so that successful prosthesis can be delivered. Efficacy of the technique was evaluated through operating time required, vestibular depth achieved, scarring or relapse and any postoperative complications associated with the healing. Materials and Methods Total of 10 patients were included in the study, who had minimum 20mm of bone height and less than 5mm of vestibular depth for MKV procedure. The results were tabulated and statistical analysis was carried out to assess vestibular depth achieved i.e. from crest of the ridge to junction of attached mucosa both pre and postoperatively. The study results were compared with existing literature. Results Healing of raw surface was uneventful with satisfactory achievement of vestibular depth. The average gain in vestibular depth was 11 mm. The patients had good satisfaction index for prosthesis. Conclusion Even in the era of implant prosthesis Modified Kazanjian technique is worth to practice to achieve good results and overcorrection is not required as that of standard Kazanjian technique. It provides adequate attached gingiva for successful prosthesis. Extension of vestibular depth enables fabrication of better denture flange with improved oral hygiene. This technique does not require hospitalization and additional surgery for grafts. PMID:27042579

  3. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  4. A useful technique for adjusting nasal tip projection in Asian rhinoplasty: Trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Cheng; Lin, Deng-Shan; Wang, Hsing-Won; Kao, Chuan-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present our experience with Asian patients in (1) using a trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage graft to adjust the tip projection in tip refinement for augmentation rhinoplasty, especially for the correction of short nose, and (2) avoiding complications of augmentation rhinoplasty with alloplastic implants. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 358 rhinoplasties that were performed by the corresponding author from January 2004 through July 2009. Patients were included in this study if they had undergone open rhinoplasty with a trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage graft as the only tip-modifying procedure. Patients in whom any additional grafting was performed that might have altered the nasal tip position were excluded. The surgical results were analyzed in terms of the degree of satisfaction judged separately by investigators and by patients. A total of 84 patients-46 males and 38 females, all Asians, aged 13 to 61 years (mean: 29.3)-met our eligibility criteria. Postoperative follow-up for 24 months was achieved in 62 patients. At the 24-month follow-up, the surgeons judged the results to be good or very good in 57 of the 62 patients (91.9%); at the same time, 56 patients (90.3%) said they were satisfied or very satisfied with their aesthetic outcome. Good nasal tip projection, a natural columellar appearance, and improvement in the nasolabial angle were achieved for most patients. Two patients required revision rhinoplasty to correct an insufficient augmentation and migration of the onlay graft. No severe complications were observed during the 2-year follow-up. We have found that trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting in nasal tip refinement is an easy technique to learn and execute, its results are predictable, and it has been associated with no major complications. We recommend trapezoidal caudal extension cartilage grafting for Asian patients as a good and reliable alternative for managing tip projection

  5. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  6. Automatic assessment of mitral regurgitation severity based on extensive textural features on 2D echocardiography videos.

    PubMed

    Moghaddasi, Hanie; Nourian, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    Heart disease is the major cause of death as well as a leading cause of disability in the developed countries. Mitral Regurgitation (MR) is a common heart disease which does not cause symptoms until its end stage. Therefore, early diagnosis of the disease is of crucial importance in the treatment process. Echocardiography is a common method of diagnosis in the severity of MR. Hence, a method which is based on echocardiography videos, image processing techniques and artificial intelligence could be helpful for clinicians, especially in borderline cases. In this paper, we introduce novel features to detect micro-patterns of echocardiography images in order to determine the severity of MR. Extensive Local Binary Pattern (ELBP) and Extensive Volume Local Binary Pattern (EVLBP) are presented as image descriptors which include details from different viewpoints of the heart in feature vectors. Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Template Matching techniques are used as classifiers to determine the severity of MR based on textural descriptors. The SVM classifier with Extensive Uniform Local Binary Pattern (ELBPU) and Extensive Volume Local Binary Pattern (EVLBP) have the best accuracy with 99.52%, 99.38%, 99.31% and 99.59%, respectively, for the detection of Normal, Mild MR, Moderate MR and Severe MR subjects among echocardiography videos. The proposed method achieves 99.38% sensitivity and 99.63% specificity for the detection of the severity of MR and normal subjects. PMID:27082766

  7. Extension of the broadband single-mode integrated optical waveguide technique to the ultraviolet spectral region and its applications.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S; Mendes, Sergio B

    2014-03-21

    We report here the fabrication, characterization, and application of a single-mode integrated optical waveguide (IOW) spectrometer capable of acquiring optical absorbance spectra of surface-immobilized molecules in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region down to 315 nm. The UV-extension of the single-mode IOW technique to shorter wavelengths was made possible by our development of a low-loss single-mode dielectric waveguide in the UV region based on an alumina film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a high quality fused silica substrate, and by our design/fabrication of a broadband waveguide coupler formed by an integrated diffraction grating combined with a highly anamorphic optical beam of large numerical aperture. As an application of the developed technology, we report here the surface adsorption process of bacteriochlorophyll a on different interfaces using its Soret absorption band centred at 370 nm. The effects of different chemical compositions at the solid-liquid interface on the adsorption and spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll a were determined from the polarized UV-Vis IOW spectra acquired with the developed instrumentation. The spectral extension of the single-mode IOW technique into the ultraviolet region is an important advance as it enables extremely sensitive studies in key characteristics of surface molecular processes (e.g., protein unfolding and solvation of aromatic amino-acid groups under surface binding) whose spectral features are mainly located at wavelengths below the visible spectrum. PMID:24466569

  8. Extension of the broadband single-mode integrated optical waveguide technique to the ultraviolet spectral region and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S.; Mendes, Sergio B.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the fabrication, characterization, and application of a single-mode integrated optical waveguide (IOW) spectrometer capable of acquiring optical absorbance spectra of surface-immobilized molecules in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region down to 315 nm. The UV-extension of the single-mode IOW technique to shorter wavelengths was made possible by our development of a low-loss single-mode dielectric waveguide in the UV region based on an alumina film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a high quality fused silica substrate, and by our design/fabrication of a broadband waveguide coupler formed by an integrated diffraction grating combined with a highly anamorphic optical beam of large numerical aperture. As an application of the developed technology, we report here the surface adsorption process of bacteriochlorophyll a on different interfaces using its Soret absorption band centred at 370 nm. The effects of different chemical compositions at the solid/liquid interface on the adsorption and spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll a were determined from the polarized UV-Vis IOW spectra acquired with the developed instrumentation. The spectral extension of the single-mode IOW technique into the ultraviolet region is an important advance as it enables extremely sensitive studies in key characteristics of surface molecular processes (e.g., protein unfolding and solvation of aromatic amino-acid groups under surface binding) whose spectral features are mainly located at wavelengths below the visible spectrum. PMID:24466569

  9. Feature-Based Registration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Klinder, Tobias; von Berg, Jens

    In contrast to intensity-based image registration, where a similarity measure is typically evaluated at each voxel location, feature-based registration works on a sparse set of image locations. Therefore, it needs an explicit step of interpolation to supply a dense deformation field. In this chapter, the application of feature-based registration to pulmonary image registration as well as hybrid methods, combining feature-based with intensity-based registration, is discussed. In contrast to pure feature based registration methods, hybrid methods are increasingly proposed in the pulmonary context and have the potential to out-perform purely intensity based registration methods. Available approaches will be classified along the categories feature type, correspondence definition, and interpolation type to finally achieve a dense deformation field.

  10. Extensibility in Model-Based Business Process Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Mario; Jiménez, Camilo; Villalobos, Jorge; Deridder, Dirk

    An organization’s ability to embrace change, greatly depends on systems that support their operation. Specifically, process engines might facilitate or hinder changes, depending on their flexibility, their extensibility and the changes required: current workflow engine characteristics create difficulties in organizations that need to incorporate some types of modifications. In this paper we present Cumbia, an extensible MDE platform to support the development of flexible and extensible process engines. In a Cumbia process, models represent participating concerns (control, resources, etc.), which are described with concern-specific languages. Cumbia models are executed in a coordinated way, using extensible engines specialized for each concern.

  11. Service-based extensions to the JDL fusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2008-04-01

    Extensions to a previously developed service-based fusion process model are presented. The model accommodates (1) traditional sensor data and human-generated input, (2) streaming and non-streaming data feeds, and (3) the fusion of both physical and non-physical entities. More than a dozen base-level fusion services are identified. These services provide the foundation functional decomposition of levels 0 - 2 in JDL fusion model. Concepts, such as clustering, link analysis and database mining, that have traditionally been only loosely associated with the fusion process, are shown to play key roles within this fusion framework. Additionally, the proposed formulation extends the concepts of tracking and cross-entity association to non-physical entities, as well as supports effective exploitation of a priori and derived context knowledge. Finally, the proposed framework is shown to support set theoretic properties, such as equivalence and transitivity, as well as the development of a pedigree summary metric that characterizes the informational distance between individual fused products and source data.

  12. Extension Clientele Preferences: Accessing Research-Based Information Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    Research has indicated there are a number of benefits to Extension educators in delivering educational program and content through distance technology methods. However, Extension educators are commonly apprehensive about this transition due to assumptions made about their clientele, because little research has been conducted to examine…

  13. An extension to the dynamic plane source technique for measuring thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of dielectric solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karawacki, Ernest; Suleiman, Bashir M.; ul-Haq, Izhar; Nhi, Bui-Thi

    1992-10-01

    The recently developed dynamic plane source (DPS) technique for simultaneous determination of the thermal properties of fast thermally conducting materials with thermal conductivities between 200 and 2 W/mK has now been extended for studying relatively slow conducting materials with thermal conductivities equal or below 2 W/mK. The method is self-checking since the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity specific heat, and effusivity of the material are obtained independently from each other. The theory of the technique and the experimental arrangement are given in detail. The data evaluation procedure is simple and makes it possible to reveal the distortions due to the nonideal experimental conditions. The extension to the DPS technique has been implemented at room temperature to study the samples of cordierite-based ceramic Cecorite 130P (thermal conductivity equal to 1.48 W/mK), rubber (0.403 W/mK), and polycarbonate (0.245 W/mK). The accuracy of the method is within ±5%.

  14. Comparison of Three Techniques to Monitor Bathymetric Evolution in a Spatially Extensive, Rapidly Changing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, J.; Ruessink, G.

    2014-12-01

    The wide variety in spatial and temporal scales inherent to nearshore morphodynamics, together with site-specific environmental characteristics, complicate our current understanding and predictive capability of large (~ km)-scale, long-term (seasons-years) sediment transport patterns and morphologic evolution. The monitoring of this evolution at all relevant scales demands a smart combination of multiple techniques. Here, we compare depth estimates derived from operational optical (Argus video) and microwave (X-band radar) remote sensing with those from jet-ski echo-sounding in an approximately 2.5 km2 large region at the Sand Engine, a 20 Mm3 mega-nourishment at the Dutch coast. Using depth inversion techniques based on linear wave theory, frequent (hourly-daily) bathymetric maps were derived from instantaneous Argus video and X-band radar imagery. Jet-ski surveys were available every 2 to 3 months. Depth inversion on Argus imagery overestimates surveyed depths by up to 0.5 m in shallow water (< 2 m), but underestimates larger water depths (> 5m) by up to 1 m. Averaged over the entire subtidal study area, the errors canceled in volumetric budget computations. Additionally, estimates of shoreline and subtidal sandbar positions were derived from Argus imagery and jet-ski surveys. Sandbar crest positions extracted from daily low-tide time-exposure Argus images reveal a persistent onshore offset of some 20 m, but do show the smaller temporal variability not visible from jet-ski surveys. Potential improvements to the applied depth-inversion technique will be discussed.

  15. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  16. Techniques for Enhancing Web-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Kathy; Mehringer, Susan

    The Virtual Workshop is a World Wide Web-based set of modules on high performance computing developed at the Cornell Theory Center (CTC) (New York). This approach reaches a large audience, leverages staff effort, and poses challenges for developing interesting presentation techniques. This paper describes the following techniques with their…

  17. Two dimensional restoration of seismic reflection profiles from Mozambique: technique for assessing rift extension histories

    SciTech Connect

    Iliffe, J.E.; Debuyl, M.; Kendall, C.G.St.C.; Lerche, I.

    1986-05-01

    Seismic reflection data from offshore Mozambique between longitudes 25/sup 0/ and 26/sup 0/ and latitudes 34/sup 0/ and 35/sup 0/ reveals a V-shaped rift, the apex of which points northward, toward the coast. This study retraces the rift's extensional history by geometric reconstruction of seismic profiles, selected perpendicular to tectonic strike. Depth conversions are performed, followed by bed length and volume balancing to test the interpretations and calculate a total extension value for the extension factor. The sediments are then backstripped in sedimentary sequences, restoring the increments of throw on faults accordingly. After each sequence is removed, the sediments are decompacted in an attempt to recover the original volume prior to the sequence deposition. The extension factor is again calculated. This process is repeated down the sequences until the result is the pre-rift state of the basin. This analysis results in an extension estimate for each sequence-time increment, as a percentage of the total extension. From this method, a detailed crustal extension history is deduced, which, when coupled to the thermal history from subsidence backstripping and paleoheatflow studies, could be used in the basin analysis assessment of the oil potential of this and other rifts.

  18. The Impact of Tour-Based Diversity Programming on County Extension Personnel and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Luckey, Brian; Tifft, Kathee

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect that planning and conducting an intensive multi-day, tour-based diversity workshop can have on the professional development and Extension work of the county Extension educators involved. Survey data was collected from the county Extension educators who planned workshops throughout Idaho. Educators reported that the…

  19. Group-Based Learning in an Authoritarian Setting? Novel Extension Approaches in Vietnam's Northern Uplands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Iven; Roessler, Regina; Neef, Andreas; Zarate, Anne Valle; Hoffmann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the potential and constraints of group-based extension approaches as an institutional innovation in the Vietnamese agricultural extension system. Our analysis therefore unfolds around the challenges of how to foster this kind of approach within the hierarchical extension policy setting and how to effectively shape and…

  20. Optical connection management in ASON based on LDP extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Tianlong; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Guo, Yili

    2002-09-01

    We make an extension to the label distribute protocol in order to realize optical connection management in automatically switched optical network. Its characteristics, such as the dynamic lightpath creation and deletion, and fast restoration are investigated and tested experimentally. How to handle failures occur during these two processes is also explained in detail. The experiment results are discussed and compared with othersí previous work. The experiment setup which is made of four optical nodes and of mesh type network is also described in details in the paper.

  1. Using the Delphi Technique to Assess Educational Needs Related to Extension's 4-H Beef Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Gamon, Julia A.

    1997-01-01

    Delphi panels completing questionnaires included 32 parents of 4-H students, 16 extension beef specialists, 21 4-H field specialists, and 21 industry representatives. They identified 31 subject-matter and 30 life-skill topics useful for 4-H manuals. Emerging topics included consumer and environmental concerns. (SK)

  2. OpenARC: Extensible OpenACC Compiler Framework for Directive-Based Accelerator Programming Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Directive-based, accelerator programming models such as OpenACC have arisen as an alternative solution to program emerging Scalable Heterogeneous Computing (SHC) platforms. However, the increased complexity in the SHC systems incurs several challenges in terms of portability and productivity. This paper presents an open-sourced OpenACC compiler, called OpenARC, which serves as an extensible research framework to address those issues in the directive-based accelerator programming. This paper explains important design strategies and key compiler transformation techniques needed to implement the reference OpenACC compiler. Moreover, this paper demonstrates the efficacy of OpenARC as a research framework for directive-based programming study, by proposing and implementing OpenACC extensions in the OpenARC framework to 1) support hybrid programming of the unified memory and separate memory and 2) exploit architecture-specific features in an abstract manner. Porting thirteen standard OpenACC programs and three extended OpenACC programs to CUDA GPUs shows that OpenARC performs similarly to a commercial OpenACC compiler, while it serves as a high-level research framework.

  3. Low-cost computer classification of land cover in the Portland area, Oregon, by signature extension techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaydos, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    The cost of classifying 5,607 square kilometers (2,165 sq. mi.) in the Portland area was less than 8 cents per square kilometer ($0.0788, or $0.2041 per square mile). Besides saving in costs, this and other signature extension techniques may be useful in completing land use and land cover mapping in other large areas where multispectral and multitemporal Landsat data are available in digital form but other source materials are generally lacking.

  4. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P.; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid in the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Now a day's many adjunctive oral cancer screening techniques are available for the early diagnosis of cancer. Among these, autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool. These techniques are broadly discussed in this review. PMID:26538880

  5. Extension of the Viscous Collision Limiting Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Technique to Multiple Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Burt, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    There are many flows fields that span a wide range of length scales where regions of both rarefied and continuum flow exist and neither direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) nor computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provide the appropriate solution everywhere. Recently, a new viscous collision limited (VCL) DSMC technique was proposed to incorporate effects of physical diffusion into collision limiter calculations to make the low Knudsen number regime normally limited to CFD more tractable for an all-particle technique. This original work had been derived for a single species gas. The current work extends the VCL-DSMC technique to gases with multiple species. Similar derivations were performed to equate numerical and physical transport coefficients. However, a more rigorous treatment of determining the mixture viscosity is applied. In the original work, consideration was given to internal energy non-equilibrium, and this is also extended in the current work to chemical non-equilibrium.

  6. Some Novel Solidification Processing Techniques Being Investigated at MSFC: Their Extension for Study Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Mazuruk, K.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The float-zone and the Bridgman techniques are two classical directional solidification processing methods that are used to improve materials properties. Unfortunately, buoyancy effects and gravity-driven convection due to unstable temperature and/or composition gradients still produce solidified products that exhibit segregation and, consequently, degraded properties. This presentation will briefly introduce how some novel processing applications can minimize detrimental gravitational effects and enhance microstructural uniformity. Discussion follows that to fully understand and model these procedures requires utilizing, in conjunction with a novel mixing technique, the facilities and quiescent microgravity environment available on the ISS.

  7. Application of a substructuring technique to the problem of crack extension and closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A substructuring technique, originally developed for the efficient reanalysis of structures, is incorporated into the methodology associated with the plastic analysis of structures. An existing finite-element computer program that accounts for elastic-plastic material behavior under cyclic loading was modified to account for changing kinematic constraint conditions - crack growth and intermittent contact of crack surfaces in two dimensional regions. Application of the analysis is presented for a problem of a centercrack panel to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the technique.

  8. Hierarchic plate and shell models based on p-extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Barna A.; Sahrmann, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    Formulations of finite element models for beams, arches, plates and shells based on the principle of virtual work was studied. The focus is on computer implementation of hierarchic sequences of finite element models suitable for numerical solution of a large variety of practical problems which may concurrently contain thin and thick plates and shells, stiffeners, and regions where three dimensional representation is required. The approximate solutions corresponding to the hierarchic sequence of models converge to the exact solution of the fully three dimensional model. The stopping criterion is based on: (1) estimation of the relative error in energy norm; (2) equilibrium tests, and (3) observation of the convergence of quantities of interest.

  9. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Thomas James

    2014-10-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed effective fiducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection sufficient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125--128 were analyzed for the first time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel "mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have significant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them difficult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent fiducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for

  10. Extension of vibrational power flow techniques to two-dimensional structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    In the analysis of the vibration response and structure-borne vibration transmission between elements of a complex structure, statistical energy analysis (SEA) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA) are generally used. However, an alternative method is using vibrational power flow techniques which can be especially useful in the mid- frequencies between the optimum frequency regimes for FEA and SEA. Power flow analysis has in general been used on one-dimensional beam-like structures or between structures with point joints. In this paper, the power flow technique is extended to two-dimensional plate like structures joined along a common edge without frequency or spatial averaging the results, such that the resonant response of the structure is determined. The power flow results are compared to results obtained using FEA at low frequencies and SEA at high frequencies. The agreement with FEA results is good but the power flow technique has an improved computational efficiency. Compared to the SEA results the power flow results show a closer representation of the actual response of the structure.

  11. Extension of vibrational power flow techniques to two-dimensional structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, Joseph M.

    1988-01-01

    In the analysis of the vibration response and structure-borne vibration transmission between elements of a complex structure, statistical energy analysis (SEA) or finite element analysis (FEA) are generally used. However, an alternative method is using vibrational power flow techniques which can be especially useful in the mid frequencies between the optimum frequency regimes for SEA and FEA. Power flow analysis has in general been used on 1-D beam-like structures or between structures with point joints. In this paper, the power flow technique is extended to 2-D plate-like structures joined along a common edge without frequency or spatial averaging the results, such that the resonant response of the structure is determined. The power flow results are compared to results obtained using FEA results at low frequencies and SEA at high frequencies. The agreement with FEA results is good but the power flow technique has an improved computational efficiency. Compared to the SEA results the power flow results show a closer representation of the actual response of the structure.

  12. CAD techniques applied to diesel engine design. Extension of the RK range. [Ruston diesels

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K.; Buckthorpe, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rustion Diesels Ltd. produce three ranges of engines, the AP range covering engine powers from 500 to 1400 bhp (350 to 1000 kW electrical), the RK range covering 1410 to 4200 bhp (1 to 3 MW electrical), and the AT range covering 1650 to 4950 bhp (1-2 to 3-5 MW electrical). The AT engine range is available at speeds up to 600 rev/min, whereas the AP and RK ranges cover engine speeds from 600 to 1000 rev/min. The design philosophy and extension of the RK range of engines are investigated. This is a 251 mm (ten inch) bore by 305mm (twelve inch) stroke engine and is available in 6-cylinder in-line form and 8-, 12-, and 16-cylinder vee form. The RK engine features a cast-iron crankcase and bedplate design with a forged alloy-steel crankshaft. Combustion-chamber components consist of a cast-iron cylinder head and liner, steel exhaust and inlet valves, and a single-piece aluminium piston. The durability and reliability of RK engines have been fully proven in service with over 30 years' experience in numerous applications for power generation, reaction, and marine propulsion.

  13. A Novel SNPs Detection Method Based on Gold Magnetic Nanoparticles Array and Single Base Extension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Liu, Hongna; Jia, Yingying; Deng, Yan; Zhang, Liming; Lu, Zhuoxuan; He, Nongyue

    2012-01-01

    To fulfill the increasing need for large-scale genetic research, a high-throughput and automated SNPs genotyping method based on gold magnetic nanoparticles (GMNPs) array and dual-color single base extension has been designed. After amplification of DNA templates, biotinylated extension primers were captured by streptavidin coated gold magnetic nanoparticle (SA-GMNPs). Next a solid-phase, dual-color single base extension (SBE) reaction with the specific biotinylated primer was performed directly on the surface of the GMNPs. Finally, a “bead array” was fabricated by spotting GMNPs with fluorophore on a clean glass slide, and the genotype of each sample was discriminated by scanning the “bead array”. MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism of 320 individual samples were interrogated using this method, the signal/noise ratio for homozygous samples were over 12.33, while the signal/noise ratio for heterozygous samples was near 1. Compared with other dual-color hybridization based genotyping methods, the method described here gives a higher signal/noise ratio and SNP loci can be identified with a high level of confidence. This assay has the advantage of eliminating the need for background subtraction and direct analysis of the fluorescence values of the GMNPs to determine their genotypes without the necessary procedures for purification and complex reduction of PCR products. The application of this strategy to large-scale SNP studies simplifies the process, and reduces the labor required to produce highly sensitive results while improving the potential for automation. PMID:23139724

  14. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, Thomas James

    2014-12-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed e ective ducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection su cient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125 - 128 were analyzed for the rst time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel \\mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have signi cant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them di cult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent ducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for mid- to low

  15. A Smalltalk-based extension to traditional Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Korp, P.A.; Lurie, G.R.; Christiansen, J.H.

    1995-11-01

    The Dynamic Environmental Effects Model{copyright} (DEEM), under development at Argonne National Laboratory, is a fully object-based modeling software system that supports distributed, dynamic representation of the interlinked processes and behavior of the earth`s surface and near-surface environment, at variable scales of resolution and aggregation. Many of these real world objects are not stored in a format conducive to efficient GIS usage. Their dynamic nature, complexity and number of possible DEEM entity classes precluded efficient integration with traditional GIS technologies due to the loosely coupled nature of their data representations. To address these shortcomings, an intelligent object-oriented GIS engine (OOGIS) was developed. This engine provides not only a spatially optimized object representation, but also direct linkages to the underlying object, its data and behaviors.

  16. Extension of POA based on Fiber Element to Girder Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenxin; Qiang Shizhong

    2010-05-21

    Because of its main advantage of simplicity, practicality, lower computational cost and relative good results Pushover analysis (POA) has become an effective analytical tool during the last decade for the seismic assessment of buildings. But such work on bridges has been very limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to adapt POA for nonlinear seismic analysis of girder bridges, and investigate its applicability in the case of an existing river-spanning approach bridge. To three different types bridge models the nonlinear POA, which adopts fiber model nonlinear beam-column element based on flexibility approach, with return period about 2500 years is carried out. It can be concluded that POA is applicable for bridges, with some shortcomings associated with the method in general, even when it is applied for buildings. Finally the applicable selection for monitoring point and lateral load pattern is suggested according to dynamic characteristic of girder bridges.

  17. Multiview video codec based on KTA techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jungdong; Kim, Donghyun; Ryu, Seungchul; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2011-03-01

    Multi-view video coding (MVC) is a video coding standard developed by MPEG and VCEG for multi-view video. It showed average PSNR gain of 1.5dB compared with view-independent coding by H.264/AVC. However, because resolutions of multi-view video are getting higher for more realistic 3D effect, high performance video codec is needed. MVC adopted hierarchical B-picture structure and inter-view prediction as core techniques. The hierarchical B-picture structure removes the temporal redundancy, and the inter-view prediction reduces the inter-view redundancy by compensated prediction from the reconstructed neighboring views. Nevertheless, MVC has inherent limitation in coding efficiency, because it is based on H.264/AVC. To overcome the limit, an enhanced video codec for multi-view video based on Key Technology Area (KTA) is proposed. KTA is a high efficiency video codec by Video Coding Expert Group (VCEG), and it was carried out for coding efficiency beyond H.264/AVC. The KTA software showed better coding gain than H.264/AVC by using additional coding techniques. The techniques and the inter-view prediction are implemented into the proposed codec, which showed high coding gain compared with the view-independent coding result by KTA. The results presents that the inter-view prediction can achieve higher efficiency in a multi-view video codec based on a high performance video codec such as HEVC.

  18. Design of extensible meteorological data acquisition system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yin-hua; Zhang, Hui-jun; Li, Xiao-hui

    2015-02-01

    In order to compensate the tropospheric refraction error generated in the process of satellite navigation and positioning. Temperature, humidity and air pressure had to be used in concerned models to calculate the value of this error. While FPGA XC6SLX16 was used as the core processor, the integrated silicon pressure sensor MPX4115A and digital temperature-humidity sensor SHT75 are used as the basic meteorological parameter detection devices. The core processer was used to control the real-time sampling of ADC AD7608 and to acquire the serial output data of SHT75. The data was stored in the BRAM of XC6SLX16 and used to generate standard meteorological parameters in NEMA format. The whole design was based on Altium hardware platform and ISE software platform. The system was described in the VHDL language and schematic diagram to realize the correct detection of temperature, humidity, air pressure. The 8-channel synchronous sampling characteristics of AD7608 and programmable external resources of FPGA laid the foundation for the increasing of analog or digital meteorological element signal. The designed meteorological data acquisition system featured low cost, high performance, multiple expansions.

  19. Laser Remote Sensing: Velocimetry Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove

    Laser-based velocity measurement is an area of the field of remote sensing where the coherent properties of laser radiation are the most exposed. Much of the published literature deals with the theory and techniques of remote sensing. We restrict our discussion to current trends in this area, gathered from recent conferences and professional journals. Remote wind sensing and vibrometry are promising in their new scientific, industrial, military, and biomedical applications, including improving flight safety, precise weapon correction, non-contact mine detection, optimization of wind farm operation, object identification based on its vibration signature, fluid flow studies, and vibrometry-associated diagnosis.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Extension Education Centers in Universities Based on the Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance…

  1. Genealogical-based method for multiple ontology self-extension in MeSH.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Wen; Tang, Yi-Tsung; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade, the advent of Ontologies used for biomedical annotation has had a deep impact on life science. MeSH is a well-known Ontology for the purpose of indexing journal articles in PubMed, improving literature searching on multi-domain topics. Since the explosion of data growth in recent years, there are new terms, concepts that weed through the old and bring forth the new. Automatically extending sets of existing terms will enable bio-curators to systematically improve text-based ontologies level by level. However, most of the related techniques which apply symbolic patterns based on a literature corpus tend to focus on more general but not specific parts of the ontology. Therefore, in this work, we present a novel method for utilizing genealogical information from Ontology itself to find suitable siblings for ontology extension. Based on the breadth and depth dimensions, the sibling generation stage and pruning strategy are proposed in our approach. As a result, on the average, the precision of the genealogical-based method achieved 0.5, with the best 0.83 performance of category "Organisms." We also achieve average precision 0.69 of 229 new terms in MeSH 2013 version. PMID:24893362

  2. Neutron-based nonintrusive inspection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1997-02-01

    Non-intrusive inspection of large objects such as trucks, sea-going shipping containers, air cargo containers and pallets is gaining attention as a vital tool in combating terrorism, drug smuggling and other violation of international and national transportation and Customs laws. Neutrons are the preferred probing radiation when material specificity is required, which is most often the case. Great strides have been made in neutron based inspection techniques. Fast and thermal neutrons, whether in steady state or in microsecond, or even nanosecond pulses are being employed to interrogate, at high speeds, for explosives, drugs, chemical agents, and nuclear and many other smuggled materials. Existing neutron techniques will be compared and their current status reported.

  3. Novel optical password security technique based on optical fractal synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kenan; Hu, Jiasheng; Wu, Xu

    2009-06-01

    A novel optical security technique for safeguarding user passwords based on an optical fractal synthesizer is proposed. A validating experiment has been carried out. In the proposed technique, a user password is protected by being converted to a fractal image. When a user sets up a new password, the password is transformed into a fractal pattern, and the fractal pattern is stored in authority. If the user is online-validated, his or her password is converted to a fractal pattern again to compare with the previous stored fractal pattern. The converting process is called the fractal encoding procedure, which consists of two steps. First, the password is nonlinearly transformed to get the parameters for the optical fractal synthesizer. Then the optical fractal synthesizer is operated to generate the output fractal image. The experimental result proves the validity of our method. The proposed technique bridges the gap between digital security systems and optical security systems and has many advantages, such as high security level, convenience, flexibility, hyper extensibility, etc. This provides an interesting optical security technique for the protection of digital passwords.

  4. An Extensible Space-Based Coordination Approach for Modeling Complex Patterns in Large Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Eva; Mordinyi, Richard; Schreiber, Christian

    Coordination is frequently associated with shared data spaces employing Linda coordination. But in practice, communication between parallel and distributed processes is carried out with message exchange patterns. What, actually, do shared data spaces contribute beyond these? In this paper we present a formal representation for a definition of shared spaces by introducing an "extensible tuple model", based on existing research on Linda coordination, some Linda extensions, and virtual shared memory. The main enhancements of the extensible tuple model comprise: means for structuring of spaces, Internet- compatible addressing of resources, more powerful coordination capabilities, a clear separation of user data and coordination information, support of symmetric peer application architectures, and extensibility through programmable aspects. The advantages of the extensible tuple model (XTM) are that it allows for a specification of complex coordination patterns.

  5. Extensions of the Johnson-Neyman Technique to Linear Models With Curvilinear Effects: Derivations and Analytical Tools.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jason W; Stromeyer, William R; Schwieterman, Matthew A

    2013-03-01

    The past decade has witnessed renewed interest in the use of the Johnson-Neyman (J-N) technique for calculating the regions of significance for the simple slope of a focal predictor on an outcome variable across the range of a second, continuous independent variable. Although tools have been developed to apply this technique to probe 2- and 3-way interactions in several types of linear models, this method has not been extended to include quadratic terms or more complicated models involving quadratic terms and interactions. Curvilinear relations of this type are incorporated in several theories in the social sciences. This article extends the J-N method to such linear models along with presenting freely available online tools that implement this technique as well as the traditional pick-a-point approach. Algebraic and graphical representations of the proposed J-N extension are provided. An example is presented to illustrate the use of these tools and the interpretation of findings. Issues of reliability as well as "spurious moderator" effects are discussed along with recommendations for future research. PMID:26741727

  6. "YFlag"--a single-base extension primer based method for gender determination.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Julia S; Harbison, Sally Ann

    2015-01-01

    Assigning the gender of a DNA contributor in forensic analysis is typically achieved using the amelogenin test. Occasionally, this test produces false-positive results due to deletions occurring on the Y chromosome. Here, a four-marker "YFlag" method is presented to infer gender using single-base extension primers to flag the presence (or absence) of Y-chromosome DNA within a sample to supplement forensic STR profiling. This method offers built-in redundancy, with a single marker being sufficient to detect the presence of male DNA. In a study using 30 male and 30 female individuals, detection of male DNA was achieved with c. 0.03 ng of male DNA. All four markers were present in male/female mixture samples despite the presence of excessive female DNA. In summary, the YFlag system offers a method that is reproducible, specific, and sensitive, making it suitable for forensic use to detect male DNA. PMID:25354446

  7. Rapid Disaster Analysis based on SAR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Soergel, U.

    2015-03-01

    Due to all-day and all-weather capability spaceborne SAR is a valuable means for rapid mapping during and after disaster. In this paper, three change detection techniques based on SAR data are discussed: (1) initial coarse change detection, (2) flooded area detection, and (3) linear-feature change detection. The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami is used as case study, where earthquake and tsunami events provide a complex case for this study. In (1), pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images are coregistered accurately to produce a false-color image. Such image provides a quick and rough overview of potential changes, which is useful for initial decision making and identifies areas worthwhile to be analysed further in more depth. In (2), the post-event TerraSAR-X image is used to extract the flooded area by morphological approaches. In (3), we are interested in detecting changes of linear shape as indicator for modified man-made objects. Morphological approaches, e.g. thresholding, simply extract pixel-based changes in the difference image. However, in this manner many irrelevant changes are highlighted, too (e.g., farming activity, speckle). In this study, Curvelet filtering is applied in the difference image not only to suppress false alarms but also to enhance the change signals of linear-feature form (e.g. buildings) in settlements. Afterwards, thresholding is conducted to extract linear-shaped changed areas. These three techniques mentioned above are designed to be simple and applicable in timely disaster analysis. They are all validated by comparing with the change map produced by Center for Satellite Based Crisis Information, DLR.

  8. Some Techniques for Computer-Based Assessment in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, G. A.; Bligh, J. G.; Leinster, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a system of classification for describing computer-based assessment techniques based on the level of action and educational activity they offer. Illustrates 10 computer-based assessment techniques and discusses their educational value. Contains 14 references. (Author)

  9. Active-contour-based image segmentation using machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Etyngier, Patrick; Ségonne, Florent; Keriven, Renaud

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a non-linear shape prior for the deformable model framework that we learn from a set of shape samples using recent manifold learning techniques. We model a category of shapes as a finite dimensional manifold which we approximate using Diffusion maps. Our method computes a Delaunay triangulation of the reduced space, considered as Euclidean, and uses the resulting space partition to identify the closest neighbors of any given shape based on its Nyström extension. We derive a non-linear shape prior term designed to attract a shape towards the shape prior manifold at given constant embedding. Results on shapes of ventricle nuclei demonstrate the potential of our method for segmentation tasks. PMID:18051143

  10. Graduate Followup: B.S. Occupational Education Extension Program at Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellows, George; And Others

    Graduates of a military-base extension program at the Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington, leading to a Bachelor of Science degree in occupational education were studied. Graduates are prepared to teach their occupational specialty at colleges as well as for occupational education work in government, private enterprise, and health care…

  11. The Knowledge Base as an Extension of Distance Learning Reference Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores knowledge bases as extension of reference services for distance learners. Through a survey and follow-up interviews with distance learning librarians, this paper discusses their interest in creating and maintaining a knowledge base as a resource for reference services to distance learners. It also investigates their perceptions…

  12. Towards Semantically Sensitive Text Clustering: A Feature Space Modeling Technology Based on Dimension Extension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanchao; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of text clustering is to divide document collections into clusters based on the similarity between documents. In this paper, an extension-based feature modeling approach towards semantically sensitive text clustering is proposed along with the corresponding feature space construction and similarity computation method. By combining the similarity in traditional feature space and that in extension space, the adverse effects of the complexity and diversity of natural language can be addressed and clustering semantic sensitivity can be improved correspondingly. The generated clusters can be organized using different granularities. The experimental evaluations on well-known clustering algorithms and datasets have verified the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:25794172

  13. A description of Seismicity based on Non-extensive Statistical Physics: An introduction to Non-extensive Statistical Seismology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2015-04-01

    Despite the extreme complexity that characterizes earthquake generation process, simple phenomenology seems to apply in the collective properties of seismicity. The best known is the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Short and long-term clustering, power-law scaling and scale-invariance have been exhibited in the spatio-temporal evolution of seismicity providing evidence for earthquakes as a nonlinear dynamic process. Regarding the physics of "many" earthquakes and how this can be derived from first principles, one may wonder, how can the collective properties of a set formed by all earthquakes in a given region, be derived and how does the structure of seismicity depend on its elementary constituents - the earthquakes? What are these properties? The physics of many earthquakes has to be studied with a different approach than the physics of one earthquake making the use of statistical physics necessary to understand the collective properties of earthquakes. Then a natural question arises. What type of statistical physics is appropriate to commonly describe effects from the microscale and crack opening level to the level of large earthquakes? An answer to the previous question could be non-extensive statistical physics, introduced by Tsallis (1988), as the appropriate methodological tool to describe entities with (multi) fractal distributions of their elements and where long-range interactions or intermittency are important, as in fracturing phenomena and earthquakes. In the present work, we review some fundamental properties of earthquake physics and how these are derived by means of non-extensive statistical physics. The aim is to understand aspects of the underlying physics that lead to the evolution of the earthquake phenomenon introducing the new topic of non-extensive statistical seismology. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the framework of the "THALES Program: SEISMO FEAR HELLARC" project

  14. On the development of NURBS-based isogeometric solid shell elements: 2D problems and preliminary extension to 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouclier, R.; Elguedj, T.; Combescure, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work deals with the development of 2D solid shell non-uniform rational B-spline elements. We address a static problem, that can be solved with a 2D model, involving a thin slender structure under small perturbations. The plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric assumption can be made. projection and reduced integration techniques are considered to deal with the locking phenomenon. The use of the approach leads to the implementation of two strategies insensitive to locking: the first strategy is based on a 1D projection of the mean strain across the thickness; the second strategy undertakes to project all the strains onto a suitably chosen 2D space. Conversely, the reduced integration approach based on Gauss points is less expensive, but only alleviates locking and is limited to quadratic approximations. The performance of the various 2D elements developed is assessed through several numerical examples. Simple extensions of these techniques to 3D are finally performed.

  15. Analysis and amendment of flow control credit-based in SAN extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Leihua; Yu, Shengsheng; Zhou, Jingli

    2005-11-01

    As organizations increasingly face an enormous influx of data that must be stored, protected, backed up and replicated. One of the best ways to achieve the goal is to interconnect geographically dispersed SANs through reliable and high-speed links. In this storage extension application, flow control deals with the problem where a device receives the frames faster than it can process them, when this happens, the result is that the device is forced to drop some of the frames. The FC flow control protocol is a credit-based mechanism and usually used for SAN extension over WDM and over SONET/SDH. With FC flow control, when a source storage device intends to send data to a target storage device, the initiating storage device must receive credits from target device. For every credit the initiating device obtains, it is permitted to transmit a FC frame, so congestion is always avoided in the network. This paper analysis the mechanisms of FC flow control and it's limitation in SAN extension when the extension distance increases. Computing result indicates that the maximum link efficiency and throughput in SAN extension have relation to credits, frame size and extension distance. In order to achieve the maximum link efficiency and throughput, an extended FC flow control mechanisms are proposed.

  16. Nuclear based techniques for detection of contraband

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.

    1993-12-31

    The detection of contraband such as explosives and drugs concealed in luggage or other container can be quite difficult. Nuclear techniques offer capabilities which are essential to having effective detection devices. This report describes the features of various nuclear techniques and instrumentation.

  17. School-Based Peer Mediation Programs: A Natural Extension of Developmental Guidance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Gwendolyn

    School-based peer mediation programs are natural extensions of the kindergarten-grade 12 developmental guidance programs. Peer mediation programs not only provide schools with alternatives to traditional discipline practices, but also teach students important life skills. Existing research on peer mediation is very limited, yet promising. This…

  18. 40 CFR 66.31 - Exemptions based on an order, extension or suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions based on an order, extension or suspension. 66.31 Section 66.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Exemption Requests; Revocation of Exemptions §...

  19. 40 CFR 66.31 - Exemptions based on an order, extension or suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions based on an order, extension or suspension. 66.31 Section 66.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Exemption Requests; Revocation of Exemptions §...

  20. Strategic Partnerships that Strengthen Extension's Community-Based Entrepreneurship Programs: An Example from Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassano, Louis V.; McConnon, James C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article explains how Extension can enhance and expand its nationwide community-based entrepreneurship programs by developing strategic partnerships with other organizations to create highly effective educational programs for rural entrepreneurs. The activities and impacts of the Down East Micro-Enterprise Network (DEMN), an alliance of three…

  1. Raising Awareness of Assistive Technology in Older Adults through a Community-Based, Cooperative Extension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Debra M.; Markham, Melinda Stafford

    2012-01-01

    The Fashion an Easier Lifestyle with Assistive Technology (FELAT) curriculum was developed as a needs-based, community educational program provided through a state Cooperative Extension Service. The overall goal for participants was to raise awareness of assistive technology. Program evaluation included a postassessment and subsequent interview to…

  2. Extension of 193 nm dry lithography to 45-nm half-pitch node: double exposure and double processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abani M.; Li, Jianliang; Hiserote, Jay A.; Melvin, Lawrence S., III

    2006-10-01

    Immersion lithography and multiple exposure techniques are the most promising methods to extend lithography manufacturing to the 45nm node. Although immersion lithography has attracted much attention recently as a promising optical lithography extension, it will not solve all the problems at the 45-nm node. The 'dry' option, (i.e. double exposure/etch) which can be realized with standard processing practice, will extend 193-nm lithography to the end of the current industry roadmap. Double exposure/etch lithography is expensive in terms of cost, throughput time, and overlay registration accuracy. However, it is less challenging compared to other possible alternatives and has the ability to break through the κ I barrier (0.25). This process, in combination with attenuated PSM (att-PSM) mask, is a good imaging solution that can reach, and most likely go beyond, the 45-nm node. Mask making requirements in a double exposure scheme will be reduced significantly. This can be appreciated by the fact that the separation of tightly-pitched mask into two less demanding pitch patterns will reduce the stringent specifications for each mask. In this study, modeling of double exposure lithography (DEL) with att-PSM masks to target 45-nm node is described. In addition, mask separation and implementation issues of optical proximity corrections (OPC) to improve process window are studied. To understand the impact of OPC on the process window, Fourier analysis of the masks has been carried out as well.

  3. A description of Seismicity based on Non-extensive Statistical Physics: An introduction to Non-extensive Statistical Seismology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the extreme complexity that characterizes earthquake generation process, simple phenomenology seems to apply in the collective properties of seismicity. The best known is the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Short and long-term clustering, power-law scaling and scale-invariance have been exhibited in the spatio-temporal evolution of seismicity providing evidence for earthquakes as a nonlinear dynamic process. Regarding the physics of "many" earthquakes and how this can be derived from first principles, one may wonder, how can the collective properties of a set formed by all earthquakes in a given region, be derived and how does the structure of seismicity depend on its elementary constituents - the earthquakes? What are these properties? The physics of many earthquakes has to be studied with a different approach than the physics of one earthquake making the use of statistical physics necessary to understand the collective properties of earthquakes. Then a natural question arises. What type of statistical physics is appropriate to commonly describe effects from the microscale and crack opening level to the level of large earthquakes?An answer to the previous question could be non-extensive statistical physics, introduced by Tsallis (1988), as the appropriate methodological tool to describe entities with (multi) fractal distributions of their elements and where long-range interactions or intermittency are important, as in fracturing phenomena and earthquakes. In the present work, we review some fundamental properties of earthquake physics and how these are derived by means of non-extensive statistical physics. The aim is to understand aspects of the underlying physics that lead to the evolution of the earthquake phenomenon introducing the new topic of non-extensive statistical seismology. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the framework of the "THALES Program: SEISMO FEAR HELLARC" project.

  4. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  5. Performance evaluation of extension education centers in universities based on the balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

    2011-02-01

    This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance evaluation indices have been selected and then utilizing the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and analytic network process (ANP), respectively, further establishes the causality between the four BSC perspectives as well as the relative weights between evaluation indices. According to this previous result, an empirical analysis of the performance evaluation of extension education centers of three universities at Taoyuan County in Taiwan is illustrated by applying VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR). From the analysis results, it indicates that "Learning and growth" is the significant influential factor and it would affect the other three perspectives. In addition, it is discovered that "Internal process" perspective as well as "Financial" perspective play important roles in the performance evaluation of extension education centers. The top three key performance indices are "After-sales service", "Turnover volume", and "Net income". The proposed evaluation model could be considered as a reference for extension education centers in universities to prioritize their improvements on the key performance indices after performing VIKOR analyses. PMID:20619892

  6. Flood alert system based on bayesian techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliver, Z.; Herrero, J.; Viesca, C.; Polo, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of floods in the Mediterranean regions is closely linked to the occurrence of torrential storms in dry regions, where even the water supply relies on adequate water management. Like other Mediterranean basins in Southern Spain, the Guadalhorce River Basin is a medium sized watershed (3856 km2) where recurrent yearly floods occur , mainly in autumn and spring periods, driven by cold front phenomena. The torrential character of the precipitation in such small basins, with a concentration time of less than 12 hours, produces flash flood events with catastrophic effects over the city of Malaga (600000 inhabitants). From this fact arises the need for specific alert tools which can forecast these kinds of phenomena. Bayesian networks (BN) have been emerging in the last decade as a very useful and reliable computational tool for water resources and for the decision making process. The joint use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and BN have served us to recognize and simulate the two different types of hydrological behaviour in the basin: natural and regulated. This led to the establishment of causal relationships between precipitation, discharge from upstream reservoirs, and water levels at a gauging station. It was seen that a recurrent ANN model working at an hourly scale, considering daily precipitation and the two previous hourly values of reservoir discharge and water level, could provide R2 values of 0.86. BN's results slightly improve this fit, but contribute with uncertainty to the prediction. In our current work to Design a Weather Warning Service based on Bayesian techniques the first steps were carried out through an analysis of the correlations between the water level and rainfall at certain representative points in the basin, along with the upstream reservoir discharge. The lower correlation found between precipitation and water level emphasizes the highly regulated condition of the stream. The autocorrelations of the variables were also

  7. Applying knowledge compilation techniques to model-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers in the area of knowledge compilation are developing general purpose techniques for improving the efficiency of knowledge-based systems. In this article, an attempt is made to define knowledge compilation, to characterize several classes of knowledge compilation techniques, and to illustrate how some of these techniques can be applied to improve the performance of model-based reasoning systems.

  8. Liquid refractometer based on fringe projection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, Marco; De Nicola, Sergio; Ferraro, Pietro; Finizio, Andrea; Pierattini, Giovanni

    1999-08-01

    Measurement of the refractive index of liquids is of great importance in applications such as characterization and control of adulteration of liquid commonly used and in pollution monitoring. We present and discuss a fringe projection technique for measuring the index of refraction of transparent liquid materials.

  9. Association of Anterior and Lateral Extraprostatic Extensions with Base-Positive Resection Margins in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abalajon, Mark Joseph; Jang, Won Sik; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Lee, Joo Yong; Cho, Kang Su; Ham, Won Sik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Positive surgical margins (PSM) detected in the radical prostatectomy specimen increase the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR). Still, with formidable number of patients never experiencing BCR in their life, the reason for this inconsistency has been attributed to the artifacts and to the spontaneous regression of micrometastatic site. To investigate the origin of margin positive cancers, we have looked into the influence of extraprostatic extension location on the resection margin positive site and its implications on BCR risk. Materials & Methods The clinical information and follow-up data of 612 patients who had extraprostatic extension and positive surgical margin at the time of robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in the single center between 2005 and 2014 were modeled using Fine and Gray’s competing risk regression analysis for BCR. Extraprostatic extensions were divided into categories according to location as apex, base, anterior, posterior, lateral, and posterolateral. Extraprostatic extensions were defined as presence of tumor beyond the borders of the gland in the posterior and posterolateral regions. Tumor admixed with periprostatic fat was additionally considered as having extraprostatic extension if capsule was vague in the anterior, apex, and base regions. Positive surgical margins were defined as the presence of tumor cells at the inked margin on the inspection under microscopy. Association of these classifications with the site of PSM was evaluated by Cohen’s Kappa analysis for concordance and logistic regression for the odds of apical and base PSMs. Results Median follow-up duration was 36.5 months (interquartile range[IQR] 20.1–36.5). Apex involvement was found in 158 (25.8%) patients and base in 110 (18.0%) patients. PSMs generally were found to be associated with increased risk of BCR regardless of location, with BCR risk highest for base PSM (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.40–2.68, p<0.001) after adjusting for age, initial

  10. Physics based modeling of a series parallel battery pack for asymmetry analysis, predictive control and life extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Nandhini; Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Yeo, Taejung; Sohn, Dong Kee; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-08-01

    Lithium-Ion batteries used for electric vehicle applications are subject to large currents and various operation conditions, making battery pack design and life extension a challenging problem. With increase in complexity, modeling and simulation can lead to insights that ensure optimal performance and life extension. In this manuscript, an electrochemical-thermal (ECT) coupled model for a 6 series × 5 parallel pack is developed for Li ion cells with NCA/C electrodes and validated against experimental data. Contribution of the cathode to overall degradation at various operating conditions is assessed. Pack asymmetry is analyzed from a design and an operational perspective. Design based asymmetry leads to a new approach of obtaining the individual cell responses of the pack from an average ECT output. Operational asymmetry is demonstrated in terms of effects of thermal gradients on cycle life, and an efficient model predictive control technique is developed. Concept of reconfigurable battery pack is studied using detailed simulations that can be used for effective monitoring and extension of battery pack life.

  11. Service-Based Extensions to an OAIS Archive for Science Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flathers, E.; Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    With new data management mandates from major funding sources such as the National Institutes for Health and the National Science Foundation, architecture of science data archive systems is becoming a critical concern for research institutions. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), in 2002, released their first version of a Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS). The CCSDS document (now an ISO standard) was updated in 2012 with additional focus on verifying the authenticity of data and developing concepts of access rights and a security model. The OAIS model is a good fit for research data archives, having been designed to support data collections of heterogeneous types, disciplines, storage formats, etc. for the space sciences. As fast, reliable, persistent Internet connectivity spreads, new network-available resources have been developed that can support the science data archive. A natural extension of an OAIS archive is the interconnection with network- or cloud-based services and resources. We use the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) design paradigm to describe a set of extensions to an OAIS-type archive: purpose and justification for each extension, where and how each extension connects to the model, and an example of a specific service that meets the purpose.

  12. The cast aluminum denture base. Part II: Technique.

    PubMed

    Halperin, A R; Halperin, G C

    1980-07-01

    A technique to wax-up and cast an aluminum base and a method to incorporate the base into the final denture base has been discussed. This technique does not use induction casting, rather it uses two casting ovens and a centrifugal casting machine. PMID:6991680

  13. Speech recognition based on pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiner, Lawrence R.

    1990-05-01

    Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. The use of pattern recognition techniques were applied to the problems of isolated word (or discrete utterance) recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. It is shown that understanding (and consequently the resulting recognizer performance) is best to the simplest recognition tasks and is considerably less well developed for large scale recognition systems.

  14. Liquid tunable microlenses based on MEMS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xuefeng; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-08-01

    The recent rapid development in microlens technology has provided many opportunities for miniaturized optical systems, and has found a wide range of applications. Of these microlenses, tunable-focus microlenses are of special interest as their focal lengths can be tuned using micro-scale actuators integrated with the lens structure. Realization of such tunable microlens generally relies on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in tunable liquid microlenses. The underlying physics relevant to these microlenses are first discussed, followed by description of three main categories of tunable microlenses involving MEMS techniques, mechanically driven, electrically driven and those integrated within microfluidic systems.

  15. Liquid Tunable Microlenses based on MEMS techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xuefeng; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-01-01

    The recent rapid development in microlens technology has provided many opportunities for miniaturized optical systems, and has found a wide range of applications. Of these microlenses, tunable-focus microlenses are of special interest as their focal lengths can be tuned using micro-scale actuators integrated with the lens structure. Realization of such tunable microlens generally relies on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in tunable liquid microlenses. The underlying physics relevant to these microlenses are first discussed, followed by description of three main categories of tunable microlenses involving MEMS techniques, mechanically driven, electrically driven, and those integrated within microfluidic systems. PMID:24163480

  16. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  17. Feature-specific imaging: Extensions to adaptive object recognition and active illumination based scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baheti, Pawan K.

    Computational imaging (CI) systems are hybrid imagers in which the optical and post-processing sub-systems are jointly optimized to maximize the task-specific performance. In this dissertation we consider a form of CI system that measures the linear projections (i.e., features) of the scene optically, and it is commonly referred to as feature-specific imaging (FSI). Most of the previous work on FSI has been concerned with image reconstruction. Previous FSI techniques have also been non-adaptive and restricted to the use of ambient illumination. We consider two novel extensions of the FSI system in this work. We first present an adaptive feature-specific imaging (AFSI) system and consider its application to a face-recognition task. The proposed system makes use of previous measurements to adapt the projection basis at each step. We present both statistical and information-theoretic adaptation mechanisms for the AFSI system. The sequential hypothesis testing framework is used to determine the number of measurements required for achieving a specified misclassification probability. We demonstrate that AFSI system requires significantly fewer measurements than static-FSI (SFSI) and conventional imaging at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We also show a trade-off, in terms of average detection time, between measurement SNR and adaptation advantage. Experimental results validating the AFSI system are presented. Next we present a FSI system based on the use of structured light. Feature measurements are obtained by projecting spatially structured illumination onto an object and collecting all of the reflected light onto a single photodetector. We refer to this system as feature-specific structured imaging (FSSI). Principal component features are used to define the illumination patterns. The optimal LMMSE operator is used to generate object estimates from the measurements. We demonstrate that this new imaging approach reduces imager complexity and provides improved image

  18. Trends and Techniques for Space Base Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.; Gassaway, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Simulations of various phosphorus and boron diffusions in SOS were completed and a sputtering system, furnaces, and photolithography related equipment were set up. Double layer metal experiments initially utilized wet chemistry techniques. By incorporating ultrasonic etching of the vias, premetal cleaning a modified buffered HF, phosphorus doped vapox, and extended sintering, yields of 98% were obtained using the standard test pattern. A two dimensional modeling program was written for simulating short channel MOSFETs with nonuniform substrate doping. A key simplifying assumption used is that the majority carriers can be represented by a sheet charge at the silicon dioxide silicon interface. Although the program is incomplete, the two dimensional Poisson equation for the potential distribution was achieved. The status of other Z-D MOSFET simulation programs is summarized.

  19. Techniques for detumbling a disabled space base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques and conceptual devices for carrying out detumbling operations are examined, and progress in the development of these concepts is discussed. Devices which reduce tumble to simple spin through active linear motion of a small mass are described, together with a Module for Automatic Dock and Detumble (MADD) that could perform an orbital transfer from the shuttle in order to track and dock at a preselected point on the distressed craft. Once docked, MADD could apply torques by firing thrustors to detumble the passive vehicle. Optimum combinations of mass-motion and external devices for various situation should be developed. The need for completely formulating the automatic control logic of MADD is also emphasized.

  20. A repository based on a dynamically extensible data model supporting multidisciplinary research in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Robust, extensible and distributed databases integrating clinical, imaging and molecular data represent a substantial challenge for modern neuroscience. It is even more difficult to provide extensible software environments able to effectively target the rapidly changing data requirements and structures of research experiments. There is an increasing request from the neuroscience community for software tools addressing technical challenges about: (i) supporting researchers in the medical field to carry out data analysis using integrated bioinformatics services and tools; (ii) handling multimodal/multiscale data and metadata, enabling the injection of several different data types according to structured schemas; (iii) providing high extensibility, in order to address different requirements deriving from a large variety of applications simply through a user runtime configuration. Methods A dynamically extensible data structure supporting collaborative multidisciplinary research projects in neuroscience has been defined and implemented. We have considered extensibility issues from two different points of view. First, the improvement of data flexibility has been taken into account. This has been done through the development of a methodology for the dynamic creation and use of data types and related metadata, based on the definition of “meta” data model. This way, users are not constrainted to a set of predefined data and the model can be easily extensible and applicable to different contexts. Second, users have been enabled to easily customize and extend the experimental procedures in order to track each step of acquisition or analysis. This has been achieved through a process-event data structure, a multipurpose taxonomic schema composed by two generic main objects: events and processes. Then, a repository has been built based on such data model and structure, and deployed on distributed resources thanks to a Grid-based approach. Finally, data

  1. Accelerator based techniques for contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourvopoulos, George

    1994-05-01

    It has been shown that narcotics, explosives, and other contraband materials, contain various chemical elements such as H, C, N, O, P, S, and Cl in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from other innocuous substances. Neutrons and γ-rays have the ability to penetrate through various materials at large depths. They are thus able, in a non-intrusive way, to interrogate volumes ranging from suitcases to Sea-Land containers, and have the ability to image the object with an appreciable degree of reliability. Neutron induced reactions such as (n, γ), (n, n') (n, p) or proton induced γ-resonance absorption are some of the reactions currently investigated for the identification of the chemical elements mentioned above. Various DC and pulsed techniques are discussed and their advantages, characteristics, and current progress are shown. Areas where use of these methods is currently under evaluation are detection of hidden explosives, illicit drug interdiction, chemical war agents identification, nuclear waste assay, nuclear weapons destruction and others.

  2. Field of view extension and truncation correction for MR-based human attenuation correction in simultaneous MR/PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blumhagen, Jan O. Ladebeck, Ralf; Fenchel, Matthias; Braun, Harald; Quick, Harald H.; Faul, David; Scheffler, Klaus

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In quantitative PET imaging, it is critical to accurately measure and compensate for the attenuation of the photons absorbed in the tissue. While in PET/CT the linear attenuation coefficients can be easily determined from a low-dose CT-based transmission scan, in whole-body MR/PET the computation of the linear attenuation coefficients is based on the MR data. However, a constraint of the MR-based attenuation correction (AC) is the MR-inherent field-of-view (FoV) limitation due to static magnetic field (B{sub 0}) inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. Therefore, the MR-based human AC map may be truncated or geometrically distorted toward the edges of the FoV and, consequently, the PET reconstruction with MR-based AC may be biased. This is especially of impact laterally where the patient arms rest beside the body and are not fully considered. Methods: A method is proposed to extend the MR FoV by determining an optimal readout gradient field which locally compensates B{sub 0} inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. This technique was used to reduce truncation in AC maps of 12 patients, and the impact on the PET quantification was analyzed and compared to truncated data without applying the FoV extension and additionally to an established approach of PET-based FoV extension. Results: The truncation artifacts in the MR-based AC maps were successfully reduced in all patients, and the mean body volume was thereby increased by 5.4%. In some cases large patient-dependent changes in SUV of up to 30% were observed in individual lesions when compared to the standard truncated attenuation map. Conclusions: The proposed technique successfully extends the MR FoV in MR-based attenuation correction and shows an improvement of PET quantification in whole-body MR/PET hybrid imaging. In comparison to the PET-based completion of the truncated body contour, the proposed method is also applicable to specialized PET tracers with little uptake in the arms and might

  3. Development of a finite element based delamination analysis for laminates subject to extension, bending, and torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, Steven J.

    1989-01-01

    Delamination is a common failure mode of laminated composite materials. This type of failure frequently occurs at the free edges of laminates where singular interlaminar stresses are developed due to the difference in Poisson's ratios between adjacent plies. Typically the delaminations develop between 90 degree plies and adjacent angle plies. Edge delamination has been studied by several investigators using a variety of techniques. Recently, Chan and Ochoa applied the quasi-three-dimensional finite element model to the analysis of a laminate subject to bending, extension, and torsion. This problem is of particular significance relative to the structural integrity of composite helicopter rotors. The task undertaken was to incorporate Chan and Ochoa's formulation into a Raju Q3DG program. The resulting program is capable of modeling extension, bending, and torsional mechanical loadings as well as thermal and hygroscopic loadings. The addition of the torsional and bending loading capability will provide the capability to perform a delamination analysis of a general unsymmetric laminate containing four cracks, each of a different length. The solutions obtained using this program are evaluated by comparing them with solutions from a full three-dimensional finite element solution. This comparison facilitates the assessment of three dimensional affects such as the warping constraint imposed by the load frame grips. It wlso facilitates the evaluation of the external load representation employed in the Q3D formulation. Finally, strain energy release rates computed from the three-dimensional results are compared with those predicted using the quasi-three-dimensional formulation.

  4. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  5. Risk evaluation of bogie system based on extension theory and entropy weight method.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    A bogie system is the key equipment of railway vehicles. Rigorous practical evaluation of bogies is still a challenge. Presently, there is overreliance on part-specific experiments in practice. In the present work, a risk evaluation index system of a bogie system has been established based on the inspection data and experts' evaluation. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative aspects, the risk state of a bogie system has been evaluated using an extension theory and an entropy weight method. Finally, the method has been used to assess the bogie system of four different samples. Results show that this method can assess the risk state of a bogie system exactly. PMID:25574159

  6. A novel protein complex identification algorithm based on Connected Affinity Clique Extension (CACE).

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; He, Tingting; Hu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Junmin; Shen, Xianjun; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A novel algorithm based on Connected Affinity Clique Extension (CACE) for mining overlapping functional modules in protein interaction network is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the value of protein connected affinity which is inferred from protein complexes is interpreted as the reliability and possibility of interaction. The protein interaction network is constructed as a weighted graph, and the weight is dependent on the connected affinity coefficient. The experimental results of our CACE in two test data sets show that the CACE can detect the functional modules much more effectively and accurately when compared with other state-of-art algorithms CPM and IPC-MCE. PMID:24803142

  7. Risk Evaluation of Bogie System Based on Extension Theory and Entropy Weight Method

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yanping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    A bogie system is the key equipment of railway vehicles. Rigorous practical evaluation of bogies is still a challenge. Presently, there is overreliance on part-specific experiments in practice. In the present work, a risk evaluation index system of a bogie system has been established based on the inspection data and experts' evaluation. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative aspects, the risk state of a bogie system has been evaluated using an extension theory and an entropy weight method. Finally, the method has been used to assess the bogie system of four different samples. Results show that this method can assess the risk state of a bogie system exactly. PMID:25574159

  8. Raising awareness of assistive technology in older adults through a community-based, cooperative extension program.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Debra M; Markham, Melinda Stafford

    2012-01-01

    The Fashion an Easier Lifestyle with Assistive Technology (FELAT) curriculum was developed as a needs-based, community educational program provided through a state Cooperative Extension Service. The overall goal for participants was to raise awareness of assistive technology. Program evaluation included a postassessment and subsequent interview to determine short-term knowledge gain and longer term behavior change. The sample consisted of mainly older, married females. The FELAT program was effective at raising awareness and increasing knowledge of assistive technology, and for many participants, the program acted as a catalyst for planning to or taking action related to assistive technology. PMID:22816976

  9. Flexible control techniques for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    applications with little or no customization. This means that lunar process control projects will not be delayed by unforeseen problems or last minute process modifications. The software will include all of the tools needed to adapt to virtually any changes. In contrast to other space programs which required the development of tremendous amounts of custom software, lunar-based processing facilities will benefit from the use of existing software technology which is being proven in commercial applications on Earth.

  10. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  11. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  12. Stress-dilatancy based modelling of granular materials and extensions to soils with crushable grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desimone, Antonio; Tamagnini, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Stress-dilatancy relations have played a crucial role in the understanding of the mechanical behaviour of soils and in the development of realistic constitutive models for their response. Recent investigations on the mechanical behaviour of materials with crushable grains have called into question the validity of classical relations such as those used in critical state soil mechanics.In this paper, a method to construct thermodynamically consistent (isotropic, three-invariant) elasto-plastic models based on a given stress-dilatancy relation is discussed. Extensions to cover the case of granular materials with crushable grains are also presented, based on the interpretation of some classical model parameters (e.g. the stress ratio at critical state) as internal variables that evolve according to suitable hardening laws. Copyright

  13. Evidence-Based Programming within Cooperative Extension: How Can We Maintain Program Fidelity While Adapting to Meet Local Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Welsh, Janet A.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the recent movement towards evidence-based programming has impacted Extension. We review how the emphasis on implementing such programs with strict fidelity to an underlying program model may be at odds with Extension's strong history of adapting programming to meet the unique needs of children, youth, families,…

  14. In the Field: Increasing Undergraduate Students' Awareness of Extension through a Blended Project-Based Multimedia Production Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizzo, Jamie; Lillard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate students at land-grant institutions across the country are often unaware of the depth and breadth of Extension services and careers. Agricultural communication students collaborated with an Extension programmatic team in a blended and project-based course at Purdue University to develop online videos about small farm agricultural…

  15. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues and techniques. Visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-9. The objectives of the report are to: examine various techniques used to build the KBS; to examine at least one KBS in detail, i.e., a case study; to list and identify limitations and problems with the KBS; to suggest future areas of research; and to provide extensive reference materials.

  16. A Word-Based Compression Technique for Text Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernor, Russel L., III; Weiss, Stephen F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a word-based technique for storing natural language text in compact form. The compressed text consists of a dictionary and a text that is a combination of actual running text and pointers to the dictionary. This technique has shown itself to be effective for both text storage and retrieval. (VT)

  17. Principals Use Research-Based Techniques for Facilitating School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Shirley M.; Hall, Gene E.

    Research shows that principals with strong leadership qualities are a critical factor in effective schools. This paper describes three research based techniques that principals can use when making decisions about how to help teachers develop their skills. The Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) is an empirically based conceptual framework that…

  18. Block Copolymer-Based Supramolecular Elastomers with High Extensibility and Large Stress Generation Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noro, Atsushi; Hayashi, Mikihiro

    We prepared block copolymer-based supramolecular elastomers with high extensibility and large stress generation capability. Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerizations were conducted under normal pressure and high pressure to synthesize several large molecular weight polystyrene-b-[poly(butyl acrylate)-co-polyacrylamide]-b-polystyrene (S-Ba-S) block copolymers. Tensile tests revealed that the largest S-Ba-S with middle block molecular weight of 3140k achieved a breaking elongation of over 2000% with a maximum tensile stress of 3.6 MPa and a toughness of 28 MJ/m3 while the reference sample without any middle block hydrogen bonds, polystyrene-b-poly(butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene with almost the same molecular weight, was merely viscous and not self-standing. Hence, incorporation of hydrogen bonds into a long soft middle block was found to be beneficial to attain high extensibility and large stress generation capability probably due to concerted combination of entropic changes and internal potential energy changes originaing from the dissociation of multiple hydrogen bonds by elongation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 13J02357, 24685035, 15K13785, and 23655213 for M.H. and A.N. A.N. also expresses his gratitude for Tanaka Rubber Science & Technology Award by Enokagaku-Shinko Foundation, Japan.

  19. Informational Theory of Aging: The Life Extension Method Based on the Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Karnaukhov, Alexey V.; Karnaukhova, Elena V.; Sergievich, Larisa A.; Karnaukhova, Natalia A.; Bogdanenko, Elena V.; Manokhina, Irina A.; Karnaukhov, Valery N.

    2015-01-01

    The method of lifespan extension that is a practical application of the informational theory of aging is proposed. In this theory, the degradation (error accumulation) of the genetic information in cells is considered a main cause of aging. According to it, our method is based on the transplantation of genetically identical (or similar) stem cells with the lower number of genomic errors to the old recipients. For humans and large mammals, this method can be realized by cryopreservation of their own stem cells, taken in a young age, for the later autologous transplantation in old age. To test this method experimentally, we chose laboratory animals of relatively short lifespan (mouse). Because it is difficult to isolate the required amount of the stem cells (e.g., bone marrow) without significant damage for animals, we used the bone marrow transplantation from sacrificed inbred young donors. It is shown that the lifespan extension of recipients depends on level of their genetic similarity (syngeneity) with donors. We have achieved the lifespan increase of the experimental mice by 34% when the transplantation of the bone marrow with high level of genetic similarity was used. PMID:26491435

  20. Extensive aqueous deposits at the base of the dichotomy boundary in Nilosyrtis Mensae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Amador, Elena S.

    2016-09-01

    Thermal emission imaging system (THEMIS) and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral datasets were used to identify high bulk SiO2 and hydrated compositions throughout the Nilosyrtis Mensae region. Four isolated locations were identified across the region showing short wavelength silicate absorptions within the 8-12 μm spectral region, indicating surfaces dominated by high Si phases. Much more extensive exposures of hydrated compositions are present throughout the region, indicated by a spectral absorption near 1.9 μm in CRISM data. Although limited in spatial coverage, detailed spectral observations indicate that the hydrated materials contain Fe/Mg-smectites and hydrated silica along with minor exposures of Mg-carbonates and an unidentified hydrated phase. The high SiO2 and hydrated materials are present in layered sediments near the base of topographic scarps at the hemispheric dichotomy boundary, typically near or within low albedo sand deposits. The source of the high SiO2 and hydrated materials appears to be from groundwater discharge from Nili Fossae and Syrtis Major to the south, where there is evidence for extensive aqueous alteration of the subsurface. Although discontinuous, the exposures of high SiO2 and hydrated materials span a wide area and are present in a similar geomorphological context to previously identified deposits in western Hellas Basin. These regional deposits may reflect aqueous conditions and alteration within the adjacent crust of the martian highlands.

  1. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Application of glyph-based techniques for multivariate engineering visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazar, Vladimir; Marunic, Gordana; Percic, Marko; Butkovic, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of glyph-based techniques for engineering visualization as well as practical application for the multivariate visualization process. Two glyph techniques, Chernoff faces and star glyphs, uncommonly used in engineering practice, are described, applied to the selected data set, run through the chosen optimization methods and user evaluated. As an example of how these techniques function, a set of data for the optimization of a heat exchanger with a microchannel coil is adopted for visualization. The results acquired by the chosen visualization techniques are related to the results of optimization carried out by the response surface method and compared with the results of user evaluation. Based on the data set from engineering research and practice, the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques for engineering visualization are identified and discussed.

  3. Adaptive Thresholding Technique for Retinal Vessel Segmentation Based on GLCM-Energy Information

    PubMed Central

    Mapayi, Temitope; Viriri, Serestina; Tapamo, Jules-Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Although retinal vessel segmentation has been extensively researched, a robust and time efficient segmentation method is highly needed. This paper presents a local adaptive thresholding technique based on gray level cooccurrence matrix- (GLCM-) energy information for retinal vessel segmentation. Different thresholds were computed using GLCM-energy information. An experimental evaluation on DRIVE database using the grayscale intensity and Green Channel of the retinal image demonstrates the high performance of the proposed local adaptive thresholding technique. The maximum average accuracy rates of 0.9511 and 0.9510 with maximum average sensitivity rates of 0.7650 and 0.7641 were achieved on DRIVE and STARE databases, respectively. When compared to the widely previously used techniques on the databases, the proposed adaptive thresholding technique is time efficient with a higher average sensitivity and average accuracy rates in the same range of very good specificity. PMID:25802550

  4. A technique to identify solvable dynamical systems, and another solvable extension of the goldfish many-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Francesco

    2004-12-01

    We take advantage of the simple approach, recently discussed, which associates to (solvable) matrix equations (solvable) dynamical systems interpretable as (interesting) many-body problems, possibly involving auxiliary dependent variables in addition to those identifying the positions of the moving particles. Starting from a solvable matrix evolution equation, we obtain the corresponding many-body model and note that in one case the auxiliary variables can be altogether eliminated, obtaining thereby an (also Hamiltonian) extension of the "goldfish" model. The solvability of this novel model, and of its isochronous variant, is exhibited. A related, as well solvable, model, is also introduced, as well as its isochronous variant. Finally, the small oscillations of the isochronous models around their equilibrium configurations are investigated, and from their isochronicity certain diophantine relations are evinced.

  5. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  6. Community-based Ontology Development, Annotation and Discussion with MediaWiki extension Ontokiwi and Ontokiwi-based Ontobedia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Edison; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of biological and biomedical ontologies have been developed to support data standardization, integration and analysis. Although ontologies are typically developed for community usage, community efforts in ontology development are limited. To support ontology visualization, distribution, and community-based annotation and development, we have developed Ontokiwi, an ontology extension to the MediaWiki software. Ontokiwi displays hierarchical classes and ontological axioms. Ontology classes and axioms can be edited and added using Ontokiwi form or MediaWiki source editor. Ontokiwi also inherits MediaWiki features such as Wikitext editing and version control. Based on the Ontokiwi/MediaWiki software package, we have developed Ontobedia, which targets to support community-based development and annotations of biological and biomedical ontologies. As demonstrations, we have loaded the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) and the Cell Line Ontology (CLO) into Ontobedia. Our studies showed that Ontobedia was able to achieve expected Ontokiwi features. PMID:27570653

  7. Community-based Ontology Development, Annotation and Discussion with MediaWiki extension Ontokiwi and Ontokiwi-based Ontobedia

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Edison; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of biological and biomedical ontologies have been developed to support data standardization, integration and analysis. Although ontologies are typically developed for community usage, community efforts in ontology development are limited. To support ontology visualization, distribution, and community-based annotation and development, we have developed Ontokiwi, an ontology extension to the MediaWiki software. Ontokiwi displays hierarchical classes and ontological axioms. Ontology classes and axioms can be edited and added using Ontokiwi form or MediaWiki source editor. Ontokiwi also inherits MediaWiki features such as Wikitext editing and version control. Based on the Ontokiwi/MediaWiki software package, we have developed Ontobedia, which targets to support community-based development and annotations of biological and biomedical ontologies. As demonstrations, we have loaded the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) and the Cell Line Ontology (CLO) into Ontobedia. Our studies showed that Ontobedia was able to achieve expected Ontokiwi features. PMID:27570653

  8. Protein-protein interactions prediction based on iterative clique extension with gene ontology filtering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Tang, Xianglong

    2014-01-01

    Cliques (maximal complete subnets) in protein-protein interaction (PPI) network are an important resource used to analyze protein complexes and functional modules. Clique-based methods of predicting PPI complement the data defection from biological experiments. However, clique-based predicting methods only depend on the topology of network. The false-positive and false-negative interactions in a network usually interfere with prediction. Therefore, we propose a method combining clique-based method of prediction and gene ontology (GO) annotations to overcome the shortcoming and improve the accuracy of predictions. According to different GO correcting rules, we generate two predicted interaction sets which guarantee the quality and quantity of predicted protein interactions. The proposed method is applied to the PPI network from the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP) and most of the predicted interactions are verified by another biological database, BioGRID. The predicted protein interactions are appended to the original protein network, which leads to clique extension and shows the significance of biological meaning. PMID:24578640

  9. Extensibility in local sensor based planning for hyper-redundant manipulators (robot snakes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choset, Howie; Burdick, Joel

    1994-01-01

    Partial Shape Modification (PSM) is a local sensor feedback method used for hyper-redundant robot manipulators, in which the redundancy is very large or infinite such as that of a robot snake. This aspect of redundancy enables local obstacle avoidance and end-effector placement in real time. Due to the large number of joints or actuators in a hyper-redundant manipulator, small displacement errors of such easily accumulate to large errors in the position of the tip relative to the base. The accuracy could be improved by a local sensor based planning method in which sensors are distributed along the length of the hyper-redundant robot. This paper extends the local sensor based planning strategy beyond the limitations of the fixed length of such a manipulator when its joint limits are met. This is achieved with an algorithm where the length of the deforming part of the robot is variable. Thus , the robot's local avoidance of obstacles is improved through the enhancement of its extensibility.

  10. Efficient Plant Supervision Strategy Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Rolle, Jose Luis Calvo; Castelo, Francisco Javier Perez

    Most of non-linear type one and type two control systems suffers from lack of detectability when model based techniques are applied on FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. In general, all types of processes suffer from lack of detectability also due to the ambiguity to discriminate the process, sensors and actuators in order to isolate any given fault. This work deals with a strategy to detect and isolate faults which include massive neural networks based functional approximation procedures associated to recursive rule based techniques applied to a parity space approach.

  11. EMAAS: An extensible grid-based Rich Internet Application for microarray data analysis and management

    PubMed Central

    Barton, G; Abbott, J; Chiba, N; Huang, DW; Huang, Y; Krznaric, M; Mack-Smith, J; Saleem, A; Sherman, BT; Tiwari, B; Tomlinson, C; Aitman, T; Darlington, J; Game, L; Sternberg, MJE; Butcher, SA

    2008-01-01

    Background Microarray experimentation requires the application of complex analysis methods as well as the use of non-trivial computer technologies to manage the resultant large data sets. This, together with the proliferation of tools and techniques for microarray data analysis, makes it very challenging for a laboratory scientist to keep up-to-date with the latest developments in this field. Our aim was to develop a distributed e-support system for microarray data analysis and management. Results EMAAS (Extensible MicroArray Analysis System) is a multi-user rich internet application (RIA) providing simple, robust access to up-to-date resources for microarray data storage and analysis, combined with integrated tools to optimise real time user support and training. The system leverages the power of distributed computing to perform microarray analyses, and provides seamless access to resources located at various remote facilities. The EMAAS framework allows users to import microarray data from several sources to an underlying database, to pre-process, quality assess and analyse the data, to perform functional analyses, and to track data analysis steps, all through a single easy to use web portal. This interface offers distance support to users both in the form of video tutorials and via live screen feeds using the web conferencing tool EVO. A number of analysis packages, including R-Bioconductor and Affymetrix Power Tools have been integrated on the server side and are available programmatically through the Postgres-PLR library or on grid compute clusters. Integrated distributed resources include the functional annotation tool DAVID, GeneCards and the microarray data repositories GEO, CELSIUS and MiMiR. EMAAS currently supports analysis of Affymetrix 3' and Exon expression arrays, and the system is extensible to cater for other microarray and transcriptomic platforms. Conclusion EMAAS enables users to track and perform microarray data management and analysis tasks

  12. Comparison of ITS, RAPD and ISSR from DNA-based genetic diversity techniques.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    ITS, RAPD-PCR and ISSR-PCR are most popular DNA-based techniques that are extensively applied in the determination of the genetic diversity of species among populations. However, especially for organisms having high genetic polymorphism, phylogenetic trees drawn from the results of these techniques may be different. For finding a meaningful phylogenetic tree, it should be compared phylogenetic trees obtained from these different techniques with geographic locations of populations. Lichens have a high genetic polymorphism and tolerance against different environmental conditions. In this study, these three DNA-based genetic diversity techniques were compared, using different populations of a lichen species (Xanthoria parietina). X. parietina was especially chosen because of its high genetic diversity in narrow zones. Lichen samples were collected from ten different locations in a narrow transition climate zone Bilecik (Turkey). Statistical analyses of all results were calculated using UPGMA analysis. Phylogenic trees for each technique were drawn and transferred to the Bilecik map for comparative analysis. The results of three techniques allowed us to verify that populations of X. parietina have high genetic variety in a narrow zone. But phylogenetic trees obtained from these results were found to be very different. Our comparative analysis demonstrated that the results of these techniques are not similar and have critical differences. We observed that the ITS method provides more clear data and is more successful in genetic diversity analyses of more asunder populations, in contrast to ISSR-PCR and RAPD-PCR methods. PMID:27156497

  13. PseudoBase++: an extension of PseudoBase for easy searching, formatting and visualization of pseudoknots

    PubMed Central

    Taufer, Michela; Licon, Abel; Araiza, Roberto; Mireles, David; van Batenburg, F. H. D.; Gultyaev, Alexander P.; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Pseudoknots have been recognized to be an important type of RNA secondary structures responsible for many biological functions. PseudoBase, a widely used database of pseudoknot secondary structures developed at Leiden University, contains over 250 records of pseudoknots obtained in the past 25 years through crystallography, NMR, mutational experiments and sequence comparisons. To promptly address the growing analysis requests of the researchers on RNA structures and bring together information from multiple sources across the Internet to a single platform, we designed and implemented PseudoBase++, an extension of PseudoBase for easy searching, formatting and visualization of pseudoknots. PseudoBase++ (http://pseudobaseplusplus.utep.edu) maps the PseudoBase dataset into a searchable relational database including additional functionalities such as pseudoknot type. PseudoBase++ links each pseudoknot in PseudoBase to the GenBank record of the corresponding nucleotide sequence and allows scientists to automatically visualize RNA secondary structures with PseudoViewer. It also includes the capabilities of fine-grained reference searching and collecting new pseudoknot information. PMID:18988624

  14. A Lyapunov-Based Extension to Particle Swarm Dynamics for Continuous Function Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sayantani; Konar, Amit; Das, Swagatam; Han, Sang Yong

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes three alternative extensions to the classical global-best particle swarm optimization dynamics, and compares their relative performance with the standard particle swarm algorithm. The first extension, which readily follows from the well-known Lyapunov's stability theorem, provides a mathematical basis of the particle dynamics with a guaranteed convergence at an optimum. The inclusion of local and global attractors to this dynamics leads to faster convergence speed and better accuracy than the classical one. The second extension augments the velocity adaptation equation by a negative randomly weighted positional term of individual particle, while the third extension considers the negative positional term in place of the inertial term. Computer simulations further reveal that the last two extensions outperform both the classical and the first extension in terms of convergence speed and accuracy. PMID:22303158

  15. An ionospheric occultation inversion technique based on epoch difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Xiong, Jing; Zhu, Fuying; Yang, Jian; Qiao, Xuejun

    2013-09-01

    Of the ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) electron density profile (EDP) retrievals, the Abel based calibrated TEC inversion (CTI) is the most widely used technique. In order to eliminate the contribution from the altitude above the RO satellite, it is necessary to utilize the calibrated TEC to retrieve the EDP, which introduces the error due to the coplanar assumption. In this paper, a new technique based on the epoch difference inversion (EDI) is firstly proposed to eliminate this error. The comparisons between CTI and EDI have been done, taking advantage of the simulated and real COSMIC data. The following conclusions can be drawn: the EDI technique can successfully retrieve the EDPs without non-occultation side measurements and shows better performance than the CTI method, especially for lower orbit mission; no matter which technique is used, the inversion results at the higher altitudes are better than those at the lower altitudes, which could be explained theoretically.

  16. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  17. An improved method of gene synthesis based on DNA works software and overlap extension PCR.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingxue; Mao, Runqian; Li, Baojian; Liu, Qiuyun; Xu, Peilin; Li, Gang

    2007-11-01

    A bottleneck in recent gene synthesis technologies is the high cost of oligonucleotide synthesis and post-synthesis sequencing. In this article, a simple and rapid method for low-cost gene synthesis technology was developed based on DNAWorks program and an improved single-step overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR). This method enables any DNA sequence to be synthesized with few errors, then any mutated sites could be corrected by site-specific mutagenesis technology or PCR amplification-assembly method, which can amplify different DNA fragments of target gene followed by assembly into an entire gene through their overlapped region. Eventually, full-length DNA sequence without error was obtained via this novel method. Our method is simple, rapid and low-cost, and also easily amenable to automation based on a DNAWorks design program and defined set of OE-PCR reaction conditions suitable for different genes. Using this method, several genes including Manganese peroxidase gene (Mnp) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium), Laccase gene (Lac) of Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor) and Cip1 peroxidase gene (cip 1) of Coprinus cinereus (C. cinereus) with sizes ranging from 1.0 kb to 1.5 kb have been synthesized successfully. PMID:17952664

  18. Spatial representativeness of ground-based solar radiation measurements - Extension to the full Meteosat disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Folini, Doris; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The spatial representativeness of a point measurement of surface solar radiation (SSR) of its larger-scale surrounding, e.g. collocated grid cell, is a potential source of uncertainty in the validation of climate models and satellite products. Here, we expand our previous study over Europe to the entire Meteosat disk, covering additional climate zones in Africa, the Middle east, and South America between -70° to 70° East and -70° to 70° North. Using a high-resolution (0.03°) satellite-based SSR dataset (2001-2005), we quantify the spatial subgrid variability in grids of 1° and 3° resolution and the spatial representativeness of 887 surface sites with respect to site-centered surroundings of variable size. In the multi-annual mean the subgrid variability is the largest in some mountainous and coastal regions, but varies seasonally due to changes in the ITCZ location. The absolute mean representation errors at the surface sites with respect to surroundings of 1° and 3° are on average 1-2 Hakuba, M. Z., D. Folini, A. Sanchez-Lorenzo, and M. Wild, Spatial representativeness of ground-based solar radiation measurements - Extension to the full Meteosat disk, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD021946,2014.

  19. Advanced airfoil design empirically based transonic aircraft drag buildup technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, W. D., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    To systematically investigate the potential of advanced airfoils in advance preliminary design studies, empirical relationships were derived, based on available wind tunnel test data, through which total drag is determined recognizing all major aircraft geometric variables. This technique recognizes a single design lift coefficient and Mach number for each aircraft. Using this technique drag polars are derived for all Mach numbers up to MDesign + 0.05 and lift coefficients -0.40 to +0.20 from CLDesign.

  20. Intramuscular injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri

    2014-09-30

    Intramuscular injections require a thorough and meticulous approach to patient assessment and injection technique. This article, the second in a series of two, reviews the evidence base to inform safer practice and to consider the evidence for nursing practice in this area. A framework for safe practice is included, identifying important points for safe technique, patient care and clinical decision making. It also highlights the ongoing debate in selection of intramuscular injection sites, predominately the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles. PMID:25249123

  1. Image analysis techniques associated with automatic data base generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Atkinson, R. J.; Hodges, B. C.; Thomas, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    This paper considers some basic problems relating to automatic data base generation from imagery, the primary emphasis being on fast and efficient automatic extraction of relevant pictorial information. Among the techniques discussed are recursive implementations of some particular types of filters which are much faster than FFT implementations, a 'sequential similarity detection' technique of implementing matched filters, and sequential linear classification of multispectral imagery. Several applications of the above techniques are presented including enhancement of underwater, aerial and radiographic imagery, detection and reconstruction of particular types of features in images, automatic picture registration and classification of multiband aerial photographs to generate thematic land use maps.

  2. Efficiency of Integrated Geophysical techniques in delineating the extension of Bauxites ore in north Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almutairi, Yasir; Alanazi, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Muteb; Alsama, Ali; Alhenaki, Bander; Almalki, Awadh

    2014-05-01

    We exploit the integration of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study for delineating the subsurface Bauxite layer in Zabira locality, north of Riyadh. Integrated GPR, magnetic gradiometry resistivity and seismic refraction are used in the case of high contrast targets and provide an accurate subsurface reconstruction of foundations in sediments. Resistivity pseudo-sections are in particular useful for the areal identification of contacts between soils and foundations while GPR and magnetic gradiometry provide detailed information about location and depth of the structures. Results obtained by GPR, Magnetics and resistivity shows a very good agreement in mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 5 m to 10 m while the depth obtained by seismic refraction was 10 m to 15 m due to lack of velocity information.

  3. Real-time neural network based camera localization and its extension to mobile robot control.

    PubMed

    Choi, D H; Oh, S Y

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of using neural networks for camera localization and mobile robot control is investigated here. This approach has the advantages of eliminating the laborious and error-prone process of imaging system modeling and calibration procedures. Basically, two different approaches of using neural networks are introduced of which one is a hybrid approach combining neural networks and the pinhole-based analytic solution while the other is purely neural network based. These techniques have been tested and compared through both simulation and real-time experiments and are shown to yield more precise localization than analytic approaches. Furthermore, this neural localization method is also shown to be directly applicable to the navigation control of an experimental mobile robot along the hallway purely guided by a dark wall strip. It also facilitates multi-sensor fusion through the use of multiple sensors of different types for control due to the network's capability of learning without models. PMID:9427102

  4. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie, Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. PMID:20814088

  5. Using Maps in Web Analytics to Evaluate the Impact of Web-Based Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veregin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Maps can be a valuable addition to the Web analytics toolbox for Extension programs that use the Web to disseminate information. Extension professionals use Web analytics tools to evaluate program impacts. Maps add a unique perspective through visualization and analysis of geographic patterns and their relationships to other variables. Maps can…

  6. Contraction-based classification of supersymmetric extensions of kinematical lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2010-02-15

    We study supersymmetric extensions of classical kinematical algebras from the point of view of contraction theory. It is shown that contracting the supersymmetric extension of the anti-de Sitter algebra leads to a hierarchy similar in structure to the classical Bacry-Levy-Leblond classification.

  7. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  8. The Role of Extension Specialists in Helping Entrepreneurs Develop Successful Food-Based Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Rodney; Muske, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    Three areas in which extension specialists can assist food industry entrepreneurs include (1) awareness of the components of a business plan, (2) pro forma financial analysis, and (3) legal issues affecting the food industry. In addition to specialized expertise, extension professionals can help with making contacts, objectively review business…

  9. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shengjing; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Xidong; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Sign language recognition (SLR) can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG) sensors, accelerometers (ACC), and gyroscopes (GYRO). In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL) sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set) suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2)% and (79.7 ± 13.4)% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7)% and (86.3 ± 13.7)% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set). The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user's training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system. PMID:27104534

  10. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shengjing; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Xidong; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Sign language recognition (SLR) can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG) sensors, accelerometers (ACC), and gyroscopes (GYRO). In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL) sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set) suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2)% and (79.7 ± 13.4)% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7)% and (86.3 ± 13.7)% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set). The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user’s training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system. PMID:27104534

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Growth of Infants Fed a 100% Whey Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula Compared With a Casein-Based Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula.

    PubMed

    Fields, David; Czerkies, Laura; Sun, Shumei; Storm, Heidi; Saavedra, José; Sorensen, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the growth of healthy infants fed a hypoallergenic 100% whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) with Bifidobacterium lactis (test) with that of infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (control). Formula-fed infants (14 ± 3 days) were randomized to test or control groups until 112 days of age. Anthropometrics were assessed at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days, and daily records were kept for 2 days prior to study visits. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids at 84 days were assessed in a subset. A total of 282 infants were randomized (124 test, 158 control). Significantly more infants dropped out of the control (56%) as compared with the test (41%) group. Mean daily weight gain was significantly higher in the test group compared with the control group (27.95 ± 5.91 vs 25.93 ± 6.12 g/d; P = .027) with the test group reporting significantly fewer stools (2.2 vs 3.6 stools/d; P < .0001). The control group reported significantly more days with >3 loose stools/d and a higher incidence of vomiting as compared with the test group. There were no differences in gas, mood, sleep, or serum albumin. Plasma arginine and valine were significantly lower in the test group, whereas leucine and lysine were higher; all values were within normal limits. Significantly more adverse events attributed to the study formula were reported in the control group. The 100% whey-based hypoallergenic EHF containing Bifidobacterium lactis and medium chain triglycerides supported growth of healthy infants. Future studies on the application of this formula in clinically indicated populations are warranted. PMID:27336009

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Growth of Infants Fed a 100% Whey Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula Compared With a Casein-Based Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula

    PubMed Central

    Fields, David; Czerkies, Laura; Sun, Shumei; Storm, Heidi; Saavedra, José; Sorensen, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the growth of healthy infants fed a hypoallergenic 100% whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) with Bifidobacterium lactis (test) with that of infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (control). Formula-fed infants (14 ± 3 days) were randomized to test or control groups until 112 days of age. Anthropometrics were assessed at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days, and daily records were kept for 2 days prior to study visits. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids at 84 days were assessed in a subset. A total of 282 infants were randomized (124 test, 158 control). Significantly more infants dropped out of the control (56%) as compared with the test (41%) group. Mean daily weight gain was significantly higher in the test group compared with the control group (27.95 ± 5.91 vs 25.93 ± 6.12 g/d; P = .027) with the test group reporting significantly fewer stools (2.2 vs 3.6 stools/d; P < .0001). The control group reported significantly more days with >3 loose stools/d and a higher incidence of vomiting as compared with the test group. There were no differences in gas, mood, sleep, or serum albumin. Plasma arginine and valine were significantly lower in the test group, whereas leucine and lysine were higher; all values were within normal limits. Significantly more adverse events attributed to the study formula were reported in the control group. The 100% whey-based hypoallergenic EHF containing Bifidobacterium lactis and medium chain triglycerides supported growth of healthy infants. Future studies on the application of this formula in clinically indicated populations are warranted. PMID:27336009

  13. An extensive survey of dayside diffuse aurora based on optical observations at Yellow River Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, De-Sheng; Chen, Xiang-Cai; Liu, Jian-Jun; Qiu, Qi; Keika, K.; Hu, Ze-Jun; Liu, Jun-Ming; Hu, Hong-Qiao; Yang, Hui-Gen

    2015-09-01

    By using 7 years optical auroral observations obtained at Yellow River Station (magnetic latitude 76.24°N) at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, we performed the first extensive survey for the dayside diffuse auroras (DDAs) and acquired observational results as follows. (1) The DDAs can be classified into two broad categories, i.e., unstructured and structured DDAs. The unstructured DDAs are mainly distributed in morning and afternoon, but the structured DDAs predominantly occurred around the magnetic local noon (MLN). (2) The unstructured DDAs observed in morning and afternoon present obviously different properties. The afternoon ones are much stable and seldom show pulsating property. (3) The DDAs are more easily observed under geomagnetically quiet times. (4) The structured DDAs mainly show patchy, stripy, and irregular forms and are often pulsating and drifting. The drifting directions are mostly westward (with speed ~5 km/s), but there are cases showing eastward or poleward drifting. (5) The stripy DDAs are exclusively observed near the MLN and, most importantly, their alignments are confirmed to be consistent with the direction of ionospheric convection near the MLN. (6) A new auroral form, called throat aurora, is found to be developed from the stripy DDAs. Based on the observational results and previous studies, we proposed our explanations to the DDAs. We suggest that the unstructured DDAs observed in the morning are extensions of the nightside diffuse aurora to the dayside, but that observed in the afternoon are predominantly caused by proton precipitations. The structured DDAs occurred near the MLN are caused by interactions of cold plasma structures, which are supposed to be originated from the ionospheric outflows or plasmaspheric drainage plumes, with hot electrons from the plasma sheet. We suppose that the cold plasma structures for producing the patchy DDAs are in lumpy and are more likely from the plasmaspheric drainage plumes. The cold plasma structure for

  14. CDAPubMed: a browser extension to retrieve EHR-based biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few decades, the ever-increasing output of scientific publications has led to new challenges to keep up to date with the literature. In the biomedical area, this growth has introduced new requirements for professionals, e.g., physicians, who have to locate the exact papers that they need for their clinical and research work amongst a huge number of publications. Against this backdrop, novel information retrieval methods are even more necessary. While web search engines are widespread in many areas, facilitating access to all kinds of information, additional tools are required to automatically link information retrieved from these engines to specific biomedical applications. In the case of clinical environments, this also means considering aspects such as patient data security and confidentiality or structured contents, e.g., electronic health records (EHRs). In this scenario, we have developed a new tool to facilitate query building to retrieve scientific literature related to EHRs. Results We have developed CDAPubMed, an open-source web browser extension to integrate EHR features in biomedical literature retrieval approaches. Clinical users can use CDAPubMed to: (i) load patient clinical documents, i.e., EHRs based on the Health Level 7-Clinical Document Architecture Standard (HL7-CDA), (ii) identify relevant terms for scientific literature search in these documents, i.e., Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), automatically driven by the CDAPubMed configuration, which advanced users can optimize to adapt to each specific situation, and (iii) generate and launch literature search queries to a major search engine, i.e., PubMed, to retrieve citations related to the EHR under examination. Conclusions CDAPubMed is a platform-independent tool designed to facilitate literature searching using keywords contained in specific EHRs. CDAPubMed is visually integrated, as an extension of a widespread web browser, within the standard PubMed interface. It has

  15. GIS-based assessment of groundwater level on extensive karst areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecskó, Zsanett; Józsa, Edina

    2016-04-01

    Karst topographies represent unique geographical regions containing caves and extensive underground water systems developed especially on soluble rocks such as limestone, marble and gypsum. The significance of these areas is evident considering that 12% of the ice-free continental area consists of landscapes developed on carbonate rocks and 20-25% of the global population depends mostly on groundwater obtained from these systems. Karst water reservoirs already give the 25% of the freshwater resources globally. Comprehensive studies considering these regions are the key to explore chances of the exploitation and to analyze the consequences of contamination, anthropogenic effects and natural processes within these specific hydro-geological characteristics. For the proposed work we chose several of the largest karst regions over the ice-free part of continents, representing diverse climatic and topographic characteristics. An important aspect of the study is that there are no available in situ hydrologic measurements over the entire research area that would provide discrete sampling of soil, ground and surface water. As replacement for the detailed surveys, multi remote sensing data (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite derivatives products, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite products and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) monthly rainfalls satellite datasets) are used along with model reanalysis data (Global Precipitation Climate Center data (GPCC) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)) to study the variation on extensive karst areas in response to the changing climate and anthropogenic effects. The analyses are carried out within open source software environment to enable sharing of the proposed algorithm. The GRASS GIS geoinformatic software and the R statistical program proved to be adequate choice to collect and analyze the above mentioned datasets by taking advantage of their interoperability

  16. Wavelet transformation based watermarking technique for human electrocardiogram (ECG).

    PubMed

    Engin, Mehmet; Cidam, Oğuz; Engin, Erkan Zeki

    2005-12-01

    Nowadays, watermarking has become a technology of choice for a broad range of multimedia copyright protection applications. Watermarks have also been used to embed prespecified data in biomedical signals. Thus, the watermarked biomedical signals being transmitted through communication are resistant to some attacks. This paper investigates discrete wavelet transform based watermarking technique for signal integrity verification in an Electrocardiogram (ECG) coming from four ECG classes for monitoring application of cardiovascular diseases. The proposed technique is evaluated under different noisy conditions for different wavelet functions. Daubechies (db2) wavelet function based technique performs better than those of Biorthogonal (bior5.5) wavelet function. For the beat-to-beat applications, all performance results belonging to four ECG classes are highly moderate. PMID:16235811

  17. "Ayeli": Centering Technique Based on Cherokee Spiritual Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a centering technique called "Ayeli," based on Cherokee spiritual traditions as a way of incorporating spirituality into counseling by helping clients identify where they are in their journey, where they want to be, and how they can get there. Relevant Native cultural traditions and meanings are explored. (Contains 25 references.) (GCP)

  18. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth. PMID:25587570

  19. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Abdel Kader, Neamat S.; Zorkany, M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth. PMID:25587570

  20. Experiments on Adaptive Techniques for Host-Based Intrusion Detection

    SciTech Connect

    DRAELOS, TIMOTHY J.; COLLINS, MICHAEL J.; DUGGAN, DAVID P.; THOMAS, EDWARD V.; WUNSCH, DONALD

    2001-09-01

    This research explores four experiments of adaptive host-based intrusion detection (ID) techniques in an attempt to develop systems that can detect novel exploits. The technique considered to have the most potential is adaptive critic designs (ACDs) because of their utilization of reinforcement learning, which allows learning exploits that are difficult to pinpoint in sensor data. Preliminary results of ID using an ACD, an Elman recurrent neural network, and a statistical anomaly detection technique demonstrate an ability to learn to distinguish between clean and exploit data. We used the Solaris Basic Security Module (BSM) as a data source and performed considerable preprocessing on the raw data. A detection approach called generalized signature-based ID is recommended as a middle ground between signature-based ID, which has an inability to detect novel exploits, and anomaly detection, which detects too many events including events that are not exploits. The primary results of the ID experiments demonstrate the use of custom data for generalized signature-based intrusion detection and the ability of neural network-based systems to learn in this application environment.

  1. Graphene-based terahertz photodetector by noise thermometry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ming-Jye; Wang, Ji-Wun; Wang, Chun-Lun; Chiang, Yen-Yu; Chang, Hsian-Hong

    2014-01-20

    We report the characteristics of graphene-based terahertz (THz) photodetector based on noise thermometry technique by measuring its noise power at frequency from 4 to 6 GHz. Hot electron system in graphene microbridge is generated after THz photon pumping and creates extra noise power. The equivalent noise temperature and electron temperature increase rapidly in low THz pumping regime and saturate gradually in high THz power regime which is attributed to a faster energy relaxation process involved by stronger electron-phonon interaction. Based on this detector, a conversion efficiency around 0.15 from THz power to noise power in 4–6 GHz span has been achieved.

  2. Statistics and Machine Learning based Outlier Detection Techniques for Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Amit; Montgomery, Michele

    2015-08-01

    Architectures of planetary systems are observable snapshots in time that can indicate formation and dynamic evolution of planets. The observable key parameters that we consider are planetary mass and orbital period. If planet masses are significantly less than their host star masses, then Keplerian Motion is defined as P^2 = a^3 where P is the orbital period in units of years and a is the orbital period in units of Astronomical Units (AU). Keplerian motion works on small scales such as the size of the Solar System but not on large scales such as the size of the Milky Way Galaxy. In this work, for confirmed exoplanets of known stellar mass, planetary mass, orbital period, and stellar age, we analyze Keplerian motion of systems based on stellar age to seek if Keplerian motion has an age dependency and to identify outliers. For detecting outliers, we apply several techniques based on statistical and machine learning methods such as probabilistic, linear, and proximity based models. In probabilistic and statistical models of outliers, the parameters of a closed form probability distributions are learned in order to detect the outliers. Linear models use regression analysis based techniques for detecting outliers. Proximity based models use distance based algorithms such as k-nearest neighbour, clustering algorithms such as k-means, or density based algorithms such as kernel density estimation. In this work, we will use unsupervised learning algorithms with only the proximity based models. In addition, we explore the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various techniques by validating the outliers. The validation criteria for the outliers is if the ratio of planetary mass to stellar mass is less than 0.001. In this work, we present our statistical analysis of the outliers thus detected.

  3. Development and Implementation of an Extensible Interface-Based Spatiotemporal Geoprocessing and Modeling Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y.; Ames, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    This poster presents an object oriented and interface-based spatiotemporal data processing and modeling toolbox that can be extended by third parties to include complete suites of new tools through the implementation of simple interfaces. The resulting software implementation includes both a toolbox and workflow designer or "model builder" constructed using the underlying open source DotSpatial library and MapWindow desktop GIS. The unique contribution of this research and software development activity is in the creation and use of an extensibility architecture for both specific tools (through a so-called "ITool" interface) and batches of tools (through a so-called "IToolProvider" interface.) This concept is introduced to allow for seamless integration of geoprocessing tools from various sources (e.g. distinct libraries of spatiotemporal processing code) - including online sources - within a single user environment. In this way, the IToolProvider interface allows developers to wrap large existing collections of data analysis code without having to re-write it for interoperability. Additionally, developers do not need to design the user interfaces for loading, displaying or interacting with their specific tools, but rather can simply implement the provided interfaces and have their tools and tool collections appear in the toolbox alongside other tools. The demonstration software presented here is based on an implementation of the interfaces and sample tool libraries using the C# .NET programming language. This poster will include a summary of the interfaces as well as a demonstration of the system using the Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools (GAT) as an example case of a large number of existing tools that can be exposed to users through this new system. Vector analysis tools which are native in DotSpatial are linked to the Whitebox raster analysis tools in the model builder environment for ease of execution and consistent/repeatable use. We expect that this

  4. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A.

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient. PMID:22319362

  5. Novel techniques and the future of skull base reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Meier, Joshua C; Bleier, Benjamin S

    2013-01-01

    The field of endoscopic skull base surgery has evolved considerably in recent years fueled largely by advances in both imaging and instrumentation. While the indications for these approaches continue to be extended, the ability to reconstruct the resultant defects has emerged as a rate-limiting obstacle. Postoperative failures with current multilayer grafting techniques remain significant and may increase as the indications for endoscopic resections continue to expand. Laser tissue welding represents a novel method of wound repair in which laser energy is applied to a chromophore doped biologic solder at the wound edge to create a laser weld (fig. 1). These repairs are capable of withstanding forces far exceeding those exerted by intracranial pressure with negligible collateral thermal tissue injury. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of endoscopic laser welding while exposing the limitations of first generation hyaluronic acid based solders. Novel supersaturated gel based solders are currently being tested in clinical trials and appear to possess significantly improved viscoelastic properties. While laser tissue welding remains an experimental technique, continued success with these novel solder formulations may catalyze the widespread adoption of this technique for skull base repair in the near future. PMID:23257563

  6. DEVA: An extensible ontology-based annotation model for visual document collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelmini, Carlo; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane

    2003-01-01

    The description of visual documents is a fundamental aspect of any efficient information management system, but the process of manually annotating large collections of documents is tedious and far from being perfect. The need for a generic and extensible annotation model therefore arises. In this paper, we present DEVA, an open, generic and expressive multimedia annotation framework. DEVA is an extension of the Dublin Core specification. The model can represent the semantic content of any visual document. It is described in the ontology language DAML+OIL and can easily be extended with external specialized ontologies, adapting the vocabulary to the given application domain. In parallel, we present the Magritte annotation tool, which is an early prototype that validates the DEVA features. Magritte allows to manually annotating image collections. It is designed with a modular and extensible architecture, which enables the user to dynamically adapt the user interface to specialized ontologies merged into DEVA.

  7. The Intelligent System of Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Based on Extension Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baiqing; Li, Yange; Zhang, Lin

    This thesis gives the general definition of the concepts of extension knowledge, extension data mining and extension data mining theorem in high dimension space, and also builds the IDSS integrated system by the rough set, expert system and neural network, develops the relevant computer software. From the diagnosis tests, according to the common diseases of myocardial infarctions, angina pectoris and hypertension, and made the test result with physicians, the results shows that the sensitivity, specific and accuracy diagnosis by the IDSS are all higher than the physicians. It can improve the rate of the accuracy diagnosis of physician with the auxiliary help of this system, which have the obvious meaning in low the mortality, disability rate and high the survival rate, and has strong practical values and further social benefits.

  8. New Flutter Analysis Technique for CFD-based Unsteady Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Jutte, Christine V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a flutter analysis technique for the transonic flight regime. The technique uses an iterative approach to determine the critical dynamic pressure for a given mach number. Unlike other CFD-based flutter analysis methods, each iteration solves for the critical dynamic pressure and uses this value in subsequent iterations until the value converges. This process reduces the iterations required to determine the critical dynamic pressure. To improve the accuracy of the analysis, the technique employs a known structural model, leaving only the aerodynamic model as the unknown. The aerodynamic model is estimated using unsteady aeroelastic CFD analysis combined with a parameter estimation routine. The technique executes as follows. The known structural model is represented as a finite element model. Modal analysis determines the frequencies and mode shapes for the structural model. At a given mach number and dynamic pressure, the unsteady CFD analysis is performed. The output time history of the surface pressure is converted to a nodal aerodynamic force vector. The forces are then normalized by the given dynamic pressure. A multi-input multi-output parameter estimation software, ERA, estimates the aerodynamic model through the use of time histories of nodal aerodynamic forces and structural deformations. The critical dynamic pressure is then calculated using the known structural model and the estimated aerodynamic model. This output is used as the dynamic pressure in subsequent iterations until the critical dynamic pressure is determined. This technique is demonstrated on the Aerostructures Test Wing-2 model at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center.

  9. A unified neural-network-based speaker localization technique.

    PubMed

    Arslan, G; Sakarya, F A

    2000-01-01

    Locating and tracking a speaker in real time using microphone arrays is important in many applications such as hands-free video conferencing, speech processing in large rooms, and acoustic echo cancellation. A speaker can be moving from the far field to the near field of the array, or vice versa. Many neural-network-based localization techniques exist, but they are applicable to either far-field or near-field sources, and are computationally intensive for real-time speaker localization applications because of the wide-band nature of the speech. We propose a unified neural-network-based source localization technique, which is simultaneously applicable to wide-band and narrow-band signal sources that are in the far field or near field of a microphone array. The technique exploits a multilayer perceptron feedforward neural network structure and forms the feature vectors by computing the normalized instantaneous cross-power spectrum samples between adjacent pairs of sensors. Simulation results indicate that our technique is able to locate a source with an absolute error of less than 3.5 degrees at a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB and a sampling rate of 8000 Hz at each sensor. PMID:18249826

  10. An In-House Prototype for the Implementation of Computer-Based Extensive Reading in a Limited-Resource School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayora, Carlos A.; Nieves, Idami; Ojeda, Victor

    2014-01-01

    A variety of computer-based models of Extensive Reading have emerged in the last decade. Different Information and Communication Technologies online usually support these models. However, such innovations are not feasible in contexts where the digital breach limits the access to Internet. The purpose of this paper is to report a project in which…

  11. Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H: An Innovative Approach to Deliver Campus- Based Field Experiences to Pre-Entry Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Penny Pennington; Weeks, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H Club was created as a pilot program for college students seeking to gain experience as non-formal youth educators, specifically serving pre-entry level Extension educators through a university-based 4-H club. Seventeen student volunteers contributed an estimated 630 hours of service to the club during spring 2011. The club…

  12. 78 FR 16275 - Extension of the Duration of Programmatic Agreements Based on the Department of Energy Prototype...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... 22, 2013, for a one-week comment period (78 FR 12336-12337). In accordance with 36 CFR 800.14(e), the... HISTORIC PRESERVATION Extension of the Duration of Programmatic Agreements Based on the Department of... on Historic Preservation. ACTION: The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation has issued a...

  13. Extensions of algebraic image operators: An approach to model-based vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Bao-Ting; Morelli, Michael V.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers extend their previous research on a highly structured and compact algebraic representation of grey-level images which can be viewed as fuzzy sets. Addition and multiplication are defined for the set of all grey-level images, which can then be described as polynomials of two variables. Utilizing this new algebraic structure, researchers devised an innovative, efficient edge detection scheme. An accurate method for deriving gradient component information from this edge detector is presented. Based upon this new edge detection system researchers developed a robust method for linear feature extraction by combining the techniques of a Hough transform and a line follower. The major advantage of this feature extractor is its general, object-independent nature. Target attributes, such as line segment lengths, intersections, angles of intersection, and endpoints are derived by the feature extraction algorithm and employed during model matching. The algebraic operators are global operations which are easily reconfigured to operate on any size or shape region. This provides a natural platform from which to pursue dynamic scene analysis. A method for optimizing the linear feature extractor which capitalizes on the spatially reconfiguration nature of the edge detector/gradient component operator is discussed.

  14. 76 FR 12073 - Extension of Web-Based TRICARE Assistance Program Demonstration Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Register Notice, 74 FR 3667, July 24, 2009. The demonstration was extended to March 31, 2011, as referenced... in 74 FR 3667 July 24, 2009 launched August 1, 2009, to provide the capability for short-term... original Federal Register Notice, 74 FR 3667 July 24, 2009, and the extension Federal Register...

  15. Designing a Competency-Based New County Extension Personnel Training Program: A Novel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Cheri Winton; Higgins, Cynthia; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Craig, Diane D.; Haile, Tyann

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary county personnel turnover occurs for a multitude of reasons, including the lack of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job embeddedness and lack of proper training. Loss of personnel can be costly both economically and in terms of human capital. Retention of Extension professionals can be improved through proper training or…

  16. Quantum state tomography of orbital angular momentum photonic qubits via a projection-based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Adrien; Veissier, Lucile; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Maxein, Dominik; Laurat, Julien

    2015-03-01

    While measuring the orbital angular momentum state of bright light beams can be performed using imaging techniques, a full characterization at the single-photon level is challenging. For applications to quantum optics and quantum information science, such characterization is an essential capability. Here, we present a setup to perform the quantum state tomography of photonic qubits encoded in this degree of freedom. The method is based on a projective technique using spatial mode projection via fork holograms and single-mode fibers inserted into an interferometer. The alignment and calibration of the device is detailed as well as the measurement sequence to reconstruct the associated density matrix. Possible extensions to higher-dimensional spaces are discussed.

  17. A Different Web-Based Geocoding Service Using Fuzzy Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, P.; Abbaspour, R. A.; Zare Zadiny, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geocoding - the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  18. Flow management techniques for base and afterbody drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, P. R.

    The problem of turbulent base flows and the drag associated with it have been of significant interest in missile as well as fighter aircraft design. Numerous studies in the literature have been devoted to aspects of reducing base drag on two-dimensional as well as on axisymmetric bodies. This paper presents a review of the developments that have taken place on the use of passive techniques or devices for axisymmetric base and net afterbody drag reduction in the absence of jet flow at the base. In particular, the paper discusses the effectiveness of base cavities, ventilated cavities, locked vortex afterbodies, multi-step afterbodies and afterbodies employing a non-axisymmetric boat-tailing concept for base and net drag reduction in different speed regimes. The broad features of the flow and the likely fluid-dynamical mechanisms associated with the device leading to base drag reduction are highlighted. Flight-test results assessing the effectiveness of some of the devices are compared with data from wind tunnels. The present survey indicates that base and net afterbody drag reduction of considerable engineering significance in aerospace applications can be achieved by various passive devices even when the (unmanipulated) base flow is not characterised by vortex shedding.

  19. Hydrocarbon microseepage mapping using signature based target detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soydan, Hilal; Koz, Alper; Şebnem Düzgün, H.; Aydin Alatan, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we compare the conventional methods in hydrocarbon seepage anomalies with the signature based detection algorithms. The Crosta technique [1] is selected as a basement in the experimental comparisons for the conventional approach. The Crosta technique utilizes the characteristic bands of the searched target for principal component transformation in order to determine the components characterizing the target in interest. Desired Target Detection and Classification Algorithm (DTDCA), Spectral Matched Filter (SMF), and Normalized Correlation (NC) are employed for signature based target detection. Signature based target detection algorithms are applied to the whole spectrum benefiting from the information stored in all spectral bands. The selected methods are applied to a multispectral Advanced SpaceBorne Thermal Emission and Radiometer (ASTER) image of the study region, with an atmospheric correction prior to the realization of the algorithms. ASTER provides multispectral bands covering visible, short wave, and thermal infrared region, which serves as a useful tool for the interpretation of the areas with hydrocarbon anomalies. The exploration area is selected as Gemrik Anticline which is located in South East Anatolia, Adıyaman, Bozova Oil Field, where microseeps can be observed with almost no vegetation cover. The spectral signatures collected with Analytical Spectral Devices Inc. (ASD) spectrometer from the reference valley [2] have been utilized as an input to the signature based detection algorithms. The experiments have indicated that DTDCA and MF outperforms the Crosta technique by locating the microseepage patterns along the mitigation pathways with a better contrast. On the other hand, NC has not been able to map the searched target with a visible distinction. It is concluded that the signature based algorithms can be more effective than the conventional methods for the detection of microseepage induced anomalies.

  20. A Review of Financial Accounting Fraud Detection based on Data Mining Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anuj; Kumar Panigrahi, Prabin

    2012-02-01

    With an upsurge in financial accounting fraud in the current economic scenario experienced, financial accounting fraud detection (FAFD) has become an emerging topic of great importance for academic, research and industries. The failure of internal auditing system of the organization in identifying the accounting frauds has lead to use of specialized procedures to detect financial accounting fraud, collective known as forensic accounting. Data mining techniques are providing great aid in financial accounting fraud detection, since dealing with the large data volumes and complexities of financial data are big challenges for forensic accounting. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature on the application of data mining techniques for the detection of financial accounting fraud and proposes a framework for data mining techniques based accounting fraud detection. The systematic and comprehensive literature review of the data mining techniques applicable to financial accounting fraud detection may provide a foundation to future research in this field. The findings of this review show that data mining techniques like logistic models, neural networks, Bayesian belief network, and decision trees have been applied most extensively to provide primary solutions to the problems inherent in the detection and classification of fraudulent data.

  1. Implementation of Obstacle-Avoidance Control for an Autonomous Omni-Directional Mobile Robot Based on Extension Theory

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Neng-Sheng; Hsieh, Hung-Hui; Lai, Yi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a following robot with omni-directional wheels, which is able to take action to avoid obstacles. The robot design is based on both fuzzy and extension theory. Fuzzy theory was applied to tune the PMW signal of the motor revolution, and correct path deviation issues encountered when the robot is moving. Extension theory was used to build a robot obstacle-avoidance model. Various mobile models were developed to handle different types of obstacles. The ultrasonic distance sensors mounted on the robot were used to estimate the distance to obstacles. If an obstacle is encountered, the correlation function is evaluated and the robot avoids the obstacle autonomously using the most appropriate mode. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified through several tracking experiments, which demonstrates the feasibility of a fuzzy path tracker as well as the extensible collision avoidance system. PMID:23202029

  2. Implementation of obstacle-avoidance control for an autonomous omni-directional mobile robot based on extension theory.

    PubMed

    Pai, Neng-Sheng; Hsieh, Hung-Hui; Lai, Yi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a following robot with omni-directional wheels, which is able to take action to avoid obstacles. The robot design is based on both fuzzy and extension theory. Fuzzy theory was applied to tune the PMW signal of the motor revolution, and correct path deviation issues encountered when the robot is moving. Extension theory was used to build a robot obstacle-avoidance model. Various mobile models were developed to handle different types of obstacles. The ultrasonic distance sensors mounted on the robot were used to estimate the distance to obstacles. If an obstacle is encountered, the correlation function is evaluated and the robot avoids the obstacle autonomously using the most appropriate mode. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified through several tracking experiments, which demonstrates the feasibility of a fuzzy path tracker as well as the extensible collision avoidance system. PMID:23202029

  3. FDTD technique based crosstalk analysis of bundled SWCNT interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Duksh, Yograj; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rajendra P.

    2015-05-01

    The equivalent electrical circuit model of a bundled single-walled carbon nanotube based distributed RLC interconnects is employed for the crosstalk analysis. The accurate time domain analysis and crosstalk effect in the VLSI interconnect has emerged as an essential design criteria. This paper presents a brief description of the numerical method based finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique that is intended for estimation of voltages and currents on coupled transmission lines. For the FDTD implementation, the stability of the proposed model is strictly restricted by the Courant condition. This method is used for the estimation of crosstalk induced propagation delay and peak voltage in lossy RLC interconnects. Both functional and dynamic crosstalk effects are analyzed in the coupled transmission line. The effect of line resistance on crosstalk induced delay, and peak voltage under dynamic and functional crosstalk is also evaluated. The FDTD analysis and the SPICE simulations are carried out at 32 nm technology node for the global interconnects. It is observed that the analytical results obtained using the FDTD technique are in good agreement with the SPICE simulation results. The crosstalk induced delay, propagation delay, and peak voltage obtained using the FDTD technique shows average errors of 4.9%, 3.4% and 0.46%, respectively, in comparison to SPICE.

  4. Noninvasive in vivo glucose sensing using an iris based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Anthony J.; Cameron, Brent D.

    2011-03-01

    Physiological glucose monitoring is important aspect in the treatment of individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus. Although invasive techniques for glucose monitoring are widely available, it would be very beneficial to make such measurements in a noninvasive manner. In this study, a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit animal model was utilized to evaluate a developed iris-based imaging technique for the in vivo measurement of physiological glucose concentration. The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane and an insulin/dextrose protocol was used to control blood glucose concentration. To further help restrict eye movement, a developed ocular fixation device was used. During the experimental time frame, near infrared illuminated iris images were acquired along with corresponding discrete blood glucose measurements taken with a handheld glucometer. Calibration was performed using an image based Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. Independent validation was also performed to assess model performance along with Clarke Error Grid Analysis (CEGA). Initial validation results were promising and show that a high percentage of the predicted glucose concentrations are within 20% of the reference values.

  5. Surveying converter lining erosion state based on laser measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongsheng; Shi, Tielin; Yang, Shuzi

    1998-08-01

    It is very important to survey the eroding state of the steelmaking converter lining real time so as to optimize technological process, extend converter durability and reduce steelmaking production costs. This paper gives one practical method based on the laser measure technique. It presents the basic principle of the measure technique. It presents the basic principle of the measure method, the composition of the measure system and the researches on key technological problems. The method is based on the technique of the laser range finding to net points on the surface of the surveyed converter lining, and the technology of angle finding to the laser beams. The angle signals would be used to help realizing the automatic scanning function also. The laser signals would be modulated and encoded. In the meantime, we would adopt the wavelet analysis and other filter algorithms, to denoise noisy data and extract useful information. And the main idea of some algorithms such as the net point measuring path planning and the measure device position optimal algorithm would also be given in order to improve the measure precision and real time property of the system.

  6. The Roland Maze Project school-based extensive air shower network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, J.; Jȩdrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzyński, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Łódź. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented.

  7. Effects of borate-based bioactive glass on neuron viability and neurite extension.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Laura M; Day, Delbert; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Harkins, Amy B

    2014-08-01

    Bioactive glasses have recently been shown to promote regeneration of soft tissues by positively influencing tissue remodeling during wound healing. We were interested to determine whether bioactive glasses have the potential for use in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. In these experiments, degradable bioactive borate glass was fabricated into rods and microfibers. To study the compatibility with neurons, embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were cultured with different forms of bioactive borate glass. Cell viability was measured with no media exchange (static condition) or routine media exchange (transient condition). Neurite extension was measured within fibrin scaffolds with embedded glass microfibers or aligned rod sheets. Mixed cultures of neurons, glia, and fibroblasts growing in static conditions with glass rods and microfibers resulted in decreased cell viability. However, the percentage of neurons compared with all cell types increased by the end of the culture protocol compared with culture without glass. Furthermore, bioactive glass and fibrin composite scaffolds promoted neurite extension similar to that of control fibrin scaffolds, suggesting that glass does not have a significant detrimental effect on neuronal health. Aligned glass scaffolds guided neurite extension in an oriented manner. Together these findings suggest that bioactive glass can provide alignment to support directed axon growth. PMID:24027222

  8. An osmolyte-based micro-volume ultrafiltration technique.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raja

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses a novel, simple, and inexpensive micro-volume ultrafiltration technique for protein concentration, desalting, buffer exchange, and size-based protein purification. The technique is suitable for processing protein samples in a high-throughput mode. It utilizes a combination of capillary action, and osmosis for drawing water and other permeable species from a micro-volume sample droplet applied on the surface of an ultrafiltration membrane. A macromolecule coated on the permeate side of the membrane functions as the osmolyte. The action of the osmolyte could, if required, be augmented by adding a supersorbent polymer layer over the osmolyte. The mildly hydrophobic surface of the polymeric ultrafiltration membrane used in this study minimized sample droplet spreading, thus making it easy to recover the retained material after separation, without sample interference and cross-contamination. High protein recoveries were observed in the micro-volume ultrafiltration experiments described in the paper. PMID:25284741

  9. New modulation-based watermarking technique for video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemma, Aweke; van der Veen, Michiel; Celik, Mehmet

    2006-02-01

    Successful watermarking algorithms have already been developed for various applications ranging from meta-data tagging to forensic tracking. Nevertheless, it is commendable to develop alternative watermarking techniques that provide a broader basis for meeting emerging services, usage models and security threats. To this end, we propose a new multiplicative watermarking technique for video, which is based on the principles of our successful MASK audio watermark. Audio-MASK has embedded the watermark by modulating the short-time envelope of the audio signal and performed detection using a simple envelope detector followed by a SPOMF (symmetrical phase-only matched filter). Video-MASK takes a similar approach and modulates the image luminance envelope. In addition, it incorporates a simple model to account for the luminance sensitivity of the HVS (human visual system). Preliminary tests show algorithms transparency and robustness to lossy compression.

  10. Vision based techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Ray; Smith, Philip

    1991-01-01

    An overview of research in obstacle detection at NASA Ames Research Center is presented. The research applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The development of a methodology for detecting the range to obstacles based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors is emphasized. The development of a flight and image data base for verification of vision-based algorithms, and a passive ranging methodology tailored to the needs of helicopter flight are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to obtain adequate range estimates except at regions close to the FOE. Closer to the FOE, the error in range increases since the magnitude of the disparity gets smaller, resulting in a low SNR.

  11. Extensive analysis of potentialities and limitations of a maximum cross-correlation technique for surface circulation by using realistic ocean model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronzo, Bartolomeo; Taddei, Stefano; Brandini, Carlo; Fattorini, Maria

    2015-08-01

    As shown in the literature, ocean surface circulation can be estimated from sequential satellite imagery by using the maximum cross-correlation (MCC) technique. This approach is very promising since it offers the potential to acquire synoptic-scale coverage of the surface currents on a quasi-continuous temporal basis. However, MCC has also many limits due, for example, to cloud cover or the assumption that Sea Surface Temperature (SST) or other surface parameters from satellite imagery are considered as conservative passive tracers. Also, since MCC can detect only advective flows, it might not work properly in shallow water, where local heating and cooling, upwelling and other small-scale processes have a strong influence. Another limitation of the MCC technique is the impossibility of detecting currents moving along surface temperature fronts. The accuracy and reliability of MCC can be analysed by comparing the estimated velocities with those measured by in situ instrumentation, but the low number of experimental measurements does not allow a systematic statistical study of the potentials and limitations of the method. Instead, an extensive analysis of these features can be done by applying the MCC to synthetic imagery obtained from a realistic numerical ocean model that takes into account most physical phenomena. In this paper a multi-window (MW-) MCC technique is proposed, and its application to synthetic imagery obtained by a regional high-resolution implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is discussed. An application of the MW-MCC algorithm to a real case and a comparison with experimental measurements are then shown.

  12. Antimisting kerosene: Base fuel effects, blending and quality control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Ernest, J.; Sarohia, V.

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with blending of the AMK additive with Jet A, and the base fuel effects on AMK properties are addressed. The results from the evaluation of some of the quality control techniques for AMK are presented. The principal conclusions of this investigation are: significant compositional differences for base fuel (Jet A) within the ASTM specification DI655; higher aromatic content of the base fuel was found to be beneficial for the polymer dissolution at ambient (20 C) temperature; using static mixer technology, the antimisting additive (FM-9) is in-line blended with Jet A, producing AMK which has adequate fire-protection properties 15 to 20 minutes after blending; degradability of freshly blended and equilibrated AMK indicated that maximum degradability is reached after adequate fire protection is obtained; the results of AMK degradability as measured by filter ratio, confirmed previous RAE data that power requirements to decade freshly blended AMK are significantly higher than equilibrated AMK; blending of the additive by using FM-9 concentrate in Jet A produces equilibrated AMK almost instantly; nephelometry offers a simple continuous monitoring capability and is used as a real time quality control device for AMK; and trajectory (jet thurst) and pressure drop tests are useful laboratory techniques for evaluating AMK quality.

  13. Pseudorandom noise code-based technique for cloud and aerosol discrimination applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Flood, Michael; Harrison, Wallace

    2011-06-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is working on a continuous wave (CW) laser based remote sensing scheme for the detection of CO2and O2 from space based platforms suitable for ACTIVE SENSING OF CO2 EMISSIONS OVER NIGHTS, DAYS, AND SEASONS (ASCENDS) mission. ASCENDS is a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). A unique, multi-frequency, intensity modulated CW (IMCW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) operating at 1.57 micron for CO2 sensing has been developed. Effective aerosol and cloud discrimination techniques are being investigated in order to determine concentration values with accuracies less than 0.3%. In this paper, we discuss the demonstration of a PN code based technique for cloud and aerosol discrimination applications. The possibility of using maximum length (ML)-sequences for range and absorption measurements is investigated. A simple model for accomplishing this objective is formulated, Proof-of-concept experiments carried out using SONAR based LIDAR simulator that was built using simple audio hardware provided promising results for extension into optical wavelengths.

  14. Pseudorandom Noise Code-Based Technique for Cloud and Aerosol Discrimination Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Flood, Michael A.; Harrison, Fenton Wallace

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is working on a continuous wave (CW) laser based remote sensing scheme for the detection of CO2 and O2 from space based platforms suitable for ACTIVE SENSING OF CO2 EMISSIONS OVER NIGHTS, DAYS, AND SEASONS (ASCENDS) mission. ASCENDS is a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). A unique, multi-frequency, intensity modulated CW (IMCW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) operating at 1.57 micron for CO2 sensing has been developed. Effective aerosol and cloud discrimination techniques are being investigated in order to determine concentration values with accuracies less than 0.3%. In this paper, we discuss the demonstration of a PN code based technique for cloud and aerosol discrimination applications. The possibility of using maximum length (ML)-sequences for range and absorption measurements is investigated. A simple model for accomplishing this objective is formulated, Proof-of-concept experiments carried out using SONAR based LIDAR simulator that was built using simple audio hardware provided promising results for extension into optical wavelengths. Keywords: ASCENDS, CO2 sensing, O2 sensing, PN codes, CW lidar

  15. NIOS II processor-based acceleration of motion compensation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Mookherjee, Soumak; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on the hardware acceleration of motion compensation techniques suitable for the MPEG video compression. A plethora of representative motion estimation search algorithms and the new perspectives are introduced. The methods and designs described here are qualified for medical imaging area where are involved larger images. The structure of the processing systems considered has a good fit for reconfigurable acceleration. The system is based in a platform like FPGA working with the Nios II Microprocessor platform applying C2H acceleration. The paper shows the results in terms of performance and resources needed.

  16. Rapid prototyping of extrusion dies using layer-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Misiolek, W.Z.; Winther, K.T.; Prats, A.E.; Rock, S.J.

    1999-02-01

    Extrusion die design and development often requires significant craftsman skill and iterative improvement to arrive at a production-ready die geometry. Constructing the dies used during this iterative process from layers, rather than from one solid block of material, offers unique opportunities to improve die development efficiency when coupled with concepts drawn from the rapid prototyping field. This article presents a proof-of-concept illustrating the potential utility of layer-based extrusion dies for the die design and fabrication process. The major benefits include greater flexibility in the design process, a more efficient, automated fabrication technique, and a means for performing localized die modifications and repairs.

  17. Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique based on guided image filtering.

    PubMed

    Ji, Dongjiang; Qu, Gangrong; Liu, Baodong

    2016-07-11

    The challenge of computed tomography is to reconstruct high-quality images from few-view projections. Using a prior guidance image, guided image filtering smoothes images while preserving edge features. The prior guidance image can be incorporated into the image reconstruction process to improve image quality. We propose a new simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique based on guided image filtering. Specifically, the prior guidance image is updated in the image reconstruction process, merging information iteratively. To validate the algorithm practicality and efficiency, experiments were performed with numerical phantom projection data and real projection data. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and efficient for nondestructive testing and rock mechanics. PMID:27410859

  18. Foreign fiber detecting system based on multispectral technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Han, Shaokun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Liang; Xia, Wenze

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a foreign fiber detecting system based on multi-spectral technique. The absorption rate and the reflectivity of foreign fibers differently under different wavelengths of light so that the characteristics of the image has difference in the different light irradiation. Contrast pyramid image fusion algorithm and adaptive enhancement is improved to extracted the foreign fiber from the cotton background. The experimental results show that the single light source can detect 6 kinds of foreign fiber in cotton and multi-spectral detection can detect eight kinds.

  19. Laser jamming technique research based on combined fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Xu; Shanghong, Zhao; Rui, Hou; Shengbao, Zhan; Lei, Shi; Jili, Wu; Shaoqiang, Fang; Yongjun, Li

    2009-06-01

    A compact and light laser jamming source is needed to increase the flexibility of laser jamming technique. A novel laser jamming source based on combined fiber lasers is proposed. Preliminary experimental results show that power levels in excess of 10 kW could be achieved. An example of laser jamming used for an air-to-air missile is given. It shows that the tracking system could complete tracking in only 4 s and came into a steady state with its new tracking target being the laser jamming source.

  20. Herd-scale measurements of methane emissions from cattle grazing extensive sub-tropical grasslands using the open-path laser technique.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, N W; Charmley, E

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions associated with beef production systems in northern Australia are yet to be quantified. Methodologies are available to measure emissions, but application in extensive grazing environments is challenging. A micrometeorological methodology for estimating herd-scale emissions using an indirect open-path spectroscopic technique and an atmospheric dispersion model is described. The methodology was deployed on five cattle properties across Queensland and Northern Territory, with measurements conducted during two occasions at one site. On each deployment, data were collected every 10 min for up to 7 h a day over 4 to 16 days. To increase the atmospheric concentration of CH4 to measurable levels, cattle were confined to a known area around water points from ~0800 to 1600 h, during which time measurements of wind statistics and line-averaged CH4 concentration were taken. Filtering to remove erroneous data accounted for 35% of total observations. For five of the six deployments CH4 emissions were within the expected range of 0.4 to 0.6 g/kg BW. At one site, emissions were ~2 times expected values. There was small but consistent variation with time of day, although for some deployments measurements taken early in the day tended to be higher than at the other times. There was a weak linear relationship (R 2=0.47) between animal BW and CH4 emission per kg BW. Where it was possible to compare emissions in the early and late dry season at one site, it was speculated that higher emissions at the late dry season may have been attributed to poorer diet quality. It is concluded that the micrometeorological methodology using open-path lasers can be successfully deployed in extensive grazing conditions to directly measure CH4 emissions from cattle at a herd scale. PMID:26290115

  1. Signature extension studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of specific spectral regions to signature extension is explored. In the recent past, the signature extension task was focused on the development of new techniques. Tested techniques are now used to investigate this spectral aspect of the large area survey. Sets of channels were sought which, for a given technique, were the least affected by several sources of variation over four data sets and yet provided good object class separation on each individual data set. Using sets of channels determined as part of this study, signature extension was accomplished between data sets collected over a six-day period and over a range of about 400 kilometers.

  2. On combining Laplacian and optimization-based mesh smoothing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Freitag, L.A.

    1997-07-01

    Local mesh smoothing algorithms have been shown to be effective in repairing distorted elements in automatically generated meshes. The simplest such algorithm is Laplacian smoothing, which moves grid points to the geometric center of incident vertices. Unfortunately, this method operates heuristically and can create invalid meshes or elements of worse quality than those contained in the original mesh. In contrast, optimization-based methods are designed to maximize some measure of mesh quality and are very effective at eliminating extremal angles in the mesh. These improvements come at a higher computational cost, however. In this article the author proposes three smoothing techniques that combine a smart variant of Laplacian smoothing with an optimization-based approach. Several numerical experiments are performed that compare the mesh quality and computational cost for each of the methods in two and three dimensions. The author finds that the combined approaches are very cost effective and yield high-quality meshes.

  3. Evolutionary Based Techniques for Fault Tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larchev, Gregory V.; Lohn, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    The use of SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) is becoming more and more prevalent in space applications. Commercial-grade FPGAs are potentially susceptible to permanently debilitating Single-Event Latchups (SELs). Repair methods based on Evolutionary Algorithms may be applied to FPGA circuits to enable successful fault recovery. This paper presents the experimental results of applying such methods to repair four commonly used circuits (quadrature decoder, 3-by-3-bit multiplier, 3-by-3-bit adder, 440-7 decoder) into which a number of simulated faults have been introduced. The results suggest that evolutionary repair techniques can improve the process of fault recovery when used instead of or as a supplement to Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR), which is currently the predominant method for mitigating FPGA faults.

  4. RBF-based technique for statistical demodulation of pathological tremor.

    PubMed

    Gianfelici, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an innovative technique based on the joint approximation capabilities of radial basis function (RBF) networks and the estimation capability of the multivariate iterated Hilbert transform (IHT) for the statistical demodulation of pathological tremor from electromyography (EMG) signals in patients with Parkinson's disease. We define a stochastic model of the multichannel high-density surface EMG by means of the RBF networks applied to the reconstruction of the stochastic process (characterizing the disease) modeled by the multivariate relationships generated by the Karhunen-Loéve transform in Hilbert spaces. Next, we perform a demodulation of the entire random field by means of the estimation capability of the multivariate IHT in a statistical setting. The proposed method is applied to both simulated signals and data recorded from three Parkinsonian patients and the results show that the amplitude modulation components of the tremor oscillation can be estimated with signal-to-noise ratio close to 30 dB with root-mean-square error for the estimates of the tremor instantaneous frequency. Additionally, the comparisons with a large number of techniques based on all the combinations of the RBF, extreme learning machine, backpropagation, support vector machine used in the first step of the algorithm; and IHT, empirical mode decomposition, multiband energy separation algorithm, periodic algebraic separation and energy demodulation used in the second step of the algorithm, clearly show the effectiveness of our technique. These results show that the proposed approach is a potential useful tool for advanced neurorehabilitation technologies that aim at tremor characterization and suppression. PMID:24808594

  5. Modern Micro and Nanoparticle-Based Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ryvolova, Marketa; Chomoucka, Jana; Drbohlavova, Jana; Kopel, Pavel; Babula, Petr; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtech; Eckschlager, Tomas; Hubalek, Jaromir; Stiborova, Marie; Kaiser, Jozef; Kizek, Rene

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for early diagnostics as well as effective treatment of insidious diseases such as cancer constantly increase the pressure on development of efficient and reliable methods for targeted drug/gene delivery as well as imaging of the treatment success/failure. One of the most recent approaches covering both the drug delivery as well as the imaging aspects is benefitting from the unique properties of nanomaterials. Therefore a new field called nanomedicine is attracting continuously growing attention. Nanoparticles, including fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) and magnetic nanoparticles, have proven their excellent properties for in vivo imaging techniques in a number of modalities such as magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging, respectively. In this article, we review the main properties and applications of nanoparticles in various in vitro imaging techniques, including microscopy and/or laser breakdown spectroscopy and in vivo methods such as magnetic resonance imaging and/or fluorescence-based imaging. Moreover the advantages of the drug delivery performed by nanocarriers such as iron oxides, gold, biodegradable polymers, dendrimers, lipid based carriers such as liposomes or micelles are also highlighted. PMID:23202187

  6. Techniques for region coding in object-based image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Object-based compression (OBC) is an emerging technology that combines region segmentation and coding to produce a compact representation of a digital image or video sequence. Previous research has focused on a variety of segmentation and representation techniques for regions that comprise an image. The author has previously suggested [1] partitioning of the OBC problem into three steps: (1) region segmentation, (2) region boundary extraction and compression, and (3) region contents compression. A companion paper [2] surveys implementationally feasible techniques for boundary compression. In this paper, we analyze several strategies for region contents compression, including lossless compression, lossy VPIC, EPIC, and EBLAST compression, wavelet-based coding (e.g., JPEG-2000), as well as texture matching approaches. This paper is part of a larger study that seeks to develop highly efficient compression algorithms for still and video imagery, which would eventually support automated object recognition (AOR) and semantic lookup of images in large databases or high-volume OBC-format datastreams. Example applications include querying journalistic archives, scientific or medical imaging, surveillance image processing and target tracking, as well as compression of video for transmission over the Internet. Analysis emphasizes time and space complexity, as well as sources of reconstruction error in decompressed imagery.

  7. Testing of Large Diameter Fresnel Optics for Space Based Observations of Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Young, Roy M.

    2011-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission will detect extensive air showers produced by extreme energy cosmic rays. It operates from the ISS looking down on Earth's night time atmosphere to detect the nitrogen fluorescence and Cherenkov produce by the charged particles in the EAS. The JEM-EUSO science objectives require a large field of view, sensitivity to energies below 50 EeV, and must fit within available ISS resources. The JEM-EUSO optic module uses three large diameter, thin plastic lenses with Fresnel surfaces to meet the instrument requirements. A bread-board model of the optic has been manufactured and has undergone preliminary tests. We report the results of optical performance tests and evaluate the present capability to manufacture these optical elements.

  8. DanteR: an extensible R-based tool for quantitative analysis of -omics data

    SciTech Connect

    Taverner, Thomas; Karpievitch, Yuliya; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Brown, Joseph N.; Dabney, Alan R.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-09-15

    Motivation: The size and complex nature of LC-MS proteomics data sets motivates development of specialized software for statistical data analysis and exploration. We present DanteR, a graphical R package that features extensive statistical and diagnostic functions for quantitative proteomics data analysis, including normalization, imputation, hypothesis testing, interactive visualization and peptide-to-protein rollup. More importantly, users can easily extend the existing functionality by including their own algorithms under the Add-On tab. Availability: DanteR and its associated user guide are available for download at http://omics.pnl.gov/software/. For Windows, a single click automatically installs DanteR along with the R programming environment. For Linux and Mac OS X, users must first install R and then follow instructions on the DanteR web site for package installation.

  9. Surfer: An Extensible Pull-Based Framework for Resource Selection and Ranking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolano, Paul Z.

    2004-01-01

    Grid computing aims to connect large numbers of geographically and organizationally distributed resources to increase computational power; resource utilization, and resource accessibility. In order to effectively utilize grids, users need to be connected to the best available resources at any given time. As grids are in constant flux, users cannot be expected to keep up with the configuration and status of the grid, thus they must be provided with automatic resource brokering for selecting and ranking resources meeting constraints and preferences they specify. This paper presents a new OGSI-compliant resource selection and ranking framework called Surfer that has been implemented as part of NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG) project. Surfer is highly extensible and may be integrated into any grid environment by adding information providers knowledgeable about that environment.

  10. A restrained-torque-based motion instructor: forearm flexion/extension-driving exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takuya; Nomura, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    When learning complicated movements by ourselves, we encounter such problems as a self-rightness. The self-rightness results in a lack of detail and objectivity, and it may cause to miss essences and even twist the essences. Thus, we sometimes fall into the habits of doing inappropriate motions. To solve these problems or to alleviate the problems as could as possible, we have been developed mechanical man-machine human interfaces to support us learning such motions as cultural gestures and sports form. One of the promising interfaces is a wearable exoskeleton mechanical system. As of the first try, we have made a prototype of a 2-link 1-DOF rotational elbow joint interface that is applied for teaching extension-flexion operations with forearms and have found its potential abilities for teaching the initiating and continuing flection motion of the elbow.

  11. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  12. A New Rerouting Technique for the Extensor Pollicis Longus in Palliative Treatment for Wrist and Finger Extension Paralysis Resulting From Radial Nerve and C5C6C7 Root Injury.

    PubMed

    Laravine, Jennifer; Cambon-Binder, Adeline; Belkheyar, Zoubir

    2016-03-01

    Wrist and finger extension paralysis is a consequence of an injury to the radial nerve or the C5C6C7 roots. Despite these 2 different levels of lesions, palliative treatment for this type of paralysis depends on the same tendon transfers. A large majority of the patients are able to compensate for a deficiency of the extension of the wrist and fingers. However, a deficiency in the opening of the first web space, which could be responsible for transfers to the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis brevis, and the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), frequently exists. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a new EPL rerouting technique outside of Lister's tubercle. Another aim was to verify whether this technique allows a better opening of the thumb-index pinch in this type of paralysis. In the first part, we performed an anatomic study comparing the EPL rerouting technique and the frequently used technique for wrist and finger extension paralyses. In the second part, we present 2 clinical cases in which this new technique will be practiced. Preliminary results during this study favor the EPL rerouting technique. This is a simple and reproducible technique that allows for good opening of the first web space in the treatment of wrist and finger extension paralysis. PMID:26709570

  13. Evaluations of mosquito age grading techniques based on morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Hugo, L E; Quick-Miles, S; Kay, B H; Ryan, P A

    2008-05-01

    Evaluations were made of the accuracy and practicality of mosquito age grading methods based on changes to mosquito morphology; including the Detinova ovarian tracheation, midgut meconium, Polovodova ovariole dilatation, ovarian injection, and daily growth line methods. Laboratory maintained Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) females of known chronological and physiological ages were used for these assessments. Application of the Detinova technique to laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females in a blinded trial enabled the successful identification of nulliparous and parous females in 83.7-89.8% of specimens. The success rate for identifying nulliparous females increased to 87.8-98.0% when observations of ovarian tracheation were combined with observations of the presence of midgut meconium. However, application of the Polovodova method only enabled 57.5% of nulliparous, 1-parous, 2-parous, and 3-parous Ae. vigilax females to be correctly classified, and ovarian injections were found to be unfeasible. Poor correlation was observed between the number of growth lines per phragma and the calendar age of laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females. In summary, morphological age grading methods that offer simple two-category predictions (ovarian tracheation and midgut meconium methods) were found to provide high-accuracy classifications, whereas methods that offer the separation of multiple age categories (ovariolar dilatation and growth line methods) were found to be extremely difficult and of low accuracy. The usefulness of the morphology-based methods is discussed in view of the availability of new mosquito age grading techniques based on cuticular hydrocarbon and gene transcription changes. PMID:18533427

  14. Knee extension isometric torque production differences based on verbal motivation given to introverted and extroverted female children.

    PubMed

    McWhorter, J Wesley; Landers, Merrill; Young, Daniel; Puentedura, E Louie; Hickman, Robbin A; Brooksby, Candi; Liveratti, Marc; Taylor, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    To date, little research has been conducted to test the efficacy of different forms of motivation based on a female child's personality type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of female children to perform a maximal knee extension isometric torque test with varying forms of motivation, based on the child's personality type (introvert vs. extrovert). The subjects were asked to perform a maximal isometric knee extension test under three different conditions: 1) with no verbal motivation, 2) with verbal motivation from the evaluator only, and 3) with verbal motivation from a group of their peers and the evaluator combined. A 2×3 mixed ANOVA was significant for an interaction (F 2,62=17.530; p<0.0005). Post hoc testing for the introverted group showed that scores without verbal motivation were significantly higher than with verbal motivation from the evaluator or the evaluator plus the peers. The extroverted group revealed that scores with verbal motivation from the evaluator or the evaluator plus the peers were significantly higher than without verbal motivation. Results suggest that verbal motivation has a varying effect on isometric knee extension torque production in female children with different personality types. Extroverted girls perform better with motivation, whereas introverted girls perform better without motivation from others. PMID:20812856

  15. A study of trends and techniques for space base electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.; Gassaway, J. D.; Mahmood, Q.

    1978-01-01

    A sputtering system was developed to deposit aluminum and aluminum alloys by the dc sputtering technique. This system is designed for a high level of cleanliness and for monitoring the deposition parameters during film preparation. This system is now ready for studying the deposition and annealing parameters upon double-level metal preparation. A technique recently applied for semiconductor analysis, the finite element method, was studied for use in the computer modeling of two dimensional MOS transistor structures. It was concluded that the method has not been sufficiently well developed for confident use at this time. An algorithm was developed for confident use at this time. An algorithm was developed for implementing a computer study which is based upon the finite difference method. The program which was developed was modified and used to calculate redistribution data for boron and phosphorous which had been predeposited by ion implantation with range and straggle conditions. Data were generated for 111 oriented SOS films with redistribution in N2, dry O2 and steam ambients.

  16. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hsin, Tse-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  17. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    PubMed

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided. PMID:11890304

  18. Human resource development for a community-based health extension program: a case study from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. Case description The health system was reformed to create a platform for integration and institutionalization of the HEP with appropriate human capacity, infrastructure, and management structures. Human resources were developed through training of female health workers recruited from their prospective villages, designed to limit the high staff turnover and address gender, social and cultural factors in order to provide services acceptable to each community. The service delivery modalities include household, community and health facility care. Thus, the most basic health post infrastructure, designed to rapidly and cost-effectively scale up HEP, was built in each village. In line with the country’s decentralized management system, the HEP service delivery is under the jurisdiction of the district authorities. Discussion and evaluation The nationwide implementation of HEP progressed in line with its target goals. In all, 40 training institutions were established, and over 30,000 Health Extension Workers have been trained and deployed to approximately 15,000 villages. The potential health service coverage reached 92.1% in 2011, up from 64% in 2004. While most health indicators have improved, performance in skilled delivery and postnatal care has not been satisfactory. While HEP is considered the most important institutional framework for achieving the health MDGs in Ethiopia, quality of service, utilization rate, access and referral linkage to emergency obstetric care, management, and evaluation of the program are the key

  19. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, J.; Páta, P.; Klíma, M.; Fliegel, K.

    This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties -- high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System) has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei) and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts) searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric) point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC) coder based on adaptive median regression.

  20. Mars laser altimeter based on a single photon ranging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, B.; Pershin, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars 94/96 Mission will carry, among others things, the balloon probe experiment. The balloon with the scientific cargo in the gondola underneath will drift in the Mars atmosphere, its altitude will range from zero, in the night, up to 5 km at noon. The accurate gondola altitude will be determined by an altimeter. As the Balloon gondola mass is strictly limited, the altimeter total mass and power consumption are critical; maximum allowed is a few hundred grams a few tens of mWatts of average power consumption. We did propose, design, and construct the laser altimeter based on the single photon ranging technique. Topics covered include the following: principle of operation, altimeter construction, and ground tests.

  1. Vegetation change detection based on image fusion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yonghong; Liu, Yueyan; Yu, Hui; Li, Deren

    2005-10-01

    The change detection of land use and land cover has always been the focus of remotely sensed study and application. Based on techniques of image fusion, a new approach of detecting vegetation change according to vector of brightness index (BI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) extracted from multi-temporal remotely sensed imagery is proposed. The procedure is introduced. Firstly, the Landsat eTM+ imagery is geometrically corrected and registered. Secondly, band 2,3,4 and panchromatic images of Landsat eTM+ are fused by a trous wavelet fusion, and bands 1,2,3 of SPOT are registered to the fused images. Thirdly, brightness index and perpendicular vegetation index are respectively extracted from SPOT images and fused images. Finally, change vectors are obtained and used to detect vegetation change. The testing results show that the approach of detecting vegetation change is very efficient.

  2. Protein elasticity probed with two synchrotron-based techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, B. M.; Alatas, A.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E. E.; Said, A.; Yavas, H.; Zhao, J.; Sage, J. T.; Sturhahn, W.; X-Ray Science Division; Hasylab; Northeastern Univ.

    2010-02-25

    Compressibility characterizes three interconnecting properties of a protein: dynamics, structure, and function. The compressibility values for the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c and for other proteins, as well, available in the literature vary considerably. Here, we apply two synchrotron-based techniques - nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and inelastic x-ray scattering - to measure the adiabatic compressibility of this protein. This is the first report of the compressibility of any material measured with this method. Unlike the methods previously used, this novel approach probes the protein globally, at ambient pressure, does not require the separation of protein and solvent contributions to the total compressibility, and uses samples that contain the heme iron, as in the native state. We show, by comparing our results with molecular dynamics predictions, that the compressibility is almost independent of temperature. We discuss potential applications of this method to other materials beyond proteins.

  3. Validation techniques for fault emulation of SRAM-based FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather; Wirthlin, Michael

    2015-08-07

    A variety of fault emulation systems have been created to study the effect of single-event effects (SEEs) in static random access memory (SRAM) based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These systems are useful for augmenting radiation-hardness assurance (RHA) methodologies for verifying the effectiveness for mitigation techniques; understanding error signatures and failure modes in FPGAs; and failure rate estimation. For radiation effects researchers, it is important that these systems properly emulate how SEEs manifest in FPGAs. If the fault emulation systems does not mimic the radiation environment, the system will generate erroneous data and incorrect predictions of behavior of the FPGA in a radiation environment. Validation determines whether the emulated faults are reasonable analogs to the radiation-induced faults. In this study we present methods for validating fault emulation systems and provide several examples of validated FPGA fault emulation systems.

  4. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Om; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  5. Validation techniques for fault emulation of SRAM-based FPGAs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Quinn, Heather; Wirthlin, Michael

    2015-08-07

    A variety of fault emulation systems have been created to study the effect of single-event effects (SEEs) in static random access memory (SRAM) based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These systems are useful for augmenting radiation-hardness assurance (RHA) methodologies for verifying the effectiveness for mitigation techniques; understanding error signatures and failure modes in FPGAs; and failure rate estimation. For radiation effects researchers, it is important that these systems properly emulate how SEEs manifest in FPGAs. If the fault emulation systems does not mimic the radiation environment, the system will generate erroneous data and incorrect predictions of behavior of the FPGA inmore » a radiation environment. Validation determines whether the emulated faults are reasonable analogs to the radiation-induced faults. In this study we present methods for validating fault emulation systems and provide several examples of validated FPGA fault emulation systems.« less

  6. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Om; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  7. Applications of imaged capillary isoelectric focussing technique in development of biopharmaceutical glycoprotein-based products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie L; Wang, Yang; Rustandi, Richard R

    2012-06-01

    CE-based methods have increasingly been applied to the analysis of a variety of different type proteins. One of those techniques is imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (icIEF), a method that has been used extensively in the field of protein-based drug development as a tool for product identification, stability monitoring, and characterization. It offers many advantages over the traditional labor-intensive IEF slab gel method and even standard cIEF with on-line detection technologies with regard to method development, reproducibility, robustness, and speed. Here, specific examples are provided for biopharmaceutical glycoprotein products such as mAbs, erythropoietin (EPO), and recombinant Fc-fusion proteins, though the technique can be adapted for many other therapeutic proteins. Applications of iCIEF using a Convergent Bioscience instrument (Toronto, Canada) with whole-field imaging technology are presented and discussed. These include a quick method to establish an identity test for many protein-based products, product release, and stability evaluation of glycoproteins with respect to charge heterogeneity under accelerated temperature stress, different pH conditions, and in different formulations. Finally, characterization of glycoproteins using this iCIEF technology is discussed with respect to biosimilar development, clone selection, and antigen binding. The data presented provide a "taste'' of what icIEF method can do to support the development of biopharmaceutical glycoprotein products from early clone screening for better product candidates to characterization of the final commercial products. PMID:22736354

  8. Ionospheric Plasma Drift Analysis Technique Based On Ray Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ari, Gizem; Toker, Cenk

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric drift measurements provide important information about the variability in the ionosphere, which can be used to quantify ionospheric disturbances caused by natural phenomena such as solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities. One of the prominent ways for drift measurement depends on instrumentation based measurements, e.g. using an ionosonde. The drift estimation of an ionosonde depends on measuring the Doppler shift on the received signal, where the main cause of Doppler shift is the change in the length of the propagation path of the signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Unfortunately, ionosondes are expensive devices and their installation and maintenance require special care. Furthermore, the ionosonde network over the world or even Europe is not dense enough to obtain a global or continental drift map. In order to overcome the difficulties related to an ionosonde, we propose a technique to perform ionospheric drift estimation based on ray tracing. First, a two dimensional TEC map is constructed by using the IONOLAB-MAP tool which spatially interpolates the VTEC estimates obtained from the EUREF CORS network. Next, a three dimensional electron density profile is generated by inputting the TEC estimates to the IRI-2015 model. Eventually, a close-to-real situation electron density profile is obtained in which ray tracing can be performed. These profiles can be constructed periodically with a period of as low as 30 seconds. By processing two consequent snapshots together and calculating the propagation paths, we estimate the drift measurements over any coordinate of concern. We test our technique by comparing the results to the drift measurements taken at the DPS ionosonde at Pruhonice, Czech Republic. This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR14/001 projects.

  9. Shellac and Aloe vera gel based surface coating for shelf life extension of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, O P; Nanjappa, C; Ashok, N; Ravi, N; Roopa, N; Raju, P S

    2015-02-01

    Shellac (S) and Aloe vera gel (AG) were used to develop edible surface coatings for shelf-life extension of tomato fruits. The coating was prepared by dissolving de-waxed and bleached shellac in an alkaline aqueous medium as such as well as in combination with AG. Incorporation of AG in shellac coating improved permeability characteristics of the coating film towards oxygen and carbon dioxide and water vapours. The coatings when applied to tomatoes delayed senescence which was characterized by restricted changes in respiration and ethylene synthesis rates during storage. Texture of the fruits when measured in terms of firmness showed restricted changes as compared to untreated control. Similar observations were also recorded in the case of instrumental colour (L*, a* and b* values). The developed coatings extended shelf-life of tomatoes by 10, 8 and 12 days in case of shellac (S), AG and composite coating (S + AG) coated fruits, respectively; when kept at ambient storage conditions (28 ± 2 °C). PMID:25694740

  10. Use of extension-deformation-based crystallisation of silk fibres to differentiate their functions in nature.

    PubMed

    Numata, Keiji; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Sasaki, Sono; Sekiyama, Kazuhide; Takata, Masaki

    2015-08-21

    β-Sheet crystals play an important role in determining the stiffness, strength, and optical properties of silk and in the exhibition of silk-type-specific functions. It is important to elucidate the structural changes that occur during the stretching of silk fibres to understand the functions of different types of fibres. Herein, we elucidate the initial crystallisation behaviour of silk molecules during the stretching of three types of silk fibres using synchrotron radiation X-ray analysis. When spider dragline silk was stretched, it underwent crystallisation and the alignment of the β-sheet crystals became disordered initially but was later recovered. On the other hand, silkworm cocoon silk did not exhibit further crystallisation, whereas capture spiral silk was predominantly amorphous. Structural analyses showed that the crystallisation of silks following extension deformation has a critical effect on their mechanical and optical properties. These findings should aid the production of artificial silk fibres and facilitate the development of silk-inspired functional materials. PMID:26166211

  11. Movement Analysis of Flexion and Extension of Honeybee Abdomen Based on an Adaptive Segmented Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jieliang; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) curl their abdomens for daily rhythmic activities. Prior to determining this fact, people have concluded that honeybees could curl their abdomen casually. However, an intriguing but less studied feature is the possible unidirectional abdominal deformation in free-flying honeybees. A high-speed video camera was used to capture the curling and to analyze the changes in the arc length of the honeybee abdomen not only in free-flying mode but also in the fixed sample. Frozen sections and environment scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the microstructure and motion principle of honeybee abdomen and to explore the physical structure restricting its curling. An adaptive segmented structure, especially the folded intersegmental membrane (FIM), plays a dominant role in the flexion and extension of the abdomen. The structural features of FIM were utilized to mimic and exhibit movement restriction on honeybee abdomen. Combining experimental analysis and theoretical demonstration, a unidirectional bending mechanism of honeybee abdomen was revealed. Through this finding, a new perspective for aerospace vehicle design can be imitated. PMID:26223946

  12. 78 FR 7654 - Extension of Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... (Jul. 18, 2012), 77 FR 48208 (Aug. 13, 2012). Title VII amended the Securities Act and the Exchange Act..., Release No. 34-63825 (Feb. 2, 2011), 76 FR 10948 (Feb. 28, 2011) (``Security-Based SEF Proposing Release... Security-Based Swaps Issued By Certain Clearing Agencies, Release No. 33-9308 (Mar. 30, 2012), 77 FR...

  13. CANDU in-reactor quantitative visual-based inspection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochefort, P. A.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes two separate visual-based inspection procedures used at CANDU nuclear power generating stations. The techniques are quantitative in nature and are delivered and operated in highly radioactive environments with access that is restrictive, and in one case is submerged. Visual-based inspections at stations are typically qualitative in nature. For example a video system will be used to search for a missing component, inspect for a broken fixture, or locate areas of excessive corrosion in a pipe. In contrast, the methods described here are used to measure characteristic component dimensions that in one case ensure ongoing safe operation of the reactor and in the other support reactor refurbishment. CANDU reactors are Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). The reactor vessel is a horizontal cylindrical low-pressure calandria tank approximately 6 m in diameter and length, containing heavy water as a neutron moderator. Inside the calandria, 380 horizontal fuel channels (FC) are supported at each end by integral end-shields. Each FC holds 12 fuel bundles. The heavy water primary heat transport water flows through the FC pressure tube, removing the heat from the fuel bundles and delivering it to the steam generator. The general design of the reactor governs both the type of measurements that are required and the methods to perform the measurements. The first inspection procedure is a method to remotely measure the gap between FC and other in-core horizontal components. The technique involves delivering vertically a module with a high-radiation-resistant camera and lighting into the core of a shutdown but fuelled reactor. The measurement is done using a line-of-sight technique between the components. Compensation for image perspective and viewing elevation to the measurement is required. The second inspection procedure measures flaws within the reactor's end shield FC calandria tube rolled joint area. The FC calandria tube (the outer shell of the FC) is

  14. An extension of the 'Malkus hypothesis' to the turbulent base flow of blunt sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorus, William S.; Chen, Liyong

    1987-11-01

    An approximate theory for the mean turbulent near-wake of cylindrical bodies with blunt after edges is developed and implemented in terms of a linearized closed free-streamline theory of thin blunt-based symmetric sections. In the present application, the Malkus hypothesis leads to maximization of the rate of change of mean kinetic energy along the separation-cavity streamline. The results compare well with experimental measurements of mean base pressures and section drag, although the linearizing assumptions of section-cavity slenderness and base-pressure magnitude are not so well preserved in the calculated results.

  15. Evidence-Based Programming: What Is a Process an Extension Agent Can Use to Evaluate a Program's Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; MacPhee, David; Boyer, Luann K.

    2012-01-01

    Extension agents and specialists have experienced increased pressure for greater program effectiveness and accountability and especially for evidence-based programs. This article builds on previously published evidence-based programming articles. It provides ideas that address three problems that Extension staff face with EBPs and that Extension…

  16. Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Modifications of Protein-Based Films and Coatings: An Extensive Review.

    PubMed

    Zink, Joël; Wyrobnik, Tom; Prinz, Tobias; Schmid, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Protein-based films and coatings are an interesting alternative to traditional petroleum-based materials. However, their mechanical and barrier properties need to be enhanced in order to match those of the latter. Physical, chemical, and biochemical methods can be used for this purpose. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the effects of various treatments on whey, soy, and wheat gluten protein-based films and coatings. These three protein sources have been chosen since they are among the most abundantly used and are well described in the literature. Similar behavior might be expected for other protein sources. Most of the modifications are still not fully understood at a fundamental level, but all the methods discussed change the properties of the proteins and resulting products. Mastering these modifications is an important step towards the industrial implementation of protein-based films. PMID:27563881

  17. Extensive quantities in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannaerts, Sebastiaan H.

    2014-05-01

    A literature survey shows little consistency in the definitions of the term ‘extensive quantity’ (a.k.a. extensive property) as used in thermodynamics. A majority assumes that extensive quantities are those that are proportional to mass. Taking the mathematical meaning of proportional and taking the ‘mass’ to be that of the system or subsystem, it is shown that the proportionality assumption is only correct for a few extensive quantities under condition of constant composition. A large subset of extensive quantities are completely independent of mass; for most systems extensive quantities are not proportional to mass, but mass is the (extensive) constant of proportionality. The definition by IUPAC, based on the additivity of extensive quantities, is the preferred baseline for discussing this subject. It is noted however, that two types of additivity need to be distinguished and that a few intensive quantities are also additive. This paper leaves several interesting questions open to further scrutiny.

  18. A New Femtosecond Laser-Based Three-Dimensional Tomography Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echlin, McLean P.

    2011-12-01

    Tomographic imaging has dramatically changed science, most notably in the fields of medicine and biology, by producing 3D views of structures which are too complex to understand in any other way. Current tomographic techniques require extensive time both for post-processing and data collection. Femtosecond laser based tomographic techniques have been developed in both standard atmosphere (femtosecond laser-based serial sectioning technique - FSLSS) and in vacuum (Tri-Beam System) for the fast collection (10 5mum3/s) of mm3 sized 3D datasets. Both techniques use femtosecond laser pulses to selectively remove layer-by-layer areas of material with low collateral damage and a negligible heat affected zone. To the authors knowledge, femtosecond lasers have never been used to serial section and these techniques have been entirely and uniquely developed by the author and his collaborators at the University of Michigan and University of California Santa Barbara. The FSLSS was applied to measure the 3D distribution of TiN particles in a 4330 steel. Single pulse ablation morphologies and rates were measured and collected from literature. Simultaneous two-phase ablation of TiN and steel matrix was shown to occur at fluences of 0.9-2 J/cm2. Laser scanning protocols were developed minimizing surface roughness to 0.1-0.4 mum for laser-based sectioning. The FSLSS technique was used to section and 3D reconstruct titanium nitride (TiN) containing 4330 steel. Statistical analysis of 3D TiN particle sizes, distribution parameters, and particle density were measured. A methodology was developed to use the 3D datasets to produce statistical volume elements (SVEs) for toughness modeling. Six FSLSS TiN datasets were sub-sampled into 48 SVEs for statistical analysis and toughness modeling using the Rice-Tracey and Garrison-Moody models. A two-parameter Weibull analysis was performed and variability in the toughness data agreed well with Ruggieri et al. bulk toughness measurements. The Tri

  19. Automatic tumor segmentation using knowledge-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Clark, M C; Hall, L O; Goldgof, D B; Velthuizen, R; Murtagh, F R; Silbiger, M S

    1998-04-01

    A system that automatically segments and labels glioblastoma-multiforme tumors in magnetic resonance images (MRI's) of the human brain is presented. The MRI's consist of T1-weighted, proton density, and T2-weighted feature images and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based (KB) techniques with multispectral analysis. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intracranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intracranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on three volume data sets and tested on thirteen unseen volume data sets acquired from a single MRI system. The KB tumor segmentation was compared with supervised, radiologist-labeled "ground truth" tumor volumes and supervised k-nearest neighbors tumor segmentations. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time. PMID:9688151

  20. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  1. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-01

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  2. Parameter tuning of PVD process based on artificial intelligence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norlina, M. S.; Diyana, M. S. Nor; Mazidah, P.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an artificial intelligence technique is proposed to be implemented in the parameter tuning of a PVD process. Due to its previous adaptation in similar optimization problems, genetic algorithm (GA) is selected to optimize the parameter tuning of the RF magnetron sputtering process. The most optimized parameter combination obtained from GA's optimization result is expected to produce the desirable zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film from the sputtering process. The parameters involved in this study were RF power, deposition time and substrate temperature. The algorithm was tested to optimize the 25 datasets of parameter combinations. The results from the computational experiment were then compared with the actual result from the laboratory experiment. Based on the comparison, GA had shown that the algorithm was reliable to optimize the parameter combination before the parameter tuning could be done to the RF magnetron sputtering machine. In order to verify the result of GA, the algorithm was also been compared to other well known optimization algorithms, which were, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and gravitational search algorithm (GSA). The results had shown that GA was reliable in solving this RF magnetron sputtering process parameter tuning problem. GA had shown better accuracy in the optimization based on the fitness evaluation.

  3. Hyperspectral-imaging-based techniques applied to wheat kernels characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Cesare, Daniela; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Single kernels of durum wheat have been analyzed by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Such an approach is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software architecture able to digitally capture and handle spectra as an image sequence, as they results along a pre-defined alignment on a surface sample properly energized. The study was addressed to investigate the possibility to apply HSI techniques for classification of different types of wheat kernels: vitreous, yellow berry and fusarium-damaged. Reflectance spectra of selected wheat kernels of the three typologies have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with an HSI system working in near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The hypercubes were analyzed applying principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of data and for selecting some effective wavelengths. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for classification of the three wheat typologies. The study demonstrated that good classification results were obtained not only considering the entire investigated wavelength range, but also selecting only four optimal wavelengths (1104, 1384, 1454 and 1650 nm) out of 121. The developed procedures based on HSI can be utilized for quality control purposes or for the definition of innovative sorting logics of wheat.

  4. Perceptually based techniques for semantic image classification and retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalov, Dejan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos; Li, Dongge; Gandhi, Bhavan

    2006-02-01

    The accumulation of large collections of digital images has created the need for efficient and intelligent schemes for content-based image retrieval. Our goal is to organize the contents semantically, according to meaningful categories. We present a new approach for semantic classification that utilizes a recently proposed color-texture segmentation algorithm (by Chen et al.), which combines knowledge of human perception and signal characteristics to segment natural scenes into perceptually uniform regions. The color and texture features of these regions are used as medium level descriptors, based on which we extract semantic labels, first at the segment and then at the scene level. The segment features consist of spatial texture orientation information and color composition in terms of a limited number of locally adapted dominant colors. The focus of this paper is on region classification. We use a hierarchical vocabulary of segment labels that is consistent with those used in the NIST TRECVID 2003 development set. We test the approach on a database of 9000 segments obtained from 2500 photographs of natural scenes. For training and classification we use the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) technique. We examine the performance of the algorithm (precision and recall rates) when different sets of features (e.g., one or two most dominant colors versus four quantized dominant colors) are used. Our results indicate that the proposed approach offers significant performance improvements over existing approaches.

  5. An extensible simulation environment and movement metrics for testing walking behavior in agent-based models

    SciTech Connect

    Paul M. Torrens; Atsushi Nara; Xun Li; Haojie Zhu; William A. Griffin; Scott B. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Human movement is a significant ingredient of many social, environmental, and technical systems, yet the importance of movement is often discounted in considering systems complexity. Movement is commonly abstracted in agent-based modeling (which is perhaps the methodological vehicle for modeling complex systems), despite the influence of movement upon information exchange and adaptation in a system. In particular, agent-based models of urban pedestrians often treat movement in proxy form at the expense of faithfully treating movement behavior with realistic agency. There exists little consensus about which method is appropriate for representing movement in agent-based schemes. In this paper, we examine popularly-used methods to drive movement in agent-based models, first by introducing a methodology that can flexibly handle many representations of movement at many different scales and second, introducing a suite of tools to benchmark agent movement between models and against real-world trajectory data. We find that most popular movement schemes do a relatively poor job of representing movement, but that some schemes may well be 'good enough' for some applications. We also discuss potential avenues for improving the representation of movement in agent-based frameworks.

  6. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-10-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS), biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI's ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc) for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  7. Semantic Extension of Agent-Based Control: The Packing Cell Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Pavel; Radakovič, Miloslav; Obitko, Marek; Mařík, Vladimír

    The paper reports on the latest R&D activities in the field of agent-based manufacturing control systems. It is documented that this area becomes strongly influenced by the advancements of semantic technologies like the Web Ontology Language. The application of ontologies provides the agents with much more effective means for handling, exchanging and reasoning about the knowledge. The ontology dedicated for semantic description of orders, production processes and material handling tasks in discrete manufacturing domain has been developed. In addition, the framework for integration of this ontology in distributed, agent-based control solutions is given. The Manufacturing Agent Simulation Tool (MAST) is used as a base for pilot implementation of the ontology-powered multiagent control system; the packing cell environment is selected as a case study.

  8. Dynamic digital watermark technique based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Tao; Li, Xu

    2008-04-01

    An algorithm of dynamic watermark based on neural network is presented which is more robust against attack of false authentication and watermark-tampered operations contrasting with one watermark embedded method. (1) Five binary images used as watermarks are coded into a binary array. The total number of 0s and 1s is 5*N, every 0 or 1 is enlarged fivefold by information-enlarged technique. N is the original total number of the watermarks' binary bits. (2) Choose the seed image pixel p x,y and its 3×3 vicinities pixel p x-1,y-1,p x-1,y,p x-1,y+1,p x,y-1,p x,y+1,p x+1,y-1,p x+1,y,p x+1,y+1 as one sample space. The p x,y is used as the neural network target and the other eight pixel values are used as neural network inputs. (3) To make the neural network learn the sample space, 5*N pixel values and their closely relevant pixel values are randomly chosen with a password from a color BMP format image and used to train the neural network.(4) A four-layer neural network is constructed to describe the nonlinear mapped relationship between inputs and outputs. (5) One bit from the array is embedded by adjusting the polarity between a chosen pixel value and the output value of the model. (6) One randomizer generates a number to ascertain the counts of watermarks for retrieving. The randomly ascertained watermarks can be retrieved by using the restored neural network outputs value, the corresponding image pixels value, and the restore function without knowing the original image and watermarks (The restored coded-watermark bit=1, if ox,y(restored)>p x,y(reconstructed, else coded-watermark bit =0). The retrieved watermarks are different when extracting each time. The proposed technique can offer more watermarking proofs than one watermark embedded algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is very robust against some image processing operations and JPEG lossy compression. Therefore, the algorithm can be used to protect the copyright of one important image.

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing Based Characterization of Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asho; Hasan, Zahra; McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Coll, Francesc; Nair, Mridul; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Improved molecular diagnostic methods for detection drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains are required. Resistance to first- and second- line anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, these SNPs can vary between MTB lineages therefore local data is required to describe different strain populations. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated 40 genes associated with drug resistance. Rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB hot-spot region. Isoniazid resistance was most commonly associated with the katG codon 315 (92%) mutation followed by inhA S94A (8%) however, one strain did not have SNPs in katG, inhA or oxyR-ahpC. All strains were pyrazimamide resistant but only 43% had pncA SNPs. Ethambutol resistant strains predominantly had embB codon 306 (62%) mutations, but additional SNPs at embB codons 406, 378 and 328 were also present. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with gyrA 91–94 codons in 81% of strains; four strains had only gyrB mutations, while others did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Streptomycin resistant strains had mutations in ribosomal RNA genes; rpsL codon 43 (42%); rrs 500 region (16%), and gidB (34%) while six strains did not have mutations in any of these genes. Amikacin/kanamycin/capreomycin resistance was associated with SNPs in rrs at nt1401 (78%) and nt1484 (3%), except in seven (19%) strains. We estimate that if only the common hot-spot region targets of current commercial assays were used, the concordance between phenotypic and genotypic testing for these XDR strains would vary between rifampicin (100%), isoniazid (92%), flouroquinolones (81%), aminoglycoside (78%) and ethambutol (62%); while pncA sequencing would provide genotypic resistance in less than half the isolates. This work highlights the importance of expanded

  10. Depth-based coding of MVD data for 3D video extension of H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanovskyy, Dmytro; Hannuksela, Miska M.; Su, Wenyi

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a novel approach of using depth information for advanced coding of associated video data in Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD)-based 3D video systems. As a possible implementation of this conception, we describe two coding tools that have been developed for H.264/AVC based 3D Video Codec as response to Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) Call for Proposals (CfP). These tools are Depth-based Motion Vector Prediction (DMVP) and Backward View Synthesis Prediction (BVSP). Simulation results conducted under JCT-3V/MPEG 3DV Common Test Conditions show, that proposed in this paper tools reduce bit rate of coded video data by 15% of average delta bit rate reduction, which results in 13% of bit rate savings on total for the MVD data over the state-of-the-art MVC+D coding. Moreover, presented in this paper conception of depth-based coding of video has been further developed by MPEG 3DV and JCT-3V and this work resulted in even higher compression efficiency, bringing about 20% of delta bit rate reduction on total for coded MVD data over the reference MVC+D coding. Considering significant gains, proposed in this paper coding approach can be beneficial for development of new 3D video coding standards. [Figure not available: see fulltext.